Sample records for advances methodological issues

  1. Emerging issues and methodological advances in fisheries reproductive biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan K.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Murua, Hilario;


    Although incorporating detailed reproductive data into all stock assessments is not a practical goal, the need to understand how reproductive biology affects population productivity is being increasingly recognized.More research focused on reproductive biology—coupled with a shift towards...... development, which is most accurately evaluated with histology. This special section of Marine and Coastal Fisheries contains contributions from a workshop on the gonadal histology of fishes that was held in Cadiz, Spain, during June 2009. These papers cover a wide range of species and reproductive topics...... a resilience perspective in fisheries science—is resulting in challenges to many long-held assumptions; the emergence of important new issues; and identification of the need to improve data and methods used in reproductive studies. Typically, data for reproductive studies are based on an assessment of gonadal...

  2. Animal Models of Virus-Induced Neurobehavioral Sequelae: Recent Advances, Methodological Issues, and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bortolato


    Full Text Available Converging lines of clinical and epidemiological evidence suggest that viral infections in early developmental stages may be a causal factor in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism-spectrum disorders. This etiological link, however, remains controversial in view of the lack of consistent and reproducible associations between viruses and mental illness. Animal models of virus-induced neurobehavioral disturbances afford powerful tools to test etiological hypotheses and explore pathophysiological mechanisms. Prenatal or neonatal inoculations of neurotropic agents (such as herpes-, influenza-, and retroviruses in rodents result in a broad spectrum of long-term alterations reminiscent of psychiatric abnormalities. Nevertheless, the complexity of these sequelae often poses methodological and interpretational challenges and thwarts their characterization. The recent conceptual advancements in psychiatric nosology and behavioral science may help determine new heuristic criteria to enhance the translational value of these models. A particularly critical issue is the identification of intermediate phenotypes, defined as quantifiable factors representing single neurochemical, neuropsychological, or neuroanatomical aspects of a diagnostic category. In this paper, we examine how the employment of these novel concepts may lead to new methodological refinements in the study of virus-induced neurobehavioral sequelae through animal models.

  3. Programming methodology and performance issues for advanced computer architectures. [Linear algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J.J.; Sorensen, D.C.; Connolly, K.; Patterson, J.


    This paper will describe some recent attempts to construct transportable numerical software for high performance computers. Restructuring algorithms in terms of simple linear algebra modules is reviewed. This technique has proved very successful in obtaining a high level of transportability without severe loss of performance on a wide variety of both vector and parallel computers. The use of modules to encapsulate parallelism and reduce the ratio of data movement to floating point operations has been demonstrably effective for regular problems such as those found in dense linear algebra. In other situations it may be necessary to express explicitly parallel algorithms. We also present a programming methodology that is useful for constructing new parallel algorithms which require sophisticated synchronization at a large grain level. We describe the SCHEDULE package which provides an environment for developing and analyzing explicitly parallel programs in Fortran which aare portable. This package now includes a preprocessor to achieve complete portability of user level code and also a graphics post processor for performance analysis and debugging. We discuss details of porting both the SCHEDULE package and user code. Examples from linear algebra, and partial differential equations are used to illustrate the utility of this approach.

  4. Some methodological issues in biosurveillance. (United States)

    Fricker, Ronald D


    This paper briefly summarizes a short course I gave at the 12th Biennial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Symposium held in Decatur, Georgia on April 6, 2009. The goal of this short course was to discuss various methodological issues of biosurveillance detection algorithms, with a focus on the issues related to developing, evaluating, and implementing such algorithms.

  5. Methodological issues in cytokine measurement in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maju Mathew Koola


    Full Text Available There is mounting evidence that inflammation is a major factor in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Inflammatory status is commonly ascertained by measuring peripheral cytokine concentrations. An issue concerning research on inflammation and schizophrenia relates to assay methodology. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA is the most widely used and the gold standard method used to measure cytokine concentrations. ELISA has a number of limitations. Both ELISA and multiplex are limited by not being able to distinguish between bioactive and inactive molecules and the matrix and heterophilic (auto- antibody interference. Multiplex assays when combined with gene expression analysis and flow cytometry techniques such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting may be useful to detect abnormalities in specific immune pathways. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultures, to evaluate in vitro lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production, may be a better technology than measuring cytokines in the serum. The purpose of this paper is to shed light on major methodological issues that need to be addressed in order to advance the study of cytokines in schizophrenia. We make a few recommendations on how to address these issues.

  6. Scoping studies: advancing the methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien Kelly K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scoping studies are an increasingly popular approach to reviewing health research evidence. In 2005, Arksey and O'Malley published the first methodological framework for conducting scoping studies. While this framework provides an excellent foundation for scoping study methodology, further clarifying and enhancing this framework will help support the consistency with which authors undertake and report scoping studies and may encourage researchers and clinicians to engage in this process. Discussion We build upon our experiences conducting three scoping studies using the Arksey and O'Malley methodology to propose recommendations that clarify and enhance each stage of the framework. Recommendations include: clarifying and linking the purpose and research question (stage one; balancing feasibility with breadth and comprehensiveness of the scoping process (stage two; using an iterative team approach to selecting studies (stage three and extracting data (stage four; incorporating a numerical summary and qualitative thematic analysis, reporting results, and considering the implications of study findings to policy, practice, or research (stage five; and incorporating consultation with stakeholders as a required knowledge translation component of scoping study methodology (stage six. Lastly, we propose additional considerations for scoping study methodology in order to support the advancement, application and relevance of scoping studies in health research. Summary Specific recommendations to clarify and enhance this methodology are outlined for each stage of the Arksey and O'Malley framework. Continued debate and development about scoping study methodology will help to maximize the usefulness and rigor of scoping study findings within healthcare research and practice.

  7. On the extension of modern best-estimate plus uncertainy methodologies to future fast reactor and advanced fuel licensing - initial evaluation of issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcclure, Patrick R [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    and has precedence in the NRC. The method is generically referred to as a 'Best Estimate plus Uncertainty' approach (BE+U), since the goal of the methodology is to compare the model value (best estimate) plus any uncertainty to a figure of merit like cladding temperature. The challenges for extending the BE+U (1) method for fuel qualification for an Advanced Reactor Fuel are driven by: schedule, the need for data, the data sufficiency, the identification of important phenomenon, the process of validation (with focus on the multi-scale model), and the need to produce and extended best estimate plus uncertainty methodology. This paper examines these issues an offers up a proposed set of methods that extend the current BE+U methodology address most if not all of these challenges.

  8. Methodological issues of postoperative cognitive dysfunction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Kamilia S; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars S


    to reveal postoperative cognitive decline, and questionnaires are not useful for this purpose. There is a profound lack of consensus regarding the research methodology for detection of cognitive deterioration, especially the diagnostic criteria. Issues, such as baseline performance, learning effects...

  9. Advanced directives: open issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Negrini


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In Italy Advanced directives have not been regulated by law yet. Moreover, there is a confusion of concepts: advanced directives, refusal of treatment, medical futility and euthanasia are not synonymous.DISCUSSION The following aspects are then discussed: object of directives; elapse of time between their expression and their application; knowledge of the directives and their obligatory nature. The refusal of a treatment that can save a person’s life is a critical subject. There are different ethical points of view: according to lay ethics, the patient’s self-determination prevails; the religious viewpoint, instead, says that life is a gift which we cannot dispose of. In any case, the patient will be confronted with the professional autonomy of the doctor. Should the doctor save a patient’s life in any case or should he achieve best clinical practice, in respect of his will? The doctor should interpret the patient’s will but with caution and judgment. An exemption from responsibility should be provided by law for doctors who respect patient’s living will.

  10. Methodological issues of postoperative cognitive dysfunction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Kamilia S; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars S


    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a subtle impairment of memory, concentration, and speed of information processing. It is a frequent complication following surgery and can have a debilitating effect on patients' recovery and future prognosis. Neuropsychological testing is needed...... to reveal postoperative cognitive decline, and questionnaires are not useful for this purpose. There is a profound lack of consensus regarding the research methodology for detection of cognitive deterioration, especially the diagnostic criteria. Issues, such as baseline performance, learning effects...

  11. Least-cost Paths - Some Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmela Herzog


    Full Text Available This article deals with methodological issues connected with least-cost path (LCP calculations in archaeology. The number of LCP studies in archaeology has increased rapidly during the last couple of years, but not all of the approaches applied are based on an appropriate model and implementation. Many archaeologists rely on standard GIS software with default settings for calculating LCPs and are not aware of possible alternatives and the pitfalls that are described in this article. After briefly introducing the aims and applications of LCP methods in archaeology, LCP algorithms are discussed. The outcome of the LCP calculations depends not only on the algorithm but also on the cost model, which often includes several cost components. The discussion of the cost components has a focus on slope, because nearly all archaeological LCP studies take this cost component into account and because several methodological issues are connected with slope-based cost models. Other possible cost components are: the load of the walker, vegetation cover, wetlands or other soil properties, travelling and transport on water, water as barrier and as attractor, aspect, altitude, and social or cultural cost components. Eventually, advantages and disadvantages of different ways of combining cost components are presented. Based on the methodological issues I conclude that both validation checks and variations of the model are necessary to analyse the reliability of archaeological LCP results.

  12. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others


    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper.

  13. Autism genetics: Methodological issues and experimental design. (United States)

    Sacco, Roberto; Lintas, Carla; Persico, Antonio M


    Autism is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder of developmental origin, where multiple genetic and environmental factors likely interact resulting in a clinical continuum between "affected" and "unaffected" individuals in the general population. During the last two decades, relevant progress has been made in identifying chromosomal regions and genes in linkage or association with autism, but no single gene has emerged as a major cause of disease in a large number of patients. The purpose of this paper is to discuss specific methodological issues and experimental strategies in autism genetic research, based on fourteen years of experience in patient recruitment and association studies of autism spectrum disorder in Italy.

  14. Photography and History: methodological and theoretical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Santos Canabarro


    Full Text Available This article discusses issues related to the relation of photography with the construction of historical knowledge, realizing the theoretical dimensions that encompass a whole field of study about photography. The use of photography with its theoretical and methodological support in history is very recent, as many historians only used it for writing text illustration. Our hypothesis is that photography can be an object and source of investigation and, at the same time, an object that offers notions of its use as a specific problem in the field of visual culture.

  15. Evidence on public policy: methodological issues, political issues and examples. (United States)

    Attanasio, Orazio P


    In this paper I discuss how evidence on public policy is generated and in particular the issue of evaluation of public policies. In economics, the issue of attribution and the identification of causal links has recently received considerable attention. Important methodological issues have been tackled and new techniques have been proposed and used. Randomized Control Trials have become some sort of gold standard. However, they are not exempt from problems and have important limitations: in some case they cannot be constructed and, more generally, problems of external validity and transferability of results can be important. The paper then moves on to discuss the political economy of policy evaluations for policy evaluations to have an impact for the conduct of actual policy, it is important that the demand for evaluation comes directly from the policy making process and is generated endogenously within it. In this sense it is important that the institutional design of policy making is such that policy making institutions are incentivized to use rigorous evaluation in the process of designing policies and allocating resources to alternative options. Economists are currently involved in the design and evaluation of many policies, including policies about health, nutrition and education. The role they can play in these fields is not completely obvious. The paper argues that their main contribution is in the modelling of how individual reacts to incentives (including those provided by public policies).

  16. Mitochondrial diseases: advances and issues (United States)

    Scarpelli, Mauro; Todeschini, Alice; Volonghi, Irene; Padovani, Alessandro; Filosto, Massimiliano


    Mitochondrial diseases (MDs) are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders caused by a dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. They can be related to mutation of genes encoded using either nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA. The advent of next generation sequencing and whole exome sequencing in studying the molecular bases of MDs will bring about a revolution in the field of mitochondrial medicine, also opening the possibility of better defining pathogenic mechanisms and developing novel therapeutic approaches for these devastating disorders. The canonical rules of mitochondrial medicine remain milestones, but novel issues have been raised following the use of advanced diagnostic technologies. Rigorous validation of the novel mutations detected using deep sequencing in patients with suspected MD, and a clear definition of the natural history, outcome measures, and biomarkers that could be usefully adopted in clinical trials, are mandatory goals for the scientific community. Today, therapy is often inadequate and mostly palliative. However, important advances have been made in treating some clinical entities, eg, mitochondrial neuro-gastrointestinal encephalomyopathy, for which approaches using allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, orthotopic liver transplantation, and carrier erythrocyte entrapped thymidine phosphorylase enzyme therapy have recently been developed. Promising new treatment methods are being identified so that researchers, clinicians, and patients can join forces to change the history of these untreatable disorders. PMID:28243136

  17. Mitochondrial diseases: advances and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarpelli M


    Full Text Available Mauro Scarpelli,1 Alice Todeschini,2 Irene Volonghi,2 Alessandro Padovani,2 Massimiliano Filosto2 1Department of Neuroscience, Unit of Neurology, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata Verona, Verona, Italy; 2Center for Neuromuscular Diseases and Neuropathies, Unit of Neurology, ASST “Spedali Civili”, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy Abstract: Mitochondrial diseases (MDs are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders caused by a dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. They can be related to mutation of genes encoded using either nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA. The advent of next generation sequencing and whole exome sequencing in studying the molecular bases of MDs will bring about a revolution in the field of mitochondrial medicine, also opening the possibility of better defining pathogenic mechanisms and developing novel therapeutic approaches for these devastating disorders. The canonical rules of mitochondrial medicine remain milestones, but novel issues have been raised following the use of advanced diagnostic technologies. Rigorous validation of the novel mutations detected using deep sequencing in patients with suspected MD, and a clear definition of the natural history, outcome measures, and biomarkers that could be usefully adopted in clinical trials, are mandatory goals for the scientific community. Today, therapy is often inadequate and mostly palliative. However, important advances have been made in treating some clinical entities, eg, mitochondrial neuro-gastrointestinal encephalomyopathy, for which approaches using allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, orthotopic liver transplantation, and carrier erythrocyte entrapped thymidine phosphorylase enzyme therapy have recently been developed. Promising new treatment methods are being identified so that researchers, clinicians, and patients can join forces to change the history of these untreatable disorders. Keywords: mitochondrial diseases

  18. Epistemological and Methodological Issues for the Conceptualization, Development, and Assessment of ICT-TPCK: Advances in Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) (United States)

    Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos


    In this paper, several issues regarding the epistemology of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) are first raised for the purpose of clarifying the construct. Specifically, the transformative and integrative views are juxtaposed for exploring the epistemology of TPCK, and, at the end, the transformative view is adopted concluding…

  19. Language Teaching Methodology. ERIC Issue Paper. (United States)

    Rodgers, Theodore S.

    This paper gives an overview of 10 directions language teachers might take in the future. After providing background on the history of language teaching, language teaching methodology is defined and a distinction is made between methodologies and approaches. Next, the 10 scenarios are briefly described. They include the following: teacher/learner…

  20. Advances in Learning Design: Special Issue Editorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Koper, Rob


    Please cite as: Colin Tattersall and Rob Koper (2005). Advances in Learning Design: Special Issue Editorial. Journal of Interactive Media in Education (Advances in Learning Design. Special Issue, eds. Colin Tattersall, Rob Koper), 2005/03. ISSN:1365-893X [

  1. Conceptual and methodological issues in epidemiology: An overview. (United States)

    Broadbent, Alex


    In 2010 a series of workshops on philosophical and methodological issues in epidemiology was held at the University of Cambridge. The papers in this volume arise from those workshops. This paper represents an effort to identify, in broad brush, some of the major conceptual and methodological issues in epidemiology, which form the basis of an emerging focus on the philosophy of epidemiology.

  2. Students' Involvement in Faculty Research: Ethical and Methodological Issues


    Ferguson, Linda M; Olive Yonge; Florence Myrick


    Faculty who engage students as participants in their qualitative research often encounter methodological and ethical problems. Ethical issues arise from the fiduciary relationship between faculty and their students, and violations of that relationship occur when the educator has a dual role as researcher with those students. Methodological issues arise from research designs to address these ethical issues. This conflict is particularly evident in faculty research on pedagogy in their own disc...

  3. Methodological Issues on Climate Change Mitigation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Borges, Pedro Castro; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui


    This paper uses national greenhouse gas emission abatement costing studies as a case to discuss influential factors that determine their outcome and achievement. Costing studies are seen as part of an interconnected whole social process where actors (decision makers, clients, facilitators, experts....... Some methodological principles are suggested to address such contradictions, structure, and change th einteractions between the different dimensions of hte social process framework. Two studies are mentioned in which ideas are presented on how to deal with the central contradictions. Applying...

  4. Practical Issues of Conducting a Q Methodology Study: Lessons Learned From a Cross-cultural Study. (United States)

    Stone, Teresa Elizabeth; Maguire, Jane; Kang, Sook Jung; Cha, Chiyoung


    This article advances nursing research by presenting the methodological challenges experienced in conducting a multination Q-methodology study. This article critically analyzes the relevance of the methodology for cross-cultural and nursing research and the challenges that led to specific responses by the investigators. The use of focus groups with key stakeholders supplemented the Q-analysis results. The authors discuss practical issues and shared innovative approaches and provide best-practice suggestions on the use of this flexible methodology. Q methodology has the versatility to explore complexities of contemporary nursing practice and cross-cultural health research.

  5. Advance Care Planning: Medical Issues to Consider (United States)

    ... Work Working Through Grief About Us Advance Care Planning: Medical Issues to Consider By Cheryl Arenella, MD, ... delirious, anxious, and agitated when taken out of familiar surroundings. Diagnostic tests What is involved? Diagnostic tests ...

  6. Students' Involvement in Faculty Research: Ethical and Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M. Ferguson


    Full Text Available Faculty who engage students as participants in their qualitative research often encounter methodological and ethical problems. Ethical issues arise from the fiduciary relationship between faculty and their students, and violations of that relationship occur when the educator has a dual role as researcher with those students. Methodological issues arise from research designs to address these ethical issues. This conflict is particularly evident in faculty research on pedagogy in their own disciplines, for which students are necessary as participants but are captive in the relationship. In this article, the authors explore the issues of double agency when faculty involve students as participants in their research.

  7. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi


    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  8. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analyses Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.S. Samuelsen; A.D. Rao


    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include ''Zero Emission'' power plants and the ''FutureGen'' H{sub 2} co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the ''Vision 21'' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  9. Data and models in Action. Methodological Issues in Production Ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.; Penning, de F.W.T.


    This book addresses methodological issues of production ecology. A central issue is the combination of the agricultural model with reliable data in relation to scale. A model is developed with data from a single point, whereas decisions are to be made for areas of land. Such an approach requires the

  10. Learning Potential Assessment: Theoretical, Methodological and Practical Issues. (United States)

    Hamers, J. H. M., Ed.; Sijtsma, K., Ed.; Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M., Ed.

    The first part of this volume is concerned with theoretical and conceptual issues concerning learning potential assessment. The second part deals with methodological and measurement issues in learning potential assessment, and the third part is devoted to research projects and practical applications of learning potential tests. The following…

  11. Advanced planning methodologies in food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farahani, Poorya

    The food industry is an important sector both because of its direct impacts on the daily lives of people and its large share of GDP compared with other economic sectors. This thesis discusses and develops advanced planning methodologies to optimize operations in food supply chains. From a supply...... chain perspective, this thesis mainly focuses on the part of the chain which starts from the food processing industry: the food processing industry, the distribution industry, and final consumers. In the second chapter of this thesis, a thorough review is presented classifying the related contributions...... in strategic, tactical, and operational studies, aiming to explain how several key food distribution planning challenges have been dealt with in the Operations Management literature. The next two chapters discuss specific production and distribution planning problems from the foodservice sector. Generic...

  12. Methodologic issues in research on religion and health. (United States)

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Ellison, Christopher G; Strock, Adrienne L


    This study examines several methodologic issues in research on religion and health, including the measurement of the concept of religion, research designs, sampling, and statistical controls for assessing the "net" effects of religion on health outcomes. It briefly discusses differences in analytical perspectives that have contributed to the debate about the effects of religion on health. The authors review some of the methodologic problems of past research in this area of study and address what needs to be done to enhance the quality of the research. The authors conclude that the research methodology used in studies of religion and health has improved over time and that it continues to do so.

  13. Methodological issues and research recommendations for prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristman, Vicki L; Borg, Jörgen; Godbolt, Alison K


    methodological concerns and knowledge gaps in the literature. Here we report and make recommendations on how to avoid methodological flaws found in prognostic studies of MTBI. Additionally, we discuss issues of MTBI definition and identify topic areas in need of further research to advance the understanding......, Prevention, Management and Rehabilitation Task Force on the prognosis of MTBI. Of 299 relevant studies, 101 were accepted as scientifically admissible. The methodological quality of the research literature on MTBI prognosis has not improved since the 2002 Task Force report. There are still many...

  14. Research with Children: Methodological Issues and Innovative Techniques (United States)

    Fargas-Malet, Montserrat; McSherry, Dominic; Larkin, Emma; Robinson, Clive


    In the past few decades, a growing body of literature examining children's perspectives on their own lives has developed within a variety of disciplines, such as sociology, psychology, anthropology and geography. This article provides a brief up-to-date examination of methodological and ethical issues that researchers may need to consider when…

  15. Trends and Issues in ELT Methods and Methodology (United States)

    Waters, Alan


    Trends and issues in ELT methods and methodology can be identified at two main levels. One is in terms of the theoretical pronouncements of the "professional discourse", as manifested by major publications, conference presentations, and so on. This article therefore begins by briefly summarizing some of the main developments of this kind from 1995…

  16. Personality Assessment of Global Talent: Conceptual and Methodological Issues (United States)

    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.


    The recruitment of managers who will operate in a culturally heterogeneous context (as expatriate managers, managers in a global company, or managers of a multicultural workforce) is increasingly important in an age of globalization. This article describes conceptual and methodological issues in the assessment of such managers, notably in the…

  17. Economic evaluation in stratified medicine: methodological issues and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joerg eFugel


    Full Text Available Background: Stratified Medicine (SM is becoming a practical reality with the targeting of medicines by using a biomarker or genetic-based diagnostic to identify the eligible patient sub-population. Like any healthcare intervention, SM interventions have costs and consequences that must be considered by reimbursement authorities with limited resources. Methodological standards and guidelines exist for economic evaluations in clinical pharmacology and are an important component for health technology assessments (HTAs in many countries. However, these guidelines have initially been developed for traditional pharmaceuticals and not for complex interventions with multiple components. This raises the issue as to whether these guidelines are adequate to SM interventions or whether new specific guidance and methodology is needed to avoid inconsistencies and contradictory findings when assessing economic value in SM.Objective: This article describes specific methodological challenges when conducting health economic (HE evaluations for SM interventions and outlines potential modifications necessary to existing evaluation guidelines /principles that would promote consistent economic evaluations for SM.Results/Conclusions: Specific methodological aspects for SM comprise considerations on the choice of comparator, measuring effectiveness and outcomes, appropriate modelling structure and the scope of sensitivity analyses. Although current HE methodology can be applied for SM, greater complexity requires further methodology development and modifications in the guidelines.

  18. Cost-utility analysis: Current methodological issues and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J C Nuijten


    Full Text Available The use of cost-effectiveness as final criterion in the reimbursement process for listing of new pharmaceuticals can be questioned from a scientific and policy point of view. There is a lack of consensus on main methodological issues and consequently we may question the appropriateness of the use of cost-effectiveness data in health care decision-making. Another concern is the appropriateness of the selection and use of an incremental cost-effectiveness threshold (Cost/QALY. In this review, we focus mainly on only some key methodological concerns relating to discounting, the utility concept, cost assessment and modelling methodologies. Finally we will consider the relevance of some other important decision criteria, like social values and equity.

  19. Methodological issues in HIV-related social research in Nigeria. (United States)

    Erinosho, Olayiwola; Joseph, Richard; Isiugo-Abanihe, Uche; Dike, Nkem; Aderinto, Adeyinka A


    This paper is about methodological issues in a community-wide study in Nigeria on an infectious disease, namely HIV/AIDS. The study was designed to ascertain the risk factors that contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS and how that can be tackled in order to bring about behavioural change. The research team believed at the onset that a study on the interplay between HIV/AIDS and sensitive issues like sexual mores and sexuality requires much more than a straightjacket social science method, such as simply doing a cross-section study and/or using interview schedule. This paper reviews the essence of cross-disciplinary approach; team building; as well as the use of a non-participatory observational approach in data collection. It also shows why ample consideration was given to ethical issues which are often glossed over in social research in developing countries. The lessons from the study underscore the methodological imperatives in social research that focus on sensitive issues in largely non-literate context like Nigeria. Although there are formidable challenges in community-based studies in largely non-literate societies, nevertheless they could easily be surmounted if there are ample time and resources to navigate the various sticking points.

  20. Methodological advances in drug discovery for Chagas disease (United States)

    Bustamante, Juan M.; Tarleton, Rick L.


    Introduction Chagas disease is the highest impact human infectious disease in Latin America, and the leading worldwide cause of myocarditis. Despite the availability of several compounds that have demonstrated efficacy in limiting the effects of T. cruzi, these compounds are rarely used due to their variable efficacy, substantial side effects and the lack of methodologies for confirming their effectiveness. Furthermore, the development of more efficacious compounds is challenged by limitations of systems for assessing drug efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Areas covered Herein, the authors review the development of Chagas disease drug discovery methodology, focusing on recent developments in high throughput screening, in vivo testing methods and assessments of efficacy in humans. Particularly, this review documents the significant progress that has taken place over the last 5 years that have paved the way for both target-focused and high-throughput screens of compound libraries. Expert opinion The tools for in vitro and in vivo screening of anti-T. cruzi compounds have improved dramatically in the last few years and there are now a number of excellent in vivo testing models available; this somewhat alleviates the bottleneck issue of quickly and definitively demonstrating in vivo efficacy in a relevant host animal system. These advances emphasize the potential for additional progress resulting in new treatments for Chagas disease in the coming years. That being said, national and international agencies must improve the coordination of research and development efforts in addition to cultivating the funding sources for the development of these new treatments. PMID:21712965

  1. Methodological choice and the study of sensitive issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Ahlberg


    Full Text Available There has been relatively little concern with methodological issues within the study of religion. In this article the author considers the need for a continuing clarification of how diverse methodological approaches relate to the study of religion in general, and what is more, of certain aspects of the role of the researcher in particular. A main difference between the methodological approaches as referred to in this article — and illustrated by reference to minority studies -is in the closeness of the researcher to his field. One could perhaps state that while the researcher draws nearer to his field in soft approaches the theories remain further away from the empirical data (i.e. in that one creates greater vistas while the opposite is true for those that work with hard data designs, that meta-theories are almost excluded (as pure speculation due to the strict demands for operationalization, as the (effect of the researcher is to a greater extend likewise excluded from the picture. Though in both cases the choices made must naturally be made explicit as must the researcher relate to a qualified discussion between experts who have some kind of relationship to the kind of empirical material or theoretical thinking that is at issue in the particular project.

  2. Regional issue identification and assessment: study methodology. First annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The overall assessment methodologies and models utilized for the first project under the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program are described. Detailed descriptions are given of the methodologies used by lead laboratories for the quantification of the impacts of an energy scenario on one or more media (e.g., air, water, land, human and ecology), and by all laboratories to assess the regional impacts on all media. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by the following national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report contains five chapters. Chapter 1 briefly describes the overall study methodology and introduces the technical participants. Chapter 2 is a summary of the energy policy scenario selected for the RIIA I study and Chapter 3 describes how this scenario was translated into a county-level siting pattern of energy development. The fourth chapter is a detailed description of the individual methodologies used to quantify the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the scenario while Chapter 5 describes how these impacts were translated into comprehensive regional assessments for each Federal Region.

  3. Humor, laughter, and physical health: methodological issues and research findings. (United States)

    Martin, R A


    All published research examining effects of humor and laughter on physical health is reviewed. Potential causal mechanisms and methodological issues are discussed. Laboratory experiments have shown some effects of exposure to comedy on several components of immunity, although the findings are inconsistent and most of the studies have methodological problems. There is also some evidence of analgesic effects of exposure to comedy, although similar findings are obtained with negative emotions. Few significant correlations have been found between trait measures of humor and immunity, pain tolerance, or self-reported illness symptoms. There is also little evidence of stress-moderating effects of humor on physical health variables and no evidence of increased longevity with greater humor. More rigorous and theoretically informed research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about possible health benefits of humor and laughter.

  4. Mixed-signal methodology guide advanced methodology for AMS IP and SOC design, verification and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jess; Mar, Monte F; Nizic, Mladen; Bailey, Brian


    This Book, The Mixed-Signal Methodology Guide: Advanced Methodology For Ams Ip And Soc Design, Verification, And Implementation Provides A Broad Overview Of The Design, Verification And Implementation Methodologies Required For Today's Mixed-Signal Designs. The Book Covers Mixed-Signal Design Trends And Challenges, Abstraction Of Analog Using Behavioral Models, Assertion-Based Metric-Driven Verification Methodology Applied On Analog And Mixed-Signal And Verification Of Low Power Intent In Mixed-Signal Design. It Also Describes Methodology For Physical Implementation In Context Of Concurrent Mixed-Signal Design And For Handling Advanced Node Physical Effects. The Book Contains Many Practical Examples Of Models And Techniques. The Authors Believe It Should Serve As A Reference To Many Analog, Digital And Mixed-Signal Designers, Verification, Physical Implementation Engineers And Managers In Their Pursuit Of Information For A Better Methodology Required To Address The Challenges Of Modern Mixed-Signal Design.

  5. Methodological issues in clinical drug development for essential tremor. (United States)

    Carranza, Michael A; Snyder, Madeline R; Elble, Rodger J; Boutzoukas, Angelique E; Zesiewicz, Theresa A


    Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common tremor disorders in the world. Despite this, only two medications have received Level A recommendations from the American Academy of Neurology to treat it (primidone and propranolol). Even though these medications provide relief to a large group of ET patients, up to 50% of patients are non-responders. Additional medications to treat ET are needed. This review discusses some of the methodological issues that should be addressed for quality clinical drug development in ET.

  6. Methodology and Supporting Toolset Advancing Embedded Systems Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stübert; Soler, José; Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy;


    Software quality is of primary importance in the development of embedded systems that are often used in safety-critical applications. Moreover, as the life cycle of embedded products becomes increasingly tighter, productivity and quality are simultaneously required and closely interrelated towards...... delivering competitive products. In this context, the MODUS (Methodology and supporting toolset advancing embedded systems quality) project aims to provide a pragmatic and viable solution that will allow SMEs to substantially improve their positioning in the embedded-systems development market. This paper...... will describe the MODUS project with focus on the technical methodologies that will be developed advancing embedded system quality....

  7. Contemporary research on parenting: conceptual, methodological, and translational issues. (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; Sleddens, Ester F C; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St George, Sara M


    Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered.

  8. School resources and student achievment: worldwide findings and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Meyer. M. Nascimento


    Full Text Available The issues raised in the Education Production Function literature since the US 1966 Coleman Report have fuelled high controversy on the role of school resources in relation to student performance. In several literature reviews and some self estimates, Erik Hanushek (1986, 1997, 2006 systematically affirms that these two factors are not associated one to another – neither in the US nor abroad. In recent cross-country analyses, Ludger Woessmann (2003; 2005a; 2005b links international differences in attainment to institutional differences across educational systems – not to resourcing levels. In the opposite direction, Stephen Heyneman and William Loxley (1982, 1983 tried to demonstrate in the 1980’s that, at least for low income countries, school factors seemed to outweigh family characteristics on the determination of students’ outcomes – although other authors show evidence that such a phenomenon may have existed only during a limited period of the 20th Century. In the 1990s, meta-analyses raised the argument that school resources were sufficiently significant to be regarded as pedagogically important. The turn of the Century witnessed a new movement: the recognition that endogenous determination of resource allocation is a substantial methodological issue. Therefore, efforts have been made to incorporate the decision-making processes that involve families, schools and policy-makers in economic models. This implies changes in research designs that may affect the direction of future policy advices patronised by international development and educational organisations.

  9. Current methodological issues in the economic assessment of personalized medicine. (United States)

    Annemans, Lieven; Redekop, Ken; Payne, Katherine


    There is a need for methodological scrutiny in the economic assessment of personalized medicine. In this article, we present a list of 10 specific issues that we argue pose specific methodological challenges that require careful consideration when designing and conducting robust model-based economic evaluations in the context of personalized medicine. Key issues are related to the correct framing of the research question, interpretation of test results, data collection of medical management options after obtaining test results, and expressing the value of tests. The need to formulate the research question clearly and be explicit and specific about the technology being evaluated is essential because various test kits can have the same purpose and yet differ in predictive value, costs, and relevance to practice and patient populations. The correct reporting of sensitivity/specificity, and especially the false negatives and false positives (which are population dependent), of the investigated tests is also considered as a key element. This requires additional structural complexity to establish the relationship between the test result and the consecutive treatment changes and outcomes. This process involves translating the test characteristics into clinical utility, and therefore outlining the clinical and economic consequences of true and false positives and true and false negatives. Information on treatment patterns and on their costs and outcomes, however, is often lacking, especially for false-positive and false-negative test results. The analysis can even become very complex if different tests are combined or sequentially used. This potential complexity can be handled by explicitly showing how these tests are going to be used in practice and then working with the combined sensitivities and specificities of the tests. Each of these issues leads to a higher degree of uncertainty in economic models designed to assess the added value of personalized medicine compared

  10. Assessing Campus Climates for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Students: Methodological and Political Issues (United States)

    Brown, Robert D.; Gortmaker, Valerie J.


    Methodological and political issues arise during the designing, conducting, and reporting of campus-climate studies for LGBT students. These issues interact; making a decision about a methodological issue (e.g., sample size) has an impact on a political issue (e.g., how well the findings will be received). Ten key questions that must be addressed…

  11. Advancements in Research Synthesis Methods: From a Methodologically Inclusive Perspective (United States)

    Suri, Harsh; Clarke, David


    The dominant literature on research synthesis methods has positivist and neo-positivist origins. In recent years, the landscape of research synthesis methods has changed rapidly to become inclusive. This article highlights methodologically inclusive advancements in research synthesis methods. Attention is drawn to insights from interpretive,…

  12. Measuring persistence: A literature review focusing on methodological issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Brown, M.A.; Trumble, D.


    This literature review was conducted as part of a larger project to produce a handbook on the measurement of persistence. The past decade has marked the development of the concept of persistence and a growing recognition that the long-term impacts of demand-side management (DSM) programs warrant careful assessment. Although Increasing attention has been paid to the topic of persistence, no clear consensus has emerged either about its definition or about the methods most appropriate for its measurement and analysis. This project strives to fill that gap by reviewing the goals, terminology, and methods of past persistence studies. It was conducted from the perspective of a utility that seeks to acquire demand-side resources and is interested in their long-term durability; it was not conducted from the perspective of the individual consumer. Over 30 persistence studies, articles, and protocols were examined for this report. The review begins by discussing the underpinnings of persistence studies: namely, the definitions of persistence and the purposes of persistence studies. Then. it describes issues relevant to both the collection and analysis of data on the persistence of energy and demand savings. Findings from persistence studies also are summarized. Throughout the review, four studies are used repeatedly to illustrate different methodological and analytical approaches to persistence so that readers can track the data collection. data analysis, and findings of a set of comprehensive studies that represent alternative approaches.

  13. Advanced quantitative measurement methodology in physics education research (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    The ultimate goal of physics education research (PER) is to develop a theoretical framework to understand and improve the learning process. In this journey of discovery, assessment serves as our headlamp and alpenstock. It sometimes detects signals in student mental structures, and sometimes presents the difference between expert understanding and novice understanding. Quantitative assessment is an important area in PER. Developing research-based effective assessment instruments and making meaningful inferences based on these instruments have always been important goals of the PER community. Quantitative studies are often conducted to provide bases for test development and result interpretation. Statistics are frequently used in quantitative studies. The selection of statistical methods and interpretation of the results obtained by these methods shall be connected to the education background. In this connecting process, the issues of educational models are often raised. Many widely used statistical methods do not make assumptions on the mental structure of subjects, nor do they provide explanations tailored to the educational audience. There are also other methods that consider the mental structure and are tailored to provide strong connections between statistics and education. These methods often involve model assumption and parameter estimation, and are complicated mathematically. The dissertation provides a practical view of some advanced quantitative assessment methods. The common feature of these methods is that they all make educational/psychological model assumptions beyond the minimum mathematical model. The purpose of the study is to provide a comparison between these advanced methods and the pure mathematical methods. The comparison is based on the performance of the two types of methods under physics education settings. In particular, the comparison uses both physics content assessments and scientific ability assessments. The dissertation includes three

  14. Methodological Issues in Online Qualitative Consumer Behavior Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žaneta Paunksnienė


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reveal and discuss the methodological issues related to online qualitative consumer behavior research. A number of methodological issues are examined, related with the online qualitative research on consumer in-store emotional experience implemented by the authors. It is concluded that the Internet is becoming an increasingly attractive environment for consumer behavior research. A large part of scholars use the Internet as a medium for data collection and analysis. At the same time, researchers study the Internet as a source of information about consumer preferences, their virtual communities, prevailing relationships, traditions and attitudes. The Internet is analyzed as a phenomenon in itself, too. In this article, the Internet is analyzed as a tool for communicating with research participants, and collecting, storing and analyzing data. In general, qualitative inquiry is characterized by contextual and naturalistic approach to the study of objects and processes. Therefore, decision to carry out qualitative study in virtual environment must take additional strategic and tactical solutions. Most often, researchers need to decide about the mode of communication that solves time management, spontaneity and security problems. It is also relevant to sampling and its contents. Different solutions from quantitative studies are required in ensuring the ethics and quality of the study. During the analysis of the qualitative data collected through the Internet, mostly in a form of computer communication language (text, specific characteristics, such as backspacing and correction during the communication that impact spontaneity rate, the absence of non-verbal language, etc., are necessary to be taken into accountIt is concluded that all the above-mentioned issues must be addressed individually to the research topic, object, aim, research problem and the specifics of the respondents. When deciding about the method of

  15. Advanced structural equation modeling issues and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Marcoulides, George A


    By focusing primarily on the application of structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques in example cases and situations, this book provides an understanding and working knowledge of advanced SEM techniques with a minimum of mathematical derivations. The book was written for a broad audience crossing many disciplines, assumes an understanding of graduate level multivariate statistics, including an introduction to SEM.

  16. Policy issues inherent in advanced technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, P.D.


    In the development of advanced technologies, there are several forces which are involved in the success of the development of those technologies. In the overall development of new technologies, a sufficient number of these forces must be present and working in order to have a successful opportunity at developing, introducing and integrating into the marketplace a new technology. This paper discusses some of these forces and how they enter into the equation for success in advanced technology research, development, demonstration, commercialization and deployment. This paper limits itself to programs which are generally governmental funded, which in essence represent most of the technology development efforts that provide defense, energy and environmental technological products. Along with the identification of these forces are some suggestions as to how changes may be brought about to better ensure success in a long term to attempt to minimize time and financial losses.

  17. Methodological issues in the psychology of religion: toward another paradigm? (United States)

    Belzen, Jacob A; Hood, Ralph W


    Recent evaluations have identified the psychology of religion as a field in crisis and have called for a new multilevel interdisciplinary paradigm. However, a critical meta-perspective on methods reveals a broad range of methodologies, each appropriate for particular levels of complexity in the psychology of religion. No single methodology is appropriate for every level, nor can higher levels of complexity be explained by data from lower levels. The authors identify the different types of research practiced in the psychology of religion and critically discuss philosophical presuppositions involved in two major methodological traditions, the empiricist-analytical and the hermeneutical, often identified as quantitative and qualitative traditions, respectively.

  18. Gastroenterology in developing countries: Issues and advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kate L Mandeville; Justus Krabshuis; Nimzing Gwamzhi Ladep; Chris JJ Mulder; Eamonn MM Quigley; Shahid A Khan


    Developing countries shoulder a considerable burden of gastroenterological disease. Infectious diseases in particular cause enormous morbidity and mortality. Diseases which afflict both western and developing countries are often seen in more florid forms in poorer countries. Innovative techniques continuously improve and update gastroenterological practice. However, advances in diagnosis and treatment which are commonplace in the West, have yet to reach many developing countries. Clinical guidelines, based on these advances and collated in resource-rich environments, lose their relevance outside these settings. In this two-part review, we first highlight the global burden of gastroenterological disease in three major areas: diarrhoeal diseases, hepatitis B, and Helicobacter pylori. Recent progress in their management is explored, with consideration of future solutions. The second part of the review focuses on the delivery of clinical services in developing countries. Inadequate numbers of healthcare workers hamper efforts to combat gastroenterological disease. Reasons for this shortage are examined, along with possibilities for increased specialist training. Endoscopy services, the mainstay of gastroenterology in the West, are in their infancy in many developing countries. The challenges faced by those setting up a service are illustrated by the example of a Nigerian endoscopy unit. Finally, we highlight the limited scope of many clinical guidelines produced in western countries. Guidelines which take account of resource limitations in the form of "cascades" are advocated in order to make these guidelines truly global. Recognition of the different working conditions facing practitioners worldwide is an important step towards narrowing the gap between gastroenterology in rich and poor countries.

  19. The meaning of dwelling features: conceptual and methodological issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, H.C.C.H.


    This study is about the meaning of dwelling features. It relates the research areas of housing preferences and the meaning of a dwelling with each other and with aspects of the means-end approach as applied in marketing research. It results in a conceptual and methodological framework for studying t

  20. Contemporary Qualitative Research Methodologies and Issues in Literacy Education (United States)

    Tobin, Joseph; Steinkuehler, Constance A.; Black, Rebecca W.; Clinton, Katherine A.; Hinchman, Kathleen A.; Dillon, Deborah R.


    Scholars who are drawn to qualitative research methodologies represent a diverse group of disciplines and fields. They also represent themselves as researchers and the theoretical frameworks in which they work quite differently. Indeed, it was this diversity in representation that initially motivated us to propose a New Directions feature on…

  1. Diaspora Effects in International Migration : Key Questions and Methodological Issues


    Beine, Michel; Docquier, Frederic; Ozden, Caglar


    This paper reviews the existing literature on the impact of migrants networks on the patterns of international migration. It covers the theoretical channels at stake in the global effect of the networks. It identifies the key issues, namely the impact on size, selection and concentration of the migration flows. The paper also reviews the empirical hurdles that the researchers face in assessing the importance of networks. The key issues concern the choice of micro vs a macro approach, the defi...

  2. Diaspora Effects in International Migration : Key Questions and Methodological Issues


    Beine, Michel; Docquier, Frederic; Ozden, Caglar


    This paper reviews the existing literature on the impact of migrants networks on the patterns of international migration. It covers the theoretical channels at stake in the global effect of the networks. It identifies the key issues, namely the impact on size, selection and concentration of the migration flows. The paper also reviews the empirical hurdles that the researchers face in asses...

  3. Methodological issues of confounding in analytical epidemiologic studies. (United States)

    Hajian Tilaki, Karimollah


    Confounding can be thought of as mixing the effect of exposure on the risk of disease with a third factor which distorts the measure of association such as risk ratio or odds ratio. This bias arises because of complex functional relationship of confounder with both exposure and disease (outcome). In this article, we provided a conceptual framework review of confounding issues in epidemiologic studies, in particular in observational studies and nonrandomized experimental studies. We have shown in 2 by 2 tables with analytical examples how the index of association will be distorted when confounding is present. The criteria, source of confounding and several points in confounding issues have been addressed. The advantages and disadvantages of several strategies for control of confounding have been discussed.

  4. Developing a science of land change: Challenges and methodological issues (United States)

    Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Turner, B. L.; Fox, Jefferson; Mishra, Vinod


    Land-change science has emerged as a foundational element of global environment change and sustainability science. It seeks to understand the human and environment dynamics that give rise to changed land uses and covers, not only in terms of their type and magnitude but their location as well. This focus requires the integration of social, natural, and geographical information sciences. Each of these broad research communities has developed different ways to enter the land-change problem, each with different means of treating the locational specificity of the critical variables, such as linking the land manager to the parcel being managed. The resulting integration encounters various data, methodological, and analytical problems, especially those concerning aggregation and inference, land-use pixel links, data and measurement, and remote sensing analysis. Here, these integration problems, which hinder comprehensive understanding and theory development, are addressed. Their recognition and resolution are required for the sustained development of land-change science. PMID:15383671

  5. Understanding the personhood of Deaf people with dementia: methodological issues. (United States)

    Young, Alys; Ferguson-Coleman, Emma; Keady, John


    This article concerns Deaf people in the United Kingdom, who use sign language, who have a formal diagnosis of dementia and who have participated in interviews in British Sign Language (BSL) about their experience of living with dementia. We address the methodological challenges involved in enabling culturally meaningful participation in circumstances where the non-verbal is not equivalent to the non-linguistic. We demonstrate the use of interpretative narrative representation of data for purposes of cultural brokering. We explore the contribution of Deaf people's experiences and the analysis of their visual, spatial narratives to debates about personhood and the embodied self in dementia studies. Finally, we consider the significance of the situational as cultural in relation to holistic interpretation of narrative.

  6. Working memory and L2 reading: theoretical and methodological issues


    Erçetin, Gülcan


    This article reviews research on working memory (WM) and its role in second language (L2) reading. After a brief theoretical account of WM, the article focuses on methods of measuring WM and issues surrounding its measurement. Next, the paper provides a review of studies on the relationship between L1 and L2 WM, their relationships with L2 reading, and the interaction between WM capacity and domain knowledge in terms of their effects on L2 reading comprehension. Conclusions regarding the role...

  7. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Shropshire


    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Systems Analysis supports engineering economic analyses and trade-studies, and requires a requisite reference cost basis to support adequate analysis rigor. In this regard, the AFCI program has created a reference set of economic documentation. The documentation consists of the “Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) Cost Basis” report (Shropshire, et al. 2007), “AFCI Economic Analysis” report, and the “AFCI Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies Report.” Together, these documents provide the reference cost basis, cost modeling basis, and methodologies needed to support AFCI economic analysis. The application of the reference cost data in the cost and econometric systems analysis models will be supported by this report. These methodologies include: the energy/environment/economic evaluation of nuclear technology penetration in the energy market—domestic and internationally—and impacts on AFCI facility deployment, uranium resource modeling to inform the front-end fuel cycle costs, facility first-of-a-kind to nth-of-a-kind learning with application to deployment of AFCI facilities, cost tradeoffs to meet nuclear non-proliferation requirements, and international nuclear facility supply/demand analysis. The economic analysis will be performed using two cost models. VISION.ECON will be used to evaluate and compare costs under dynamic conditions, consistent with the cases and analysis performed by the AFCI Systems Analysis team. Generation IV Excel Calculations of Nuclear Systems (G4-ECONS) will provide static (snapshot-in-time) cost analysis and will provide a check on the dynamic results. In future analysis, additional AFCI measures may be developed to show the value of AFCI in closing the fuel cycle. Comparisons can show AFCI in terms of reduced global proliferation (e.g., reduction in enrichment), greater sustainability through preservation of a natural resource (e.g., reduction in uranium ore depletion), value from

  8. Special issue on advances in computer entertainment: editorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romão, Teresa; Nijholt, Anton; Cheok, Adrian David; Romão, T.; Nijholt, A.; Cheok, J.D.


    This special issue of the International Journal of Arts and Technology comprises a selection of papers from ACE 2012, the 9th International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment (Nijholt et al., 2012). ACE is the leading scientific forum for dissemination of cutting-edge research results

  9. Methodological and Conceptual Issues Confronting a Cross-Country Delphi Study of Educational Program Evaluation (United States)

    Hung, Hsin-Ling; Altschuld, James W.; Lee, Yi-Fang


    Although the Delphi is widely used, research on certain methodological issues is somewhat limited. After a brief introduction to the strengths, limitations, and methodological challenges of the technique, we share our experiences (as well as problems encountered) with an electronic Delphi of educational program evaluation (EPE) in the Asia-Pacific…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyalp TAMÇELİK


    Full Text Available In this research, the methodological problems and irregularities in the studies that were made or are still made regarding the Cyprus problem were considered. However this information can not be understood unless put into a theoretical framework.Empirical histories read about the Cyprus problem, in truth, are not factual at all. Conversely, they are composed of a series of accepted judgments, which necessitates setting eyes on, interpreting and evaluating factual stacks of knowledge. However, as dealing with these stacks, researchers studying on the Cyprus problem are supposed to identify events and conditions correctly with time, location and person coordination. Because it requires to dealing with, scrutinize, process and evaluate empirical content of history, and also to reestablish or make sense of social, political, economical, intellectual, aesthetical, religious, moral values and institutions of different cultures and civilizations both created by human experience and formed within this experience. Therefore, as making analysis on the Cyprus problem, it is of great importance to decide on the most suitable method in defining facts, know analytical problems and produce analytical category information.Pursuant to this fact, the analysis consists of three main chapters. While, in the first chapter, some ideas were stated on the method to be conducted in studies to be made on the Cyprus matter; methods and proposals to be accomplished in studies to be made on this matter were spoken in the second chapter. In the final chapter, concepts and facts in studies to be made on the Cyprus matter were mentioned.

  11. Measuring user experience in digital gaming: theoretical and methodological issues (United States)

    Takatalo, Jari; Häkkinen, Jukka; Kaistinen, Jyrki; Nyman, Göte


    There are innumerable concepts, terms and definitions for user experience. Few of them have a solid empirical foundation. In trying to understand user experience in interactive technologies such as computer games and virtual environments, reliable and valid concepts are needed for measuring relevant user reactions and experiences. Here we present our approach to create both theoretically and methodologically sound methods for quantification of the rich user experience in different digital environments. Our approach is based on the idea that the experience received from a content presented with a specific technology is always a result of a complex psychological interpretation process, which components should be understood. The main aim of our approach is to grasp the complex and multivariate nature of the experience and make it measurable. We will present our two basic measurement frameworks, which have been developed and tested in large data set (n=2182). The 15 measurement scales extracted from these models are applied to digital gaming with a head-mounted display and a table-top display. The results show how it is possible to map between experience, technology variables and the background of the user (e.g., gender). This approach can help to optimize, for example, the contents for specific viewing devices or viewing situations.

  12. E-cigarettes: methodological and ideological issues and research priorities. (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François


    Cigarette combustion, rather than either tobacco or nicotine, is the cause of a public health disaster. Fortunately, several new technologies that vaporize nicotine or tobacco, and may make cigarettes obsolete, have recently appeared. Research priorities include the effects of vaporizers on smoking cessation and initiation, their safety and toxicity, use by non-smokers, dual use of vaporizers and cigarettes, passive vaping, renormalization of smoking, and the development of messages that effectively communicate the continuum of risk for tobacco and nicotine products. A major difficulty is that we are chasing a moving target. New products constantly appear, and research results are often obsolete by the time they are published. Vaporizers do not need to be safe, only safer than cigarettes. However, harm reduction principles are often misunderstood or rejected. In the context of a fierce ideological debate, and major investments by the tobacco industry, it is crucial that independent researchers provide regulators and the public with evidence-based guidance. The methodological and ideological hurdles on this path are discussed in this commentary.

  13. Medical databases in studies of drug teratogenicity: methodological issues. (United States)

    Ehrenstein, Vera; Sørensen, Henrik T; Bakketeig, Leiv S; Pedersen, Lars


    More than half of all pregnant women take prescription medications, raising concerns about fetal safety. Medical databases routinely collecting data from large populations are potentially valuable resources for cohort studies addressing teratogenicity of drugs. These include electronic medical records, administrative databases, population health registries, and teratogenicity information services. Medical databases allow estimation of prevalences of birth defects with enhanced precision, but systematic error remains a potentially serious problem. In this review, we first provide a brief description of types of North American and European medical databases suitable for studying teratogenicity of drugs and then discuss manifestation of systematic errors in teratogenicity studies based on such databases. Selection bias stems primarily from the inability to ascertain all reproductive outcomes. Information bias (misclassification) may be caused by paucity of recorded clinical details or incomplete documentation of medication use. Confounding, particularly confounding by indication, can rarely be ruled out. Bias that either masks teratogenicity or creates false appearance thereof, may have adverse consequences for the health of the child and the mother. Biases should be quantified and their potential impact on the study results should be assessed. Both theory and software are available for such estimation. Provided that methodological problems are understood and effectively handled, computerized medical databases are a valuable source of data for studies of teratogenicity of drugs.

  14. Medical databases in studies of drug teratogenicity: methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ehrenstein


    Full Text Available Vera Ehrenstein1, Henrik T Sørensen1, Leiv S Bakketeig1,2, Lars Pedersen11Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: More than half of all pregnant women take prescription medications, raising concerns about fetal safety. Medical databases routinely collecting data from large populations are potentially valuable resources for cohort studies addressing teratogenicity of drugs. These include electronic medical records, administrative databases, population health registries, and teratogenicity information services. Medical databases allow estimation of prevalences of birth defects with enhanced precision, but systematic error remains a potentially serious problem. In this review, we first provide a brief description of types of North American and European medical databases suitable for studying teratogenicity of drugs and then discuss manifestation of systematic errors in teratogenicity studies based on such databases. Selection bias stems primarily from the inability to ascertain all reproductive outcomes. Information bias (misclassification may be caused by paucity of recorded clinical details or incomplete documentation of medication use. Confounding, particularly confounding by indication, can rarely be ruled out. Bias that either masks teratogenicity or creates false appearance thereof, may have adverse consequences for the health of the child and the mother. Biases should be quantified and their potential impact on the study results should be assessed. Both theory and software are available for such estimation. Provided that methodological problems are understood and effectively handled, computerized medical databases are a valuable source of data for studies of teratogenicity of drugs.Keywords: databases, birth defects, epidemiologic methods, pharmacoepidemiology

  15. Methodological issues in using data from social networking sites. (United States)

    Leng, Ho Keat


    Social networking sites (SNS) have become increasingly popular in recent years. With the amount of data available on SNS, the potential exists for researchers to use these data for their research. However, like any research method, there are limitations in using data from SNS. First, as members of SNS are not representative of the population, there is the limitation in generalizing the findings to the population. Second, in SNS with a low level of activity, there is also the issue of whether the data are sufficient for analysis. Third, the validity of the postings by members of SNS should be considered, as members of SNS may not be truthful in their responses. In addition, as the environment for SNS favors a quick emotive response as opposed to a cognitive response, the review suggests that the researcher will need to be aware of possibly different behavior when members of a SNS are faced with a high involvement decision. This article concludes that while there is potential in analyzing data from SNS, researchers should be aware of the limitations in using these data.

  16. Cannabis cultivation: Methodological issues for obtaining medical-grade product. (United States)

    Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Walker, Larry A; Potter, David


    As studies continue to reveal favorable findings for the use of cannabidiol in the management of childhood epilepsy syndromes and other disorders, best practices for the large-scale production of Cannabis are needed for timely product development and research purposes. The processes of two institutions with extensive experience in producing large-scale cannabidiol chemotype Cannabis crops-GW Pharmaceuticals and the University of Mississippi-are described, including breeding, indoor and outdoor growing, harvesting, and extraction methods. Such practices have yielded desirable outcomes in Cannabis breeding and production: GW Pharmaceuticals has a collection of chemotypes dominant in any one of eight cannabinoids, two of which-cannabidiol and cannabidivarin-are supporting epilepsy clinical trial research, whereas in addition to a germplasm bank of high-THC, high-CBD, and intermediate type cannabis varieties, the team at University of Mississippi has established an in vitro propagation protocol for cannabis with no detectable variations in morphologic, physiologic, biochemical, and genetic profiles as compared to the mother plants. Improvements in phytocannabinoid yields and growing efficiency are expected as research continues at these institutions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Cannabinoids and Epilepsy".

  17. Advanced studies on Simulation Methodologies for very Complicated Fracture Phenomena (United States)

    Nishioka, Toshihisa


    Although nowadays, computational techniques are well developed, for Extremely Complicated Fracture Phenomena, they are still very difficult to simulate, for general engineers, researchers. To overcome many difficulties in those simulations, we have developed not only Simulation Methodologies but also theoretical basis and concepts. We sometimes observe extremely complicated fracture patterns, especially in dynamic fracture phenomena such as dynamic crack branching, kinking, curving, etc. For examples, although the humankind, from primitive men to modern scientists such as Albert Einstein had watched the post-mortem patterns of dynamic crack branching, the governing condition for the onset of the phenomena had been unsolved until our experimental study. From in these studies, we found the governing condition of dynamic crack bifurcation, as follows. When the total energy flux per unit time into a propagating crack tip reaches the material crack resistance, the crack braches into two cracks [total energy flux criterion]. The crack branches many times whenever the criterion is satisfied. Furthermore, the complexities also arise due to their time-dependence and/or their-deformation dependence. In order to make it possible to simulate such extremely complicated fracture phenomena, we developed many original advanced computational methods and technologies. These are (i)moving finite element method based on Delaunay automatic triangulation (MFEMBOAT), path independent,(ii) equivalent domain integral expression of the dynamic J integral associated with a continuous auxiliary function,(iii) Mixed phase path-prediction mode simulation, (iv) implicit path prediction criterion. In this paper, these advanced computational methods are thoroughly explained together with successful comparison with the experimental results. Since multiple dynamic crack branching phenomena may be most complicated fracture due to complicated fracture paths, and its time dependence (transient), this

  18. Dryland ecohydrology and climate change: critical issues and technical advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang


    Full Text Available Drylands cover about 40% of the terrestrial land surface and account for approximately 40% of global net primary productivity. Water is fundamental to the biophysical processes that sustain ecosystem function and food production, particularly in drylands where a tight coupling exists between ecosystem productivity, surface energy balance, biogeochemical cycles, and water resource availability. Currently, drylands support at least 2 billion people and comprise both natural and managed ecosystems. In this synthesis, we identify some current critical issues in the understanding of dryland systems and discuss how arid and semiarid environments are responding to the changes in climate and land use. The issues range from societal aspects such as rapid population growth, the resulting food and water security, and development issues, to natural aspects such as ecohydrological consequences of bush encroachment and the causes of desertification. To improve current understanding and inform upon the needed research efforts to address these critical issues, we identify some recent technical advances in terms of monitoring dryland water dynamics, water budget and vegetation water use, with a focus on the use of stable isotopes and remote sensing. These technological advances provide new tools that assist in addressing critical issues in dryland ecohydrology under climate change.

  19. Advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, M.; Yokoyama, R.; Yasuda, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan); Sasaki, H. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Ogimoto, K. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper reviews advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems developed in Japan, putting focus on flexibility and efficiency in a practical application. First, criteria for evaluating flexibility of generation planning considering uncertainties are introduced. Secondly, the flexible generation mix problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization with more than two objective functions. The multi-objective optimization problem is then transformed into a single objective problem by using the weighting method, to obtain the Pareto optimal solution, and solved by a dynamics programming technique. Thirdly, a new approach for electric generation expansion planning of interconnected systems is presented, based on the Benders Decomposition technique. That is, large scale generation problem constituted by the general economic load dispatch problem, and several sub problems which are composed of smaller scale isolated system generation expansion plans. Finally, the generation expansion plan solved by an artificial neural network is presented. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of this method from the viewpoint of flexibility and applicability to practical generation expansion planning are presented. (author) 29 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Methodological issues in analyzing human communication – the complexities of multimodality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høegh, Tina


    This chapter develops a multimodal method for transcribing speech, communication, and performance. The chapter discusses the methodological solutions to the complex translation of speech, language rhythm and gesture in time and space into the two-dimensional format of a piece of paper. The focus...... is on orally performed literature and its pedagogical implications. The chapter thoroughly examines relevant theories and discusses methodological issues of research in language, literature, and cultural performance. Current themes within social semiotics, metrical studies, ethnography of speaking, narratology...

  1. Dryland ecohydrology and climate change: critical issues and technical advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang


    Full Text Available Drylands cover about 40% of the terrestrial land surface and account for approximately 40% of global net primary productivity. Water is fundamental to the biophysical processes that sustain ecosystem function and food production, particularly in drylands, where a tight coupling exists between water resource availability and ecosystem productivity, surface energy balance, and biogeochemical cycles. Currently, drylands support at least 2 billion people and comprise both natural and managed ecosystems. In this synthesis, we identify some current critical issues in the understanding of dryland systems and discuss how arid and semiarid environments are responding to the changes in climate and land use. Specifically, we focus on dryland agriculture and food security, dryland population growth, desertification, shrub encroachment and dryland development issues as factors of change requiring increased understanding and management. We also review recent technical advances in the quantitative assessment of human versus climate change related drivers of desertification, evapotranspiration partitioning using field deployable stable water isotope systems and the remote sensing of key ecohydrological processes. These technological advances provide new tools that assist in addressing major critical issues in dryland ecohydrology under climate change

  2. Behavioral issues in operations management new trends in design, management, and methodologies

    CERN Document Server


    Behavioral Operations Management  has been identified in the last years as one of the most promising emerging fields in Operations Management. Behavioral Issues in Operations Management  explains and examines up-to-date research in this field, which works to analyze the impact of human behavior on the management of complex operating systems.   A collection of studies from leading scholars presents different methodologies and approaches, supported by real data and case studies. Issues such as building trust and strong cooperative relationships with suppliers, enhancing motivation and designing proper incentives for stimulating more effective decision maker behaviours are considered. The main decision-making processes affected by behavioral issues are also analyzed with a focus on new product development, logistics, and supply chain integration.   The broad coverage of methodologies and practical implications makes Behavioral Issues in Operations Management an ideal reference for both researchers developing...

  3. A Content and Methodological Review of Articles Concerning Multiracial Issues in Six Major Counseling Journals (United States)

    Edwards, Lisa M.; Pedrotti, Jennifer Teramoto


    This study describes a comprehensive content and methodological review of articles about multiracial issues in 6 journals related to counseling up to the year 2006. The authors summarize findings about the 18 articles that emerged from this review of the "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "Journal of Counseling & Development," "The Counseling…

  4. Studying Marriage and Family Therapists in the 21st Century: Methodological and Technological Issues (United States)

    Northey, William F., Jr.


    In this article, I present data from two waves of research on demographic characteristics and practice patterns of marriage and family therapists (MFTs) conducted in 2000 and 2002. The research focuses on the methodological and technological issues in studying this population. Specifically, an online survey with MFTs obtained lower response rates…

  5. Methodological Issues in Evaluating Rorschach Validity: A Comment on Burns and Viglione (1996), Weiner (1996), and Ganellen (1996). (United States)

    Wood, James M.; Nezworski, M. Teresa; Stejskal, William J.; Garven, Sena; West, Stephen G.


    Discusses three recent studies of the validity of Rorschach test (H. Rorschach, 1921) that have not evaluated methodological issues carefully. Identifies methodological errors in each study and offers specific information for the interpretation of Rorschach results. (SLD)

  6. Improved best estimate plus uncertainty methodology including advanced validation concepts to license evolving nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Clure, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Ralph A [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB


    Many evolving nuclear energy programs plan to use advanced predictive multi-scale multi-physics simulation and modeling capabilities to reduce cost and time from design through licensing. Historically, the role of experiments was primary tool for design and understanding of nuclear system behavior while modeling and simulation played the subordinate role of supporting experiments. In the new era of multi-scale multi-physics computational based technology development, the experiments will still be needed but they will be performed at different scales to calibrate and validate models leading predictive simulations. Cost saving goals of programs will require us to minimize the required number of validation experiments. Utilization of more multi-scale multi-physics models introduces complexities in the validation of predictive tools. Traditional methodologies will have to be modified to address these arising issues. This paper lays out the basic aspects of a methodology that can be potentially used to address these new challenges in design and licensing of evolving nuclear technology programs. The main components of the proposed methodology are verification, validation, calibration, and uncertainty quantification. An enhanced calibration concept is introduced and is accomplished through data assimilation. The goal is to enable best-estimate prediction of system behaviors in both normal and safety related environments. To achieve this goal requires the additional steps of estimating the domain of validation and quantification of uncertainties that allow for extension of results to areas of the validation domain that are not directly tested with experiments, which might include extension of the modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities for application to full-scale systems. The new methodology suggests a formalism to quantify an adequate level of validation (predictive maturity) with respect to required selective data so that required testing can be minimized for cost

  7. Advanced chemistry of monolayers at interfaces trends in methodology and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Imae, Toyoko


    Advanced Chemistry of Monolayers at Interfaces describes the advanced chemistry of monolayers at interfaces. Focusing on the recent trends of methodology and technology, which are indispensable in monolayer science. They are applied to monolayers of surfactants, amphiphiles, polymers, dendrimers, enzymes, and proteins, which serve many uses.Introduces the methodologies of scanning probe microscopy, surface force instrumentation, surface spectroscopy, surface plasmon optics, reflectometry, and near-field scanning optical microscopy. Modern interface reaction method, lithographic tech

  8. Develop and demonstrate a methodology using Janus(A) to analyze advanced technologies.


    Wright, Jerry Vernon


    Approved for public release; Distribution is unlimited This thesis presents a study of a methodology for analyzing advanced technologies using the Janus(A) High Resolution Combat Model. The goal of this research was to verify that the methodology using Janus(A) gave expected or realistic results. The methodology used a case where the results were known: the addition of a long range direct fire weapon into a force on force battle. Both the weapon characteristics and force mixes were used as...

  9. An Evaluation Methodology Development and Application Process for Severe Accident Safety Issue Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P. Martin


    Full Text Available A general evaluation methodology development and application process (EMDAP paradigm is described for the resolution of severe accident safety issues. For the broader objective of complete and comprehensive design validation, severe accident safety issues are resolved by demonstrating comprehensive severe-accident-related engineering through applicable testing programs, process studies demonstrating certain deterministic elements, probabilistic risk assessment, and severe accident management guidelines. The basic framework described in this paper extends the top-down, bottom-up strategy described in the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.203 to severe accident evaluations addressing U.S. NRC expectation for plant design certification applications.

  10. Methodological issues in the design of a rheumatoid arthritis activity score and its cut-offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collignon O


    Full Text Available Olivier Collignon Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé (CRP-Santé, Competences Centre for Methodology and Statistics (CCMS, Strassen, Luxembourg Abstract: Activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA can be evaluated using several scoring scales based on clinical features. The most widely used one is the Disease Activity Score involving 28 joint counts (DAS28 for which cut-offs were proposed to help physicians classify patients. However, inaccurate scoring can lead to inappropriate medical decisions. In this article some methodological issues in the design of such a score and its cut-offs are highlighted in order to further propose a strategy to overcome them. As long as the issues reviewed in this article are not addressed, results of studies based on standard disease activity scores such as DAS28 should be considered with caution. Keywords: DAS28, disease activity score, penalized logistic regression, clinical prediction, modeling

  11. Brain Dynamics: Methodological Issues and Applications in Psychiatric and Neurologic Diseases (United States)

    Pezard, Laurent

    The human brain is a complex dynamical system generating the EEG signal. Numerical methods developed to study complex physical dynamics have been used to characterize EEG since the mid-eighties. This endeavor raised several issues related to the specificity of EEG. Firstly, theoretical and methodological studies should address the major differences between the dynamics of the human brain and physical systems. Secondly, this approach of EEG signal should prove to be relevant for dealing with physiological or clinical problems. A set of studies performed in our group is presented here within the context of these two problematic aspects. After the discussion of methodological drawbacks, we review numerical simulations related to the high dimension and spatial extension of brain dynamics. Experimental studies in neurologic and psychiatric disease are then presented. We conclude that if it is now clear that brain dynamics changes in relation with clinical situations, methodological problems remain largely unsolved.

  12. Integrating rock mechanics issues with repository design through design process principles and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniawski, Z.T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)


    A good designer needs not only knowledge for designing (technical know-how that is used to generate alternative design solutions) but also must have knowledge about designing (appropriate principles and systematic methodology to follow). Concepts such as {open_quotes}design for manufacture{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}concurrent engineering{close_quotes} are widely used in the industry. In the field of rock engineering, only limited attention has been paid to the design process because design of structures in rock masses presents unique challenges to the designers as a result of the uncertainties inherent in characterization of geologic media. However, a stage has now been reached where we are be able to sufficiently characterize rock masses for engineering purposes and identify the rock mechanics issues involved but are still lacking engineering design principles and methodology to maximize our design performance. This paper discusses the principles and methodology of the engineering design process directed to integrating site characterization activities with design, construction and performance of an underground repository. Using the latest information from the Yucca Mountain Project on geology, rock mechanics and starter tunnel design, the current lack of integration is pointed out and it is shown how rock mechanics issues can be effectively interwoven with repository design through a systematic design process methodology leading to improved repository performance. In essence, the design process is seen as the use of design principles within an integrating design methodology, leading to innovative problem solving. In particular, a new concept of {open_quotes}Design for Constructibility and Performance{close_quotes} is introduced. This is discussed with respect to ten rock mechanics issues identified for repository design and performance.

  13. Electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles advanced simulation methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Bogdan Ovidiu; Moldovanu, Dan; Iclodean, Calin


    This book is designed as an interdisciplinary platform for specialists working in electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles powertrain design and development, and for scientists who want to get access to information related to electric and hybrid vehicle energy management, efficiency and control. The book presents the methodology of simulation that allows the specialist to evaluate electric and hybrid vehicle powertrain energy flow, efficiency, range and consumption. The mathematics behind each electric and hybrid vehicle component is explained and for each specific vehicle the powertrain

  14. The work of the ICRP dose calculational task group: Issues in implementation of the ICRP dosimetric methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has had efforts underway to provide the radiation protection community with age-dependent dose coefficients, i.e.g, the dose per unit intake. The Task Group on Dose Calculations, chaired by the author, is responsible for the computation of these coefficients. The Task Group, formed in 1974 to produce ICRP Publication 30, is now international in its membership and its work load has been distributed among the institutions represented on the task group. This paper discusses: (1) recent advances in biokinetic modeling; (2) the recent changes in the dosimetric methodology; (3) the novel computational problems with some of the ICRP quantities; and (4) quality assurance issues which the Task Group has encountered. Potential future developments of the dosimetric framework which might strengthen the relationships with the emerging understanding of radiation risk will also be discussed.

  15. Problems and Issues in Using Computer- Based Support Tools to Enhance 'Soft' Systems Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Stansfield


    Full Text Available This paper explores the issue of whether computer-based support tools can enhance the use of 'soft' systems methodologies as applied to real-world problem situations. Although work has been carried out by a number of researchers in applying computer-based technology to concepts and methodologies relating to 'soft' systems thinking such as Soft Systems Methodology (SSM, such attempts appear to be still in their infancy and have not been applied widely to real-world problem situations. This paper will highlight some of the problems that may be encountered in attempting to develop computer-based support tools for 'soft' systems methodologies. Particular attention will be paid to an attempt by the author to develop a computer-based support tool for a particular 'soft' systems method of inquiry known as the Appreciative Inquiry Method that is based upon Vickers' notion of 'appreciation' (Vickers, 196S and Checkland's SSM (Checkland, 1981. The final part of the paper will explore some of the lessons learnt from developing and applying the computer-based support tool to a real world problem situation, as well as considering the feasibility of developing computer-based support tools for 'soft' systems methodologies. This paper will put forward the point that a mixture of manual and computer-based tools should be employed to allow a methodology to be used in an unconstrained manner, but the benefits provided by computer-based technology should be utilised in supporting and enhancing the more mundane and structured tasks.

  16. Fuzzy portfolio optimization advances in hybrid multi-criteria methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Pankaj; Inuiguchi, Masahiro; Chandra, Suresh


    This monograph presents a comprehensive study of portfolio optimization, an important area of quantitative finance. Considering that the information available in financial markets is incomplete and that the markets are affected by vagueness and ambiguity, the monograph deals with fuzzy portfolio optimization models. At first, the book makes the reader familiar with basic concepts, including the classical mean–variance portfolio analysis. Then, it introduces advanced optimization techniques and applies them for the development of various multi-criteria portfolio optimization models in an uncertain environment. The models are developed considering both the financial and non-financial criteria of investment decision making, and the inputs from the investment experts. The utility of these models in practice is then demonstrated using numerical illustrations based on real-world data, which were collected from one of the premier stock exchanges in India. The book addresses both academics and professionals pursuin...

  17. Advances in Artificial Neural Networks – Methodological Development and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo Huang


    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks as a major soft-computing technology have been extensively studied and applied during the last three decades. Research on backpropagation training algorithms for multilayer perceptron networks has spurred development of other neural network training algorithms for other networks such as radial basis function, recurrent network, feedback network, and unsupervised Kohonen self-organizing network. These networks, especially the multilayer perceptron network with a backpropagation training algorithm, have gained recognition in research and applications in various scientific and engineering areas. In order to accelerate the training process and overcome data over-fitting, research has been conducted to improve the backpropagation algorithm. Further, artificial neural networks have been integrated with other advanced methods such as fuzzy logic and wavelet analysis, to enhance the ability of data interpretation and modeling and to avoid subjectivity in the operation of the training algorithm. In recent years, support vector machines have emerged as a set of high-performance supervised generalized linear classifiers in parallel with artificial neural networks. A review on development history of artificial neural networks is presented and the standard architectures and algorithms of artificial neural networks are described. Furthermore, advanced artificial neural networks will be introduced with support vector machines, and limitations of ANNs will be identified. The future of artificial neural network development in tandem with support vector machines will be discussed in conjunction with further applications to food science and engineering, soil and water relationship for crop management, and decision support for precision agriculture. Along with the network structures and training algorithms, the applications of artificial neural networks will be reviewed as well, especially in the fields of agricultural and biological

  18. Methodological proposal for the jotted issue of the first epoch of the Hero magazine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maité García Díaz


    Full Text Available During the neocolonial republic emerges in Sancti Spiritus a very significative magazine of artistic, literary and scientific sketch: Hero, founded by Jacinto Gomer Fernández-Morera and Anastacio Fernández-Morera del Castillo, it first appeared on December 20th 1907. This issue constitutes a vivid reflect of the commercial, literary, cultural, scientific and historic panorama and above all, of the life of the middle and high class in Sancti Spiritus at the beginning of the XX century. The need to divulge the advantage the texts of Hero constitute for the high school and university students, also to humanistic profile graduates and others, such as investigators, evidenced the need to carry out an investigation that pursued such purposes. That’s why the methodological proposal for the jotted issue of the first epoch of the Hero magazine (1907-1908 takes place, composed by 38 publications, departing from the fundamental theorizations about the jotted issue of the presentation of the methodological proposal on behalf of updating these publication texts for its potential readers.

  19. Methodological issues in the validation of complex human-machine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.; Stubler, W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wachtel, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research


    Integrated system validation is one aspect of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s design review process for human-system interfaces. This paper will consider three methodological issues that must be addressed in validation and their implications for drawing conclusions about the acceptability of the integrated system. They are: representing the integrated system, representing the operational events it must handle, and representing system performance. A logical basis for generalizability from validation tests to predicted performance of the integrated system emerges from the comparability of the psychological and physical processes of the test and actual situations. Generalizability of results is supported when the integrated system, operating conditions and performance are representative of their real-world counterparts. The methodological considerations for establishing representativeness are discussed.

  20. Methodological issues of assessing the effects of social inequality in Russia’s regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Anatol’evna Kozlova


    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue concerning the assessment of the impact of social inequality on the socio-demographic characteristics of society. The authors evaluate the impact of the social inequality growth in the Russian Federation subjects on the basis of the analysis of the decile ratio dynamics. They propose a methodological approach to determine the degree of dependence of crime rate on the growth of social inequality. The authors compare the influence of the decile ratio and purchasing power on mortality rate in the regions of Russia

  1. Endocrine function as a target of perinatal drug effects: methodologic issues. (United States)

    Kuhn, C; Ignar, D; Windh, R


    The goal of this chapter is to indicate potential endocrine targets of perinatal drug exposure, to describe the methodologic issues involved in detecting changes in hormone secretion, and to provide examples of several endocrine systems in which exposure to drugs during development significantly impaired normal endocrine development. Finally, we attempted to show that endocrine function is both a target and useful marker for detecting effects of drug of abuse on development that provides the advantages of accurate quantitation and relative response stability across ontogeny.

  2. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries. A workshop to discuss methodological and policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    COP-11 initiated a 2-year process to consider approaches to stimulate action for reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries. As a first step, the COP invited Parties and accredited observers to submit, by 31 March 2006, their views 'on issues relating to reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries, focusing on relevant scientific, technical and methodological issues, and the exchange of relevant information and experiences, including policy approaches and positive incentives'. SBSTA (Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice) is expected to consider these submissions at SBSTA 24 in May 15-26, 2006 in Bonn, Germany, and subsequently hold a workshop on this issue later in 2006. The objective of this workshop is to provide a timely forum for an informal discussion and assessment of methodological and policy approaches for reducing emissions from deforestation. The workshop will base its discussions on the published literature, the 31 March submissions by governments and observer organizations, and inputs by workshop participants. The timing of the workshop has been selected to precede and provide input into the dialogue at SBSTA 24 and SBSTA workshop in late 2006. The workshop will encourage the learning and awareness of the issue and analyse the possible paths that negotiations may take in the future. The workshop organizers encourage participants to think 'outside the box' and will adopt the Chatham House Rule for the discussions on the first day and the Break Out Groups. Next to the Final Programme and Workshop Summaries several pdf-files of the presentations are available.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kleiman


    Full Text Available The paper discusses three aspects in New Literacies Studies research in Brazil, as developed by researchers from an Applied Linguistics perspective. This perspective contributes to determine epistemological, theoretical, and methodological issues in literacy research, as well as ethical issues in regard to the relationships established with the groups who participate in the research. Taking examples from our research group, known as Teacher Literacy Research Group (created in 1991, we discuss transdisciplinary relationships built between Literacy and Dialogism as developed by Bakhtin and his Circle. Another intersecting point between Applied Linguistics and Literacy Research discussed in the paper is the relation between ethics and research in the two fields; a third one has to do with the methods adopted: as in several other studies in Applied Linguistics, in literacy studies, ethnography has been the preferred methodology. We conclude pointing out that an approach that conceives its object in a transdisciplinary manner and adopts ethical criteria as a research validation element favors the development of critical studies about writing in which the choice of problems and research contexts support the social goals of the investigated groups.

  4. Issues in Learning About and Teaching Qualitative Research Methods and Methodology in the Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Breuer


    Full Text Available For many qualitative researchers in the social sciences, learning about and teaching qualitative research methods and methodology raises a number of questions. This topic was the focus of a symposium held during the Second Berlin Summer School for Qualitative Research Methods in July 2006. In this contribution, some of the issues discussed during the symposium are taken up and extended, and some basic dimensions underlying these issues are summarized. How qualitative research methods and methodology are taught is closely linked to the ways in which qualitative researchers in the social sciences conceptualize themselves and their discipline. In the following, we distinguish between a paradigmatic and a pragmatic view. From a pragmatic point of view, qualitative research methods are considered research strategies or techniques and can be taught in the sense of recipes with specific steps to be carried out. According to a paradigmatic point of view (strongly inspired by constructivism, qualitative research methods and methodology are conceptualized as a craft to be practiced together by a "master" and an "apprentice." Moreover, the teaching of qualitative research methods also depends heavily on the institutional standing of qualitative compared to quantitative research method. Based on these considerations, five basic dimensions of learning about and teaching qualitative research methods are suggested: ways of teaching (ranging from the presentation of textbook knowledge to cognitive apprenticeship and instructors' experience with these; institutional contexts, including their development and the teaching of qualitative research methods in other than university contexts; the "fit" between personality and method, including relevant personal skills and talents; and, as a special type of instructional context that increasingly has gained importance, distance learning and its implications for learning about and teaching qualitative research methods

  5. Soft System Methodology as a Tool to Understand Issues of Governmental Affordable Housing Programme of India: A Case Study Approach (United States)

    Ghosh, Sukanya; Roy, Souvanic; Sanyal, Manas Kumar


    With the help of a case study, the article has explored current practices of implementation of governmental affordable housing programme for urban poor in a slum of India. This work shows that the issues associated with the problems of governmental affordable housing programme has to be addressed to with a suitable methodology as complexities are not only dealing with quantitative data but qualitative data also. The Hard System Methodologies (HSM), which is conventionally applied to address the issues, deals with real and known problems which can be directly solved. Since most of the issues of affordable housing programme as found in the case study are subjective and complex in nature, Soft System Methodology (SSM) has been tried for better representation from subjective points of views. The article explored drawing of Rich Picture as an SSM approach for better understanding and analysing complex issues and constraints of affordable housing programme so that further exploration of the issues is possible.

  6. Prejudice and Racism, Year 2008--Still Going Strong: Research on Reducing Prejudice with Recommended Methodological Advances (United States)

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Porter, Jerlym S.


    This article addresses the origins, mechanisms, and expressions of prejudice. A selective review of research finds strong support for the validity of G. W. Allport's (1954) contact hypothesis conditions in reducing prejudice. Methodological advances in the study of prejudice are reviewed, and implications of research findings for counselors are…

  7. EDITORIAL: Special Issue on advanced and emerging light sources Special Issue on advanced and emerging light sources (United States)

    Haverlag, Marco; Kroesen, Gerrit; Ferguson, Ian


    -based light sources. However, the progress in the last few years in LED and OLED sources has been even greater. In the editorial for the LS-11 conference by previous guest editor David Wharmby, it was stated that most LED lighting was still mostly used for signalling and decorative sources. In the three years that have passed, things have changed considerably and we now see LED light sources entering every application, ranging from street lighting and parking lots to shop lighting and even greenhouses. Currently LED prices for traditional lighting applications are high, but they are dropping rapidly. The papers published in this special issue give some indications of things to come. The paper by Jamil et al deals with the possibility of using silicon wafers as substrate material instead of the now commonly used (but more expensive) sapphire substrates. This is attractive from a cost price point of view, but leads to an increased lattice mismatch and therefore strain-induced defects. In this paper it is shown that when using intermediate matching layers it is possible to retain the same electrical and optical properties as with structures on sapphire. Another aspect that directly relates to cost is efficiency and droop in green InGaN devices, which is addressed in the paper by Lee et al. They show that by providing a flow of trymethylindium prior to the growth of the quantum wells it is possible to significantly increase the internal quantum efficiency of green LEDs. Improvement of the optical out-coupling of InGaN LEDs is discussed by Mak et al, and it is found that localized plasmon resonance of metallic nanoparticles (and especially silver) can help to increase the optical out-coupling in the wavelength region of interest. Nanoparticles in the form of ZnO nanorods are described by Willander et al as a possibility for phosphor-free wavelength conversion on polymer (O)LEDs. More advanced functions besides light emission can be achieved with OLEDs and this is demonstrated in

  8. [Customer satisfaction in home care: methodological issues based on a survey carried out in Lazio]. (United States)

    Pasquarella, A; Marceca, M; Casagrande, S; Gentile, D; Zeppilli, D; Buonaiuto, N; Cozzolino, M; Guasticchi, G


    Home care customer satisfaction has been, until now, rarely evaluated. After illustrating the main italian regional surveys on this issue, the article presents a customer satisfaction survey carried out in the district of Civitavecchia (Local Health Unit 'Rome F'), Lazio, regarding 30 home care beneficiaries. Methodological aspects emerging from the survey are basically focused on: advantages and disadvantages of quantitative and qualitative approaches (possibly associated each other); main criteria of eligibility of people selected for interviewing, both patients or caregivers; conditions that maximize answers reliability, including training on interviewers. Authors highlight opportunity of using such kind of survey, integrated with other different tools, into a systemic vision, for promoting management changes coming from suggested problems, aimed at total quality management.

  9. [Methodological issues in the measurement of alcohol consumption: the importance of drinking patterns]. (United States)

    Valencia Martín, José L; González, M José; Galán, Iñaki


    Measurement of alcohol consumption is essential for proper investigation of its effects on health. However, its estimation is extremely complex, because of the diversity of forms of alcohol consumption and their highly heterogeneous classification. Moreover, each form may have different effects on health; therefore, not considering the most important drinking patterns when estimating alcohol intake could mask the important role of consumption patterns in these effects. All these issues make it very difficult to compare the results of different studies and to establish consistent associations for understanding the true effects of alcohol consumption, both overall and specific to each drinking pattern. This article reviews the main methods and sources of information available in Spain for estimating the most important aspects of alcohol consumption, as well as the most frequent methodological problems encountered in the measurement and classification of drinking patterns.

  10. Is Empirical Research on Periodization Trustworthy? A Comprehensive Review of Conceptual and Methodological Issues (United States)

    Afonso, José; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.; Sousa, Patrícia; Mesquita, Isabel


    Periodization is a core concept in training. Recently, systematic reviews and meta-analyses have attempted to provide a comprehensive overview of the topic, but theoretical criticisms have arisen with regard to how such research has been conducted. The purpose of the study was to review comprehensively the conceptual and methodological issues surrounding empirical research on periodization in training with human subjects. A search was conducted late in February 2016 on Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Plus, MedicLatina, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scielo, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science. Forty-two randomized or randomized controlled trials were retrieved. Problems emerged in three domains: (a) Conceptually, periodization and variation were applied differently in research, while no empirical research tested predictions concerning direction, timing or magnitude of the adaptations; (b) Study design: More than 95% of papers investigated the ‘physical’ factor (mainly strength). Research on long-term effects was absent (no study lasted more than nine months). Controlling for confounding factors such as nutrition, supplementation and medication was largely ignored; (c) Data analysis was biased as dispersion in responsiveness was ignored when discussing the findings. Overall, research on periodization fails to analyze the conceptual premises proposed by these approaches. Key points Periodization is considered a core concept of training. However, conceptual and methodological critiques have arisen. We therefore comprehensively reviewed randomized and randomized trials applying periodized protocols to human subjects. Overall, the concepts of periodization and variation are being used interchangeably, which represents an intellectual mistake with implications for how we interpret the results of the studies. Additional methodological shortcomings make current research on periodization largely unreliable. PMID:28344448

  11. Data Protection Issues in Higher Education with Technological Advancements (United States)

    McKelvey, Nigel


    Adhering to laws whilst working or studying in an educational establishment is often fraught with challenges. The Irish Data Protection Act 1988 (Amendment 2003) strives to protect the individual where their personal data is potentially being abused. The advancements in technologies have facilitated educational establishments by improving…

  12. Advancing animal welfare science: sharing knowledge, debating issues. (United States)

    Orritt, Rachel


    Established animal welfare scientists and others at the beginning of their career gathered in York last month to discuss recent advances in animal welfare science. Organised by the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, the meeting aimed to provide a forum for sharing knowledge and practice, discussion and debate. Rachel Orritt, a PhD researcher at the University of Lincoln, reports on proceedings.

  13. Advancing Nursing Research in the Visual Era: Reenvisioning the Photovoice Process Across Phenomenological, Grounded Theory, and Critical Theory Methodologies. (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Boutain, Doris M; Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S

    Photovoice is a powerful research method that employs participant photography for advancing voice, knowledge, and transformative change among groups historically or currently marginalized. Paradoxically, this research method risks exploitation of participant voice because of weak methodology to method congruence. The purposes of this retrospective article are to revisit current interdisciplinary research using photovoice and to suggest how to advance photovoice by improving methodology-method congruence. Novel templates are provided for improving the photovoice process across phenomenological, grounded theory, and critical theory methodologies.

  14. Application of infinite model predictive control methodology to other advanced controllers. (United States)

    Abu-Ayyad, M; Dubay, R; Hernandez, J M


    This paper presents an application of most recent developed predictive control algorithm an infinite model predictive control (IMPC) to other advanced control schemes. The IMPC strategy was derived for systems with different degrees of nonlinearity on the process gain and time constant. Also, it was shown that IMPC structure uses nonlinear open-loop modeling which is conducted while closed-loop control is executed every sampling instant. The main objective of this work is to demonstrate that the methodology of IMPC can be applied to other advanced control strategies making the methodology generic. The IMPC strategy was implemented on several advanced controllers such as PI controller using Smith-Predictor, Dahlin controller, simplified predictive control (SPC), dynamic matrix control (DMC), and shifted dynamic matrix (m-DMC). Experimental work using these approaches combined with IMPC was conducted on both single-input-single-output (SISO) and multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) systems and compared with the original forms of these advanced controllers. Computer simulations were performed on nonlinear plants demonstrating that the IMPC strategy can be readily implemented on other advanced control schemes providing improved control performance. Practical work included real-time control applications on a DC motor, plastic injection molding machine and a MIMO three zone thermal system.

  15. Advancing Sexuality Studies: A Short Course on Sexuality Theory and Research Methodologies (United States)

    Fletcher, Gillian; Dowsett, Gary W.; Duncan, Duane; Slavin, Sean; Corboz, Julienne


    Critical Sexuality Studies is an emerging field of academic enquiry linked to an international network of advocacy agencies, activists, and political issues. This paper reports on the development of an advanced short course in sexuality theory and research, drawing on Critical Sexuality Studies and aiming directly at academics in developing…

  16. U.S. Medical Experts Issue Warning on Yellow Fever's Advance (United States)

    ... 164012.html U.S. Medical Experts Issue Warning on Yellow Fever's Advance Brazil outbreak has officials worried, and transmission ... another potential mosquito-borne health threat to Americans -- yellow fever. In an essay published Wednesday in the New ...

  17. Advances in neural networks computational and theoretical issues

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, Anna; Morabito, Francesco


    This book collects research works that exploit neural networks and machine learning techniques from a multidisciplinary perspective. Subjects covered include theoretical, methodological and computational topics which are grouped together into chapters devoted to the discussion of novelties and innovations related to the field of Artificial Neural Networks as well as the use of neural networks for applications, pattern recognition, signal processing, and special topics such as the detection and recognition of multimodal emotional expressions and daily cognitive functions, and  bio-inspired memristor-based networks.  Providing insights into the latest research interest from a pool of international experts coming from different research fields, the volume becomes valuable to all those with any interest in a holistic approach to implement believable, autonomous, adaptive, and context-aware Information Communication Technologies.

  18. Sensors advancements in modeling, design issues, fabrication and practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhash Chandra


    Sensors are the most important component in any system and engineers in any field need to understand the fundamentals of how these components work, how to select them properly and how to integrate them into an overall system. This book has outlined the fundamentals, analytical concepts, modelling and design issues, technical details and practical applications of different types of sensors, electromagnetic, capacitive, ultrasonic, vision, Terahertz, displacement, fibre-optic and so on. The book: addresses the identification, modeling, selection, operation and integration of a wide variety of se

  19. Cobenefits of Replacing Car Trips with Alternative Transportation: A Review of Evidence and Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xia


    Full Text Available It has been reported that motor vehicle emissions contribute nearly a quarter of world energy-related greenhouse gases and cause nonnegligible air pollution primarily in urban areas. Reducing car use and increasing ecofriendly alternative transport, such as public and active transport, are efficient approaches to mitigate harmful environmental impacts caused by a large amount of vehicle use. Besides the environmental benefits of promoting alternative transport, it can also induce other health and economic benefits. At present, a number of studies have been conducted to evaluate cobenefits from greenhouse gas mitigation policies. However, relatively few have focused specifically on the transport sector. A comprehensive understanding of the multiple benefits of alternative transport could assist with policy making in the areas of transport, health, and environment. However, there is no straightforward method which could estimate cobenefits effect at one time. In this paper, the links between vehicle emissions and air quality, as well as the health and economic benefits from alternative transport use, are considered, and methodological issues relating to the modelling of these cobenefits are discussed.

  20. Cobenefits of replacing car trips with alternative transportation: a review of evidence and methodological issues. (United States)

    Xia, Ting; Zhang, Ying; Crabb, Shona; Shah, Pushan


    It has been reported that motor vehicle emissions contribute nearly a quarter of world energy-related greenhouse gases and cause nonnegligible air pollution primarily in urban areas. Reducing car use and increasing ecofriendly alternative transport, such as public and active transport, are efficient approaches to mitigate harmful environmental impacts caused by a large amount of vehicle use. Besides the environmental benefits of promoting alternative transport, it can also induce other health and economic benefits. At present, a number of studies have been conducted to evaluate cobenefits from greenhouse gas mitigation policies. However, relatively few have focused specifically on the transport sector. A comprehensive understanding of the multiple benefits of alternative transport could assist with policy making in the areas of transport, health, and environment. However, there is no straightforward method which could estimate cobenefits effect at one time. In this paper, the links between vehicle emissions and air quality, as well as the health and economic benefits from alternative transport use, are considered, and methodological issues relating to the modelling of these cobenefits are discussed.

  1. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, E


    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined.

  2. Methodological and conceptual issues regarding occupational psychosocial coronary heart disease epidemiology. (United States)

    Burr, Hermann; Formazin, Maren; Pohrt, Anne


    Overview Psychosocial occupational epidemiology has mainly focused on the demand-control and, to a much lesser extent, the effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) models. These models and the strong focus on them raise some conceptual and methodological issues we will address in the following letter. The conceptual issues include the empirical confirmation of the assumptions of these models, the extent to which the focus on the demand-control and ERI models is warranted, and whether the sub-dimensions of the scales in these models have common health effects. We argue that there is a lack of empirical approval of (i) the assumptions behind both models and (ii) the focus on these models. The methodological issues include how exposure to job strain is categorized, how ERI previously has been measured, and the validity of self-reports of job strain. We argue that (i) a population independent definition of job strain is lacking, (ii) the older measurements of ERI mix exposure and effect, and (iii) we know little regarding the validity of the measurement of the psychosocial working environment. Finally, we suggest that analyses of monitoring data with a broader focus on the psychosocial working environment can be used to shed light to some of the issues raised above. Introduction In the last three decades (1, 2), psychosocial occupational epidemiology related to coronary heart disease (CHD) has mainly focused on the job-strain model, also referred to as the demand-control model (3, 4). In this model, two aspects of work are deemed relevant: demands and control. Negative consequences to health are to be expected when high demands are simultaneously present with low control. This combination has been termed job strain (3, 4). Recently, there has also been increased interest in the ERI model (5, 6) which considers the level of effort relative to rewards at work: an imbalance is present when the efforts outweigh the rewards (5, 6). In longitudinal studies of CHD, there has been only a

  3. Methods and Applications for Advancing Distance Education Technologies: International Issues and Solutions (United States)

    Syed, Mahbubur Rahman, Ed.


    The emerging field of advanced distance education delivers academic courses across time and distance, allowing educators and students to participate in a convenient learning method. "Methods and Applications for Advancing Distance Education Technologies: International Issues and Solutions" demonstrates communication technologies, intelligent…

  4. Advances and Future Issues for STEP-compliant NC Manufacture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Riliang; ZHANG Chengrui; NEWMAN Stephen T


    Over the last years a new data model, known as STEP-NC, has been proposed and accepted as an international standard (ISO 14649) to replace ISO 6983 (G&M code programming). STEP-NC enables bi-directional communication of high-level geometric and manufacturing information, and provides a way of interoperable and adaptable NC manufacturing of mechanical components. This paper starts with an overview of the STEP-NC data model, provides a brief review of the global research and development activities, and tries to identify the issues and challenges for the application of the new standard and the implementation of related systems. This paper also provides a vision of the STEP-compliant NC manufacturing and the development trends of related technologies and systems, focusing on STEP-compliant CNCs.

  5. The Issues and Methodologies in Sustainability Assessment Tools for Higher Education Institutions: A Review of Recent Trends and Future Challenges (United States)

    Yarime, Masaru; Tanaka, Yuko


    Assessment tools influence incentives to higher education institutions by encouraging them to move towards sustainability. A review of 16 sustainability assessment tools was conducted to examine the recent trends in the issues and methodologies addressed in assessment tools quantitatively and qualitatively. The characteristics of the current…

  6. Checklists of Methodological Issues for Review Authors to Consider When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews (United States)

    Wells, George A.; Shea, Beverley; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Sterne, Jonathan; Tugwell, Peter; Reeves, Barnaby C.


    Background: There is increasing interest from review authors about including non-randomized studies (NRS) in their systematic reviews of health care interventions. This series from the Ottawa Non-Randomized Studies Workshop consists of six papers identifying methodological issues when doing this. Aim: To format the guidance from the preceding…

  7. Conceptual and methodological issues in studying alcohol’s harm to others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Room Robin


    Full Text Available While there is a longer history of concern about alcohol’s harm to others, researchers’ interest has intensified in the last few years. The background of variation in concern over time in different societies is outlined. Three main traditions of research have emerged: population survey studies of such harm from the perspective of the ‘other’; analysis of register or case-record data which includes information on the involvement of another’s drinking in the case; and qualitative studies of interactions and experiences involved in particular harms from others’ drinking. In the course of the new spate of studies, many conceptual and methodological issues have arisen, some of which are considered in the paper. The diverse types of harms which have been studied are discussed. The social and personal nature of many of the harms means they do not fit easily into a disability or costing model, raising questions about how they might best be counted and aggregated. Harm from others’ drinking is inherently interactional, and subject to varying definitions of what counts as harm. The attribution to drinking, in the usual situation of conditional causation, is also subject to variation, with moral politics potentially coming into play. For measurement and comparison, account needs to be taken of cultural and individual variations in perceptions and thresholds of what counts as a harm, and attribution to alcohol. The view from the windows of a population survey and of a response agency case register are often starkly different, and research is needed, as an input and spur to policy initiatives, on what influences this difference and whether and how the views might be reconciled.

  8. An Improved Methodology to Overcome Key Issues in Human Fecal Metagenomic DNA Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Kumar


    Full Text Available Microbes are ubiquitously distributed in nature, and recent culture-independent studies have highlighted the significance of gut microbiota in human health and disease. Fecal DNA is the primary source for the majority of human gut microbiome studies. However, further improvement is needed to obtain fecal metagenomic DNA with sufficient amount and good quality but low host genomic DNA contamination. In the current study, we demonstrate a quick, robust, unbiased, and cost-effective method for the isolation of high molecular weight (>23 kb metagenomic DNA (260/280 ratio >1.8 with a good yield (55.8 ± 3.8 ng/mg of feces. We also confirm that there is very low human genomic DNA contamination (eubacterial: human genomic DNA marker genes = 227.9:1 in the human feces. The newly-developed method robustly performs for fresh as well as stored fecal samples as demonstrated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing using 454 FLX+. Moreover, 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that compared to other DNA extraction methods tested, the fecal metagenomic DNA isolated with current methodology retains species richness and does not show microbial diversity biases, which is further confirmed by qPCR with a known quantity of spike-in genomes. Overall, our data highlight a protocol with a balance between quality, amount, user-friendliness, and cost effectiveness for its suitability toward usage for culture-independent analysis of the human gut microbiome, which provides a robust solution to overcome key issues associated with fecal metagenomic DNA isolation in human gut microbiome studies.

  9. The IMAGE project: methodological issues for the molecular genetic analysis of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraone Stephen V


    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic mechanisms involved in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are being studied with considerable success by several centres worldwide. These studies confirm prior hypotheses about the role of genetic variation within genes involved in the regulation of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin neurotransmission in susceptibility to ADHD. Despite the importance of these findings, uncertainties remain due to the very small effects sizes that are observed. We discuss possible reasons for why the true strength of the associations may have been underestimated in research to date, considering the effects of linkage disequilibrium, allelic heterogeneity, population differences and gene by environment interactions. With the identification of genes associated with ADHD, the goal of ADHD genetics is now shifting from gene discovery towards gene functionality – the study of intermediate phenotypes ('endophenotypes'. We discuss methodological issues relating to quantitative genetic data from twin and family studies on candidate endophenotypes and how such data can inform attempts to link molecular genetic data to cognitive, affective and motivational processes in ADHD. The International Multi-centre ADHD Gene (IMAGE project exemplifies current collaborative research efforts on the genetics of ADHD. This European multi-site project is well placed to take advantage of the resources that are emerging following the sequencing of the human genome and the development of international resources for whole genome association analysis. As a result of IMAGE and other molecular genetic investigations of ADHD, we envisage a rapid increase in the number of identified genetic variants and the promise of identifying novel gene systems that we are not currently investigating, opening further doors in the study of gene functionality.

  10. Does influenza vaccination improve pregnancy outcome? Methodological issues and research needs. (United States)

    Savitz, David A; Fell, Deshayne B; Ortiz, Justin R; Bhat, Niranjan


    Evidence that influenza vaccination during pregnancy is safe and effective at preventing influenza disease in women and their children through the first months of life is increasing. Several reports of reduced risk of adverse outcomes associated with influenza vaccination have generated interest in its potential for improving pregnancy outcome. Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, estimates maternal influenza immunization programs in low-income countries would have a relatively modest impact on mortality compared to other new or under-utilized vaccines, however the impact would be substantially greater if reported vaccine effects on improved pregnancy outcomes were accurate. Here, we examine the available evidence and methodological issues bearing on the relationship between influenza vaccination and pregnancy outcome, particularly preterm birth and fetal growth restriction, and summarize research needs. Evidence for absence of harm associated with vaccination at a point in time is not symmetric with evidence of benefit, given the scenario in which vaccination reduces risk of influenza disease and, in turn, risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. The empirical evidence for vaccination preventing influenza in pregnant women is strong, but the evidence that influenza itself causes adverse pregnancy outcomes is inconsistent and limited in quality. Studies of vaccination and pregnancy outcome have produced mixed evidence of potential benefit but are limited in terms of influenza disease assessment and control of confounding, and their analytic methods often fail to fully address the longitudinal nature of pregnancy and influenza prevalence. We recommend making full use of results of randomized trials, re-analysis of existing observational studies to account for confounding and time-related factors, and quantitative assessment of the potential benefits of vaccination in improving pregnancy outcome, all of which should be informed by the collective engagement of experts in influenza

  11. Immunoassay Methods and their Applications in Pharmaceutical Analysis: Basic Methodology and Recent Advances. (United States)

    Darwish, Ibrahim A


    Immunoassays are bioanalytical methods in which the quantitation of the analyte depends on the reaction of an antigen (analyte) and an antibody. Immunoassays have been widely used in many important areas of pharmaceutical analysis such as diagnosis of diseases, therapeutic drug monitoring, clinical pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies in drug discovery and pharmaceutical industries. The importance and widespread of immunoassay methods in pharmaceutical analysis are attributed to their inherent specificity, high-throughput, and high sensitivity for the analysis of wide range of analytes in biological samples. Recently, marked improvements were achieved in the field of immunoassay development for the purposes of pharmaceutical analysis. These improvements involved the preparation of the unique immunoanalytical reagents, analysis of new categories of compounds, methodology, and instrumentation. The basic methodologies and recent advances in immunoassay methods applied in different fields of pharmaceutical analysis have been reviewed.

  12. Current psychometric and methodological issues in the measurement of overgeneral autobiographical memory. (United States)

    Griffith, James W; Sumner, Jennifer A; Raes, Filip; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Debeer, Elise; Hermans, Dirk


    Autobiographical memory is a multifaceted construct that is related to psychopathology and other difficulties in functioning. Across many studies, a variety of methods have been used to study autobiographical memory. The relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) and psychopathology has been of particular interest, and many studies of this cognitive phenomenon rely on the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) to assess it. In this paper, we examine several methodological approaches to studying autobiographical memory, and focus primarily on methodological and psychometric considerations in OGM research. We pay particular attention to what is known about the reliability, validity, and methodological variations of the AMT. The AMT has adequate psychometric properties, but there is great variability in methodology across studies that use it. Methodological recommendations and suggestions for future studies are presented.

  13. Methodological issues concerning the application of reliable laser particle sizing in soils (United States)

    de Mascellis, R.; Impagliazzo, A.; Basile, A.; Minieri, L.; Orefice, N.; Terribile, F.


    During the past decade, the evolution of technologies has enabled laser diffraction (LD) to become a much widespread means of particle size distribution (PSD), replacing sedimentation and sieve analysis in many scientific fields mainly due to its advantages of versatility, fast measurement and high reproducibility. Despite such developments of the last decade, the soil scientist community has been quite reluctant to replace the good old sedimentation techniques (ST); possibly because of (i) the large complexity of the soil matrix inducing different types of artefacts (aggregates, deflocculating dynamics, etc.), (ii) the difficulties in relating LD results with results obtained through sedimentation techniques and (iii) the limited size range of most LD equipments. More recently LD granulometry is slowly gaining appreciation in soil science also because of some innovations including an enlarged size dynamic range (0,01-2000 m) and the ability to implement more powerful algorithms (e.g. Mie theory). Furthermore, LD PSD can be successfully used in the application of physically based pedo-transfer functions (i.e., Arya and Paris model) for investigations of soil hydraulic properties, due to the direct determination of PSD in terms of volume percentage rather than in terms of mass percentage, thus eliminating the need to adopt the rough approximation of a single value for soil particle density in the prediction process. Most of the recent LD work performed in soil science deals with the comparison with sedimentation techniques and show the general overestimation of the silt fraction following a general underestimation of the clay fraction; these well known results must be related with the different physical principles behind the two techniques. Despite these efforts, it is indeed surprising that little if any work is devoted to more basic methodological issues related to the high sensitivity of LD to the quantity and the quality of the soil samples. Our work aims to


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür ÇATIKKAŞ


    Full Text Available In Turkey, publicly traded companies, which operate under the Law of Capital Markets, have been distributing advance dividends since 2001. With the introduction of the new Turkish Commercial Code, this right was also granted to corporations. In this respect, Ministry of Customs and Trade have become the authority to introduce new legislation. The Ministry published “The Notification of the Distribution of Advance Dividend” in the Official Gazette No 28379 dated 9.8.2012. In this notification, the decision of the general assembly of the company and the existence of the relevant interim profit are necessary for the distribution of the advance dividend. There are three tax-related issues in the distribution of the advance dividend. Firstly, there is an income tax cut, which is 15%. Secondly, there are concealed gains through transfer pricing. Thirdly, there is a refund of the tax cuts made by the recalled dividend advance. In this study, some mistakes and their reasons are presented in initial accounting transactions related to advance dividends. Moreover, alternative suggestions are shown. There are three main sections in the study. Firstly, the concept of the advance dividend and relevant legislation and tax issues are explained. Secondly, the principles of the calculation of the advance dividend are described. Thirdly, there is an example related to the above-mentioned sections. This includes a specific case and accounting transactions.

  15. Quality Control Methodologies for Advanced EMI Sensor Data Acquisition and Anomaly Classification - Former Southwestern Proving Ground, Arkansas (United States)


    DEMONSTRATION REPORT Quality Control Methodologies for Advanced EMI Sensor Data Acquisition and Anomaly Classification – Former Southwestern...concentrations. A total of 11.23 acres of dynamic surveys were conducted using MetalMapper advanced electromagnetic induction ( EMI ) sensor. A total of...Order Navigation Points ................................................................................13 5.2.3 Initial EMI Survey

  16. Piloting an advanced methodology to analyse health care policy networks: The example of Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Wenzel


    Full Text Available Aim: Political decisions usually emerge from the competing interests of politicians, voters, and special interest groups. We investigated the applicability of an advanced methodological concept to determine whether certain institutional positions in a cooperating network have influence on the decision-making procedures. To that end, we made use of the institutional network of relevant health care and health governance institutions, concentrated in Belgrade, Serbia. Methods: We used a Principal Component Analysis (PCA based on a combination of measures for centrality in order to evaluate the positions of 25 players in Belgrade‟s institutional network. Their directed links were determined by a simulated position approach employing the authors‟ long-term involvement. Software packages used consisted of Visone 2.9, UCINET 6, and KeyPlayer 1.44. Results: In our analysis, the network density score in Belgrade was 71%. The PCA revealed two dimensions: control and attractiveness. The Ministry of Health exerted the highest level of control but displayed a low attractiveness in terms of receiving links from important players. The National Health Insurance Fund had less control capacity but a high attractiveness. The National Institute of Public Health‟s position was characterized by a low control capacity and high attractiveness, whereas the National Drug Agency, the National Health Council, and Non-Governmental Organisations were no prominent players. Conclusions: The advanced methodologies used here to analyse the health care policy network in Belgrade provided consistent results indicating that the intended decentralization of the health care network in Belgrade may be incomplete, still with low participation of civil society representatives. With the present study we set the stage for a broad-range survey based data collection applying the methodology piloted in Belgrade.

  17. Product vs corporate carbon footprint: Some methodological issues. A case study and review on the wine sector. (United States)

    Navarro, Alejandra; Puig, Rita; Fullana-I-Palmer, Pere


    Carbon footprint (CF) is nowadays one of the most widely used environmental indicators. The scope of the CF assessment could be corporate (when all production processes of a company are evaluated, together with upstream and downstream processes following a life cycle approach) or product (when one of the products is evaluated throughout its life cycle). Our hypothesis was that usually product CF studies (PCF) collect corporate data, because it is easier for companies to obtain them than product data. Six main methodological issues to take into account when collecting corporate data to be used for PCF studies were postulated and discussed in the present paper: fugitive emissions, credits from waste recycling, use of "equivalent factors", reference flow definition, accumulation and allocation of corporate values to minor products. A big project with 18 wineries, being wine one of the most important agri-food products assessed through CF methodologies, was used to study and to exemplify these 6 methodological issues. One of the main conclusions was that indeed, it is possible to collect corporate inventory data in a per year basis to perform a PCF, but having in mind the 6 methodological issues described here. In the literature, most of the papers are presenting their results as a PCF, while they collected company data and obtained, in fact, a "key performance indicator" (ie., CO2eq emissions per unit of product produced), which is then used as a product environmental impact figure. The methodology discussed in this paper for the wine case study is widely applicable to any other product or industrial activity.

  18. Empirical Psycho-Aesthetics and Her Sisters: Substantive and Methodological Issues--Part II (United States)

    Konecni, Vladimir J.


    Empirical psycho-aesthetics is approached in this two-part article from two directions. Part I, which appeared in the Winter 2012 issue of "JAE," addressed definitional and organizational issues, including the field's origins, its relation to "sister" disciplines (experimental philosophy, cognitive neuroscience of art, and neuroaesthetics), and…

  19. Project-Based Learning and Agile Methodologies in Electronic Courses: Effect of Student Population and Open Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zapater


    Full Text Available Project-Based Learning (PBL and Agile methodologies have proven to be very interesting instructional strategies in Electronics and Engineering education, because they provide practical learning skills that help students understand the basis of electronics. In this paper we analyze two courses, one belonging to a Master in Electronic Engineering and one to a Bachelor in Telecommunication Engineering that apply Agile-PBL methodologies, and compare the results obtained in both courses with a traditional laboratory course. Our results support previous work stating that Agile-PBL methodologies increase student satisfaction. However, we also highlight some open issues that negatively affect the implementation of these methodologies,such as planning overhead or accidental complexity. Moreover,we show how differences in the student population, mostly related to the time spent on-campus, their commitment to the course or part-time dedication, have an impact on the benefits of Agile-PBL methods. In these cases, Agile-PBL methodologies by themselves are not enough and need to be combined with other techniques to increase student motivation.

  20. 19 CFR 181.98 - Situations in which no NAFTA advance ruling may be issued. (United States)


    ... respect to any issue which is pending before the United States Court of International Trade, the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, or any court of appeal therefrom. Litigation before any other court will not preclude the issuance of an advance ruling letter, provided neither Customs nor...

  1. Tourism planning in small tropical islands: methodological considerations and development issues in Samoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas G. Pearce


    Full Text Available En présentant la méthodologie utilisée dans la présentation du Plan d’Aménagement Touristique de Samoa 2002-2006, ce chapitre cherche à éclaircir certains aspects de l’aménagement touristique dans les petites îles tropicales, ainsi que ceux de la planification touristique en ces lieux.  Plus spécifiquement, cette étude présente une approche basée sur la formulation de questions destinées aux diverses parties intéressées afin d’identifier et puis d’adresser les points-clés de l’aménagement touristique dans le pays.  Quatre questions principales résultent de ce processus, à savoir : Combien de tourisme veut le pays et à quel rythme doit-il se développer pendant les cinq années à venir ? De quels facteurs dépend la croissance du tourisme pendant la période 2002-2006 ? Quelles formes de tourisme faut-il développer et à quels endroits ? Quels sont les processus d’aménagement touristique les plus appropriés pour Samoa? On présente ensuite les stratégies formulées dans le plan.  Pour conclure, il semble que la participation locale, bien qu’inappréciable, soit insuffisante par elle-même pour préparer un plan d’aménagement touristique efficace.This chapter seeks to contribute to a greater understanding of tourism on small tropical islands and to tourism planning in this context by outlining aspects of the methodology used in the preparation of the Samoa Tourism Development Plan 2002-2006 and by discussing some of the issues that arose from this process.  In particular, the chapter presents a ‘question-asking’ approach that involves wide-ranging stakeholder consultation to identify and then address key issues, namely: - How much tourism does Samoa want and at what rate should it be developed over the next five years? - What will the growth of tourism in Samoa over the period 2002-2006 depend on? - What forms of tourism should be developed and where? - What are the most appropriate processes

  2. Conceptual issues of research methodology for the behavioural, life and social sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellenbergh, G.J.; Adèr, H.J.; Baird, D.; Berger, M.P.F.; Cornell, J.E.; Hagenaars, J.A.P.; Molenaar, P.C.M.


    Research methodology (RM) must be clearly separated from substantive fields, such as medicine, psychology, education, sociology and economics, and, on the other side, from the philosophy of science and statistics. RM starts from substantive research problems and uses statistical knowledge, but it go

  3. New Directions in Research: Contemporary Qualitative Research Methodologies and Issues in Literacy Education (United States)

    Tobin, Joseph; Steinkuehler, Constance A.; Black, Rebecca W.; Clinton, Katherine A.; Hinchman, Kathleen A.; Dillon, Deborah R.


    Scholars who are drawn to qualitative research methodologies represent a diverse group of disciplines and fields. They also represent themselves as researchers and the theoretical frameworks in which they work quite differently. Indeed, it was this diversity in representation that initially motivated us to propose a New Directions feature on…

  4. Methodological Issues and Practical Strategies in Research on Child Maltreatment Victims' Abilities and Experiences as Witnesses (United States)

    Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Gail S.; Bederian-Gardner, Daniel; Lindsay, Adam


    Scientific studies of child maltreatment victims' memory abilities and court experiences have important legal, psychological, and clinical implications. However, state-of-the-art research on child witnesses is often hindered by methodological challenges. In this paper, we address specific problems investigators may encounter when attempting such…

  5. Work Domain Analysis Methodology for Development of Operational Concepts for Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This report describes a methodology to conduct a Work Domain Analysis in preparation for the development of operational concepts for new plants. This method has been adapted from the classical method described in the literature in order to better deal with the uncertainty and incomplete information typical of first-of-a-kind designs. The report outlines the strategy for undertaking a Work Domain Analysis of a new nuclear power plant and the methods to be used in the development of the various phases of the analysis. Basic principles are described to the extent necessary to explain why and how the classical method was adapted to make it suitable as a tool for the preparation of operational concepts for a new nuclear power plant. Practical examples are provided of the systematic application of the method and the various presentation formats in the operational analysis of advanced reactors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available An Advanced Standard Encryption Algorithm (AES is widely used in modern consumer electronicproducts for security. The IEEE 802.15.4 Low-Rate wireless sensor networks also use AES algorithm wherelow power consumption is the priority. To reduce the time taken for encryption of huge data, the algorithm hasto be implemented in hardware. To meet the requirement for low area the algorithm has to be implemented insoftware. Hence, a balance has to be achieved between hardware and software implementations in terms of areaand speed, so as to improve the overall performance of the system. Also with the co-design methodology totalthermal power dissipation is reduced. In this paper, 128 bit AES algorithm is implemented with hardware incombination with software using Altera NIOS II Processor platform. Altera’s Quartus II environment is used fordesign of the system. Cyclone II FPGA is used as a development platform. Software program is written in C language. NIOS II ntegrated Development Environment (IDE is used to integrate hardware and software together. By adopting hardware / software co-design methodology for implementation of AES, results show that a onsiderable improvement in speed can be achieved as compared to software only approach. Further, the significant reduction in area is achieved as compared to hardware only approach. By the approach of co-design an optimized design in terms of speed and area is achieved and also the thermal power dissipation is reduced

  7. Recent Advances in Durability and Damage Tolerance Methodology at NASA Langley Research Center (United States)

    Ransom, J. B.; Glaessgen, E. H.; Raju, I. S.; Harris, C. E.


    Durability and damage tolerance (D&DT) issues are critical to the development of lighter, safer and more efficient aerospace vehicles. Durability is largely an economic life-cycle design consideration whereas damage tolerance directly addresses the structural airworthiness (safety) of the vehicle. Both D&DT methodologies must address the deleterious effects of changes in material properties and the initiation and growth of damage that may occur during the vehicle s service lifetime. The result of unanticipated D&DT response is often manifested in the form of catastrophic and potentially fatal accidents. As such, durability and damage tolerance requirements must be rigorously addressed for commercial transport aircraft and NASA spacecraft systems. This paper presents an overview of the recent and planned future research in durability and damage tolerance analytical and experimental methods for both metallic and composite aerospace structures at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC).

  8. Methodological issues in the study of intestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome



    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an intestinal functional disorder with the highest prevalence in the industrialized world. The intestinal microbiota (IM) plays a role in the pathogenesis of IBS and is not merely a consequence of this disorder. Previous research efforts have not revealed unequivocal microbiological signatures of IBS, and the experimental results are contradictory. The experimental methodologies adopted to investigate the complex intestinal ecosystem drastically impact the qu...

  9. Personality variables as mediators and moderators of family history risk for alcoholism: conceptual and methodological issues. (United States)

    Rogosch, F; Chassin, L; Sher, K J


    Recently there has been great interest in possible mediators and moderators of family history risk for alcoholism. However, previous studies have failed to employ appropriate designs and data analytic strategies to identify moderators and mediators. This article uses a large data set to illustrate such analyses. In the current data, both presumed personality risk and dispositional self-awareness were found to play moderator (rather than mediator) roles. The conceptual, methodological and data analytic implications of the mediator-moderator distinction are discussed.

  10. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L J; Hammel, C J


    Electrochemical capacitors are a candidate for traction power assists in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Other advanced automotive applications, while not the primary focus of current development efforts, are also possible. These include load leveling high-energy batteries, power conditioning electronics, electrically hated catalysts, electric power steering, and engine starter power. Higher power and longer cycle life are expected for electrochemical capacitors than for batteries. Evaluation of environmental, health, and safety (EH and S) issues of electrochemical capacitors is an essential part of the development and commercialization of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicles. This report provides an initial EH and S assessment. This report presents electrochemical capacitor electrochemistry, materials selection, intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of those hazards, environmental requirements, pollution control options, and shipping requirements. Most of the information available for this assessment pertains to commercial devices intended for application outside the advanced vehicle market and to experiment or prototype devices. Electrochemical capacitors for power assists in HEVs are not produced commercially now. Therefore, materials for advanced vehicle electrochemical capacitors may change, and so would the corresponding EH and S issues. Although changes are possible, this report describes issues for likely electrochemical capacitor designs.

  11. Context variations and pluri-methodological issues concerning the expression of a social representation: the example of the Gypsy community. (United States)

    Piermattéo, Anthony; Lo Monaco, Grégory; Moreau, Laure; Girandola, Fabien; Tavani, Jean-Louis


    Within the social representations' field of research, the "mute zone" hypothesis considers that some objects are characterized by counternormative content that people usually do not express in standard conditions of production. Within the framework of this approach, this study aims to explore the variations in the expression about the Gypsy community following the manipulation of different contexts and the issues associated with a pluri-methodological approach of data analysis. Indeed, two methodologies have been combined. The participants were asked to express themselves in public or in private. In addition, the identity of the experimenter was also manipulated as she presented herself as a Gypsy or not. Then, through a set of analyses based on a methodological triangulation approach, we were able to observe a recurrent modulation of the participants' answers. These analyses highlighted a greater incidence of the expression of counternormative elements when the context of expression was private and especially when the experimenter did not present herself as a Gypsy (p < .01, η p ² = .06). These results will be discussed in terms of the contribution of the methodologies employed and their comparison within the framework of the study of counternormative content.

  12. Empirical Psycho-Aesthetics and Her Sisters: Substantive and Methodological Issues--Part I (United States)

    Konecni, Vladimir J.


    Empirical psycho-aesthetics--an interdisciplinary field with a long tradition--is approached in this two-part article from two directions, in each case with several objectives. Part I, in this issue of "JAE", is devoted to the first direction, which is mainly definitional and organizational: the objectives are to present an outline of the field's…

  13. Methodological issues in life cycle assessment of mixed-culture polyhydroxyalkanoate production utilising waste as feedstock. (United States)

    Heimersson, Sara; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Peters, Gregory M; Werker, Alan; Svanström, Magdalena


    Assessing the environmental performance of emerging technologies using life cycle assessment (LCA) can be challenging due to a lack of data in relation to technologies, application areas or other life cycle considerations, or a lack of LCA methodology that address the specific concerns. Nevertheless, LCA can be a valuable tool in the environmental optimisation in the technology development phase. One emerging technology is the mixed-culture production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). PHA production by pure microbial cultures has been developed and assessed in several LCAs during the previous decade. Recent developments within mixed-culture PHA production call for environmental assessment to guide in technology development. Mixed-culture PHA production can use the organic content in wastewater as a feedstock; the production may then be integrated with wastewater treatment (WWT) processes. This means that mixed-culture PHA is produced as a by-product from services in the WWT. This article explores different methodological challenges for LCA of mixed-culture PHA production using organic material in wastewater as feedstock. LCAs of both pure- and mixed-culture PHA production were reviewed. Challenges, similarities and differences when assessing PHA production by mixed- or pure-cultures were identified and the resulting implications for methodological choices in LCA were evaluated and illustrated, using a case study with mixed- and pure-culture PHA model production systems, based on literature data. Environmental impacts of processes producing multiple products or services need to be allocated between the different products or services. Such situations occur both in feedstock production and when the studied system is providing multiple functions. The selection of allocation method is shown to determine the LCA results. The type of data used, for electricity in the energy system, is shown to be important for the results, which indicates, a strong regional dependency of

  14. Implementing a 1GHz Four-Issue Out-of-Order Execution Microprocessor in a Standard Cell ASIC Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Wu Hu; Ji-Ye Zhao; Shi-Qiang Zhong; Xu Yang; Elio Guidetti; Chris Wu


    This paper introduces the microarchitecture and physical implementation of the Godson-2E processor, which is a four-issue superscalar RISC processor that supports the 64-bit MIPS instruction set.The adoption of the aggressive out-of-order execution and memory hierarchy techniques help Godson-2E to achieve high performance.The Godson-2E processor has been physically designed in a 7-metal 90nm CMOS process using the cell-based methodology with some bit-sliced manual placement and a number of crafted cells and macros.The processor can be run at 1GHz and achieves a SPEC CPU2000 rate higher than 500.

  15. Methodological issues in the study of intestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome. (United States)

    Taverniti, Valentina; Guglielmetti, Simone


    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an intestinal functional disorder with the highest prevalence in the industrialized world. The intestinal microbiota (IM) plays a role in the pathogenesis of IBS and is not merely a consequence of this disorder. Previous research efforts have not revealed unequivocal microbiological signatures of IBS, and the experimental results are contradictory. The experimental methodologies adopted to investigate the complex intestinal ecosystem drastically impact the quality and significance of the results. Therefore, to consider the methodological aspects of the research on IM in IBS, we reviewed 29 relevant original research articles identified through a PubMed search using three combinations of keywords: "irritable bowel syndrome + microflora", "irritable bowel syndrome + microbiota" and "irritable bowel syndrome + microbiome". For each study, we reviewed the quality and significance of the scientific evidence obtained with respect to the experimental method adopted. The data obtained from each study were compared with all considered publications to identify potential inconsistencies and explain contradictory results. The analytical revision of the studies referenced in the present review has contributed to the identification of microbial groups whose relative abundance significantly alters IBS, suggesting that these microbial groups could be IM signatures for this syndrome. The identification of microbial biomarkers in the IM can be advantageous for the development of new diagnostic tools and novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of different subtypes of IBS.



    Bhaskara Rao; Maheshwar Rao


    Compared to many cross-country studies on the determinants of growth rate, time series approaches are relatively few and limited in scope. However, time series studies are useful for country-specific policies. But in many recent works ad hoc specifications have been used to analyze the contribution of various factors to growth. This paper examines the specification and estimation issues in the time series approach and provides some guidelines. Our approach is used to illustrate the effects of...

  17. Methodological and Practical Issues of Scientific Research on the Retail Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasescu, M.


    Full Text Available This paper highlights the role and importance of marketing research in a dynamic and complex sector such as retail. The paper approaches the theoretical issues related to the methods and instruments of marketing research appropriate for the retail market. The theory about qualitative and quantitative research methods is supported by relevant examples which lead to a better understanding of the marketing research process and of its effectiveness on retail activities.

  18. [Relevant methodological issues from the SBBrasil 2010 Project for national health surveys]. (United States)

    Roncalli, Angelo Giuseppe; Silva, Nilza Nunes da; Nascimento, Antonio Carlos; Freitas, Cláudia Helena Soares de Morais; Casotti, Elisete; Peres, Karen Glazer; Moura, Lenildo de; Peres, Marco A; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Cortes, Maria Ilma de Souza; Vettore, Mario Vianna; Paludetto Júnior, Moacir; Figueiredo, Nilcema; Goes, Paulo Sávio Angeiras de; Pinto, Rafaela da Silveira; Marques, Regina Auxiliadora de Amorim; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Reis, Sandra Cristina Guimarães Bahia; Narvai, Paulo Capel


    The SBBrasil 2010 Project (SBB10) was designed as a nationwide oral health epidemiological survey within a health surveillance strategy. This article discusses methodological aspects of the SBB10 Project that can potentially help expand and develop knowledge in the health field. This was a nationwide survey with stratified multi-stage cluster sampling. The sample domains were 27 State capitals and 150 rural municipalities (counties) from the country's five major geographic regions. The sampling units were census tracts and households for the State capitals and municipalities, census tracts, and households for the rural areas. Thirty census tracts were selected in the State capitals and 30 municipalities in the countryside. The precision considered the demographic domains grouped by density of the overall population and the internal variability of oral health indices. The study evaluated dental caries, periodontal disease, malocclusion, fluorosis, tooth loss, and dental trauma in five age groups (5, 12, 15-19, 35-44, and 65-74 years).

  19. Delivering spacecraft control centers with embedded knowledge-based systems: The methodology issue (United States)

    Ayache, S.; Haziza, M.; Cayrac, D.


    Matra Marconi Space (MMS) occupies a leading place in Europe in the domain of satellite and space data processing systems. The maturity of the knowledge-based systems (KBS) technology, the theoretical and practical experience acquired in the development of prototype, pre-operational and operational applications, make it possible today to consider the wide operational deployment of KBS's in space applications. In this perspective, MMS has to prepare the introduction of the new methods and support tools that will form the basis of the development of such systems. This paper introduces elements of the MMS methodology initiatives in the domain and the main rationale that motivated the approach. These initiatives develop along two main axes: knowledge engineering methods and tools, and a hybrid method approach for coexisting knowledge-based and conventional developments.

  20. Methodological Issues and Values Arising from the Construction of a Heritage Corridor Along Chinese Eastern Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao; Fei; Shao; Long


    The Chinese Eastern Railway(CER),which was designed by Russia in 1898 and constructed later by China,is a typical industrial cultural landscape of the 20 th century that enjoys a high uniqueness and representativeness due to its integrality and systematicness.It sits on a historic site with various kinds of resources,including architecture,railways,and other facilities.As there has been few changes with CER’s route,its resources are,in fact,still serviceable to the current railway system and people living along the route.However,considering the problems,such as lack of maintenance,ignorance of the society,inappropriate renovations,etc.,attention should be paid to CER’s value assessment before any reconstruction decisions are made.Although value assessment plays a very important role in the decision-making and investment-planning process,there is almost no related research on the construction of a heritage corridor along CER.Seeing that value assessment is part of the CER Heritage Corridor construction project and the values act as a reference in understanding CER as a heritage site,this paper aims to put forward a methodological guidance to identify CER’s values,so that its resources will be assessed by using what we call "value typology." In addition,it also tries to promote the tools that can help to evaluate CER’s values.On the basis of a methodological analysis,it finally puts forward some advices to integrating the value assessment into the decision-making process.

  1. Affinity-based methodologies and ligands for antibody purification: advances and perspectives. (United States)

    Roque, Ana C A; Silva, Cláudia S O; Taipa, M Angela


    Many successful, recent therapies for life-threatening diseases such as cancer and rheumatoid arthritis are based on the recognition between native or genetically engineered antibodies and cell-surface receptors. Although naturally produced by the immune system, the need for antibodies with unique specificities and designed for single application, has encouraged the search for novel antibody purification strategies. The availability of these products to the end-consumer is strictly related to manufacture costs, particularly those attributed to downstream processing. Over the last decades, academia and industry have developed different types of interactions and separation techniques for antibody purification, affinity-based strategies being the most common and efficient methodologies. The affinity ligands utilized range from biological to synthetic designed molecules with enhanced resistance and stability. Despite the successes achieved, the purification "paradigm" still moves interests and efforts in the continuous demand for improved separation performances. This review will focus on recent advances and perspectives in antibody purification by affinity interactions using different techniques, with particular emphasis on affinity chromatography.

  2. Advanced Raman Spectroscopy of Methylammonium Lead Iodide: Development of a Non-destructive Characterisation Methodology (United States)

    Pistor, Paul; Ruiz, Alejandro; Cabot, Andreu; Izquierdo-Roca, Victor


    In recent years, there has been an impressively fast technological progress in the development of highly efficient lead halide perovskite solar cells. However, the stability of perovskite films and respective solar cells is still an open point of concern and calls for advanced characterization methods. In this work, we identify appropriate measurement conditions for a meaningful analysis of spin-coated absorber-grade perovskite thin films based on methylammonium (MA) lead iodide (MAPbI3) by Raman spectroscopy. The material under investigation and its derivates is the most commonly used for high efficiency devices in the literatures and has yielded working solar cell devices with efficiencies around 10% in our laboratory. We report highly detailed Raman spectra obtained with excitation at 532 nm and 633 nm and their deconvolution taking advantage of the simultaneous fitting of spectra obtained with varying excitation wavelengths. Finally, we propose a fast and contactless methodology based on Raman to probe composition variations and/or degradation of these perovskite thin films and discuss the potential of the presented technique as quality control and degradation monitoring tool in other organic-inorganic perovskite materials and complete solar cell devices.

  3. What Can Be Learned From a Laboratory Model of Conceptual Change? Descriptive Findings and Methodological Issues (United States)

    Ohlsson, Stellan; Cosejo, David G.


    The problem of how people process novel and unexpected information— deep learning (Ohlsson in Deep learning: how the mind overrides experience. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2011)—is central to several fields of research, including creativity, belief revision, and conceptual change. Researchers have not converged on a single theory for conceptual change, nor has any one theory been decisively falsified. One contributing reason is the difficulty of collecting informative data in this field. We propose that the commonly used methodologies of historical analysis, classroom interventions, and developmental studies, although indispensible, can be supplemented with studies of laboratory models of conceptual change. We introduce re- categorization, an experimental paradigm in which learners transition from one definition of a categorical concept to another, incompatible definition of the same concept, a simple form of conceptual change. We describe a re-categorization experiment, report some descriptive findings pertaining to the effects of category complexity, the temporal unfolding of learning, and the nature of the learner's final knowledge state. We end with a brief discussion of ways in which the re-categorization model can be improved.

  4. Methodological issues in the use of individual brain measures to index trait liabilities: The example of noise-probe P3. (United States)

    Perkins, Emily R; Yancey, James R; Drislane, Laura E; Venables, Noah C; Balsis, Steve; Patrick, Christopher J


    Recent research initiatives have called for an increased use of biological concepts and measures in defining and studying mental health problems, but important measurement-related challenges confront efforts in this direction. This article highlights some of these challenges with reference to an intriguing measure of neural reactivity: the probe P3 response, a mid-latency brain potential evoked by an intense, unexpected acoustic-probe stimulus. Using data for a large adult sample (N=418), we report evidence that amplitude of probe P3 response to unwarned noise bursts occurring in a picture-viewing task exhibits robust, independent associations with two distinct trait constructs: weak inhibitory control (or disinhibition; DIS) and threat sensitivity (THT). Additionally, we report a selective association for THT with attentional suppression of probe P3 response during viewing of aversive pictures compared to neutral. These results point to separable elements of variance underlying the probe P3 response, including one element reflecting DIS-related variations in cognitive-elaborative processing, and others reflecting THT-related variations in aversive foreground engagement and abrupt defensive reorientation. Key measurement issues are considered in relation to these specific findings, and methodological and statistical approaches for addressing these issues are discussed in relation to advancement of a quantitatively sound, biologically informed science of psychopathology.

  5. Epilepsy therapy development: technical and methodologic issues in studies with animal models. (United States)

    Galanopoulou, Aristea S; Kokaia, Merab; Loeb, Jeffrey A; Nehlig, Astrid; Pitkänen, Asla; Rogawski, Michael A; Staley, Kevin J; Whittemore, Vicky H; Dudek, F Edward


    The search for new treatments for seizures, epilepsies, and their comorbidities faces considerable challenges. This is due in part to gaps in our understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of most forms of epilepsy. An additional challenge is the difficulty in predicting the efficacy, tolerability, and impact of potential new treatments on epilepsies and comorbidities in humans, using the available resources. Herein we provide a summary of the discussions and proposals of the Working Group 2 as presented in the Joint American Epilepsy Society and International League Against Epilepsy Translational Workshop in London (September 2012). We propose methodologic and reporting practices that will enhance the uniformity, reliability, and reporting of early stage preclinical studies with animal seizure and epilepsy models that aim to develop and evaluate new therapies for seizures or epilepsies, using multidisciplinary approaches. The topics considered include the following: (1) implementation of better study design and reporting practices; (2) incorporation in the study design and analysis of covariants that may influence outcomes (including species, age, sex); (3) utilization of approaches to document target relevance, exposure, and engagement by the tested treatment; (4) utilization of clinically relevant treatment protocols; (5) optimization of the use of video-electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to best meet the study goals; and (6) inclusion of outcome measures that address the tolerability of the treatment or study end points apart from seizures. We further discuss the different expectations for studies aiming to meet regulatory requirements to obtain approval for clinical testing in humans. Implementation of the rigorous practices discussed in this report will require considerable investment in time, funds, and other research resources, which may create challenges for academic researchers seeking to contribute to epilepsy therapy discovery and

  6. Extraction of human factors issues caused by application of the advanced HSI technology and development of human factor issue management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Oh, In Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)


    A comprehensive literature survey was performed in this study to collect human performance issues related to the advanced HSI design features. The literature from not only nuclear industry but also other industries was collected and reviewed. The issues were categorized into the following advanced HSI design features: devices characteristics, levels of automation, information design and management, display management, computerized controls, alarm systems, computerized procedures, staffing and crew coordination, and operator support systems. The classified issues were described with the description framework. Then, the relationship of issues to HSI design process such as human factors analyses, human factors design, and human factors verification and validation was investigated. Finally, the issue management system of server-client environment was developed using Microsoft's Active Server Page technology and Access 97. (author). 18 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Methodological Issues In Forestry Mitigation Projects: A CaseStudy Of Kolar District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Murthy, I.K.; Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Sahana, C.A.; Srivathsa, K.G.; Khan, H.


    There is a need to assess climate change mitigationopportunities in forest sector in India in the context of methodologicalissues such as additionality, permanence, leakage, measurement andbaseline development in formulating forestry mitigation projects. A casestudy of forestry mitigation project in semi-arid community grazing landsand farmlands in Kolar district of Karnataka, was undertaken with regardto baseline and project scenariodevelopment, estimation of carbon stockchange in the project, leakage estimation and assessment ofcost-effectiveness of mitigation projects. Further, the transaction coststo develop project, and environmental and socio-economic impact ofmitigation project was assessed.The study shows the feasibility ofestablishing baselines and project C-stock changes. Since the area haslow or insignificant biomass, leakage is not an issue. The overallmitigation potential in Kolar for a total area of 14,000 ha under variousmitigation options is 278,380 tC at a rate of 20 tC/ha for the period2005-2035, which is approximately 0.67 tC/ha/yr inclusive of harvestregimes under short rotation and long rotation mitigation options. Thetransaction cost for baseline establishment is less than a rupee/tC andfor project scenario development is about Rs. 1.5-3.75/tC. The projectenhances biodiversity and the socio-economic impact is alsosignificant.

  8. Measurements of Intracellular Ca2+ Content and Phosphatidylserine Exposure in Human Red Blood Cells: Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro C. Wesseling


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The increase of the intracellular Ca2+ content as well as the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS on the outer cell membrane surface after activation of red blood cells (RBCs by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA has been investigated by a variety of research groups. Carrying out experiments, which we described in several previous publications, we observed some discrepancies when comparing data obtained by different investigators within our research group and also between batches of LPA. In addition, we found differences comparing the results of double and single labelling experiments (for Ca2+ and PS. Furthermore, the results of PS exposure depended on the fluorescent dye used (annexin V-FITC versus annexin V alexa fluor® 647. Therefore, it seems necessary to investigate these methodological approaches in more detail to be able to quantify results and to compare data obtained by different research groups. Methods: The intracellular Ca2+ content and the PS exposure of RBCs separated from whole blood have been investigated after treatment with LPA (2.5 µM obtained from three different companies (Sigma-Aldrich, Cayman Chemical Company, and Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.. Fluo-4 and x-rhod-1 have been used to detect intracellular Ca2+ content, annexin V alexa fluor® 647 and annexin V-FITC have been used for PS exposure measurements. Both parameters (Ca2+ content, PS exposure were studied using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Results: The percentage of RBCs showing increased intracellular Ca2+ content as well as PS exposure changes significantly between different LPA manufacturers as well as on the condition of mixing of LPA with the RBC suspension. Furthermore, the percentage of RBCs showing PS exposure is reduced in double labelling compared to single labelling experiments and depends also on the fluorescent dye used. Finally, data on Ca2+ content are slightly affected whereas PS exposure data are not affected significantly

  9. Advanced radiochromic film methodologies for quantitative dosimetry of small and nonstandard fields (United States)

    Rosen, Benjamin S.

    Radiotherapy treatments with small and nonstandard fields are increasing in use as collimation and targeting become more advanced, which spare normal tissues while increasing tumor dose. However, dosimetry of small and nonstandard fields is more difficult than that of conventional fields due to loss of lateral charged-particle equilibrium, tight measurement setup requirements, source occlusion, and the volume-averaging effect of conventional dosimeters. This work aims to create new small and nonstandard field dosimetry protocols using radiochromic film (RCF) in conjunction with novel readout and analysis methodologies. It also is the intent of this work to develop an improved understanding of RCF structure and mechanics for its quantitative use in general applications. Conventional digitization techniques employ white-light, flatbed document scanners or scanning-laser densitometers which are not optimized for RCF dosimetry. A point-by-point precision laser densitometry system (LDS) was developed for this work to overcome the film-scanning artifacts associated with the use of conventional digitizers, such as positional scan dependence, off-axis light scatter, glass bed interference, and low signal-to-noise ratios. The LDS was shown to be optically traceable to national standards and to provide highly reproducible density measurements. Use of the LDS resulted in increased agreement between RCF dose measurements and the single-hit detector model of film response, facilitating traceable RCF calibrations based on calibrated physical quantities. GafchromicRTM EBT3 energy response to a variety of reference x-ray and gamma-ray beam qualities was also investigated. Conventional Monte Carlo methods are not capable of predicting film intrinsic energy response to arbitrary particle spectra. Therefore, a microdosimetric model was developed to simulate the underlying physics of the radiochromic mechanism and was shown to correctly predict the intrinsic response relative to a

  10. Integrated methodological frameworks for modelling agent-based advanced supply chain planning systems: A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Santa-Eulalia


    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this paper is to provide a systematic literature review of recent developments in methodological frameworks for the modelling and simulation of agent-based advanced supply chain planning systems.Design/methodology/approach: A systematic literature review is provided to identify, select and make an analysis and a critical summary of all suitable studies in the area. It is organized into two blocks: the first one covers agent-based supply chain planning systems in general terms, while the second one specializes the previous search to identify those works explicitly containing methodological aspects.Findings: Among sixty suitable manuscripts identified in the primary literature search, only seven explicitly considered the methodological aspects. In addition, we noted that, in general, the notion of advanced supply chain planning is not considered unambiguously, that the social and individual aspects of the agent society are not taken into account in a clear manner in several studies and that a significant part of the works are of a theoretical nature, with few real-scale industrial applications. An integrated framework covering all phases of the modelling and simulation process is still lacking in the literature visited.Research limitations/implications: The main research limitations are related to the period covered (last four years, the selected scientific databases, the selected language (i.e. English and the use of only one assessment framework for the descriptive evaluation part.Practical implications: The identification of recent works in the domain and discussion concerning their limitations can help pave the way for new and innovative researches towards a complete methodological framework for agent-based advanced supply chain planning systems.Originality/value: As there are no recent state-of-the-art reviews in the domain of methodological frameworks for agent-based supply chain planning, this paper contributes to

  11. Guest Editorial Special Issue on Recent Advances and New Directions in Switched Control Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ As guest editors, it is our great honor to bring this special issue of the Journal of Control Theory and Applications devoted to Recent Advances and New Directions in Switched Control Systems. Recently, switched control systems have attracted much attention in the control systems community. Problems in this area are not only academically challenging for the inherent mathematical complexity, but also are derived or motivated from advanced applications in natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences. For survival, natural biological systems switch their survival strategies in accordance with environmental changes. For improved performance, switching has been extensively utilized/exploited in engineering systems such as automotive drive train control, electronic devices, control of power systems, etc.

  12. Special issue on the "Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors Research and Development Progress" (United States)

    Turinsky, Paul J.; Martin, William R.


    In this special issue of the Journal of Computational Physics, the research and development completed at the time of manuscript submission by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is presented. CASL is the first of several Energy Innovation Hubs that have been created by the Department of Energy. The Hubs are modeled after the strong scientific management characteristics of the Manhattan Project and AT&T Bell Laboratories, and function as integrated research centers that combine basic and applied research with engineering to accelerate scientific discovery that addresses critical energy issues. Lifetime of a Hub is expected to be five or ten years depending upon performance, with CASL being granted a ten year lifetime.

  13. The psychiatric advanced practice nurse with prescriptive authority: role development, practice issues, and outcomes measurement. (United States)

    Cornwell, C; Chiverton, P


    Within the rapidly changing health care system, there is an increased need for professionals who can provide cost-effective primary health care for mentally ill patients. This article discusses the role of the Psychiatric Advanced Practice Nurse (APN) with Prescriptive Authority as a cost-effective, high-quality component of comprehensive mental health care delivery. Historical aspects of the development of the Nurse Practitioner (NP) role are discussed, as well as issues specific to the role in psychiatric nursing. The implementation of this role at Rochester is described, followed by recommendations for studying the impact of the psychiatric NP on care delivery, including process and outcome variables.

  14. Summary of SMIRT20 Preconference Topical Workshop – Identifying Structural Issues in Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Richins; Stephen Novascone; Cheryl O' Brien


    Summary of SMIRT20 Preconference Topical Workshop – Identifying Structural Issues in Advanced Reactors William Richins1, Stephen Novascone1, and Cheryl O’Brien1 1Idaho National Laboratory, US Dept. of Energy, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA, e-mail: The Idaho National Laboratory (INL, USA) and IASMiRT sponsored an international forum Nov 5-6, 2008 in Porvoo, Finland for nuclear industry, academic, and regulatory representatives to identify structural issues in current and future advanced reactor design, especially for extreme conditions and external threats. The purpose of this Topical Workshop was to articulate research, engineering, and regulatory Code development needs. The topics addressed by the Workshop were selected to address critical industry needs specific to advanced reactor structures that have long lead times and can be the subject of future SMiRT technical sessions. The topics were; 1) structural/materials needs for extreme conditions and external threats in contemporary (Gen. III) and future (Gen. IV and NGNP) advanced reactors and 2) calibrating simulation software and methods that address topic 1 The workshop discussions and research needs identified are presented. The Workshop successfully produced interactive discussion on the two topics resulting in a list of research and technology needs. It is recommended that IASMiRT communicate the results of the discussion to industry and researchers to encourage new ideas and projects. In addition, opportunities exist to retrieve research reports and information that currently exists, and encourage more international cooperation and collaboration. It is recommended that IASMiRT continue with an off-year workshop series on select topics.

  15. Methodological challenges in quality of life research among Turkish and Moroccan ethnic minority cancer patients: translation, recruitment and ethical issues. (United States)

    Hoopman, Rianne; Terwee, Caroline B; Muller, Martin J; Ory, Ferko G; Aaronson, Neil K


    The large population of first generation Turkish and Moroccan immigrants who moved to Western Europe in the 1960s and 1970s is now reaching an age at which the incidence of chronic diseases, including cancer, rises sharply. To date, little attention has been paid to the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of these ethnic minority groups, primarily due to the paucity of well translated and validated measures, but also because of a range of methodological and logistical barriers. The primary objective of this paper is to describe the methodological challenges in conducting HRQOL research among these patient populations, based on experience gained in a project in which four widely used HRQOL questionnaires were translated into Turkish, Moroccan-Arabic and Tarifit, and administered to a sample of 90 Turkish and 79 Moroccan cancer patients in the Netherlands. Problems encountered in translating and administering the questionnaires included achieving semantic equivalence (use of loanwords), use of numerical rating scales, lengthy questions and response scales, and culturally sensitive and/or inappropriate questions. Privacy laws that prohibit hospitals from registering the ethnicity of patients hampered efficient identification of eligible patients. Recruiting patients to studies is often difficult due to low literacy levels, lack of familiarity with and distrust of research, concerns about immigration status, and inaccurate or missing contact information. This can lead to lower response rates than is the case with the population of Dutch cancer patients. Additional ethical issues that arise in such studies concern patients' problems with communicating with their health care providers, their lack of understanding of their diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, and the potential role conflict experienced by bilingual research assistants who may wish or be asked to intervene on the patients' behalf. Practical approaches to resolving these issues are presented.

  16. A flexible methodology to integrate energy issue in strategic asset management in social housing: the ECOSIM French experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacarriere, Bruno; Bourges, Bernard (Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France)); Jallet, Paul (Le Toit Angevin, Angers (France))


    In order to improve the efforts to reduce energy use in the Social Housing sector, the IEE-ESAM project (completed in December 2008) aimed to develop adequate tools to integrate the issue of energy in strategic asset management (SAM) processes. The present work details a methodology built with the aim of a sufficient flexibility to be adaptable of the different Social Housing Operators (SHO) situations. The paper illustrates this methodology by a successful experience of development. The objective was to develop a tool satisfying the practical expectations of the Social Housing Operators. Examples of the difficulties that had to be overcome include difficulties in knowing in detail some technical properties of the housing stock (thermal properties, glazing properties, history of refurbishment) and lack of internal skills in thermal modelling to evaluate the different possible actions. The final tool developed can be used for one particular building, a set of buildings or at the whole stock scale. The tool does not use an integrated thermal calculation core but external databases and/or feedback based on experience. It offers a description of the energy performance level of the stock, points out the worst-performing elements, evaluates solutions to improve the energy performance (for building envelopes and equipments) and quantifies the gains (energy and carbon saved, financial) and the costs (investment) of these solutions. The tool assists the SHO in taking decisions (regarding priorities for investment) which include energy efficiency parameters in addition to classical SAM parameters. The success of the approach has been demonstrated by the SHO that manages the stock used as a field test for this project. They are currently using the tool developed from the methodology to plan stock investment actions.

  17. Adolescent substance-use assessment: methodological issues in the use of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD). (United States)

    Chinet, Léonie; Plancherel, Bernard; Bolognini, Monique; Holzer, Laurent; Halfon, Olivier


    During the past twenty years, various instruments have been developed for the assessment of substance use in adolescents, mainly in the United States. However, few of them have been adapted to, and validated in, French-speaking populations. Consequently, although increasing alcohol and drug use among teenagers has become a major concern, the various health and social programs developed in response to this specific problem have received little attention with regard to follow-up and outcome assessment. A standardized multidimensional assessment instrument adapted for adolescents is needed to assess the individual needs of adolescents and assign them to the most appropriate treatment setting, to provide a single measurement within and across health and social systems, and to conduct treatment outcome evaluations. Moreover, having an available instrument makes it possible to develop longitudinal and transcultural research studies. For this reason, a French version of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD) was developed and validated at the University Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic in Lausanne, Switzerland. This article aims to discuss the methodological issues that we faced when using the ADAD instrument in a 4-year longitudinal study including adolescent substance users. Methodological aspects relating to the content and format of the instrument, the assessment administration and the statistical analyses are discussed.

  18. On Special Optical Modes and Thermal Issues in Advanced Gravitational Wave Interferometric Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinet Jean-Yves


    Full Text Available The sensitivity of present ground-based gravitational wave antennas is too low to detect many events per year. It has, therefore, been planned for years to build advanced detectors allowing actual astrophysical observations and investigations. In such advanced detectors, one major issue is to increase the laser power in order to reduce shot noise. However, this is useless if the thermal noise remains at the current level in the 100 Hz spectral region, where mirrors are the main contributors. Moreover, increasing the laser power gives rise to various spurious thermal effects in the same mirrors. The main goal of the present study is to discuss these issues versus the transverse structure of the readout beam, in order to allow comparison. A number of theoretical studies and experiments have been carried out, regarding thermal noise and thermal effects. We do not discuss experimental problems, but rather focus on some theoretical results in this context about arbitrary order Laguerre–Gauss beams, and other “exotic” beams.

  19. Special Issue “50th Anniversary of the Kohn–Sham Theory—Advances in Density Functional Theory”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Nagy


    Full Text Available The properties of many materials at the atomic scale depend on the electronic structure, which requires a quantum mechanical treatment. The most widely used approach to make such a treatment feasible is density functional theory (DFT, the advances in which were presented and discussed during the DFT conference in Debrecen. Some of these issues are presented in this Special Issue.

  20. The Advanced Learner's Sociolinguistic Profile: On Issues of Individual Differences, Second Language Exposure Conditions, and Type of Sociolinguistic Variable (United States)

    Howard, Martin


    Situated within the recent new wave of second language acquisition studies investigating the acquisition of sociolinguistic variation, this article draws on a longitudinal database of advanced French interlanguage to explore a number of issues that have not yet been extensively investigated. They concern the issue of individual variation in the…

  1. Selected Topics on Advanced Information Systems Engineering: Editorial Introduction to the Issue 5 of CSIMQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Grabis


    Full Text Available The 5th issue of the journal on Complex Systems Informatics and Modeling (CSIMQ presents extended versions of five papers selected from the CAiSE Forum 2015. The forum was part of the 27th edition of international Conference on Advanced Information Systems engineering (CAiSE 2015, which took place in June 2015 in Stockholm, Sweden. Information systems engineering draws its foundation from various interrelated disciplines including, e.g., conceptual modeling, database systems, business process management, requirements engineering, human computer interaction, and enterprise computing to address various practical challenges in development and application of information systems. The guiding subjects of CAiSE 2015 were Creativity, Ability, and Integrity. The CAiSE Forum aimed at presenting and discussing new ideas and tools related to information systems Engineering.

  2. Assessing antiretroviral adherence via electronic drug monitoring and self-report: an examination of key methodological issues. (United States)

    Pearson, Cynthia R; Simoni, Jane M; Hoff, Peter; Kurth, Ann E; Martin, Diane P


    We explored methodological issues related to antiretroviral adherence assessment, using 6 months of data collected in a completed intervention trial involving 136 low-income HIV-positive outpatients in the Bronx, NY. Findings suggest that operationalizing adherence as a continuous (versus dichotomous) variable and averaging adherence estimates over multiple assessment points (versus using only one) explains greater variance in HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL). Self-reported estimates provided during a phone interview accounted for similar variance in VL as EDM estimates (R (2) = .17 phone versus .18 EDM). Self-reported adherence was not associated with a standard social desirability measure, and no difference in the accuracy of self-report adherence was observed for assessment periods of 1-3 days. Self-reported poor adherence was more closely associated with EDM adherence estimates than self-reported moderate and high adherence. On average across assessment points, fewer than 4% of participants who reported taking a dose of an incorrect amount of medication.

  3. Special issue of clinical pharmacology: advances and applications in new protein therapeutics modulating tumor immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frankel AE


    Full Text Available Arthur E Frankel Department of Internal Medicine, Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA Until recent decades, the role of the immune system in harnessing tumor growth was based on anecdotal observations of increased cancers in immune-compromised patients, the benefits of graft-versus-leukemia in allogeneic stem cell transplants, and the limited but reproducible anticancer activity of several lymphokines, including interferon and interleukin (IL-2. Vaccine studies and infusions of "activated" lymphocytes yielded variable clinical responses and disease control. An improved understanding of the molecular and cell mechanisms of the innate and adaptive immune system in cancer-bearing animals and the discovery of an immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment then led to development and testing of a battery of new drug and cell-based approaches to trigger antitumor immunity. This issue of Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications highlights some of the new protein-based compounds that are radically changing the cancer therapeutic landscape. The purpose of this collection of reviews is to inform the readership regarding the importance of the seismic change in cancer therapeutics and stimulate efforts to find novel niches and combinations of agents similar to recent advances in the application of cancer pathway inhibitors.

  4. Thermal barrier coatings issues in advanced land-based gas turbines (United States)

    Parks, William P.; Hoffman, Eugene E.; Lee, Woo Y.; Wright, Ian G.


    The Department of Energy's Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is aimed at fostering the development of a new generation of land-based gas turbine systems with overall efficiencies significantly beyond those of current state-of-the-art machines, as well as greatly increased times between inspection and refurbishment, improved environmental impact, and decreased cost. The proposed duty cycle of ATS machines will emphasize different criteria in the selection of materials for the critical components. In particular, thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) will be an essential feature of the hot gas path components in these machines. In fact, the goals of the ATS will require significant improvements in TBC technology, since these turbines will be totally reliant on TBC's, which will be required to function on critical components such as the first stage vanes and blades for times considerably in excess of those experienced in current applications. Issues that assume increased importance are the mechanical and chemical stability of the ceramic layer and of the metallic bond coat; the thermal expansion characteristics and compliance of the ceramic layer; and the thermal conductivity across the thickness of the ceramic layer. Obviously, the ATS program provides a very challenging opportunity for TBC's, and involves some significant opportunities to extend this technology. A significant TBC development effort is planned in the ATS program which will address these key issues.

  5. Methodology Development and Physical Organic Chemistry: A Powerful Combination for the Advancement of Glycochemistry (United States)

    Crich, David


    This perspective article outlines work in the Crich group on the diastereoselective synthesis of the so-called difficult classes of glycosidic bond; the 2-deoxy-β-glycopyranosides, the β-mannopyranosides, the α-sialosides, the α-glucopyranosides and the β-arabinofuranosides with an emphasis on the critical interplay between mechanism and methodology development. PMID:21919522

  6. Advanced software development workstation: Object-oriented methodologies and applications for flight planning and mission operations (United States)

    Izygon, Michel


    The work accomplished during the past nine months in order to help three different organizations involved in Flight Planning and in Mission Operations systems, to transition to Object-Oriented Technology, by adopting one of the currently most widely used Object-Oriented analysis and Design Methodology is summarized.

  7. Building wind design methodology for Italian climatic areas (second report). Advancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciolfi, A. [UTS Engineering, Roma (Italy)


    The present work, carried out through information of the Meteorological Service of the Italian Military Aeronautic, is the first step to carry out a bioclimatic design methodology based on monitored statistical dates of wind characteristics in Italian climatic areas. The first dates obtained are relative to climatic areas of littoral latium and middle interland and they are: Pratica di Mare, Fiumicino, Ciampino, Guidonia. (orig.)

  8. A fault diagnosis methodology for rolling element bearings based on advanced signal pretreatment and autoregressive modelling (United States)

    Al-Bugharbee, Hussein; Trendafilova, Irina


    This study proposes a methodology for rolling element bearings fault diagnosis which gives a complete and highly accurate identification of the faults present. It has two main stages: signals pretreatment, which is based on several signal analysis procedures, and diagnosis, which uses a pattern-recognition process. The first stage is principally based on linear time invariant autoregressive modelling. One of the main contributions of this investigation is the development of a pretreatment signal analysis procedure which subjects the signal to noise cleaning by singular spectrum analysis and then stationarisation by differencing. So the signal is transformed to bring it close to a stationary one, rather than complicating the model to bring it closer to the signal. This type of pretreatment allows the use of a linear time invariant autoregressive model and improves its performance when the original signals are non-stationary. This contribution is at the heart of the proposed method, and the high accuracy of the diagnosis is a result of this procedure. The methodology emphasises the importance of preliminary noise cleaning and stationarisation. And it demonstrates that the information needed for fault identification is contained in the stationary part of the measured signal. The methodology is further validated using three different experimental setups, demonstrating very high accuracy for all of the applications. It is able to correctly classify nearly 100 percent of the faults with regard to their type and size. This high accuracy is the other important contribution of this methodology. Thus, this research suggests a highly accurate methodology for rolling element bearing fault diagnosis which is based on relatively simple procedures. This is also an advantage, as the simplicity of the individual processes ensures easy application and the possibility for automation of the entire process.

  9. Issues and advances in research methods on video games and cognitive abilities. (United States)

    Sobczyk, Bart; Dobrowolski, Paweł; Skorko, Maciek; Michalak, Jakub; Brzezicka, Aneta


    The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs) over non-players (NVGPs) and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of recruited VGP groups and lack of genre differentiation have not yet been widely addressed. In this article we present objective and declarative gameplay time data gathered from large samples in order to illustrate how playtime is distributed over VGP populations. The implications of this data are then discussed in the context of previous studies in the field. We also argue in favor of differentiating video games based on their genre when recruiting study samples, as this form of classification reflects the core mechanics that they utilize and therefore provides a measure of insight into what cognitive functions are likely to be engaged most. Additionally, we present the Covert Video Game Experience Questionnaire as an example of how this sort of classification can be applied during the recruitment process.

  10. A Design Heritage-Based Forecasting Methodology for Risk Informed Management of Advanced Systems (United States)

    Maggio, Gaspare; Fragola, Joseph R.


    The development of next generation systems often carries with it the promise of improved performance, greater reliability, and reduced operational costs. These expectations arise from the use of novel designs, new materials, advanced integration and production technologies intended for functionality replacing the previous generation. However, the novelty of these nascent technologies is accompanied by lack of operational experience and, in many cases, no actual testing as well. Therefore some of the enthusiasm surrounding most new technologies may be due to inflated aspirations from lack of knowledge rather than actual future expectations. This paper proposes a design heritage approach for improved reliability forecasting of advanced system components. The basis of the design heritage approach is to relate advanced system components to similar designs currently in operation. The demonstrated performance of these components could then be used to forecast the expected performance and reliability of comparable advanced technology components. In this approach the greater the divergence of the advanced component designs from the current systems the higher the uncertainty that accompanies the associated failure estimates. Designers of advanced systems are faced with many difficult decisions. One of the most common and more difficult types of these decisions are those related to the choice between design alternatives. In the past decision-makers have found these decisions to be extremely difficult to make because they often involve the trade-off between a known performing fielded design and a promising paper design. When it comes to expected reliability performance the paper design always looks better because it is on paper and it addresses all the know failure modes of the fielded design. On the other hand there is a long, and sometimes very difficult road, between the promise of a paper design and its fulfillment; with the possibility that sometimes the reliability

  11. The Modernization Concept as an Integrative Framework for the Methodology of Studying Topical Issues in Russian History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri N. Smirnov


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a number of methodological and concrete historical questions raised in the monograph by Boris Mironov, “The Russian Empire: From Tradition to Modernity.” The monograph is based on the modernization concept. The variety of methods and techniques borrowed by the author from different scientific disciplines and schools, but which demonstrate their usefulness, provide a reason to call his approach “integrative.” Smirnov shares Mironov’s perspective on the possibility of determining the laws of Russia’s historical path, and on the positive prospects for Russia’s movement upon it. Particular attention is paid to how Mironov examines and interprets the course of Russian colonization, its influence on the internal processes in society in general, and on the fate of specific regions and the ethnic groups. In Mironov’s opinion, the inclusion of new lands in Russia has had generally beneficial effects for the country as a whole and for the people who inhabit it. Smirnov engages in a thought experiment in order to assess in how far Mironov’s conclusions are applicable to the southeast of Russia. The results prove the validity of the conclusions and their applicability to research of other colonized territories. The reviewer recognizes as valid the opinion that the economic reserves of serfdom had not been exhausted by the middle of the 19th century. The liberation of the peasants was caused by many factors, among which moral and cultural reasons were not in the last place. The imperial “Enlightened” bureaucracy became the leader of peasant and other reforms. The article expressed disagreement that the strengthening of the position of the nobility and their power over the peasants in the 18th century was determined by the decisive role of the guard in palace coups. Mironov’s book will stimulate new research and discussions on topical issues of Russian history.

  12. Recent advances in combination of capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry: methodology and theory. (United States)

    Klepárník, Karel


    This review focuses on the latest development of microseparation electromigration methods in capillaries and microfluidic devices with MS detection and identification. A wide selection of 183 relevant articles covers the literature published from June 2012 till May 2014 as a continuation of the review article on the same topic by Kleparnik [Electrophoresis 2013, 34, 70-86]. Special attention is paid to the new improvements in the theory of instrumentation and methodology of MS interfacing with capillary versions of zone electrophoresis, ITP, and IEF. Ionization methods in MS include ESI, MALDI, and ICP. Although the main attention is paid to the development of instrumentation and methodology, representative examples illustrate also applications in the proteomics, glycomics, metabolomics, biomarker research, forensics, pharmacology, food analysis, and single-cell analysis. The combinations of MS with capillary versions of electrochromatography and micellar electrokinetic chromatography are not included.

  13. Life prediction methodology for ceramic components of advanced vehicular heat engines: Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandelwal, P.K.; Provenzano, N.J.; Schneider, W.E. [Allison Engine Co., Indianapolis, IN (United States)


    One of the major challenges involved in the use of ceramic materials is ensuring adequate strength and durability. This activity has developed methodology which can be used during the design phase to predict the structural behavior of ceramic components. The effort involved the characterization of injection molded and hot isostatic pressed (HIPed) PY-6 silicon nitride, the development of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology, and the development of analytical life prediction methodology. Four failure modes are addressed: fast fracture, slow crack growth, creep, and oxidation. The techniques deal with failures initiating at the surface as well as internal to the component. The life prediction methodology for fast fracture and slow crack growth have been verified using a variety of confirmatory tests. The verification tests were conducted at room and elevated temperatures up to a maximum of 1371 {degrees}C. The tests involved (1) flat circular disks subjected to bending stresses and (2) high speed rotating spin disks. Reasonable correlation was achieved for a variety of test conditions and failure mechanisms. The predictions associated with surface failures proved to be optimistic, requiring re-evaluation of the components` initial fast fracture strengths. Correlation was achieved for the spin disks which failed in fast fracture from internal flaws. Time dependent elevated temperature slow crack growth spin disk failures were also successfully predicted.

  14. Ethical issues in autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT in advanced breast cancer: A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheibler Fueloep


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An effectiveness assessment on ASCT in locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer identified serious ethical issues associated with this intervention. Our objective was to systematically review these aspects by means of a literature analysis. Methods We chose the reflexive Socratic approach as the review method using Hofmann's question list, conducted a comprehensive literature search in biomedical, psychological and ethics bibliographic databases and screened the resulting hits in a 2-step selection process. Relevant arguments were assembled from the included articles, and were assessed and assigned to the question list. Hofmann's questions were addressed by synthesizing these arguments. Results Of the identified 879 documents 102 included arguments related to one or more questions from Hofmann's question list. The most important ethical issues were the implementation of ASCT in clinical practice on the basis of phase-II trials in the 1990s and the publication of falsified data in the first randomized controlled trials (Bezwoda fraud, which caused significant negative effects on recruiting patients for further clinical trials and the doctor-patient relationship. Recent meta-analyses report a marginal effect in prolonging disease-free survival, accompanied by severe harms, including death. ASCT in breast cancer remains a stigmatized technology. Reported health-related-quality-of-life data are often at high risk of bias in favor of the survivors. Furthermore little attention has been paid to those patients who were dying. Conclusions The questions were addressed in different degrees of completeness. All arguments were assignable to the questions. The central ethical dimensions of ASCT could be discussed by reviewing the published literature.

  15. Building Irish families through surrogacy: medical and judicial issues for the advanced reproductive technologies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, Eric Scott


    Surrogacy involves one woman (surrogate mother) carrying a child for another person\\/s (commissioning person\\/couple), based on a mutual agreement requiring the child to be handed over to the commissioning person\\/couple following birth. Reasons for seeking surrogacy include situations where a woman has non-functional or absent reproductive organs, or as a remedy for recurrent pregnancy loss. Additionally, surrogacy may find application in any medical context where pregnancy is contraindicated, or where a couple consisting of two males seek to become parents through oocyte donation. Gestational surrogacy is one of the main issues at the forefront of bioethics and the advanced reproductive technologies, representing an important challenge to medical law. This analysis reviews the history of surrogacy and clinical and legal issues pertaining to this branch of reproductive medicine. Interestingly, the Medical Council of Ireland does not acknowledge surrogacy in its current practice guidelines, nor is there specific legislation addressing surrogacy in Ireland at present. We therefore have developed a contract-based model for surrogacy in which, courts in Ireland may consider when confronted with a surrogacy dispute, and formulated a system to resolve any potential dispute arising from a surrogacy arrangement. While the 2005 report by the Commission on Assisted Human Reproduction (CAHR) is an expert opinion guiding the Oireachtas\\' development of specific legislation governing assisted human reproduction and surrogacy, our report represents independent scholarship on the contractual elements of surrogacy with particular focus on how Irish courts might decide on surrogacy matters in a modern day Ireland. This joint medico-legal collaborative also reviews the contract for services arrangement between the commissioning person\\/s and the surrogate, and the extent to which the contract may be enforced.

  16. New methods, new methodology: Advanced CFD in the Snecma turbomachinery design process (United States)

    Vuillez, Christophe; Petot, Bertrand


    CFD tools represent a significant source of improvements in the design process of turbomachinery components, leading to higher performances, cost and cycle savings as well as lower associated risks. Such methods are the backbone of compressor and turbine design methodologies at Snecma. In the 80's, the use of 3D Euler solvers was a key factor in designing fan blades with very high performance level. Counter rotating high speed propellers designed with this methodology reached measured performances very close to their ambitious objective from the first test series. In the late 80's and the beginning of the 90's, new, more powerful methods were rapidly developed and are now commonly used in the design process: a quasi-3D, compressible, transonic inverse method; quasi-3D and 3D Navier-Stokes solvers; 3D unsteady Euler solvers. As an example, several hundred 3D Navier-Stokes computations are run yearly for the design of low and high pressure compressor and turbine blades. In addition to their modelling capabilities, the efficient use of such methods in the design process comes from their close integration in the global methodology and from an adequate exploitation environment. Their validation, their calibration, and the correlations between different levels of modelling are of critical importance to an actual improvement in design know-how. The integration of different methods in the design process is described. Several examples of application illustrate their practical utilization. Comparisons between computational results and test results show their capabilities as well as their present limitations. The prospects linked to new developments currently under way are discussed.

  17. Advanced biosensing methodologies developed for evaluating performance quality and safety of emerging biophotonics technologies and medical devices (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Ilev, Ilko K.; Walker, Bennett; Calhoun, William; Hassan, Moinuddin


    Biophotonics is an emerging field in modern biomedical technology that has opened up new horizons for transfer of state-of-the-art techniques from the areas of lasers, fiber optics and biomedical optics to the life sciences and medicine. This field continues to vastly expand with advanced developments across the entire spectrum of biomedical applications ranging from fundamental "bench" laboratory studies to clinical patient "bedside" diagnostics and therapeutics. However, in order to translate these technologies to clinical device applications, the scientific and industrial community, and FDA are facing the requirement for a thorough evaluation and review of laser radiation safety and efficacy concerns. In many cases, however, the review process is complicated due the lack of effective means and standard test methods to precisely analyze safety and effectiveness of some of the newly developed biophotonics techniques and devices. There is, therefore, an immediate public health need for new test protocols, guidance documents and standard test methods to precisely evaluate fundamental characteristics, performance quality and safety of these technologies and devices. Here, we will overview our recent developments of novel test methodologies for safety and efficacy evaluation of some emerging biophotonics technologies and medical devices. These methodologies are based on integrating the advanced features of state-of-the-art optical sensor technologies and approaches such as high-resolution fiber-optic sensing, confocal and optical coherence tomography imaging, and infrared spectroscopy. The presentation will also illustrate some methodologies developed and implemented for testing intraocular lens implants, biochemical contaminations of medical devices, ultrahigh-resolution nanoscopy, and femtosecond laser therapeutics.

  18. Advances in ranking and selection, multiple comparisons, and reliability methodology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, N; Nagaraja, HN


    S. Panchapakesan has made significant contributions to ranking and selection and has published in many other areas of statistics, including order statistics, reliability theory, stochastic inequalities, and inference. Written in his honor, the twenty invited articles in this volume reflect recent advances in these areas and form a tribute to Panchapakesan's influence and impact on these areas. Thematically organized, the chapters cover a broad range of topics from: Inference; Ranking and Selection; Multiple Comparisons and Tests; Agreement Assessment; Reliability; and Biostatistics. Featuring

  19. A methodological approach to comparing pros and cons of delocalizing villages: socio-economic and technical issues (United States)

    Guadagno, Eleonora; Iovine, Giulio G. R.; Petrucci, Olga; Forciniti, Pinuccia R.


    Cavallerizzo have been analysed within the frame of a PhD thesis by one of the authors. The present study focuses on the Cavallerizzo case study to discuss a methodological approach useful to comparing pros and cons of delocalizing villages, aiming at properly considering socio-economic effects in addition to technical issues.

  20. Mapas cognitivos e a pesquisa organizacional: explorando aspectos metodológicos Cognitive maps and organizational research: exploring methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Virgílio Bittencourt Bastos


    Full Text Available A intersecção entre as ciências da cognição e os estudos organizacionais criou um campo emergente de pesquisa denominado cognição organizacional. Tal campo se apóia em uma visão de organização como processos socialmente construídos que, de forma recorrente, articulam atores em interação. Assim, grande ênfase é dada ao papel das cognições dos atores como mediadoras de importantes processos e produtos organizacionais, em seus diferentes níveis. Os mapas cognitivos, nesse domínio, têm sido crescentemente utilizados como ferramentas para representar estruturas e processos cognitivos que ajudam a compreender decisões e ações que configuram uma organização. O presente texto, apoiado em uma revisão da literatura, após localizar as tendências no campo que justificam o uso dos mapas cognitivos, procura caracterizá-los, especialmente no tocante às decisões metodológicas que configuram seus diferentes tipos. Como conclusão, discutem-se os limites e potencialidades dos mapas cognitivos como ferramentas de pesquisa de processos organizacionais.The intersection between cognitive sciences and organizational studies has created a new field of research called organizational cognition. Research in this field is based on a view of organizational processes as the result of social constructions - the exchange and articulation of ideas among those involved in the organization. Thus, a great emphasis is given to the role of the actor's cognitions, which mediate important organizational processes and products. Cognitive maps have been increasingly used in this domain as tools to represent the cognitive structures and processes that help to understand the decisions and actions that define an organization. The present text first identifies the research objectives that justify the use of cognitive maps, then characterizes these tools based on the methodological issues that differentiate among various approaches. The third and final topic

  1. Advances in cheminformatics methodologies and infrastructure to support the data mining of large, heterogeneous chemical datasets. (United States)

    Guha, Rajarshi; Gilbert, Kevin; Fox, Geoffrey; Pierce, Marlon; Wild, David; Yuan, Huapeng


    In recent years, there has been an explosion in the availability of publicly accessible chemical information, including chemical structures of small molecules, structure-derived properties and associated biological activities in a variety of assays. These data sources present us with a significant opportunity to develop and apply computational tools to extract and understand the underlying structure-activity relationships. Furthermore, by integrating chemical data sources with biological information (protein structure, gene expression and so on), we can attempt to build up a holistic view of the effects of small molecules in biological systems. Equally important is the ability for non-experts to access and utilize state of the art cheminformatics method and models. In this review we present recent developments in cheminformatics methodologies and infrastructure that provide a robust, distributed approach to mining large and complex chemical datasets. In the area of methodology development, we highlight recent work on characterizing structure-activity landscapes, Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) model domain applicability and the use of chemical similarity in text mining. In the area of infrastructure, we discuss a distributed web services framework that allows easy deployment and uniform access to computational (statistics, cheminformatics and computational chemistry) methods, data and models. We also discuss the development of PubChem derived databases and highlight techniques that allow us to scale the infrastructure to extremely large compound collections, by use of distributed processing on Grids. Given that the above work is applicable to arbitrary types of cheminformatics problems, we also present some case studies related to virtual screening for anti-malarials and predictions of anti-cancer activity.

  2. Conventional and Advanced Separations in Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics: Methodologies and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyman, Heino M.; Zhang, Xing; Tang, Keqi; Baker, Erin Shammel; Metz, Thomas O.


    Metabolomics is the quantitative analysis of all metabolites in a given sample. Due to the chemical complexity of the metabolome, optimal separations are required for comprehensive identification and quantification of sample constituents. This chapter provides an overview of both conventional and advanced separations methods in practice for reducing the complexity of metabolite extracts delivered to the mass spectrometer detector, and covers gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) separation techniques coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) as both uni-dimensional and as multi-dimensional approaches.

  3. Recent Advances in Characterization of Lignin Polymer by Solution-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Run-Cang Sun


    Full Text Available The demand for efficient utilization of biomass induces a detailed analysis of the fundamental chemical structures of biomass, especially the complex structures of lignin polymers, which have long been recognized for their negative impact on biorefinery. Traditionally, it has been attempted to reveal the complicated and heterogeneous structure of lignin by a series of chemical analyses, such as thioacidolysis (TA, nitrobenzene oxidation (NBO, and derivatization followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC. Recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR technology undoubtedly have made solution-state NMR become the most widely used technique in structural characterization of lignin due to its versatility in illustrating structural features and structural transformations of lignin polymers. As one of the most promising diagnostic tools, NMR provides unambiguous evidence for specific structures as well as quantitative structural information. The recent advances in two-dimensional solution-state NMR techniques for structural analysis of lignin in isolated and whole cell wall states (in situ, as well as their applications are reviewed.

  4. Point-of-care diagnostics: an advancing sector with nontechnical issues. (United States)

    Huckle, David


    The particular reasons for the relative lack in development of point-of-care (PoC) diagnostics in a business context were discussed in our sister journal, Expert Review of Medical Devices, over 2 years ago. At that time, it could be seen that the concept of PoC testing was being revisited for at least the fifth time in the last 20 years. There had been important advances in technology but, with changes in global healthcare structures and funding, the overall in vitro diagnostics sector has had sluggish growth. Only molecular diagnostics and PoC testing are growing strongly. PoC testing is now a quarter of the total global in vitro diagnostics market, but largely due to use in diabetes monitoring. An increased focus on areas other than glucose self-testing has created a disturbance in the market. An implementation issue from this disturbance is that of control between central laboratories and the proposed sites for PoC testing. Evidence is presented to show that the first step is likely to be increased use in clinics and outpatient facilities closely linked with the laboratory. The aim will be to control the quality of the test, maintenance of equipment and provide support for the clinician in interpretation. The major problem for effective PoC implementation will be the significant changes to patient pathways that are required. The changes will benefit the patient and clinical outcomes but will require healthcare professionals to change their work patterns. This will be an uphill task!

  5. EDITORIAL: Special issue on optical neural engineering: advances in optical stimulation technology Special issue on optical neural engineering: advances in optical stimulation technology (United States)

    Shoham, Shy; Deisseroth, Karl


    a single spine, with two-photon uncaging) and in rapid, flexible spatial-temporal patterns [10-14]. Nevertheless, current technology generally requires damaging doses of UV or violet illumination and the continuous re-introduction of the caged compound, which, despite interest, makes for a difficult transition beyond in vitro preparations. Thus, the tremendous progress in the in vivo application of photo-stimulation tools over the past five years has been largely facilitated by two 'exciting' new photo-stimulation technologies: photo-biological stimulation of a rapidly increasing arsenal of light-sensitive ion channels and pumps ('optogenetic' probes[15-18]) and direct photo-thermal stimulation of neural tissue with an IR laser [19-21]. The Journal of Neural Engineering has dedicated a special section in this issue to highlight advances in optical stimulation technology, which includes original peer-reviewed contributions dealing with the design of modern optical systems for spatial-temporal control of optical excitation patterns and with the biophysics of neural-thermal interaction mediated by electromagnetic waves. The paper by Nikolenko, Peterka and Yuste [22] presents a compact design of a microscope-photo-stimulator based on a transmissive phase-modulating spatial-light modulator (SLM). Computer-generated holographic photo-stimulation using SLMs [12-14, 23] allows the efficient parallel projection of intense sparse patterns of light, and the welcome development of compact, user-friendly systems will likely reduce the barrier to its widespread adoption. The paper by Losavio et al [24] presents the design and functional characteristics of their acousto-optical deflector (AOD) systems for studying spatial-temporal dendritic integration in single neurons in vitro. Both single-photon (UV) and two-photon (femtosecond pulsed IR) AOD uncaging systems are described in detail. The paper presents an excellent overview of the current state of the art and limitations of

  6. Geared rotor dynamic methodologies for advancing prognostic modeling capabilities in rotary-wing transmission systems (United States)

    Stringer, David Blake

    The overarching objective in this research is the development of a robust, rotor dynamic, physics based model of a helicopter drive train as a foundation for the prognostic modeling for rotary-wing transmissions. Rotorcrafts rely on the integrity of their drive trains for their airworthiness. Drive trains rely on gear technology for their integrity and function. Gears alter the vibration characteristics of a mechanical system and significantly contribute to noise, component fatigue, and personal discomfort prevalent in rotorcraft. This research effort develops methodologies for generating a rotor dynamic model of a rotary-wing transmission based on first principles, through (i) development of a three-dimensional gear-mesh stiffness model for helical and spur gears and integration of this model in a finite element rotor dynamic model, (ii) linear and nonlinear analyses of a geared system for comparison and validation of the gear-mesh model, (iii) development of a modal synthesis technique for potentially providing model reduction and faster analysis capabilities for geared systems, and (iv) extension of the gear-mesh model to bevel and epicyclic configurations. In addition to model construction and validation, faults indigenous to geared systems are presented and discussed. Two faults are selected for analysis and seeded into the transmission model. Diagnostic vibration parameters are presented and used as damage indicators in the analysis. The fault models produce results consistent with damage experienced during experimental testing. The results of this research demonstrate the robustness of the physics-based approach in simulating multiple normal and abnormal conditions. The advantages of this physics-based approach, when combined with contemporary probabilistic and time-series techniques, provide a useful method for improving health monitoring technologies in mechanical systems.

  7. An Examination of the State of Imitation Research in Children with Autism: Issues of Definition and Methodology (United States)

    Sevlever, Melina; Gillis, Jennifer M.


    Several authors have suggested that children with autism are impaired in their ability to imitate others. However, diverse methodologies, contradictory findings, and varying theoretical explanations continue to exist in the literature despite decades of research. A comprehensive account of imitation in children with autism is hampered by the lack…

  8. Exploring the Society-Body-School Nexus: Theoretical and Methodology Issues in the Study of Body Pedagogics (United States)

    Shilling, Chris


    In this article I identify how developments in consumer culture, waged-work and health policy have informed our current interest in the body, before suggesting that Durkheim's and Mauss's methodological approach towards the external and internal dimensions of "social facts" provides us with a valuable basis on which we can analyse the…

  9. Methodological Issues in Self-Disclosure Research: "Would you Like Being a Prostitute: Why or Why Not?" (United States)

    Bridge, R. Gary

    The author attempts to categorize the methodological approaches which have been used in self-disclosure research, identify some of the important problems that attend these research procedures, and propose some alternative strategies for future research on self-disclosure. He discusses correlational and experimental research strategies. The…

  10. Methodological Issues in Documentary Ethnography: A Renewed Call for Putting Cameras in the Hands of the People. (United States)

    Huesca, Robert

    The participatory method of image production holds enormous potential for communication and journalism scholars operating out of a critical/cultural framework. The methodological potentials of mechanical reproduction were evident in the 1930s, when Walter Benjamin contributed three enduring concepts: questioning the art/document dichotomy; placing…

  11. Methodological study and application of advanced receptor modeling to airborne particulate sources (United States)

    Chueinta, Wanna

    Two aspects of air quality management, aerosol mass measurement and pollution source identification, were studied. A beta gauge was developed to determine particulate mass collected on filter. Two advanced receptor models were applied to resolve possible sources of pollutants on local and regional scales by use of positive matrix factorization (PMF) and multilinear engine (ME), respectively. A simple, low cost beta gauge was designed, constructed, and tested to determine if it provided the necessary performance and reliability in collected aerosol mass measurements. The beta gauge was calibrated and evaluated by experiments with different sized particles. The results showed that the unit provided a satisfactory accuracy and precision with respect to the gravimetric method. (PMF) is a least-square approach to factor analysis. In this study, PMF was applied to investigate the possible sources of airborne particulate matter (APM) collected at an urban residential area of Bangkok from June 1995 to May 1996 and at a suburban residential area in Pathumthani from September 1993 to August 1994. The data consisting of the fine and coarse fractions were analyzed separately. The analysis used the robust analysis mode and rotations to produce six source factors for both the fine and coarse fractions at the urban site and five factors for the fine and coarse fractions at the suburban site. Examination of the influence of wind direction showed the correspondence of some specific factors such as sea salt and vehicle sources with known area sources. ME is a new algorithm for solving a broad range of multilinear problems. A model was developed for the analysis of spatial patterns and possible sources affecting haze and its visual effects in the southwestern United States. The data from the project Measurement of Haze and Visual Effects (MOHAVE) collected during the late winter and mid-summer of 1992 at the monitoring sites in four states, i.e., California, Arizona, Nevada and Utah

  12. Putin, Bush issue statement on advancing US-Russian human contacts

    CERN Multimedia


    "In addition to interstate, bilateral, regional and global issues discussed by Russian President Vladimir Putin and US President George Bush during their Kremlin summit on 24 May, the two leaders considered issues related to people-to-people contacts, ties between cities, states and regions, institutions and organizations" (1 page).

  13. Classroom Climate and Contextual Effects: Conceptual and Methodological Issues in the Evaluation of Group-Level Effects (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Ludtke, Oliver; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Abduljabbar, Adel S.; Koller, Olaf


    Classroom context and climate are inherently classroom-level (L2) constructs, but applied researchers sometimes--inappropriately--represent them by student-level (L1) responses in single-level models rather than more appropriate multilevel models. Here we focus on important conceptual issues (distinctions between climate and contextual variables;…

  14. Resolving ten MVNO issues with EPS architecture, VoLTE and advanced policy server


    COPELAND, Rebecca; Crespi, Noel


    International audience; The numbers of MVNOs (Mobile Virtual Network Operator) are growing globally, but so do their operational and business issues. This paper identifies these issues and looks for remedies via the new 4G architecture and interfaces. The paper examines the "Full" MVNO model as a "Home" network in a pseudo roaming scenario (National Roaming), allowing MVNO to connect to multiple MNOs through the discovery and selection process, and to benefit from the access agnostic nature o...

  15. Meta-analyses and other methodological issues in meditation research: Reply to Orme-Johnson and Dillbeck (2014). (United States)

    Sedlmeier, Peter; Eberth, Juliane; Schwarz, Marcus


    We are grateful to Orme-Johnson and Dillbeck (2014) for raising several potential methodological concerns they have with our meta-analysis of the psychological effects of meditation and for thereby providing us with the opportunity to clarify these points. Orme-Johnson and Dillbeck raised 4 points that they believed might have led to unfair treatment of studies that reported the effects of transcendental meditation (TM). First, they were concerned with the way we aggregated effects over different categories of variables. Second, they disagreed with our contention that there might have been some upward bias in the effects reported for TM studies. Third, they argued that the results from TM studies do not differ depending on whether studies were done by researchers affiliated with TM institutions, and 4th, they questioned the completeness of our selection of TM studies. We still believe that our methodology for reporting study results was justified on theoretical grounds and argue that the results for all variable categories are readily available in our analysis. We also still find some indication of upward bias for TM studies, even using the method they propose. We cannot say much regarding author affiliation because we did not raise that point, and, last, we have to concede that we indeed missed some TM studies. Yet this omission did not have any substantial practical consequences concerning our conclusions. We end with a short discussion about how meditation research should be conducted in the future.

  16. Using a phenomenological research technique to examine student nurses' understandings of experiential teaching and learning: a critical review of methodological issues. (United States)

    Green, A J; Holloway, D G


    This paper provides a report of the usage of a phenomenological research methodology to investigate the influence on clinical practice of pre- and post-registration nurse education which makes explicit use of experiential teaching and learning approaches. The primary aim of the research was to explore the use of a phenomenological research methodology to examine the students' understanding of experiential teaching and learning. The claims made for the use of experiential teaching and learning approaches in both pre- and post-registration nurse courses and how clinical practice is influenced by the experiential learning elements of pre- and post-registration nurse education were also examined. The first stage of the enquiry involved focused non-directive interviews with members of BSc Nursing Studies and MSc Mental Health Branch programmes. Both programmes claim to make use of experiential teaching and learning. The data were analysed using a technique developed by Giorgi. Previous experiences of experiential teaching and learning were probed, student interpretations differentiated, and the relationship between course-based learning using experiential approaches and the implications for it's influence on practice were examined. The second stage of the enquiry has followed up the initial findings, exploring the students' experience of experiential approaches on their courses both in the classroom and in work-based learning situations. The findings are presented and discussed in the context of other studies from both nurse and higher education. Throughout the paper methodological concerns arising are discussed. The paper concludes with the identification of methodological problems arising from the research strategy: the implications of the power nexus created when teachers research students, and issues relating to the use of a phenomenological methodology in a longitudinal study.

  17. Noninvasive Fetal Trisomy (NIFTY test: an advanced noninvasive prenatal diagnosis methodology for fetal autosomal and sex chromosomal aneuploidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Fuman


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventional prenatal screening tests, such as maternal serum tests and ultrasound scan, have limited resolution and accuracy. Methods We developed an advanced noninvasive prenatal diagnosis method based on massively parallel sequencing. The Noninvasive Fetal Trisomy (NIFTY test, combines an optimized Student’s t-test with a locally weighted polynomial regression and binary hypotheses. We applied the NIFTY test to 903 pregnancies and compared the diagnostic results with those of full karyotyping. Results 16 of 16 trisomy 21, 12 of 12 trisomy 18, two of two trisomy 13, three of four 45, X, one of one XYY and two of two XXY abnormalities were correctly identified. But one false positive case of trisomy 18 and one false negative case of 45, X were observed. The test performed with 100% sensitivity and 99.9% specificity for autosomal aneuploidies and 85.7% sensitivity and 99.9% specificity for sex chromosomal aneuploidies. Compared with three previously reported z-score approaches with/without GC-bias removal and with internal control, the NIFTY test was more accurate and robust for the detection of both autosomal and sex chromosomal aneuploidies in fetuses. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a powerful and reliable methodology for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis.

  18. Cognitive Issues in Learning Advanced Physics: An Example from Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha


    We are investigating cognitive issues in learning quantum mechanics in order to develop effective teaching and learning tools. The analysis of cognitive issues is particularly important for bridging the gap between the quantitative and conceptual aspects of quantum mechanics and for ensuring that the learning tools help students build a robust knowledge structure. We discuss the cognitive aspects of quantum mechanics that are similar or different from those of introductory physics and their implications for developing strategies to help students develop a good grasp of quantum mechanics.

  19. Advances in Graduate Marketing Curriculum: Paying Attention to Ethical, Social, and Sustainability Issues (United States)

    Weber, James


    This research explores the impact of coercive, mimetic, and normative isomorphic pressures on the coverage and offering of courses addressing ethical, social, and sustainability issues (ESSI) in business schools' graduate marketing curricula. Data from the Aspen Institute's Beyond Grey Pinstripes program are analyzed to detect if…

  20. Advances in Graduate Marketing Curriculum: Paying Attention to Ethical, Social, and Sustainability Issues (United States)

    Weber, James


    This research explores the impact of coercive, mimetic, and normative isomorphic pressures on the coverage and offering of courses addressing ethical, social, and sustainability issues (ESSI) in business schools' graduate marketing curricula. Data from the Aspen Institute's Beyond Grey Pinstripes program are analyzed to detect if significant…

  1. Global energy and environmental issues, reflected in Toyota's advanced powertrain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Toshiaki [Toyota Motor Corporation, Aichi (Japan)


    Energy diversification is proceeding due to environmental issues and need for energy security. At the same time, the environmental challenges for the automobile are becoming more and more severe due to the requirement for low fuel consumption and air pollution. While the alternative fuels are expanding due to concerns on future oil supply, automakers need to promote multi-directional developments. However it is considered that oil will remain as the main fuel source in the next few decades. Thus, the development of internal combustion engine (ICE) and of high efficiency vehicle systems will remain an important challenge. Furthermore hybrid vehicle (HV) technology and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology are expected to be one effective technology to save oil usage. For that purpose, promoting electricity production which emits low CO{sub 2} and the development of a high energy density battery is important. In addition to the energy issue, air pollution issue is also an important matter. Although the emission regulations are continuously becoming more stringent to respond to the air pollution issue, many areas have a mismatch between emission regulation and suitable fuel quality. Therefore automakers are taking action for resolving the contradiction. Since it will take time until fuel quality meets the required specification, developing the technologies to prevent the major matters for consumers can't be avoided. Coordination of fuel properties and quality over a wide area is essential for improving air quality locally and globally. (orig.)

  2. Redevelopment of the Arctic Area of Russia as an Objective of Systems Research and Special-Purpose Program Management Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikolayevich Leksin


    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the methodological foundations of implementation of the rules and regulations of the development of the Arctic region of Russia, which relies on the hypothesis interpreting such development as the biggest integrated megaproject in the history of Russia. The substantiation involves both the project-oriented approach to identify the subject-matter of the research and the systems approach to assess the key opportunities of providing the integrative structure of the megaproject in the conditions of drastic differences between the areal components of the Arctic region, and to study the internal and external factors’ impact on the character, drivers and pace of the region redevelopment. The set of consistent methodological positions concerning their policy implementation by responsible governmental agencies in the foreseeable future of the Arctic is developed. The most important position involves the identification of the objective of the public administration of the Arctic region development as a systemically organized entity of multiple coordinated actions of the federal, regional and municipal authorities, corporations and civil society institutions integrated by the unique policy target and economic, social and infrastructure links. Implementation of the public administration requires the principles of systems approach, the reasonable trade-off between centralization, decentralization and continuity of governance focused exclusively on the Arctic issues. At the same time, the integration of the projects of the region’s areal components development to insure the common targets of the Arctic’s megaproject accompanied by the reconsideration of the earlier developed programs turns into a genuinely new methodological issue. In the article, recommendations to provide such integration are introduced.

  3. Legal issues in neonatal nursing: considerations for staff nurses and advanced practice nurses. (United States)

    Enzman Hagedorn, M I; Gardner, S L


    A neonatal nurse is a professional with special training, skill, and knowledge in the care of newborns and their families. The neonatal nurse is accountable to the patient, profession, and employer. Failure of the neonatal nurse to meet these obligations can result in liability in the profession, liability in the employment, a civil suit, or a criminal conviction. Regardless of the health care setting, professional nurses, whether at the bedside or in advanced practice, are morally, ethically, and legally accountable for their nursing judgments and actions. Although most nurses assume they will never be named in a lawsuit, and it is true that few are, their professional actions can be the focus of a suit. An overview of the legal implications found within neonatal nursing practice is presented. Two recent legal cases are presented and discussed to illustrate neonatal nursing and advanced practice liability.

  4. Methodology and Psychological Knowledge Issues in the Procedural Differentiation Sphere and the Evidence Doctrine: Problems of Theory and Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey S. Tsyganenko


    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to actual problems of the theory and legislation of the modern criminal trial based on provisions of differentiation of a procedural form. Its basic provisions belong also to questions of evidentiary activity. Characteristics of knowledge on criminal case will claim the psychological knowledge and categories included in the mechanism of legal regulation of criminal procedure activity. Key role is allocated for the principle of freedom of an assessment of proofs. In this case the assessment of proofs is carried out on internal belief. Historically it is connected with institute of jury trial and competitiveness. Both the principle of freedom of assessment of proofs, and many other provisions of the procedural theory and the legislation need interpretation and an explanation with use of modern psychological knowledge. At the same time in modern Russian criminal procedure as well as in foreign types of criminal trial the reduced summary or special procedural jurisdictions are actively applied. It means formation of the differentiated model of criminal legal proceedings at which there is a summary process. Simplification of an order of proof on a criminal case through a wide range of exceptions is characteristic of them that constitutes a theoretical and practical problem. At their decision it is necessary to use a modern arsenal of methodology and the theory, including new achievements in the field of psychological knowledge.

  5. Investigation of indoor air volatile organic compounds concentration levels in dental settings and some related methodological issues. (United States)

    Santarsiero, Anna; Fuselli, Sergio; Piermattei, Alessandro; Morlino, Roberta; De Blasio, Giorgia; De Felice, Marco; Ortolani, Emanuela


    The assessment of indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentration levels in dental settings has a big health relevance for the potentially massive occupational exposure to a lot of diverse contaminants. The comparison of the VOCs profile relative to indoor conditions and to the corresponding outdoor concentrations, as well as the discovery of possible correlations between specific dental activities and VOCs concentration variations are of utmost importance for offering a reliable characterization of risk for dentists and dental staff health. In this study we review the most relevant environmental studies addressing the VOCs contamination level in dental settings. We analyze the methodological problems this kind of study must face and we report preliminary results of an indoor air investigation, carried out at dental hospital in Italy, the "Ospedale odontoiatrico George Eastman" of Rome, in which general lines for the analysis of dental settings in environmental terms are sketched. The aim of this work is to identify the kind of problems a typical enclosed (non-industrial) environment indoor air investigation has to cope with by means of the analysis of a case study.

  6. Methodological issues about techniques for the spiking of standard OECD soil with nanoparticles: evidence of different behaviours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglietta, Maria Lucia, E-mail:; Rametta, Gabriella; Manzo, Sonia; Salluzzo, Antonio; Rimauro, Juri; Francia, Girolamo Di [ENEA, Portici Technical Unit, C.R. Portici (Italy)


    The aim of this study is to investigate at what extent the results of standard nanoparticle (NP) toxicity testing methodologies are affected by the different exposure procedures on soil organisms. In this view, differences in physicochemical properties of ZnO NPs (<100 nm), ZnO bulk (<200 nm) and ionic Zinc (ZnCl{sub 2}) and their ecotoxicological potential toward Lepidium sativum were investigated with respect to three different spiking methods. Results show that the spiking procedures give homogeneous distribution of the testing nanomaterial in soil but the physicochemical and ecotoxicological properties of the testing species differ according to the spiking procedure. Dry spiking produced the highest ZnO solubility whereas spiking through dispersions of ZnO in water and in aqueous soil extracts produced the lowest. At the same time, the ecotoxic effects showed different trends with regard to the spiking route. The need for a definition of agreed methods concerning the NP spiking procedures is, therefore, urgent.

  7. Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, Bruce C.; Dixon, David A.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Chipman, Daniel M.; Johnson, Mark A.; Jonah, Charles D.; Kimmel, Greg A.; Miller, John H.; Rescigno, Tom; Rossky, Peter J.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Colson, Steve D.; Laufer, Allan H.; Ray, Douglas; Barbara, Paul F.; Bartels, David M.; Bowen, Kit H.; Becker, Kurt H.; Bradforth, Stephen E.; Carmichael, Ian; Coe, James V.; Corrales, L. Rene; Cowin, James P.; Dupuis, Michel; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.; Franz, James A.; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Jordon, Kenneth D.; Kay, Bruce D.; La Verne, Jay A.; Lymar, Sergei V.; Madey, Theodore E.; Mccurdy, C. W.; Meisel, Dan; Mukamel, Shaul; Nilsson, Anders R.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Pimblott, Simon M.; Rustad, James R.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Singer, Sherwin J.; Tokmakoff, Andrei; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Wittig, Curt; Zwier, Timothy S.


    An understanding of electron-initiated processes in aqueous systems and the subsequent radical chemistry these processes induce is significant in such diverse fields as waste remediation and environmental cleanup, radiation processing, nuclear reactors, and medical diagnosis and therapy. We review the state of the art in the physical chemistry and chemical physics of electron-initiated processes in aqueous systems and raise critical research issues and fundamental questions that remain unanswered.

  8. Functional issues and environmental qualification of digital protection systems of advanced light-water nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Wood, R.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Issues of obsolescence and lack of infrastructural support in (analog) spare parts, coupled with the potential benefits of digital systems, are driving the nuclear industry to retrofit analog instrumentation and control (I&C) systems with digital and microprocessor-based systems. While these technologies have several advantages, their application to safety-related systems in nuclear power plants raises key issues relating to the systems` environmental qualification and functional reliability. To bound the problem of new I&C system functionality and qualification, the authors focused this study on protection systems proposed for use in ALWRs. Specifically, both functional and environmental qualification issues for ALWR protection system I&C were addressed by developing an environmental, functional, and aging data template for a protection division of each proposed ALWR design. By using information provided by manufacturers, environmental conditions and stressors to which I&C equipment in reactor protection divisions may be subjected were identified. The resulting data were then compared to a similar template for an instrument string typically found in an analog protection division of a present-day nuclear power plant. The authors also identified fiber-optic transmission systems as technologies that are relatively new to the nuclear power plant environment and examined the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber-optic components and systems. One reason for the exercise of caution in the introduction of software into safety-critical systems is the potential for common-cause failure due to the software. This study, however, approaches the functionality problem from a systems point of view. System malfunction scenarios are postulated to illustrate the fact that, when dealing with the performance of the overall integrated system, the real issues are functionality and fault tolerance, not hardware vs. software.

  9. The Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire: a new methodology for science and practice in criminology and forensics. (United States)

    Lindberg, Marc A; Fugett, April; Lounder, Lindsay


    Most modern theories suggest that interpersonal relationships are of central importance in the development of criminal behavior. We tested the parent attachment scales of a new research and clinical measure, the Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire (ACIQ). It is a 29-scale battery assessing attachments to mother, father, partner, and peers, which also includes several related clinical scales. Sixty-one (18-20 years of age) male offenders from a maximum security detention center and 131 contrasts completed the ACIQ. ANOVA demonstrated that mother and father attachments displayed different patterns. The attachment scales also predicted the numbers of crimes within the population of juvenile offenders. Thus, the parent attachment scales of the ACIQ showed promise as an instrument to test dynamic systems approaches to developmental models of criminal behavior.

  10. Aspectos metodológicos e constitutivos do pensamento do adulto Methodological and concerning issues from an adult's thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alberto da Silva


    Full Text Available O estudo do pensamento do adulto apresenta algumas particularidades metodológicas que dificultam a investigação. Para a análise das estruturas e dos processos mentais, os pesquisadores da Epistemologia Genética têm por referência o Método Clínico-Crítico ou, simplesmente, Método Clínico. Todavia, os estudos de Piaget e da Escola de Genebra se ocupam, principalmente, do desenvolvimento em termos psicogenéticos, isto é, da evolução intelectual a partir da criança. No caso dos adultos, o Método Clínico precisa sofrer algumas adaptações, pois estes apresentam estruturas e processos de pensamento singulares. Em geral, o raciocínio mais apurado e rápido dos adultos pode levar à abertura de múltiplos possíveis e de incontáveis patamares de hipóteses que se reúnem em quadros dedutíveis simultâneos. É particularmente difícil averiguar um pensamento que pode seguir ao mesmo tempo mais do que um percurso, bem como descartar ligeiramente algumas hipóteses em favor de outras. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar possibilidades metodológicas de pesquisa que atendam as especificidades do adulto. Em particular, abordaremos a prática do Método Clínico e suas nuances na aplicação com sujeitos maiores de 20 anos. Dada a variedade de operações lógico-matemáticas possíveis, destacaremos a investigação na perspectiva do sujeito psicológico e da construção da significação.The study of the adults' thought has some methodological features that hinder the investigation. For the analysis of structures and mental processes of the researchers are reference Epistemology Genetics Clinical-Critical Method, or simply Clinical Method. However, the studies of Piaget and the Geneva School of dealing, mainly in terms of psychogenetic development i.e. the intellectual development from the child. For adults, the clinical method needs some adjustments because they have structures and processes of thinking individuals. In general

  11. Methodological issues associated with collecting sensitive information over the telephone - experience from an Australian non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullerton Simon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collecting population data on sensitive issues such as non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is problematic. Case note audits or hospital/clinic based presentations only record severe cases and do not distinguish between suicidal and non-suicidal intent. Community surveys have largely been limited to school and university students, resulting in little much needed population-based data on NSSI. Collecting these data via a large scale population survey presents challenges to survey methodologists. This paper addresses the methodological issues associated with collecting this type of data via CATI. Methods An Australia-wide population survey was funded by the Australian Government to determine prevalence estimates of NSSI and associations, predictors, relationships to suicide attempts and suicide ideation, and outcomes. Computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI on a random sample of the Australian population aged 10+ years of age from randomly selected households, was undertaken. Results Overall, from 31,216 eligible households, 12,006 interviews were undertaken (response rate 38.5%. The 4-week prevalence of NSSI was 1.1% (95% ci 0.9-1.3% and lifetime prevalence was 8.1% (95% ci 7.6-8.6. Methodological concerns and challenges in regard to collection of these data included extensive interviewer training and post interview counselling. Ethical considerations, especially with children as young as 10 years of age being asked sensitive questions, were addressed prior to data collection. The solution required a large amount of information to be sent to each selected household prior to the telephone interview which contributed to a lower than expected response rate. Non-coverage error caused by the population of interest being highly mobile, homeless or institutionalised was also a suspected issue in this low prevalence condition. In many circumstances the numbers missing from the sampling frame are small enough to not cause worry

  12. Advanced methodology for measuring the extensive elastic compliance and mechanical loss directly in k31 mode piezoelectric ceramic plates (United States)

    Majzoubi, Maryam; Shekhani, Husain N.; Bansal, Anushka; Hennig, Eberhard; Scholehwar, Timo; Uchino, Kenji


    Dielectric, elastic, and piezoelectric constants, and their corresponding losses are defined under constant conditions of two categories; namely, intensive (i.e., E, electric field or T, stress), and extensive (i.e., D, dielectric displacement or x, strain) ones. So far, only the intensive parameters and losses could be measured directly in a k31 mode sample. Their corresponding extensive parameters could be calculated indirectly using the coupling factor and "K" matrix. However, the extensive loss parameters, calculated through this indirect method, could have large uncertainty, due to the error propagation in calculation. In order to overcome this issue, extensive losses should be measured separately from the measurable intensive ones in lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) k31 mode rectangular plate ceramics. We propose a new mechanical-excitation methodology, using a non-destructive testing approach by means of a partial electrode configuration, instead of the conventional full electrode configuration. For this purpose, a non-electrode sample was prepared, where the electrode covered only 10% of the top and bottom surfaces at the center to actuate the whole sample, and also monitor the responding vibration. The admittance spectrum of this sample, corresponds to PZT properties under dielectric displacement D constant condition. Furthermore, ceramics with partial-electrodes were also prepared to create short and open circuit boundary conditions, attributing to resonance and anti-resonance modes. In the proposed way, we were able to measure both intensive and extensive elastic compliances and mechanical losses directly for the first time. The accuracy of this new method is compared with the conventional measurements by use of indirect calculations. The preliminary results (by neglecting the 10% actuator part difference at this point) were obtained, which were in good agreements (less than 3% difference) with the previous indirect method.

  13. Introduction to the special issue on Advances in intelligent nonlinear control for robotic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chee Khiang PANG; Huajin TANG; Qing Wei JIA


    @@ In the last two decades, robotic systems have achieved wide applications in every aspect of human society, including industrial manufacturing, automotive production, medical devices, and social lives. With the diversity of application do-mains, control techniques have pervaded from industrial robot manipulators, wheeled or legged mobile robots, unmanned autonomous aerial, ground, and underwater vehicles, to humanoid robots, and haptic devices, etc. The growing number of applications of robotics and increasing requirements for system stability, reliability, and safety, are posing new and challenging theoretical and technological problems for modeling and control of these highly nonlinear systems. Control of these complex systems is highly challenging due to the inherent nonlinear response and strong heterogeneity in dif-ferent parts as computers, sensors, hardware objects, etc. As such, novel nonlinear control strategies are essential to the advancement of robotic systems and corresponding technologies.

  14. Applications of Advanced Nondestructive Measurement Techniques to Address Safety of Flight Issues on NASA Spacecraft (United States)

    Prosser, Bill


    Advanced nondestructive measurement techniques are critical for ensuring the reliability and safety of NASA spacecraft. Techniques such as infrared thermography, THz imaging, X-ray computed tomography and backscatter X-ray are used to detect indications of damage in spacecraft components and structures. Additionally, sensor and measurement systems are integrated into spacecraft to provide structural health monitoring to detect damaging events that occur during flight such as debris impacts during launch and assent or from micrometeoroid and orbital debris, or excessive loading due to anomalous flight conditions. A number of examples will be provided of how these nondestructive measurement techniques have been applied to resolve safety critical inspection concerns for the Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), and a variety of launch vehicles and unmanned spacecraft.

  15. Barriers to advanced practice registered nurse scope of practice: issue analysis. (United States)

    Villegas, Whitney J; Allen, Patricia E


    Advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) have the unique potential to affect the changing needs of health care in the United States, but are restricted in care provision by varying state regulations and reimbursement policies. Although research shows APRN care to be safe, cost-effective, and of high quality, most medical professional organizations continue to oppose the removal of scope-of-practice barriers, citing patient safety concerns. Nursing organizations at the state and national levels have already begun to invest the time and resources needed for policy change. However, empirical evidence of APRN quality of care must be shared with policymakers, funding entities, and the public. Additionally, support must be garnered from the public and other health care disciplines. Scope-of-practice policy change will occur through the emergence of strong individuals within nursing professional organizations and the joining together of organizations to form one voice.

  16. US National Climate Assessment (NCA) Scenarios for Assessing Our Climate Future: Issues and Methodological Perspectives Background Whitepaper for Participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Richard H.; Engle, Nathan L.; Hall, John; Jacobs, Kathy; Lempert, Rob; Mearns, L. O.; Melillo, Jerry; Mote, Phil; O' Brien, Sheila; Rosenzweig, C.; Ruane, Alex; Sheppard, Stephen; Vallario, Robert W.; Wiek, Arnim; Wilbanks, Thomas


    This whitepaper is intended to provide a starting point for discussion at a workshop for the National Climate Assessment (NCA) that focuses on the use and development of scenarios. The paper will provide background needed by participants in the workshop in order to review options for developing and using scenarios in NCA. The paper briefly defines key terms and establishes a conceptual framework for developing consistent scenarios across different end uses and spatial scales. It reviews uses of scenarios in past U.S. national assessments and identifies potential users of and needs for scenarios for both the report scheduled for release in June 2013 and to support an ongoing distributed assessment process in sectors and regions around the country. Because scenarios prepared for the NCA will need to leverage existing research, the paper takes account of recent scientific advances and activities that could provide needed inputs. Finally, it considers potential approaches for providing methods, data, and other tools for assessment participants. We note that the term 'scenarios' has many meanings. An important goal of the whitepaper (and portions of the workshop agenda) is pedagogical (i.e., to compare different meanings and uses of the term and make assessment participants aware of the need to be explicit about types and uses of scenarios). In climate change research, scenarios have been used to establish bounds for future climate conditions and resulting effects on human and natural systems, given a defined level of greenhouse gas emissions. This quasi-predictive use contrasts with the way decision analysts typically use scenarios (i.e., to consider how robust alternative decisions or strategies may be to variation in key aspects of the future that are uncertain). As will be discussed, in climate change research and assessment, scenarios describe a range of aspects of the future, including major driving forces (both human activities and natural processes

  17. Biomedical, ethical, and moral issues being forced by advanced medical technologies. (United States)

    Satava, Richard M


    Technology is rampant, exponentially growing beyond the bounds normally comprehensible by the human mind. Many of these technologies are so fundamentally disruptive that they challenge the very practice of science. Discoveries once unimaginable except in science fiction are appearing at such a rapid rate that there is no time to evaluate their moral and ethical implications in a deliberate and measured fashion. Genetic engineering, human cloning, tissue engineering, intelligent robotics, nanotechnology, suspended animation, regeneration, and species prolongation are but a few that will revolutionize what it means to be human and what the ultimate fate of the species may be. Unless these issues are addressed at this time, we shall face the consequences of an uncontrolled and unprepared future.

  18. Proceedings of the 3rd Biennial Conference of the Society for Implementation Research Collaboration (SIRC) 2015: advancing efficient methodologies through community partnerships and team science


    Kerns, Suzanne; Puspitasari, Ajeng; Hendricks, Karin; Pierson, Andria; Fizur, Phil; Comtois, Katherine A.; Green, Amy E; Trott, Elise M.; Willging, Cathleen E.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Woolf, Nicholas H.; Liang, Shuting Lily; Heredia, Natalia I.; Kegler, Michelle; Risendal, Betsy


    Table of contents Introduction to the 3rd Biennial Conference of the Society for Implementation Research Collaboration: advancing efficient methodologies through team science and community partnerships Cara Lewis, Doyanne Darnell, Suzanne Kerns, Maria Monroe-DeVita, Sara J. Landes, Aaron R. Lyon, Cameo Stanick, Shannon Dorsey, Jill Locke, Brigid Marriott, Ajeng Puspitasari, Caitlin Dorsey, Karin Hendricks, Andria Pierson, Phil Fizur, Katherine A. Comtois A1: A behavioral economic perspective ...

  19. Theoretical and methodological issues with testing the SCCT and RIASEC models: Comment on Lent, Sheu, and Brown (2010) and Lubinski (2010). (United States)

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Vogel, David L


    The current article replies to comments made by Lent, Sheu, and Brown (2010) and Lubinski (2010) regarding the study "Interpreting the Interest-Efficacy Association From a RIASEC Perspective" (Armstrong & Vogel, 2009). The comments made by Lent et al. and Lubinski highlight a number of important theoretical and methodological issues, including the process of defining and differentiating between constructs, the assumptions underlying Holland's (1959, 1997) RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional types) model and interrelations among constructs specified in social cognitive career theory (SCCT), the importance of incremental validity for evaluating constructs, and methodological considerations when quantifying interest-efficacy correlations and for comparing models using multivariate statistical methods. On the basis of these comments and previous research on the SCCT and Holland models, we highlight the importance of considering multiple theoretical perspectives in vocational research and practice. Alternative structural models are outlined for examining the role of interests, self-efficacy, learning experiences, outcome expectations, personality, and cognitive abilities in the career choice and development process.

  20. Development and applications of methodologies for the neutronic design of the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) (United States)

    Fratoni, Massimiliano

    This study investigated the neutronic characteristics of the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR), a novel nuclear reactor concept that combines liquid salt (7LiF-BeF2---flibe) cooling and TRISO coated-particle fuel technology. The use of flibe enables operation at high power density and atmospheric pressure and improves passive decay-heat removal capabilities, but flibe, unlike conventional helium coolant, is not transparent to neutrons. The flibe occupies 40% of the PB-AHTR core volume and absorbs ˜8% of the neutrons, but also acts as an effective neutron moderator. Two novel methodologies were developed for calculating the time dependent and equilibrium core composition: (1) a simplified single pebble model that is relatively fast; (2) a full 3D core model that is accurate and flexible but computationally intensive. A parametric analysis was performed spanning a wide range of fuel kernel diameters and graphite-to-heavy metal atom ratios to determine the attainable burnup and reactivity coefficients. Using 10% enriched uranium ˜130 GWd/tHM burnup was found to be attainable, when the graphite-to-heavy metal atom ratio (C/HM) is in the range of 300 to 400. At this or smaller C/HM ratio all reactivity coefficients examined---coolant temperature, coolant small and full void, fuel temperature, and moderator temperature, were found to be negative. The PB-AHTR performance was compared to that of alternative options for HTRs, including the helium-cooled pebble-bed reactor and prismatic fuel reactors, both gas-cooled and flibe-cooled. The attainable burnup of all designs was found to be similar. The PB-AHTR generates at least 30% more energy per pebble than the He-cooled pebble-bed reactor. Compared to LWRs the PB-AHTR requires 30% less natural uranium and 20% less separative work per unit of electricity generated. For deep burn TRU fuel made from recycled LWR spent fuel, it was found that in a single pass through the core ˜66% of the TRU can be

  1. Advancements of Data Anomaly Detection Research in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Open Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Aizaini Maarof


    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are important and necessary platforms for the future as the concept “Internet of Things” has emerged lately. They are used for monitoring, tracking, or controlling of many applications in industry, health care, habitat, and military. However, the quality of data collected by sensor nodes is affected by anomalies that occur due to various reasons, such as node failures, reading errors, unusual events, and malicious attacks. Therefore, anomaly detection is a necessary process to ensure the quality of sensor data before it is utilized for making decisions. In this review, we present the challenges of anomaly detection in WSNs and state the requirements to design efficient and effective anomaly detection models. We then review the latest advancements of data anomaly detection research in WSNs and classify current detection approaches in five main classes based on the detection methods used to design these approaches. Varieties of the state-of-the-art models for each class are covered and their limitations are highlighted to provide ideas for potential future works. Furthermore, the reviewed approaches are compared and evaluated based on how well they meet the stated requirements. Finally, the general limitations of current approaches are mentioned and further research opportunities are suggested and discussed.

  2. [Advances in the experimental analysis of behavior: issues of choice behavior, comparative cognition, and human language]. (United States)

    Sakagami, T; Yamamoto, J; Jitsumori, M


    As the opportunity to contact with related areas has increased, the study of of the experimental analysis of behavior has experienced revolutionary changes. Some of the most active and important areas-studies of choice, comparative cognition, and human language--are reviewed to acquaint readers. Studies of CHOICE have linked to the molar theories of behavioral economics and behavioral ecology, which promoted research of choice by animals under uncertainty conditions. Further approach has been made to integrate the molar and molecular analyses on the basis of the ideas of behavior dynamics. COMPARATIVE COGNITION is a part of a larger field including cognitive science, behavioral neuroscience, and biological science. Recent developments, aided with a comparative perspective, made significant contributions to our understanding of the phylogeny and ontogeny of cognition. Advances in analysis of human behavior provided tools to study behavioral aspects of semantics, syntax, and pragmatics of HUMAN LANGUAGE. Using the paradigm of stimulus equivalence, the emergence of stimulus relations, stimulus-stimulus networks, hierarchical structure of verbal behavior, and other language-related behaviors have been investigated.

  3. Paediatric arterial ischemic stroke: acute management, recent advances and remaining issues. (United States)

    Rosa, Margherita; De Lucia, Silvana; Rinaldi, Victoria Elisa; Le Gal, Julie; Desmarest, Marie; Veropalumbo, Claudio; Romanello, Silvia; Titomanlio, Luigi


    Stroke is a rare disease in childhood with an estimated incidence of 1-6/100.000. It has an increasingly recognised impact on child mortality along with its outcomes and effects on quality of life of patients and their families. Clinical presentation and risk factors of paediatric stroke are different to those of adults therefore it can be considered as an independent nosological entity. The relative rarity, the age-related peculiarities and the variety of manifested symptoms makes the diagnosis of paediatric stroke extremely difficult and often delayed. History and clinical examination should investigate underlying diseases or predisposing factors and should take into account the potential territoriality of neurological deficits and the spectrum of differential diagnosis of acute neurological accidents in childhood. Neuroimaging (in particular diffusion weighted magnetic resonance) is the keystone for diagnosis of paediatric stroke and other investigations might be considered according to the clinical condition. Despite substantial advances in paediatric stroke research and clinical care, many unanswered questions remain concerning both its acute treatment and its secondary prevention and rehabilitation so that treatment recommendations are mainly extrapolated from studies on adult population. We have tried to summarize the pathophysiological and clinical characteristics of arterial ischemic stroke in children and the most recent international guidelines and practical directions on how to recognise and manage it in paediatric emergency.

  4. Gas centrifuge enrichment plants inspection frequency and remote monitoring issues for advanced safeguards implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Erpenbeck, Heather H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miller, Karen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ianakiev, Kiril D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reimold, Benjamin A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ward, Steven L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Howell, John [GLASGOW UNIV.


    Current safeguards approaches used by the IAEA at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low enriched uranium (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect high enriched uranium (BEU) production with adequate probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of declared cylinders of uranium hexafluoride that are used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. This paper contains an analysis of how possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems including process monitoring and possible on-site destructive analysis (DA) of samples could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements providing more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We have also studied a few advanced safeguards systems that could be assembled for unattended operation and the level of performance needed from these systems to provide more effective safeguards. The analysis also considers how short notice random inspections, unannounced inspections (UIs), and the concept of information-driven inspections can affect probability of detection of the diversion of nuclear material when coupled to new GCEPs safeguards regimes augmented with unattended systems. We also explore the effects of system failures and operator tampering on meeting safeguards goals for quantity and timeliness and the measures needed to recover from such failures and anomalies.

  5. Requirements Development Issues for Advanced Life Support Systems: Solid Waste Management (United States)

    Levri, Julie A.; Fisher, John W.; Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John A.


    Long duration missions pose substantial new challenges for solid waste management in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. These possibly include storing large volumes of waste material in a safe manner, rendering wastes stable or sterilized for extended periods of time, and/or processing wastes for recovery of vital resources. This is further complicated because future missions remain ill-defined with respect to waste stream quantity, composition and generation schedule. Without definitive knowledge of this information, development of requirements is hampered. Additionally, even if waste streams were well characterized, other operational and processing needs require clarification (e.g. resource recovery requirements, planetary protection constraints). Therefore, the development of solid waste management (SWM) subsystem requirements for long duration space missions is an inherently uncertain, complex and iterative process. The intent of this paper is to address some of the difficulties in writing requirements for missions that are not completely defined. This paper discusses an approach and motivation for ALS SWM requirements development, the characteristics of effective requirements, and the presence of those characteristics in requirements that are developed for uncertain missions. Associated drivers for life support system technological capability are also presented. A general means of requirements forecasting is discussed, including successive modification of requirements and the need to consider requirements integration among subsystems.

  6. Issues Of Managerial Accounting Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barulina E.V


    Full Text Available This article deals with management accounting, its role and objectives during financial planning process. Research of on American, German and Russian scientists are also considered. Author formulates his own definitions of aims of management accounting, highlighters that object of financial accounting have to include economic costs, economic revenue and economic added value, economic interest. More  over Author defines methods of managment accounting.

  7. Issues associated with the use of Yoshida nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening material model in Advanced High Strength Steels (United States)

    Shi, Ming F.; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Xinhai


    The Yoshida nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening material model is often selected in forming simulations where an accurate springback prediction is required. Many successful application cases in the industrial scale automotive components using advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have been reported to give better springback predictions. Several issues have been raised recently in the use of the model for higher strength AHSS including the use of two C vs. one C material parameters in the Armstrong and Frederick model (AF model), the original Yoshida model vs. Original Yoshida model with modified hardening law, and constant Young's Modulus vs. decayed Young's Modulus as a function of plastic strain. In this paper, an industrial scale automotive component using 980 MPa strength materials is selected to study the effect of two C and one C material parameters in the AF model on both forming and springback prediction using the Yoshida model with and without the modified hardening law. The effect of decayed Young's Modulus on the springback prediction for AHSS is also evaluated. In addition, the limitations of the material parameters determined from tension and compression tests without multiple cycle tests are also discussed for components undergoing several bending and unbending deformations.

  8. The monitoring, evaluation, reporting, and verification of climate change mitigation projects: Discussion of issues and methodologies and review of existing protocols and guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E.; Sathaye, J.


    Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, the US and other countries are implementing, by themselves or in cooperation with one or more other nations (i.e., joint implementation), climate change mitigation projects. These projects will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or sequester carbon, and will also result in non-GHG impacts (i.e., environmental, economic, and social impacts). Monitoring, evaluating, reporting, and verifying (MERV) guidelines are needed for these projects in order to accurately determine their net GHG, and other, benefits. Implementation of MERV guidelines is also intended to: (1) increase the reliability of data for estimating GHG benefits; (2) provide real-time data so that mid-course corrections can be made; (3) introduce consistency and transparency across project types and reporters; and (4) enhance the credibility of the projects with stakeholders. In this paper, the authors review the issues and methodologies involved in MERV activities. In addition, they review protocols and guidelines that have been developed for MERV of GHG emissions in the energy and non-energy sectors by governments, nongovernmental organizations, and international agencies. They comment on their relevance and completeness, and identify several topics that future protocols and guidelines need to address, such as (1) establishing a credible baseline; (2) accounting for impacts outside project boundaries through leakage; (3) net GHG reductions and other impacts; (4) precision of measurement; (5) MERV frequency; (6) persistence (sustainability) of savings, emissions reduction, and carbon sequestration; (7) reporting by multiple project participants; (8) verification of GHG reduction credits; (9) uncertainty and risk; (10) institutional capacity in conducting MERV; and (11) the cost of MERV.

  9. Advancing absolute sustainability assessments of products with a new Planetary Boundaries based life-cycle impact assessment methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Richardson, Katherine

    an operational life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodology where the definition of the impact categories is based on the control variables as defined in the PB-framework by Steffen et al (2015). This included the development and calculation of characterization factors for the Earth System processes......The Planetary Boundaries (PB)-framework introduced quantitative boundaries for a set of biophysical Earth System processes. The PBs delimit a ‘safe operating space' for humanity to act within to keep Earth in a Holocene-like state (Rockström et al 2009). The concept has gained strong interest from...

  10. Encouraging the pursuit of advanced degrees in science and engineering: Top-down and bottom-up methodologies (United States)

    Maddox, Anthony B.; Smith-Maddox, Renee P.; Penick, Benson E.


    The MassPEP/NASA Graduate Research Development Program (GRDP) whose objective is to encourage Black Americans, Mexican Americans, American Indians, Puerto Ricans, and Pacific Islanders to pursue graduate degrees in science and engineering is described. The GRDP employs a top-down or goal driven methodology through five modules which focus on research, graduate school climate, technical writing, standardized examinations, and electronic networking. These modules are designed to develop and reinforce some of the skills necessary to seriously consider the goal of completing a graduate education. The GRDP is a community-based program which seeks to recruit twenty participants from a pool of Boston-area undergraduates enrolled in engineering and science curriculums and recent graduates with engineering and science degrees. The program emphasizes that with sufficient information, its participants can overcome most of the barriers perceived as preventing them from obtaining graduate science and engineering degrees. Experience has shown that the top-down modules may be complemented by a more bottom-up or event-driven methodology. This approach considers events in the academic and professional experiences of participants in order to develop the personal and leadership skills necessary for graduate school and similar endeavors.

  11. Pivotal importance of STAT3 in protecting the heart from acute and chronic stress: new advancement and unresolved issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foaud A. Zouein


    Full Text Available The transcription factor Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3 has been implicated in protecting the heart from acute ischemic injury under both basal conditions and as a crucial component of pre- and post-conditioning protocols. A number of anti-oxidant and antiapoptotic genes are upregulated by STAT3 via canonical means involving phosphorylation on Y705 and S727, although other incompletely defined posttranslational modifications are involved. In addition, STAT3 is now known to be present in cardiac mitochondria and to exert actions that regulate the electron transport chain, reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP opening. These non-canonical actions of STAT3 are enhanced by S727 phosphorylation. The molecular basis for the mitochondrial actions of STAT3 are poorly understood, but STAT3 is known to interact with a critical subunit of complex I and to regulate complex I function. Dysfunctional complex I has been implicated in ischemic injury, heart failure, and the aging process. Evidence also indicates that STAT3 is protective to the heart under chronic stress conditions, including hypertension, pregnancy, and advanced age. Paradoxically, the accumulation of unphosphorylated STAT3 (U-STAT3 in the nucleus has been suggested to drive pathological cardiac hypertrophy and inflammation via noncanonical gene expression, perhaps involving a distinct acetylation profile. U-STAT3 may also regulate chromatin stability. Our understanding of how the noncanonical genomic and mitochondrial actions of STAT3 in the heart are regulated and coordinated with the canonical actions of STAT3 is rudimentary. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about the pleotropic actions of STAT3 in the heart in order to highlight controversies and unresolved issues.

  12. 真菌毒素快速检测技术研究进展%Methodological advances for rapid detection of mycotoxins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜; 武爱波


    -time, low-cost and large-scale analyses. In this article, state-of-the-art methodo-logical advances for rapid detection of mycotoxins as target analytes in recent 3 years have been summarized, supporting as valuable reference for highly efficient monitoring of mycotoxin contamination in the whole framework of food safety issues.

  13. Development and application of the Safe Performance Index as a risk-based methodology for identifying major hazard-related safety issues in underground coal mines (United States)

    Kinilakodi, Harisha

    The underground coal mining industry has been under constant watch due to the high risk involved in its activities, and scrutiny increased because of the disasters that occurred in 2006-07. In the aftermath of the incidents, the U.S. Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act), which strengthened the existing regulations and mandated new laws to address the various issues related to a safe working environment in the mines. Risk analysis in any form should be done on a regular basis to tackle the possibility of unwanted major hazard-related events such as explosions, outbursts, airbursts, inundations, spontaneous combustion, and roof fall instabilities. One of the responses by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 2007 involved a new pattern of violations (POV) process to target mines with a poor safety performance, specifically to improve their safety. However, the 2010 disaster (worst in 40 years) gave an impression that the collective effort of the industry, federal/state agencies, and researchers to achieve the goal of zero fatalities and serious injuries has gone awry. The Safe Performance Index (SPI) methodology developed in this research is a straight-forward, effective, transparent, and reproducible approach that can help in identifying and addressing some of the existing issues while targeting (poor safety performance) mines which need help. It combines three injury and three citation measures that are scaled to have an equal mean (5.0) in a balanced way with proportionate weighting factors (0.05, 0.15, 0.30) and overall normalizing factor (15) into a mine safety performance evaluation tool. It can be used to assess the relative safety-related risk of mines, including by mine-size category. Using 2008 and 2009 data, comparisons were made of SPI-associated, normalized safety performance measures across mine-size categories, with emphasis on small-mine safety performance as compared to large- and

  14. Critical review of methodology and application of risk ranking for prioritisation of food and feed related issues, on the basis of the size of anticipated health impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Asselt, van E.D.; Raley, M.; Poulsen, M.; Korsgaard, H.; Bredsdorff, L.; Nauta, M.; Flari, V.; Agostino, D' M.; Coles, D.G.; Frewer, L.J.


    This study aimed to critically review methodologies for ranking of risks related to feed/food safety and nutritional hazards, on the basis of their anticipated human health impact. An extensive systematic literature review was performed to identify and characterize the available methodologies for ri

  15. Health-related quality of life in non-small-cell lung cancer: An update of a systematic review on methodologic issues in randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Claassens (Lily); J. van Meerbeeck (Jan); C. Coens (Corneel); C. Quinten (Chantal); I. Ghislain (Irina); E.K. Sloan (Elizabeth); X.S. Wang (Xin Shelly); G. Velikova (Galina); A. Bottomley (Andrew)


    textabstractPurpose This study is an update of a systematic review of health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) methodology reporting in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The objective was to evaluate HRQOL methodology reporting over the last decade and its benefit

  16. Methodological issues related to studies of lead mobilization during menopause Consideraciones metodológicas relacionadas con estudios sobre movilización de plomo durante la menopausia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrud S. Berkowitz


    Full Text Available While there has been a substantial decline in lead exposure in the United States during the past two decades, mobilization of existing lead stored in bone potentially represents an important endogenous source of exposure for menopausal women. It has been hypothesized that lead may be mobilized from skeletal stores during conditions of high bone turnover, such as during menopause. However, such mobilization has not been documented in prospective studies. This discussion is focussed on some of the methodological difficulties to be anticipated in longitudinal studies of lead mobilization specific to menopause and the issues that need to be taken into account when evaluating the results of such studies. To evaluate whether lead mobilization occurs during menopause, a prospective repeated measures design is needed using X-ray fluorescence analysis of lead in bone and serial measurements of blood lead. Potential confounders and effect modifiers also need to be taken into account in the statistical analysis.Mientras que la exposición a plomo ha declinado sustancialmente en Estados Unidos durante las dos décadas pasadas, la mobilización del plomo almacenado en los huesos representa potencialmente una importante fuente de exposición endógena en mujeres menopáusicas. No obstante, tal movilización no ha sido documentada por estudios prospectivos. La presente discusión se enfoca en algunas de las dificultades metodológicas a se anticipadas en estudios longitudinales de mobilización de plomo específicamente en la menopausia, y los aspectos que necesitan ser considerados cuando se evalúan los resultados de tales estudios. Para evaluar si durante la menopausia el plomo es mobilizado, se requiere de un diseño prospectivo con mediciones repetidas utilizando análisis de fluorescencia de rayos-X para determinar el plomo en hueso y una serie de mediciones de plomo en sangre. Los potenciales confusores y modificadores del efecto también deben tomarse

  17. Advanced design methodology for single and dual voltage wound core power transformers based on a particular finite element model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsili, Marina A.; Kladas, Antonios G. [Faculty of Electrical & amp; Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, GR-15780, Athens (Greece); Georgilakis, Pavlos S. [Department of Production Engineering and Management, Technical University of Crete, GR-73100, Chania (Greece); Souflaris, Athanasios T.; Paparigas, Dimitris G. [Schneider Electric AE, Elvim Plant, GR-32011, Inofyta, Viotia (Greece)


    The paper presents an accurate and cost effective three-dimensional finite element model for the analysis and design of wound core, shell type, power transformers, focusing on the short-circuit impedance evaluation. The model efficiency lies on the detailed representation of the transformer geometry along with the adoption of a particular reduced scalar potential formulation enabling three-dimensional magnetostatic problem solution without prior source field calculation. Its accuracy is validated through local field measurements and through comparison of the calculated short-circuit impedance value with the measured one for several commercial wound core, shell type transformers. In such transformers, involving extensive winding parts out of the core window, the detailed representation of the transformer geometry, including the winding cooling ducts, provides accurate results for low densities of the three-dimensional finite element mesh, resulting to reduction of the required calculation time. The model is used in the development of a computational tool, which enables the automated and accurate transformer characteristics prediction, adopted to the manufacturing process. This tool has also been applied in the impedance calculation for different winding connections of dual voltage transformers, thus providing the information needed for the achievement of an accurate design and the enhancement of the manufacturer's ability to reduce design margins. The methodology presented in this paper has been incorporated in the design process of a transformer manufacturing industry. (author)

  18. Advanced self-healing asphalt composites in the pavement performance field: mechanisms at the nano level and new repairing methodologies. (United States)

    Agzenai, Yahya; Pozuelo, Javier; Sanz, Javier; Perez, Ignacio; Baselga, Juan


    In an effort to give a global view of this field of research, in this mini-review we highlight the most recent publications and patents focusing on modified asphalt pavements that contain certain reinforcing nanoparticles which impart desirable thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. In response to the increasing cost of asphalt binder and road maintenance, there is a need to look for alternative technologies and new asphalt composites, able to self-repair, for preserving and renewing the existing pavements. First, we will focus on the self-healing property of asphalt, the evidences that support that healing takes place immediately after the contact between the faces of a crack, and how the amount of healing can be measured in both the laboratory and the field. Next we review the hypothetical mechanisms of healing to understand the material behaviour and establish models to quantify the damage-healing process. Thereafter, we outline different technologies, nanotechnologies and methodologies used for self-healing paying particular attention to embedded micro-capsules, new nano-materials like carbon nanotubes and nano-fibres, ionomers, and microwave and induction heating processes.

  19. Methodology and algorithms for railway crew management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, R.; Gomide, F. [State Univ. of Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Lagrimante, R. [MRS Logistica S.A, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)


    Crew management problems are highly important for many transportation systems such as airlines, railways and public bus transportation. Despite recent advances, scheduling methodologies and decision support systems still need improvement, especially their computational efficiency, practical feasibility and use. This paper briefly overview classic crew management approaches. It discusses various practical issues concerning classic methods and suggests a new approach and algorithms. Computational results and experience with actual data and real world situations are also reported. (orig.)

  20. Simple Response Surface Methodology: Investigation on Advance Photocatalytic Oxidation of 4-Chlorophenoxyacetic Acid Using UV-Active ZnO Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kian Mun Lee


    Full Text Available The performance of advance photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA strongly depends on photocatalyst dosage, initial concentration and initial pH. In the present study, a simple response surface methodology (RSM was applied to investigate the interaction between these three independent factors. Thus, the photocatalytic degradation of 4-CPA in aqueous medium assisted by ultraviolet-active ZnO photocatalyst was systematically investigated. This study aims to determine the optimum processing parameters to maximize 4-CPA degradation. Based on the results obtained, it was found that a maximum of 91% of 4-CPA was successfully degraded under optimal conditions (0.02 g ZnO dosage, 20.00 mg/L of 4-CPA and pH 7.71. All the experimental data showed good agreement with the predicted results obtained from statistical analysis.

  1. Advancing the Potential of Citizen Science for Urban Water Quality Monitoring: Exploring Research Design and Methodology in New York City (United States)

    Hsueh, D.; Farnham, D. J.; Gibson, R.; McGillis, W. R.; Culligan, P. J.; Cooper, C.; Larson, L.; Mailloux, B. J.; Buchanan, R.; Borus, N.; Zain, N.; Eddowes, D.; Butkiewicz, L.; Loiselle, S. A.


    Citizen Science is a fast-growing ecological research tool with proven potential to rapidly produce large datasets. While the fields of astronomy and ornithology demonstrate particularly successful histories of enlisting the public in conducting scientific work, citizen science applications to the field of hydrology have been relatively underutilized. We demonstrate the potential of citizen science for monitoring water quality, particularly in the impervious, urban environment of New York City (NYC) where pollution via stormwater runoff is a leading source of waterway contamination. Through partnerships with HSBC, Earthwatch, and the NYC Water Trail Association, we have trained two citizen science communities to monitor the quality of NYC waterways, testing for a suite of water quality parameters including pH, turbidity, phosphate, nitrate, and Enterococci (an indicator bacteria for the presence of harmful pathogens associated with fecal pollution). We continue to enhance these citizen science programs with two additions to our methodology. First, we designed and produced at-home incubation ovens for Enterococci analysis, and second, we are developing automated photo-imaging for nitrate and phosphate concentrations. These improvements make our work more publicly accessible while maintaining scientific accuracy. We also initiated a volunteer survey assessing the motivations for participation among our citizen scientists. These three endeavors will inform future applications of citizen science for urban hydrological research. Ultimately, the spatiotemporally-rich dataset of waterway quality produced from our citizen science efforts will help advise NYC policy makers about the impacts of green infrastructure and other types of government-led efforts to clean up NYC waterways.

  2. The Delphi Method : methodological issues arising from a study examining factors influencing the publication or non-Publication of mental health nursing research


    Ashmore, Russell; Flanagan, Tracy; McInnes, Doug; Banks, David


    Purpose – The paper describes how the classic Delphi method can be adapted and structured to ensure that specific research questions are clearly addressed. \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – As part of a larger mixed method project, a modified Delphi study was undertaken to explore factors influencing publication and non-publication of mental health nursing research. \\ud \\ud Findings - This paper reports brief findings from the Delphi study. However, its main focus is the methodological is...

  3. Advances in the Development and Application of Computational Methodologies for Structural Modeling of G-Protein Coupled Receptors (United States)

    Mobarec, Juan Carlos


    Background Despite the large amount of experimental data accumulated in the past decade on G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) structure and function, understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying GPCR signaling is still far from being complete, thus impairing the design of effective and selective pharmaceuticals. Objective Understanding of GPCR function has been challenged even further by more recent experimental evidence that several of these receptors are organized in the cell membrane as homo- or hetero-oligomers, and that they may exhibit unique pharmacological properties. Given the complexity of these new signaling systems, researcher’s efforts are turning increasingly to molecular modeling, bioinformatics and computational simulations for mechanistic insights of GPCR functional plasticity. Methods We review here current advances in the development and application of computational approaches to improve prediction of GPCR structure and dynamics, thus enhancing current understanding of GPCR signaling. Results/Conclusions Models resulting from use of these computational approaches further supported by experiments are expected to help elucidate the complex allosterism that propagates through GPCR complexes, ultimately aiming at successful structure-based rational drug design. PMID:19672320

  4. Advances in analytical methodology for bioinorganic speciation analysis: metallomics, metalloproteomics and heteroatom-tagged proteomics and metabolomics. (United States)

    Szpunar, Joanna


    The recent developments in analytical techniques capable of providing information on the identity and quantity of heteroatom-containing biomolecules are critically discussed. Particular attention is paid to the emerging areas of bioinorganic analysis including: (i) a comprehensive analysis of the entirety of metal and metalloid species within a cell or tissue type (metallomics), (ii) the study of the part of the metallome involving the protein ligands (metalloproteomics), and (iii) the use of a heteroelement, naturally present in a protein or introduced in a tag added by means of derivatisation, for the spotting and quantification of proteins (heteroatom-tagged proteomics). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS), used as detector in chromatography and electrophoresis, and supported by electrospray and MALDI MS, appears as the linchpin analytical technique for these emerging areas. This review focuses on the recent advances in ICP MS in biological speciation analysis including sensitive detection of non-metals, especially of sulfur and phosphorus, couplings to capillary and nanoflow HPLC and capillary electrophoresis, laser ablation ICP MS detection of proteins in gel electrophoresis, and isotope dilution quantification of biomolecules. The paper can be considered as a followup of a previous review by the author on a similar topic (J. Szpunar, Analyst, 2000, 125, 963).

  5. Advancing PROMIS's methodology: results of the Third Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS(®)) Psychometric Summit. (United States)

    Carle, Adam C; Cella, David; Cai, Li; Choi, Seung W; Crane, Paul K; Curtis, S McKay; Gruhl, Jonathan; Lai, Jin-Shei; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Reise, Steven P; Teresi, Jeanne A; Thissen, David; Wu, Eric J; Hays, Ron D


    In 2002, the NIH launched the 'Roadmap for Medical Research'. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS(®)) is one of the Roadmap's key aspects. To create the next generation of patient-reported outcome measures, PROMIS utilizes item response theory (IRT) and computerized adaptive testing. In 2009, the NIH funded the second wave of PROMIS studies (PROMIS II). PROMIS II studies continue PROMIS's agenda, but also include new features, including longitudinal analyses and more sociodemographically diverse samples. PROMIS II also includes increased emphasis on pediatric populations and evaluation of PROMIS item banks for clinical research and population science. These aspects bring new psychometric challenges. To address this, investigators associated with PROMIS gathered at the Third Psychometric Summit in September 2010 to identify, describe and discuss pressing psychometric issues and new developments in the field, as well as make analytic recommendations for PROMIS. The summit addressed five general themes: linking, differential item functioning, dimensionality, IRT models for longitudinal applications and new IRT software. In this article, we review the discussions and presentations that occurred at the Third PROMIS Psychometric Summit.

  6. New research advancement in electrical engineering field of China-Reviews on special issue of Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI ShengWei; MA Jin


    Based on,but not limited to the research results of electrical engineering published in the special issue of Science in China Series E,June 2008,this essay gives a brief review on a wide range of state-of-art advancement in electrical engineering field of China,which includes power system modeling,analysis and control,risk assessments in power system,etc.

  7. A three-dimensional methodology for the assessment of neutron damage and nuclear energy deposition in graphite components of advanced gas-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, D.O.; Robinson, A.T.; Allen, D.A.; Picton, D.J.; Thornton, D.A. [TCS, Serco, Rutherford House, Olympus Park, Quedgeley, Gloucester, Gloucestershire GL2 4NF (United Kingdom); Shaw, S.E. [EDF Energy, Barnet Way, Barnwood, Gloucester GL4 3RS (United Kingdom)


    This paper describes the development of a three-dimensional methodology for the assessment of neutron damage and nuclear energy deposition (or nuclear heating) throughout the graphite cores of the UK's Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors. Advances in the development of the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCBEND have enabled the efficient production of detailed fully three-dimensional models that utilise three-dimensional source distributions obtained from Core Follow data supplied by the reactor physics code PANTHER. The calculational approach can be simplified to reduce both the requisite number of intensive radiation transport calculations, as well as the quantity of data output. These simplifications have been qualified by comparison with explicit calculations and they have been shown not to introduce significant systematic uncertainties. Simple calculational approaches are described that allow users of the data to address the effects on neutron damage and nuclear energy deposition predictions of the feedback resulting from the mutual dependencies of graphite weight loss and nuclear energy deposition. (authors)

  8. An Applied Study of Implementation of the Advanced Decommissioning Costing Methodology for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik, Sweden with special emphasis to the application of the Omega code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofova, Kristina; Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter [DECOM Slovakia, spol. s.r.o., J. Bottu 2, SK-917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lindskog, Staffan [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The presented study is focused on an analysis of decommissioning costs for the Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel (FA) facility in Studsvik prepared by SVAFO and a proposal of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology application. Therefore, this applied study concentrates particularly in the following areas: 1. Analysis of FA facility cost estimates prepared by SVAFO including description of FA facility in Studsvik, summarised input data, applied cost estimates methodology and summarised results from SVAFO study. 2. Discussion of results of the SVAFO analysis, proposals for enhanced cost estimating methodology and upgraded structure of inputs/outputs for decommissioning study for FA facility. 3. Review of costing methodologies with the special emphasis on the advanced costing methodology and cost calculation code OMEGA. 4. Discussion on implementation of the advanced costing methodology for FA facility in Studsvik together with: - identification of areas of implementation; - analyses of local decommissioning infrastructure; - adaptation of the data for the calculation database; - inventory database; and - implementation of the style of work with the computer code OMEGA.

  9. Environmental epidemiology: What's at stake: open issues and methodologies -- report from the 26th Annual Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE). (United States)

    Carugno, Michele


    At the end of last August, the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle welcomed over 1,100 attendees at the 26th Annual ISEE Conference - "From Local to Global: Advancing Science for Policy in Environmental Health"...

  10. Social Enterprise and the Measurement of Social Value: Methodological Issues with the Calculation and Application of the Social Return on Investment (United States)

    Ryan, Patrick W.; Lyne, Isaac


    This article considers the methodological challenge of quantifying the social value generated through social enterprise activity. It argues that in the context of increasing enthusiasm for social enterprise as a mechanism for delivering social services and for tackling social exclusion, it is increasingly necessary to be able to value social…

  11. Issues of health evaluation during simulated space mission to Mars. Part 1. Research methodology and methods used in experiment Mars-500

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman М. Baevsky


    Full Text Available Research methodology and methods used in experiment Mars-500 held at the Institute of Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2009-2011 are considered. 6 volunteers were isolated during 520 days in a sealed ground-based facility simulating space ship. Along with studies of the Martian crew, a number of satellite research were also carried out, which were devoted to the long-term program of medical and ecological investigations. This program was aimed at the study of the dynamics of adaptation abilities of the organism during its long stay in the natural social, living and industrial environments. For physiological investigations in experiment Mars-500, including the main experiment in a sealed ground-based facility and parallel long-term medical and ecological investigations in different regions of the world, the specialized hardwaresoftware complex "Ecosan-2007" was used. The methodology was based on the principles of prenosological diagnostics that have been further developed in the concept of adaptation risks and in the probabilistic approach to their evaluation. For evaluation of various components of the autonomous regulation state the method of heart rate variability (HRV was used. It was concluded that the most important field in experiment Mars-500 was the investigation of the methodology of prenosological diagnostic in the preparation of a space mission to Mars.

  12. Advances in Bio-Imaging From Physics to Signal Understanding Issues State-of-the-Art and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Racoceanu, Daniel; Gouaillard, Alexandre


    Advances in Imaging Devices and Image processing stem from cross-fertilization between many fields of research such as Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer Sciences. This BioImaging Community feel the urge to integrate more intensively its various results, discoveries and innovation into ready to use tools that can address all the new exciting challenges that Life Scientists (Biologists, Medical doctors, ...) keep providing, almost on a daily basis. Devising innovative chemical probes, for example, is an archetypal goal in which image quality improvement must be driven by the physics of acquisition, the image processing and analysis algorithms and the chemical skills in order to design an optimal bioprobe. This book offers an overview of the current advances in many research fields related to bioimaging and highlights the current limitations that would need to be addressed in the next decade to design fully integrated BioImaging Device.

  13. Extra Wideband Polarimetry, Interferometry and Polarimetric Interferometry in Synthetic Aperture Remote Sensing(Special Issue on Advances in Radar Systems)


    Boerner, Wolfgang-Martin; Yamaguchi, Yoshio


    The development of Radar Polarimetry and Radar Interferometry is advancing rapidly. Whereas with radar polarimetry, the textural fine-structure, target orientation, symmetries and material constituents can be recovered with considerable improvement above that of standard amplitude-only radar; with radar interferometry the spatial(in depth)structure can be explored. In Polarimetric Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar(POL-IN-SAR)Imaging, it is possible to recover such co-registered textura...

  14. The bacterial genotoxicity test:issues to be considered in the performance of the test and their recent advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The bacterial genotoxicity test is widely used as an initial screening to determing the genotoxic potential of chemicals for hazard identification.Firstly,I will state about technical issues in the performance of the test,which may largely affect the results of the mutagenicity of test compounds of lead to low concordance with the results between inter-and intra-laboratories.The second issue of my speech will be a brief review on bacterial tester strains that are highly sensitive to the mutagenicity of particular classes of mutagens.These strains are often used to efficiently explore environmental mutagens and to study the mechanisms of mutagenesis.Finally,I will present our recent study on the use of human S9 fractions in the genotoxicity tests to comprehensively evaluate the genotoxic effect to humans.In addition,genetically-engineered tester strains expressing human drug-metabolizing enzymes will be introduced.

  15. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in behavioral and food addiction: A systematic review of efficacy, technical and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eSauvaget


    Full Text Available Objectives.Behavioral addictions (BA are complex disorders for which pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments have shown their limits. Non-invasive brain stimulation, among which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, has opened up new perspectives in addiction treatment. The purpose of this work is to conduct a critical and systematic review of tDCS efficacy, and of technical and methodological considerations in the field of BA.Methods.A bibliographic search has been conducted on the Medline and ScienceDirect databases until December 2014, based on the following selection criteria: clinical studies on tDCS and BA (namely eating disorders, compulsive buying, Internet addiction, pathological gambling, sexual addiction, sports addiction, video games addiction. Study selection, data analysis and reporting were conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines.Results.Out of 402 potential articles, seven studies were selected. So far focusing essentially on abnormal eating, these studies suggest that tDCS (right prefrontal anode / left prefrontal cathode reduces food craving induced by visual stimuli.ConclusionsDespite methodological and technical differences between studies, the results are promising. So far, only few studies of tDCS in BA have been conducted. New research is recommended on the use of tDCS in BA, other than eating disorders.

  16. Temas ambientais como "temas geradores": contribuições para uma metodologia educativa ambiental crítica, transformadora e emancipatória Environmental issues as generating issues: contributions to a critical, transforming and emancipating environmental educating methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Freitas de Campos Tozoni-Reis


    Full Text Available A educação ambiental crítica e emancipatória exige que os conhecimentos sejam apropriados, construídos, de forma dinâmica, coletiva, cooperativa, contínua, interdisciplinar, democrática e participativa, voltados para a construção de sociedades sustentáveis. Este artigo trata dos temas ambientais como temas geradores para a educação ambiental, inspirados na pedagogia Paulo Freire, para quem educar é um ato de conhecimento da realidade concreta, das situações vividas, um processo de aproximação crítica da própria realidade: compreender, refletir, criticar e agir são as ações pedagógicas pretendidas. Os temas geradores são, portanto, estratégias metodológicas de um processo de conscientização da realidade opressora vivida nas sociedades desiguais; são o ponto de partida para o processo de construção da descoberta, e, por emergir do saber popular, os temas geradores são extraídos da prática de vida dos educandos, substituindo os conteúdos tradicionais e buscados através da pesquisa do universo dos educandos. O caráter político da pedagogia freireana faz-se presente, de forma radical, nos temas geradores, isto é, temas geradores só são geradores de ação-reflexão-ação se forem carregados de conteúdos sociais e políticos com significado concreto para a vida dos educandos. Assim, as propostas educativas ambientais conscientizadoras podem tomar os temas ambientais locais como temas geradores desta ação conscientizadora, desde que estes temas contenham conteúdos socioambientais significativos para os educandos e sejam definidos coletiva e participativamente.The emancipating and critical environmental education demands that knowledge must be adequate, build up in a dynamic, collective, cooperating, continuous, interdisciplinary, democratic and participating way directed to the construction of self-maintaining societies. This paper deals with environmental issues as generating issues for an environmental

  17. Methodological Issues to Consider When Collecting Data to Estimate Poverty Impact in Economic Evaluations in Low-income and Middle-income Countries. (United States)

    Sweeney, Sedona; Vassall, Anna; Foster, Nicola; Simms, Victoria; Ilboudo, Patrick; Kimaro, Godfather; Mudzengi, Don; Guinness, Lorna


    Out-of-pocket spending is increasingly recognized as an important barrier to accessing health care, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) where a large portion of health expenditure comes from out-of-pocket payments. Emerging universal healthcare policies prioritize reduction of poverty impact such as catastrophic and impoverishing healthcare expenditure. Poverty impact is therefore increasingly evaluated alongside and within economic evaluations to estimate the impact of specific health interventions on poverty. However, data collection for these metrics can be challenging in intervention-based contexts in LMICs because of study design and practical limitations. Using a set of case studies, this letter identifies methodological challenges in collecting patient cost data in LMIC contexts. These components are presented in a framework to encourage researchers to consider the implications of differing approaches in data collection and to report their approach in a standardized and transparent way.

  18. 行政伦理学研究方法论建构的若干问题%Some Issues on Constructing Research Methodology of Administrative Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    当前行政伦理学研究主要有三种方法:思辨推论、历史研究和调研统计。本文认为依靠思辨推论进行研究与行政学探索客观规律的目的南辕北辙,事实上不可能得出确切结论;而后两种方法各有利弊,可以相互弥合补充。但还需要根据经验资料这一研究来源来具体分析研究中的难点,再立足行政伦理学理论架构,汲取管理学、历史学、统计学等相关学科的方法论研究成果,构建新的方法论框架。%Currently the administrative ethics mainly has three approaches:speculative reasoning , historical study , investi-gation and statistical research .The article emphasizes that speculative reasoning is just the reverse of the purpose of science of ad -ministration exploration , which in fact cannot draw any accurate conclusion .But historical study , investigation and statistical re-search have their advantages and disadvantages;moreover, they can complement each other .However, when doing the specific a-nalysis of the difficulties , we need the source of experience material , theoretical framework of administrative ethics and achievements of the methodology of the management , history, statistics and other related subjects in order to build a new framework for the meth-odology.

  19. Revised Definitions for Statistical Units – Methodology, Application and User Needs. The Main Conceptual Issues of the “Units Discussion” of the Years 2009–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Sturm


    Full Text Available In the years 2009 to 2014 in the European Statistical System (ESS modified definitions for basic statistical units have been proposed and discussed. The author took part in this discussion as regular participant in the ESS “Working Group Business Registers and Statistical Units”, as participant in the ESSnet “Profiling of large and complex multinational enterprise groups” (2009–2013 and as member of the Eurostat task force “Statistical Units” which worked from 2013 to 2015 on the main issues...

  20. Algunos aspectos metodológicos de la investigación en resolución de problemas en física: una revisión Some methodological issues involved in Physics problems solving: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Buteler


    Full Text Available El trabajo presenta una revisión de los aspectos metodológicos involucrados en el estudio de las representaciones mentales puestas en juego por las personas para realizar ciertas tareas cognitivas. La revisión se acota al ámbito de la investigación en enseñanza de las ciencias y en particular, a un conjunto de investigaciones que abordan tareas estrechamente relacionadas con la resolución de problemas en Física. La revisión permite analizar y discutir los alcances y limitaciones de las decisiones metodológicas usuales para el estudio de la resolución de problemas en Física. Se ponen en consideración algunas directrices metodológicas plausibles de ser tenidas en cuenta para esta tarea.This work presents a review of the methodological issues involved in the studies of the representations used by people carrying out cognitive tasks. The review is based on literature dealing with cognitive tasks related to Physics problem solving. This review allows the analysis and discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the usual methodological decisions in Physics problem solving. Methodological directions for physics problem solving are considered.

  1. A decade of plant proteomics and mass spectrometry: translation of technical advancements to food security and safety issues. (United States)

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Sarkar, Abhijit; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Pedreschi, Romina; Carpentier, Sebastien; Wang, Tai; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Kohli, Ajay; Ndimba, Bongani Kaiser; Bykova, Natalia V; Rampitsch, Christof; Zolla, Lello; Rafudeen, Mohamed Suhail; Cramer, Rainer; Bindschedler, Laurence Veronique; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Ndimba, Roya Janeen; Farrant, Jill M; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Rakwal, Randeep


    Tremendous progress in plant proteomics driven by mass spectrometry (MS) techniques has been made since 2000 when few proteomics reports were published and plant proteomics was in its infancy. These achievements include the refinement of existing techniques and the search for new techniques to address food security, safety, and health issues. It is projected that in 2050, the world's population will reach 9-12 billion people demanding a food production increase of 34-70% (FAO, 2009) from today's food production. Provision of food in a sustainable and environmentally committed manner for such a demand without threatening natural resources, requires that agricultural production increases significantly and that postharvest handling and food manufacturing systems become more efficient requiring lower energy expenditure, a decrease in postharvest losses, less waste generation and food with longer shelf life. There is also a need to look for alternative protein sources to animal based (i.e., plant based) to be able to fulfill the increase in protein demands by 2050. Thus, plant biology has a critical role to play as a science capable of addressing such challenges. In this review, we discuss proteomics especially MS, as a platform, being utilized in plant biology research for the past 10 years having the potential to expedite the process of understanding plant biology for human benefits. The increasing application of proteomics technologies in food security, analysis, and safety is emphasized in this review. But, we are aware that no unique approach/technology is capable to address the global food issues. Proteomics-generated information/resources must be integrated and correlated with other omics-based approaches, information, and conventional programs to ensure sufficient food and resources for human development now and in the future.

  2. Clinical Education, the lessons learned from practical applications - Albanian issues, East Europe and the advanced international practices on Clinical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Koci


    In legal clinics, students perform various tasks just as an attorney would do in the same job position, such as doing legal research, drafting briefs and other legal documents, and interviewing clients. Many jurisdictions even allow students to appear in court on behalf of clients, even in criminal defense. Legal clinics is part of the academic law program in the most of the law faculties all over the world and it has a great impact in the community’s life. Throughout legal clinics students not only get the opportunity to be part of an important experience, but also they can be effective and help the people in need with their work. This paper aims to bring attention to the importance of clinical education in the formation of young lawyers and how one can learn from experience. There will be discussed important issues about legal clinic, the objectives and its mission, how to apply it and the benefits legal clinic brings not only for the academic area but also for the society.

  3. 滇黔桂民族旅游的社会性别研究与方法论思考%A Literature Review of Research and Methodology Reflection on Ethnic Tourism and Gender Issues in Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项萌; 李亚妮; 邓敏


    Recently, ethnic tourism and minority women's issues have been a hot issue in the international social science research. Based on the statistics and analysis of the relevant literature, this paper examines the ethnic tourism and minority gender issues in Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi, and identifies the progress of research and took farther forward to academic trends in near future. It also tries to put forward some suggestions correlating with the discipline construction and research methodology.%民族旅游与少数民族妇女问题研究是近年来人文社会科学研究领域的一个热点。基于国内外相关研究文献的整理分析,对滇黔桂三省民族旅游的社会性别研究进展进行分析整理和系统评述,展望未来的研究热点,并针对当前研究的不足进行方法论提出思考。

  4. Some Issues in the Emergency Plan of Advanced Reactors%先进堆应急计划研究中的若干问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄挺; 曲静原


    Emergency planning is an important component in the strategy of defense in-depth for nuclear safety. As far as the current nuclear power plants in operation over the world are concerned, enhanced safety features are integrated in the design of advanced reactors. For example, their probabilities of occurrence of severe accidents are very low. The time delay before the release of radioactivity into the environment after the initiation of an accident would be considerably long. Based in part on such considerations, the nuclear industry expects that nuclear safety authorities would take this into account when making decisions about emergency planning of advanced reactors. Preferably, the current relevant requirements concerning emergency planning could be relaxed when applied to advanced reactors, and the emergency planning be simplified. This paper presents first the general approach currently used to estimate the size of emergency planning zone. Then the current status of studies on emergency planning of advanced reactors is reviewed. Finally, important issues which should be carefully investigated in the decision making of emergency planning of advanced reactors are discussed.%应急计划是核安全纵深防御原则的重要组成部分.相对于目前世界范围内运行的核电厂而言,目前提出的先进堆设计具有更好的安全特性,例如,事故的发生概率很低、事故情况下放射性释放具有较长的延迟时间等.为了增强公众的可接受性和提高核电的竞争能力,核工业界希望政府核安全管理部门能够考虑先进堆的这些安全特性,放宽对先进堆应急计划与准备的相关要求,如简化应急计划.本文首先简要描述核电厂应急计划区划分的一般方法,然后,介绍目前关于先进堆应急计划的研究现状.最后,对先进堆应急计划决策的相关重要问题进行了初步的讨论.

  5. Private events: from methodological behaviorism to interbehaviorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bueno


    Full Text Available As supposed events being accessible to a unique observer, private events posit an interesting challenge to a behavioristic psychology. Three historical variants of behaviorism dealt with the problem of private events: methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism and interbehaviorism. The basic argument of the two last views, and that distinguishes them from the former, is that private events are comprised into the scope of an objective science of behavior. The analysis of these accounts permits us to confirm a gradual advance in behavior theory, in dealing with this issue, toward a totally monistic view.

  6. Development of Methodologies for Technology Deployment for Advanced Outage Control Centers that Improve Outage Coordination, Problem Resolution and Outage Risk Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawn St. Germain; Ronald Farris; Heather Medeman


    This research effort is a part of the Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by Department of Energy (DOE) and performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs that provides the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRS program serves to help the U.S. nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. The long term viability of existing nuclear power plants in the U.S. will depend upon maintaining high capacity factors, avoiding nuclear safety issues and reducing operating costs. The slow progress in the construction on new nuclear power plants has placed in increased importance on maintaining the output of the current fleet of nuclear power plants. Recently expanded natural gas production has placed increased economic pressure on nuclear power plants due to lower cost competition. Until recently, power uprate projects had steadily increased the total output of the U.S. nuclear fleet. Errors made during power plant upgrade projects have now removed three nuclear power plants from the U.S. fleet and economic considerations have caused the permanent shutdown of a fourth plant. Additionally, several utilities have cancelled power uprate projects citing economic concerns. For the past several years net electrical generation from U.S. nuclear power plants has been declining. One of few remaining areas where significant improvements in plant capacity factors can be made is in minimizing the duration of refueling outages. Managing nuclear power plant outages is a complex and difficult task. Due to the large number of complex tasks and the uncertainty that accompanies them, outage durations routinely exceed the planned duration. The ability to complete an outage on or near

  7. Multilingual Researchers Internationalizing Monolingual English-Only Education through Post-Monolingual Research Methodologies


    Michael Singh


    The argument advanced in this Special Issue of Education Sciences favors democratizing knowledge production and dissemination across the humanities and social sciences through the mainstreaming of multilingual researchers capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire. An important contribution of the papers in this Special Issue is the promise that post-monolingual research methodology holds for collaborative projects among multilingual and monolingual researchers that ta...

  8. End-of-life care in advanced kidney disease: ethical and legal issues and key challenges for black and minority ethnic groups. (United States)

    Cronin, Antonia J


    Advances in modern medical technology have gone so far that it is now possible for machinery to keep people alive. To some extent this has led to a misperception in society that death can almost always be postponed because life-sustaining extracorporeal machinery of some sort or another, for example a dialysis machine, can prevent it. However, for some, being kept alive connected to a dialysis machine for four hours three times a week does not represent or even come close to an existence or quality of life they consider valuable. It may even cause unnecessary distress. This may be because they have reached a point at the end of their lives where they would like the focus of their treatment or care to become that which enables them to live as well as possible until they die. In these circumstances treatment and care should properly be that which enables the supportive and palliative care needs of both patient and family to be identified and met throughout the last phase of life and into bereavement. Identifying and acknowledging the importance of such a paradigm shift in the delivery of healthcare, and above all facilitating it, includes taking on the responsibility, incumbent upon us all, to address the ethical issues that are brought into focus. In this paper, I examine some of these issues. I consider the ways in which underlying theoretical ethical principles have informed the development of professional guidance and highlight the dynamic relationship this guidance has with the law. Finally, I demonstrate the ways in which it can be usefully applied to inform and assist clinical decision-making. Key challenges for BAME groups are addressed.

  9. Advanced Mechatronics and MEMS Devices

    CERN Document Server


    Advanced Mechatronics and MEMS Devicesdescribes state-of-the-art MEMS devices and introduces the latest technology in electrical and mechanical microsystems. The evolution of design in microfabrication, as well as emerging issues in nanomaterials, micromachining, micromanufacturing and microassembly are all discussed at length in this volume. Advanced Mechatronics also provides a reader with knowledge of MEMS sensors array, MEMS multidimensional accelerometer, artificial skin with imbedded tactile components, as well as other topics in MEMS sensors and transducers. The book also presents a number of topics in advanced robotics and an abundance of applications of MEMS in robotics, like reconfigurable modular snake robots, magnetic MEMS robots for drug delivery and flying robots with adjustable wings, to name a few. This book also: Covers the fundamentals of advanced mechatronics and MEMS devices while also presenting new state-of-the-art methodology and technology used in the application of these devices Prese...

  10. AMOVA ["Accumulative Manifold Validation Analysis"]: An Advanced Statistical Methodology Designed to Measure and Test the Validity, Reliability, and Overall Efficacy of Inquiry-Based Psychometric Instruments (United States)

    Osler, James Edward, II


    This monograph provides an epistemological rational for the Accumulative Manifold Validation Analysis [also referred by the acronym "AMOVA"] statistical methodology designed to test psychometric instruments. This form of inquiry is a form of mathematical optimization in the discipline of linear stochastic modelling. AMOVA is an in-depth…

  11. Educational neuroscience: definitional, methodological, and interpretive issues. (United States)

    Byrnes, James P; Vu, Lien T


    In this study, we hope to accomplish three aims as follows: (1) provide greater clarity regarding the nature and scope of the field of educational neuroscience, (2) propose a framework for understanding when and how neuroscientific research could be informative for educational practice, and (3) describe some examples of neuroscientific findings from the domains of reading and mathematics that are informative according to this framework. We propose that psychological models of learning-related processes should be the basis of instructional decisions, and that neuroscientific evidence in combination with traditional evidence from psychological experiments should be used to decide among competing psychological models. Our review of the neuroscientific evidence for both reading and mathematics suggests that while much has been learned over the past 20 years, there is still a 'disconnect' between contemporary psychological models that emphasize higher level skills and neuroscientific studies that focus on lower level skills. Moreover, few researchers have used neuroscientific evidence to decide among psychological models, but have focused instead on identifying the brain regions that subtend component skills of reading and math. Nevertheless, neuroscientific studies have confirmed the intrinsic relationship between reading and spoken language, revealed interesting predictive relationships between anatomical structures and reading and math disabilities, and there is the potential for fruitful collaborations between neuroscientists and psychologists in the future.

  12. Meditation: Rationales, Experimental Effects, and Methodological Issues (United States)


    is frequently cited, almost verbatim, in discussions of the ’ mechanisms ’ of meditation (Russell, 1976; Campbell. 1973, 1975; Forem. 1974): "A thought...i) Views of Stress and Anxiety Recently, the Alchohol . Druz Abuse and Mental health Administration (ADAKHA) requested that the Board on Mental Health...electrocortical, autonomic and behavioural. He argued that the mechanisms underlying the expression of the different forms of arousal were usually intimately

  13. Sampling survey methodology issues of SBS- survey


    Liljana Boci; Elona Berberi


    This paper aims at providing an insight on what is required to build an efficient and high quality business statistics from sample survey procedures, and on the effective and appropriate use of survey data in analysis. It aims at describing a general overview of what is required to have a good survey estimate. It shows in practice how to estimate characteristics of the population in SBS considering: weighting, non-response adjustments, post stratification, estimating a population totals, the ...

  14. Sampling survey methodology issues of SBS- survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liljana Boci


    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing an insight on what is required to build an efficient and high quality business statistics from sample survey procedures, and on the effective and appropriate use of survey data in analysis. It aims at describing a general overview of what is required to have a good survey estimate. It shows in practice how to estimate characteristics of the population in SBS considering: weighting, non-response adjustments, post stratification, estimating a population totals, the identification and treatment of outliers, and analyses of coefficient of variation. It provides sources of errors and gives recommendations of how to improve them throw sample survey techniques.

  15. Methodological issues and preliminary results from a combined sediment fingerprinting and radioisotope dating approach to explore changes in sediment sources with land-use change in the Brantian Catchment, Borneo. (United States)

    Walsh, Rory; Higton, Sam; Marshall, Jake; Bidin, Kawi; Blake, William; Nainar, Anand


    This paper reports some methodological issues and early results of a project investigating the erosional impacts of land use changes (multiple selective logging and progressive, partial conversion to oil palm) over the last 25-40 years in the 600km2 Brantian river catchment in Sabah, Borneo. A combined sediment fingerprinting and radioisotope dating approach is being applied to sediment cores taken in stream hierarchical fashion across the intermediate catchment scale. Changes in sediment sources and sedimentation rates over time can be captured by changes in the relative importance of geochemical elements with depth in downstream sediment cores, which in turn can be linked to parallel changes in upstream cores by the application of unmixing models and statistical techniques. Radioisotope analysis of the sediment cores allows these changes to be dated and sedimentation rates to be estimated. Work in the neighbouring Segama catchment had successfully demonstrated the potential of such an approach in a rainforest environment (Walsh et al. 2011). The paper first describes steps taken to address methodological issues. The approach relies on taking continuous sediment cores which have aggraded progressively over time and remain relatively undisturbed and uncontaminated. This issue has been tackled (1) through careful core sampling site selection with a focus on lateral bench sites and (2) deployment of techniques such as repeat-measurement erosion bridge transects to assess the contemporary nature of sedimentation to validate (or reject) candidate sites. The issue of sediment storage and uncertainties over lag times has been minimised by focussing on sets of above- and below-confluence sites in the intermediate zone of the catchment, thus minimising sediment transit times between upstream contributing and downstream destination core sites. This focus on the intermediate zone was also driven by difficulties in finding suitable core sites in the mountainous headwaters

  16. Definition of an object oriented library for the dynamic simulation of advanced energy systems: methodologies, tools and application to combined ICE-ORC power plants


    Vaja, Iacopo


    The present Thesis covers part of the work that has been carried out during the three year Ph.D. course in Industrial Engineering at the University of Parma. Scope of the work is developing theoretical methodologies and a full library of dynamic models that can represent the components that usually appear in energy conversion systems. The proposed library should endorse the possibility to create any desire arrangement of the studied systems, to overcome the lack of testing facilities in or...

  17. A modified eco-efficiency framework and methodology for advancing the state of practice of sustainability analysis as applied to green infrastructure. (United States)

    Ghimire, Santosh R; Johnston, John M


    We propose a modified eco-efficiency (EE) framework and novel sustainability analysis methodology for green infrastructure (GI) practices used in water resource management. GI practices such as rainwater harvesting (RWH), rain gardens, porous pavements, and green roofs are emerging as viable strategies for climate change adaptation. The modified framework includes four economic, 11 environmental, and three social indicators. Using six indicators from the framework, at least one from each dimension of sustainability, we demonstrate the methodology to analyze RWH designs. We use life-cycle assessment and life-cycle cost assessment to calculate the sustainability indicators of 20 design configurations as Decision Management Objectives (DMOs). Five DMOs emerged as relatively more sustainable along the EE analysis Tradeoff Line, and we used Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), a widely applied statistical approach, to quantify the modified EE measures as DMO sustainability scores. We also addressed the subjectivity and sensitivity analysis requirements of sustainability analysis, and we evaluated the performance of 10 weighting schemes that included classical DEA, equal weights, National Institute of Standards and Technology's stakeholder panel, Eco-Indicator 99, Sustainable Society Foundation's Sustainable Society Index, and five derived schemes. We improved upon classical DEA by applying the weighting schemes to identify sustainability scores that ranged from 0.18 to 1.0, avoiding the non-uniqueness problem and revealing the least to most sustainable DMOs. Our methodology provides a more comprehensive view of water resource management and is generally applicable to GI and industrial, environmental, and engineered systems to explore the sustainability space of alternative design configurations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Recent advances in the development of capillary electrophoresis methodologies for optimizing, controlling, and characterizing the synthesis, functionalization, and physicochemical, properties of nanoparticles. (United States)

    Trapiella-Alfonso, Laura; d'Orlyé, Fanny; Varenne, Anne


    This paper gives a critical overview of capillary electrophoresis (CE) methodologies recently developed for controlling and optimizing the synthesis of nanoparticles as well as characterizing their functionalization in terms of physicochemical properties. Thanks to their electrophoretic mobility, various parameters can be determined, such as NP size and charge distribution, ζ-potential, surface functionality, colloidal stability, grafting rates, and dissociation constants, allowing not only the complete characterization of new nanoprobes but also helping in their design and in the selection of chemical conditions for their storage and further manipulation. New strategies for the improvement of CE detection sensitivity are also described.

  19. Advanced power analysis methodology targeted to the optimization of a digital pixel readout chip design and its critical serial powering system (United States)

    Marconi, S.; Orfanelli, S.; Karagounis, M.; Hemperek, T.; Christiansen, J.; Placidi, P.


    A dedicated power analysis methodology, based on modern digital design tools and integrated with the VEPIX53 simulation framework developed within RD53 collaboration, is being used to guide vital choices for the design and optimization of the next generation ATLAS and CMS pixel chips and their critical serial powering circuit (shunt-LDO). Power consumption is studied at different stages of the design flow under different operating conditions. Significant effort is put into extensive investigations of dynamic power variations in relation with the decoupling seen by the powering network. Shunt-LDO simulations are also reported to prove the reliability at the system level.

  20. Avanços metodológicos na produção in vitro de embriões Methodological advances on in vitro embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Rumpf


    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento da metodologia de produção in vitro de embriões (PIV para maximizar o ganho genético e a produção animal a um custo baixo é um desafio de pesquisa científica há vários anos. A possibilidade de produzir, em escala comercial, embriões a partir de oócitos puncionados dos folículos ovarianos pode aumentar os benefícios do uso da inseminação artificial devido ao seu decisivo papel no aumento do progresso genético entre gerações de acordo com as necessidades de cada programa de melhoramento genético ou produção animal. Diferentes rotas tecnológicas foram desenvolvidas a partir da PIV em espécies de interesse zootécnico ou espécies ameaçadas de extinção.The development of in vitro embryo production (IVP methodology to maximize genetic gain and animal production at lower cost is a challenge of the research and it has been studied for many years. The possibility to produce, in commercial scale, embryos from ovum pick up methodology may increase the benefits of the use of artificial insemination (AI for its decisive role to maximize the genetic progress between generations, according to the requirements of each genetic improvement program and livestock capacity. Different technological routes are associated to IVP, both for zootechnical interest species and for endangered species.

  1. On methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheesman, Robin; Faraone, Roque


    This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública".......This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública"....

  2. 粤语本字考订之观念与方法问题刍议%Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Textual Researches on Etymological Characters of Cantonese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Textual research on etymological characters is a traditional part of research on Chinese dialects. Limited by the form of traditional textual research, existing researches on etymological characters have not reached any agreement on the definition of etymological characters, the connection between characters and pronunciation, the specific purpose of the researches and the methods used; meanwhile, a series of conceptions supposed to be implemented have not been put into practice. By analyzing typical researches in recent years, the present study aims to summarize some conceptual and methodological issues, which may be especially essential to the future progress in textual researches on etymological characters.%依本字考订乃方言研究中一个传统项目. 受传统考据体式局限,现有之方言本字考研究有时难以将本字之定义、"字"与语音之明确关系、考本字之明确目的与实际运用之研究方法内部统一起来;一系列早被公认应当揭櫫之研究观念,往往又未能付诸方法. 通过对近年来经典研究成果进行具体分析,尽可能系统总结若干观念与方法问题,对日后本字考订研究取得质的进步,显得尤为必要.

  3. Methodological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.


    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs.

  4. The help of Advanced Satellite Interferometry in assessing the effect of human-induced surface deformation in naturally subsiding areas. Methodological approach and applications (United States)

    Tamburini, Andrea; Giannico, Chiara; Del Conte, Sara; Teatini, Pietro


    Underground water extraction, natural gas storage either in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs or in aquifers, and excavations for civil works (e.g. underground passageways, car parks, etc.) in flat areas are responsible for surface deformation that can damage pre-existing structures and modify drainage pathways. Deformation patterns associated to different underground show in many cases typical patterns. Their recognition can help in disentangling different processes when occurring in areas already affected by natural subsidence, such as coastal areas and inner sedimentary plains. Moreover, assessing the extent of human-induced deformation can help in identifying causes, modelling phenomena, predicting their evolution and adopting proper remedial measures. Advanced Satellite Interferometry provides a synoptic view of surface displacements over large areas and long time-spans and has become a standard in several Italian regions where underground fluid injection and withdrawal is going on. The integration of interferometric measurements with ground (leveling, GPS) and underground (borehole extensometers, piezometers, micro-seismic) monitoring networks can provide an exhaustive framework of the effect induced at surface level by underground human activities at local and regional scale. Documented case studies demonstrating the effectiveness of the above approach will be presented.

  5. Summary Describing Integration of ERM Methodology into Supervisory Control Framework with Software Package Documentation; Advanced Reactor Technology Milestone: M4AT-16PN2301052

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hirt, Evelyn H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dib, Gerges [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Veeramany, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonebrake, Christopher A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Roy, Surajit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This project involved the development of enhanced risk monitors (ERMs) for active components in Advanced Reactor (AdvRx) designs by integrating real-time information about equipment condition with risk monitors. Health monitoring techniques in combination with predictive estimates of component failure based on condition and risk monitors can serve to indicate the risk posed by continued operation in the presence of detected degradation. This combination of predictive health monitoring based on equipment condition assessment and risk monitors can also enable optimization of maintenance scheduling with respect to the economics of plant operation. This report summarizes PNNL’s multi-year project on the development and evaluation of an ERM concept for active components while highlighting FY2016 accomplishments. Specifically, this report provides a status summary of the integration and demonstration of the prototypic ERM framework with the plant supervisory control algorithms being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and describes additional case studies conducted to assess sensitivity of the technology to different quantities. Supporting documentation on the software package to be provided to ONRL is incorporated in this report.

  6. Questões metodológicas da pesquisa no campo da saúde Aspectos metodológicos de la investigación en el campo de la salud Methodological issues concerning research in the health field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Collet


    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar reflexão sobre o método de pesquisa no campo da saúde. Algumas questões que envolvem o emprego do método das ciências naturais e o método das ciências sociais são apresentadas, buscando compreender alguns problemas metodológicos de um e de outro. Problemas relacionados às questões metodológicas na elaboração de um projeto de investigação são pontuados: diferenciação da natureza do objeto de investigação; contexto em que determinado problema é identificado; tipo de pergunta ao problematizá-lo; procedimentos técnicos, teoria e esquema interpretativo; dicotomia sujeito/objeto do conhecimento; neutralidade do pesquisador; conceito de causalidade.Este trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar una reflexión sobre el método de investigación en el campo de la salud. Presentamos algunas cuestiones que encierran el empleo de las ciencias naturales y el método de las ciencias sociales, tratando de esclarecer algunos problemas metodológicos tanto de uno como del otro. Abordamos problemas relacionados con los aspectos metodológicos para la elaboración de un proyecto de investigación que necesitan ser continuamente discutidos, incluyendo: la diferenciación de la naturaleza del objetivo de la investigación, el contexto en que determinado problema es identificado, el tipo de pregunta que se hace al problematizarlo, los procedimientos técnicos, la teoría y el esquema interpretativo que lo fundamentan; la dicotomía sujeto/objeto del conocimiento, la neutralidad del investigador, el concepto de causalidad.This work aims at presenting a reflection on the method of research in the health field. Some questions are presented which involve the use of the method of natural sciences and that of social sciences in an attempt at understanding some methodological problems concerning the former and the latter. Problems related to the methodological issues in the elaboration of investigation projects

  7. Avanços metodológicos da microscopia na avaliação de alimentos Methodological advances of microscopy in food-stuff evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Lempp


    , as well as the development of samples preparation techniques, provided excellent tools in the several science areas. The evaluations at the microscope, electron or optical, of edible products utilized for ruminants, has helped in the cause/effect relationship understanding in animal performance. Of paramount importance are the advances obtained in the action mode of rumen microorganisms in the substrates knowledge, mainly of the particle-associated bacteria. Advances were also achieved in the knowledge of factors that affect the forage dry matter degradability, especially of the C3 species, but these advances also contribute to the knowledge of the C4. These studies results allowed the establishment of several research lines, creating the possibility of discrimination in the early stages of grasses and legumes selection, those which present the greatest qualitative potential. There is especial merit also in the studies to increase the corn and alfalfa stalk degradability, as well as those to identify how the agricultural byproducts treatment can increase its quality, and to verify the effect of inoculants, such as exogenous enzymes, in the dry matter degradability rate. Besides the verification of the tannin effect, especially in legumes, into the digestibility, which may in the future to foster the utilization of additives that can minimize or prevent their harmful effects on forage consumption. With relation to cereal grains, it may be verified the genotype influence on degradability. The results achieved up to now, give the base for the genetic manipulation of feed stuff utilized by ruminants, which probably will be object of research in the next decades.

  8. Issue Management Risk Ranking Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novack, Steven David; Marshall, Frances Mc Clellan; Stromberg, Howard Merion; Grant, Gary Michael


    Thousands of safety issues have been collected on-line at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the Issue Management Plan. However, there has been no established approach to prioritize collected and future issues. The authors developed a methodology, based on hazards assessment, to identify and risk rank over 5000 safety issues collected at INEEL. This approach required that it was easily applied and understandable for site adaptation and commensurate with the Integrated Safety Plan. High-risk issues were investigated and mitigative/preventive measures were suggested and ranked based on a cost-benefit scheme to provide risk-informed safety measures. This methodology was consistent with other integrated safety management goals and tasks providing a site-wide risk informed decision tool to reduce hazardous conditions and focus resources on high-risk safety issues. As part of the issue management plan, this methodology was incorporated at the issue collection level and training was provided to management to better familiarize decision-makers with concepts of safety and risk. This prioritization methodology and issue dissemination procedure will be discussed. Results of issue prioritization and training efforts will be summarized. Difficulties and advantages of the process will be reported. Development and incorporation of this process into INEELs lessons learned reporting and the site-wide integrated safety management program will be shown with an emphasis on establishing self reliance and ownership of safety issues.

  9. Issue Management Risk Ranking Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. M. Marshall; G. M. Grant; H. M. Stromberg; S. D. Novack


    Thousands of safety issues have been collected on-line at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the Issue Management Plan. However, there has been no established approach to prioritize collected and future issues. The authors developed a methodology, based on hazards assessment, to identify and risk rank over 5000 safety issues collected at INEEL. This approach required that it was easily applied and understandable for site adaptation and commensurate with the Integrated Safety Plan. High-risk issues were investigated and mitigative/preventive measures were suggested and ranked based on a cost-benefit scheme to provide risk-informed safety measures. This methodology was consistent with other integrated safety management goals and tasks providing a site-wide risk-informed decision tool to reduce hazardous conditions and focus resources on high-risk safety issues. As part of the issue management plan, this methodology was incorporated at the issue collection level and training was provided to management to better familiarize decision-makers with concepts of safety and risk. This prioritization methodology and issue dissemination procedure will be discussed. Results of issue prioritization and training efforts will be summarized. Difficulties and advantages of the process will be reported. Development and incorporation of this process into INEEL's lessons learned reporting and the site-wide integrated safety management program will be shown with an emphasis on establishing self reliance and ownership of safety issues.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov


    Full Text Available The issues of vehicle safety are considered. The methodology of approach to analyzing and solving the problem of safety management of vehicles and overall traffic is offered. The distinctive features of organization and management of vehicle safety are shown. There has been drawn a conclusion that the methodological approach to solving traffic safety problems is reduced to selection and classification of safety needs.

  11. Advance in Methodology Development for Detecting Vibrio parahaemolyticus%副溶血弧菌检测方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温灿; 顾小松; 王荣智


    Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) is a halophilic gram‐negative bacterium .It widely exists in warm water fishes ,shrimps and shellfishes .The seafood carriers ,when ingested ,can cause the typical gastroenteritis symptoms including diarrhea ,intestinal cramps ,nausea and vomiting .When a patient is seriously infected ,septicemia and kidney failure may result .The rate of the food poisoning incidents caused by V p has increased drastically in recent years ,reaching the top of the list among all foodborne illnesses .With the wide‐spread nature and seriousness of the diseases in humans ,the need for a rapid ,sensitive ,low‐cost and effective detection method has become apparent . Methodologies based on the virulence factors that apply the molecular biology techniques including PCR ,Loop‐mediated isothermal amplification ,nucleic acid probe and gene chip ,as well as the immunology tools ,such as ELISA and the immune colloidal gold ,are being explored .This article evaluates the relevant methods to provide a comprehensive reference for the related studies .%副溶血弧菌是一种嗜盐的革兰氏阴性菌,它广泛分布于温暖海域的海产品中,如鱼、虾、贝类等,食用被其感染的海鲜可导致食用者出现腹泻、肠痉挛、恶心、呕吐等典型胃肠炎症状,严重时可引起败血症,肾功能衰竭等临床反应。近年来,由副溶血弧菌引发的食物中毒事件的发生比例呈猛烈的上升趋势,并且领先于其他食源性致病菌,居于首位。鉴于其污染范围广,致病力强,对副溶血弧菌实现快速、灵敏、经济、有效的检测是减少其污染海洋产品,保障人体健康的关键,也是当代研究的热门。目前,基于其毒力致病机理的检测方法得到了很大的发展,主要包括分子生物学范畴的PCR法、环介导等温扩增技术、核酸探针技术、基因芯片技术等与免疫学范畴的ELISA ,胶体金技术等。本文综述了

  12. Multifractal methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Salat, Hadrien; Arcaute, Elsa


    Various methods have been developed independently to study the multifractality of measures in many different contexts. Although they all convey the same intuitive idea of giving a "dimension" to sets where a quantity scales similarly within a space, they are not necessarily equivalent on a more rigorous level. This review article aims at unifying the multifractal methodology by presenting the multifractal theoretical framework and principal practical methods, namely the moment method, the histogram method, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) and modulus maxima wavelet transform (MMWT), with a comparative and interpretative eye.

  13. II. Methodology


    Drabik, Michal


    Literature review To thoroughly explore the issue that constitutes the subject of this paper I utilized three basic techniques. First of all, in order to familiarize myself with the technology in general, and the socio-political dimension of its implementation in particular, I resorted to reviewing the specialist literature and statistical data concerning CCS. Process tracing Secondly, for the purpose of establishing who the stakeholders are in the Polish context, what stances they adopt, a...

  14. Research methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    This book deals with how students should use of research methods in their university projects. It aims at helping students in developing comprehensive research strategies for their projects. It also provides introduction to issues of philosophy of science as applied in the social sciences....... That is it provides them with a fair understanding of the root assumptions that guide researchers in their investigations and how these assumptions inform their theoretical thinking and choice of methods....

  15. Advancing Parent-Professional Leadership: Effective Strategies for Building the Capacity of Parent Advisory Councils in Special Education. The Institute Brief. Issue No. 27 (United States)

    Boeltzig, Heike; Kusminsky, Matthew N.; Foley, Susan M.; Robison, Richard; Popper, Barbara; Gutierrez-Wilson, Marilyn


    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, last amended in 2004 (IDEA 2004), encourages parents and educators to work collaboratively, emphasizing that as a team they are uniquely suited to make decisions that help improve the educational experiences and outcomes of children with disabilities. The Advancing Parent-Professional Leadership in…

  16. Advance payments

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division


    Administrative Circular N 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962


    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division


    Administrative Circular Nº 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  18. Research Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, S; Philomination, P


    In this manuscript various components of research are listed and briefly discussed. The topics considered in this write-up cover a part of the research methodology paper of Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) course and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) course. The manuscript is intended for students and research scholars of science subjects such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, statistics, biology and computer science. Various stages of research are discussed in detail. Special care has been taken to motivate the young researchers to take up challenging problems. Ten assignment works are given. For the benefit of young researchers a short interview with three eminent scientists is included at the end of the manuscript.

  19. Human resource management and firm innovativeness in a European context: Advancing our understanding of the relationship (Introduction to the thematic issue)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruel, H.J.M.; Bondarouk, T.V.; Florén, H.; Rundquist, J.


    This paper introduces the papers included in the thematic issue on Human Resource Management (HRM) and firm innovativeness in a European context. Furthermore it presents the results of a literature review on human resource management and firm innovativeness. The literature shows that the positive re

  20. METHODOLOGY OF PROFESSIONAL PEDAGOGICAL EDUCATION: THEORY AND PRACTICE (theoretical and methodological foundations of vocational teacher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny M. Dorozhkin


    methodology taking into consideration the target orientation, principles and approaches to the organization and its’ methods of scientific and educational activities implementation. The qualification structure formation of the teachers’ vocational training and providing advance principles of education are considered to be the most important conditions for the development of vocational teacher education. Scientific novelty. The research demonstrates creating the project of further vocational teacher education development in the post-industrial society. The pedagogical innovations transforming research findings into educational practice are considered to be the main tool of integration methodology means. Practical significance. The research findings highlight the proposed reforms for further teachers training system development of vocational institutes, which are in need of drastic restructuring. In the final part of the article the authors recommend some specific issues that can be discussed at the methodological workshop. 

  1. A Review: Passive System Reliability Analysis – Accomplishments and Unresolved Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Reliability assessment of passive safety systems is one of the important issues, since safety of advanced nuclear reactors rely on several passive features. In this context, a few methodologies such as Reliability Evaluation of Passive Safety System (REPAS, Reliability Methods for Passive Safety Functions (RMPS and Analysis of Passive Systems ReliAbility (APSRA have been developed in the past. These methodologies have been used to assess reliability of various passive safety systems. While these methodologies have certain features in common, but they differ in considering certain issues; for example, treatment of model uncertainties, deviation of geometric and process parameters from their nominal values, etc. This paper presents the state of the art on passive system reliability assessment methodologies, the accomplishments and remaining issues. In this review three critical issues pertaining to passive systems performance and reliability have been identified. The first issue is, applicability of best estimate codes and model uncertainty. The best estimate codes based phenomenological simulations of natural convection passive systems could have significant amount of uncertainties, these uncertainties must be incorporated in appropriate manner in the performance and reliability analysis of such systems. The second issue is the treatment of dynamic failure characteristics of components of passive systems. REPAS, RMPS and APSRA methodologies do not consider dynamic failures of components or process, which may have strong influence on the failure of passive systems. The influence of dynamic failure characteristics of components on system failure probability is presented with the help of a dynamic reliability methodology based on Monte Carlo simulation. The analysis of a benchmark problem of Hold-up tank shows the error in failure probability estimation by not considering the dynamism of components. It is thus suggested that dynamic reliability

  2. Parkinson's Disease: The Newest Advances (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Parkinson's Disease: The Newest Advances Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table ... number of genes that cause or contribute to Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as potential environmental risk factors. ...

  3. Methodological Advances in Bibliometric Mapping of Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J.P. van Eck (Nees Jan)


    textabstractBibliometric mapping of science is concerned with quantitative methods for visually representing scientific literature based on bibliographic data. Since the first pioneering efforts in the 1970s, a large number of methods and techniques for bibliometric mapping have been proposed and te

  4. Spreadsheet Development Methodologies using Resolver: Moving spreadsheets into the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Kemmis, Patrick


    We intend to demonstrate the innate problems with existing spreadsheet products and to show how to tackle these issues using a new type of spreadsheet program called Resolver. It addresses the issues head-on and thereby moves the 1980's "VisiCalc paradigm" on to match the advances in computer languages and user requirements. Continuous display of the spreadsheet grid and the equivalent computer program, together with the ability to interact and add code through either interface, provides a number of new methodologies for spreadsheet development.

  5. Review on current advances, future challenges and consideration issues for post-combustion CO2 capture using amine-based absorbents☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwu Liang; Kaiyun Fu; Raphael Idem; Paitoon Tontiwachwuthikul


    Among the current technologies for post-combustion CO2 capture, amine-based chemical absorption appears to be the most technologically mature and commercial y viable method. This review highlights the opportunities and challenges in post-combustion CO2 capture using amine-based chemical absorption technologies. In addi-tion, this review provides current types and emerging trends for chemical solvents. The issues and performance of amine solvents are reviewed and addressed in terms of thermodynamics, kinetics, mass transfer, regeneration and solvent management. This review also looks at emerging and future trends in post-combustion CO2 capture using chemical solvents in the near to mid-term.

  6. Rat sperm motility analysis: methodologic considerations (United States)

    The objective of these studies was to optimize conditions for computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) of rat epididymal spermatozoa. Methodologic issues addressed include sample collection technique, sampling region within the epididymis, type of diluent medium used, and sample c...

  7. Advances in Tube Hydroforming - An Enabling Technology for Low-Mass Vehicle Manufacturing - Material, Lubrication,Loading, Simulation Issues, and Alternatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muammer Ko(c)


    The tube hydroforming process (THF) has recently found a wide application opportunity in the automotive industry, and is of increasing interest to other industries as well. The increased interest stems from the fact that, through the THF process, manufacturers are able to produce complex, consolidated, lightweight parts with reduced number of post-processing than through alternative metal forming techniques. In order to fully realize the benefits of this technology, various aspects have been under investigation in academia and industry world-wide. In this paper, effect of loading path, incoming material variation, and lubrication on the robustness of the hydroforming process and final part specifications are summarized based on previous experimental and computational work. In addition, the simulation of hydroforming and examples are presented in comparison with experimental findings. Briefly, results emphasized the importance of the loading path design whereas material variation within the experimentally tested range was not found to be significantly effective on the final part specifications. Selection of a lubricant for hydroforming of a frame rail part was presented demonstrating several aspects of lubrication selection methodology. Results of friction experiments show that only thickness, axial feeding, and force measurements are good indications of lubricant performance as these are found to be strongly discriminative.

  8. Constructivism: a naturalistic methodology for nursing inquiry. (United States)

    Appleton, J V; King, L


    This article will explore the philosophical underpinnings of the constructivist research paradigm. Despite its increasing popularity in evaluative health research studies there is limited recognition of constructivism in popular research texts. Lincoln and Guba's original approach to constructivist methodology is outlined and a detailed framework for nursing research is offered. Fundamental issues and concerns surrounding this methodology are debated and differences between method and methodology are highlighted.


    Open cohort ("time-series") studies of the adverse health effects of short-term exposures to ambient particulate matter and gaseous co-pollutants have been essential in the standard setting process. Last year, a number of serious issues were raised concerning the fitting of Gener...

  10. Qualidade de vida infantil: limites e possibilidades das questões teórico-metodológicas Children's quality of life: limits and possiblities of theorical - methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Bazanelli Prebianchi


    Full Text Available As pesquisas sobre QV infantil não têm sido sistemáticas, dificultando o equacionamento das questões teórico-metodológicas suscitadas quando se deseja aprimorar processos diagnósticos e a avaliação de resultados de tratamentos de saúde. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar os limites e possibilidades das principais questões teórico-metodológicas relativas ao conceito QV das crianças, mediante de uma pesquisa bibliográfica cobrindo o período 1995-2005. Os resultados encontrados foram semelhantes àqueles de trabalhos sobre o estado-da-arte. Concluiu-se que a proliferação de instrumentos de QV e de pesquisas na área ocorreu sem aprofundamento das questões conceituais e metodológicas e com falta de informação obtida das próprias crianças.The researches on child QV have not been systematic and this way it has been difficult to answer the theoretical-methodological questions when the goal is to improve the diagnosis processes and the systematic assessment of health care outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the limits and possibilities of the main theoretical-methodological questions related to the children's QV concept, through a bibliographic research, covering the period 1995-2005. The results were similar to those works on state-of-art. It was concluded that the proliferation of instruments of QV and researches in this area have occurred without deepening of the conceptual and methodological questions and without the information provided by the children themselves.

  11. Advancing Ethical Neuroscience Research. (United States)

    Borah, B Rashmi; Strand, Nicolle K; Chillag, Kata L


    As neuroscience research advances, researchers, clinicians, and other stakeholders will face a host of ethical challenges. The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (Bioethics Commission) has published two reports that provide recommendations on how to advance research endeavors ethically. The commission addressed, among other issues, how to prioritize different types of neuroscience research and how to include research participants who have impaired consent capacity. The Bioethics Commission's recommendations provide a foundation for ethical guidelines as neuroscience research advances and progresses.

  12. Methodological Guidelines for Advertising Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossiter, John R.; Percy, Larry


    In this article, highly experienced advertising academics and advertising research consultants John R. Rossiter and Larry Percy present and discuss what they believe to be the seven most important methodological guidelines that need to be implemented to improve the practice of advertising research....... Their focus is on methodology, defined as first choosing a suitable theoretical framework to guide the research study and then identifying the advertising responses that need to be studied. Measurement of those responses is covered elsewhere in this special issue in the article by Bergkvist and Langner. Most...

  13. Solving advanced multi-objective robust designs by means of multiple objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA): A reliability application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar A, Daniel E. [Division de Computacion Evolutiva (CEANI), Instituto de Sistemas Inteligentes y Aplicaciones Numericas en Ingenieria (IUSIANI), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Canary Islands (Spain)]. E-mail:; Rocco S, Claudio M. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingenieria, Caracas (Venezuela)]. E-mail:


    This paper extends the approach proposed by the second author in [Rocco et al. Robust design using a hybrid-cellular-evolutionary and interval-arithmetic approach: a reliability application. In: Tarantola S, Saltelli A, editors. SAMO 2001: Methodological advances and useful applications of sensitivity analysis. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 2003;79(2):149-59 [special issue

  14. Diagnostic and therapeutic issues for patients with advanced non‑small cell lung cancer harboring anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement: European vs. US perspective (review). (United States)

    Di Maio, Massimo; De Marinis, Filippo; Hirsch, Fred R; Gridelli, Cesare


    The recent availability of crizotinib in clinical practice, for the treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) selected by the presence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement, has relevant implications for both the diagnostic phase and the treatment choices. In the United States, crizotinib was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 for patients with ALK positivity detected by FDA-approved companion diagnostic test. As of January, 2014, the only FDA-approved diagnostic test is Vysis ALK Break-Apart FISH Probe Kit. In Europe, European Medicines Agency (EMA) approved crizotinib for ALK-positive patients in 2012, without specifying the type of test used for determining the positivity. FISH remains the reference technique for ALK determination, but, if fully validated, immunohistochemistry could challenge the current ALK screening practice. Given the robust evidence of activity of crizotinib in ALK-positive patients both pretreated and chemotherapy-naïve, and the favourable tolerability profile of the drug, many oncologists would prefer to administer the drug as early as possible. This is technically feasible in the United States, where crizotinib was approved well before the availability of the results of the randomized phase III trial comparing the drug with standard second-line chemotherapy, and the use of crizotinib in ALK-positive patients is not restricted to a specific line of treatment. On the contrary, in Europe, differently from the FDA decision, crizotinib cannot be used in chemotherapy-naïve patients. In both realities, a deeper knowledge of mechanisms of resistance, the role of repeated biopsies, the treatment strategy for patients experiencing disease progression with crizotinib, the choice of the best chemotherapy regimen are challenging topics for the management of ALK-positive patients in clinical practice.

  15. Advances in inline quantification of co-eluting proteins in chromatography: Process-data-based model calibration and application towards real-life separation issues. (United States)

    Brestrich, Nina; Sanden, Adrian; Kraft, Axel; McCann, Karl; Bertolini, Joseph; Hubbuch, Jürgen


    Pooling decisions in preparative liquid chromatography for protein purification are usually based on univariate UV absorption measurements that are not able to differentiate between product and co-eluting contaminants. This can result in inconsistent pool purities or yields, if there is a batch-to-batch variability of the feedstock. To overcome this analytical bottleneck, a tool for selective inline quantification of co-eluting model proteins using mid-UV absorption spectra and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS) was presented in a previous study and applied for real-time pooling decisions. In this paper, a process-data-based method for the PLS model calibration will be introduced that allows the application of the tool towards chromatography steps of real-life processes. The process-data-based calibration method uses recorded inline mid-UV absorption spectra that are correlated with offline fraction analytics to calibrate PLS models. In order to generate average spectra from the inline data, a Visual Basic for Application macro was successfully developed. The process-data-based model calibration was established using a ternary model protein system. Afterwards, it was successfully demonstrated in two case studies that the calibration method is applicable towards real-life separation issues. The calibrated PLS models allowed a successful quantification of the co-eluting species in a cation-exchange-based aggregate and fraction removal during the purification of monoclonal antibodies and of co-eluting serum proteins in an anion-exchange-based purification of Cohn supernatant I. Consequently, the presented process-data-based PLS model calibration in combination with the tool for selective inline quantification has a great potential for the monitoring of future chromatography steps and may contribute to manage batch-to-batch variability by real-time pooling decisions.

  16. Adolescent intimate heterosexual relationships: measurement issues. (United States)

    Short, Mary B; Catallozzi, Marina; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Auslander, Beth A; Rosenthal, Susan L


    During adolescence, individuals develop increased ability to have emotionally and physically intimate relationships. The type of intimate relationship will make a difference as to whether the adolescent engages in protective behaviors or avoids risky behaviors. However, in reviewing the literature on the association of relationship type and sexual risk and protective behaviors, four methodological challenges were noted. These challenges limit our understanding of the impact of relationship type. These four challenges are: (a) inconsistent definitional frameworks; (b) lack of adolescent voices; (c) lack of consideration of gender; and (d) poor differentiation between individual and relationship risk. These issues direct the course of future work in this area and are necessary to advance the field of adolescent sexual health, particularly with regard to the development and testing of appropriate interventions designed to reduce untoward outcomes of adolescent sexuality.

  17. Editorial: Special Issue — Enzyme Immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente


    Full Text Available Immobilization of enzymes and proteins is a requirement for many industrial enzyme applications, as this facilitates enzyme recovery and reuse. Bearing in mind this necessity, the coupling of immobilization to the improvement of other enzyme features has been pursued by many researchers, and nowadays immobilization is recognized as a tool to improve not only stability, but also enzyme selectivity, specificity, resistance to inhibition or chemical modifiers, etc. To achieve these overall improvements of enzymes’ properties via immobilization, it is necessary to both develop new immobilization systems suitable for these purposes, and to achieve a deeper knowledge of the mechanisms of interaction between enzymes and activated solids. That way, immobilization of enzymes, far being an old-fashioned methodology to just reuse these expensive biocatalysts, is a tool of continuous interest that requires a continuous effort to be exploited in all its potential. This special issue collects 23 papers reporting advances in the field of immobilization of enzymes.[...

  18. Recent advances and issues on locoweed-fungal endophyte%疯草内生真菌研究现状与存在问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周启武; 白松; 路浩; 赵宝玉; 陈基萍


    Locoweed is the most seriously poisonous plant which threats the sustainable development of pasture husbandry throughout the world. As has been confirmed, the main constituent of the locoweed which causes livestock poisoning is the indolizidine alkaloid-swainsonine. Swainsonine has significant phar- macological activity of antibacterial, antiviral, anti-tumor, and improves immune system in addition to its toxicity. Most of the attentions of the research on SW concentrates on the producing mechanisms, toxicol- ogy and pharmacological activities of the SW. Rresearchers domestic and foreign has started to focus on the locoweed endophyte biodiversity, the relationship between the locoweed endophytic fungi and its produc- tion of swainsonine, as well as the mechanism of stress resistance since the end of 20th century to revealing the production mechanism of the toxic substances, the relationship between the endophytic fungi and the stress resistance, especially the interaction between the toxic substances and the endophytic fungi. Swain- sonine-producing endophytic fungus has been isolated from a variety of locoweeds. And it has been found that there existed a close relationship between locoweed endophytic fungi and locoweed. This paper reviewed the main content and the present situation of the researches about locoweed endophytic fungi and made discussion about a number of issues in the field.%疯草是世界范围内危害草原畜牧业可持续发展最严重的毒草。引起家畜疯草中毒的主要成分是吲哚里西啶生物碱——苦马豆素,苦马豆素除具有毒性外,还具有显著的抗菌、抗病毒、抗肿瘤、增强免疫等药理活性,有关苦马豆素产生机制、毒理和药理活性研究已成为人们研究的热点。为了揭示疯草毒性物质产生机制、疯草内生真菌与疯草抗逆性,特别是疯草毒性物质与疯草内生真菌互作关系等诸多问题,国内外科技工作者从20世纪末就开始致力于

  19. Introduction to the special issue on Cognitive bias modification: Taking a step back to move forward? (United States)

    Koster, Ernst H W; Bernstein, Amit


    Cognitive bias modification (CBM) research holds important theoretical and clinical potential. CBM represents one of the most exciting translational developments in experimental psychopathology research in recent years. Despite theoretical and methodological advances in the past 15 years, the clinical efficacy of CBM, to-date, has been disappointing. However, it is important to remember that the CBM therapeutics literature is only in its early stages of scientific development. We argue that the potential for novel approaches to CBM to contribute to disseminable psychological interventions is strong and has yet to be realized. Accordingly, we propose 5 inter-related steps that may help advance the basic and clinical science of CBM: (1) Innovation and refinement of the methodology to modify information-processing bias; (2) Advancing understanding of the nature of processing biases in order to guide their modification; (3) Conceptualizing and studying the moderating and mediating mechanisms underlying the modification of information-processing bias and their effects on maladaptation; (4) Focus on augmenting existing validated treatments, by targeting psychobehavioral processes proximally linked to information-processing biases; (5) Encouraging publication of methodologically strong, mixed and unexpected findings. Finally, we introduce papers in the special issue with respect to each of these future directions. These papers provide important new conceptual and methodological perspectives to advance CBM research.

  20. Methodological remarks on contraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    Because contraction analysis stems from a differential and incremental framework, the nature and methodology of contraction-based proofs are significantly different from those of their Lyapunov-based counterparts. This paper specifically studies this issue, and illustrates it by revisiting some...... classical examples traditionally addressed using Lyapunov theory. Even in these cases, contraction tools can often yield significantly simplified analysis. The examples include adaptive control, robotics, and a proof of convergence of the deterministic Extended Kalman Filter....

  1. 低模板量DNA的分型方法及其相关问题%Methodologies of LT-DNA STR Typing and Issues Related to Forensic Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    More and more biological evidences known as low template DNA ,for the typing of STRs by using the typical commercial kit formats,are consistently detected in forensic DNA analysis.There are a number of methodologies to enable LT-DNA typing, such as the addition of PCR numbers, purification of PCR products, laser capture microdissection, and whole genome amplification.%随着法医DNA分析技术的发展,越来越多低模板量DNA的生物检材被提取,并要求进行STR分型.在此对快速发展的各种低模板量DNA STR分型方法如增加聚合酶链反应(PCR)循环数、纯化PCR扩增产物、激光捕获显微切割和PCR扩增前的全基因组扩增等予以介绍,并就LT-DNA法庭科学应用中存在的相关问题予以论述.

  2. Methodological issues in examining measurement equivalence in patient reported outcomes measures: Methods overview to the two-part series, “Measurement equivalence of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS® short forms”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A. Teresi


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to introduce the methods used and challenges confronted by the authors of this two-part series of articles describing the results of analyses of measurement equivalence of the short form scales from the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS®. Qualitative and quantitative approaches used to examine differential item functioning (DIF are reviewed briefly. Qualitative methods focused on generation of DIF hypotheses. The basic quantitative approaches used all rely on a latent variable model, and examine parameters either derived directly from item response theory (IRT or from structural equation models (SEM. A key methods focus of these articles is to describe state-of-the art approaches to examination of measurement equivalence in eight domains: physical health, pain, fatigue, sleep, depression, anxiety, cognition, and social function. These articles represent the first time that DIF has been examined systematically in the PROMIS short form measures, particularly among ethnically diverse groups. This is also the first set of analyses to examine the performance of PROMIS short forms in patients with cancer. Latent variable model state-of-the-art methods for examining measurement equivalence are introduced briefly in this paper to orient readers to the approaches adopted in this set of papers. Several methodological challenges underlying (DIF-free anchor item selection and model assumption violations are presented as a backdrop for the articles in this two-part series on measurement equivalence of PROMIS measures.

  3. Advances in social simulation 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Verbrugge, Rineke; Flache, Andreas; Roo, Gert; Hoogduin, Lex; Hemelrijk, Charlotte


    This book highlights recent developments in the field, presented at the Social Simulation 2015 conference in Groningen, The Netherlands. It covers advances both in applications and methods of social simulation. Societal issues addressed range across complexities in economic systems, opinion dynamics and civil violence, changing mobility patterns, different land-use, transition in the energy system, food production and consumption, ecosystem management and historical processes. Methodological developments cover how to use empirical data in validating models in general, formalization of behavioral theory in agent behavior, construction of artificial populations for experimentation, replication of models, and agent-based models that can be run in a web browser. Social simulation is a rapidly evolving field. Social scientists are increasingly interested in social simulation as a tool to tackle the complex non-linear dynamics of society. Furthermore, the software and hardware tools available for social simulation ...

  4. Methodology or method? A critical review of qualitative case study reports. (United States)

    Hyett, Nerida; Kenny, Amanda; Dickson-Swift, Virginia


    Despite on-going debate about credibility, and reported limitations in comparison to other approaches, case study is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers. We critically analysed the methodological descriptions of published case studies. Three high-impact qualitative methods journals were searched to locate case studies published in the past 5 years; 34 were selected for analysis. Articles were categorized as health and health services (n=12), social sciences and anthropology (n=7), or methods (n=15) case studies. The articles were reviewed using an adapted version of established criteria to determine whether adequate methodological justification was present, and if study aims, methods, and reported findings were consistent with a qualitative case study approach. Findings were grouped into five themes outlining key methodological issues: case study methodology or method, case of something particular and case selection, contextually bound case study, researcher and case interactions and triangulation, and study design inconsistent with methodology reported. Improved reporting of case studies by qualitative researchers will advance the methodology for the benefit of researchers and practitioners.

  5. A case on vendor selection methodology: An integrated approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil C. Shil


    Full Text Available Vendor selection methodology is a highly researched area in supply chain management l terature and a very significant decision taken by supply chain managers due to technological advances in the manufacturing process. Such research has two basic dimensions: one is related to the identification of variables affecting the performance of the vendors and the other deals with the methodology to be applied. Most of the research conducted in this area deal with the upfront selection of vendors. However, it is very common to have a list of dedicated vendors due to the development of sophisticated production technologies like just in time (JIT, a lean or agile manufacturing process where continuous flow of materials is a requirement. This paper addresses the issue of selecting the optimal vendor from the internal database of a company. Factor analysis, analytical hierarchy process and regression analysis is used in an integrated way to supplement the vendor selection process. The methodology presented here is simply a proposal where every possible room for adjustment is available.

  6. Advances and Applications on Methodology of 16S rRNA Sequencing in Gut Microbiota Analysis%16S rRNA测序技术在肠道微生物中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东萍; 郭明璋; 许文涛


    16S rRNA sequencing is one of the high-throughput-sequencing-based methods used in gut microbiota analysis. Almost all the bacterial species in gut microbiota can be quantified through 16S rRNA sequencing, which has made this method into the mainstream. Two issues are very important in the application of 16S rRNA sequencing:sequencing strategy and bioinformatic analysis. In this review, three aspects of the sequencing strategy, including sequencing platform, sequencing region, and data size were discussed. While on bioinformatic analysis, the advance in sequences cluster and annotation, microbiota structure analysis, key taxa screening and functional analysis were reviewed here.%16S rRNA测序是高通量测序依赖的肠道微生物研究方法之一,该方法可以对肠道微生物中的所有菌种进行精确定量,因此正逐渐成为研究肠道微生物菌种丰度变化的主流。肠道微生物16S rRNA测序的应用过程中有两个问题至关重要,一是如何根据需要选择测序方案;二是面对高通量测序得到的海量数据,如何进行生物信息学分析,以得到具有生物学意义的结果。从测序平台、测序片段、测序数据量的选择3个方面讨论了如何选择测序方案,并从序列聚类与注释、群落结构分析、关键分类单位的筛选与功能分析等方面对目前常用的生物信息学分析手段进行综述。

  7. Aspectos metodológicos do Projeto SBBrasil 2010 de interesse para inquéritos nacionais de saúde Relevant methodological issues from the SBBrasil 2010 Project for national health surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli


    Full Text Available O Projeto SBBrasil 2010 (SBB10 foi concebido como um levantamento epidemiológico em saúde bucal, de base nacional, dentro da estratégia de vigilância em saúde. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar aspectos da metodologia do SBB10 que possam contribuir para ampliar e desenvolver conhecimentos na área de saúde. Com relação ao plano amostral, trata-se de uma pesquisa por conglomerados e com múltiplos estágios. Capitais e municípios do interior das cinco regiões brasileiras compõem os domínios da amostra, cujas unidades amostrais foram, respectivamente, setor censitário e domicílio para as capitais, e município, setor censitário e domicílio para o interior. Nas capitais foram sorteados 30 setores e, no interior de cada região, 30 municípios. A precisão considerou os domínios agrupados segundo o grau de densidade no total da população e a variabilidade interna dos índices. Foram avaliadas as condições de cárie dentária, doença periodontal, oclusopatias, fluorose, traumatismo dentário e edentulismo em cinco grupos etários (5, 12, 15 a 19, 35 a 44 e 65 a 74 anos.The SBBrasil 2010 Project (SBB10 was designed as a nationwide oral health epidemiological survey within a health surveillance strategy. This article discusses methodological aspects of the SBB10 Project that can potentially help expand and develop knowledge in the health field. This was a nationwide survey with stratified multi-stage cluster sampling. The sample domains were 27 State capitals and 150 rural municipalities (counties from the country's five major geographic regions. The sampling units were census tracts and households for the State capitals and municipalities, census tracts, and households for the rural areas. Thirty census tracts were selected in the State capitals and 30 municipalities in the countryside. The precision considered the demographic domains grouped by density of the overall population and the internal variability of oral health

  8. Plasma Physics Issues in Advanced Simulation Research. (United States)


    niri if(rinF(j).le.r) soto 20 * if(ifit(J).&9.0) bth(i)=finpij-l)+(finip(j)-finp(j-l)) * *(r- rinp (j-1) )/ ( rinp (i) -rigp(j-i)) soto 25 20 continue 25...continue I.C***** do 30 il,ninp i f it i) =0 rinpr(i)inO. 30 fingp(i)=0. read(5,*) firip * re’ad(5,*) rir- read(5,*) if: if( rinp (1).ne.0 so*.o 500 do...continue do 55 j=l,np r=Fphysrd ( i do 50 J1l,iri i f(r irip0 ) .l1e. r) soto 50 * *(r-rinF (j- ) ) /( rinp U)-rinF (j-i)) if ( if it U) .R . 1) rho( i ) firp

  9. Advances in Sleep Studies (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Advances in Sleep Studies Past Issues / Summer 2015 ... is the director of the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) in the NIH's National Heart, Lung, ...

  10. Design for manufacturability with advanced lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Bei


    This book introduces readers to the most advanced research results on Design for Manufacturability (DFM) with multiple patterning lithography (MPL) and electron beam lithography (EBL).  The authors describe in detail a set of algorithms/methodologies to resolve issues in modern design for manufacturability problems with advanced lithography.  Unlike books that discuss DFM from the product level, or physical manufacturing level, this book describes DFM solutions from a circuit design level, such that most of the critical problems can be formulated and solved through combinatorial algorithms. Enables readers to tackle the challenge of layout decompositions for different patterning techniques; Presents a coherent framework, including standard cell compliance and detailed placement, to enable Triple Patterning Lithography (TPL) friendly design; Includes coverage of the design for manufacturability with E-Beam lithography.

  11. Multilingual Researchers Internationalizing Monolingual English-Only Education through Post-Monolingual Research Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Singh


    Full Text Available The argument advanced in this Special Issue of Education Sciences favors democratizing knowledge production and dissemination across the humanities and social sciences through the mainstreaming of multilingual researchers capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire. An important contribution of the papers in this Special Issue is the promise that post-monolingual research methodology holds for collaborative projects among multilingual and monolingual researchers that tap into intercultural divergences across languages. Together these papers give warrant to multilingual researchers, including Higher Degree Researchers develop their capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire, an educational innovation that could be of immense benefit to scholars working predominantly monolingual universities. Through their thought provoking papers presented in this Special Issue, these researchers invites those working in the education sciences to seriously consider the potential benefits of multiplying the intellectual resources used for theorizing that is possible through activating, mobilizing and deploying researchers’ multilingual resources in knowledge production and dissemination.

  12. Intelligence for embedded systems a methodological approach

    CERN Document Server

    Alippi, Cesare


    Addressing current issues of which any engineer or computer scientist should be aware, this monograph is a response to the need to adopt a new computational paradigm as the methodological basis for designing pervasive embedded systems with sensor capabilities. The requirements of this paradigm are to control complexity, to limit cost and energy consumption, and to provide adaptation and cognition abilities allowing the embedded system to interact proactively with the real world. The quest for such intelligence requires the formalization of a new generation of intelligent systems able to exploit advances in digital architectures and in sensing technologies. The book sheds light on the theory behind intelligence for embedded systems with specific focus on: ·        robustness (the robustness of a computational flow and its evaluation); ·        intelligence (how to mimic the adaptation and cognition abilities of the human brain), ·        the capacity to learn in non-stationary and evolv...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A León Duarte


    Full Text Available Present economic scenarios compel organizations to introduce new strategies directed to increase their competitiveness. Industrial design is not detached from this tendency; commonly organizations declare that their products are the effect of " listening to the user" . Nevertheless, this process is identified by two basic characteristics: the associated linguistic nature to and the difficulty for interpreting, categorizing and incorporating the user's needs into product specifications. In this sense, the lack of solid and reliable mechanisms to integrate the user's perceived requirements into product characteristics is well known. A particular emphasis is made in the need to incorporate intangible attributes related to product perception by the user. A mechanism to detect and interpret product attributes in the conceptual or early desig and, a procedure to evaluate the user's subjective perception are incorporated. The methodology draws upon particular mechanisms for detection, interpretation and categorization of the requirements in two basic domains. These attributes, once identified, are incorporated in an affordances structure that shows sets of interactions in which the properties of the object are perceived by the user as action possibilities. This structure serves as a guide for the creative team in the detailed design phase, incorporating aspects that the user values the most, employing a combination of mechanisms that include the Kano method, Osgood's semantic differentials, factor analysis and fuzzy logic.El escenario económico actual obliga a las organizaciones a implantar estrategias novedosas, dirigidas a incrementar su competitividad. El diseño industrial no es ajeno a esto; en la actualidad las organizaciones presumen que sus productos son resultado de escuchar al usuario. Sin embargo, este proceso se distingue por dos características: la naturaleza lingüística asociada al mismo y la dificultad para interpretar, categorizar y

  14. Joining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Messler, Robert W


    Provides an unusually complete and readable compilation of the primary and secondary options for joining conventional materials in non-conventional ways. Provides unique coverage of adhesive bonding using both organic and inorganic adhesives, cements and mortars. Focuses on materials issues without ignoring issues related to joint design, production processing, quality assurance, process economics, and joining performance in service.Joining of advanced materials is a unique treatment of joining of both conventional and advanced metals andalloys, intermetallics, ceramics, glasses, polymers, a

  15. Cancer cytogenetics: methodology revisited. (United States)

    Wan, Thomas S K


    The Philadelphia chromosome was the first genetic abnormality discovered in cancer (in 1960), and it was found to be consistently associated with CML. The description of the Philadelphia chromosome ushered in a new era in the field of cancer cytogenetics. Accumulating genetic data have been shown to be intimately associated with the diagnosis and prognosis of neoplasms; thus, karyotyping is now considered a mandatory investigation for all newly diagnosed leukemias. The development of FISH in the 1980s overcame many of the drawbacks of assessing the genetic alterations in cancer cells by karyotyping. Karyotyping of cancer cells remains the gold standard since it provides a global analysis of the abnormalities in the entire genome of a single cell. However, subsequent methodological advances in molecular cytogenetics based on the principle of FISH that were initiated in the early 1990s have greatly enhanced the efficiency and accuracy of karyotype analysis by marrying conventional cytogenetics with molecular technologies. In this review, the development, current utilization, and technical pitfalls of both the conventional and molecular cytogenetics approaches used for cancer diagnosis over the past five decades will be discussed.

  16. Research Methodology in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B


    The aim of this article is to highlight pitfalls in research methodology that may explain why studies in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) often provide very divergent results. It is hoped that insight into this issue may help clinicians decide which published studies are the most valid. It may help...... researchers to eliminate methodological flaws in future studies, which may hopefully come to some kind of agreement about the usefulness of diagnostic tests and treatments in RPL....

  17. Bond Issues. (United States)

    Pollack, Rachel H.


    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  18. TRAGG best estimate methodology applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, H.


    The TRACG model simulates a multi-dimensional vessel and contains a flexible modular structure with control system capability. TRACG has undergone benchmarking qualifications with extensive testing and actual plant data. This best estimate methodology has been used widely in BWR safety analyses as well as in the qualification of the GEH advanced BWR designs. The application of TRACG methodology for loss of coolant accident (LOCA) analyses will provide realistic fuel bundle thermal responses. By taking advantage of these additional margins, the utility owner can justify the optimization of plant-specific emergency core cooling system performance requirements and justify certain equipment declared inoperable. The resulting benefits are improved plant capacity and reliability and improved equipment reliability and lifetime. (Author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charul Deewan


    Full Text Available The technologies are numerous and Software is the one whichis most widely used. Some companies have their owncustomized methodology for developing their software but themajority speaks about two kinds of methodologies: Traditionaland Agile methodologies. In this paper, we will discuss someof the aspects of what Agile methodology is, how it can beused to get the best result from a project, how do we get it towork in an organization.

  20. Language Policy and Methodology (United States)

    Liddicoat, Antony J.


    The implementation of a language policy is crucially associated with questions of methodology. This paper explores approaches to language policy, approaches to methodology and the impact that these have on language teaching practice. Language policies can influence decisions about teaching methodologies either directly, by making explicit…

  1. Tourism Methodologies - New Perspectives, Practices and Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume offers methodological discussions within the multidisciplinary field of tourism and shows how tourism researchers develop and apply new tourism methodologies. The book is presented as an anthology, giving voice to many diverse researchers who reflect on tourism methodology in different...... in interview and field work situations, and how do we engage with the performative aspects of tourism as a field of study? The book acknowledges that research is also performance and that it constitutes an aspect of intervention in the situations and contexts it is trying to explore. This is an issue dealt...

  2. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen


    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  3. Methodological problems in Rorschach research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić-Jočić Dragana


    Full Text Available Comprehensive System of Rorschach interpretation is considered as nomotetic system that makes possible using of projective method in research projects. However, research use of Rorschach method besides of appropriate knowledge of assign procedures and interpretation rules, means a knowledge of specific methodological issues. The Rorschach indicators are nor independent, as they are a part of specific net, so in some research it is necessary to control basic variables not to get artifacts in our research. This is basically relied on researches where we compare groups, as well as in normative studies where through cross-cultural we compare Rorschach indicators. .

  4. [Neuroethics: ethical issues in neurosciences]. (United States)

    Crozier, Sophie


    Neuroethics is a field of bioethics on the ethical challenges of advances in neuroscience. Born in the early 2000s, neuroethics is considering a number of issues raised by the opportunities created by advances in knowledge and techniques in the field of neurology and psychiatry. In fact, what we learn about brain functions allows us to potentially influence our behavior and our actions, and questions human nature, freedom and individual responsibility, and even the place of morality in our society.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.S. Samuelsen; A. Rao; F. Robson; B. Washom


    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into power plant systems that meet performance and emission goals of the Vision 21 program. The study efforts have narrowed down the myriad of fuel processing, power generation, and emission control technologies to selected scenarios that identify those combinations having the potential to achieve the Vision 21 program goals of high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. The technology levels considered are based on projected technical and manufacturing advances being made in industry and on advances identified in current and future government supported research. Included in these advanced systems are solid oxide fuel cells and advanced cycle gas turbines. The results of this investigation will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  6. Ethical issues in transgenics. (United States)

    Sherlock, R; Morrey, J D


    The arguments of critics and concerns of the public on generating transgenic cloned animals are analyzed for the absence or presence of logical structure. Critics' arguments are symbolically compared with "genetic trespassing," "genetic speeding," or "going the wrong way," and responses are provided to these arguments. Scientists will be empowered to participate in the public discussion and to engage the critics on these issues as they consider thoughtful, plausible responses to their concerns. Temporary moratoriums are recognized as a plausible approach to dealing with possible concerns of new scientific advancements.

  7. Microbiological Methodology in Astrobiology (United States)

    Abyzov, S. S.; Gerasimenko, L. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Mitskevich, I. N.; Mulyukin, A. L.; Poglazova, M. N.; Rozanov, A. Y.


    Searching for life in astromaterials to be delivered from the future missions to extraterrestrial bodies is undoubtedly related to studies of the properties and signatures of living microbial cells and microfossils on Earth. As model terrestrial analogs of Martian polar subsurface layers are often regarded the Antarctic glacier and Earth permafrost habitats where alive microbial cells preserved viability for millennia years due to entering the anabiotic state. For the future findings of viable microorganisms in samples from extraterrestrial objects, it is important to use a combined methodology that includes classical microbiological methods, plating onto nutrient media, direct epifluorescence and electron microscopy examinations, detection of the elemental composition of cells, radiolabeling techniques, PCR and FISH methods. Of great importance is to ensure authenticity of microorganisms (if any in studied samples) and to standardize the protocols used to minimize a risk of external contamination. Although the convincing evidence of extraterrestrial microbial life will may come from the discovery of living cells in astromaterials, biomorphs and microfossils must also be regarded as a target in search of life evidence bearing in mind a scenario that alive microorganisms had not be preserved and underwent mineralization. Under the laboratory conditions, processes that accompanied fossilization of cyanobacteria were reconstructed, and artificially produced cyanobacterial stromatolites resembles by their morphological properties those found in natural Earth habitats. Regarding the vital importance of distinguishing between biogenic and abiogenic signatures and between living and fossil microorganisms in analyzed samples, it is worthwhile to use some previously developed approaches based on electron microscopy examinations and analysis of elemental composition of biomorphs in situ and comparison with the analogous data obtained for laboratory microbial cultures and

  8. A Guide to the Systematic Literature Review Methodology in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durach, Christian F.; Wieland, Andreas; Kembro, Joakim

    methodological developments in the application systematic literature reviews in supply chain management. It analyzes what approaches researchers in supply chain management have taken to follow the requirements of a systematic review, identifies issues in the approaches and provides authors, reviewers and editors...... with suggestions to better craft, disseminate, evaluate and select systematic literature reviews in supply chain management. This paper applies a systematic literature review approach to identify and analyze 31 articles published in core supply chain journals. It is the first research to map these developments......, since three seminal methodology papers on systematic reviews in management research have been published between 2003-2009. This research shows that there is still a need for more transparency in the approaches taken. Systematic literature reviews have a high potential to advance the field...

  9. From intellectual craftsmanship to virtual context: methodological tools for social research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Steren


    Full Text Available The present article examines the distinct methodological procedures, focusing particularly on research techniques. Both traditional and new strategies used in social research are characterized in the context of the information society. The paper highlights the impact of incorporating new information and communication technologies in bibliographical and documentary research and in fieldwork. In addition, the dichotomy between qualitative and quantitative approaches is challenged, in view of their complementarity and interfaces. The paradigm of complexity shows significant advance from an epistemological perspective, although while operative methodology it stands on its onsets. Therefore, the study discusses the issue of triangulation, conceived as a promising process in the search for a qual/quan approach. Therefore, there is room for an attempt to further explore the characteristics of technical procedures and resources that can be used by researchers who look for developing inquiries involving mixed methods.

  10. Scenario development methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hudson, J. [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City, Herts (United Kingdom); Stephansson, O. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Engineering Geology; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta, Stockholm (Sweden)


    In the period 1981-1994, SKB has studied several methodologies to systematize and visualize all the features, events and processes (FEPs) that can influence a repository for radioactive waste in the future. All the work performed is based on the terminology and basic findings in the joint SKI/SKB work on scenario development presented in the SKB Technical Report 89-35. The methodologies studied are (a) Event tree analysis, (b) Influence diagrams and (c) Rock Engineering Systems (RES) matrices. Each one of the methodologies is explained in this report as well as examples of applications. One chapter is devoted to a comparison between the two most promising methodologies, namely: Influence diagrams and the RES methodology. In conclusion a combination of parts of the Influence diagram and the RES methodology is likely to be a promising approach. 26 refs.

  11. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies (United States)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.


    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  12. Methodological issues in testing the marginal productivity theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.T. Gottschalk (Peter); J. Tinbergen (Jan)


    textabstractPrevious tests of the marginal productivity theory have been criticized on several grounds reviewed by the authors. One important deficiency has been the small number of factor inputs entered in the production functions. In 1978 Gottschalk suggested a method to estimate production functi

  13. Methodological issues in international comparison of interval breast cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulliard, Jean-Luc; Sasieni, Peter; Klabunde, Carrie; De Landtsheer, Jean-Pierre; Yankaskas, Bonnie C.; Fracheboud, Jacques


    International comparisons of interval cancers (IC) are important to better understand the relationship between programmes' performance and screening practices. In this respect, differences in (i) definition, (ii) identification and (iii) quantification of IC have received little attention. To examin

  14. A discussion of some methodological issues in international assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Wim J.


    Three topics addressed in the previous chapters are identified and discussed from a somewhat different perspective from that of the chapter authors. The topics are: the level of scoring in assessment studies, translation of test items, and sampling of curriculum content. Based on the analysis of the

  15. Methodological issues in measuring innovation performance of spatial units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, T.; Broekel, T.


    The innovation performance of regions or nations has been repeatedly measured in the literature. What is missing, however, is a discussion of what innovation performance of a region or nation means. How do regions or nations exactly contribute to the innovation output of firms? And how can this cont

  16. Media disaster coverage over time: Methodological issues and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuttschreuter, M.; Gutteling, J.M.; Martorell, Sebastian; Soares, C. Guedes; Barnett, Julie


    In 2000 disaster struck Enschede in The Netherlands. Due to explosions at a fireworks factory, 22 people were killed. This study aims to describe the developments in the media coverage of this disaster. Content analysis was performed on 4928 articles, derived from four distinct newspapers. After a p

  17. Methodological Issues in Using Multiple Years of the MCBS (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In the systematic review, we identified 22 pooled, 17 repeated cross-sectional, and 17 longitudinal studies. Less than half of these studies explicitly described the...

  18. Determination of fibromyalgia syndrome after whiplash injuries: methodologic issues. (United States)

    Robinson, James P; Theodore, Brian R; Wilson, Hilary D; Waldo, Peter G; Turk, Dennis C


    Problems in diagnosing fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) among motor vehicle collision (MVC) patients with whiplash (WL) include the following: the predominance of tender points (TPs) in the neck/shoulder girdle region; the 3-month duration of widespread pain criterion; and, the stability of diagnosis. The present study examined the prevalence of FM in a cohort (N = 326) patients with persistent neck pain 3 months after WL injury who were enrolled in a treatment program. Physical examinations were performed at baseline and at the end of treatment. Results indicated that WL patients had a greater proportion of neck/shoulder girdle TPs, relative to distal TPs. Compared with a matched cohort of treatment-seeking FM patients, WL patients indicated less distal TPs (mean = 7.3 TPs vs. mean = 5.6 TPs, P after an MVC). In conclusion, present criteria used in determining FM may result in spuriously inflated rates of diagnosis among WL patients because of persistent localized tenderness after an MVC. Furthermore, the transient nature of FM "symptoms" among WL patients should be taken into account before making a final diagnosis. The present criteria used in determining fibromyalgia may result in spuriously inflated rates of diagnosis among whiplash patients because of persistent localized tenderness after motor vehicle collisions.

  19. Depression and Diabetes - Methodological Issues in Etiologic Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, M.J.


    Cross-sectional studies showed that depression and diabetes often co-occur. However, the reason for this is unclear. Depression may be a risk factor for diabetes or diabetes may be a risk factor for depression. The first aim of this thesis was to investigate these two associations. The second aim wa

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of electricity generation: overview and methodological issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    Electricity production is currently responsible for a large share of global Greenhouse Gas (GHG), NOx and SO2 emissions, and their related environmental impacts. This study provides a critical review of the status of research on life cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity generation. NREL [1-6] re...

  1. Forecasting and Technology Management: Statistical Theory and Methodological Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning

    technology. The conclusion is that widespread awareness of the growing force of technology and increasing concern over its impact means that forecasting of technological development and consequences is absolutely essential in many managerial decision situations. Examples cover e.g. identification...... of directions and targets for a R and D project, monitoring of a given area by a public agency, and evaluation of the future competitive situation for a company. This paper gives a brief introduction to the field of technological forecasting especially in relation to the strategic planning process...... as the essential phase where decisions concerning introduction of new technology are taken in companies. It includes as well a description of the problems related to the marketing area and of methods applicable in practising technological forecasting....

  2. An examination of methodological issues in burnout phase research. (United States)

    Manning, M R; Jackson, C N


    This study explores the impact of three operationalizations of burnout phase on the relationship between burnout and health care utilization of 238 employed adults. Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and health care utilization by insurance company records regarding these employees' health care costs and number of times they accessed health care services over a one-year period. Similar results were found for all three operationalizations of burnout phase. Burnout phase was also found to be related to experienced emotional strain under all three operationalizations.

  3. Light therapy: Methodological issues from an engineering perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J van; Westerlaken,; Aries,; Schoutens,; Aarts,; Sinoo,; Wouters, EJM; Van Someren,


    Light therapy is increasingly administered and studied as a non-pharmacologic treatment for a variety of health-related problems. Light therapy comes in a variety of ways, ranging from being exposed to daylight to being exposed to light from light boxes and ambient bright light. Light therapy is an

  4. Light therapy: Methodological issues from an engineering perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J van; Westerlaken, AC; Aarts, MPJ; Wouters, EJM; Schoutens, AMC; Sinoo, MM; Aries, MBC


    Light therapy is increasingly administered and studied as a non-pharmacologic treatment for a variety of health-related problems, including treatment of people with dementia. Light therapy comes in a variety of ways, ranging from being exposed to daylight, to being exposed to light emitted by light

  5. Light therapy: Methodological issues from an engineering perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerlaken, A.C.; Hoof, J. van; Aarts, M.P.J.; Wouters, E.J.M.; Schoutens, A.M.C.; Sinoo, M.M.; Aries, M.B.C.


    Light therapy is increasingly administered and studied as a non-pharmacologic treatment for a variety of healthrelated problems, including treatment of people with dementia. Light therapy comes in a variety of ways, ranging from being exposed to daylight, to being exposed to light emitted by light b

  6. Methodological issues and pitfalls of short safety culture questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagtman, H.M.; Koornneef, F.; Akselsson, R.; Stewart, S.


    Safety culture surveys have been fielded in many different sectors of industrial activities. Many of these surveys consist of a long list of questions which is time consuming for the respondents. As part of the FP6 HILAS project a shorter survey has been developed, which aimed at getting a high resp

  7. Methodological issues concerning the development of sustainable industrial parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian NASTASE


    Full Text Available Nowadays, in order to make a sustainable economic growth possible, especially within manufacturing industries, with auspicious effects concerning the standard of living and the employment rates, the governments should develop and implement projects and strategies, aiming the transition towards knowledge-based economy. The entities that need investments the most are the countries which are crossing a development process, usually facing difficulties in developing a high-performance industrial sector. Under these circumstances, industrial parks prove to be important tools in order to ensure the competitiveness of the national industry. However, the more and more frequent relocation of industrial companies within industrial parks, as a consequence of amplifying the urban areas’ environmental regulations, is due to generate uncontrollable pollution centers, placed just nearby towns and cities, with highly destructive impact upon the environment. This article aims to describe and recommend several strategic options for developing sustainable industrial parks, focused on protecting the environment and promoting the “new economy’s” principles. Among the strategic options recommended, some of them are highly innovative, such as environmental benchmarking or environmental leadership.

  8. Applications of neuroscience in criminal law: legal and methodological issues. (United States)

    Meixner, John B


    The use of neuroscience in criminal law applications is an increasingly discussed topic among legal and psychological scholars. Over the past 5 years, several prominent federal criminal cases have referenced neuroscience studies and made admissibility determinations regarding neuroscience evidence. Despite this growth, the field is exceptionally young, and no one knows for sure how significant of a contribution neuroscience will make to criminal law. This article focuses on three major subfields: (1) neuroscience-based credibility assessment, which seeks to detect lies or knowledge associated with a crime; (2) application of neuroscience to aid in assessments of brain capacity for culpability, especially among adolescents; and (3) neuroscience-based prediction of future recidivism. The article briefly reviews these fields as applied to criminal law and makes recommendations for future research, calling for the increased use of individual-level data and increased realism in laboratory studies.

  9. Current Searching Methodology and Retrieval Issues: An Assessment (United States)


    the most valuable part of the Web…” often referred to as the Deep Web or an Invisible Web. What is advocated is “fully customized vertical search...that will improve search results.” See discussion below. Scheffer’s display of deep web search sites by content type shows that some 54% are...ACROSS SEARCH ENGINES GOOGLE, 63.1 YAHOO, 21.4 MSN, 10 ASK, 3.5 AOL, 0.5 Other, 1.5 22 % DEEP WEB SEARCH

  10. Methodological Issues in Using Multiple Years of the MCBS (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In the systematic review, we identified 22 pooled, 17 repeated cross-sectional, and 17 longitudinal studies. Less than half of these studies explicitly described...

  11. Methodological Issues in Research on Reading Text with Illustrations. (United States)


    less equal black and white spaces. 8. Writing has various forms that are not usually ixed. A text may be handwritten, typed, printed, cursive, capitals ...and lowercase, etc. lot all writing systems have the same variations. Styles are mixed only for conventional reasons, as capitals at the beginning of...Alan Losgold I Dr. * br,9l bugles Loarulag an center. Deprment of Psycology nIlversity ot Pittsburgh University of aeges P11411Wgh. PA 151 Sues 081

  12. Medical databases in studies of drug teratogenicity: methodological issues


    Ehrenstein, Vera


    Vera Ehrenstein1, Henrik T Sørensen1, Leiv S Bakketeig1,2, Lars Pedersen11Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: More than half of all pregnant women take prescription medications, raising concerns about fetal safety. Medical databases routinely collecting data from large populations are potentially valuable resources for cohort studies addressing teratogenicity of drugs. These i...

  13. Expanding Educational Research and Interventionist Methodologies (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Kris D.; Engeström, Yrjö; Sannino, Annalisa


    This commentary focuses on the ways the set of articles in this issue, taken together, engage an important and much needed conversation in design-based approaches to inquiry: that is, what does it mean to do work in and with nondominant communities? Drawing on cultural historical activity theory, decolonizing methodologies, and indigenous…

  14. Comparison in religion: a methodological contribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, C.A.M.; Sterkens, C.J.A.


    How do we build theory on religion in cross-religious research? This article deals with four methodological issues in answering this question. What are the goals of cross-religious comparison? What is the object of cross-religious research? What kind of definition of religion is used in cross-religi

  15. Chronopolitics: methodological aspects of public policy research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Zubchyk


    Chronopolitics as methodology examines the role of the state in the political structure of the political entity in temporal conditions of political and administrative decisions. These issues have been discussed in the context of Chronopolitical study of historical forms of political organization. The study has proved that Chronopolitics functionally and structurally adds the conceptual and categorical apparatus of political sciences, science and public administration.

  16. (Per)Forming Archival Research Methodologies (United States)

    Gaillet, Lynee Lewis


    This article raises multiple issues associated with archival research methodologies and methods. Based on a survey of recent scholarship and interviews with experienced archival researchers, this overview of the current status of archival research both complicates traditional conceptions of archival investigation and encourages scholars to adopt…

  17. Code qualification of structural materials for AFCI advanced recycling reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Li, M.; Majumdar, S.; Nanstad, R.K.; Sham, T.-L. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (ORNL)


    ) and the Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM), the NRC/Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) raised numerous safety-related issues regarding elevated-temperature structural integrity criteria. Most of these issues remained unresolved today. These critical licensing reviews provide a basis for the evaluation of underlying technical issues for future advanced sodium-cooled reactors. Major materials performance issues and high temperature design methodology issues pertinent to the ARR are addressed in the report. The report is organized as follows: the ARR reference design concepts proposed by the Argonne National Laboratory and four industrial consortia were reviewed first, followed by a summary of the major code qualification and licensing issues for the ARR structural materials. The available database is presented for the ASME Code-qualified structural alloys (e.g. 304, 316 stainless steels, 2.25Cr-1Mo, and mod.9Cr-1Mo), including physical properties, tensile properties, impact properties and fracture toughness, creep, fatigue, creep-fatigue interaction, microstructural stability during long-term thermal aging, material degradation in sodium environments and effects of neutron irradiation for both base metals and weld metals. An assessment of modified versions of Type 316 SS, i.e. Type 316LN and its Japanese version, 316FR, was conducted to provide a perspective for codification of 316LN or 316FR in Subsection NH. Current status and data availability of four new advanced alloys, i.e. NF616, NF616+TMT, NF709, and HT-UPS, are also addressed to identify the R&D needs for their code qualification for ARR applications. For both conventional and new alloys, issues related to high temperature design methodology are described to address the needs for improvements for the ARR design and licensing. Assessments have shown that there are significant data gaps for the full qualification and licensing of the ARR structural materials. Development and evaluation of

  18. Open verification methodology cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Glasser, Mark


    Functional verification is an art as much as a science. It requires not only creativity and cunning, but also a clear methodology to approach the problem. The Open Verification Methodology (OVM) is a leading-edge methodology for verifying designs at multiple levels of abstraction. It brings together ideas from electrical, systems, and software engineering to provide a complete methodology for verifying large scale System-on-Chip (SoC) designs. OVM defines an approach for developing testbench architectures so they are modular, configurable, and reusable. This book is designed to help both novic

  19. Some Findings Concerning Requirements in Agile Methodologies (United States)

    Rodríguez, Pilar; Yagüe, Agustín; Alarcón, Pedro P.; Garbajosa, Juan

    Agile methods have appeared as an attractive alternative to conventional methodologies. These methods try to reduce the time to market and, indirectly, the cost of the product through flexible development and deep customer involvement. The processes related to requirements have been extensively studied in literature, in most cases in the frame of conventional methods. However, conclusions of conventional methodologies could not be necessarily valid for Agile; in some issues, conventional and Agile processes are radically different. As recent surveys report, inadequate project requirements is one of the most conflictive issues in agile approaches and better understanding about this is needed. This paper describes some findings concerning requirements activities in a project developed under an agile methodology. The project intended to evolve an existing product and, therefore, some background information was available. The major difficulties encountered were related to non-functional needs and management of requirements dependencies.

  20. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane


    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  1. The evidence base for oxygen for chronic refractory breathlessness: issues, gaps, and a future work plan. (United States)

    Johnson, Miriam J; Abernethy, Amy P; Currow, David C


    Breathlessness or "shortness of breath," medically termed dyspnea, is a common and distressing symptom featuring strongly in advanced lung, cardiac, and neuromuscular diseases; its prevalence and intensity increase as death approaches. However, despite the increasing understanding in the genesis of breathlessness, as well as an increasing portfolio of treatment options, breathlessness is still difficult to manage and engenders helplessness in caregivers and health care professionals and fear for patients. Although hypoxemia does not appear to be the dominant driver for breathlessness in advanced disease, the belief that oxygen is important for the relief of acute, chronic, and acute-on-chronic shortness of breath is firmly embedded in the minds of patients, caregivers, and health care professionals. This article presents current understanding of the use of oxygen for treating refractory breathlessness in advanced disease. The objective is to highlight what is still unknown, set a research agenda to resolve these questions, and highlight methodological issues for consideration in planned studies.

  2. Significant issues in proof testing: A critical appraisal (United States)

    Chell, G. G.; McClung, R. C.; Russell, D. A.; Chang, K. J.; Donnelly, B.


    Issues which impact on the interpretation and quantification of proof test benefits are reviewed. The importance of each issue in contributing to the extra quality assurance conferred by proof testing components is discussed, particularly with respect to the application of advanced fracture mechanics concepts to enhance the flaw screening capability of a proof test analysis. Items covered include the role in proof testing of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, ductile instability analysis, deterministic versus probabilistic analysis, single versus multiple cycle proof testing, and non-destructive examination (NDE). The effects of proof testing on subsequent service life are reviewed, particularly with regard to stress redistribution and changes in fracture behavior resulting from the overload. The importance of proof test conditions are also addressed, covering aspects related to test temperature, simulation of service environments, test media and the application of real-time NDE. The role of each issue in a proof test methodology is assessed with respect to its ability to: promote proof test practice to a state-of-the-art; aid optimization of proof test design; and increase awareness and understanding of outstanding issues.

  3. Smart Grid Development Issues for Terrestrial and Space Applications (United States)

    Soeder, James F.


    The development of the so called Smart Grid has as many definitions as individuals working in the area. Based on the technology or technologies that are of interest, be it high speed communication, renewable generation, smart meters, energy storage, advanced sensors, etc. they can become the individual defining characteristic of the Smart Grid. In reality the smart grid encompasses all of these items and quite at bit more. This discussion attempts to look at what the needs are for the grid of the future, such as the issues of increased power flow capability, use of renewable energy, increased security and efficiency and common power and data standards. It also shows how many of these issues are common with the needs of NASA for future exploration programs. A common theme to address both terrestrial and space exploration issues is to develop micro-grids that advertise the ability to enable the load leveling of large power generation facilities. However, for microgrids to realize their promise there needs to a holistic systems approach to their development and integration. The overall system integration issues are presented along with potential solution methodologies.

  4. The methodological defense of realism scrutinized. (United States)

    Wray, K Brad


    I revisit an older defense of scientific realism, the methodological defense, a defense developed by both Popper and Feyerabend. The methodological defense of realism concerns the attitude of scientists, not philosophers of science. The methodological defense is as follows: a commitment to realism leads scientists to pursue the truth, which in turn is apt to put them in a better position to get at the truth. In contrast, anti-realists lack the tenacity required to develop a theory to its fullest. As a consequence, they are less likely to get at the truth. My aim is to show that the methodological defense is flawed. I argue that a commitment to realism does not always benefit science, and that there is reason to believe that a research community with both realists and anti-realists in it may be better suited to advancing science. A case study of the Copernican Revolution in astronomy supports this claim.

  5. A CWT-based methodology for piston slap experimental characterization (United States)

    Buzzoni, M.; Mucchi, E.; Dalpiaz, G.


    Noise and vibration control in mechanical systems has become ever more significant for automotive industry where the comfort of the passenger compartment represents a challenging issue for car manufacturers. The reduction of piston slap noise is pivotal for a good design of IC engines. In this scenario, a methodology has been developed for the vibro-acoustic assessment of IC diesel engines by means of design changes in piston to cylinder bore clearance. Vibration signals have been analysed by means of advanced signal processing techniques taking advantage of cyclostationarity theory. The procedure departs from the analysis of the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) in order to identify a representative frequency band of piston slap phenomenon. Such a frequency band has been exploited as the input data in the further signal processing analysis that involves the envelope analysis of the second order cyclostationary component of the signal. The second order harmonic component has been used as the benchmark parameter of piston slap noise. An experimental procedure of vibrational benchmarking is proposed and verified at different operational conditions in real IC engines actually equipped on cars. This study clearly underlines the crucial role of the transducer positioning when differences among real piston-to-cylinder clearances are considered. In particular, the proposed methodology is effective for the sensors placed on the outer cylinder wall in all the tested conditions.

  6. Overriding information issues. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Vibeke


    The Nordic project on overriding information issues focus on why an information project, how to inform about a difficult subject in a modern society, how to provide advance information, how to inform when the accident has occurred and how to inform about NKS and projects. (au)

  7. Preliminary safety analysis methodology for the SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Chung, Y. J.; Kim, H. C.; Sim, S. K.; Lee, W. J.; Chung, B. D.; Song, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)


    This technical report was prepared for a preliminary safety analysis methodology of the 330MWt SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which has been developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) since July 1996. This preliminary safety analysis methodology has been used to identify an envelope for the safety of the SMART conceptual design. As the SMART design evolves, further validated final safety analysis methodology will be developed. Current licensing safety analysis methodology of the Westinghouse and KSNPP PWRs operating and under development in Korea as well as the Russian licensing safety analysis methodology for the integral reactors have been reviewed and compared to develop the preliminary SMART safety analysis methodology. SMART design characteristics and safety systems have been reviewed against licensing practices of the PWRs operating or KNGR (Korean Next Generation Reactor) under construction in Korea. Detailed safety analysis methodology has been developed for the potential SMART limiting events of main steam line break, main feedwater pipe break, loss of reactor coolant flow, CEA withdrawal, primary to secondary pipe break and the small break loss of coolant accident. SMART preliminary safety analysis methodology will be further developed and validated in parallel with the safety analysis codes as the SMART design further evolves. Validated safety analysis methodology will be submitted to MOST as a Topical Report for a review of the SMART licensing safety analysis methodology. Thus, it is recommended for the nuclear regulatory authority to establish regulatory guides and criteria for the integral reactor. 22 refs., 18 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  8. [The debate on the development of advanced competences]. (United States)

    Dimonte, Valerio; Palese, Alvisa; Chiari, Paolo; Laquintana, Dario; Tognoni, Gianni; Di Giulio, Paola


    . The debate on the development of advanced nursing competences. The dossier aims to describe and disentagle the present Italian and international debate on the development and recognition of advanced nursing competences. Following a general brief description of the legislative national background, the attention is first of all focused on the lack of clarity on the definition of advanced competence, which is further complicated by the issue of their formal, contractual and economic recognition. To explore these issues a list of contributions is presented and some proposals are formulated to favor a better oriented development of the debate: a. A convenience sample of 139 nurses were interviewed asking to describe problems occurred in the last month that could prompt the intervention of an expert nurse and to list the clinical, managerial and educational competences of a specialized nurse in their ward. The results document the quality and the dispersion of the definitions which are perceived and applied in the general settings of care. b. The issue the post basic courses (master, specialization) offered to nurses in 2015-2016 by Italian universities were described and their aims. While the contribution of the courses in increasing the theoretical knowledge is well defined, the aims and the description of the clinical training are badly developed and an acquisition of advanced competences would seem unlikely. c. The definition of advanced competences was explored in the international literature: while evidences are available on the impact of advanced nursing on patients' outcomes, what is advanced nursing is far from being clear, and an impressive list of roles, activities and functions are considered advanced. d. Although at national level there is no formal recognition for nurses with advanced competences (with the exception of the head nurse that holds mostly an organizational rather than clinical role), the opportunities for promoting the role of specialistic/advanced

  9. The Methodology of Magpies (United States)

    Carter, Susan


    Arts/Humanities researchers frequently do not explain methodology overtly; instead, they "perform" it through their use of language, textual and historic cross-reference, and theory. Here, methodologies from literary studies are shown to add to Higher Education (HE) an exegetical and critically pluralist approach. This includes…

  10. Menopause and Methodological Doubt (United States)

    Spence, Sheila


    Menopause and methodological doubt begins by making a tongue-in-cheek comparison between Descartes' methodological doubt and the self-doubt that can arise around menopause. A hermeneutic approach is taken in which Cartesian dualism and its implications for the way women are viewed in society are examined, both through the experiences of women…

  11. Data Centric Development Methodology (United States)

    Khoury, Fadi E.


    Data centric applications, an important effort of software development in large organizations, have been mostly adopting a software methodology, such as a waterfall or Rational Unified Process, as the framework for its development. These methodologies could work on structural, procedural, or object oriented based applications, but fails to capture…

  12. Methodological challenges in retailer buying behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and lo...... response rates, buying centres and product specific behaviour. At the end, the authors propose a descriptive research design that will try to take account of the mentioned issues.......This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and low...

  13. Modeling, methodologies and tools for molecular and nano-scale communications modeling, methodologies and tools

    CERN Document Server

    Nakano, Tadashi; Moore, Michael


    (Preliminary) The book presents the state of art in the emerging field of molecular and nanoscale communication. It gives special attention to fundamental models, and advanced methodologies and tools used in the field. It covers a wide range of applications, e.g. nanomedicine, nanorobot communication, bioremediation and environmental managements. It addresses advanced graduate students, academics and professionals working at the forefront in their fields and at the interfaces between different areas of research, such as engineering, computer science, biology and nanotechnology.

  14. RTDP方法在大型先进压水堆热工设计中的应用初步研究%Preliminary Research on RTDP Methodology for Advanced LPP Thermal-hydraulic Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨萍; 贾红轶; 王喆


    Departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) design basis is one of the most important basis for reactor core thermal-hydraulic design.In order to evaluate whether the DNB design basis meets the demand of thermal-hydraulic design,the departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) design limit should be determined first.The RTDP methodology was described detailedly,in which the uncertainties of operating parameters and nuclear design parameters were statistically combined.Then the RTDP methodology and a reactor subchannel code were applied to calculate the DNBR design limit and quality limit for LPP.The conclusions were presented to provide the key acceptable criterion for DNBR design basis.%偏离泡核沸腾(DNB)设计基准是反应堆热工水力设计中的重要基准之一,为评价该设计基准是否满足热工水力设计要求,首先需确定堆芯偏离泡核沸腾比(DNBR)设计限值.本工作详细论述了使用统计学方法确定运行参数及核设计参数等不确定性的RTDP原理,并应用该方法和堆芯子通道分析程序对大型先进压水堆DNBR设计限值及含汽率限值进行计算并给出结论,为DNBR设计基准的验证提供了关键判据.

  15. Adaptive design clinical trials: Methodology, challenges and prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan Rajiv


    Full Text Available New drug development is a time-consuming and expensive process. Recently, there has been stagnation in the development of novel compounds. Moreover, the attrition rate in clinical research is also on the rise. Fearing more stagnation, the Food and Drug Administration released the critical path initiative in 2004 and critical path opportunity list in 2006 thus highlighting the need of advancing innovative trial designs. One of the innovations suggested was the adaptive designed clinical trials, a method promoting introduction of pre-specified modifications in the design or statistical procedures of an on-going trial depending on the data generated from the concerned trial thus making a trial more flexible. The adaptive design trials are proposed to boost clinical research by cutting on the cost and time factor. Although the concept of adaptive designed clinical trials is round-the-corner for the last 40 years, there is still lack of uniformity and understanding on this issue. This review highlights important adaptive designed methodologies besides covering the regulatory positions on this issue.

  16. MARA - methodology to analyze environmental risks; MARA - elaboracao de metodologia para analise dos riscos ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Renato F.; Yogui, Regiane [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Minniti, Vivienne [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Analise de Riscos; Lopes, Carlos F. [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Operacoes de Emergencia; Milaneli, Joao [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Ubatuba, SP (Brazil). Agencia Ambiental de Ubatuba; Torres, Carlos [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude; Rodrigues, Gabriela; Mariz, Eduardo [Consultoria Paulista, SP (Brazil)


    In the oil industry, the environmental impact assessment of an accident is both multi and interdisciplinary and goes through several approaches and depths. Due to the enormous complexity of the environmental analyses issues, mainly for being a science in development and not technological consensus, a macro methodology is presented for the purpose of identify areas that can be impacted by pipeline leakages and recommend improvements are applicable working as a table top response plan. The methodology of the Environmental Risk Mapping-MARA for pipelines rows, describes its concept and justifies the adoption of the environmental mapping during Risk Analyses studies, for PETROBRAS/TRANSPETRO new and existing pipelines. The development of this methodology is justified by the fact that it is a practical tool for identification, analysis and categorization of the more vulnerable environmental elements along a pipeline row and vicinities, during simulated occurrence of accidental spills of hydrocarbons in the environment. This methodology is a tool that allows Environmental Agencies and PETROBRAS a better way to manage in advance the Company emergencies. (author)

  17. [Methodology for clinical research in Orthodontics, the assets of the beOrtho website]. (United States)

    Ruiz, Martial; Thibult, François


    The rules applying to the "evidence-based" methodology strongly influenced the clinical research in orthodontics. However, the implementation of clinical studies requires rigour, important statistical and methodological knowledge, as well as a reliable environment in order to compile and store the data obtained from research. We developed the project "" (based on orthodontic evidence) in order to fill up the gap between our desire to drive clinical research and the necessity of methodological rigour in the exploitation of its results. BeOrtho website was created to answer the issue of sample recruitment, data compilation and storage, while providing help for the methodological design of clinical studies. It allows the development and monitoring of clinical studies, as well as the creation of databases. On the other hand, we designed an evaluation grid for clinical studies which helps developing systematic reviews. In order to illustrate our point, we tested a research protocol evaluating the interest of the mandibular advancement in the framework of Class II treatment.

  18. Health Economic Assessment: A Methodological Primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Simoens


    Full Text Available This review article aims to provide an introduction to the methodology of health economic assessment of a health technology. Attention is paid to defining the fundamental concepts and terms that are relevant to health economic assessments. The article describes the methodology underlying a cost study (identification, measurement and valuation of resource use, calculation of costs, an economic evaluation (type of economic evaluation, the cost-effectiveness plane, trial- and model-based economic evaluation, discounting, sensitivity analysis, incremental analysis, and a budget impact analysis. Key references are provided for those readers who wish a more advanced understanding of health economic assessments.

  19. Exploring participatory methodologies in organizational discourse analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie


    Recent debates in the field of organizational discourse analysis stress contrasts in approaches as single-level vs. multi-level, critical vs. participatory, discursive vs. material methods. They raise methodological issues of combining such to embrace multimodality in order to enable new contribu......Recent debates in the field of organizational discourse analysis stress contrasts in approaches as single-level vs. multi-level, critical vs. participatory, discursive vs. material methods. They raise methodological issues of combining such to embrace multimodality in order to enable new...... contributions. As regards conceptual efforts are made but further exploration of methodological combinations and their practical implications are called for. This paper argues 1) to combine methodologies by approaching this as scholarly subjectification processes, and 2) to perform combinations in both......-and practices by dealing with challenges of methodological overview, responsive creativity and identity-struggle. The potentials hereof are demonstrated and discussed with cases of two both critical and co-creative practices, namely ‘organizational modelling’ and ‘fixed/unfixed positioning’ from fieldwork...

  20. Forward progress of scientific inquiry into the early father-child relationship: introduction to the special issue on very young children and their fathers. (United States)

    Bocknek, Erika L; Hossain, Ziarat; Roggman, Lori


    Research on fathering and the father-child relationship has made substantial progress in the most recent 15 years since the last special issue of the Infant Mental Health Journal on fathers and young children. This special issue on fathers and young children contains a series of papers exemplifying this progress, including advances in methodology-more direct assessment and more observational measures-in addition to the increasing dynamic complexity of the conceptual models used to study fathers, the diversity of fathers studied, and the growth of programs to support early father involvement. In assessing the current state of the field, special attention is given to contributions made by the papers contained in this special issue, and two critical areas for continued progress are addressed: (1) methodological and measurement development that specifically address fathers and fathering relationships and (2) cross-cultural and ecologically valid research examining the diversity of models of fathering.

  1. Statistical methods and applications from a historical perspective selected issues

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, Stefania


    The book showcases a selection of peer-reviewed papers, the preliminary versions of which were presented at a conference held 11-13 June 2011 in Bologna and organized jointly by the Italian Statistical Society (SIS), the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) and the Bank of Italy. The theme of the conference was "Statistics in the 150 years of the Unification of Italy." The celebration of the anniversary of Italian unification provided the opportunity to examine and discuss the methodological aspects and applications from a historical perspective and both from a national and international point of view. The critical discussion on the issues of the past has made it possible to focus on recent advances, considering the studies of socio-economic and demographic changes in European countries.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littera Aperta


    Full Text Available LITTERA APERTA (Vol. 2 - 2014. Abstract: In its open and interdisciplinary scope, volume 2 of Littera Aperta. Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies continues the path opened in volume 1. It includes papers which belong to a wide range of periods, genres, nationalities and methodological approaches. Two complementary papers look into the figure of ghosts in the Classical writers Aristophanes and Lucretius: “The ghosts in Aristophanes’ Frogs” by Soraya Planchas Gallarte (Universidad Complutense de Madrid; and “Templa Serena against Acherusia Templa: A Materialistic Explanation of Ghosts in Lucretius” by Ángel J. Traver Vera (Junta de Extremadura. Juan de Dios Torralbo Caballero (Universidad de Córdoba analyzes the narrative techniques of the novel History of the Nun (1688 by the English writer Aphra Behn. In the field of contemporary world literature in English, Miryam Librán Moreno (Universidad de Extremadura traces the far-reaching influence of Sophocles’ Oedipus Tyrannus on the story of Túrin Turambar by J.R.R. Tolkien; and the researcher Damlègue Lare, from the University of Lomé (Togo, surveys Efo Kodjo Mawugbe’s procedures to debunk African patriarchal patterns of thought in his feminist play In the Chest of a Woman (2008. As a cultural complement to these research pieces, Gabriel Laguna Mariscal (Universidad de Córdoba interviews the Spanish philosopher Javier Gomá Lanzón about the philosophy of the interviewee himself, the role of the philosopher in the modern society and the relevance of Humanities in the education of citizenry. Gabriel Laguna also publishes a review about a book that Javier Gomá coauthors together with Carlos García Gual and Fernando Savater: Muchas felicidades. Tres visiones y más de la idea de felicidad. // LITTERA APERTA (Vol. 2 - 2014. Resumen: El volumen 2 de Littera Aperta. Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies continúa la línea interdisciplinar y abierta del volumen 1, al incluir

  3. Design Methodology - Design Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup


    ABSTRACT Design Methodology shall be seen as our understanding of how to design; it is an early (emerging late 60ies) and original articulation of teachable and learnable methodics. The insight is based upon two sources: the nature of the designed artefacts and the nature of human designing. Today...... Design Methodology is part of our practice and our knowledge about designing, and it has been strongly supported by the establishing and work of a design research community. The aim of this article is to broaden the reader¿s view of designing and Design Methodology. This is done by sketching...... the development of Design Methodology through time and sketching some important approaches and methods. The development is mainly forced by changing industrial condition, by the growth of IT support for designing, but also by the growth of insight into designing created by design researchers....

  4. Theory of mind and Verstehen (understanding) methodology. (United States)

    Kumazaki, Tsutomu


    Theory of mind is a prominent, but highly controversial, field in psychology, psychiatry, and philosophy of mind. Simulation theory, theory-theory and other views have been presented in recent decades, none of which are monolithic. In this article, various views on theory of mind are reviewed, and methodological problems within each view are investigated. The relationship between simulation theory and Verstehen (understanding) methodology in traditional human sciences is an intriguing issue, although the latter is not a direct ancestor of the former. From that perspective, lessons for current clinical psychiatry are drawn.

  5. Recent advances in research on unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Le; Yin, George


    A team of launched and coordinated Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), requires advanced technologies in sensing, communication, computing, and control to improve their intelligence and robustness towards autonomous operations. To enhance reliability, robustness, and mission capability of a team of UAVs, a system-oriented and holistic approach is desirable in which all components and subsystems are considered in terms of their roles and impact on the entire system.  This volume aims to summarize the recent progress, identify challenges and opportunities, and develop new methodologies and systems on coordinated UAV control. A group of experts working in this area have contributed to this volume in several related aspects of autonomous control of networked UAVs. Their papers introduce new control methodologies, algorithms, and systems that address several important issues in developing intelligent, autonomous or semi-autonomous, networked systems for the next generation of UAVs. The papers share a common focus on...

  6. Integration of Advanced Simulation and Visualization for Manufacturing Process Optimization (United States)

    Zhou, Chenn; Wang, Jichao; Tang, Guangwu; Moreland, John; Fu, Dong; Wu, Bin


    The integration of simulation and visualization can provide a cost-effective tool for process optimization, design, scale-up and troubleshooting. The Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation (CIVS) at Purdue University Northwest has developed methodologies for such integration with applications in various manufacturing processes. The methodologies have proven to be useful for virtual design and virtual training to provide solutions addressing issues on energy, environment, productivity, safety, and quality in steel and other industries. In collaboration with its industrial partnerships, CIVS has provided solutions to companies, saving over US38 million. CIVS is currently working with the steel industry to establish an industry-led Steel Manufacturing Simulation and Visualization Consortium through the support of National Institute of Standards and Technology AMTech Planning Grant. The consortium focuses on supporting development and implementation of simulation and visualization technologies to advance steel manufacturing across the value chain.

  7. Survey of Dynamic PSA Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hansul; Kim, Hyeonmin; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taewan [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    Event Tree(ET)/Fault Tree(FT) are significant methodology in Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) for Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs). ET/FT methodology has the advantage for users to be able to easily learn and model. It enables better communication between engineers engaged in the same field. However, conventional methodologies are difficult to cope with the dynamic behavior (e.g. operation mode changes or sequence-dependent failure) and integrated situation of mechanical failure and human errors. Meanwhile, new possibilities are coming for the improved PSA by virtue of the dramatic development on digital hardware, software, information technology, and data analysis.. More specifically, the computing environment has been greatly improved with being compared to the past, so we are able to conduct risk analysis with the large amount of data actually available. One method which can take the technological advantages aforementioned should be the dynamic PSA such that conventional ET/FT can have time- and condition-dependent behaviors in accident scenarios. In this paper, we investigated the various enabling techniques for the dynamic PSA. Even though its history and academic achievement was great, it seems less interesting from industrial and regulatory viewpoint. Authors expect this can contribute to better understanding of dynamic PSA in terms of algorithm, practice, and applicability. In paper, the overview for the dynamic PSA was conducted. Most of methodologies share similar concepts. Among them, DDET seems a backbone for most of methodologies since it can be applied to large problems. The common characteristics sharing the concept of DDET are as follows: • Both deterministic and stochastic approaches • Improves the identification of PSA success criteria • Helps to limit detrimental effects of sequence binning (normally adopted in PSA) • Helps to avoid defining non-optimal success criteria that may distort the risk • Framework for comprehensively considering

  8. Reliability and quality EEE parts issues (United States)

    Barney, Dan; Feigenbaum, Irwin


    NASA policy and procedures are established which govern the selection, testing, and application of electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts. Recent advances in the state-of-the-art of electronic parts and associated technologies can significantly impact the electronic designs and reliability of NASA space transportation avionics. Significant issues that result from these advances are examined, including: recent advances in microelectronics technology (as applied to or considered for use in NASA projects); electron packaging technology advances (concurrent with, and as a result of, the development of the advanced microelectronic devices); availability of parts used in space avionics; and standardization and integration of parts activities between projects, centers, and contractors.

  9. VEM: Virtual Enterprise Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Vesterager, Johan


    This chapter presents a virtual enterprise methodology (VEM) that outlines activities to consider when setting up and managing virtual enterprises (VEs). As a methodology the VEM helps companies to ask the right questions when preparing for and setting up an enterprise network, which works...... as a breeding ground for setting up VEs. The VEM applies the Virtual Enterprise Reference Architecture (VERA) as an underlying structure. Both VEM and VERA are developed as a part of the GLOBEMEN project....

  10. Transparent Guideline Methodology Needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidal, Ingeborg; Norén, Camilla; Mäkelä, Marjukka


    Group.2 Similar criteria for guideline quality have been suggested elsewhere.3 Our conclusion was that this much needed guideline is currently unclear about several aspects of the methodology used in developing the recommendations. This means potential users cannot be certain that the recommendations...... are based on best currently available evidence. Our concerns are in two main categories: the rigor of development, including methodology of searching, evaluating, and combining the evidence; and editorial independence, including funding and possible conflicts of interest....

  11. Testing new tribo-systems for sheet metal forming of advanced high strength steels and stainless steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Ceron, Ermanno


    Testing of new tribo-systems in sheet metal forming has become an important issue due to new legislation, which forces industry to replace current, hazardous lubricants. The present paper summarizes the work done in a recent PhD project at the Technical University of Denmark on the development...... of a methodology for off-line testing of new tribo-systems for advanced high strength steels and stainless steels. The methodology is presented and applied to an industrial case, where different tribo-systems are tested. A universal sheet tribotester has been developed, which can run automatically repetitive...

  12. Advances in hematology analyzers. (United States)

    DeNicola, Dennis B


    The complete blood count is one of the basic building blocks of the minimum database in veterinary medicine. Over the past 20 years, there has been a tremendous advancement in the technology of hematology analyzers and their availability to the general practitioner. There are 4 basic methodologies that can be used to generate data for a complete blood count: manual methods, quantitative buffy coat analysis, automated impedance analysis, and flow cytometric analysis. This article will review the principles of these methodologies, discuss some of their advantages and disadvantages, and describe some of the hematology analyzers that are available for the in-house veterinary laboratory.

  13. Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Achieving the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) goals of 60% efficiency, single-digit NO{sub x}, and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system. Two basic technical issues arise from this. The turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine must increase to achieve both efficiency and cost goals. However, higher temperatures move in the direction of increased NO{sub x} emission. Improved coatings and materials technologies along with creative combustor design can result in solutions to achieve the ultimate goal. GE`s view of the market, in conjunction with the industrial and utility objectives, requires the development of Advanced Gas Turbine Systems which encompass two potential products: a new aeroderivative combined-cycle system for the industrial market, and a combined-cycle system for the utility sector that is based on an advanced frame machine. The GE Advanced Gas Turbine Development program is focused on two specific products: (1) a 70 MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology utilizing an innovative air cooling methodology; (2) a 200 MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced Ge heavy-duty machine utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. Both of these activities required the identification and resolution of technical issues critical to achieving ATS goals. The emphasis for the industrial ATS was placed upon innovative cycle design and low emission combustion. The emphasis for the utility ATS was placed on developing a technology base for advanced turbine cooling, while utilizing demonstrated and planned improvements in low emission combustion. Significant overlap in the development programs will allow common technologies to be applied to both products. GE Power Systems is solely responsible for offering GE products for the industrial and utility markets.

  14. Ethnologic Linguodidactic Approach as a Methodological Support for Multilingual Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhytgul A. Zhetpisbayeva


    Full Text Available The present work investigates the issues of methodological support for the process of multilingual education, where ethnologic linguodidactic approach is being considered and substantiated. There is being discovered the essence of the methodological approach based on identifying the relation of this concept to the methodological principle. It has been shown that the ethnologic linguodidactic approach is a systematic combination of fundamental principles, specialized methods and specified tools serving to distinguish the issues of multilingual education, to define a strategy to resolve them under specific sociolinguistic conditions of multilingual and multicultural community.

  15. Methodological Reflexivity: Towards Evolving Methodological Frameworks through Critical and Reflexive Deliberations (United States)

    Raven, Glenda


    In this article, the author argues for a central and critical role for "reflexivity in research" with the aim of developing and strengthening not only everyone's understanding of what everyone does in environmental education research, but also how, and why everyone does it. In a narrative account of methodological issues that occurred…

  16. Methylmercury risk assessment issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Saroff, L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)


    This paper reviews the general background of health risks associated with mercury (Hg), primarily methylmercury (MeHg), with a view towards application to advanced technologies that could reduce any contributions from coal combustion. The need for accurate assessment of such risks is discussed, since Hg is now widely dispersed in the environment and cannot easily be eliminated. The primary pathway of MeHg intake is through eating contaminated fish. The issues of concern include identification of critical health outcomes (various neurological indices) and their confounding factors, accurate assessment of MeHg intake rates, and appropriate use of dose-response functions. Ultimately, such information will be used to evaluate alternative coal combustion systems.

  17. Ergonomics Issues in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Loo


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ergonomics so far has had little impact in Malaysia. For most Malaysian managers, ergonomics is not considered to be associated with performance, but rather with occupational health and safety and legislation. Approach: This study reviews the development of ergonomics in Malaysia and the underlying issues related to national development. Results: Many changes need to be made within the ergonomics research, education and practice community by integrating concepts from the social sciences with technological advances into Malaysian culture to enhance productivity and sustainable improvements in the quality of life, while achieving essential health and safety goals. Conclusion/Recommendation: Ergonomics helps to improve performance besides enhancing workplace OSH. It is essential to promote ergonomics concepts and practice to various industries in Malaysia. More effort and skills are required to compensate for the lack of infrastructure in providing a framework within which ergonomics recommendations can be disseminated and realized.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari R. A.; Whitlock, J.; Therios, I.U.; Peterson, P.F.


    We summarize the technical progress and accomplishments on the evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) of Generation IV nuclear energy systems. We intend the results of the evaluations performed with the methodology for three types of users: system designers, program policy makers, and external stakeholders. The PR and PP Working Group developed the methodology through a series of demonstration and case studies. Over the past few years various national and international groups have applied the methodology to nuclear energy system designs as well as to developing approaches to advanced safeguards.

  19. Exploring How Globalization Shapes Education: Methodology and Theoretical Framework (United States)

    Pan, Su-Yan


    This is a commentary on some major issues raised in Carter and Dediwalage's "Globalisation and science education: The case of "Sustainability by the bay"" (this issue), particularly their methodology and theoretical framework for understanding how globalisation shapes education (including science education). While acknowledging the authors'…

  20. Issues in Requirements Elicitation (United States)


    systems approach: characterized by Checkland’s Soft Systems Methodology (SSM), which is discussed briefly in Appendix A.6; emphasizes the subjectivity of...methodology for requirements elicitation. A.6 Notes on SSM Both the definition of methodology and the philosophy behind soft systems methodology (SSM...1986. [Checkland 89a] Checkland, Peter. Soft Systems Methodology . Rational Analysis for a Problematic World. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 71-100

  1. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dennison, Deborah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walker, Hoyt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miller, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  2. Conceptual frameworks and methods for advancing invasion ecology. (United States)

    Heger, Tina; Pahl, Anna T; Botta-Dukát, Zoltan; Gherardi, Francesca; Hoppe, Christina; Hoste, Ivan; Jax, Kurt; Lindström, Leena; Boets, Pieter; Haider, Sylvia; Kollmann, Johannes; Wittmann, Meike J; Jeschke, Jonathan M


    Invasion ecology has much advanced since its early beginnings. Nevertheless, explanation, prediction, and management of biological invasions remain difficult. We argue that progress in invasion research can be accelerated by, first, pointing out difficulties this field is currently facing and, second, looking for measures to overcome them. We see basic and applied research in invasion ecology confronted with difficulties arising from (A) societal issues, e.g., disparate perceptions of invasive species; (B) the peculiarity of the invasion process, e.g., its complexity and context dependency; and (C) the scientific methodology, e.g., imprecise hypotheses. To overcome these difficulties, we propose three key measures: (1) a checklist for definitions to encourage explicit definitions; (2) implementation of a hierarchy of hypotheses (HoH), where general hypotheses branch into specific and precisely testable hypotheses; and (3) platforms for improved communication. These measures may significantly increase conceptual clarity and enhance communication, thus advancing invasion ecology.

  3. Towards methodological improvement in the Spanish studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Amante García


    Full Text Available The European Higher Education Area (EHEA has triggered many changes in the new degrees in Spanish universities, mainly in terms of methodology and assessment. However, in order to make such changes a success it is essential to have coordination within the teaching staff as well as active methodologies in use, which enhance and encourage students’ participation in all the activities carried out in the classroom. Most of all, when dealing with formative and summative evaluation, in which students become the ones responsible for their own learning process (López-Pastor, 2009; Torre, 2008. In this second issue of JOTSE we have included several teaching innovation experiences related to the above mentioned methodological and assessment changes.

  4. Exploring Participatory Methodologies in Organizational Discourse Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie


    Recent debates in the field of organizational discourse analysis stress contrasts in approaches as single-level vs. multi-level, critical vs. participatory, discursive vs. material methods. They raise methodological issues of combining such to embrace multimodality in order to enable new...... in collaborative governance processes in Denmark. The paper contributes to refining methodologies of organizational discourse analysis by elaborating method-mixing that embraces multimodal organizational discourses. Furthermore it discusses practical implications of the struggling subjectification processes......-and practices by dealing with challenges of methodological overview, responsive creativity and identity-struggle. The potentials hereof are demonstrated and discussed with cases of two both critical and co-creative practices, namely ‘organizational modelling’ and ‘fixed/unfixed positioning’ from fieldwork...

  5. A Functional HAZOP Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liin, Netta; Lind, Morten; Jensen, Niels;


    A HAZOP methodology is presented where a functional plant model assists in a goal oriented decomposition of the plant purpose into the means of achieving the purpose. This approach leads to nodes with simple functions from which the selection of process and deviation variables follow directly....... The functional HAZOP methodology lends itself directly for implementation into a computer aided reasoning tool to perform root cause and consequence analysis. Such a tool can facilitate finding causes and/or consequences far away from the site of the deviation. A functional HAZOP assistant is proposed...... and investigated in a HAZOP study of an industrial scale Indirect Vapor Recompression Distillation pilot Plant (IVaRDiP) at DTU-Chemical and Biochemical Engineering. The study shows that the functional HAZOP methodology provides a very efficient paradigm for facilitating HAZOP studies and for enabling reasoning...

  6. Changing methodologies in TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Spiro, Jane


    Covering core topics from vocabulary and grammar to teaching, writing speaking and listening, this textbook shows you how to link research to practice in TESOL methodology. It emphasises how current understandings have impacted on the language classroom worldwide and investigates the meaning of 'methods' and 'methodology' and the importance of these for the teacher: as well as the underlying assumptions and beliefs teachers bring to bear in their practice. By introducing you to language teaching approaches, you will explore the way these are influenced by developments in our understanding of l

  7. Methodology for research I. (United States)

    Garg, Rakesh


    The conduct of research requires a systematic approach involving diligent planning and its execution as planned. It comprises various essential predefined components such as aims, population, conduct/technique, outcome and statistical considerations. These need to be objective, reliable and in a repeatable format. Hence, the understanding of the basic aspects of methodology is essential for any researcher. This is a narrative review and focuses on various aspects of the methodology for conduct of a clinical research. The relevant keywords were used for literature search from various databases and from bibliographies of the articles.

  8. Special Issue "Biomaterials and Bioprinting". (United States)

    Chua, Chee Kai; Yeong, Wai Yee; An, Jia


    The emergence of bioprinting in recent years represents a marvellous advancement in 3D printing technology. It expands the range of 3D printable materials from the world of non-living materials into the world of living materials. Biomaterials play an important role in this paradigm shift. This Special Issue focuses on biomaterials and bioprinting and contains eight articles covering a number of recent topics in this emerging area.

  9. The methodological cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu


    Full Text Available Economics understands action as having the connotation of here and now, the proof being that it excessively uses, for explicative purposes, two limitations of sense: space is seen as the place with a private destination (through the cognitive dissonance of methodological individualism, and time is seen as the short term (through the dystopia of rational markets.

  10. Video: Modalities and Methodologies (United States)

    Hadfield, Mark; Haw, Kaye


    In this article, we set out to explore what we describe as the use of video in various modalities. For us, modality is a synthesizing construct that draws together and differentiates between the notion of "video" both as a method and as a methodology. It encompasses the use of the term video as both product and process, and as a data collection…

  11. Great nature's second course: Introduction to the special issue on the behavioral neuroscience of sleep. (United States)

    Cronin-Golomb, Alice


    Sleep is necessary for normal psychological functioning, and psychological function in turn affects sleep integrity. Recent investigations delineate the relation of sleep to a broad array of processes ranging from learning and memory to emotional reactivity and mood, and use a variety of methodological approaches (imaging, electrophysiological, behavioral) to reveal the complex relations between sleep and the functioning of the awake brain. The articles in this issue advance our fundamental knowledge of the relation of sleep to psychological function. In addition, several of the articles discuss how sleep is affected by or affects human clinical conditions, including insomnia, epilepsy, mild cognitive impairment, bipolar disorder, and cancer. Together, the articles of this special issue highlight recent progress in understanding the behavioral neuroscience of sleep and identify promising areas for future research, including the possibility of sleep-based interventions to improve psychological health. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Nanofluids research: key issues. (United States)

    Wang, Liqiu; Fan, Jing


    Nanofluids are a new class of fluids engineered by dispersing nanometer-size structures (particles, fibers, tubes, droplets) in base fluids. The very essence of nanofluids research and development is to enhance fluid macroscopic and megascale properties such as thermal conductivity through manipulating microscopic physics (structures, properties and activities). Therefore, the success of nanofluid technology depends very much on how well we can address issues like effective means of microscale manipulation, interplays among physics at different scales and optimization of microscale physics for the optimal megascale properties. In this work, we take heat-conduction nanofluids as examples to review methodologies available to effectively tackle these key but difficult problems and identify the future research needs as well. The reviewed techniques include nanofluids synthesis through liquid-phase chemical reactions in continuous-flow microfluidic microreactors, scaling-up by the volume averaging and constructal design with the constructal theory. The identified areas of future research contain microfluidic nanofluids, thermal waves and constructal nanofluids.

  13. Nanofluids Research: Key Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Liqiu


    Full Text Available Abstract Nanofluids are a new class of fluids engineered by dispersing nanometer-size structures (particles, fibers, tubes, droplets in base fluids. The very essence of nanofluids research and development is to enhance fluid macroscopic and megascale properties such as thermal conductivity through manipulating microscopic physics (structures, properties and activities. Therefore, the success of nanofluid technology depends very much on how well we can address issues like effective means of microscale manipulation, interplays among physics at different scales and optimization of microscale physics for the optimal megascale properties. In this work, we take heat-conduction nanofluids as examples to review methodologies available to effectively tackle these key but difficult problems and identify the future research needs as well. The reviewed techniques include nanofluids synthesis through liquid-phase chemical reactions in continuous-flow microfluidic microreactors, scaling-up by the volume averaging and constructal design with the constructal theory. The identified areas of future research contain microfluidic nanofluids, thermal waves and constructal nanofluids.

  14. Methodology for Characterizing Trends | Cancer Trends Progress Report (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. Culturally competent social work research: methodological considerations for research with language minorities. (United States)

    Casado, Banghwa Lee; Negi, Nalini Junko; Hong, Michin


    Despite the growing number of language minorities, foreign-born individuals with limited English proficiency, this population has been largely left out of social work research, often due to methodological challenges involved in conducting research with this population. Whereas the professional standard calls for cultural competence, a discussion of how to implement strategies for culturally competent research with language minorities is regrettably limited in the social work literature. This article is, to the authors' knowledge, one of the first within the field of social work to tie together unique methodological issues that may arise throughout the research conceptualization, development, and implementation process with this population. Strategies for how to overcome such issues are provided by adapting and expanding on a conceptual framework by Meleis. The incorporation of such research practices with language minorities has the potential to enhance trust and, thus, improve the recruitment and retention of this hard-to-reach population. More important, studies that aim to include such culturally responsive criteria may produce results that have improved validity and, thus, contribute to the advancement of knowledge regarding this population.

  16. Ruling the Commons. Introducing a new methodology for the analysis of historical commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine de Moor


    Full Text Available Despite significant progress in recent years, the evolution of commons over the long run remains an under-explored area within commons studies. During the last years an international team of historians have worked under the umbrella of the Common Rules Project in order to design and test a new methodology aimed at advancing our knowledge on the dynamics of institutions for collective action – in particular commons. This project aims to contribute to the current debate on commons on three different fronts. Theoretically, it explicitly draws our attention to issues of change and adaptation in the commons – contrasting with more static analyses. Empirically, it highlights the value of historical records as a rich source of information for longitudinal analysis of the functioning of commons. Methodologically, it develops a systematic way of analyzing and comparing commons’ regulations across regions and time, setting a number of variables that have been defined on the basis of the “most common denominators” in commons regulation across countries and time periods. In this paper we introduce the project, describe our sources and methodology, and present the preliminary results of our analysis.

  17. Rapid Industrial Prototyping and SoC Design of 3G/4G Wireless Systems Using an HLS Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavallaro JosephR


    Full Text Available Many very-high-complexity signal processing algorithms are required in future wireless systems, giving tremendous challenges to real-time implementations. In this paper, we present our industrial rapid prototyping experiences on 3G/4G wireless systems using advanced signal processing algorithms in MIMO-CDMA and MIMO-OFDM systems. Core system design issues are studied and advanced receiver algorithms suitable for implementation are proposed for synchronization, MIMO equalization, and detection. We then present VLSI-oriented complexity reduction schemes and demonstrate how to interact these high-complexity algorithms with an HLS-based methodology for extensive design space exploration. This is achieved by abstracting the main effort from hardware iterations to the algorithmic C/C++ fixed-point design. We also analyze the advantages and limitations of the methodology. Our industrial design experience demonstrates that it is possible to enable an extensive architectural analysis in a short-time frame using HLS methodology, which significantly shortens the time to market for wireless systems.

  18. Transparent Guideline Methodology Needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidal, Ingeborg; Norén, Camilla; Mäkelä, Marjukka


    As part of learning at the Nordic Workshop of Evidence-based Medicine, we have read with interest the practice guidelines for central venous access, published in your Journal in 2012.1 We appraised the quality of this guideline using the checklist developed by The Evidence-Based Medicine Working ...... are based on best currently available evidence. Our concerns are in two main categories: the rigor of development, including methodology of searching, evaluating, and combining the evidence; and editorial independence, including funding and possible conflicts of interest....... Group.2 Similar criteria for guideline quality have been suggested elsewhere.3 Our conclusion was that this much needed guideline is currently unclear about several aspects of the methodology used in developing the recommendations. This means potential users cannot be certain that the recommendations...

  19. Soft Systems Methodology (United States)

    Checkland, Peter; Poulter, John

    Soft systems methodology (SSM) is an approach for tackling problematical, messy situations of all kinds. It is an action-oriented process of inquiry into problematic situations in which users learn their way from finding out about the situation, to taking action to improve it. The learning emerges via an organised process in which the situation is explored using a set of models of purposeful action (each built to encapsulate a single worldview) as intellectual devices, or tools, to inform and structure discussion about a situation and how it might be improved. This paper, written by the original developer Peter Checkland and practitioner John Poulter, gives a clear and concise account of the approach that covers SSM's specific techniques, the learning cycle process of the methodology and the craft skills which practitioners develop. This concise but theoretically robust account nevertheless includes the fundamental concepts, techniques, core tenets described through a wide range of settings.

  20. Tobacco documents research methodology. (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey J; McCandless, Phyra M; Klausner, Kim; Taketa, Rachel; Yerger, Valerie B


    Tobacco documents research has developed into a thriving academic enterprise since its inception in 1995. The technology supporting tobacco documents archiving, searching and retrieval has improved greatly since that time, and consequently tobacco documents researchers have considerably more access to resources than was the case when researchers had to travel to physical archives and/or electronically search poorly and incompletely indexed documents. The authors of the papers presented in this supplement all followed the same basic research methodology. Rather than leave the reader of the supplement to read the same discussion of methods in each individual paper, presented here is an overview of the methods all authors followed. In the individual articles that follow in this supplement, the authors present the additional methodological information specific to their topics. This brief discussion also highlights technological capabilities in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and updates methods for organising internal tobacco documents data and findings.

  1. Creativity in phenomenological methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Pia; Martinsen, Bente; Norlyk, Annelise


    Nursing research is often concerned with lived experiences in human life using phenomenological and hermeneutic approaches. These empirical studies may use different creative expressions and art-forms to describe and enhance an embodied and personalised understanding of lived experiences. Drawing...... on the methodologies of van Manen, Dahlberg, Lindseth & Norberg, the aim of this paper is to argue that the increased focus on creativity and arts in research methodology is valuable to gain a deeper insight into lived experiences. We illustrate this point through examples from empirical nursing studies, and discuss...... how each of the above approaches allows for creative expressions and art-forms such as poetics, narratives and films, and hereby contributes to a profound understanding of patients’ experiences. This creativity generates extraordinary power to the process of understanding and it seems that creativity...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanskaya D. V.


    Full Text Available Outsourcing is investigated from a position of finding steady and unique competitive advantages of a public corporation due to attraction of carriers of unique intellectual and uses social capitals of the specialized companies within the institutional theory. Key researchers and events in the history of outsourcing are marked out, the existing approaches to definition of the concept of outsourcing, advantage and risks from application of technology of outsourcing are considered. It is established that differences of outsourcing, sub-contraction and cooperation are not in the nature of the functional relations, and in the depth of considered economic terms and phenomena. The methodology of outsourcing is considered as a part of methodology of cooperation of enterprise innovative structures of being formed sector of knowledge economy

  3. Land evaluation methodology


    Lustig, Thomas


    This paper reviews non-computerised and computerised land evaluation methods or methodologies, and realises the difficulties to incorporate biophysical and socioeconomic factors from different levels. Therefore, this paper theorises an alternative land evaluation approach, which is tested and elaborated in an agricultural community in the North of Chile. The basis of the approach relies on holistic thinking and attempts to evaluate the potential for improving assumed unsustainable goat manage...

  4. Pipeline ADC Design Methodology


    Zhao, Hui


    Demand for high-performance analog-to-digital converter (ADC) integrated circuits (ICs) with optimal combined specifications of resolution, sampling rate and power consumption becomes dominant due to emerging applications in wireless communications, broad band transceivers, digital-intermediate frequency (IF) receivers and countless of digital devices. This research is dedicated to develop a pipeline ADC design methodology with minimum power dissipation, while keeping relatively high speed an...

  5. Special Issue on Using Econometrics for Assessing Economic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina


    Two methodological approaches to empirical economics which are labelled ‘theory first' versus ‘reality first' are introduced building the background for the discussion of the individual contributions to this special issue....

  6. Psycho-Socio-Economic Issues Challenging Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Patients: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Elizabeth Thomas

    Full Text Available Limited treatment options, long duration of treatment and associated toxicity adversely impact the physical and mental well-being of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB patients. Despite research advances in the microbiological and clinical aspects of MDR-TB, research on the psychosocial context of MDR-TB is limited and less understood.We searched the databases of PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase and Google Scholar to retrieve all published articles. The final manuscripts included in the review were those with a primary focus on psychosocial issues of MDR-TB patients. These were assessed and the information was thematically extracted on the study objective, methodology used, key findings, and their implications. Intervention studies were evaluated using components of the methodological and quality rating scale. Due to the limited number of studies and the multiple methodologies employed in the observational studies, we summarized these studies using a narrative approach, rather than conducting a formal meta-analysis. We used 'thematic synthesis' method for extracting qualitative evidences and systematically organised to broader descriptive themes.A total of 282 published articles were retrieved, of which 15 articles were chosen for full text review based on the inclusion criteria. Six were qualitative studies; one was a mixed methods study; and eight were quantitative studies. The included studies were divided into the following issues affecting MDR-TB patients: a psychological issues b social issues and economic issues c psychosocial interventions. It was found that all studies have documented range of psychosocial and economic challenges experienced by MDR-TB patients. Depression, stigma, discrimination, side effects of the drugs causing psychological distress, and the financial constraints due to MDR-TB were some of the common issues reported in the studies. There were few intervention studies which addressed these psychosocial issues most of

  7. Deterministic and risk-informed approaches for safety analysis of advanced reactors: Part I, deterministic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang Kyu [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Kusong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Inn Seock, E-mail: [ISSA Technology, 21318 Seneca Crossing Drive, Germantown, MD 20876 (United States); Oh, Kyu Myung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Kusong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of)


    The objective of this paper and a companion paper in this issue (part II, risk-informed approaches) is to derive technical insights from a critical review of deterministic and risk-informed safety analysis approaches that have been applied to develop licensing requirements for water-cooled reactors, or proposed for safety verification of the advanced reactor design. To this end, a review was made of a number of safety analysis approaches including those specified in regulatory guides and industry standards, as well as novel methodologies proposed for licensing of advanced reactors. This paper and the companion paper present the review insights on the deterministic and risk-informed safety analysis approaches, respectively. These insights could be used in making a safety case or developing a new licensing review infrastructure for advanced reactors including Generation IV reactors.

  8. Positive lists of cosmetic ingredients: Analytical methodology for regulatory and safety controls – A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lores, Marta, E-mail:; Llompart, Maria; Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Guerra, Eugenia; Vila, Marlene; Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J. Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen


    Cosmetic products placed on the market and their ingredients, must be safe under reasonable conditions of use, in accordance to the current legislation. Therefore, regulated and allowed chemical substances must meet the regulatory criteria to be used as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and adequate analytical methodology is needed to evaluate the degree of compliance. This article reviews the most recent methods (2005–2015) used for the extraction and the analytical determination of the ingredients included in the positive lists of the European Regulation of Cosmetic Products (EC 1223/2009): comprising colorants, preservatives and UV filters. It summarizes the analytical properties of the most relevant analytical methods along with the possibilities of fulfilment of the current regulatory issues. The cosmetic legislation is frequently being updated; consequently, the analytical methodology must be constantly revised and improved to meet safety requirements. The article highlights the most important advances in analytical methodology for cosmetics control, both in relation to the sample pretreatment and extraction and the different instrumental approaches developed to solve this challenge. Cosmetics are complex samples, and most of them require a sample pretreatment before analysis. In the last times, the research conducted covering this aspect, tended to the use of green extraction and microextraction techniques. Analytical methods were generally based on liquid chromatography with UV detection, and gas and liquid chromatographic techniques hyphenated with single or tandem mass spectrometry; but some interesting proposals based on electrophoresis have also been reported, together with some electroanalytical approaches. Regarding the number of ingredients considered for analytical control, single analyte methods have been proposed, although the most useful ones in the real life cosmetic analysis are the multianalyte approaches. - Highlights:

  9. Dusts, a pollutant from the past and future. Advancements in diesel particulate removal, and remaining issues; Les poussieres un polluant du passe et d`avenir. L`epuration des particules diesel le progres realise et les problemes a resoudre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevrier, M. [Renault S.A. (France)


    Major advancements have been realized for the reduction of particulate emissions from diesel engines, with better-designed engines, enhancement of injection and combustion, etc., but due to new European pollution regulations, developments of catalytic post-treatments such as the DeNOx catalysis (followed by an oxidation catalysis for the destruction of hydrocarbons necessitated by DeNOx catalysis), particulate filters with additive-assisted combustion, or even electrically assisted particulate combustion, are required. Optimized diesel fuels, such as the Swedish city fuel, could be an other solution

  10. Using Phenomenology to Conduct Environmental Education Research: Experience and Issues (United States)

    Nazir, Joanne


    Recently, I applied a phenomenological methodology to study environmental education at an outdoor education center. In this article, I reflect on my experience of doing phenomenological research to highlight issues researchers may want to consider in using this type of methodology. The main premise of the article is that phenomenology, with its…

  11. Does Metformin Reduce Cancer Risks? Methodologic Considerations. (United States)

    Golozar, Asieh; Liu, Shuiqing; Lin, Joeseph A; Peairs, Kimberly; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh


    The substantial burden of cancer and diabetes and the association between the two conditions has been a motivation for researchers to look for targeted strategies that can simultaneously affect both diseases and reduce their overlapping burden. In the absence of randomized clinical trials, researchers have taken advantage of the availability and richness of administrative databases and electronic medical records to investigate the effects of drugs on cancer risk among diabetic individuals. The majority of these studies suggest that metformin could potentially reduce cancer risk. However, the validity of this purported reduction in cancer risk is limited by several methodological flaws either in the study design or in the analysis. Whether metformin use decreases cancer risk relies heavily on the availability of valid data sources with complete information on confounders, accurate assessment of drug use, appropriate study design, and robust analytical techniques. The majority of the observational studies assessing the association between metformin and cancer risk suffer from methodological shortcomings and efforts to address these issues have been incomplete. Future investigations on the association between metformin and cancer risk should clearly address the methodological issues due to confounding by indication, prevalent user bias, and time-related biases. Although the proposed strategies do not guarantee a bias-free estimate for the association between metformin and cancer, they will reduce synthesis of and reporting of erroneous results.

  12. Investigating surety methodologies for cognitive systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Peercy, David Eugene; Mills, Kristy (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Caldera, Eva (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)


    Advances in cognitive science provide a foundation for new tools that promise to advance human capabilities with significant positive impacts. As with any new technology breakthrough, associated technical and non-technical risks are involved. Sandia has mitigated both technical and non-technical risks by applying advanced surety methodologies in such areas as nuclear weapons, nuclear reactor safety, nuclear materials transport, and energy systems. In order to apply surety to the development of cognitive systems, we must understand the concepts and principles that characterize the certainty of a system's operation as well as the risk areas of cognitive sciences. This SAND report documents a preliminary spectrum of risks involved with cognitive sciences, and identifies some surety methodologies that can be applied to potentially mitigate such risks. Some potential areas for further study are recommended. In particular, a recommendation is made to develop a cognitive systems epistemology framework for more detailed study of these risk areas and applications of surety methods and techniques.

  13. Using Modern Methodologies with Maintenance Software (United States)

    Streiffert, Barbara A.; Francis, Laurie K.; Smith, Benjamin D.


    Jet Propulsion Laboratory uses multi-mission software produced by the Mission Planning and Sequencing (MPS) team to process, simulate, translate, and package the commands that are sent to a spacecraft. MPS works under the auspices of the Multi-Mission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS). This software consists of nineteen applications that are in maintenance. The MPS software is classified as either class B (mission critical) or class C (mission important). The scheduling of tasks is difficult because mission needs must be addressed prior to performing any other tasks and those needs often spring up unexpectedly. Keeping track of the tasks that everyone is working on is also difficult because each person is working on a different software component. Recently the group adopted the Scrum methodology for planning and scheduling tasks. Scrum is one of the newer methodologies typically used in agile development. In the Scrum development environment, teams pick their tasks that are to be completed within a sprint based on priority. The team specifies the sprint length usually a month or less. Scrum is typically used for new development of one application. In the Scrum methodology there is a scrum master who is a facilitator who tries to make sure that everything moves smoothly, a product owner who represents the user(s) of the software and the team. MPS is not the traditional environment for the Scrum methodology. MPS has many software applications in maintenance, team members who are working on disparate applications, many users, and is interruptible based on mission needs, issues and requirements. In order to use scrum, the methodology needed adaptation to MPS. Scrum was chosen because it is adaptable. This paper is about the development of the process for using scrum, a new development methodology, with a team that works on disparate interruptible tasks on multiple software applications.

  14. Methodological lessons in neurophenomenology: Review of a baseline study and recommendations for research approaches. (United States)

    Bockelman, Patricia; Reinerman-Jones, Lauren; Gallagher, Shaun


    Neurophenomenological (NP) methods integrate objective and subjective data in ways that retain the statistical power of established disciplines (like cognitive science) while embracing the value of first-person reports of experience. The present paper positions neurophenomenology as an approach that pulls from traditions of cognitive science but includes techniques that are challenging for cognitive science in some ways. A baseline study is reviewed for "lessons learned," that is, the potential methodological improvements that will support advancements in understanding consciousness and cognition using neurophenomenology. These improvements, we suggest, include (1) addressing issues of interdisciplinarity by purposefully and systematically creating and maintaining shared mental models among research team members; (2) making sure that NP experiments include high standards of experimental design and execution to achieve variable control, reliability, generalizability, and replication of results; and (3) conceiving of phenomenological interview techniques as placing the impetus on the interviewer in interaction with the experimental subject.

  15. Methodological lessons in neurophenomenology: Review of a baseline study and recommendations for research approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eBockelman


    Full Text Available Neurophenomenological methods integrate objective and subjective data in ways that retain the statistical power of established disciplines (like cognitive science while embracing the value of first-person reports of experience. The present paper positions neurophenomenology as an approach that pulls from traditions of cognitive science but includes techniques that are challenging for cognitive science in some ways. A baseline study is reviewed for lessons learned, that is, the potential methodological improvements that will support advancements in understanding consciousness and cognition using neurophenomenology. These improvements, we suggest, include (1 addressing issues of interdisciplinarity by purposefully and systematically creating and maintaining shared mental models among research team members; (2 making sure that neurophenomenological experiments include high standards of experimental design and execution to achieve variable control, reliability, generalizability, and replication of results; and (3 conceiving of phenomenological interview techniques as placing the impetus on the interviewer in interaction with the experimental subject.

  16. Methods and methodology for FTIR spectral correction of channel spectra and uncertainty, applied to ferrocene. (United States)

    Islam, M T; Trevorah, R M; Appadoo, D R T; Best, S P; Chantler, C T


    We present methodology for the first FTIR measurements of ferrocene using dilute wax solutions for dispersion and to preserve non-crystallinity; a new method for removal of channel spectra interference for high quality data; and a consistent approach for the robust estimation of a defined uncertainty for advanced structural χr(2) analysis and mathematical hypothesis testing. While some of these issues have been investigated previously, the combination of novel approaches gives markedly improved results. Methods for addressing these in the presence of a modest signal and how to quantify the quality of the data irrespective of preprocessing for subsequent hypothesis testing are applied to the FTIR spectra of Ferrocene (Fc) and deuterated ferrocene (dFc, Fc-d10) collected at the THz/Far-IR beam-line of the Australian Synchrotron at operating temperatures of 7K through 353K.

  17. Methods and methodology for FTIR spectral correction of channel spectra and uncertainty, applied to ferrocene (United States)

    Islam, M. T.; Trevorah, R. M.; Appadoo, D. R. T.; Best, S. P.; Chantler, C. T.


    We present methodology for the first FTIR measurements of ferrocene using dilute wax solutions for dispersion and to preserve non-crystallinity; a new method for removal of channel spectra interference for high quality data; and a consistent approach for the robust estimation of a defined uncertainty for advanced structural χr2 analysis and mathematical hypothesis testing. While some of these issues have been investigated previously, the combination of novel approaches gives markedly improved results. Methods for addressing these in the presence of a modest signal and how to quantify the quality of the data irrespective of preprocessing for subsequent hypothesis testing are applied to the FTIR spectra of Ferrocene (Fc) and deuterated ferrocene (dFc, Fc-d10) collected at the THz/Far-IR beam-line of the Australian Synchrotron at operating temperatures of 7 K through 353 K.

  18. Priorities of Dialogic Speech Teaching Methodology at Higher Non-Linguistic School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Asanavičienė


    Full Text Available The article deals with a number of relevant methodological issues. First of all, the author analyses psychological peculiarities of dialogic speech and states that the dialogue is the product of at least two persons. Therefore, in this view, dialogic speech, unlike monologic speech, happens impromptu and is not prepared in advance. Dialogic speech is mainly of situational character. The linguistic nature of dialogic speech, in the author’s opinion, lies in the process of exchanging replications, which are coherent in structural and functional character. The author classifies dialogue groups by the number of replications and communicative parameters. The basic goal of dialogic speech teaching is developing the abilities and skills which enable to exchange replications. The author distinguishes two basic stages of dialogic speech teaching: 1. Training of abilities to exchange replications during communicative exercises. 2. Development of skills by training the capability to perform exercises of creative nature during a group dialogue, conversation or debate.

  19. Sample size methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Desu, M M


    One of the most important problems in designing an experiment or a survey is sample size determination and this book presents the currently available methodology. It includes both random sampling from standard probability distributions and from finite populations. Also discussed is sample size determination for estimating parameters in a Bayesian setting by considering the posterior distribution of the parameter and specifying the necessary requirements. The determination of the sample size is considered for ranking and selection problems as well as for the design of clinical trials. Appropria

  20. Internalism as Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje Lohndal


    Full Text Available This paper scrutinizes the recent proposal made by Lassiter (2008 that the dichotomy between Chomskyan internalism and Dummett-type externalism is misguided and should be overcome by an approach that incorporates sociolinguistic concepts such as speakers’ dispositions to defer. We argue that Lassiter’s arguments are flawed and based on a serious misunder-standing of the internalist approach to the study of natural language, failing to appreciate its methodological nature and conclude that Lassiter’s socio-linguistic approach is just another instance of externalist attempts with little hope of scientific achievement.

  1. The New Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In the past few years there's been a rapidly growing interest in“lightweight” methodologies. Alternatively characterized as an antidote to bureaucracy or a license to hack they've stirred up interest all over the software landscape. In this essay I explore the reasons for lightweight methods, focusing not so much on their weight but on their adaptive nature and their people-first orientation . I also give a summary and references to the processes in this school and consider the factors that should influence your choice of whether to go down this newly trodden path.

  2. Literacy research methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Duke, Nell K


    The definitive reference on literacy research methods, this book serves as a key resource for researchers and as a text in graduate-level courses. Distinguished scholars clearly describe established and emerging methodologies, discuss the types of questions and claims for which each is best suited, identify standards of quality, and present exemplary studies that illustrate the approaches at their best. The book demonstrates how each mode of inquiry can yield unique insights into literacy learning and teaching and how the methods can work together to move the field forward.   New to This Editi

  3. Flipped Classrooms for Advanced Science Courses (United States)

    Tomory, Annette; Watson, Sunnie Lee


    This article explains how issues regarding dual credit and Advanced Placement high school science courses could be mitigated via a flipped classroom instructional model. The need for advanced high school courses will be examined initially, followed by an analysis of advanced science courses and the reform they are experiencing. Finally, it will…

  4. Handbook of Advanced Multilevel Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hox, Joop


    This new handbook is the definitive resource on advanced topics related to multilevel analysis. The editors have assembled the top minds in the field to address the latest applications of multilevel modeling as well as the specific difficulties and methodological problems that are becoming more common as more complicated models are developed.

  5. Advanced sensing technology in environmental field. (United States)

    Wakida, Shin-ichi


    Before the introduction of advanced sensing technology in environmental fields, environmental issues were discussed as several categories, such as local environmental issues in the 1970s, global environmental issues in the 1980s, living environmental issues in the 2000s and environmental stress issues in near future, which are of increasing interest in Japan. Using advanced sensing technologies, such as electrochemical sensors, chemically-sensitive field-effect transistors (ChemFETs) based on micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS) micromachining technology and subsequently electrophoretic separation and microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip using MEMS technology, we have steered several kinds of environmental monitoring projects timely in response to the environmental issues for over the last 25 years. Among the local environmental issues, the global environmental issues and the living environmental issues, some fruits of R&D project will be introduced. Finally, our latest concern of the environmental stress monitoring was discussed and preliminary results were also introduced.

  6. Scrum methodology in banking environment


    Strihová, Barbora


    Bachelor thesis "Scrum methodology in banking environment" is focused on one of agile methodologies called Scrum and description of the methodology used in banking environment. Its main goal is to introduce the Scrum methodology and outline a real project placed in a bank focused on software development through a case study, address problems of the project, propose solutions of the addressed problems and identify anomalies of Scrum in software development constrained by the banking environmen...

  7. IJIMAI Editor's Note - Vol. 3 Issue 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Alberto Magreñán


    Full Text Available This special issue, Teaching Mathematics using new and classic tools, concentrates on the practical and experimental teaching in advanced Mathematics in Engineering. The selected papers deal with the most relevant issues in the field, such as Mathematical learning and other different subjects in which Mathematics are needed, Advanced Mathematics, the development of different studied using Masive Open Online courser (MOOCs or even the history of E-Learning and Mathematics. The result is a collection of experimental validations, mathematical papers and MOOCs studies which constitutes a clear contribution to the state of the art.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Grunewald; Paul Jehn


    By early 2000, fifteen oil and gas State Agencies were using RBDMS or a RBDMS utility to handle a significant amount or all of their data management needs. There are three additional State slated to begin implementation this year. There are an additional twelve State agencies that are not utilizing this technology that have proven to be very useful for so many other States. This project will allow for the base RBDMS install in all State oil and gas agency that desire it.

  9. Advancing Recommender Systems from the Algorithm, Interface and Methodological Perspective




    I sistemi di raccomandazione sono componenti software che aiutano gli utenti a trovare quello che stanno cercando. I sistemi di raccomandazione sono stati applicati a diverse aree, dal commercio elettronico alle notizie, dalla musica al turismo, sfruttando tutte le informazioni disponibili per imparare le preferenze dell’utente e fornire raccomandazioni utili. La vasta area dei sistemi di raccomandazione riguarda molte tematiche che richiedono una conoscenza profonda e grandi sforzi di ric...

  10. A Systems Engineering Methodology for the Advanced Tactical Aircraft. (United States)


    became apparent that this aircraft was not compatable with Hauy requirements, a new platforn was required. This integration and development effort...Reuiew, U. 1. No. 4, Autunn 1977. 31. Hall, U. 0., " Hauy Aduances RTA Start, [ulls fl-GE Upgrade Retrofit," Rerospace Daily, U. 129, p. 161, 2 October...1984. 32. " Hauy Explores Heu Subsonic Attack Aircraft to Replace A-6,’" Nuiation Meek a Space Technoloo, p. 28, 22 April 1985. 33. Dornhein 11. N

  11. Methodological Advances for Detecting Physiological Synchrony During Dyadic Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McAssey, M.P.; Helm, J.; Hsieh, F.; Sbarra, D.; Ferrer, E.


    A defining feature of many physiological systems is their synchrony and reciprocal influence. An important challenge, however, is how to measure such features. This paper presents two new approaches for identifying synchrony between the physiological signals of individuals in dyads. The approaches a

  12. Advances in strategies and methodologies in cancer immunotherapy. (United States)

    Lam, Samuel S K; Zhou, Feifan; Hode, Tomas; Nordquist, Robert E; Alleruzzo, Luciano; Raker, Joseph; Chen, Wei R


    Since the invention of Coley's toxin by William Coley in early 1900s, the path for cancer immunotherapy has been a convoluted one. Although still not considered standard of care, with the FDA approval of trastuzumab, Provenge and ipilimumab, the medical and scientific community has started to embrace the possibility that immunotherapy could be a new hope for cancer patients with otherwise untreatable metastatic diseases. This review aims to summarize the development of some major strategies in cancer immunotherapy, from the earliest peptide vaccine and transfer of tumor specific antibodies/T cells to the more recent dendritic cell (DC) vaccines, whole cell tumor vaccines, and checkpoint blockade therapy. Discussion of some major milestones and obstacles in the shaping of the field and the future perspectives is included. Photoimmunotherapy is also reviewed as an example of emerging new therapies combining phototherapy and immunotherapy.

  13. Interval Methods for Model Qualification: Methodology and Advanced Application


    Alexandre dit Sandretto, Julien; Trombettoni, Gilles; Daney, David


    It is often too complex to use, and sometimes impossible to obtain, an actual model in simulation or command field . To handle a system in practice, a simplification of the real model is then necessary. This simplification goes through some hypotheses made on the system or the modeling approach. In this paper, we deal with all models that can be expressed by real-valued variables involved in analytical relations and depending on parameters. We propose a method that qualifies the simplificatio...

  14. Methodological advances: using greenhouses to simulate climate change scenarios. (United States)

    Morales, F; Pascual, I; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Aguirreolea, J; Irigoyen, J J; Goicoechea, N; Antolín, M C; Oyarzun, M; Urdiain, A


    Human activities are increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. Related to this global warming, periods of low water availability are also expected to increase. Thus, CO2 concentration, temperature and water availability are three of the main factors related to climate change that potentially may influence crops and ecosystems. In this report, we describe the use of growth chamber - greenhouses (GCG) and temperature gradient greenhouses (TGG) to simulate climate change scenarios and to investigate possible plant responses. In the GCG, CO2 concentration, temperature and water availability are set to act simultaneously, enabling comparison of a current situation with a future one. Other characteristics of the GCG are a relative large space of work, fine control of the relative humidity, plant fertirrigation and the possibility of light supplementation, within the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) region and/or with ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light. In the TGG, the three above-mentioned factors can act independently or in interaction, enabling more mechanistic studies aimed to elucidate the limiting factor(s) responsible for a given plant response. Examples of experiments, including some aimed to study photosynthetic acclimation, a phenomenon that leads to decreased photosynthetic capacity under long-term exposures to elevated CO2, using GCG and TGG are reported.

  15. Advanced High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) Life Assurance Methodologies (United States)


    Kk Rcaa σπ σπ (K5) Note that ao and co depend on the assumed aspect ratio of a vanishing small initiated crack through the dependence of the...constant/,0,0()( 1,/ ⎥ ⎦ ⎤ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ =→→∆ ∆ = ⎥ ⎦ ⎤ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ =→→∆ ∆ = iRcie th io iRaie th io RfcacafR K Rcac RfcacafR K Rcaa σπ σπ (K6) It is clear from

  16. An Advanced Quantitative Echosound Methodology for Femoral Neck Densitometry. (United States)

    Casciaro, Sergio; Peccarisi, Marco; Pisani, Paola; Franchini, Roberto; Greco, Antonio; De Marco, Tommaso; Grimaldi, Antonella; Quarta, Laura; Quarta, Eugenio; Muratore, Maruizio; Conversano, Francesco


    The aim of this paper was to investigate the clinical feasibility and the accuracy in femoral neck densitometry of the Osteoporosis Score (O.S.), an ultrasound (US) parameter for osteoporosis diagnosis that has been recently introduced for lumbar spine applications. A total of 377 female patients (aged 61-70 y) underwent both a femoral dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and an echographic scan of the proximal femur. Recruited patients were sub-divided into a reference database used for ultrasound spectral model construction and a study population for repeatability assessments and accuracy evaluations. Echographic images and radiofrequency signals were analyzed through a fully automatic algorithm that performed a series of combined spectral and statistical analyses, providing as a final output the O.S. value of the femoral neck. Assuming DXA as a gold standard reference, the accuracy of O.S.-based diagnoses resulted 94.7%, with k = 0.898 (p < 0.0001). Significant correlations were also found between O.S.-estimated bone mineral density and corresponding DXA values, with r(2) up to 0.79 and root mean square error = 5.9-7.4%. The reported accuracy levels, combined with the proven ease of use and very good measurement repeatability, provide the adopted method with a potential for clinical routine application in osteoporosis diagnosis.

  17. Advanced Quantitative Measurement Methodology in Physics Education Research (United States)

    Wang, Jing


    The ultimate goal of physics education research (PER) is to develop a theoretical framework to understand and improve the learning process. In this journey of discovery, assessment serves as our headlamp and alpenstock. It sometimes detects signals in student mental structures, and sometimes presents the difference between expert understanding and…

  18. Metacontingencies, Experimentation and Nonhumans: Searching for Conceptual and Methodological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Missiaggia Velasco


    Full Text Available La metacontingencia ha sido descrita como la relación funcional entre las contingencias conductuales entrelazadas, junto con su efecto directo e inmediato, llamado producto agregado, y un evento seleccionador dependiente de dicho efecto, llamado consecuencia cultural. El análisis metacontingencial permite la discusión de la complejidad del comportamiento humano en los sistemas sociales. En el presente estudio, quisimos revisar y discutir: (a la importancia del análisis de procesos conductuales básicos para la comprensión de los fenómenos sociales humanos; (b la necesidad de construir y mejorar los modelos experimentales de metacontingencias; (c el estado actual de las investigaciones experimentales en metacontingencias; (d el uso de modelos animales como forma de controlar los efectos de la conducta verbal, entre otras variables, sobre la selección cultural; (e una propuesta concreta e ilustrativa de un modelo animal de metacontingencias.

  19. Advanced Bridge Capacity and Structural Integrity Assessment Methodology (United States)


    Wickline, Cousins and Seda -Sanabria 2003, ACI Committee 435 1966). In this project, the extent of cracking along the beam was considered by looking at...Shear." ACI Journal, March-April 1986: 219-231. ERDC/CERL TR-13-3 104 Wickline, Joseph E., Thomas E. Cousins, and Yazmin Seda -Sanabria. "ERDC/GSL TR

  20. Advances in Artificial Neural Networks - Methodological Development and Application (United States)

    Artificial neural networks as a major soft-computing technology have been extensively studied and applied during the last three decades. Research on backpropagation training algorithms for multilayer perceptron networks has spurred development of other neural network training algorithms for other ne...