WorldWideScience

Sample records for advances methodological issues

  1. Methodological advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebreton, J.-D.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of population dynamics has long depended on methodological progress. Among many striking examples, continuous time models for populations structured in age (Sharpe & Lotka, 1911 were made possible by progress in the mathematics of integral equations. Therefore the relationship between population ecology and mathematical and statistical modelling in the broad sense raises a challenge in interdisciplinary research. After the impetus given in particular by Seber (1982, the regular biennial EURING conferences became a major vehicle to achieve this goal. It is thus not surprising that EURING 2003 included a session entitled “Methodological advances”. Even if at risk of heterogeneity in the topics covered and of overlap with other sessions, such a session was a logical way of ensuring that recent and exciting new developments were made available for discussion, further development by biometricians and use by population biologists. The topics covered included several to which full sessions were devoted at EURING 2000 (Anderson, 2001 such as: individual covariates, Bayesian methods, and multi–state models. Some other topics (heterogeneity models, exploited populations and integrated modelling had been addressed by contributed talks or posters. Their presence among “methodological advances”, as well as in other sessions of EURING 2003, was intended as a response to their rapid development and potential relevance to biological questions. We briefly review all talks here, including those not published in the proceedings. In the plenary talk, Pradel et al. (in prep. developed GOF tests for multi–state models. Until recently, the only goodness–of–fit procedures for multistate models were ad hoc, and non optimal, involving use of standard tests for single state models (Lebreton & Pradel, 2002. Pradel et al. (2003 proposed a general approach based in particular on mixtures of multinomial distributions. Pradel et al. (in prep. showed

  2. Animal Models of Virus-Induced Neurobehavioral Sequelae: Recent Advances, Methodological Issues, and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bortolato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Converging lines of clinical and epidemiological evidence suggest that viral infections in early developmental stages may be a causal factor in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism-spectrum disorders. This etiological link, however, remains controversial in view of the lack of consistent and reproducible associations between viruses and mental illness. Animal models of virus-induced neurobehavioral disturbances afford powerful tools to test etiological hypotheses and explore pathophysiological mechanisms. Prenatal or neonatal inoculations of neurotropic agents (such as herpes-, influenza-, and retroviruses in rodents result in a broad spectrum of long-term alterations reminiscent of psychiatric abnormalities. Nevertheless, the complexity of these sequelae often poses methodological and interpretational challenges and thwarts their characterization. The recent conceptual advancements in psychiatric nosology and behavioral science may help determine new heuristic criteria to enhance the translational value of these models. A particularly critical issue is the identification of intermediate phenotypes, defined as quantifiable factors representing single neurochemical, neuropsychological, or neuroanatomical aspects of a diagnostic category. In this paper, we examine how the employment of these novel concepts may lead to new methodological refinements in the study of virus-induced neurobehavioral sequelae through animal models.

  3. Body image in Brazil: recent advances in the state of knowledge and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Laus

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze Brazilian literature on body image and the theoretical and methodological advances that have been made. METHODS A detailed review was undertaken of the Brazilian literature on body image, selecting published articles, dissertations and theses from the SciELO, SCOPUS, LILACS and PubMed databases and the CAPES thesis database. Google Scholar was also used. There was no start date for the search, which used the following search terms: “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “scale(s”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “questionnaire(s”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “instrument(s”; “body image” limited to Brazil and “body image”. RESULTS The majority of measures available were intended to be used in college students, with half of them evaluating satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the body. Females and adolescents of both sexes were the most studied population. There has been a significant increase in the number of available instruments. Nevertheless, numerous published studies have used non-validated instruments, with much confusion in the use of the appropriate terms (e.g., perception, dissatisfaction, distortion. CONCLUSIONS Much more is needed to understand body image within the Brazilian population, especially in terms of evaluating different age groups and diversifying the components/dimensions assessed. However, interest in this theme is increasing, and important steps have been taken in a short space of time.

  4. Methodological Advances in Dea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Cherchye (Laurens); G.T. Post (Thierry)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe survey the methodological advances in DEA over the last 25 years and discuss the necessary conditions for a sound empirical application. We hope this survey will contribute to the further dissemination of DEA, the knowledge of its relative strengths and weaknesses, and the tools curre

  5. Advancements in CIAU methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best-Estimate calculation results from complex thermal-hydraulic system codes (like Relap5, Cathare, Athlet, Trace, etc.) are affected by unavoidable approximations that are unpredictable without the use of computational tools that account for the various sources of uncertainty. Therefore the use of best-estimate codes within the reactor technology, either for design or safety purposes, implies understanding and accepting the limitations and the deficiencies of those codes. Uncertainties may have different origins ranging from the approximation of the models, to the approximation of the numerical solution, and to the lack of precision of the values adopted for boundary and initial conditions. The amount of uncertainty that affects a calculation may strongly depend upon the codes and the modeling techniques (i.e. the code's users). A consistent and robust uncertainty methodology must be developed taking into consideration all the above aspects. The CIAU (Code with the capability of Internal Assessment of Uncertainty) and the UMAE (Uncertainty Methodology based on Accuracy Evaluation) methods have been developed by University of Pisa in the framework of a long lasting research activities started since 80's and involving several researchers. CIAU is extensively discussed in the available technical literature, Refs. [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7], and tens of additional relevant papers, that provide comprehensive details about the method, can be found in the bibliography lists of the above references. Therefore, the present paper supplies only 'spot-information' about CIAU and focuses mostly on the advancements of the methodology, that constitute the original contributions of the present work. In particular, the extension of the uncertainty database and the development of a procedure for the 'internal' qualification of the method are discussed. Both aspects result in a more accurate CIAU uncertainty evaluation as they contribute respectively to improve the statistic (in fact

  6. Advanced reactor licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1986 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a Policy Statement on the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants. As part of this policy advanced reactor designers were encouraged to interact with NRC early in the design process to obtain feedback regarding licensing requirements for advanced reactors. Accordingly, the staff has been interacting with the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors on the review of three advanced reactor conceptual designs: one modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) and two Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs). As a result of these interactions certain safety issues associated with these advanced reactor designs have been identified as key to the licensability of the designs as proposed by DOE. The major issues in this regard are: (1) selection and treatment of accident scenarios; (2) selection of siting source term; (3) performance and reliability of reactor shutdown and decay heat removal systems; (4) need for conventional containment; (5) need for conventional emergency evacuation; (6) role of the operator; (7) treatment of balance of plant; and (8) modular approach. This paper provides a status of the NRC review effort, describes the above issues in more detail and provides the current status and approach to the development of licensing guidance on each

  7. On the extension of modern best-estimate plus uncertainty methodologies to future fast reactor and advanced fuel licensing. Initial evaluation of issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . The method is generically referred to as a 'Best Estimate plus Uncertainty' approach (BE+U) because the goal of the methodology is to compare the model value (best estimate) plus any uncertainty with a figure of merit such as cladding temperature. The challenges for extending the BE+U method for fuel qualification for an advanced reactor fuel are driven by schedule, the need for data, the sufficiency of the data, identification of important phenomena, the process of validation (with a focus on the multi-scale model), and the need to produce and extend BE+U uncertainty methodology. This paper examines these issues an offers a proposed set of methods that extends the current BE+U methodology to address most, if not all, of these challenges. (author)

  8. On the extension of modern best-estimate plus uncertainy methodologies to future fast reactor and advanced fuel licensing - initial evaluation of issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    has precedence in the NRC. The method is generically referred to as a 'Best Estimate plus Uncertainty' approach (BE+U), since the goal of the methodology is to compare the model value (best estimate) plus any uncertainty to a figure of merit like cladding temperature. The challenges for extending the BE+U (1) method for fuel qualification for an Advanced Reactor Fuel are driven by: schedule, the need for data, the data sufficiency, the identification of important phenomenon, the process of validation (with focus on the multi-scale model), and the need to produce and extended best estimate plus uncertainty methodology. This paper examines these issues an offers up a proposed set of methods that extend the current BE+U methodology address most if not all of these challenges.

  9. Methodological Issues in Negative Symptom Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Marder, Stephen R.; Daniel, David G; Alphs, Larry; Awad, A George; Richard S E Keefe

    2011-01-01

    Individuals from academia, the pharmaceutical industry, and the US Food and Drug Administration used a workshop format to discuss important methodological issues in the design of trials of pharmacological agents for improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The issues addressed included the need for a coprimary functional measure for registration trials; the characteristics of individuals who should enter negative symptom trials; the optimal duration for a proof-of-concept or registration...

  10. Methodological issues of postoperative cognitive dysfunction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Kamilia S; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2010-01-01

    reveal postoperative cognitive decline, and questionnaires are not useful for this purpose. There is a profound lack of consensus regarding the research methodology for detection of cognitive deterioration, especially the diagnostic criteria. Issues, such as baseline performance, learning effects, and......Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a subtle impairment of memory, concentration, and speed of information processing. It is a frequent complication following surgery and can have a debilitating effect on patients' recovery and future prognosis. Neuropsychological testing is needed to...

  11. Methodological issues of postoperative cognitive dysfunction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Kamilia S; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2010-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a subtle impairment of memory, concentration, and speed of information processing. It is a frequent complication following surgery and can have a debilitating effect on patients' recovery and future prognosis. Neuropsychological testing is needed to...... reveal postoperative cognitive decline, and questionnaires are not useful for this purpose. There is a profound lack of consensus regarding the research methodology for detection of cognitive deterioration, especially the diagnostic criteria. Issues, such as baseline performance, learning effects, and...

  12. Least-cost Paths - Some Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmela Herzog

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with methodological issues connected with least-cost path (LCP calculations in archaeology. The number of LCP studies in archaeology has increased rapidly during the last couple of years, but not all of the approaches applied are based on an appropriate model and implementation. Many archaeologists rely on standard GIS software with default settings for calculating LCPs and are not aware of possible alternatives and the pitfalls that are described in this article. After briefly introducing the aims and applications of LCP methods in archaeology, LCP algorithms are discussed. The outcome of the LCP calculations depends not only on the algorithm but also on the cost model, which often includes several cost components. The discussion of the cost components has a focus on slope, because nearly all archaeological LCP studies take this cost component into account and because several methodological issues are connected with slope-based cost models. Other possible cost components are: the load of the walker, vegetation cover, wetlands or other soil properties, travelling and transport on water, water as barrier and as attractor, aspect, altitude, and social or cultural cost components. Eventually, advantages and disadvantages of different ways of combining cost components are presented. Based on the methodological issues I conclude that both validation checks and variations of the model are necessary to analyse the reliability of archaeological LCP results.

  13. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper.

  14. Mathematics classroom cultures: Methodological and theoretical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Staub, Fritz C

    2007-01-01

    Progress in video technologies and developments in theories of learning have lead to a surge of interest in the role of classroom culture in schooling. The studies presented in this special issue of the IJER on analyzing mathematics classroom cultures and practices contribute to our knowledge on the role of beliefs and norms in classrooms and the interrelationship between classroom culture, student learning, and the advancement of teaching. In this final section these papers are discussed wit...

  15. Photography and History: methodological and theoretical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Santos Canabarro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses issues related to the relation of photography with the construction of historical knowledge, realizing the theoretical dimensions that encompass a whole field of study about photography. The use of photography with its theoretical and methodological support in history is very recent, as many historians only used it for writing text illustration. Our hypothesis is that photography can be an object and source of investigation and, at the same time, an object that offers notions of its use as a specific problem in the field of visual culture.

  16. Methodological Issues on Climate Change Mitigation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Borges, Pedro Castro; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1999-01-01

    , etc.) interact to analyse and solve important decision problems by applying methodologies. A simple framework is used to identify several sources of contradictions that may have a significant impact on studies carried out in the single countries as well on the implementation of abatement measures....... Some methodological principles are suggested to address such contradictions, structure, and change th einteractions between the different dimensions of hte social process framework. Two studies are mentioned in which ideas are presented on how to deal with the central contradictions. Applying such...... methodologies to case studies is seen as one way of improving the chances of understanding and handling environmental problems...

  17. Methodology of predicting materials failures in advanced nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiences in the nuclear power plant operation and the fixing of unexpected component failures, originated mainly from corrosion damages, have led to a base methodology of predicting, correcting and preventing failures. Some analogies of the algorithm developed have been extended to the evolution of reliable materials, their testing and database construction in the development of advanced systems for next generation. An illustrative topic was chosen from the materials development and reliability testing carried out in the development of an advanced HTGR for process heat applications. Possibility and issues in making the similar approach in the case of nuclear fusion is also discussed

  18. Evolution of courseware development methodology : recent issues

    OpenAIRE

    Moonen, Jef; Schoenmaker, Jan

    1992-01-01

    To improve the quality of courseware products and the efficiency of the courseware development process, a methodology based upon "courseware engineering", being a combination of instructional systems development and software engineering, has emerged over the last 10¿15 years. Recently, software engineering aspects have gained extra attention. It is unclear to what extent a courseware engineering emphasis has contributed to an improvement of the quality of the courseware products or to the eff...

  19. Irish house price indices ? methodological issues

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Conniffe; David Duffy

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the international literature on house price indices, looking at the basic methodologies employed, the variables chosen for the indices and the functional forms used. Ideas are sought for future improvements to an Irish index and tentative assessments are made of how Irish results correspond to published research findings. Although the recent vintage of hedonic house price indices in Ireland warrants caution in reaching conclusions, there are interesting correspondences with...

  20. The Issue of media studies methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Gackowski, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is a response to the full of inspiring reflections in the review of a book published in 2009 –Methods of analyzing image in mass media (ed. T. Gackowski, M. Łączyński), wrote by prof. Wiesław Sonczyk (Method of analysis content and media image study, "Media Studies" 2009, No. 3). The text presents several demands of methodological research in the field of media studies, supported by the results of a research on the image of Ryszard Krauze on the pages of nationwide newspapers fro...

  1. Methodologic Issues and Approaches to Spatial Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Beale, Linda; Abellan, Juan Jose; Hodgson, Susan; Jarup, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Spatial epidemiology is increasingly being used to assess health risks associated with environmental hazards. Risk patterns tend to have both a temporal and a spatial component; thus, spatial epidemiology must combine methods from epidemiology, statistics, and geographic information science. Recent statistical advances in spatial epidemiology include the use of smoothing in risk maps to create an interpretable risk surface, the extension of spatial models to incorporate the time dimension, an...

  2. School-Based Methylphenidate Placebo Protocols: Methodological and Practical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Irwin A.; Wojtowicz, Alexandra; Lee, Kee Duk; Haffner, Mary Elizabeth; Fiorello, Catherine A.; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on methodological issues involved in choosing instruments to monitor behavior, once a comprehensive evaluation has suggested trials on Ritalin. Case examples illustrate problems of teacher compliance in filling out measures, supplying adequate placebos, and obtaining physical cooperation. Emerging school-based methodologies are discussed…

  3. Advanced planning methodologies in food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farahani, Poorya

    chain perspective, this thesis mainly focuses on the part of the chain which starts from the food processing industry: the food processing industry, the distribution industry, and final consumers. In the second chapter of this thesis, a thorough review is presented classifying the related contributions......The food industry is an important sector both because of its direct impacts on the daily lives of people and its large share of GDP compared with other economic sectors. This thesis discusses and develops advanced planning methodologies to optimize operations in food supply chains. From a supply...... in strategic, tactical, and operational studies, aiming to explain how several key food distribution planning challenges have been dealt with in the Operations Management literature. The next two chapters discuss specific production and distribution planning problems from the foodservice sector. Generic...

  4. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analyses Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.S. Samuelsen; A.D. Rao

    2006-02-06

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include ''Zero Emission'' power plants and the ''FutureGen'' H{sub 2} co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the ''Vision 21'' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  5. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

    2006-06-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  6. Ethical and methodological issues in research with Sami experiencing disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbøe, Line; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Johnsen, Bjørn-Eirik; Fedreheim, Gunn Elin; Dinesen, Tone; Minde, Gunn-Tove; Rustad, Marit

    2016-01-01

    Background A study of disability among the indigenous Sami people in Norway presented a number of ethical and methodological challenges rarely addressed in the literature. Objectives The main study was designed to examine and understand the everyday life, transitions between life stages and democratic participation of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. Hence, the purpose of this article is to increase the understanding of possible ethical and methodological issues in research within this field. The article describes and discusses ethical and methodological issues that arose when conducting our study and identifies some strategies for addressing issues like these. Methods The ethical and methodological issues addressed in the article are based on a qualitative study among indigenous Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. The data in this study were collected through 31 semi-structured in-depth interviews with altogether 24 Sami people experiencing disability and 13 next of kin of Sami people experiencing disability (8 mothers, 2 fathers, 2 sister and 1 guardian). Findings and discussion The researchers identified 4 main areas of ethical and methodological issues. We present these issues chronologically as they emerged in the research process: 1) concept of knowledge when designing the study, 2) gaining access, 3) data collection and 4) analysis and accountability. Conclusion The knowledge generated from this study has the potential to benefit future health research, specifically of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability, as well as health research concerning indigenous people in general, providing scientific-based insight into important ethical and methodological issues in research with indigenous people experiencing disability. PMID:27396747

  7. Ethical and methodological issues in research with Sami experiencing disability

    OpenAIRE

    Melbøe, Line; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Johnsen, Bjørn-Eirik; Fedreheim, Gunn Elin; Dinesen, Tone; Minde, Gunn-Tove; Rustad, Marit

    2016-01-01

    Background. A study of disability among the indigenous Sami people in Norway presented a number of ethical and methodological challenges rarely addressed in the literature.Objectives. The main study was designed to examine and understand the everyday life, transitions between life stages and democratic participation of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. Hence, the purpose of this article is to increase the understanding of possible ethical and methodological issues in research wit...

  8. Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change. Methodological Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) convened a Workshop on Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change in Costa Rica in 1998 that involved more than 200 expects and incorporated views from many research communities. This paper summarizes the recommendations from the Workshop and profiles the contributions to the advancement of methodologies for adaptation science. 25 refs

  9. Conceptualising and Evaluating Teacher Quality: Substantive and Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarson, Lawrence; Rowe, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Whereas findings from recent research highlight the importance of teacher quality in improving students' academic performances and experiences of schooling, substantive and methodological issues surrounding the conceptualisation and evaluation of "teacher quality" are not well understood. Such deficiencies are particularly evident in claims for…

  10. Emerging Issues in the Genetics of Dyslexia: A Methodological Preview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frank B.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2001-01-01

    Examination of methodological issues in the design and interpretation of studies on the genetics of reading disability suggests three tests of increasing rigor for determining whether reading score distributions are categorical and thus not subject to analyses which assume a continuous normal distribution. Also noted are interactive relationships…

  11. The worldwide governance indicators : methodology and analytical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Daniel; Kraay, Aart; Mastruzzi, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the methodology of the Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) project, and related analytical issues. The WGI cover over 200 countries and territories, measuring six dimensions of governance starting in 1996: Voice and Accountability, Political Stability and Absence of Violence/Terrorism, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law, and Control of Corrupt...

  12. Methodological issues and research recommendations for prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristman, Vicki L; Borg, Jörgen; Godbolt, Alison K;

    2014-01-01

    methodological concerns and knowledge gaps in the literature. Here we report and make recommendations on how to avoid methodological flaws found in prognostic studies of MTBI. Additionally, we discuss issues of MTBI definition and identify topic areas in need of further research to advance the understanding of......, Prevention, Management and Rehabilitation Task Force on the prognosis of MTBI. Of 299 relevant studies, 101 were accepted as scientifically admissible. The methodological quality of the research literature on MTBI prognosis has not improved since the 2002 Task Force report. There are still many...

  13. Special issue about advances in Physical Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Cazorla Quevedo, Miguel Ángel; Matellán Olivera, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, there are a lot of Spanish groups which are doing research in areas related with physical agents: they use agent-based technologies concepts, especially industrial applications, robotics and domotics (physical agents) and applications related to the information society, (software agents) highlighting the similarities and synergies among physical and software agents. In this special issue we will show several works from those groups, focusing on the recent advances in Physical Agents.

  14. Critical methodological issues in evaluation of operator support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In evaluating new operator support system for NPP from the view point of assuring public safety, followings are key points to be taken account of: (a) Situation should include unfamiliar and unanticipated events. (b) Function should include unintended one. (c) Concerned human operator is expert to have been fully adapted to the new system. Those points make thorough evaluation difficult only with empirical methods and call for an integrated methodology of analytical and empirical methods. Critical issues are reviewed and a framework of an integrated methodology is discussed. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs

  15. Economic evaluation in stratified medicine: methodological issues and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joerg eFugel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stratified Medicine (SM is becoming a practical reality with the targeting of medicines by using a biomarker or genetic-based diagnostic to identify the eligible patient sub-population. Like any healthcare intervention, SM interventions have costs and consequences that must be considered by reimbursement authorities with limited resources. Methodological standards and guidelines exist for economic evaluations in clinical pharmacology and are an important component for health technology assessments (HTAs in many countries. However, these guidelines have initially been developed for traditional pharmaceuticals and not for complex interventions with multiple components. This raises the issue as to whether these guidelines are adequate to SM interventions or whether new specific guidance and methodology is needed to avoid inconsistencies and contradictory findings when assessing economic value in SM.Objective: This article describes specific methodological challenges when conducting health economic (HE evaluations for SM interventions and outlines potential modifications necessary to existing evaluation guidelines /principles that would promote consistent economic evaluations for SM.Results/Conclusions: Specific methodological aspects for SM comprise considerations on the choice of comparator, measuring effectiveness and outcomes, appropriate modelling structure and the scope of sensitivity analyses. Although current HE methodology can be applied for SM, greater complexity requires further methodology development and modifications in the guidelines.

  16. Economic Evaluation in Stratified Medicine: Methodological Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugel, Hans-Joerg; Nuijten, Mark; Postma, Maarten; Redekop, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stratified Medicine (SM) is becoming a practical reality with the targeting of medicines by using a biomarker or genetic-based diagnostic to identify the eligible patient sub-population. Like any healthcare intervention, SM interventions have costs and consequences that must be considered by reimbursement authorities with limited resources. Methodological standards and guidelines exist for economic evaluations in clinical pharmacology and are an important component for health technology assessments (HTAs) in many countries. However, these guidelines have initially been developed for traditional pharmaceuticals and not for complex interventions with multiple components. This raises the issue as to whether these guidelines are adequate to SM interventions or whether new specific guidance and methodology is needed to avoid inconsistencies and contradictory findings when assessing economic value in SM. Objective: This article describes specific methodological challenges when conducting health economic (HE) evaluations for SM interventions and outlines potential modifications necessary to existing evaluation guidelines /principles that would promote consistent economic evaluations for SM. Results/Conclusions: Specific methodological aspects for SM comprise considerations on the choice of comparator, measuring effectiveness and outcomes, appropriate modeling structure and the scope of sensitivity analyses. Although current HE methodology can be applied for SM, greater complexity requires further methodology development and modifications in the guidelines.

  17. Methodological Advances in Bibliometric Mapping of Science

    OpenAIRE

    van Eck, Nees Jan

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBibliometric mapping of science is concerned with quantitative methods for visually representing scientific literature based on bibliographic data. Since the first pioneering efforts in the 1970s, a large number of methods and techniques for bibliometric mapping have been proposed and tested. Although this has not resulted in a single generally accepted methodological standard, it did result in a limited set of commonly used methods and techniques. In this thesis, a new methodolog...

  18. Contemporary Research on Parenting: Conceptual, Methodological, and Translational Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Thomas G.; Sleddens, Ester F.C.; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St. George, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can infor...

  19. The evaluation of management accounting innovations; some methodological issues

    OpenAIRE

    Schoute, M.; Wiersma, E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature study of methodological issues of various forms of (quantitative) evaluation research, as it is frequently conducted in other social science disciplines. The objective of this study is to assess the potential of quantitative evaluation research within the Management Accounting discipline, based on the experience with this kind of research in these somewhat related disciplines. Both studies employing a cross-sectional and a longitudinal research ...

  20. Plant maintenance and advanced reactors issue, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

    2009-09-15

    The focus of the September-October issue is on plant maintenance and advanced reactors. Major articles/reports in this issue include: Technologies of national importance, by Tsutomu Ohkubo, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan; Modeling and simulation advances brighten future nuclear power, by Hussein Khalil, Argonne National Laboratory, Energy and desalination projects, by Ratan Kumar Sinha, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India; A plant with simplified design, by John Higgins, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; A forward thinking design, by Ray Ganthner, AREVA; A passively safe design, by Ed Cummins, Westinghouse Electric Company; A market-ready design, by Ken Petrunik, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Canada; Generation IV Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, by Jacques Bouchard, French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, France, and Ralph Bennett, Idaho National Laboratory; Innovative reactor designs, a report by IAEA, Vienna, Austria; Guidance for new vendors, by John Nakoski, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Road map for future energy, by John Cleveland, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria; and, Vermont's largest source of electricity, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The Industry Innovation article is titled Intelligent monitoring technology, by Chris Demars, Exelon Nuclear.

  1. Qualification issues for advanced light-water reactor protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in advanced reactors will make extensive use of digital controls, microprocessors, multiplexing, and fiber optic transmission. Elements of these advances in I ampersand C have been implemented on some current operating plants. However, the widespread use of the above technologies, as well as the use of artificial intelligence with minimum reliance on human operator control of reactors, highlights the need to develop standards for qualifying the I ampersand C used in the next generation of nuclear power plants. As a first step in this direction, the protection system I ampersand C for present-day plants was compared to that proposed for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). An evaluation template was developed by assembling a configuration of a safety channel instrument string for a generic ALWR, then comparing the impact of environmental stressors on that string to their effect on an equivalent instrument string from an existing light-water reactor. The template was then used to suggest a methodology for the qualification of microprocessor-based protection systems. The methodology identifies standards/regulatory guides (or lack thereof) for the qualification of microprocessor-based safety I ampersand C systems. This approach addresses in part issues raised in NRC policy document SECY-91-292, which recognizes that advanced I ampersand C systems for the nuclear industry are ''being developed without consensus standards. as the technology available for design is ahead of the technology that is well understood through experience and supported by application standards.''

  2. The Epidemiology of Lead Toxicity in Adults: Measuring Dose and Consideration of Other Methodologic Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Howard; Shih, Regina; Rothenberg, Stephen; Schwartz, Brian S.

    2006-01-01

    We review several issues of broad relevance to the interpretation of epidemiologic evidence concerning the toxicity of lead in adults, particularly regarding cognitive function and the cardiovascular system, which are the subjects of two systematic reviews that are also part of this mini-monograph. Chief among the recent developments in methodologic advances has been the refinement of concepts and methods for measuring individual lead dose in terms of appreciating distinctions between recent ...

  3. Methodological choice and the study of sensitive issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Ahlberg

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been relatively little concern with methodological issues within the study of religion. In this article the author considers the need for a continuing clarification of how diverse methodological approaches relate to the study of religion in general, and what is more, of certain aspects of the role of the researcher in particular. A main difference between the methodological approaches as referred to in this article — and illustrated by reference to minority studies -is in the closeness of the researcher to his field. One could perhaps state that while the researcher draws nearer to his field in soft approaches the theories remain further away from the empirical data (i.e. in that one creates greater vistas while the opposite is true for those that work with hard data designs, that meta-theories are almost excluded (as pure speculation due to the strict demands for operationalization, as the (effect of the researcher is to a greater extend likewise excluded from the picture. Though in both cases the choices made must naturally be made explicit as must the researcher relate to a qualified discussion between experts who have some kind of relationship to the kind of empirical material or theoretical thinking that is at issue in the particular project.

  4. Mixed-signal methodology guide advanced methodology for AMS IP and SOC design, verification and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jess; Mar, Monte F; Nizic, Mladen; Bailey, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This Book, The Mixed-Signal Methodology Guide: Advanced Methodology For Ams Ip And Soc Design, Verification, And Implementation Provides A Broad Overview Of The Design, Verification And Implementation Methodologies Required For Today's Mixed-Signal Designs. The Book Covers Mixed-Signal Design Trends And Challenges, Abstraction Of Analog Using Behavioral Models, Assertion-Based Metric-Driven Verification Methodology Applied On Analog And Mixed-Signal And Verification Of Low Power Intent In Mixed-Signal Design. It Also Describes Methodology For Physical Implementation In Context Of Concurrent Mixed-Signal Design And For Handling Advanced Node Physical Effects. The Book Contains Many Practical Examples Of Models And Techniques. The Authors Believe It Should Serve As A Reference To Many Analog, Digital And Mixed-Signal Designers, Verification, Physical Implementation Engineers And Managers In Their Pursuit Of Information For A Better Methodology Required To Address The Challenges Of Modern Mixed-Signal Design.

  5. An integrated structure and scaling methodology for severe accident technical issue resolution: development of methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaling has been identified as a particularly important element of the severe accident research program because of its relevance not only to experimentation, but also to analyses based on code calculations or special models. Recognizing the central importance of severe accident scaling issues, the United States Regulatory Commission implemented a severe accident scaling methodology (SASM) development program involving a lead laboratory contractor and a technical program group to guide the development and to demonstrate its practicality via a challenging application. The technical program group recognized that the severe accident scaling methodology was an integral part of a larger structure for technical issue resolution and, therefore, found the need to define and document this larger structure, the integrated structure for technical issue resolution (ISTIR). The larger part of the efforts have been devoted to the development and demonstration of the severe accident scaling methodology, which is component II of the ISTIR. The ISTIR and the SASM have been tested and demonstrated, by their application to a postulated direct containment heating scenario. The ISTIR objectives and process are summarized in this paper, as is its demonstration associated directly with the SASM. The objectives, processes and demonstration for the SASM are also summarized in the paper. The full body of work is referenced. (orig.)

  6. An integrated structure and scaling methodology for severe accident technical issue resolution: development of methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, N.; Wilson, G.E. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3890 (United States); Ishii, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Wulff, W.; Lehner, J.R.; Valente, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Building 475 B, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop K555, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Dukler, A.E. [University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-4791 (United States); Griffith, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, MIT, 138 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Healzer, J.M.; Levy, S. [South Levy Inc., 3425 S. Bascom Avenue, Campbell, CA 95008 (United States); Henry, R.E. [Fauske and Associate, Inc., 16W070 West 83rd Street, Burr Ridge, IL 60521 (United States); Moody, F.J. [GE Nuclear Energy, 175 Curtner Avenue, MC 747, San Jose, CA 95125 (United States); Pilch, M. [Sandia National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Sehgal, B.R. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Nuclear Power Safety, 100 44, Stockholm (Sweden); Spencer, B.W. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Case Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Theofanous, T.G. [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California - Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Scaling has been identified as a particularly important element of the severe accident research program because of its relevance not only to experimentation, but also to analyses based on code calculations or special models. Recognizing the central importance of severe accident scaling issues, the United States Regulatory Commission implemented a severe accident scaling methodology (SASM) development program involving a lead laboratory contractor and a technical program group to guide the development and to demonstrate its practicality via a challenging application. The technical program group recognized that the severe accident scaling methodology was an integral part of a larger structure for technical issue resolution and, therefore, found the need to define and document this larger structure, the integrated structure for technical issue resolution (ISTIR). The larger part of the efforts have been devoted to the development and demonstration of the severe accident scaling methodology, which is component II of the ISTIR. The ISTIR and the SASM have been tested and demonstrated, by their application to a postulated direct containment heating scenario. The ISTIR objectives and process are summarized in this paper, as is its demonstration associated directly with the SASM. The objectives, processes and demonstration for the SASM are also summarized in the paper. The full body of work is referenced. (orig.) 11 refs.

  7. Dream research in schizophrenia: methodological issues and a dimensional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Dreaming in patients with schizophrenia was and is of particular interest to researchers and clinicians due to the phenomenological similarities between the dreaming state and schizophrenic daytime symptomatology such as bizarre thoughts or hallucinations. Extensive literature reviews have shown that dream studies in the field of psychopathology often do not fulfill common scientific criteria. The present paper focuses on the methodological issues like sampling methods, the dream collection method, and dream content analysis that are crucial with regard to the validity of the findings. It is also suggested that the so-called dimensional approach (linking severity of daytime symptoms directly to specific dream characteristics) will be very helpful for identifying which psychopathological symptoms of schizophrenia are most closely linked to dream content. PMID:20537924

  8. Contemporary research on parenting: conceptual, methodological, and translational issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; Sleddens, Ester F C; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St George, Sara M

    2013-08-01

    Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered. PMID:23944927

  9. Methodological advancements in procedures for common cause failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the methodological advancements achieved in the process of developing a procedures guide for the analysis of common cause failures (CCF) in safety and reliability studies. The work was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and resulted in the publication of a two-volume guidebook. The methodological advancements include the development of a systematic framework for qualitative and quantitative analysis of CCFs, introduction of basic events, improvements in parametric models and their estimators, and development of a series of techniques for the creation of a plant-specific CCF database

  10. Methodology and Supporting Toolset Advancing Embedded Systems Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stübert; Soler, José; Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy; Tsagkaropoulos, M.; Leclerc, Y.; Olma, C.

    Software quality is of primary importance in the development of embedded systems that are often used in safety-critical applications. Moreover, as the life cycle of embedded products becomes increasingly tighter, productivity and quality are simultaneously required and closely interrelated towards...... delivering competitive products. In this context, the MODUS (Methodology and supporting toolset advancing embedded systems quality) project aims to provide a pragmatic and viable solution that will allow SMEs to substantially improve their positioning in the embedded-systems development market. This paper...... will describe the MODUS project with focus on the technical methodologies that will be developed advancing embedded system quality....

  11. Review on the NEI Methodology of Debris Transport Analysis in Sump Blockage Issue for APR1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since USNRC (United State Nuclear Regulatory Committee) initially addressed post-accident sump performance under Unresolved Safety Issue USI A-43, sump blockage issue has gone through GSI-191, Regulation Guide 1.82, Rev. 3 (RG. 1.82 Rev.3), and generic Letter 2004-02 for PWRs (Pressurized Water Reactors). As a response of these USNRC's activities, NEI 04-07 was issued in order to evaluate the post-accident performance of a plant's recirculation sump. The baseline methodology of NEI 04-07 is composed of break selection, debris generation, latent debris, debris transport, and head loss. In analytical refinement of NEI 04-07, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) is suggested for the evaluation of debris transport in emergency core cooling (ECC) recirculation mode as guided by RG. 1.82 Rev.3. In Korea nuclear industry also keeps step with international activities of this safety issue, with Kori 1 plant as a pioneering edge. Korean nuclear industry has been also pursuing development of an advanced PWR of APR1400, which incorporates several improved safety features. One of the key features, considering sump blockage issue, is the adoption of IRWST (In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank). This device, as the acronym implies, changes the emergency core cooling water injection pattern. This fact makes us to review the applicability of NEI 04-07's methodology. In this paper we discuss the applicability of NEI 04- 07's methodology, and more over, new methodology is proposed. And finally the preliminary debris transport is analyzed

  12. Advancements in Research Synthesis Methods: From a Methodologically Inclusive Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Harsh; Clarke, David

    2009-01-01

    The dominant literature on research synthesis methods has positivist and neo-positivist origins. In recent years, the landscape of research synthesis methods has changed rapidly to become inclusive. This article highlights methodologically inclusive advancements in research synthesis methods. Attention is drawn to insights from interpretive,…

  13. Some methodological issues in neuroradiological research in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An outline is given of some of the methodological issues discussed in neuroradiological research on psychiatric illnesses. The strengths and shortcomings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in depicting and quantifying brain structures are described. Temporal lobe anatomy and pathology are easily accessible to MRI, whereas limits on anatomical delineation hamper approaches to frontal lobe study. White matter hyperintense lesions are sensitively depicted by MRI, but specificity is limited. The distinction of vascular and primary degenerative dementia is considerably improved by CT and MRI analysis. Computed tomography (CT) and MRI have enhanced the understanding of treatable organic psychiatric disorders, e.g., normal pressure hydrocephalus. Subcortical and white matter pathology has been replicated in CT and MRI studies of late onset psychiatric disorders, clinical overlap with cerebrovascular disease or neuro degeneration may be of import. Trans cranial sonography findings of brainstem structural change specific to unipolar depression may contribute to the understanding of affective psychoses. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and functional MRI are likely to stimulate psychiatric research in the future. (author)

  14. Important methodological advances in some Probabilistic Safety Analyses areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements of CSN (Spanish Nuclear Safety Council) Safety Instruction IS 30 make apparent the need to adapt the methodologies for carrying out PSAs taking into account the most significant improvements identified in the different PSA activities. Ample experience in the development of Probabilistic Safety Analyses has meant that although some areas of analysis are fairly well consolidated, others still present many opportunities for further development. This article provides an overview of the most important methodological advances in some PSA areas, most notably in fire and human reliability analysis. (Author)

  15. Advancing Prevention Research on Child Abuse, Youth Violence, and Domestic Violence: Emerging Strategies and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Neil B.

    2004-01-01

    Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent…

  16. The Research Design and Methodological Issues for the Cash and Counseling Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Randall Brown Stacy Dale

    2007-01-01

    Reviews key elements of the evaluation design and resolution of methodological issues. Includes a discussion of research questions, data sources, random assignment, measurement, analytic methods, and design limitations.

  17. Methodological issues in the psychology of religion: toward another paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzen, Jacob A; Hood, Ralph W

    2006-01-01

    Recent evaluations have identified the psychology of religion as a field in crisis and have called for a new multilevel interdisciplinary paradigm. However, a critical meta-perspective on methods reveals a broad range of methodologies, each appropriate for particular levels of complexity in the psychology of religion. No single methodology is appropriate for every level, nor can higher levels of complexity be explained by data from lower levels. The authors identify the different types of research practiced in the psychology of religion and critically discuss philosophical presuppositions involved in two major methodological traditions, the empiricist-analytical and the hermeneutical, often identified as quantitative and qualitative traditions, respectively. PMID:16619941

  18. Policy issues inherent in advanced technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, P.D.

    1994-12-31

    In the development of advanced technologies, there are several forces which are involved in the success of the development of those technologies. In the overall development of new technologies, a sufficient number of these forces must be present and working in order to have a successful opportunity at developing, introducing and integrating into the marketplace a new technology. This paper discusses some of these forces and how they enter into the equation for success in advanced technology research, development, demonstration, commercialization and deployment. This paper limits itself to programs which are generally governmental funded, which in essence represent most of the technology development efforts that provide defense, energy and environmental technological products. Along with the identification of these forces are some suggestions as to how changes may be brought about to better ensure success in a long term to attempt to minimize time and financial losses.

  19. Gastroenterology in developing countries: Issues and advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kate L Mandeville; Justus Krabshuis; Nimzing Gwamzhi Ladep; Chris JJ Mulder; Eamonn MM Quigley; Shahid A Khan

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries shoulder a considerable burden of gastroenterological disease. Infectious diseases in particular cause enormous morbidity and mortality. Diseases which afflict both western and developing countries are often seen in more florid forms in poorer countries. Innovative techniques continuously improve and update gastroenterological practice. However, advances in diagnosis and treatment which are commonplace in the West, have yet to reach many developing countries. Clinical guidelines, based on these advances and collated in resource-rich environments, lose their relevance outside these settings. In this two-part review, we first highlight the global burden of gastroenterological disease in three major areas: diarrhoeal diseases, hepatitis B, and Helicobacter pylori. Recent progress in their management is explored, with consideration of future solutions. The second part of the review focuses on the delivery of clinical services in developing countries. Inadequate numbers of healthcare workers hamper efforts to combat gastroenterological disease. Reasons for this shortage are examined, along with possibilities for increased specialist training. Endoscopy services, the mainstay of gastroenterology in the West, are in their infancy in many developing countries. The challenges faced by those setting up a service are illustrated by the example of a Nigerian endoscopy unit. Finally, we highlight the limited scope of many clinical guidelines produced in western countries. Guidelines which take account of resource limitations in the form of "cascades" are advocated in order to make these guidelines truly global. Recognition of the different working conditions facing practitioners worldwide is an important step towards narrowing the gap between gastroenterology in rich and poor countries.

  20. Preface: Special issue: ten years of advances in computer entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katayose, Haruhiro; Reidsma, Dennis; Rauterberg, M

    2014-01-01

    This special issue celebrates the 10th edition of the International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment (ACE) by collecting six selected and revised papers from among this year’s accepted contributions.

  1. Deciding the way. Comparing energy risks: methodologies and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following major issues in comparative assessment of energy systems are discussed: target users; decision making process; subject policy-making; setting boundaries; aggregated health indicators; monetary valuation; long-term health effects; global warming; methods to reflect uncertainties. Suggestions for study approaches of the mentioned issues are proposed

  2. Methodological issues in observational studies of obesity and mortality

    OpenAIRE

    W. Dana Flanders; Liv Berit Augestad

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has important health hazards, and the epidemic seems to be growing in developed countries. There is scientific evidence for higher risk of earlier death among the obese. However, most evidence of the effects of obesity on mortality comes from observational studies. The aim of this manuscript is to reviewsome of the most important issues in designing, analyzing and interpreting analytic studies of the effects of obesity on mortality. Key issues are clarity in the definition of the effe...

  3. Diaspora Effects in International Migration : Key Questions and Methodological Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Beine, Michel; Docquier, Frederic; Ozden, Caglar

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing literature on the impact of migrants networks on the patterns of international migration. It covers the theoretical channels at stake in the global effect of the networks. It identifies the key issues, namely the impact on size, selection and concentration of the migration flows. The paper also reviews the empirical hurdles that the researchers face in assessing the importance of networks. The key issues concern the choice of micro vs a macro approach, the defi...

  4. Economic evaluation in stratified medicine: methodological issues and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Hans-Joerg eFugel; Mark eNuijten; Maarten Jacobus Postma; Ken eRedekop

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stratified Medicine (SM) is becoming a practical reality with the targeting of medicines by using a biomarker or genetic-based diagnostic to identify the eligible patient sub-population. Like any healthcare intervention, SM interventions have costs and consequences that must be considered by reimbursement authorities with limited resources. Methodological standards and guidelines exist for economic evaluations in clinical pharmacology and are an important component for health tech...

  5. Bias control in bodywork therapies: a review of methodological issues

    OpenAIRE

    Mehling, Wolf E.; Di Blasi, Zelda; Hecht, Frederick

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review and summarize the methodological challenges in clinical trials of bodywork or handson mind-body therapies such as Feldenkrais Method, Alexander Technique, Trager Work, Eutony, Body Awareness Therapy, Breath Therapy, and Rolfing, and to discuss ways these challenges can be addressed. DESIGN: Review and commentary. METHODS: Search of databases PubMed and EMBASE and screening of bibliographies. Published clinical studies were included if they used individual hands-on approac...

  6. The Wholistic, Organic Researcher: Central Issues in Clinical Research Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    1996-01-01

    A challenging look at research methodology is necessary because of the confusion of terminology that has come about by the accretion over the last century of research methods and the vocabulary for describing them. Probably the most ambiguous term of all is the term 'methods' itself. Many different meanings of this word can be found within the literature. Indeed, one text book that has a title 'Research Methods in Psychology' may be totally different in its coverage from ano...

  7. Researching entrepreneurship through phenomenological inquiry: philosophical and methodological issues

    OpenAIRE

    Cope, J P

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, the field of entrepreneurship has witnessed an emerging body of research that operates within an interpretive paradigm. In contributing to this research tradition, this article explicates an interpretive, phenomenological form of inquiry, described by Thompson et al (1989) as the 'phenomenological interview'. Particular attention is paid to the ontological and epistemological foundations of this approach, illustrating the evolution from philosophy to methodology. The article ...

  8. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Systems Analysis supports engineering economic analyses and trade-studies, and requires a requisite reference cost basis to support adequate analysis rigor. In this regard, the AFCI program has created a reference set of economic documentation. The documentation consists of the 'Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) Cost Basis' report (Shropshire, et al. 2007), 'AFCI Economic Analysis' report, and the 'AFCI Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies Report.' Together, these documents provide the reference cost basis, cost modeling basis, and methodologies needed to support AFCI economic analysis. The application of the reference cost data in the cost and econometric systems analysis models will be supported by this report. These methodologies include: the energy/environment/economic evaluation of nuclear technology penetration in the energy market - domestic and internationally - and impacts on AFCI facility deployment, uranium resource modeling to inform the front-end fuel cycle costs, facility first-of-a-kind to nth-of-a-kind learning with application to deployment of AFCI facilities, cost tradeoffs to meet nuclear non-proliferation requirements, and international nuclear facility supply/demand analysis. The economic analysis will be performed using two cost models. VISION.ECON will be used to evaluate and compare costs under dynamic conditions, consistent with the cases and analysis performed by the AFCI Systems Analysis team. Generation IV Excel Calculations of Nuclear Systems (G4-ECONS) will provide static (snapshot-in-time) cost analysis and will provide a check on the dynamic results. In future analysis, additional AFCI measures may be developed to show the value of AFCI in closing the fuel cycle. Comparisons can show AFCI in terms of reduced global proliferation (e.g., reduction in enrichment), greater sustainability through preservation of a natural resource (e.g., reduction in uranium ore depletion), value from weaning the

  9. Emerging issues and methodological advances in fisheries reproductive biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan K.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Murua, Hilario;

    2011-01-01

    Although incorporating detailed reproductive data into all stock assessments is not a practical goal, the need to understand how reproductive biology affects population productivity is being increasingly recognized.More research focused on reproductive biology—coupled with a shift towards a...... development, which is most accurately evaluated with histology. This special section of Marine and Coastal Fisheries contains contributions from a workshop on the gonadal histology of fishes that was held in Cadiz, Spain, during June 2009. These papers cover a wide range of species and reproductive topics...... while introducing improved and new histological techniques. In this introduction, we address the following needs: (1) to employ standardization, thereby improving our ability to conduct comparative studies; (2) to better understand patterns of gonadal development and spawning events over time; and (3...

  10. Diaspora Effects in International Migration: Key Questions and Methodological Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Beine, Michel; Docquier, Frederic; Ozden, Caglar

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing literature on the impact of migrants networks on the patterns of international migration. It covers the theoretical channels at stake in the global effect of the networks. It identifies the key issues, namely the impact on size, selection and concentration of the migration flows. The paper also reviews the empirical hurdles that the researchers face in asses...

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of electricity generation: overview and methodological issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    Electricity production is currently responsible for a large share of global Greenhouse Gas (GHG), NOx and SO2 emissions, and their related environmental impacts. This study provides a critical review of the status of research on life cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity generation. NREL [1...... of emissions, those were divided among three life cycle phases: fuel provision, operation of the plant and infrastructure. It was possible to estimate typical emission factors for all technologies except for biomass, where methodological and technical aspects result in very variable outcomes. Within...... due to geographical factors and date and type of data used. We therefore suggest not to limit studies to GHG, and, to ensure comparability between studies, to transparently report emission factors for electricity production stating clearly the functional unit of the study, the efficiency for fossil...

  12. Evaluation methodologies for an advanced information processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabowsky, R. S., Jr.; Gai, E.; Walker, B. K.; Lala, J. H.; Motyka, P.

    1984-01-01

    The system concept and requirements for an Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) are briefly described, but the emphasis of this paper is on the evaluation methodologies being developed and utilized in the AIPS program. The evaluation tasks include hardware reliability, maintainability and availability, software reliability, performance, and performability. Hardware RMA and software reliability are addressed with Markov modeling techniques. The performance analysis for AIPS is based on queueing theory. Performability is a measure of merit which combines system reliability and performance measures. The probability laws of the performance measures are obtained from the Markov reliability models. Scalar functions of this law such as the mean and variance provide measures of merit in the AIPS performability evaluations.

  13. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Shropshire

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Systems Analysis supports engineering economic analyses and trade-studies, and requires a requisite reference cost basis to support adequate analysis rigor. In this regard, the AFCI program has created a reference set of economic documentation. The documentation consists of the “Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) Cost Basis” report (Shropshire, et al. 2007), “AFCI Economic Analysis” report, and the “AFCI Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies Report.” Together, these documents provide the reference cost basis, cost modeling basis, and methodologies needed to support AFCI economic analysis. The application of the reference cost data in the cost and econometric systems analysis models will be supported by this report. These methodologies include: the energy/environment/economic evaluation of nuclear technology penetration in the energy market—domestic and internationally—and impacts on AFCI facility deployment, uranium resource modeling to inform the front-end fuel cycle costs, facility first-of-a-kind to nth-of-a-kind learning with application to deployment of AFCI facilities, cost tradeoffs to meet nuclear non-proliferation requirements, and international nuclear facility supply/demand analysis. The economic analysis will be performed using two cost models. VISION.ECON will be used to evaluate and compare costs under dynamic conditions, consistent with the cases and analysis performed by the AFCI Systems Analysis team. Generation IV Excel Calculations of Nuclear Systems (G4-ECONS) will provide static (snapshot-in-time) cost analysis and will provide a check on the dynamic results. In future analysis, additional AFCI measures may be developed to show the value of AFCI in closing the fuel cycle. Comparisons can show AFCI in terms of reduced global proliferation (e.g., reduction in enrichment), greater sustainability through preservation of a natural resource (e.g., reduction in uranium ore depletion), value from

  14. Measuring user experience in digital gaming: theoretical and methodological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatalo, Jari; Häkkinen, Jukka; Kaistinen, Jyrki; Nyman, Göte

    2007-01-01

    There are innumerable concepts, terms and definitions for user experience. Few of them have a solid empirical foundation. In trying to understand user experience in interactive technologies such as computer games and virtual environments, reliable and valid concepts are needed for measuring relevant user reactions and experiences. Here we present our approach to create both theoretically and methodologically sound methods for quantification of the rich user experience in different digital environments. Our approach is based on the idea that the experience received from a content presented with a specific technology is always a result of a complex psychological interpretation process, which components should be understood. The main aim of our approach is to grasp the complex and multivariate nature of the experience and make it measurable. We will present our two basic measurement frameworks, which have been developed and tested in large data set (n=2182). The 15 measurement scales extracted from these models are applied to digital gaming with a head-mounted display and a table-top display. The results show how it is possible to map between experience, technology variables and the background of the user (e.g., gender). This approach can help to optimize, for example, the contents for specific viewing devices or viewing situations.

  15. A New Methodology for Recirculation Pool Debris Transport Evaluation at Sump Clogging Issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important applicable areas of analytic refinement considered in resolving GSI-191 sump clogging issue is the recirculation pool debris transport. Based on CFD analysis result combined with debris transport experiment, some analytic refinement methodologies have been suggested. However, due to complexity involved in debris transport, there still exists a room for improvement. Therefore, in the present study, previous evaluation methodologies are reviewed critically and a new methodology for the recirculation pool debris transport is suggested

  16. Medical databases in studies of drug teratogenicity: methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ehrenstein

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vera Ehrenstein1, Henrik T Sørensen1, Leiv S Bakketeig1,2, Lars Pedersen11Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: More than half of all pregnant women take prescription medications, raising concerns about fetal safety. Medical databases routinely collecting data from large populations are potentially valuable resources for cohort studies addressing teratogenicity of drugs. These include electronic medical records, administrative databases, population health registries, and teratogenicity information services. Medical databases allow estimation of prevalences of birth defects with enhanced precision, but systematic error remains a potentially serious problem. In this review, we first provide a brief description of types of North American and European medical databases suitable for studying teratogenicity of drugs and then discuss manifestation of systematic errors in teratogenicity studies based on such databases. Selection bias stems primarily from the inability to ascertain all reproductive outcomes. Information bias (misclassification may be caused by paucity of recorded clinical details or incomplete documentation of medication use. Confounding, particularly confounding by indication, can rarely be ruled out. Bias that either masks teratogenicity or creates false appearance thereof, may have adverse consequences for the health of the child and the mother. Biases should be quantified and their potential impact on the study results should be assessed. Both theory and software are available for such estimation. Provided that methodological problems are understood and effectively handled, computerized medical databases are a valuable source of data for studies of teratogenicity of drugs.Keywords: databases, birth defects, epidemiologic methods, pharmacoepidemiology

  17. High-level methodologies for grammar engineering, introduction to the special issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Duchier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Grammar Engineering is the task of designing and implementing linguistically motivated electronic descriptions of natural language (so-called grammars. These grammars are expressed within well-defined theoretical frameworks, and offer a fine-grained description of natural language. While grammars were first used to describe syntax, that is to say, the relations between constituents in a sentence, they often go beyond syntax and include semantic information. Grammar engineering provides precise descriptions which can be used for natural language understanding and generation, making these valuable resources for various natural language applications, including textual entailment, dialogue systems, or machine translation. The first attempts at designing large-scale resource grammars were costly because of the complexity of the task (Erbach et al. 1990 and of the number of persons that were needed (see e.g. Doran et al. 1997. Advances in the field have led to the development of environments for semi-automatic grammar engineering, borrowing ideas from compilation (grammar engineering is compared with software development and machine learning. This special issue reports on new trends in the field, where grammar engineering benefits from elaborate high-level methodologies and techniques, dealing with various issues (both theoretical and practical.

  18. Advanced studies on Simulation Methodologies for very Complicated Fracture Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although nowadays, computational techniques are well developed, for Extremely Complicated Fracture Phenomena, they are still very difficult to simulate, for general engineers, researchers. To overcome many difficulties in those simulations, we have developed not only Simulation Methodologies but also theoretical basis and concepts. We sometimes observe extremely complicated fracture patterns, especially in dynamic fracture phenomena such as dynamic crack branching, kinking, curving, etc. For examples, although the humankind, from primitive men to modern scientists such as Albert Einstein had watched the post-mortem patterns of dynamic crack branching, the governing condition for the onset of the phenomena had been unsolved until our experimental study. From in these studies, we found the governing condition of dynamic crack bifurcation, as follows. When the total energy flux per unit time into a propagating crack tip reaches the material crack resistance, the crack braches into two cracks [total energy flux criterion]. The crack branches many times whenever the criterion is satisfied. Furthermore, the complexities also arise due to their time-dependence and/or their-deformation dependence. In order to make it possible to simulate such extremely complicated fracture phenomena, we developed many original advanced computational methods and technologies. These are (i) moving finite element method based on Delaunay automatic triangulation (MFEMBOAT), path independent, (ii) equivalent domain integral expression of the dynamic J integral associated with a continuous auxiliary function, (iii) Mixed phase path-prediction mode simulation, (iv) implicit path prediction criterion. In this paper, these advanced computational methods are thoroughly explained together with successful comparison with the experimental results. Since multiple dynamic crack branching phenomena may be most complicated fracture due to complicated fracture paths, and its time dependence (transient

  19. An Evaluation Methodology Development and Application Process for Severe Accident Safety Issue Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    A general evaluation methodology development and application process (EMDAP) paradigm is described for the resolution of severe accident safety issues. For the broader objective of complete and comprehensive design validation, severe accident safety issues are resolved by demonstrating comprehensive severe-accident-related engineering through applicable testing programs, process studies demonstrating certain deterministic elements, probabilistic risk assessment, and severe accident management...

  20. Advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, M.; Yokoyama, R.; Yasuda, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan); Sasaki, H. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Ogimoto, K. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems developed in Japan, putting focus on flexibility and efficiency in a practical application. First, criteria for evaluating flexibility of generation planning considering uncertainties are introduced. Secondly, the flexible generation mix problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization with more than two objective functions. The multi-objective optimization problem is then transformed into a single objective problem by using the weighting method, to obtain the Pareto optimal solution, and solved by a dynamics programming technique. Thirdly, a new approach for electric generation expansion planning of interconnected systems is presented, based on the Benders Decomposition technique. That is, large scale generation problem constituted by the general economic load dispatch problem, and several sub problems which are composed of smaller scale isolated system generation expansion plans. Finally, the generation expansion plan solved by an artificial neural network is presented. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of this method from the viewpoint of flexibility and applicability to practical generation expansion planning are presented. (author) 29 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Incorporation of advanced accident analysis methodology into safety analysis reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    as structural analysis codes and computational fluid dynamics codes (CFD) are applied. The initial code development took place in the sixties and seventies and resulted in a set of quite conservative codes for the reactor dynamics, thermal-hydraulics and containment analysis. The most important limitations of these codes came from insufficient knowledge of the physical phenomena and of the limited computer memory and speed. Very significant advances have been made in the development of the code systems during the last twenty years in all of the above areas. If the data for the physical models of the code are sufficiently well established and allow quite a realistic analysis, these newer versions are called advanced codes. The assumptions used in the deterministic safety analysis vary from very pessimistic to realistic assumptions. In the accident analysis terminology, it is customary to call the pessimistic assumptions 'conservative' and the realistic assumptions 'best estimate'. The assumptions can refer to the selection of physical models, the introduction of these models into the code, and the initial and boundary conditions including the performance and failures of the equipment and human action. The advanced methodology in the present report means application of advanced codes (or best estimate codes), which sometimes represent a combination of various advanced codes for separate stages of the analysis, and in some cases in combination with experiments. The Safety Analysis Reports are required to be available before and during the operation of the plant in most countries. The contents, scope and stages of the SAR vary among the countries. The guide applied in the USA, i.e. the Regulatory Guide 1.70 is representative for the way in which the SARs are made in many countries. During the design phase, a preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR) is requested in many countries and the final safety analysis report (FSAR) is required for the operating licence. There is

  2. Dryland ecohydrology and climate change: critical issues and technical advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drylands cover about 40% of the terrestrial land surface and account for approximately 40% of global net primary productivity. Water is fundamental to the biophysical processes that sustain ecosystem function and food production, particularly in drylands where a tight coupling exists between ecosystem productivity, surface energy balance, biogeochemical cycles, and water resource availability. Currently, drylands support at least 2 billion people and comprise both natural and managed ecosystems. In this synthesis, we identify some current critical issues in the understanding of dryland systems and discuss how arid and semiarid environments are responding to the changes in climate and land use. The issues range from societal aspects such as rapid population growth, the resulting food and water security, and development issues, to natural aspects such as ecohydrological consequences of bush encroachment and the causes of desertification. To improve current understanding and inform upon the needed research efforts to address these critical issues, we identify some recent technical advances in terms of monitoring dryland water dynamics, water budget and vegetation water use, with a focus on the use of stable isotopes and remote sensing. These technological advances provide new tools that assist in addressing critical issues in dryland ecohydrology under climate change.

  3. Dryland ecohydrology and climate change: critical issues and technical advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; D'Odorico, P.; Evans, J. P.; Eldridge, D. J.; McCabe, M. F.; Caylor, K. K.; King, E. G.

    2012-08-01

    Drylands cover about 40% of the terrestrial land surface and account for approximately 40% of global net primary productivity. Water is fundamental to the biophysical processes that sustain ecosystem function and food production, particularly in drylands where a tight coupling exists between ecosystem productivity, surface energy balance, biogeochemical cycles, and water resource availability. Currently, drylands support at least 2 billion people and comprise both natural and managed ecosystems. In this synthesis, we identify some current critical issues in the understanding of dryland systems and discuss how arid and semiarid environments are responding to the changes in climate and land use. The issues range from societal aspects such as rapid population growth, the resulting food and water security, and development issues, to natural aspects such as ecohydrological consequences of bush encroachment and the causes of desertification. To improve current understanding and inform upon the needed research efforts to address these critical issues, we identify some recent technical advances in terms of monitoring dryland water dynamics, water budget and vegetation water use, with a focus on the use of stable isotopes and remote sensing. These technological advances provide new tools that assist in addressing critical issues in dryland ecohydrology under climate change.

  4. Foreword: Advanced Science Letters (ASL), Special Issue on Computational Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Computational astrophysics has undergone unprecedented development over the last decade, becoming a field of its own. The challenge ahead of us will involve increasingly complex multi-scale simulations. These will bridge the gap between areas of astrophysics such as star and planet formation, or star formation and galaxy formation, that have evolved separately until today. A global knowledge of the physics and modeling techniques of astrophysical simulations is thus an important asset for the next generation of modelers. With the aim at fostering such a global approach, we present the Special Issue on Computational Astrophysics for the Advanced Science Letters (http://www.aspbs.com/science.htm). The Advanced Science Letters (ASL) is a new multi-disciplinary scientific journal which will cover extensively computational astrophysics and cosmology, and will act as a forum for the presentation and discussion of novel work attempting to connect different research areas. This Special Issue collects 9 reviews on 9 k...

  5. Development of Human Performance Analysis and Advanced HRA Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to build a systematic framework that can evaluate the effect of human factors related problems on the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as develop a technology that can be used to enhance human performance. The research goal of this project is twofold: (1) the development of a human performance database and a framework to enhance human performance, and (2) the analysis of human error with constructing technical basis for human reliability analysis. There are three kinds of main results of this study. The first result is the development of a human performance database, called OPERA-I/II (Operator Performance and Reliability Analysis, Part I and Part II). In addition, a standard communication protocol was developed based on OPERA to reduce human error caused from communication error in the phase of event diagnosis. Task complexity (TACOM) measure and the methodology of optimizing diagnosis procedures were also finalized during this research phase. The second main result is the development of a software, K-HRA, which is to support the standard HRA method. Finally, an advanced HRA method named as AGAPE-ET was developed by combining methods MDTA (misdiagnosis tree analysis technique) and K-HRA, which can be used to analyze EOC (errors of commission) and EOO (errors of ommission). These research results, such as OPERA-I/II, TACOM, a standard communication protocol, K-HRA and AGAPE-ET methods will be used to improve the quality of HRA and to enhance human performance in nuclear power plants

  6. Conceptual, methodological and ethical issues in children´s research in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Natália; Tomás, Catarina Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Methodological issues in research with children have sparked a growing interest by the Sociology of Childhood since the last decades. In Portugal, this interest is more recent, but it has had a significant increase. Considering several researches, namely master thesis, supervised by the authors on the framework of Sociology of Childhood, this proposal intends to characterize some methodological complexities in research with children in Portugal, when we consider their voice and agency in the ...

  7. Empirically Supported Interventions and School Psychology: Rationale and Methodological Issues--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Stoiber, Karen Callan

    2000-01-01

    This paper, part two of a two-part article, presents conceptual and practice issues on the use of empirically supported interventions in school and community settings. Discusses the essential practice issues, given the dual goal of advancing research in empirically supported interventions and of producing a knowledge base that has direct meaning…

  8. Methodological advances in predicting flow-induced dynamics of plants using mechanical-engineering theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Langre, Emmanuel

    2012-03-15

    The modeling of fluid-structure interactions, such as flow-induced vibrations, is a well-developed field of mechanical engineering. Many methods exist, and it seems natural to apply them to model the behavior of plants, and potentially other cantilever-like biological structures, under flow. Overcoming this disciplinary divide, and the application of such models to biological systems, will significantly advance our understanding of ecological patterns and processes and improve our predictive capabilities. Nonetheless, several methodological issues must first be addressed, which I describe here using two practical examples that have strong similarities: one from agricultural sciences and the other from nuclear engineering. Very similar issues arise in both: individual and collective behavior, small and large space and time scales, porous modeling, standard and extreme events, trade-off between the surface of exchange and individual or collective risk of damage, variability, hostile environments and, in some aspects, evolution. The conclusion is that, although similar issues do exist, which need to be exploited in some detail, there is a significant gap that requires new developments. It is obvious that living plants grow in and adapt to their environment, which certainly makes plant biomechanics fundamentally distinct from classical mechanical engineering. Moreover, the selection processes in biology and in human engineering are truly different, making the issue of safety different as well. A thorough understanding of these similarities and differences is needed to work efficiently in the application of a mechanistic approach to ecology. PMID:22357585

  9. Behavioral issues in operations management new trends in design, management, and methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral Operations Management  has been identified in the last years as one of the most promising emerging fields in Operations Management. Behavioral Issues in Operations Management  explains and examines up-to-date research in this field, which works to analyze the impact of human behavior on the management of complex operating systems.   A collection of studies from leading scholars presents different methodologies and approaches, supported by real data and case studies. Issues such as building trust and strong cooperative relationships with suppliers, enhancing motivation and designing proper incentives for stimulating more effective decision maker behaviours are considered. The main decision-making processes affected by behavioral issues are also analyzed with a focus on new product development, logistics, and supply chain integration.   The broad coverage of methodologies and practical implications makes Behavioral Issues in Operations Management an ideal reference for both researchers developing...

  10. Empirically Supported Interventions and School Psychology: Rationale and Methodological Issues--Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoiber, Karen Callan; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    2000-01-01

    Presents historical, contextual, and methodological perspectives on the use of empirically supported interventions in school and community settings. Historical advances are reviewed within the context of scientist-practitioner model, psychosocial outcome research, meta-analysis, and the development of criteria and practice guidelines for…

  11. Dryland ecohydrology and climate change: critical issues and technical advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Drylands cover about 40% of the terrestrial land surface and account for approximately 40% of global net primary productivity. Water is fundamental to the biophysical processes that sustain ecosystem function and food production, particularly in drylands, where a tight coupling exists between water resource availability and ecosystem productivity, surface energy balance, and biogeochemical cycles. Currently, drylands support at least 2 billion people and comprise both natural and managed ecosystems. In this synthesis, we identify some current critical issues in the understanding of dryland systems and discuss how arid and semiarid environments are responding to the changes in climate and land use. Specifically, we focus on dryland agriculture and food security, dryland population growth, desertification, shrub encroachment and dryland development issues as factors of change requiring increased understanding and management. We also review recent technical advances in the quantitative assessment of human versus climate change related drivers of desertification, evapotranspiration partitioning using field deployable stable water isotope systems and the remote sensing of key ecohydrological processes. These technological advances provide new tools that assist in addressing major critical issues in dryland ecohydrology under climate change

  12. Approaches and Methodological As Well As Interpretative Issues in Quality of Life Research in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanah, C. I.

    2003-01-01

    Quality of life measures are designed to enable patients’ perspectives on the impact of health and healthcare interventions on their lives to be assessed and taken into account in clinical decision-making and research. This paper discusses some approaches, methodological as well as interpretative issues of health related quality of life research.

  13. A Content and Methodological Review of Articles Concerning Multiracial Issues in Six Major Counseling Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lisa M.; Pedrotti, Jennifer Teramoto

    2008-01-01

    This study describes a comprehensive content and methodological review of articles about multiracial issues in 6 journals related to counseling up to the year 2006. The authors summarize findings about the 18 articles that emerged from this review of the "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "Journal of Counseling & Development," "The Counseling…

  14. Methodological issues in analyzing small populations using CCHS cycles based on the official language minority studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makvandi, Ewa; Bouchard, Louise; Bergeron, Pierre-Jerôme; Sedigh, Golnaz

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analyses for small populations or small domains of interest can be challenging. To obtain reliable estimates, only very large surveys such as the Canadian Community Health Survey can be considered. However, despite its good geographical and temporal coverage, the analysis of small populations in smaller regions (e.g., health regions) and in regards to specific health issues remains challenging. We will look at the methodological issues in analysis of small populations in relation to sampling and non-sampling survey errors that affect the precision and accuracy of the estimates. Francophone minorities in Canada will be used to illustrate the issues throughout the paper. PMID:24300323

  15. Methodological Issues in Evaluating Rorschach Validity: A Comment on Burns and Viglione (1996), Weiner (1996), and Ganellen (1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, James M.; Nezworski, M. Teresa; Stejskal, William J.; Garven, Sena; West, Stephen G.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses three recent studies of the validity of Rorschach test (H. Rorschach, 1921) that have not evaluated methodological issues carefully. Identifies methodological errors in each study and offers specific information for the interpretation of Rorschach results. (SLD)

  16. Advanced quantitative measurement methodology in physics education research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    The ultimate goal of physics education research (PER) is to develop a theoretical framework to understand and improve the learning process. In this journey of discovery, assessment serves as our headlamp and alpenstock. It sometimes detects signals in student mental structures, and sometimes presents the difference between expert understanding and novice understanding. Quantitative assessment is an important area in PER. Developing research-based effective assessment instruments and making meaningful inferences based on these instruments have always been important goals of the PER community. Quantitative studies are often conducted to provide bases for test development and result interpretation. Statistics are frequently used in quantitative studies. The selection of statistical methods and interpretation of the results obtained by these methods shall be connected to the education background. In this connecting process, the issues of educational models are often raised. Many widely used statistical methods do not make assumptions on the mental structure of subjects, nor do they provide explanations tailored to the educational audience. There are also other methods that consider the mental structure and are tailored to provide strong connections between statistics and education. These methods often involve model assumption and parameter estimation, and are complicated mathematically. The dissertation provides a practical view of some advanced quantitative assessment methods. The common feature of these methods is that they all make educational/psychological model assumptions beyond the minimum mathematical model. The purpose of the study is to provide a comparison between these advanced methods and the pure mathematical methods. The comparison is based on the performance of the two types of methods under physics education settings. In particular, the comparison uses both physics content assessments and scientific ability assessments. The dissertation includes three

  17. Improved best estimate plus uncertainty methodology including advanced validation concepts to license evolving nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many evolving nuclear energy programs plan to use advanced predictive multi-scale multi-physics simulation and modeling capabilities to reduce cost and time from design through licensing. Historically, the role of experiments was primary tool for design and understanding of nuclear system behavior while modeling and simulation played the subordinate role of supporting experiments. In the new era of multi-scale multi-physics computational based technology development, the experiments will still be needed but they will be performed at different scales to calibrate and validate models leading predictive simulations. Cost saving goals of programs will require us to minimize the required number of validation experiments. Utilization of more multi-scale multi-physics models introduces complexities in the validation of predictive tools. Traditional methodologies will have to be modified to address these arising issues. This paper lays out the basic aspects of a methodology that can be potentially used to address these new challenges in design and licensing of evolving nuclear technology programs. The main components of the proposed methodology are verification, validation, calibration, and uncertainty quantification. An enhanced calibration concept is introduced and is accomplished through data assimilation. The goal is to enable best-estimate prediction of system behaviors in both normal and safety related environments. To achieve this goal requires the additional steps of estimating the domain of validation and quantification of uncertainties that allow for extension of results to areas of the validation domain that are not directly tested with experiments, which might include extension of the modeling and simulation (M and S) capabilities for application to full-scale systems. The new methodology suggests a formalism to quantify an adequate level of validation (predictive maturity) with respect to required selective data so that required testing can be minimized for

  18. Improved best estimate plus uncertainty methodology including advanced validation concepts to license evolving nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Clure, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Ralph A [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB

    2010-01-01

    Many evolving nuclear energy programs plan to use advanced predictive multi-scale multi-physics simulation and modeling capabilities to reduce cost and time from design through licensing. Historically, the role of experiments was primary tool for design and understanding of nuclear system behavior while modeling and simulation played the subordinate role of supporting experiments. In the new era of multi-scale multi-physics computational based technology development, the experiments will still be needed but they will be performed at different scales to calibrate and validate models leading predictive simulations. Cost saving goals of programs will require us to minimize the required number of validation experiments. Utilization of more multi-scale multi-physics models introduces complexities in the validation of predictive tools. Traditional methodologies will have to be modified to address these arising issues. This paper lays out the basic aspects of a methodology that can be potentially used to address these new challenges in design and licensing of evolving nuclear technology programs. The main components of the proposed methodology are verification, validation, calibration, and uncertainty quantification. An enhanced calibration concept is introduced and is accomplished through data assimilation. The goal is to enable best-estimate prediction of system behaviors in both normal and safety related environments. To achieve this goal requires the additional steps of estimating the domain of validation and quantification of uncertainties that allow for extension of results to areas of the validation domain that are not directly tested with experiments, which might include extension of the modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities for application to full-scale systems. The new methodology suggests a formalism to quantify an adequate level of validation (predictive maturity) with respect to required selective data so that required testing can be minimized for cost

  19. A study on the advanced statistical core thermal design methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistical core thermal design methodology for generating the limit DNBR and the nominal DNBR is proposed and used in assessing the best-estimate thermal margin in a reactor core. Firstly, the Latin Hypercube Sampling Method instead of the conventional Experimental Design Technique is utilized as an input sampling method for a regression analysis to evaluate its sampling efficiency. Secondly and as a main topic, the Modified Latin Hypercube Sampling and the Hypothesis Test Statistics method is proposed as a substitute for the current statistical core thermal design method. This new methodology adopts 'a Modified Latin Hypercube Sampling Method' which uses the mean values of each interval of input variables instead of random values to avoid the extreme cases that arise in the tail areas of some parameters. Next, the independence between the input variables is verified through 'Correlation Coefficient Test' for statistical treatment of their uncertainties. And the distribution type of DNBR response is determined though 'Goodness of Fit Test'. Finally, the limit DNBR with one-sided 95% probability and 95% confidence level, DNBR95/95' is estimated. The advantage of this methodology over the conventional statistical method using Response Surface and Monte Carlo simulation technique lies in its simplicity of the analysis procedure, while maintaining the same level of confidence in the limit DNBR result. This methodology is applied to the two cases of DNBR margin calculation. The first case is the application to the determination of the limit DNBR where the DNBR margin is determined by the difference between the nominal DNBR and the limit DNBR. The second case is the application to the determination of the nominal DNBR where the DNBR margin is determined by the difference between the lower limit value of the nominal DNBR and the CHF correlation limit being used. From this study, it is deduced that the proposed methodology gives a good agreement in the DNBR results with

  20. Progress in Methodologies for the Assessment of Passive Safety System Reliability in Advanced Reactors. Results from the Coordinated Research Project on Development of Advanced Methodologies for the Assessment of Passive Safety Systems Performance in Advanced Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong reliance on inherent and passive design features has become a hallmark of many advanced reactor designs, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all advanced small and medium sized reactor (SMR) designs. Advanced nuclear reactor designs incorporate several passive systems in addition to active ones — not only to enhance the operational safety of the reactors but also to eliminate the possibility of serious accidents. Accordingly, the assessment of the reliability of passive safety systems is a crucial issue to be resolved before their extensive use in future nuclear power plants. Several physical parameters affect the performance of a passive safety system, and their values at the time of operation are unknown a priori. The functions of passive systems are based on basic physical laws and thermodynamic principals, and they may not experience the same kind of failures as active systems. Hence, consistent efforts are required to qualify the reliability of passive systems. To support the development of advanced nuclear reactor designs with passive systems, investigations into their reliability using various methodologies are being conducted in several Member States with advanced reactor development programmes. These efforts include reliability methods for passive systems by the French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission, reliability evaluation of passive safety system by the University of Pisa, Italy, and assessment of passive system reliability by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. These different approaches seem to demonstrate a consensus on some aspects. However, the developers of the approaches have been unable to agree on the definition of reliability in a passive system. Based on these developments and in order to foster collaboration, the IAEA initiated the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Advanced Methodologies for the Assessment of Passive Safety Systems Performance in Advanced Reactors in 2008. The

  1. Advanced chemistry of monolayers at interfaces trends in methodology and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Imae, Toyoko

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Chemistry of Monolayers at Interfaces describes the advanced chemistry of monolayers at interfaces. Focusing on the recent trends of methodology and technology, which are indispensable in monolayer science. They are applied to monolayers of surfactants, amphiphiles, polymers, dendrimers, enzymes, and proteins, which serve many uses.Introduces the methodologies of scanning probe microscopy, surface force instrumentation, surface spectroscopy, surface plasmon optics, reflectometry, and near-field scanning optical microscopy. Modern interface reaction method, lithographic tech

  2. Strategic methodology for advancing food manufacturing waste management paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosentrater, Kurt A.

    2004-12-01

    As manufacturing industries become more cognizant of the ecological effects that their firms have on the surrounding environment, their waste streams are increasingly becoming viewed not as materials in need of disposal, but rather as resources that can be reused, recycled, or reprocessed into valuable products. Within the food processing sector there are many examples of value-added use of processing residues, although many of these focus solely on utilization as livestock feed ingredients. In addition to livestock feed, though, many other potential avenues exist for food processing waste streams, including food grade as well as industrial products. Unfortunately, the challenge to food processors is actually conducting the byproduct development work. In fact, no clear delineation exists that describes necessary components for an effective byproduct development program. This paper describes one such strategic methodology that could help fill this void. It consists of identifying, quantifying, characterizing, developing, analyzing, optimizing, and modeling the waste stream of interest. This approach to byproduct development represents an inclusive strategy that can be used to more effectively implement value-added utilization programs. Not only is this methodology applicable to food processing operations, but any industrial or manufacturing firm could benefit from instituting the formal components described here. Thus, this methodology, if implemented by a manufacturer, could hold the potential for increasing the probability of meeting the goals of industrial ecology, namely, that of developing and operating sustainable systems.

  3. An Evaluation Methodology Development and Application Process for Severe Accident Safety Issue Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A general evaluation methodology development and application process (EMDAP paradigm is described for the resolution of severe accident safety issues. For the broader objective of complete and comprehensive design validation, severe accident safety issues are resolved by demonstrating comprehensive severe-accident-related engineering through applicable testing programs, process studies demonstrating certain deterministic elements, probabilistic risk assessment, and severe accident management guidelines. The basic framework described in this paper extends the top-down, bottom-up strategy described in the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.203 to severe accident evaluations addressing U.S. NRC expectation for plant design certification applications.

  4. Integrating rock mechanics issues with repository design through design process principles and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniawski, Z.T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A good designer needs not only knowledge for designing (technical know-how that is used to generate alternative design solutions) but also must have knowledge about designing (appropriate principles and systematic methodology to follow). Concepts such as {open_quotes}design for manufacture{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}concurrent engineering{close_quotes} are widely used in the industry. In the field of rock engineering, only limited attention has been paid to the design process because design of structures in rock masses presents unique challenges to the designers as a result of the uncertainties inherent in characterization of geologic media. However, a stage has now been reached where we are be able to sufficiently characterize rock masses for engineering purposes and identify the rock mechanics issues involved but are still lacking engineering design principles and methodology to maximize our design performance. This paper discusses the principles and methodology of the engineering design process directed to integrating site characterization activities with design, construction and performance of an underground repository. Using the latest information from the Yucca Mountain Project on geology, rock mechanics and starter tunnel design, the current lack of integration is pointed out and it is shown how rock mechanics issues can be effectively interwoven with repository design through a systematic design process methodology leading to improved repository performance. In essence, the design process is seen as the use of design principles within an integrating design methodology, leading to innovative problem solving. In particular, a new concept of {open_quotes}Design for Constructibility and Performance{close_quotes} is introduced. This is discussed with respect to ten rock mechanics issues identified for repository design and performance.

  5. Integrating rock mechanics issues with repository design through design process principles and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A good designer needs not only knowledge for designing (technical know-how that is used to generate alternative design solutions) but also must have knowledge about designing (appropriate principles and systematic methodology to follow). Concepts such as open-quotes design for manufactureclose quotes or open-quotes concurrent engineeringclose quotes are widely used in the industry. In the field of rock engineering, only limited attention has been paid to the design process because design of structures in rock masses presents unique challenges to the designers as a result of the uncertainties inherent in characterization of geologic media. However, a stage has now been reached where we are be able to sufficiently characterize rock masses for engineering purposes and identify the rock mechanics issues involved but are still lacking engineering design principles and methodology to maximize our design performance. This paper discusses the principles and methodology of the engineering design process directed to integrating site characterization activities with design, construction and performance of an underground repository. Using the latest information from the Yucca Mountain Project on geology, rock mechanics and starter tunnel design, the current lack of integration is pointed out and it is shown how rock mechanics issues can be effectively interwoven with repository design through a systematic design process methodology leading to improved repository performance. In essence, the design process is seen as the use of design principles within an integrating design methodology, leading to innovative problem solving. In particular, a new concept of open-quotes Design for Constructibility and Performanceclose quotes is introduced. This is discussed with respect to ten rock mechanics issues identified for repository design and performance

  6. Reconstructing a website's lost past: Methodological issues concerning the history of www.unibo.it

    OpenAIRE

    Nanni, Federico

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes how born digital primary sources could be used to reconstruct the recent history of scientific institutions. The case study is an analysis of the first 25 years online of the University of Bologna. The focus of this work is primarily methodological: several different issues are presented, starting with the fact that the University of Bologna website has been excluded for thirteen years from the Internet Archive's Wayback Machine, and possible solutions are proposed and ap...

  7. Researching children's experiences online accross countries: issues and problems in methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Lobe, Bojana; Livingstone, Sonia; Haddon, Leslie

    2007-01-01

    This report examines the core issues, lessons and debates that relate to three methodological challenges for research in this field – working with children, researching new online technologies, and conducting cross-national comparisons. It provides a detailed resource for the latest thinking on these challenges, and an extensive bibliography to guide researchers in the field. The conclusions also look ahead to the next task for EU Kids online, namely to produce a practical Best Practice Guide.

  8. Population change and housing across the lifecourse: demographic perspectives, methodological challenges and emerging issues

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Elspeth; Sabater, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this working paper is to promote dialogue between population researchers and housing researchers. We explore the complex inter-relationships between population change and the housing system, highlighting demographic perspectives and methodological issues. We draw on previous work and published data to consider age-related household trends and housing demand, and argue that an understanding of the dynamics of change must consider both period and cohort effects. We discuss the implic...

  9. APPLICATION OF LOT QUALITY ASSURANCE SAMPLING FOR ASSESSING DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAMMES - EXAMINATION OF SOME METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    T. R. RAMESH RAO

    2011-01-01

    Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS), a statistical tool in industrial setup, has been in use since 1980 for monitoring and evaluation of programs on disease control / immunization status among children / health workers performance in health system. While conducting LQAS in the field, there are occasions, even after due care of design, there are practical and methodological issues to be addressed before it is recommended for implementation and intervention. LQAS is applied under the assumpti...

  10. Q-METHODOLOGY: AN OBJECTIVE TECHNIQUE FOR HANDLING SUBJECTIVE ISSUES IN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    VIJAY KUMAR GROVER

    2013-01-01

    With the trend of innovative methods and giving due importance to subjective issues in educational research people started for looking the constructs of subjective termslike education, quality education, teacher effectiveness, teacher behaviour and the like. It is now being thought that dealing such problems with quantitative or qualitative research methods does not produce the acceptable results. Q-methodology is a combination of the two, thus can be termed as triangulation method. It combin...

  11. Methodological Issues In Forestry Mitigation Projects: A Case Study Of Kolar District

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Murthy, I.K.; P Sudha; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Sahana, C.A.; Srivathsa, K.G.; Khan, H

    2008-01-01

    There is a need to assess climate change mitigation opportunities in forest sector in India in the context of methodological issues such as additionality, permanence, leakage, measurement and baseline development in formulating forestry mitigation projects. A case study of forestry mitigation project in semi-arid community grazing lands and farmlands in Kolar district of Karnataka, was undertaken with regard to baseline and project scenariodevelopment, estimation of carbon stock change i...

  12. Evaluation of speech errors in Putonghua speakers with cleft palate: a critical review of methodology issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chenghui; Whitehill, Tara L

    2014-04-01

    Speech errors associated with cleft palate are well established for English and several other Indo-European languages. Few articles describing the speech of Putonghua (standard Mandarin Chinese) speakers with cleft palate have been published in English language journals. Although methodological guidelines have been published for the perceptual speech evaluation of individuals with cleft palate, there has been no critical review of methodological issues in studies of Putonghua speakers with cleft palate. A literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies published over the past 30 years in Chinese language journals. Only studies incorporating perceptual analysis of speech were included. Thirty-seven articles which met inclusion criteria were analyzed and coded on a number of methodological variables. Reliability was established by having all variables recoded for all studies. This critical review identified many methodological issues. These design flaws make it difficult to draw reliable conclusions about characteristic speech errors in this group of speakers. Specific recommendations are made to improve the reliability and validity of future studies, as well to facilitate cross-center comparisons. PMID:24093158

  13. Electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles advanced simulation methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Bogdan Ovidiu; Moldovanu, Dan; Iclodean, Calin

    2015-01-01

    This book is designed as an interdisciplinary platform for specialists working in electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles powertrain design and development, and for scientists who want to get access to information related to electric and hybrid vehicle energy management, efficiency and control. The book presents the methodology of simulation that allows the specialist to evaluate electric and hybrid vehicle powertrain energy flow, efficiency, range and consumption. The mathematics behind each electric and hybrid vehicle component is explained and for each specific vehicle the powertrain

  14. Halden Reactor Project Workshop: Understanding Advanced Instrumentation and Controls Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Halden Reactor Project Workshop on 'Understanding Advanced Instrumentation and Controls Issues' was held in Halden, Norway, during June 17-18, 1991. The objectives of the workshop were to (1) identify and prioritize the types of technical information that the Halden Project can produce to facilitate the development of man-machine interface guidelines and (2) to identify methods to effectively integrate and disseminate this information to signatory organizations. As a member of the Halden Reactor Project, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requested the workshop. This request resulted from the NRC's need for human factors guidelines for the evaluation of advanced instrumentation and controls. The Halden Reactor Project is a cooperative agreement among several countries belonging to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The US began its association with the Halden Project in 1958 through the Atomic Energy Commission. The project's activities are centered at the Halden heavy-water reactor and its associated man-machine laboratory in Halden, Norway. The research program conducted at Halden consists of studies on fuel performance and computer-based man-machine interfaces

  15. Overview of human factors issues associated with advanced passive reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant operators in current plants do just that, they operate the plant. They monitor the state of the process, observe trends, react to system changes and take action to maintain the plant in a safe condition. In order to accomplish these activities, they (1) rely on information available to them from the various instruments and displays in the control room, (2) use hard copy procedures to direct their actions and (3) perform their control actions through the various switches, keyboards and knobs available. Proposals from vendors and observations of activities in other countries indicate that the control room for advanced passive reactors is likely to be quite different from control rooms one would seen in current power plants. These differences will go beyond the immediate appearances, e.g., smaller, more cockpit-like, to issues of automation, function-allocation, the changing role of the operators and their training and qualifications, and software verification and validation. This research paper discusses some of these planned efforts and how they relate to the human factors issues and regulatory user needs

  16. The work of the ICRP dose calculational task group: Issues in implementation of the ICRP dosimetric methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has had efforts underway to provide the radiation protection community with age-dependent dose coefficients, i.e.g, the dose per unit intake. The Task Group on Dose Calculations, chaired by the author, is responsible for the computation of these coefficients. The Task Group, formed in 1974 to produce ICRP Publication 30, is now international in its membership and its work load has been distributed among the institutions represented on the task group. This paper discusses: (1) recent advances in biokinetic modeling; (2) the recent changes in the dosimetric methodology; (3) the novel computational problems with some of the ICRP quantities; and (4) quality assurance issues which the Task Group has encountered. Potential future developments of the dosimetric framework which might strengthen the relationships with the emerging understanding of radiation risk will also be discussed.

  17. Problems and Issues in Using Computer- Based Support Tools to Enhance 'Soft' Systems Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Stansfield

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the issue of whether computer-based support tools can enhance the use of 'soft' systems methodologies as applied to real-world problem situations. Although work has been carried out by a number of researchers in applying computer-based technology to concepts and methodologies relating to 'soft' systems thinking such as Soft Systems Methodology (SSM, such attempts appear to be still in their infancy and have not been applied widely to real-world problem situations. This paper will highlight some of the problems that may be encountered in attempting to develop computer-based support tools for 'soft' systems methodologies. Particular attention will be paid to an attempt by the author to develop a computer-based support tool for a particular 'soft' systems method of inquiry known as the Appreciative Inquiry Method that is based upon Vickers' notion of 'appreciation' (Vickers, 196S and Checkland's SSM (Checkland, 1981. The final part of the paper will explore some of the lessons learnt from developing and applying the computer-based support tool to a real world problem situation, as well as considering the feasibility of developing computer-based support tools for 'soft' systems methodologies. This paper will put forward the point that a mixture of manual and computer-based tools should be employed to allow a methodology to be used in an unconstrained manner, but the benefits provided by computer-based technology should be utilised in supporting and enhancing the more mundane and structured tasks.

  18. Fuzzy portfolio optimization advances in hybrid multi-criteria methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Pankaj; Inuiguchi, Masahiro; Chandra, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    This monograph presents a comprehensive study of portfolio optimization, an important area of quantitative finance. Considering that the information available in financial markets is incomplete and that the markets are affected by vagueness and ambiguity, the monograph deals with fuzzy portfolio optimization models. At first, the book makes the reader familiar with basic concepts, including the classical mean–variance portfolio analysis. Then, it introduces advanced optimization techniques and applies them for the development of various multi-criteria portfolio optimization models in an uncertain environment. The models are developed considering both the financial and non-financial criteria of investment decision making, and the inputs from the investment experts. The utility of these models in practice is then demonstrated using numerical illustrations based on real-world data, which were collected from one of the premier stock exchanges in India. The book addresses both academics and professionals pursuin...

  19. Advances in Artificial Neural Networks – Methodological Development and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo Huang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks as a major soft-computing technology have been extensively studied and applied during the last three decades. Research on backpropagation training algorithms for multilayer perceptron networks has spurred development of other neural network training algorithms for other networks such as radial basis function, recurrent network, feedback network, and unsupervised Kohonen self-organizing network. These networks, especially the multilayer perceptron network with a backpropagation training algorithm, have gained recognition in research and applications in various scientific and engineering areas. In order to accelerate the training process and overcome data over-fitting, research has been conducted to improve the backpropagation algorithm. Further, artificial neural networks have been integrated with other advanced methods such as fuzzy logic and wavelet analysis, to enhance the ability of data interpretation and modeling and to avoid subjectivity in the operation of the training algorithm. In recent years, support vector machines have emerged as a set of high-performance supervised generalized linear classifiers in parallel with artificial neural networks. A review on development history of artificial neural networks is presented and the standard architectures and algorithms of artificial neural networks are described. Furthermore, advanced artificial neural networks will be introduced with support vector machines, and limitations of ANNs will be identified. The future of artificial neural network development in tandem with support vector machines will be discussed in conjunction with further applications to food science and engineering, soil and water relationship for crop management, and decision support for precision agriculture. Along with the network structures and training algorithms, the applications of artificial neural networks will be reviewed as well, especially in the fields of agricultural and biological

  20. Development of Human Performance Analysis and Advanced HRA Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to build a systematic framework that can evaluate the effect of human factors related problems on the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as develop a technology that can be used to enhance human performance. The research goal of this project is twofold: the development of a domestic human performance database, and the analysis of human error with constructing technical basis for human reliability analysis. There are three kinds of main results of this study. The first result is the development of a domestic human performance database, called OPERA-I (Operator Performance and Reliability Analysis, Part I). In addition, based on OPERA-I, task complexity (TACOM) measure and the methodology of optimizing diagnosis procedures were developed. The second main result is the standardization of HRA method. Finally, Misdiagnosis Tree Analysis (MDTA) technique that can analyze EOC has been developed. These results, such as OPERA-I, TACOM, standardized HRA method and MDTA technique, will be used to improve the quality of domestic PSA

  1. Natural product-based nanomedicine: recent advances and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watkins R

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rebekah Watkins,1,2,* Ling Wu,1,* Chenming Zhang,3–5 Richey M Davis,3,5,6 Bin Xu1,3 1Department of Biochemistry, 2Program in Nanoscience, 3Center for Drug Discovery, 4Department of Biological Systems Engineering, 5Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science, 6Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Natural products have been used in medicine for many years. Many top-selling pharmaceuticals are natural compounds or their derivatives. These plant- or microorganism-derived compounds have shown potential as therapeutic agents against cancer, microbial infection, inflammation, and other disease conditions. However, their success in clinical trials has been less impressive, partly due to the compounds’ low bioavailability. The incorporation of nanoparticles into a delivery system for natural products would be a major advance in the efforts to increase their therapeutic effects. Recently, advances have been made showing that nanoparticles can significantly increase the bioavailability of natural products both in vitro and in vivo. Nanotechnology has demonstrated its capability to manipulate particles in order to target specific areas of the body and control the release of drugs. Although there are many benefits to applying nanotechnology for better delivery of natural products, it is not without issues. Drug targeting remains a challenge and potential nanoparticle toxicity needs to be further investigated, especially if these systems are to be used to treat chronic human diseases. This review aims to summarize recent progress in several key areas relevant to natural products in nanoparticle delivery systems for biomedical applications. Keywords: natural products, nanomedicine, drug delivery, bioavailability, targeting, controlled release

  2. Methodological proposal for the jotted issue of the first epoch of the Hero magazine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maité García Díaz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the neocolonial republic emerges in Sancti Spiritus a very significative magazine of artistic, literary and scientific sketch: Hero, founded by Jacinto Gomer Fernández-Morera and Anastacio Fernández-Morera del Castillo, it first appeared on December 20th 1907. This issue constitutes a vivid reflect of the commercial, literary, cultural, scientific and historic panorama and above all, of the life of the middle and high class in Sancti Spiritus at the beginning of the XX century. The need to divulge the advantage the texts of Hero constitute for the high school and university students, also to humanistic profile graduates and others, such as investigators, evidenced the need to carry out an investigation that pursued such purposes. That’s why the methodological proposal for the jotted issue of the first epoch of the Hero magazine (1907-1908 takes place, composed by 38 publications, departing from the fundamental theorizations about the jotted issue of the presentation of the methodological proposal on behalf of updating these publication texts for its potential readers.

  3. Recent advances in the methodology, optimisation and application of MEEKC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Richie; Donegan, Sheila; Power, Joe; McEvoy, Eamon; Altria, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    MEEKC is an electrodriven separation technique. Oil-in-water microemulsions (MEs) and to a lesser extent water-in-oil MEs have been used in MEEKC as BGEs to achieve separation of a diverse range of solutes. The more common (oil-in-water) MEs are composed of nanometre-sized droplets of oil suspended in an aqueous buffer. Interfacial tension between the oil and aqueous phase is reduced close to zero by the presence of a surfactant and a co-surfactant. MEEKC is capable of providing fast and efficient separations for a wide range of acidic, basic and neutral, water-soluble and -insoluble compounds. This review details the advances in MEEKC-based separations from the period 2006 to 2008. Areas covered include online sample concentration, chiral separation, suppressed electroosmosis MEEKC, MEEKC-MS, and the use of MEEKC in predicting migration behaviour and solute characteristics. A fundamental introduction to MEEKC, along with the presentation and discussion of recent applications is also included. PMID:19107700

  4. Plasma control issues for an advanced steady state tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with specific control issues related to the advanced tokamak scenarios in which rather accurate tailoring of the current density profile is a requirement in connection with the steady state operation of a reactor in a high confinement optimized shear mode. It is found that adequate current profile control can be performed if real-time magnetic flux reconstruction is available through a set of dedicated diagnostics and computers, with sufficient accuracy to deduce the radial profile of the safety factor and of the internal plasma loop voltage. It is also shown that the safety factor can be precisely controlled in the outer half of the plasma through the surface loop voltage and the off-axis current drive power, but that a compromise must be made between the accuracy of the core safety factor control and the total duration of the current and fuel density ramp-up phases, so that the demonstration of the steady state reactor potential of the optimized/reversed shear concept in the Next Step device will demand pulse lengths of the order of one thousand seconds (or more for an ITER-size machine). (author)

  5. The mechanics of seismic faulting: recent advances and open issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early years '60 the fracture mechanics was mainly focused on tensile cracks (of prominent importance in engineering problems) and later on shear, antiplane cracks. Since these studies consisted in singular problems without friction, their applicability to earthquake events was extremely limited. After the seminal papers by Kostrov in the late years '60 and the relevant contributions of Aki, Burridge, Andrews, Das, Ida, Madariaga and others in years '70, more elaborated, realistic and physically constrained fault models have been proposed and further intensively used and improved. Complemented by the evidence from laboratory experiments on fracture (first pioneered by Ohnaka and later by Rosakis) and friction (pioneered by Dieterich, Ruina and more recently by Shimamoto), numerical and theoretical models provide substantial improvements in the understanding of the chemical and physical, potentially competing, energy-dissipating processes occurring in the natural fault structures. In spite of these significant advances, some open issues still hover and many important ideas remain unexplored fully. Relevant challenges to relate the physics of the seismic source to the coseismic scenarios and ultimately to the seismic hazard assessment could be successfully handled in the framework of a multidisciplinary approach, which combines theory, numerical models, data analysis, geological observations and laboratory experiments.

  6. Methodological issues in the study of risk perception and human behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad perspective on the use of the methods and techniques of the behavioral and social sciences as they pertain to the work of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, particularly in issues of risk perception. Four major topics or themes are discussed: (1) a brief overview of the classic theories of risk perception; (2) current contractor work in the area of risk perception and cognitive psychology; (3) other uses of the social and behavioral sciences in the Agency; and (4) methodological considerations in using the techniques

  7. Researching experiences of terminal cancer: a systematic review of methodological issues and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, F M; Kendall, M; Bentley, A; Maguire, R; Worth, A; Murray, S; Boyd, K; Brown, D; Kearney, N; Sheikh, A

    2008-07-01

    The objectives of this review were to assess the methods and approaches applied to end-of-life cancer research based on papers focusing on approaches or methodological issues related to seeking the views of people affected by terminal cancer. A comprehensive search of 10 databases (January 1980-February 2004) was undertaken. References were screened, quality assessed and data extracted by two reviewers. Analysis followed a meta-narrative approach. Fifteen papers were included. They discussed 'traditional' approaches, such as focus groups, interviews, surveys, as well as innovative approaches allied to the arts. They reveal that mixed methods are gaining popularity. The emotional demands placed on researchers and the ethical issues involved in this research area were also discussed. We concluded that researchers should embrace innovative approaches from other areas of social science, such as the use of arts-based techniques. This may facilitate recruitment of the hard-to-reach groups and engage with experiences that may be otherwise difficult to verbalize. Although researching the needs of the dying carries challenges, these are not the exclusive domain of the cancer field. This study reveals that diverse methods, from research-based drama to postal questionnaires, can enhance end-of-life research. However, this review reveals the need for more methodological work to be undertaken and disseminated. PMID:18485015

  8. Capital structure in LNG infrastructures and gas pipelines projects: Empirical evidences and methodological issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides new empirical insights on the capital structure of project-financed LNG infrastructures and gas pipeline projects, by using data relating to projects whose financial close occurred between June 2004 and March 2011. Most results are consistent with the basic view of risk-averse funds suppliers. Especially, the projects located in risky countries and larger projects tend to exhibit lower debt ratios and less-concentrated equity ownerships. In addition, regasification projects appear to have a more diluted equity ownership. Methodological issues raised by the financing of these projects are also examined from a capital-budgeting perspective. In particular, the equity residual method, usually used by industrial practitioners to value these projects, should be adjusted. - Highlights: • This paper provides new empirical insights on the capital structure of project-financed LNG and gas pipeline infrastructures. • Most of our results are consistent with the basic view of risk-averse funds suppliers. • Projects located in risky countries exhibit lower debt ratios and less-concentrated equity ownerships. • Larger projects and regasification projects also have less concentrated equity ownerships. • From a capital-budgeting viewpoint, we examine methodological issues raised by the financing of these projects

  9. Advanced Issues of Wind Turbine Modelling and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simani, Silvio

    2015-11-01

    The motivation for this paper comes from a real need to have an overview about the challenges of modelling and control for very demanding systems, such as wind turbine systems, which require reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety over power conversion efficiency. These issues have begun to stimulate research and development in the wide control community particularly for these installations that need a high degree of “sustainability”. Note that this topic represents a key point mainly for offshore wind turbines with very large rotors, since they are characterised by challenging modelling and control problems, as well as expensive and safety critical maintenance works. In this case, a clear conflict exists between ensuring a high degree of availability and reducing maintenance times, which affect the final energy cost. On the other hand, wind turbines have highly nonlinear dynamics, with a stochastic and uncontrollable driving force as input in the form of wind speed, thus representing an interesting challenge also from the modelling point of view. Suitable control methods can provide a sustainable optimisation of the energy conversion efficiency over wider than normally expected working conditions. Moreover, a proper mathematical description of the wind turbine system should be able to capture the complete behaviour of the process under monitoring, thus providing an important impact on the control design itself. In this way, the control scheme could guarantee prescribed performance, whilst also giving a degree of “tolerance” to possible deviation of characteristic properties or system parameters from standard conditions, if properly included in the wind turbine model itself. The most important developments in advanced controllers for wind turbines are addressed, and open problems in the areas of modelling of wind turbines are also outlined.

  10. Prescribed burning in Italy: issues, advances and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascoli D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Prescribed burning has been carried out since the late 1970s in several southern European countries. Italy hosted some pioneer experiences in the early ’80s, but these did not follow up into practical implementation, and few studies and applications were carried out in subsequent years. In the last decade, a new interest arose and several experiences were carried out. We aim to illustrate the limitations, advances and challenges of prescribed burning in Italy by reviewing the national literature of the last 40 years on this subject. Unfavorable land characteristics, conflicting management goals, a hostile socio-cultural environment, and an inadequate regulatory framework have supposedly limited the application of prescribed burning in Italy. Nevertheless, in the last 20 years the legislation at the regional level has been updated to consider the use of fire, and new procedures to authorize prescribed fires allowed for experiments and application, even within National Parks. From 2005 to 2012, prescribed burning programs for fire hazard reduction, forest and range management, biodiversity conservation and firefighter training were implemented throughout Italy. Several vegetation and fuel types were involved (e.g., broadleaved and coniferous forests, Mediterranean and continental shrubland, grassland, slash. Studies on fire behavior and effects helped to set prescriptions for specific objectives and environments. Results were transferred to professionals through training sessions. Some of the challenges ahead are improving the legislative framework, e.g., by introducing a certification for the use of fire, and addressing issues of pastoral fire through conflict resolution programs. Prescribed burning in Italy could be developed by committing to carry out ecological studies on its implications to silviculture, range management and habitat conservation.

  11. Design methodology for fault-tolerant control of advanced driver assistance systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, O.J.; Ploeg, J.; Schutter, B. de; Verhaegen, M.H.G.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a methodology for the design, testing, evaluation and implementation of control systems for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Examples of ADAS are collision avoidance systems, lane departure warning systems, pre-crash sensing, and adaptive cruise

  12. Methodological Advances in DEA: A survey and an application for the Dutch electricity sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Cherchye (Laurens); G.T. Post (Thierry)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe survey the methodological advances in DEA over the last 25 years and discuss the necessary conditions for a sound empirical application. We hope this survey will contribute to the further dissemination of DEA, the knowledge of its relative strengths and weaknesses, and the tools curre

  13. Combining nutrition and exercise to optimize survival and recovery from critical illness: Conceptual and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyland, Daren K; Stapleton, Renee D; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hough, Catherine L; Morris, Peter; Deutz, Nicolaas E; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Day, Andrew; Prado, Carla M; Needham, Dale M

    2016-10-01

    Survivors of critical illness commonly experience neuromuscular abnormalities, including muscle weakness known as ICU-acquired weakness (ICU-AW). ICU-AW is associated with delayed weaning from mechanical ventilation, extended ICU and hospital stays, more healthcare-related hospital costs, a higher risk of death, and impaired physical functioning and quality of life in the months after ICU admission. These observations speak to the importance of developing new strategies to aid in the physical recovery of acute respiratory failure patients. We posit that to maintain optimal muscle mass, strength and physical function, the combination of nutrition and exercise may have the greatest impact on physical recovery of survivors of critical illness. Randomized trials testing this and related hypotheses are needed. We discussed key methodological issues and proposed a common evaluation framework to stimulate work in this area and standardize our approach to outcome assessments across future studies. PMID:26212171

  14. Cost benefits of advanced software: A review of methodology used at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, Prafulla N.

    1993-01-01

    To assist rational investments in advanced software, a formal, explicit, and multi-perspective cost-benefit analysis methodology is proposed. The methodology can be implemented through a six-stage process which is described and explained. The current practice of cost-benefit analysis at KSC is reviewed in the light of this methodology. The review finds that there is a vicious circle operating. Unsound methods lead to unreliable cost-benefit estimates. Unreliable estimates convince management that cost-benefit studies should not be taken seriously. Then, given external demands for cost-benefit estimates, management encourages software enginees to somehow come up with the numbers for their projects. Lacking the expertise needed to do a proper study, courageous software engineers with vested interests use ad hoc and unsound methods to generate some estimates. In turn, these estimates are unreliable, and the cycle continues. The proposed methodology should help KSC to break out of this cycle.

  15. Methodological Issues Associated with Studying the Flynn Effect: Exploratory and Confirmatory Efforts in the Past, Present, and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Lee Rodgers

    2015-01-01

    This essay, written by the guest editor, is an introduction to a special issue of the Journal of Intelligence devoted to methodological issues associated with the Flynn Effect. The essay evaluates past Flynn Effect research in terms of exploratory versus confirmatory efforts. Future research is also cast within this same framework. Finally, the four special issue papers are briefly reviewed, including comments on their own exploratory/confirmatory status.

  16. EDITORIAL: Special Issue on advanced and emerging light sources Special Issue on advanced and emerging light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverlag, Marco; Kroesen, Gerrit; Ferguson, Ian

    2011-06-01

    -based light sources. However, the progress in the last few years in LED and OLED sources has been even greater. In the editorial for the LS-11 conference by previous guest editor David Wharmby, it was stated that most LED lighting was still mostly used for signalling and decorative sources. In the three years that have passed, things have changed considerably and we now see LED light sources entering every application, ranging from street lighting and parking lots to shop lighting and even greenhouses. Currently LED prices for traditional lighting applications are high, but they are dropping rapidly. The papers published in this special issue give some indications of things to come. The paper by Jamil et al deals with the possibility of using silicon wafers as substrate material instead of the now commonly used (but more expensive) sapphire substrates. This is attractive from a cost price point of view, but leads to an increased lattice mismatch and therefore strain-induced defects. In this paper it is shown that when using intermediate matching layers it is possible to retain the same electrical and optical properties as with structures on sapphire. Another aspect that directly relates to cost is efficiency and droop in green InGaN devices, which is addressed in the paper by Lee et al. They show that by providing a flow of trymethylindium prior to the growth of the quantum wells it is possible to significantly increase the internal quantum efficiency of green LEDs. Improvement of the optical out-coupling of InGaN LEDs is discussed by Mak et al, and it is found that localized plasmon resonance of metallic nanoparticles (and especially silver) can help to increase the optical out-coupling in the wavelength region of interest. Nanoparticles in the form of ZnO nanorods are described by Willander et al as a possibility for phosphor-free wavelength conversion on polymer (O)LEDs. More advanced functions besides light emission can be achieved with OLEDs and this is demonstrated in

  17. Advanced CFD simulation for the assessment of nuclear safety issues at EDF. Some examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF R and D has computer power that puts it amongst the top industrial research centers in the world. Its supercomputers and in-house codes as well as its experts represent important capabilities to support EDF activities (safety analyses, support to the design of new reactors, analysis of accidental situations non reproducible by experiments, better understanding of physics or complex system response, effects of uncertainties and identification of prominent parameters, qualification and optimization of processes and materials...). Advanced numerical simulation is a powerful tool allowing EDF to increase its competitiveness, improve its performance and the safety of its plants. On this issue, EDF made the choice to develop its own in-house codes, instead of using commercial software, in order to be able to capitalize its expertise and methodologies. This choice allowed as well easier technological transfer to the concerned business units or engineering divisions, fast adaptation of our simulation tools to emerging needs and the development of specific physics or functionalities not addressed by the commercial offer. During the last ten years, EDF has decided to open its in-house codes, through the Open Source way. This is the case for Code–Aster (structure analysis), Code–Saturne (computational fluid dynamics, CFD), TELEMAC (flow calculations in aquatic environment), SALOME (generic platform for Pre and Post-Processing) and SYRTHES (heat transfer in complex geometries), among others. The 3 open source software: Code–Aster, Code–Saturne and TELEMAC, are certified by the French Nuclear Regulatory Authority for many «Important to Safety» studies. Advanced simulation, which treats complex, multi-field and multi-physics problems, is of great importance for the assessment of nuclear safety issues. This paper will present 2 examples of advanced simulation using Code–Saturne for safety issues of nuclear power plants in the fields of R and D and engineering: 1

  18. Current issues in the targeted therapy of advanced colorectal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijn, N.; Tol, J.; Punt, C.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Currently used cytotoxic drugs in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer (ACC) are primarily the fluoropyrimidines, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin. The introduction of targeted therapy has increased the therapeutic arsenal. Two classes of monoclonal antibodies have been approved for clinical use i

  19. Advancing Sexuality Studies: A Short Course on Sexuality Theory and Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Gillian; Dowsett, Gary W.; Duncan, Duane; Slavin, Sean; Corboz, Julienne

    2013-01-01

    Critical Sexuality Studies is an emerging field of academic enquiry linked to an international network of advocacy agencies, activists, and political issues. This paper reports on the development of an advanced short course in sexuality theory and research, drawing on Critical Sexuality Studies and aiming directly at academics in developing…

  20. Application of the API/NPRA SVA methodology to transportation security issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David A

    2006-03-17

    Security vulnerability analysis (SVA) is becoming more prevalent as the issue of chemical process security is of greater concern. The American Petroleum Institute (API) and the National Petrochemical and Refiner's Association (NPRA) have developed a guideline for conducting SVAs of petroleum and petrochemical facilities in May 2003. In 2004, the same organizations enhanced the guidelines by adding the ability to evaluate transportation security risks (pipeline, truck, and rail). The importance of including transportation and value chain security in addition to fixed facility security in a SVA is that these issues may be critically important to understanding the total risk of the operation. Most of the SVAs done using the API/NPRA SVA and other SVA methods were centered on the fixed facility and the operations within the plant fence. Transportation interfaces alone are normally studied as a part of the facility SVA, and the entire transportation route impacts and value chain disruption are not commonly considered. Particularly from a national, regional, or local infrastructure analysis standpoint, understanding the interdependencies is critical to the risk assessment. Transportation risks may include weaponization of the asset by direct attack en route, sabotage, or a Trojan Horse style attack into a facility. The risks differ in the level of access control and the degree of public exposures, as well as the dynamic nature of the assets. The public exposures along the transportation route need to be carefully considered. Risks may be mitigated by one of many strategies including internment, staging, prioritization, conscription, or prohibition, as well as by administrative security measures and technology for monitoring and isolating the assets. This paper illustrates how these risks can be analyzed by the API/NPRA SVA methodology. Examples are given of a pipeline operation, and other examples are found in the guidelines. PMID:16171946

  1. Review of Media Sync Reference Models: Advances and Open Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Jack; Montagud Climent, Mario; Cesar Garcia, Pablo Santiago; Boronat, Fernando; Stokking, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The advances on multimedia systems have brought new challenges and requirements for media sync. Over the years, many media sync solutions have been devised. Due to this variety, several studies have surveyed the existing solutions and proposed classification schemes or reference models for media sync. This paper claims the relevance of media sync reference models to systematically structure and synthesize this research area. Accordingly, a review of the existing reference models is provided, ...

  2. Prescribed burning in Italy: issues, advances and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ascoli D; Bovio G

    2013-01-01

    Prescribed burning has been carried out since the late 1970s in several southern European countries. Italy hosted some pioneer experiences in the early ’80s, but these did not follow up into practical implementation, and few studies and applications were carried out in subsequent years. In the last decade, a new interest arose and several experiences were carried out. We aim to illustrate the limitations, advances and challenges of prescribed burning in Italy by reviewing the national literat...

  3. Methodological issues in ethnic and racial identity research with ethnic minority populations: theoretical precision, measurement issues, and research designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J; Syed, Moin; Yip, Tiffany; Knight, George P; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Lee, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    This article takes stock of research methods employed in the study of racial and ethnic identity with ethnic minority populations. The article is presented in three parts. The first section reviews theories, conceptualizations, and measurement of ethnic and racial identity (ERI) development. The second section reviews theories, conceptualizations, and measurement of ERI content. The final section reviews key methodological and analytic principles that are important to consider for both ERI development and content. The article concludes with suggestions for future research addressing key methodological limitations when studying ERI. PMID:24490892

  4. Special issue on advances on physical agents 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Regueiro, Carlos; Iglesias Rodríguez, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The Workshop on Physical Agents intends to be a forum for information and experience exchange in different areas regarding the concept of embodied agents, especially applied to the control and coordination of autonomous systems: robots, mobile robots, domotics, agents, industrial applications or complex systems. This special issue brings together a selection of revised and extended papers that were first presented at the XIII Workshop on Physical Agents (WAF’2012), which was held the 3rd and ...

  5. Cobenefits of Replacing Car Trips with Alternative Transportation: A Review of Evidence and Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that motor vehicle emissions contribute nearly a quarter of world energy-related greenhouse gases and cause nonnegligible air pollution primarily in urban areas. Reducing car use and increasing ecofriendly alternative transport, such as public and active transport, are efficient approaches to mitigate harmful environmental impacts caused by a large amount of vehicle use. Besides the environmental benefits of promoting alternative transport, it can also induce other health and economic benefits. At present, a number of studies have been conducted to evaluate cobenefits from greenhouse gas mitigation policies. However, relatively few have focused specifically on the transport sector. A comprehensive understanding of the multiple benefits of alternative transport could assist with policy making in the areas of transport, health, and environment. However, there is no straightforward method which could estimate cobenefits effect at one time. In this paper, the links between vehicle emissions and air quality, as well as the health and economic benefits from alternative transport use, are considered, and methodological issues relating to the modelling of these cobenefits are discussed.

  6. Psychiatric morbidity following motor vehicle accidents: a review of methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczynski, A; Gordon, K; Silove, D; Sloane, D; Hillman, K; Panasetis, P

    1998-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs), even those of a nonserious nature, appear to increase the risk of severe psychiatric morbidity in survivors. The present review examines the evidence indicating the levels of psychiatric morbidity in MVA survivors. Although no consistent profile has emerged, the most commonly reported symptoms are depression, anxiety, irritability, driving phobia, anger, sleep disturbances, and headache, with rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) across studies of 0% to 100%. Variability in the type and severity of psychiatric outcomes may be due, in part, to methodological inadequacies in many studies, particularly the use of biased population samples, inclusion of subjects exposed to varied types of accidents, an absence of a clear definition of PTSD, a reliance on clinical judgment rather than the use of objective psychometric measures, the failure to include ratings of injury severity, and the absence of assessments for past exposure to traumatic events or preexisting posttraumatic reactions. The most important concern relates to the use of nonrepresentative samples, usually patients referred for medicolegal assessment in whom issues of compensation are of central importance. Gender and age differences distinguish the compensation group from the general population of MVA survivors, who therefore may also differ in the vulnerability to posttraumatic morbidity. It is argued that more systematic research on unselected subject samples is critical to establish epidemiological data on the true nature and extent of psychiatric morbidity following MVAs. PMID:9606576

  7. Methodological and conceptual issues regarding occupational psychosocial coronary heart disease epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Hermann; Formazin, Maren; Pohrt, Anne

    2016-05-01

    Overview Psychosocial occupational epidemiology has mainly focused on the demand-control and, to a much lesser extent, the effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) models. These models and the strong focus on them raise some conceptual and methodological issues we will address in the following letter. The conceptual issues include the empirical confirmation of the assumptions of these models, the extent to which the focus on the demand-control and ERI models is warranted, and whether the sub-dimensions of the scales in these models have common health effects. We argue that there is a lack of empirical approval of (i) the assumptions behind both models and (ii) the focus on these models. The methodological issues include how exposure to job strain is categorized, how ERI previously has been measured, and the validity of self-reports of job strain. We argue that (i) a population independent definition of job strain is lacking, (ii) the older measurements of ERI mix exposure and effect, and (iii) we know little regarding the validity of the measurement of the psychosocial working environment. Finally, we suggest that analyses of monitoring data with a broader focus on the psychosocial working environment can be used to shed light to some of the issues raised above. Introduction In the last three decades (1, 2), psychosocial occupational epidemiology related to coronary heart disease (CHD) has mainly focused on the job-strain model, also referred to as the demand-control model (3, 4). In this model, two aspects of work are deemed relevant: demands and control. Negative consequences to health are to be expected when high demands are simultaneously present with low control. This combination has been termed job strain (3, 4). Recently, there has also been increased interest in the ERI model (5, 6) which considers the level of effort relative to rewards at work: an imbalance is present when the efforts outweigh the rewards (5, 6). In longitudinal studies of CHD, there has been only a

  8. Improved best estimate plus uncertainty methodology including advanced validation concepts to license evolving nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many evolving nuclear energy technologies use advanced predictive multi-scale, multi-physics modeling and simulation (MS) capabilities to reduce the cost and schedule of design and licensing. A new methodology is needed for the validation of these predictive tools. The main components of the proposed methodology are verification, validation, calibration, and uncertainty quantification-steps similar to the components of the traditional US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing approach, with the exception of the calibration step. An enhanced calibration concept is introduced here, and is accomplished through data assimilation. The goal of this methodology is to enable best-estimate prediction of system behaviors in both normal and safety-related environments. This goal requires the additional steps of estimating the domain of validation, and quantification of uncertainties, allowing for the extension of results to areas of the validation domain that are not directly tested with experiments. These might include the extension of the MS capabilities for application to full-scale systems. The new methodology suggests a formalism to quantify an adequate level of validation (predictive maturity) with respect to existing for data, so that required new testing can be minimized, saving cost by demonstrating that further testing will not enhance the quality of the predictive tools. The proposed methodology is at a conceptual level. The document is an extended abstract

  9. Advances in neural networks computational and theoretical issues

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, Anna; Morabito, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    This book collects research works that exploit neural networks and machine learning techniques from a multidisciplinary perspective. Subjects covered include theoretical, methodological and computational topics which are grouped together into chapters devoted to the discussion of novelties and innovations related to the field of Artificial Neural Networks as well as the use of neural networks for applications, pattern recognition, signal processing, and special topics such as the detection and recognition of multimodal emotional expressions and daily cognitive functions, and  bio-inspired memristor-based networks.  Providing insights into the latest research interest from a pool of international experts coming from different research fields, the volume becomes valuable to all those with any interest in a holistic approach to implement believable, autonomous, adaptive, and context-aware Information Communication Technologies.

  10. Improved best estimate plus uncertainty methodology, including advanced validation concepts, to license evolving nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → The best estimate plus uncertainty methodology (BEPU) is one option in the licensing of nuclear reactors. → The challenges for extending the BEPU method for fuel qualification for an advanced reactor fuel are primarily driven by schedule, the need for data, and the sufficiency of the data. → In this paper we develop an extended BEPU methodology that can potentially be used to address these new challenges in the design and licensing of advanced nuclear reactors. → The main components of the proposed methodology are verification, validation, calibration, and uncertainty quantification. → The methodology includes a formalism to quantify an adequate level of validation (predictive maturity) with respect to existing data, so that required new testing can be minimized, saving cost by demonstrating that further testing will not enhance the quality of the predictive tools. - Abstract: Many evolving nuclear energy technologies use advanced predictive multiscale, multiphysics modeling and simulation (M and S) capabilities to reduce the cost and schedule of design and licensing. Historically, the role of experiments has been as a primary tool for the design and understanding of nuclear system behavior, while M and S played the subordinate role of supporting experiments. In the new era of multiscale, multiphysics computational-based technology development, this role has been reversed. The experiments will still be needed, but they will be performed at different scales to calibrate and validate the models leading to predictive simulations for design and licensing. Minimizing the required number of validation experiments produces cost and time savings. The use of multiscale, multiphysics models introduces challenges in validating these predictive tools - traditional methodologies will have to be modified to address these challenges. This paper gives the basic aspects of a methodology that can potentially be used to address these new challenges in

  11. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, E

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined.

  12. Review of advanced control rooms: Methodological considerations for the use of HFE guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control rooms for advanced nuclear power plants use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role in the system and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews HSIs to ensure that they are designed to accepted human factors engineering (HFE) principles. The principal review guidance, however, is more than ten-years old (US NRC, 1981). Accordingly, an Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) was developed to provide criteria for these reviews. The DRG contains seven major sections: Information Display, User-System Interaction, Process Control and Input Devices, Alarms, Analysis and Decision Aids, Inter-Personnel Communication, and Workplace Design (see O'Hara ampersand Brown, 1993). The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodology for DRG use

  13. Sensors advancements in modeling, design issues, fabrication and practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhash Chandra

    2008-01-01

    Sensors are the most important component in any system and engineers in any field need to understand the fundamentals of how these components work, how to select them properly and how to integrate them into an overall system. This book has outlined the fundamentals, analytical concepts, modelling and design issues, technical details and practical applications of different types of sensors, electromagnetic, capacitive, ultrasonic, vision, Terahertz, displacement, fibre-optic and so on. The book: addresses the identification, modeling, selection, operation and integration of a wide variety of se

  14. The Issues and Methodologies in Sustainability Assessment Tools for Higher Education Institutions: A Review of Recent Trends and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarime, Masaru; Tanaka, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    Assessment tools influence incentives to higher education institutions by encouraging them to move towards sustainability. A review of 16 sustainability assessment tools was conducted to examine the recent trends in the issues and methodologies addressed in assessment tools quantitatively and qualitatively. The characteristics of the current…

  15. Development of risk-informed regulatory positions on CANDU safety issues, part I: Methodology development for risk estimation and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk informed decision making is used by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission as a management tool to support decisions related to licensing, compliance and planning/resource allocation. The decision-making process provides information on the risks related to a certain decision, produces recommendations for controlling the risk, and provides for implementation of the risk-control measures and for monitoring the impact on risk following a decision. This paper describes the methodology developed for the estimation and evaluation of the risks used as an input into the risk-informed decision making process. The methodology allows for consideration of all risks in a consistent manner; it recognizes the differences between the risks in the absence of the safety issue and the risks when the safety issue is present. The methodology refers to safety related risks, although similar considerations can be made for other types of risks. (author)

  16. Fundamental issues, recent advances, and future directions in myodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatze, H

    2002-12-01

    A state-of-the-art report is presented on recent progress in selected areas of myodynamics, but also on problems that severely hamper the further development of the discipline. Significant advances have been made in elucidating the force-producing interaction between actin and the myosin-S1-subunit, including the localization of the most probable molecular site of power stroke initiation. Concerning the architecture of the myostructures, strong experimental evidence has accumulated for numerous intra-, inter-, and extramuscular pathways for lateral force transmission in addition to the serial sarcomere-to-sarcomere myotendinous path. It is shown that contemporary muscle models are inadequate in most respects and lag far behind the requirements an appropriate myodynamic model should fulfil. A similar comment applies to the current approaches designed to solve the myoskeletal indeterminacy problem. These formulations neglect myodynamic properties and do not allow for the implementation of biologically realistic objective functions. The solutions currently obtained are highly unsatisfactory. New research directions to rectify these situations are suggested, also with regard to the identification of subject-specific myodynamic parameters. PMID:12435541

  17. Quantum dots in nanomedicine: recent trends, advances and unresolved issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Yuri

    2015-12-18

    The review addresses the current state of progress in the use of ultra-small nanoparticles from the category of quantum dots (QDs), which presently embraces a widening range of nanomaterials of different nature, including "classical" semiconductor groups III-V and II-VI nanocrystals, along with more recently emerged carbon, silicon, gold and other types of nanoparticles falling into this class of nanomaterials due to their similar physical characteristics such as small size and associated quantum confinement effects. A diverse range of QDs applications in nanomedicine has been extensively summarised previously in numerous publications. Therefore, this review is not intended to provide an all-embracing survey of the well documented QDs uses, but is rather focused on the most recent emerging developments, concepts and outstanding unresolved problematic and sometimes controversial issues. Over 125 publications are overviewed and discussed here in the context of major nanomedicine domains, i.e. medical imaging, diagnostics, therapeutic applications and combination of them in multifunctional theranostic systems. PMID:26168726

  18. Recent advances in quasi-poloidal stellarator physics issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quasi-poloidal stellarator (QPS) hybrid has been developed using a stellarator optimization approach that has proven to be compatible with low aspect ratio. This design includes a number of physics features that are of importance in the development of advanced toroidal devices. These include neoclassical transport levels significantly reduced relative to anomalous, low neoclassical poloidal flow damping rates, reduced bootstrap current levels (relative to the tokamak) that are compatible with steady-state operation, and ballooning second stable regimes. Recent QPS physics research has focused on the calculation of self-consistent plasma flows and the development of physics flexibility scenarios utilizing variable coil and plasma currents. A moments-based analysis has verified that the quasi-symmetry in QPS is sufficient so as to lead to significantly reduced poloidal plasma viscosity. The resulting flux surface averaged plasma flows are dominantly in the poloidal direction with radial shearing. As a result of the low aspect ratio, there is also significant shearing in direction and magnitude of these flows within a flux surface. These features may be useful in suppressing ballooning modes as well as shorter scale length turbulence. Substantial flexibility in the variation of QPS physics properties has been demonstrated through the control of modular, vertical, and toroidal magnet coil currents. Both the low collisonality transport and poloidal viscosity can be varied by large factors by appropriate coil current programming. This system can also be used to suppress magnetic islands both through directly targeting residues of the dominant island chains or by tailoring the rotational transform profile to remain between adjacent resonances. Such methods are applicable both to vacuum and finite plasma pressure states. (author)

  19. Advanced Light Water Reactor Program: Program management and staff review methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, D.H.

    1986-12-01

    This report summarizes the NRC/EPRI coordinated effort to develop design requirements for a standardized advanced light water reactor (ALWR) and the procedures for screening and applying new generic safety issues to this program. The end-product will be an NRC-approved ALWR Requirements Document for use by the nuclear industry in generating designs of LWRs to be constructed for operation in the 1990s and beyond.

  20. Investigating High-tech and Knowledge-Intensive Ventures: Methodological Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Neergaard, Helle; Christensen, Patrizia V.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the methodology applied in a longitudinal project on entrepreneurship, the SNE project.......The paper presents and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the methodology applied in a longitudinal project on entrepreneurship, the SNE project....

  1. Current psychometric and methodological issues in the measurement of overgeneral autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James W; Sumner, Jennifer A; Raes, Filip; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Debeer, Elise; Hermans, Dirk

    2012-12-01

    Autobiographical memory is a multifaceted construct that is related to psychopathology and other difficulties in functioning. Across many studies, a variety of methods have been used to study autobiographical memory. The relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) and psychopathology has been of particular interest, and many studies of this cognitive phenomenon rely on the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) to assess it. In this paper, we examine several methodological approaches to studying autobiographical memory, and focus primarily on methodological and psychometric considerations in OGM research. We pay particular attention to what is known about the reliability, validity, and methodological variations of the AMT. The AMT has adequate psychometric properties, but there is great variability in methodology across studies that use it. Methodological recommendations and suggestions for future studies are presented. PMID:23200427

  2. Methodological issues concerning the application of reliable laser particle sizing in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mascellis, R.; Impagliazzo, A.; Basile, A.; Minieri, L.; Orefice, N.; Terribile, F.

    2009-04-01

    During the past decade, the evolution of technologies has enabled laser diffraction (LD) to become a much widespread means of particle size distribution (PSD), replacing sedimentation and sieve analysis in many scientific fields mainly due to its advantages of versatility, fast measurement and high reproducibility. Despite such developments of the last decade, the soil scientist community has been quite reluctant to replace the good old sedimentation techniques (ST); possibly because of (i) the large complexity of the soil matrix inducing different types of artefacts (aggregates, deflocculating dynamics, etc.), (ii) the difficulties in relating LD results with results obtained through sedimentation techniques and (iii) the limited size range of most LD equipments. More recently LD granulometry is slowly gaining appreciation in soil science also because of some innovations including an enlarged size dynamic range (0,01-2000 m) and the ability to implement more powerful algorithms (e.g. Mie theory). Furthermore, LD PSD can be successfully used in the application of physically based pedo-transfer functions (i.e., Arya and Paris model) for investigations of soil hydraulic properties, due to the direct determination of PSD in terms of volume percentage rather than in terms of mass percentage, thus eliminating the need to adopt the rough approximation of a single value for soil particle density in the prediction process. Most of the recent LD work performed in soil science deals with the comparison with sedimentation techniques and show the general overestimation of the silt fraction following a general underestimation of the clay fraction; these well known results must be related with the different physical principles behind the two techniques. Despite these efforts, it is indeed surprising that little if any work is devoted to more basic methodological issues related to the high sensitivity of LD to the quantity and the quality of the soil samples. Our work aims to

  3. What they really think: Resolving methodological issues in supply chain ethics research

    OpenAIRE

    K. Chipp; Goldman, M.; N. Kleyn

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to further the theory and strengthen methodological approaches to the role of ethics in buyer-seller relationships. The paper explores opportunities to enhance response rates, validity and reliability in the research context of organisations seeking to understand the ethical beliefs their suppliers hold of their buying organisations. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research universe is a select business group, all of which are technologically literate and o...

  4. Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE Nuclear Facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830). Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, ''Safety Basis Requirements,'' requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements. 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, ''Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830

  5. Piloting an advanced methodology to analyse health care policy networks: The example of Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Wenzel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Political decisions usually emerge from the competing interests of politicians, voters, and special interest groups. We investigated the applicability of an advanced methodological concept to determine whether certain institutional positions in a cooperating network have influence on the decision-making procedures. To that end, we made use of the institutional network of relevant health care and health governance institutions, concentrated in Belgrade, Serbia. Methods: We used a Principal Component Analysis (PCA based on a combination of measures for centrality in order to evaluate the positions of 25 players in Belgrade‟s institutional network. Their directed links were determined by a simulated position approach employing the authors‟ long-term involvement. Software packages used consisted of Visone 2.9, UCINET 6, and KeyPlayer 1.44. Results: In our analysis, the network density score in Belgrade was 71%. The PCA revealed two dimensions: control and attractiveness. The Ministry of Health exerted the highest level of control but displayed a low attractiveness in terms of receiving links from important players. The National Health Insurance Fund had less control capacity but a high attractiveness. The National Institute of Public Health‟s position was characterized by a low control capacity and high attractiveness, whereas the National Drug Agency, the National Health Council, and Non-Governmental Organisations were no prominent players. Conclusions: The advanced methodologies used here to analyse the health care policy network in Belgrade provided consistent results indicating that the intended decentralization of the health care network in Belgrade may be incomplete, still with low participation of civil society representatives. With the present study we set the stage for a broad-range survey based data collection applying the methodology piloted in Belgrade.

  6. Reliability assessment of Passive Containment Cooling System of an Advanced Reactor using APSRA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The paper deals with the reliability assessment of Passive Containment Cooling System of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor. • Assessment of Passive System ReliAbility (APSRA) methodology is used for reliability assessment. • Performance assessment of the PCCS is initially performed during a postulated design basis LOCA. • The parameters affecting the system performance are then identified and considered for further analysis. • The failure probabilities of the various components are assessed through a classical PSA treatment using generic data. - Abstract: Passive Systems are increasingly playing a prominent role in the advanced nuclear reactor systems and are being utilised in normal operations as well as safety systems of the reactors following an accident. The Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) is one of the several passive safety features in an Advanced Reactor (AHWR). In this paper, the APSRA methodology has been employed for reliability evaluation of the PCCS of AHWR. Performance assessment of the PCCS is initially performed during a postulated design basis LOCA using the best-estimate code RELAP5/Mod 3.2. The parameters affecting the system performance are then identified and considered for further analysis. Based on some pre-determined failure criterion, the failure surface for the system is predicted using the best-estimate code taking into account the deviations of the identified parameters from their nominal states as well as the model uncertainties inherent to the best estimate code. Root diagnosis is then carried out to determine the various failure causes, which occurs mainly due to malfunctioning of mechanical components. The failure probabilities of the various components are assessed through a classical PSA treatment using generic data. The reliability of the PCCS is then evaluated from the probability of availability of these components

  7. An Advanced Survey on Cloud Computing and State-of-the-art Research Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohiuddin Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing is considered as one of the emerging arenas of computer science in recent times. It is providing excellent facilities to business entrepreneurs by flexible infrastructure. Although, cloud computing is facilitating the Information Technology industry, the research and development in this arena is yet to be satisfactory. Our contribution in this paper is an advanced survey focusing on cloud computing concept and most advanced research issues. This paper provides a better understanding of the cloud computing and identifies important research issues in this burgeoning area of computer science.

  8. Empirical Psycho-Aesthetics and Her Sisters: Substantive and Methodological Issues--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecni, Vladimir J.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical psycho-aesthetics is approached in this two-part article from two directions. Part I, which appeared in the Winter 2012 issue of "JAE," addressed definitional and organizational issues, including the field's origins, its relation to "sister" disciplines (experimental philosophy, cognitive neuroscience of art, and neuroaesthetics), and…

  9. Project-Based Learning and Agile Methodologies in Electronic Courses: Effect of Student Population and Open Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zapater

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Project-Based Learning (PBL and Agile methodologies have proven to be very interesting instructional strategies in Electronics and Engineering education, because they provide practical learning skills that help students understand the basis of electronics. In this paper we analyze two courses, one belonging to a Master in Electronic Engineering and one to a Bachelor in Telecommunication Engineering that apply Agile-PBL methodologies, and compare the results obtained in both courses with a traditional laboratory course. Our results support previous work stating that Agile-PBL methodologies increase student satisfaction. However, we also highlight some open issues that negatively affect the implementation of these methodologies,such as planning overhead or accidental complexity. Moreover,we show how differences in the student population, mostly related to the time spent on-campus, their commitment to the course or part-time dedication, have an impact on the benefits of Agile-PBL methods. In these cases, Agile-PBL methodologies by themselves are not enough and need to be combined with other techniques to increase student motivation.

  10. Methodological Issues and Practical Strategies in Research on Child Maltreatment Victims' Abilities and Experiences as Witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Gail S.; Bederian-Gardner, Daniel; Lindsay, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Scientific studies of child maltreatment victims' memory abilities and court experiences have important legal, psychological, and clinical implications. However, state-of-the-art research on child witnesses is often hindered by methodological challenges. In this paper, we address specific problems investigators may encounter when attempting such…

  11. Methodological issues in analyzing human communication – the complexities of multimodality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høegh, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This chapter develops a multimodal method for transcribing speech, communication, and performance. The chapter discusses the methodological solutions to the complex translation of speech, language rhythm and gesture in time and space into the two-dimensional format of a piece of paper. The focus...

  12. The Continued Salience of Methodological Issues for Measuring Psychiatric Disorders in International Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausig, Mark; Subedi, Janardan; Broughton, Christopher; Pokimica, Jelena; Huang, Yinmei; Santangelo, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which methodological concerns explicitly addressed by the designers of the World Mental Health Surveys persist in the results that were obtained using the WMH-CIDI instrument. We compared rates of endorsement of mental illness symptoms in the United States (very high) and Nepal (very low) as they were affected by…

  13. Conceptual issues of research methodology for the behavioural, life and social sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellenbergh, G.J.; Adèr, H.J.; Baird, D.; Berger, M.P.F.; Cornell, J.E.; Hagenaars, J.A.P.; Molenaar, P.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Research methodology (RM) must be clearly separated from substantive fields, such as medicine, psychology, education, sociology and economics, and, on the other side, from the philosophy of science and statistics. RM starts from substantive research problems and uses statistical knowledge, but it go

  14. Advanced Educational Methodology on Nuclear Control for Establishment of International Training Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the Notice of Ministry of Education, Science and Technology(MEST), KINAC has carried out compulsory education for domestic inspectors, nuclear operators and R and D project managers on nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, as a part of Korea President's declaration at 1st International Nuclear Security Summit Conference, KINAC has to establish an International Training Center(ITC) to increase mutual cooperation among Member States as well as to strengthen their capabilities for effectively coping with current nuclear threats. Along with this, this paper suggests an advanced educational methodology to develop international training course on nuclear control as well as to contribute to effectively ensure human resource in developing countries

  15. Work Domain Analysis Methodology for Development of Operational Concepts for Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report describes a methodology to conduct a Work Domain Analysis in preparation for the development of operational concepts for new plants. This method has been adapted from the classical method described in the literature in order to better deal with the uncertainty and incomplete information typical of first-of-a-kind designs. The report outlines the strategy for undertaking a Work Domain Analysis of a new nuclear power plant and the methods to be used in the development of the various phases of the analysis. Basic principles are described to the extent necessary to explain why and how the classical method was adapted to make it suitable as a tool for the preparation of operational concepts for a new nuclear power plant. Practical examples are provided of the systematic application of the method and the various presentation formats in the operational analysis of advanced reactors.

  16. MossWinn—methodological advances in the field of Mössbauer data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methodology of Mössbauer data analysis has been advanced via the development of a novel scientific database system concept and its realization in the field of Mössbauer spectroscopy, as well as by the application of parallel computing techniques for the enhancement of the efficiency of various processes encountered in the practice of Mössbauer data handling and analysis. The present article describes the new database system concept along with details of its realization in the form of the MossWinn Internet Database (MIDB), and illustrates the performance advantage that may be realized on multi-core processor systems by the application of parallel algorithms for the implementation of database system functions.

  17. AN APPROACH TO DESIGN ADVANCED STANDARD ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM USING HARDWARE / SOFTWARE CO-DESIGN METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEGHANA A. HASAMNIS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An Advanced Standard Encryption Algorithm (AES is widely used in modern consumer electronicproducts for security. The IEEE 802.15.4 Low-Rate wireless sensor networks also use AES algorithm wherelow power consumption is the priority. To reduce the time taken for encryption of huge data, the algorithm hasto be implemented in hardware. To meet the requirement for low area the algorithm has to be implemented insoftware. Hence, a balance has to be achieved between hardware and software implementations in terms of areaand speed, so as to improve the overall performance of the system. Also with the co-design methodology totalthermal power dissipation is reduced. In this paper, 128 bit AES algorithm is implemented with hardware incombination with software using Altera NIOS II Processor platform. Altera’s Quartus II environment is used fordesign of the system. Cyclone II FPGA is used as a development platform. Software program is written in C language. NIOS II ntegrated Development Environment (IDE is used to integrate hardware and software together. By adopting hardware / software co-design methodology for implementation of AES, results show that a onsiderable improvement in speed can be achieved as compared to software only approach. Further, the significant reduction in area is achieved as compared to hardware only approach. By the approach of co-design an optimized design in terms of speed and area is achieved and also the thermal power dissipation is reduced

  18. Advancing STEM Learning across the Educational Pipeline: Statewide Efforts in Ohio. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Youth Policy Forum, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This issue brief is focused on state efforts to improve education in science, technology, engineering, and math--collectively known as the "STEM" disciplines. The brief is largely based on a March, 2009 American Youth Policy Forum (AYPF) field trip to Columbus and Dayton, Ohio, and describes Ohio's success in advancing STEM education across the…

  19. Recent Advances in Durability and Damage Tolerance Methodology at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, J. B.; Glaessgen, E. H.; Raju, I. S.; Harris, C. E.

    2007-01-01

    Durability and damage tolerance (D&DT) issues are critical to the development of lighter, safer and more efficient aerospace vehicles. Durability is largely an economic life-cycle design consideration whereas damage tolerance directly addresses the structural airworthiness (safety) of the vehicle. Both D&DT methodologies must address the deleterious effects of changes in material properties and the initiation and growth of damage that may occur during the vehicle s service lifetime. The result of unanticipated D&DT response is often manifested in the form of catastrophic and potentially fatal accidents. As such, durability and damage tolerance requirements must be rigorously addressed for commercial transport aircraft and NASA spacecraft systems. This paper presents an overview of the recent and planned future research in durability and damage tolerance analytical and experimental methods for both metallic and composite aerospace structures at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC).

  20. Comparing What to What? Intersecting Methodological Issues in Comparative Area Studies and Transitional Justice Research

    OpenAIRE

    Anika Oettler

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses how current methodological debates on the potentials of Comparative Area Studies intersect with current trends in transitional justice research. As the field of transitional justice studies is approximating a status of maturation, academic enterprises tend to focus on empirical as well as theoretical generalization. The challenge of comparative transitional justice research consists less in weighing national impacts of policies than in taking into account a more historiciz...

  1. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA : METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Debasish; Mattoo, Surendra K.

    1999-01-01

    Substance abuse is an important medico-social problem. Comprehensive management of substance use disorders is of necessity linked to the study of epidemiology. In India we have a reasonable epidemiological data on substance abuse. However, this data base suffers from a number of methodological lacunae. The present paper discusses these lacunae and makes appropriate recommendations for future generation of epidemiological data on substance abuse in India.

  2. Statistical issues in the assessment of health outcomes in children : methodological review.

    OpenAIRE

    Lancaster, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    The lack of outcome measures that are validated for use on children limits the effectiveness and generalizability of paediatric health care interventions. Statistical epidemiology is a broad concept encompassing a wide range of useful techniques for use in child health outcome assessment and development. However, the range of techniques that are available is often confusing and prohibits their adoption. In the paper an overview of methodology is provided within the paediatric context. It is d...

  3. Methodological Issues Associated with Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Understanding Poverty Dynamics: Evidence from Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    David Lawson

    2007-01-01

    The paper draws from ongoing research that aims to genuinely combine qualitative and quantitative (`Q-Squared`) research methodologies to further our understanding of poverty dynamics in Uganda. Using existing nationally representative panel data we use the same sampling frame and extend the panel by visiting the same households - collecting both life histories and further quantitative data, with the intention being, for this first paper in a series of outputs, to consider some of the methodo...

  4. Methodological Issues Associated with Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Understanding Poverty Dynamics: Evidence from Uganda.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, David; Hulme, David; Muwonge, James

    2007-01-01

    The paper draws from ongoing research that aims to genuinely combine qualitative and quantitative ('Q-Squared') research methodologies to further our understanding of poverty dynamics in Uganda. Using existing nationally representative panel data we use the same sampling frame and extend the panel by visiting the same households - collecting both life histories and further quantitative data, with the intention being, for this first paper in a series of outputs, to consider some...

  5. Issues and advances in research methods on video games and cognitive abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Sobczyk, Bart; Dobrowolski, Paweł; Skorko, Maciek; Michalak, Jakub; Brzezicka, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs) over non-players (NVGPs) and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of re...

  6. Issues and Advances in Research Methods on Video Games and Cognitive Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bart eSobczyk; Paweł eDobrowolski; Maciej eSkorko; Jakub eMichalak; Aneta eBrzezicka

    2015-01-01

    The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs) over non-players (NVGPs) and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of re...

  7. Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Research on Relationships between Children and Nonparental Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianta, Robert C.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses general conclusions for which evidence is provided by the research presented in this issue. Conclusions relate to (1) child-teacher relationships and attachments; (2) concordances between children's relationships with their teachers and parents; (3) children's internal representations of their relationships; (4) factors underlying…

  8. Methodological Issues in Developing a Multi-Dimensional Coding Procedure for Small-Group Chat Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijbos, Jan-Willem; Stahl, Gerry

    2007-01-01

    In CSCL research, collaboration through chat has primarily been studied in dyadic settings. This article discusses three issues that emerged during the development of a multi-dimensional coding procedure for small-group chat communication: (a) the unit of analysis and unit fragmentation, (b) the reconstruction of the response structure and (c)…

  9. Methodological issues in the study of intestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverniti, Valentina; Guglielmetti, Simone

    2014-07-21

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an intestinal functional disorder with the highest prevalence in the industrialized world. The intestinal microbiota (IM) plays a role in the pathogenesis of IBS and is not merely a consequence of this disorder. Previous research efforts have not revealed unequivocal microbiological signatures of IBS, and the experimental results are contradictory. The experimental methodologies adopted to investigate the complex intestinal ecosystem drastically impact the quality and significance of the results. Therefore, to consider the methodological aspects of the research on IM in IBS, we reviewed 29 relevant original research articles identified through a PubMed search using three combinations of keywords: "irritable bowel syndrome + microflora", "irritable bowel syndrome + microbiota" and "irritable bowel syndrome + microbiome". For each study, we reviewed the quality and significance of the scientific evidence obtained with respect to the experimental method adopted. The data obtained from each study were compared with all considered publications to identify potential inconsistencies and explain contradictory results. The analytical revision of the studies referenced in the present review has contributed to the identification of microbial groups whose relative abundance significantly alters IBS, suggesting that these microbial groups could be IM signatures for this syndrome. The identification of microbial biomarkers in the IM can be advantageous for the development of new diagnostic tools and novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of different subtypes of IBS. PMID:25083056

  10. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L J; Hammel, C J

    1997-04-01

    Electrochemical capacitors are a candidate for traction power assists in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Other advanced automotive applications, while not the primary focus of current development efforts, are also possible. These include load leveling high-energy batteries, power conditioning electronics, electrically hated catalysts, electric power steering, and engine starter power. Higher power and longer cycle life are expected for electrochemical capacitors than for batteries. Evaluation of environmental, health, and safety (EH and S) issues of electrochemical capacitors is an essential part of the development and commercialization of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicles. This report provides an initial EH and S assessment. This report presents electrochemical capacitor electrochemistry, materials selection, intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of those hazards, environmental requirements, pollution control options, and shipping requirements. Most of the information available for this assessment pertains to commercial devices intended for application outside the advanced vehicle market and to experiment or prototype devices. Electrochemical capacitors for power assists in HEVs are not produced commercially now. Therefore, materials for advanced vehicle electrochemical capacitors may change, and so would the corresponding EH and S issues. Although changes are possible, this report describes issues for likely electrochemical capacitor designs.

  11. Implementing a 1GHz Four-Issue Out-of-Order Execution Microprocessor in a Standard Cell ASIC Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Wu Hu; Ji-Ye Zhao; Shi-Qiang Zhong; Xu Yang; Elio Guidetti; Chris Wu

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the microarchitecture and physical implementation of the Godson-2E processor, which is a four-issue superscalar RISC processor that supports the 64-bit MIPS instruction set.The adoption of the aggressive out-of-order execution and memory hierarchy techniques help Godson-2E to achieve high performance.The Godson-2E processor has been physically designed in a 7-metal 90nm CMOS process using the cell-based methodology with some bit-sliced manual placement and a number of crafted cells and macros.The processor can be run at 1GHz and achieves a SPEC CPU2000 rate higher than 500.

  12. Methodological and Practical Issues of Scientific Research on the Retail Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasescu, M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the role and importance of marketing research in a dynamic and complex sector such as retail. The paper approaches the theoretical issues related to the methods and instruments of marketing research appropriate for the retail market. The theory about qualitative and quantitative research methods is supported by relevant examples which lead to a better understanding of the marketing research process and of its effectiveness on retail activities.

  13. Digital Literacies and Civic Literacies: Theoretical Issues, Research Questions and Methodological Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    MASCHERONI Giovanna; Murru, Maria Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Whether seen from a “minimalist” or a “maximalist” model of democratic participation, the issue of the role of the internet in facilitating citizens’ participation in the public sphere has acquired a permanent place in the academic and public debate. Particular attention has been devoted to young people and their engagement with the internet and digital media. While a consistent body of writing has focused on assessing the efficacy of online participation in mobilising young...

  14. Methodological Issues Related to the Rapport and Data Collection while Qualitative Researches in Special Andragogy Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Borowska-Beszta, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research on the disability cultures and environments that support or perform lifelong education of adults with disabilities in Poland are carried out intensively since the late 90s of the twentieth century. This paper clarifies the dilemmas and delicate issues while the rapport process of qualitative research and associated with collection of the data on socially vulnerable groups, disability cultures and adults with intellectual mental, physical disabilities or psychiatr...

  15. Methodological and Practical Issues of Scientific Research on the Retail Market

    OpenAIRE

    Balasescu, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the role and importance of marketing research in a dynamic and complex sector such as retail. The paper approaches the theoretical issues related to the methods and instruments of marketing research appropriate for the retail market. The theory about qualitative and quantitative research methods is supported by relevant examples which lead to a better understanding of the marketing research process and of its effectiveness on retail activities.

  16. Fighting Lone Mothers' Poverty through in-Work Benefits - Methodological Issues and Policy Suggestions

    OpenAIRE

    Pronzato, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Lone mothers are overrepresented among the poor in many European countries, with detrimental consequences for them and their children. Even in Norway, which is known for its successful economic and welfare development, lone mothers were at least three times more likely to be poor than married mothers. To redress this issue, the Norwegian government instituted welfare reform in 1998, increasing lone-parent benefit levels and introducing working requirements. Using a quasi-experimental model, M...

  17. Advances in Methodology in Geriatric Mental Health: Application to Studies of Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Martha L

    2016-07-01

    Looking back to 1993, the articles published in the American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry's inaugural issue focused on central questions in geriatric psychiatry-from how age-related changes in brain structure and function affect illness etiology, expression, course, and outcomes(1) to how best to identify and address the unmet mental health needs in different populations of older adult.(2) Today's journal reflects both an enduring commitment to these questions and the growth of the field itself, both in terms of scientific advancement and the breadth of research that is relevant. Thus, questions with pressing clinical and public health significance continue to be addressed but with increasing sophistication in specificity to the questions and the availability of tools to investigate them. PMID:27160986

  18. Delivering spacecraft control centers with embedded knowledge-based systems: The methodology issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayache, S.; Haziza, M.; Cayrac, D.

    1994-01-01

    Matra Marconi Space (MMS) occupies a leading place in Europe in the domain of satellite and space data processing systems. The maturity of the knowledge-based systems (KBS) technology, the theoretical and practical experience acquired in the development of prototype, pre-operational and operational applications, make it possible today to consider the wide operational deployment of KBS's in space applications. In this perspective, MMS has to prepare the introduction of the new methods and support tools that will form the basis of the development of such systems. This paper introduces elements of the MMS methodology initiatives in the domain and the main rationale that motivated the approach. These initiatives develop along two main axes: knowledge engineering methods and tools, and a hybrid method approach for coexisting knowledge-based and conventional developments.

  19. Conducting Economic Evaluations Alongside Randomised Trials: Current Methodological Issues and Novel Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Dyfrig; Charles, Joanna; Dawoud, Dalia; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Holmes, Emily; Jones, Carys; Parham, Paul; Plumpton, Catrin; Ridyard, Colin; Lloyd-Williams, Huw; Wood, Eifiona; Yeo, Seow Tien

    2016-05-01

    Trial-based economic evaluations are an important aspect of health technology assessment. The availability of patient-level data coupled with unbiased estimates of clinical outcomes means that randomised controlled trials are effective vehicles for the generation of economic data. However there are methodological challenges to trial-based evaluations, including the collection of reliable data on resource use and cost, choice of health outcome measure, calculating minimally important differences, dealing with missing data, extrapolating outcomes and costs over time and the analysis of multinational trials. This review focuses on the state of the art of selective elements regarding the design, conduct, analysis and reporting of trial-based economic evaluations. The limitations of existing approaches are detailed and novel methods introduced. The review is internationally relevant but with a focus towards practice in the UK. PMID:26753558

  20. Animal Models of Virus-Induced Neurobehavioral Sequelae: Recent Advances, Methodological Issues, and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Bortolato; Sean C Godar

    2010-01-01

    Converging lines of clinical and epidemiological evidence suggest that viral infections in early developmental stages may be a causal factor in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism-spectrum disorders. This etiological link, however, remains controversial in view of the lack of consistent and reproducible associations between viruses and mental illness. Animal models of virus-induced neurobehavioral disturbances afford powerful tools to test etiologica...

  1. Advances in the analytical methodologies: Profiling steroids in familiar pathways-challenging dogmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Liezl M; Storbeck, Karl-Heinz; Swart, Pieter; du Toit, Therina; Schloms, Lindie; Swart, Amanda C

    2015-09-01

    The comprehensive evaluation of the adrenal steroidogenic pathway, given its complexity, requires methodology beyond the standard techniques currently employed. Advances in LC-MS/MS, coupled with in vitro cell models that produce all the steroid metabolites of the mineralo-, glucocorticoid and androgen arms, present a powerful approach for the comprehensive evaluation of adrenal steroidogenesis in response to compounds of interest including bioactives, drug treatments and endocrine disrupting compounds. UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of steroid panels in forskolin, angiotensin II and K(+) stimulated H295R cells provides a snapshot of their effect on intermediates and end products of adrenal steroidogenesis. The impact of full steroid panel evaluations by LC- and GC-MS/MS extends to clinical profiling with the characterization of normal pediatric steroid reference ranges in sexual development and of disease-specific profiles improving diagnosis and sub classification. Comprehensive analyses of steroid profiles may potentially improve patient outcomes together with the application of treatments specifically suited to clinical subgroups. LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS applications in the analyses of comprehensive steroid panels are demonstrated in clinical conditions such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia in newborns requiring accurate diagnoses and in predicting metabolic risk in polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Most notable perhaps is the impact of LC-MS/MS evaluations on our understanding of the basic biochemistry of steroidogenesis with the detection of the long forgotten adrenal steroid, 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione, at significant levels. The characterization of its metabolism to androgen receptor ligands in the LNCaP prostate cancel cell model, specifically within the context of recurring prostate cancer, lends new perspectives to old dogmas. We demonstrate that UHPLC-MS/MS has enabled the analyses of novel metabolites of the enzymes, SRD5A, 11βHSD and 17βHSD, in LNCaP cells

  2. Methodological issues in radiation dose-volume outcome analyses: Summary of a joint AAPM/NIH workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents a summary of presentations at a joint workshop of the National Institutes of Health and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). Current methodological issues in dose-volume modeling are addressed here from several different perspectives. Areas of emphasis include (a) basic modeling issues including the equivalent uniform dose framework and the bootstrap method, (b) issues in the valid use of statistics, including the need for meta-analysis, (c) issues in dealing with organ deformation and its effects on treatment response, (d) evidence for volume effects for rectal complications, (e) the use of volume effect data in liver and lung as a basis for dose escalation studies, and (f) implications of uncertainties in volume effect knowledge on optimized treatment planning. Taken together, these approaches to studying volume effects describe many implications for the development and use of this information in radiation oncology practice. Areas of significant interest for further research include the meta-analysis of clinical data; interinstitutional pooled data analyses of volume effects; analyses of the uncertainties in outcome prediction models, minimal parameter number outcome models for ranking treatment plans (e.g., equivalent uniform dose); incorporation of the effect of motion in the outcome prediction; dose-escalation/isorisk protocols based on outcome models; the use of functional imaging to study radio-response; and the need for further small animal tumor control probability/normal tissue complication probability studies

  3. What they really think: Resolving methodological issues in supply chain ethics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chipp

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to further the theory and strengthen methodological approaches to the role of ethics in buyer-seller relationships. The paper explores opportunities to enhance response rates, validity and reliability in the research context of organisations seeking to understand the ethical beliefs their suppliers hold of their buying organisations. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research universe is a select business group, all of which are technologically literate and online. Innovative research sampling methods were selected to great effect. The method selected was saturation surveying, a process whereby all identifiable target respondents are surveyed. Instead of selecting between sampling techniques, the option of saturation surveying, cheaply available electronically, removes the focus from the decision to either sample probabilistically or not. Instead, as the entire universe can be contacted in a cost effective manner, the sampling frame becomes of paramount importance. Thus, the focus then shifts from accurately selecting respondents from the sampling frame towards enhancing the sampling frame itself. The sampling frame was improved through guidance from the literature. Findings: The paper demonstrates that this research approach was successful in that it generated a high response rate, suggesting great involvement amongst the supplier population in the topic at hand. It also indicates a lessening of non-response bias, as the response rate is more than double that of previous research into the area. Implications: This paper presents a comprehensive approach to researching ethics in buyer-seller relations. It further promotes the effective use of new sampling methods enabled by the Internet when directed towards selective populations. Originality/Value: The novel approach of sampling frame enhancement twined with saturation surveying has exciting implications for business research. The expansion of the sampling frame

  4. Ethical issues in the geriatric patient with advanced cancer 'living to the end'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, M

    2013-10-01

    Cancer incidence will increase as the population ages; there will be a 50% increase in new cancer cases over the next 20 years, and the biggest rates of increase will occur in the developing world. Owing to technical advances in the care of critical illness, as it is the case in elderly people with advanced cancer, physicians, patients and families are often confronted with ambiguous circumstances in which medical advances may inadvertently prolong suffering and the dying process rather than bring healing and recovery. In this review of the ethical issues confronting physicians who care for patients with advanced life-limiting illnesses like cancer, a philosophical debate continues in the medical community regarding the rightness or wrongness of certain actions (e.g. physician-assisted death, euthanasia), while at the same time there is a strong desire to find a common ground for moral discourse that could guide medical decision-making in this difficult period in the lives of our patients. We will discuss how a good palliative care can be an alternative to these ethical dilemmas. Although some issues (e.g. the role of physician-assisted death in addressing suffering) remain very controversial, there is much common ground based on the application of the four major principles of medical ethics, no malfeasance, beneficence, autonomy and justice. Thus, the physician's primary commitment must always be the patient's welfare and best interests, whether the physician is treating illness or helping patients to cope with illness, disability and death. A key skill here is the communication of bad news and to negotiate a treatment plan that is acceptable to the patient, the family and the healthcare team. Attention to psychosocial issues demands involvement of the patients and their families as partners. Physicians should be sensitive to the range of psychosocial distress and social disruption common to dying patients and their families. Spiritual issues often come to the

  5. Childhood leukaemia near British nuclear installations: Methodological issues and recent results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2008, the German Childhood Cancer Registry published the results of the Kinderkrebs in der Umgebung von Kernkraftwerken (KiKK) study of childhood cancer and leukaemia around German nuclear power stations. The positive findings appeared to conflict with the results of a recent British analysis carried out by the Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE), published in 2005. The present paper first describes the COMARE study, which was based on data from the National Registry of Children's Tumours (NRCT); in particular, the methodology used in this study is described. Although the results of the COMARE study were negative for childhood leukaemia, this apparent discrepancy could be accounted for by a number of differences in approach, especially those relating to the distances from the power stations and the ages of the children studied. The present study was designed to match the KiKK study as far as possible. The incidence observed (18 cases within 5 km against 14.58 expected, p = 0.21) was not significantly raised. The risk estimate for proximity in the regression fitted was actually negative, though the confidence intervals involved are so wide that the difference from that reported in the KiKK study is only marginally statistically significant (p = 0.063). (authors)

  6. The Role of Craving in Substance Use Disorders: Theoretical and Methodological Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayette, Michael A

    2016-03-28

    Craving is a central feature of addiction. Its recent inclusion as a diagnostic criterion for substance use disorders in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders appears at a time when craving research is at an all-time high. Craving is thought to predict relapse and may deter individuals from even trying to quit. Researchers have developed experimental craving-induction paradigms to identify factors contributing to craving and to test interventions to alleviate craving. This review offers a critique of laboratory craving studies, with particular emphasis on cigarette craving. It raises questions concerning several conceptual and methodological assumptions underlying this research, identifies processes that may explain why cravings are linked to drug use and relapse, addresses contextual factors that may influence various experiences of craving, and considers recent interventions targeting craving. The relation between craving and both emotion and coping is discussed, as well as the level of insight that individuals have about their own future cravings. PMID:26565121

  7. An assessment of ocean thermal energy conversion as an advanced electric generation methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydt, Gerald T.

    1993-03-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a process that employs the temperature difference between surface and deep ocean water to alternately evaporate and condense a working fluid. In the open-cycle OTEC configuration, the working fluid is seawater. In the closed-cycle configuration, a working fluid such as propane is used. In this paper, OTEC is assessed for its practical merits for electric power generation, and the history of the process is reviewed. Because the OTEC principle operates under a small net temperature difference regime, rather large amounts of seawater and working fluid are required. The energy requirements for pumping these fluids may be greater than the energy recovered from the OTEC engine itself. The concept of net power production is discussed. The components of a typical OTEC plant are discussed with emphasis on the evaporator heat exchanger. Operation of an OTEC electric generating station is discussed, including transient operation. Perhaps the most encouraging aspect of OTEC is the recent experiments and efforts at the Natural Energy Laboratory in Hawaii, which are discussed in the paper. Remarks are made on bottlenecks and the future of OTEC as an advanced electric generation methodology.

  8. Selected Topics on Advanced Information Systems Engineering: Editorial Introduction to the Issue 5 of CSIMQ

    OpenAIRE

    Janis Grabis; Kurt Sandkuhl

    2015-01-01

    The 5th issue of the journal on Complex Systems Informatics and Modeling (CSIMQ) presents extended versions of five papers selected from the CAiSE Forum 2015. The forum was part of the 27th edition of international Conference on Advanced Information Systems engineering (CAiSE 2015), which took place in June 2015 in Stockholm, Sweden. Information systems engineering draws its foundation from various interrelated disciplines including, e.g., conceptual modeling, database systems, business proce...

  9. 41 CFR 301-71.105 - Must we issue a written or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel? 301-71.105 Section 301-71.105 Public... Must we issue a written or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel? Yes, except when advance written or electronic authorization is not possible or practical and approval is in...

  10. Methodological Issues In Forestry Mitigation Projects: A CaseStudy Of Kolar District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Murthy, I.K.; Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Sahana, C.A.; Srivathsa, K.G.; Khan, H.

    2007-06-01

    There is a need to assess climate change mitigationopportunities in forest sector in India in the context of methodologicalissues such as additionality, permanence, leakage, measurement andbaseline development in formulating forestry mitigation projects. A casestudy of forestry mitigation project in semi-arid community grazing landsand farmlands in Kolar district of Karnataka, was undertaken with regardto baseline and project scenariodevelopment, estimation of carbon stockchange in the project, leakage estimation and assessment ofcost-effectiveness of mitigation projects. Further, the transaction coststo develop project, and environmental and socio-economic impact ofmitigation project was assessed.The study shows the feasibility ofestablishing baselines and project C-stock changes. Since the area haslow or insignificant biomass, leakage is not an issue. The overallmitigation potential in Kolar for a total area of 14,000 ha under variousmitigation options is 278,380 tC at a rate of 20 tC/ha for the period2005-2035, which is approximately 0.67 tC/ha/yr inclusive of harvestregimes under short rotation and long rotation mitigation options. Thetransaction cost for baseline establishment is less than a rupee/tC andfor project scenario development is about Rs. 1.5-3.75/tC. The projectenhances biodiversity and the socio-economic impact is alsosignificant.

  11. Methodological issues in the preparation and assay of platelet 3H-imipramine binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, J A; Schneider, L S; Fredrickson, E R

    1990-07-01

    Several methodological factors in the preparation of platelets and the determination of platelet 3H-imipramine (3H-IMI) binding were examined. The ionic composition of the assay significantly affected platelet 3H-IMI binding. Approximately 25% of the specific binding of 3H-IMI to intact platelet preparations was retained in the absence of sodium and chloride ions. The addition of sodium ions enhanced the specific binding of 3H-IMI, but the addition of chloride in the presence of sodium had a more pronounced effect, enhancing binding approximately five-fold over that observed with the addition of sodium. Sodium was the only cation tested that enhanced binding. Only halides enhanced binding in the presence of sodium with the following order of potency: Cl- greater than Br- greater than I- = F-. Ions increased the density of binding sites (Bmax) and did not affect the affinity of the binding sites for 3H-IMI. In the presence of sodium and chloride, the use of serotonin (5HT) to define nonspecific binding in saturation experiments resulted in lower binding densities (Bmax) than when desipramine was used to define nonspecific binding. The component of binding that was insensitive to 5HT was roughly equal to the Bmax of 3H-IMI binding obtained in the absence of sodium and chloride using desipramine to define nonspecific binding. Overall, these data suggest that not all 3H-IMI binding that is displaced by desipramine is related to serotonergic mechanisms, and suggest that 5HT is a better choice than desipramine for the determination of the nonspecific binding of 3H-IMI. In addition, the binding of 3H-IMI to different platelet preparations was compared. The binding of 3H-IMI to intact platelets was less than that obtained using lysed platelet membranes when data were expressed per mg protein. The Coomassie Blue dye-binding method to determine platelet protein resulted in greater Bmax values than were obtained with the Folin phenol reagent method. The method of platelet

  12. Measurements of Intracellular Ca2+ Content and Phosphatidylserine Exposure in Human Red Blood Cells: Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro C. Wesseling

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The increase of the intracellular Ca2+ content as well as the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS on the outer cell membrane surface after activation of red blood cells (RBCs by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA has been investigated by a variety of research groups. Carrying out experiments, which we described in several previous publications, we observed some discrepancies when comparing data obtained by different investigators within our research group and also between batches of LPA. In addition, we found differences comparing the results of double and single labelling experiments (for Ca2+ and PS. Furthermore, the results of PS exposure depended on the fluorescent dye used (annexin V-FITC versus annexin V alexa fluor® 647. Therefore, it seems necessary to investigate these methodological approaches in more detail to be able to quantify results and to compare data obtained by different research groups. Methods: The intracellular Ca2+ content and the PS exposure of RBCs separated from whole blood have been investigated after treatment with LPA (2.5 µM obtained from three different companies (Sigma-Aldrich, Cayman Chemical Company, and Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.. Fluo-4 and x-rhod-1 have been used to detect intracellular Ca2+ content, annexin V alexa fluor® 647 and annexin V-FITC have been used for PS exposure measurements. Both parameters (Ca2+ content, PS exposure were studied using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Results: The percentage of RBCs showing increased intracellular Ca2+ content as well as PS exposure changes significantly between different LPA manufacturers as well as on the condition of mixing of LPA with the RBC suspension. Furthermore, the percentage of RBCs showing PS exposure is reduced in double labelling compared to single labelling experiments and depends also on the fluorescent dye used. Finally, data on Ca2+ content are slightly affected whereas PS exposure data are not affected significantly

  13. Methodological issues of using observational human data in lung dosimetry models for particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuempel, E.D.; Bailer, A.J.; Smith, R.J.; Dankovic, D.A.; Stayner, L.T. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tran, C.-L. [Institute for Occupational Medicine, Scotland Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-02

    largest source of variability. Lung burdens were inversely associated with the miners' estimated clearance parameters, e.g. individuals with slower estimated clearance had higher observed lung burdens. Conclusions: The methods described in this study were used to examine issues of uncertainty in the model structure and variability of the miners' estimated clearance parameters. Estimated individual clearance had a large influence on predicted lung burden, which would also affect disease risk. These findings are useful for risk assessment, by providing estimates of the distribution of lung burdens expected under given exposure conditions.

  14. Methodology for the Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel Burnup Analysis in the Advanced Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A UNIX BASH (Bourne Again SHell) script CMO has been written and validated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to couple the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the depletion and buildup code ORIGEN-2 (CMO). The new Monte Carlo burnup analysis methodology in this paper consists of MCNP coupling through CMO with ORIGEN-2, and is therefore called the MCWO. MCWO is a fully automated tool that links the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the radioactive decay and burnup code ORIGEN-2. MCWO is capable of handling a large number of fuel burnup and material loading specifications, Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) lobe powers, and irradiation time intervals. MCWO processes user input that specifies the system geometry, initial material compositions, feed/removal specifications, and other code-specific parameters. Calculated results from MCNP, ORIGEN-2, and data process module calculations are output in succession as MCWO executes. The principal function of MCWO is to transfer one-group cross-section and flux values from MCNP to ORIGEN-2, and then transfer the resulting material compositions (after irradiation and/or decay) from ORIGEN-2 back to MCNP in a repeated, cyclic fashion. The basic requirements of MCWO are a working MCNP input file and some additional input parameters; all interaction with ORIGEN-2 as well as other calculations are performed by CMO. This paper presents the MCWO-calculated results for the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiments RERTR-1 and RERTR-2 as well as the Weapons-Grade Mixed Oxide (WG-MOX) fuel testing in ATR. Calculations performed for the WG-MOX test irradiation, which is managed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), supports the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP). The MCWO-calculated results are compared with measured data

  15. Methodology for evaluation of insulation-debris effects. Containment emergency sump performance-unresolved safety issue A-43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysocki, J.; Kolbe, R.

    1982-09-01

    The postulated failure of high energy piping within a light water reactor containment has raised safety questions related to the generation of insulation debris, the migration of such debris to the containment emergency sump screens and the potential for severe screen blockages. High, or total, screen blockages could result in impairment of the long term RHR recirculation systems. Debris considerations are an integral part of the unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance. This report develops calculational methods and debris transport models which can be used for estimating the quantities of debris that might be generated by a LOCA, the transport of such debris, methods for estimating screen blockages and attendant pressure losses. Five operating plants were analyzed using this debris evaluation methodology. These calculations show the dependency on plant containment layout, sump location and design, and types and quantities of insulation employed. 9 figures, 6 tables.

  16. Methodology for evaluation of insulation-debris effects. Containment emergency sump performance-unresolved safety issue A-43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The postulated failure of high energy piping within a light water reactor containment has raised safety questions related to the generation of insulation debris, the migration of such debris to the containment emergency sump screens and the potential for severe screen blockages. High, or total, screen blockages could result in impairment of the long term RHR recirculation systems. Debris considerations are an integral part of the unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance. This report develops calculational methods and debris transport models which can be used for estimating the quantities of debris that might be generated by a LOCA, the transport of such debris, methods for estimating screen blockages and attendant pressure losses. Five operating plants were analyzed using this debris evaluation methodology. These calculations show the dependency on plant containment layout, sump location and design, and types and quantities of insulation employed. 9 figures, 6 tables

  17. Extraction of human factors issues caused by application of the advanced HSI technology and development of human factor issue management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Oh, In Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive literature survey was performed in this study to collect human performance issues related to the advanced HSI design features. The literature from not only nuclear industry but also other industries was collected and reviewed. The issues were categorized into the following advanced HSI design features: devices characteristics, levels of automation, information design and management, display management, computerized controls, alarm systems, computerized procedures, staffing and crew coordination, and operator support systems. The classified issues were described with the description framework. Then, the relationship of issues to HSI design process such as human factors analyses, human factors design, and human factors verification and validation was investigated. Finally, the issue management system of server-client environment was developed using Microsoft's Active Server Page technology and Access 97. (author). 18 refs., 6 figs.

  18. A flexible methodology to integrate energy issue in strategic asset management in social housing: the ECOSIM French experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacarriere, Bruno; Bourges, Bernard (Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France)); Jallet, Paul (Le Toit Angevin, Angers (France))

    2009-07-01

    In order to improve the efforts to reduce energy use in the Social Housing sector, the IEE-ESAM project (completed in December 2008) aimed to develop adequate tools to integrate the issue of energy in strategic asset management (SAM) processes. The present work details a methodology built with the aim of a sufficient flexibility to be adaptable of the different Social Housing Operators (SHO) situations. The paper illustrates this methodology by a successful experience of development. The objective was to develop a tool satisfying the practical expectations of the Social Housing Operators. Examples of the difficulties that had to be overcome include difficulties in knowing in detail some technical properties of the housing stock (thermal properties, glazing properties, history of refurbishment) and lack of internal skills in thermal modelling to evaluate the different possible actions. The final tool developed can be used for one particular building, a set of buildings or at the whole stock scale. The tool does not use an integrated thermal calculation core but external databases and/or feedback based on experience. It offers a description of the energy performance level of the stock, points out the worst-performing elements, evaluates solutions to improve the energy performance (for building envelopes and equipments) and quantifies the gains (energy and carbon saved, financial) and the costs (investment) of these solutions. The tool assists the SHO in taking decisions (regarding priorities for investment) which include energy efficiency parameters in addition to classical SAM parameters. The success of the approach has been demonstrated by the SHO that manages the stock used as a field test for this project. They are currently using the tool developed from the methodology to plan stock investment actions.

  19. Guest Editorial Special Issue on Recent Advances and New Directions in Switched Control Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ As guest editors, it is our great honor to bring this special issue of the Journal of Control Theory and Applications devoted to Recent Advances and New Directions in Switched Control Systems. Recently, switched control systems have attracted much attention in the control systems community. Problems in this area are not only academically challenging for the inherent mathematical complexity, but also are derived or motivated from advanced applications in natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences. For survival, natural biological systems switch their survival strategies in accordance with environmental changes. For improved performance, switching has been extensively utilized/exploited in engineering systems such as automotive drive train control, electronic devices, control of power systems, etc.

  20. Lifting the veil: a typological survey of the methodological features of Islamic ethical reasoning on biomedical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdur-Rashid, Khalil; Furber, Steven Woodward; Abdul-Basser, Taha

    2013-04-01

    We survey the meta-ethical tools and institutional processes that traditional Islamic ethicists apply when deliberating on bioethical issues. We present a typology of these methodological elements, giving particular attention to the meta-ethical techniques and devices that traditional Islamic ethicists employ in the absence of decisive or univocal authoritative texts or in the absence of established transmitted cases. In describing how traditional Islamic ethicists work, we demonstrate that these experts possess a variety of discursive tools. We find that the ethical responsa-i.e., the products of the application of the tools that we describe-are generally characterized by internal consistency. We also conclude that Islamic ethical reasoning on bioethical issues, while clearly scripture-based, is also characterized by strong consequentialist elements and possesses clear principles-based characteristics. The paper contributes to the study of bioethics by familiarizing non-specialists in Islamic ethics with the role, scope, and applicability of key Islamic ethical concepts, such as "aims" (maqāṣid), "universals" (kulliyyāt), "interest" (maṣlaḥa), "maxims" (qawā`id), "controls" (ḍawābit), "differentiators" (furūq), "preponderization" (tarjīḥ), and "extension" (tafrī`). PMID:23665956

  1. Methodological issues in developing a community forestry greenhouse gas emissions mitigation project in Mancherial forest division of Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several contentious issues related to forestry mitigation projects. The special report of the IPCC and literature published so far have shown that permanence, leakage, baseline establishment, measurement, monitoring, etc., could be addressed satisfactorily using existing scientific methods and accounting rules. To understand the methodological issues of developing community forestry projects, a case study was conducted in Mancherial forest division of Adilabad district in Andhra Pradesh, India. This paper addresses: the setting of project boundaries, baseline selection, establishment of additionality and the calculation of carbon sequestration as a result of the project, prior to project implementation. The steps involved in development of the project and the different methods used for establishing baseline, estimating leakage and transaction cost of developing a community forestry project are presented. The stock is projected to increase by 1480 x 103 t C during 2000-2012 over the baseline scenario under the modeling approach and the cost of establishing a baseline and project formulation for a project extending over 32,956 ha is estimated to be US$ 1.25 ha-1 and US$ 4 t C-1

  2. Human factors issues associated with advanced instrumentation and controls technologies in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of advanced instrumentation and controls (I ampersand C) technologies and associated human factors issues in the US and Canadian nuclear industries was carried out by a team from Oak Ridge national laboratory to provide background for the development of regulatory policy, criteria, and guides for review of advanced I ampersand C systems as well as human engineering guidelines for evaluating these systems. The survey found those components of the US nuclear industry surveyed to be quite interested in advanced I ampersand C, but very cautious in implementing such systems in nuclear facilities and power plants. The trend in the facilities surveyed is to experiment cautiously when there is an intuitive advantage or short-term payoff. In the control room, the usual practice is direct substitution of digital and microprocessor-based instruments or systems that are functionally identical to the analog instruments or systems being replaced. The most advanced I ampersand C systems were found in the Canadian CANDU plants, where the newest plant has digital system in almost 100% of its control systems and in over 70% of its plant protection system. The hypothesis that properly ''introducing digital systems increases safety'' is supported by the Canadian experience. The performance of these digital systems was achieved using an appropriate quality assurance program for the software development. The ability of digital systems to detect impending failures and initiate a fail-safe action, is a significant safety issue that should be of special interest to every US utility as well as to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 12 refs. 5 tabs

  3. PWR control system design using advanced linear and non-linear methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is here given to the methodology deployed for non-linear heuristic analysis in the time domain supported by multi-variable linear control system design methods for the purposes of operational dynamics and control system analysis. This methodology is illustrated by the application of structural singular value μ analysis to Pressurised Water Reactor control system design. (author)

  4. Stability and control issues associated with lightly loaded rotors autorotating in high advance ratio flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigsby, James Michael

    Interest in high speed rotorcraft has directed attention toward the slowed-rotor, high advance ratio compound autogyro concept as evidenced by the current DARPA Heliplane project. The behavior of partially unloaded rotors, autorotating at high advance ratio is not well understood and numerous technical issues must be resolved before the vehicle can be realized. Autorotation in helicopters usually indicates an emergency loss of power. For the concept vehicle autorotation is the normal working state of the rotor. The necessity for a reduction in rotor speed with increasing flight speed results in high advance ratio operation where the retreating side of the rotor is dominated by the reverse flow region. Further, rotor speed changes also affect the rotor dynamics and the associated hub moments generated by cyclic flapping. The result is rotor characteristics that vary widely depending on advance ratio. In the present work, rotor behavior is characterized in terms of issues relevant to the control system conceptual design and the rotor impact on the intrinsic vehicle flight dynamics characteristics. A series of trim, stability, and control analyses, based on features inherent in the concept vehicle, are performed. Trends are identified through parametric variation of rotor operating conditions, augmented by inclusion of the sensitivities to blade mass and blade stiffness properties. In this research, non-linear models, including the rotor speed degree of freedom, were created and analyzed with FLIGHTLAB(TM) rotorcraft modeling software. Performance analysis for rotors trimmed to autorotate with zero average hub pitching and rolling moments indicates reduced rotor thrust is achieved primarily through rotor speed reduction at lower shaft incidence angle, and imposing hub moment trim constraints results in a thrust increment sign reversal with collective pitch angle above advance ratio mu ˜ 1.0. Swashplate control perturbations from trim indicate an increase in control

  5. On Special Optical Modes and Thermal Issues in Advanced Gravitational Wave Interferometric Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinet Jean-Yves

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of present ground-based gravitational wave antennas is too low to detect many events per year. It has, therefore, been planned for years to build advanced detectors allowing actual astrophysical observations and investigations. In such advanced detectors, one major issue is to increase the laser power in order to reduce shot noise. However, this is useless if the thermal noise remains at the current level in the 100 Hz spectral region, where mirrors are the main contributors. Moreover, increasing the laser power gives rise to various spurious thermal effects in the same mirrors. The main goal of the present study is to discuss these issues versus the transverse structure of the readout beam, in order to allow comparison. A number of theoretical studies and experiments have been carried out, regarding thermal noise and thermal effects. We do not discuss experimental problems, but rather focus on some theoretical results in this context about arbitrary order Laguerre–Gauss beams, and other “exotic” beams.

  6. Summary of SMIRT20 Preconference Topical Workshop - Identifying Structural Issues in Advanced Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL, USA) and IASMiRT sponsored an international forum Nov 5-6, 2008 in Porvoo, Finland for nuclear industry, academic, and regulatory representatives to identify structural issues in current and future advanced reactor design, especially for extreme conditions and external threats. The purpose of this Topical Workshop was to articulate research, engineering, and regulatory Code development needs. The topics addressed by the Workshop were selected to address critical industry needs specific to advanced reactor structures that have long lead times and can be the subject of future SMiRT technical sessions. The topics were; (1) structural/materials needs for extreme conditions and external threats in contemporary (Gen. III) and future (Gen. IV and NGNP) advanced reactors and (2) calibrating simulation software and methods that address topic 1. The workshop discussions and research needs identified are presented. The Workshop successfully produced interactive discussion on the two topics resulting in a list of research and technology needs. It is recommended that IASMiRT communicate the results of the discussion to industry and researchers to encourage new ideas and projects. In addition, opportunities exist to retrieve research reports and information that currently exists, and encourage more international cooperation and collaboration. It is recommended that IASMiRT continue with an off-year workshop series on select topics.

  7. The Advanced Learner's Sociolinguistic Profile: On Issues of Individual Differences, Second Language Exposure Conditions, and Type of Sociolinguistic Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Situated within the recent new wave of second language acquisition studies investigating the acquisition of sociolinguistic variation, this article draws on a longitudinal database of advanced French interlanguage to explore a number of issues that have not yet been extensively investigated. They concern the issue of individual variation in the…

  8. Advanced piloted aircraft flight control system design methodology. Volume 1: Knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Myers, Thomas T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive and electric methodology for conceptual and preliminary design of flight control systems is presented and illustrated. The methodology is focused on the design stages starting with the layout of system requirements and ending when some viable competing system architectures (feedback control structures) are defined. The approach is centered on the human pilot and the aircraft as both the sources of, and the keys to the solution of, many flight control problems. The methodology relies heavily on computational procedures which are highly interactive with the design engineer. To maximize effectiveness, these techniques, as selected and modified to be used together in the methodology, form a cadre of computational tools specifically tailored for integrated flight control system preliminary design purposes. While theory and associated computational means are an important aspect of the design methodology, the lore, knowledge and experience elements, which guide and govern applications are critical features. This material is presented as summary tables, outlines, recipes, empirical data, lists, etc., which encapsulate a great deal of expert knowledge. Much of this is presented in topical knowledge summaries which are attached as Supplements. The composite of the supplements and the main body elements constitutes a first cut at a a Mark 1 Knowledge Base for manned-aircraft flight control.

  9. Preliminary research on RTDP methodology for advanced LPP thermal-hydraulic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) design basis is one of the most important basis for reactor core thermal-hydraulic design. In order to evaluate whether the DNB design basis meets the demand of thermal-hydraulic design, the departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) design limit should be determined first. The RTDP methodology was described detailedly, in which the uncertainties of operating parameters and nuclear design parameters were statistically combined. Then the RTDP methodology and a reactor subchannel code were applied to calculate the DNBR design limit and quality limit for LPP. The conclusions were presented to provide the key acceptable criterion for DNBR design basis. (authors)

  10. Selected Topics on Advanced Information Systems Engineering: Editorial Introduction to the Issue 5 of CSIMQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Grabis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 5th issue of the journal on Complex Systems Informatics and Modeling (CSIMQ presents extended versions of five papers selected from the CAiSE Forum 2015. The forum was part of the 27th edition of international Conference on Advanced Information Systems engineering (CAiSE 2015, which took place in June 2015 in Stockholm, Sweden. Information systems engineering draws its foundation from various interrelated disciplines including, e.g., conceptual modeling, database systems, business process management, requirements engineering, human computer interaction, and enterprise computing to address various practical challenges in development and application of information systems. The guiding subjects of CAiSE 2015 were Creativity, Ability, and Integrity. The CAiSE Forum aimed at presenting and discussing new ideas and tools related to information systems Engineering.

  11. Life prediction methodology for ceramic components of advanced heat engines. Phase 1: Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuccio, J.C.; Brehm, P.; Fang, H.T. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Phoenix, AZ (United States). Garrett Engine Div.] [and others

    1995-03-01

    Emphasis of this program is to develop and demonstrate ceramics life prediction methods, including fast fracture, stress rupture, creep, oxidation, and nondestructive evaluation. Significant advancements were made in these methods and their predictive capabilities successfully demonstrated.

  12. Advanced software development workstation: Object-oriented methodologies and applications for flight planning and mission operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izygon, Michel

    1993-01-01

    The work accomplished during the past nine months in order to help three different organizations involved in Flight Planning and in Mission Operations systems, to transition to Object-Oriented Technology, by adopting one of the currently most widely used Object-Oriented analysis and Design Methodology is summarized.

  13. A fault diagnosis methodology for rolling element bearings based on advanced signal pretreatment and autoregressive modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bugharbee, Hussein; Trendafilova, Irina

    2016-05-01

    This study proposes a methodology for rolling element bearings fault diagnosis which gives a complete and highly accurate identification of the faults present. It has two main stages: signals pretreatment, which is based on several signal analysis procedures, and diagnosis, which uses a pattern-recognition process. The first stage is principally based on linear time invariant autoregressive modelling. One of the main contributions of this investigation is the development of a pretreatment signal analysis procedure which subjects the signal to noise cleaning by singular spectrum analysis and then stationarisation by differencing. So the signal is transformed to bring it close to a stationary one, rather than complicating the model to bring it closer to the signal. This type of pretreatment allows the use of a linear time invariant autoregressive model and improves its performance when the original signals are non-stationary. This contribution is at the heart of the proposed method, and the high accuracy of the diagnosis is a result of this procedure. The methodology emphasises the importance of preliminary noise cleaning and stationarisation. And it demonstrates that the information needed for fault identification is contained in the stationary part of the measured signal. The methodology is further validated using three different experimental setups, demonstrating very high accuracy for all of the applications. It is able to correctly classify nearly 100 percent of the faults with regard to their type and size. This high accuracy is the other important contribution of this methodology. Thus, this research suggests a highly accurate methodology for rolling element bearing fault diagnosis which is based on relatively simple procedures. This is also an advantage, as the simplicity of the individual processes ensures easy application and the possibility for automation of the entire process.

  14. Special issue of clinical pharmacology: advances and applications in new protein therapeutics modulating tumor immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frankel AE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Arthur E Frankel Department of Internal Medicine, Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA Until recent decades, the role of the immune system in harnessing tumor growth was based on anecdotal observations of increased cancers in immune-compromised patients, the benefits of graft-versus-leukemia in allogeneic stem cell transplants, and the limited but reproducible anticancer activity of several lymphokines, including interferon and interleukin (IL-2. Vaccine studies and infusions of "activated" lymphocytes yielded variable clinical responses and disease control. An improved understanding of the molecular and cell mechanisms of the innate and adaptive immune system in cancer-bearing animals and the discovery of an immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment then led to development and testing of a battery of new drug and cell-based approaches to trigger antitumor immunity. This issue of Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications highlights some of the new protein-based compounds that are radically changing the cancer therapeutic landscape. The purpose of this collection of reviews is to inform the readership regarding the importance of the seismic change in cancer therapeutics and stimulate efforts to find novel niches and combinations of agents similar to recent advances in the application of cancer pathway inhibitors.

  15. Theoretical and Methodological Issues with Testing the SCCT and RIASEC Models: Comment on Lent, Sheu, and Brown (2010) and Lubinski (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Vogel, David L.

    2010-01-01

    The current article replies to comments made by Lent, Sheu, and Brown (2010) and Lubinski (2010) regarding the study "Interpreting the Interest-Efficacy Association From a RIASEC Perspective" (Armstrong & Vogel, 2009). The comments made by Lent et al. and Lubinski highlight a number of important theoretical and methodological issues, including the…

  16. A Design Heritage-Based Forecasting Methodology for Risk Informed Management of Advanced Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Gaspare; Fragola, Joseph R.

    1999-01-01

    The development of next generation systems often carries with it the promise of improved performance, greater reliability, and reduced operational costs. These expectations arise from the use of novel designs, new materials, advanced integration and production technologies intended for functionality replacing the previous generation. However, the novelty of these nascent technologies is accompanied by lack of operational experience and, in many cases, no actual testing as well. Therefore some of the enthusiasm surrounding most new technologies may be due to inflated aspirations from lack of knowledge rather than actual future expectations. This paper proposes a design heritage approach for improved reliability forecasting of advanced system components. The basis of the design heritage approach is to relate advanced system components to similar designs currently in operation. The demonstrated performance of these components could then be used to forecast the expected performance and reliability of comparable advanced technology components. In this approach the greater the divergence of the advanced component designs from the current systems the higher the uncertainty that accompanies the associated failure estimates. Designers of advanced systems are faced with many difficult decisions. One of the most common and more difficult types of these decisions are those related to the choice between design alternatives. In the past decision-makers have found these decisions to be extremely difficult to make because they often involve the trade-off between a known performing fielded design and a promising paper design. When it comes to expected reliability performance the paper design always looks better because it is on paper and it addresses all the know failure modes of the fielded design. On the other hand there is a long, and sometimes very difficult road, between the promise of a paper design and its fulfillment; with the possibility that sometimes the reliability

  17. Methodology for the Integration of Safety in the Optimization of the Advanced Reactors Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a new methodology has been developed and implemented for taking into account the safety levels of the reactor in a design optimization process, by using Design Maps.They represent a new technique for comparing critical variables in case an accidental sequenced happened, with limit values set by the design criteria.So a good balance is achieved, without allowing the economic performance search to cause a too risky reactor, and guaranteeing the competitiveness of it in spite of the safety costs.Up to the moment, there is no design tool able to accomplish this task in an integrated way.A computational tool based on this methodology has been implemented.These tool specially programmed routines allow carrying out the mentioned tasks

  18. Life prediction methodology for ceramic components of advanced vehicular heat engines: Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandelwal, P.K.; Provenzano, N.J.; Schneider, W.E. [Allison Engine Co., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1996-02-01

    One of the major challenges involved in the use of ceramic materials is ensuring adequate strength and durability. This activity has developed methodology which can be used during the design phase to predict the structural behavior of ceramic components. The effort involved the characterization of injection molded and hot isostatic pressed (HIPed) PY-6 silicon nitride, the development of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology, and the development of analytical life prediction methodology. Four failure modes are addressed: fast fracture, slow crack growth, creep, and oxidation. The techniques deal with failures initiating at the surface as well as internal to the component. The life prediction methodology for fast fracture and slow crack growth have been verified using a variety of confirmatory tests. The verification tests were conducted at room and elevated temperatures up to a maximum of 1371 {degrees}C. The tests involved (1) flat circular disks subjected to bending stresses and (2) high speed rotating spin disks. Reasonable correlation was achieved for a variety of test conditions and failure mechanisms. The predictions associated with surface failures proved to be optimistic, requiring re-evaluation of the components` initial fast fracture strengths. Correlation was achieved for the spin disks which failed in fast fracture from internal flaws. Time dependent elevated temperature slow crack growth spin disk failures were also successfully predicted.

  19. Issues and Advances in Research Methods on Video Games and Cognitive Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart eSobczyk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs over non-players (NVGPs and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of recruited VGP groups and lack of genre differentiation have not yet been widely addressed. In this article we present objective and declarative gameplay time data gathered from large samples in order to illustrate how playtime is distributed over VGP populations. The implications of this data are then discussed in the context of previous studies in the field. We also argue in favor of differentiating video games based on their genre when recruiting study samples, as this form of classification reflects the core mechanics that they utilize and therefore provides a measure of insight into what cognitive functions are likely to be engaged most. Additionally, we present the Covert Video Game Experience Questionnaire as an example of how this sort of classification can be applied during the recruitment process.

  20. Issues and advances in research methods on video games and cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczyk, Bart; Dobrowolski, Paweł; Skorko, Maciek; Michalak, Jakub; Brzezicka, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs) over non-players (NVGPs) and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of recruited VGP groups and lack of genre differentiation have not yet been widely addressed. In this article we present objective and declarative gameplay time data gathered from large samples in order to illustrate how playtime is distributed over VGP populations. The implications of this data are then discussed in the context of previous studies in the field. We also argue in favor of differentiating video games based on their genre when recruiting study samples, as this form of classification reflects the core mechanics that they utilize and therefore provides a measure of insight into what cognitive functions are likely to be engaged most. Additionally, we present the Covert Video Game Experience Questionnaire as an example of how this sort of classification can be applied during the recruitment process. PMID:26483717

  1. New advances in methodology for statistical tests useful in geostatistical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgman, L.E.

    1988-05-01

    Methodology for statistical procedures to perform tests of hypothesis pertaining to various aspects of geostatistical investigations has been slow in developing. The correlated nature of the data precludes most classical tests and makes the design of new tests difficult. Recent studies have led to modifications of the classical t test which allow for the intercorrelation. In addition, results for certain nonparametric tests have been obtained. The conclusions of these studies provide a variety of new tools for the geostatistician in deciding questions on significant differences and magnitudes.

  2. Advanced calculation methodology for manufacturing and technological parameters' uncertainties propagation at arbitrary level of lattice elements grouping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new methodology, referred to as manufacturing and technological parameters uncertainty quantification (MTUQ), is under development at Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). Based on uncertainty and global sensitivity analysis methods, MTUQ aims at advancing state-of-the-art for the treatment of geometrical/material uncertainties in light water reactor computations, using the MCNPX Monte Carlo neutron transport code. The development is currently focused primarily on criticality safety evaluations (CSE). In that context, the key components are a dedicated modular interface with the MCNPX code and a user-friendly interface to model functional relationship between system variables. A unique feature is an automatic capability to parameterize variables belonging to so-called “repeated structures” such as to allow for perturbations of each individual element of a given system modelled with MCNPX. Concerning the statistical analysis capabilities, these are currently implemented through an interface with the ROOT platform to handle the random sampling design. This paper presents the current status of the MTUQ methodology development and a first assessment of an ongoing organisation for economic cooperation and development/nuclear energy agency benchmark dedicated to uncertainty analyses for CSE. The presented results illustrate the overall capabilities of MTUQ and underline its relevance in predicting more realistic results compared to a methodology previously applied at PSI for this particular benchmark. (author)

  3. Advanced biosensing methodologies developed for evaluating performance quality and safety of emerging biophotonics technologies and medical devices (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilev, Ilko K.; Walker, Bennett; Calhoun, William; Hassan, Moinuddin

    2016-03-01

    Biophotonics is an emerging field in modern biomedical technology that has opened up new horizons for transfer of state-of-the-art techniques from the areas of lasers, fiber optics and biomedical optics to the life sciences and medicine. This field continues to vastly expand with advanced developments across the entire spectrum of biomedical applications ranging from fundamental "bench" laboratory studies to clinical patient "bedside" diagnostics and therapeutics. However, in order to translate these technologies to clinical device applications, the scientific and industrial community, and FDA are facing the requirement for a thorough evaluation and review of laser radiation safety and efficacy concerns. In many cases, however, the review process is complicated due the lack of effective means and standard test methods to precisely analyze safety and effectiveness of some of the newly developed biophotonics techniques and devices. There is, therefore, an immediate public health need for new test protocols, guidance documents and standard test methods to precisely evaluate fundamental characteristics, performance quality and safety of these technologies and devices. Here, we will overview our recent developments of novel test methodologies for safety and efficacy evaluation of some emerging biophotonics technologies and medical devices. These methodologies are based on integrating the advanced features of state-of-the-art optical sensor technologies and approaches such as high-resolution fiber-optic sensing, confocal and optical coherence tomography imaging, and infrared spectroscopy. The presentation will also illustrate some methodologies developed and implemented for testing intraocular lens implants, biochemical contaminations of medical devices, ultrahigh-resolution nanoscopy, and femtosecond laser therapeutics.

  4. Building Irish families through surrogacy: medical and judicial issues for the advanced reproductive technologies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, Eric Scott

    2008-01-01

    Surrogacy involves one woman (surrogate mother) carrying a child for another person\\/s (commissioning person\\/couple), based on a mutual agreement requiring the child to be handed over to the commissioning person\\/couple following birth. Reasons for seeking surrogacy include situations where a woman has non-functional or absent reproductive organs, or as a remedy for recurrent pregnancy loss. Additionally, surrogacy may find application in any medical context where pregnancy is contraindicated, or where a couple consisting of two males seek to become parents through oocyte donation. Gestational surrogacy is one of the main issues at the forefront of bioethics and the advanced reproductive technologies, representing an important challenge to medical law. This analysis reviews the history of surrogacy and clinical and legal issues pertaining to this branch of reproductive medicine. Interestingly, the Medical Council of Ireland does not acknowledge surrogacy in its current practice guidelines, nor is there specific legislation addressing surrogacy in Ireland at present. We therefore have developed a contract-based model for surrogacy in which, courts in Ireland may consider when confronted with a surrogacy dispute, and formulated a system to resolve any potential dispute arising from a surrogacy arrangement. While the 2005 report by the Commission on Assisted Human Reproduction (CAHR) is an expert opinion guiding the Oireachtas\\' development of specific legislation governing assisted human reproduction and surrogacy, our report represents independent scholarship on the contractual elements of surrogacy with particular focus on how Irish courts might decide on surrogacy matters in a modern day Ireland. This joint medico-legal collaborative also reviews the contract for services arrangement between the commissioning person\\/s and the surrogate, and the extent to which the contract may be enforced.

  5. Building Irish families through surrogacy: medical and judicial issues for the advanced reproductive technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Healy Clifford M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surrogacy involves one woman (surrogate mother carrying a child for another person/s (commissioning person/couple, based on a mutual agreement requiring the child to be handed over to the commissioning person/couple following birth. Reasons for seeking surrogacy include situations where a woman has non-functional or absent reproductive organs, or as a remedy for recurrent pregnancy loss. Additionally, surrogacy may find application in any medical context where pregnancy is contraindicated, or where a couple consisting of two males seek to become parents through oocyte donation. Gestational surrogacy is one of the main issues at the forefront of bioethics and the advanced reproductive technologies, representing an important challenge to medical law. This analysis reviews the history of surrogacy and clinical and legal issues pertaining to this branch of reproductive medicine. Interestingly, the Medical Council of Ireland does not acknowledge surrogacy in its current practice guidelines, nor is there specific legislation addressing surrogacy in Ireland at present. We therefore have developed a contract-based model for surrogacy in which, courts in Ireland may consider when confronted with a surrogacy dispute, and formulated a system to resolve any potential dispute arising from a surrogacy arrangement. While the 2005 report by the Commission on Assisted Human Reproduction (CAHR is an expert opinion guiding the Oireachtas' development of specific legislation governing assisted human reproduction and surrogacy, our report represents independent scholarship on the contractual elements of surrogacy with particular focus on how Irish courts might decide on surrogacy matters in a modern day Ireland. This joint medico-legal collaborative also reviews the contract for services arrangement between the commissioning person/s and the surrogate, and the extent to which the contract may be enforced.

  6. Building Irish families through surrogacy: medical and judicial issues for the advanced reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Eric Scott; Healy, Clifford M

    2008-01-01

    Surrogacy involves one woman (surrogate mother) carrying a child for another person/s (commissioning person/couple), based on a mutual agreement requiring the child to be handed over to the commissioning person/couple following birth. Reasons for seeking surrogacy include situations where a woman has non-functional or absent reproductive organs, or as a remedy for recurrent pregnancy loss. Additionally, surrogacy may find application in any medical context where pregnancy is contraindicated, or where a couple consisting of two males seek to become parents through oocyte donation. Gestational surrogacy is one of the main issues at the forefront of bioethics and the advanced reproductive technologies, representing an important challenge to medical law. This analysis reviews the history of surrogacy and clinical and legal issues pertaining to this branch of reproductive medicine. Interestingly, the Medical Council of Ireland does not acknowledge surrogacy in its current practice guidelines, nor is there specific legislation addressing surrogacy in Ireland at present. We therefore have developed a contract-based model for surrogacy in which, courts in Ireland may consider when confronted with a surrogacy dispute, and formulated a system to resolve any potential dispute arising from a surrogacy arrangement. While the 2005 report by the Commission on Assisted Human Reproduction (CAHR) is an expert opinion guiding the Oireachtas' development of specific legislation governing assisted human reproduction and surrogacy, our report represents independent scholarship on the contractual elements of surrogacy with particular focus on how Irish courts might decide on surrogacy matters in a modern day Ireland. This joint medico-legal collaborative also reviews the contract for services arrangement between the commissioning person/s and the surrogate, and the extent to which the contract may be enforced. PMID:18983640

  7. Life prediction methodology for ceramic components of advanced heat engines. Phase 1: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This volume presents the following appendices: ceramic test specimen drawings and schematics, mixed-mode and biaxial stress fracture of structural ceramics for advanced vehicular heat engines (U. Utah), mode I/mode II fracture toughness and tension/torsion fracture strength of NT154 Si nitride (Brown U.), summary of strength test results and fractography, fractography photographs, derivations of statistical models, Weibull strength plots for fast fracture test specimens, and size functions.

  8. Advances in ranking and selection, multiple comparisons, and reliability methodology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, N; Nagaraja, HN

    2007-01-01

    S. Panchapakesan has made significant contributions to ranking and selection and has published in many other areas of statistics, including order statistics, reliability theory, stochastic inequalities, and inference. Written in his honor, the twenty invited articles in this volume reflect recent advances in these areas and form a tribute to Panchapakesan's influence and impact on these areas. Thematically organized, the chapters cover a broad range of topics from: Inference; Ranking and Selection; Multiple Comparisons and Tests; Agreement Assessment; Reliability; and Biostatistics. Featuring

  9. Mapas cognitivos e a pesquisa organizacional: explorando aspectos metodológicos Cognitive maps and organizational research: exploring methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Virgílio Bittencourt Bastos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A intersecção entre as ciências da cognição e os estudos organizacionais criou um campo emergente de pesquisa denominado cognição organizacional. Tal campo se apóia em uma visão de organização como processos socialmente construídos que, de forma recorrente, articulam atores em interação. Assim, grande ênfase é dada ao papel das cognições dos atores como mediadoras de importantes processos e produtos organizacionais, em seus diferentes níveis. Os mapas cognitivos, nesse domínio, têm sido crescentemente utilizados como ferramentas para representar estruturas e processos cognitivos que ajudam a compreender decisões e ações que configuram uma organização. O presente texto, apoiado em uma revisão da literatura, após localizar as tendências no campo que justificam o uso dos mapas cognitivos, procura caracterizá-los, especialmente no tocante às decisões metodológicas que configuram seus diferentes tipos. Como conclusão, discutem-se os limites e potencialidades dos mapas cognitivos como ferramentas de pesquisa de processos organizacionais.The intersection between cognitive sciences and organizational studies has created a new field of research called organizational cognition. Research in this field is based on a view of organizational processes as the result of social constructions - the exchange and articulation of ideas among those involved in the organization. Thus, a great emphasis is given to the role of the actor's cognitions, which mediate important organizational processes and products. Cognitive maps have been increasingly used in this domain as tools to represent the cognitive structures and processes that help to understand the decisions and actions that define an organization. The present text first identifies the research objectives that justify the use of cognitive maps, then characterizes these tools based on the methodological issues that differentiate among various approaches. The third and final topic

  10. Methodological issues in assessing changes in costs pre- and post-medication switch: a schizophrenia study example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyhuis Allen W

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic, and costly illness that adversely impacts patients' lives and health care payer budgets. Cost comparisons of treatment regimens are, therefore, important to health care payers and researchers. Pre-Post analyses ("mirror-image", where outcomes prior to a medication switch are compared to outcomes post-switch, are commonly used in such research. However, medication changes often occur during a costly crisis event. Patients may relapse, be hospitalized, have a medication change, and then spend a period of time with intense use of costly resources (post-medication switch. While many advantages and disadvantages of Pre-Post methodology have been discussed, issues regarding the attributability of costs incurred around the time of medication switching have not been fully investigated. Methods Medical resource use data, including medications and acute-care services (hospitalizations, partial hospitalizations, emergency department were collected for patients with schizophrenia who switched antipsychotics (n = 105 during a 1-year randomized, naturalistic, antipsychotic cost-effectiveness schizophrenia trial. Within-patient changes in total costs per day were computed during the pre- and post-medication change periods. In addition to the standard Pre-Post analysis comparing costs pre- and post-medication change, we investigated the sensitivity of results to varying assumptions regarding the attributability of acute care service costs occurring just after a medication switch that were likely due to initial medication failure. Results Fifty-six percent of all costs incurred during the first week on the newly initiated antipsychotic were likely due to treatment failure with the previous antipsychotic. Standard analyses suggested an average increase in cost-per-day for each patient of $2.40 after switching medications. However, sensitivity analyses removing costs incurred post-switch that were potentially

  11. Insect motor control: methodological advances, descending control and inter-leg coordination on the move.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgmann, Anke; Büschges, Ansgar

    2015-08-01

    Modern approaches, including high performance video, neurophysiology, and neurogenetics, allow to analyze invertebrate behavior on all levels of generation and performance in an unprecedented way. They allow observation and classification of behavior in controlled conditions, dissection of behavioral sequencing, identification of levels of processing and locations of associated sub-networks and, finally, identification of neuronal components and topologies contributing to specific aspects of behaviors. Recently conceptual and methodological progress has contributed to unraveling the neural structures underlying descending control of insect behavior as well as the mechanisms in charge of generating coordinated locomotor movements of the invertebrate extremities during walking. This brief review summarizes some of the most exciting new findings in these areas of research from the past years. PMID:25579064

  12. Recent Advances in Characterization of Lignin Polymer by Solution-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Run-Cang Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for efficient utilization of biomass induces a detailed analysis of the fundamental chemical structures of biomass, especially the complex structures of lignin polymers, which have long been recognized for their negative impact on biorefinery. Traditionally, it has been attempted to reveal the complicated and heterogeneous structure of lignin by a series of chemical analyses, such as thioacidolysis (TA, nitrobenzene oxidation (NBO, and derivatization followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC. Recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR technology undoubtedly have made solution-state NMR become the most widely used technique in structural characterization of lignin due to its versatility in illustrating structural features and structural transformations of lignin polymers. As one of the most promising diagnostic tools, NMR provides unambiguous evidence for specific structures as well as quantitative structural information. The recent advances in two-dimensional solution-state NMR techniques for structural analysis of lignin in isolated and whole cell wall states (in situ, as well as their applications are reviewed.

  13. Advances in data analytic methods for evaluating treatment outcome and mechanisms of change: introduction to the special issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, S.N.; Rosenfield, D.; Hofmann, S.G.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This series of articles, which provide an overview of several advanced statistical methods for evaluating treatment outcomes and mechanisms of change, makes up the first research methods–oriented special issue to appear in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Like most active areas of

  14. School Psychology Publishing Contributions to the Advancement of Knowledge, Science, and Its Application: An Introduction to the Themed Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Tanya L.; Hintze, John M.

    2011-01-01

    This introductory article briefly reviews the studies and commentaries making up this themed issue on the process and products of professional publications in school psychology. Each article highlights important considerations for advancing scholarly scientific publishing in the field of school psychology. A case is made that enhancing the quality…

  15. An advanced human reliability analysis methodology: analysis of cognitive errors focused on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods such as THERP/ASEP, HCR and SLIM has been criticised for their deficiency in analysing cognitive errors which occurs during operator's decision making process. In order to supplement the limitation of the conventional methods, an advanced HRA method, what is called the 2nd generation HRA method, including both qualitative analysis and quantitative assessment of cognitive errors has been being developed based on the state-of-the-art theory of cognitive systems engineering and error psychology. The method was developed on the basis of human decision-making model and the relation between the cognitive function and the performance influencing factors. The application of the proposed method to two emergency operation tasks is presented

  16. Methodologies and Tools to Evaluate Issues Relating to Land-Use and / or Social Aspects of Urban Transportation Policies: An accessibility Concept Linked Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Caubel, David

    2004-01-01

    Proceedings on CD-ROM International audience Transportation policy issues are important in urban areas since they try to answer growing preoccupations. Nevertheless, do assessment tools enable the evaluation of social equity? In the French case, assessment methodologies - cost-benefit analysis - have been developed to make allowance for more elements. Even if economic and environment aspects could be evaluated for each urban transport system user, analysis does not linger over individua...

  17. Software verification and validation methodology for advanced digital reactor protection system using diverse dual processors to prevent common mode failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Digital Reactor Protection System (ADRPS) with diverse dual processors is being developed by the National Research Lab of KOPEC for ADRPS development. One of the ADRPS goals is to develop digital Plant Protection System (PPS) free of Common Mode Failure (CMF). To prevent CMF, the principle of diversity is applied to both hardware design and software design. For the hardware diversity, two different types of CPUs are used for Bistable Processor and Local Coincidence Logic Processor. The VME based Single Board Computers (SBC) are used for the CPU hardware platforms. The QNX Operating System (OS) and the VxWorks OS are used for software diversity. Rigorous Software Verification and Validation (V and V) is also required to prevent CMF. In this paper, software V and V methodology for the ADRPS is described to enhance the ADRPS software reliability and to assure high quality of the ADRPS software

  18. Geared rotor dynamic methodologies for advancing prognostic modeling capabilities in rotary-wing transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, David Blake

    The overarching objective in this research is the development of a robust, rotor dynamic, physics based model of a helicopter drive train as a foundation for the prognostic modeling for rotary-wing transmissions. Rotorcrafts rely on the integrity of their drive trains for their airworthiness. Drive trains rely on gear technology for their integrity and function. Gears alter the vibration characteristics of a mechanical system and significantly contribute to noise, component fatigue, and personal discomfort prevalent in rotorcraft. This research effort develops methodologies for generating a rotor dynamic model of a rotary-wing transmission based on first principles, through (i) development of a three-dimensional gear-mesh stiffness model for helical and spur gears and integration of this model in a finite element rotor dynamic model, (ii) linear and nonlinear analyses of a geared system for comparison and validation of the gear-mesh model, (iii) development of a modal synthesis technique for potentially providing model reduction and faster analysis capabilities for geared systems, and (iv) extension of the gear-mesh model to bevel and epicyclic configurations. In addition to model construction and validation, faults indigenous to geared systems are presented and discussed. Two faults are selected for analysis and seeded into the transmission model. Diagnostic vibration parameters are presented and used as damage indicators in the analysis. The fault models produce results consistent with damage experienced during experimental testing. The results of this research demonstrate the robustness of the physics-based approach in simulating multiple normal and abnormal conditions. The advantages of this physics-based approach, when combined with contemporary probabilistic and time-series techniques, provide a useful method for improving health monitoring technologies in mechanical systems.

  19. Improved methodology for integral analysis of advanced reactors employing passive safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftuoglu, A. Kursad

    After four decades of experience with pressurized water reactors, a new generation of nuclear plants are emerging. These advanced designs employ passive safety which relies on natural forces, such as gravity and natural circulation. The new concept of passive safety also necessitates improvement in computational tools available for best-estimate analyses. The system codes originally designed for high pressure conditions in the presence of strong momentum sources such as pumps are challenged in many ways. Increased interaction of the primary system with the containment necessitates a tool for integral analysis. This study addresses some of these concerns. An improved tool for integral analysis coupling primary system with containment calculation is also presented. The code package is based on RELAP5 and CONTAIN programs, best-estimate thermal-hydraulics code for primary system analysis and containment code for containment analysis, respectively. The suitability is demonstrated with a postulated small break loss of coolant accident analysis of Westinghouse AP600 plant. The thesis explains the details of the analysis including the coupling model.

  20. Response surface methodology for ozonation of trifluralin using advanced oxidation processes in an airlift photoreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behin, J.; Farhadian, N.

    2016-06-01

    Degradation of trifluralin, as a wide used pesticide, was investigated by advance oxidation process comprising O3/UV/H2O2 in a concentric tube airlift photoreactor. Main and interactive effects of three independent factors including pH (5-9), superficial gas velocity (0.05-0.15 cm/s) and time (20-60 min) on the removal efficiency were assessed using central composite face-centered design and response surface method (RSM). The RSM allows to solve multivariable equations and to estimate simultaneously the relative importance of several contributing parameters even in the presence of complex interaction. Airlift photoreactor imposed a synergistic effect combining good mixing intensity merit with high ozone transfer rate. Mixing in the airlift photoreactor enhanced the UV light usage efficiency and its availability. Complete degradation of trifluralin was achieved under optimum conditions of pH 9 and superficial gas velocity 0.15 cm/s after 60 min of reaction time. Under these conditions, degradation of trifluralin was performed in a bubble column photoreactor of similar volume and a lower efficiency was observed.

  1. Safety related issues of spent nuclear fuel storage : summary of a NATO advanced research workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A NATO Advanced Research Workshop was held in Almaty, Kazakhstan, in September 2005. The Workshop was co-sponsored by the IAEA and was concerned with the safety issues associated with spent fuel and waste from three types of reactor: research reactors with Al alloy-clad dispersion fuels, fast reactors with stainless steel-clad UO2, and commercial light-water reactors with Zr alloy-clad UO2. Fifteen presentations dealt with research reactors, five with the BN-350 fast reactor in Kazakhstan-shut down and in decommissioning, and two with commercial reactors in the U.S. and Ukraine. With 657 research reactors built and 274 still operational, corrosion of Al-clad research reactor spent fuel during wet storage was a major subject for discussion. Programs at the IAEA, in the U.S., and elsewhere, have actively studied corrosion of Al-clad fuel since the 1980s and the major mechanisms for aqueous corrosion of both spent fuel and of spent-fuel-pool structural components appear to be now well understood, as are the procedures required to limit corrosion. Nonetheless, avoiding corrosion requires vigilance in monitoring and controlling water quality. Measures to ensure water quality are now being taken at operating research reactors, but are difficult to impose at reactors that are shutdown, where there is less funding (or staff) for the task. It was noted there are about 62,000 spent research reactor fuel assemblies-most of them in wet storage-at many reactor sites around the world, three-quarters in industrialized nations, the remainder in developing countries. Dry storage of research reactor fuel is also being used or actively considered in France, Poland, Russia and the U.S. A variant of simple dry storage-the 'melt-and-dilute' option-casts the spent research reactor fuel with natural U into steel canisters to produce a corrosion-resistant low-enrichment fuel configuration which is suitable for safe long-term storage. The main safety issue of spent fast reactor

  2. EDITORIAL: Special issue on optical neural engineering: advances in optical stimulation technology Special issue on optical neural engineering: advances in optical stimulation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Shy; Deisseroth, Karl

    2010-08-01

    a single spine, with two-photon uncaging) and in rapid, flexible spatial-temporal patterns [10-14]. Nevertheless, current technology generally requires damaging doses of UV or violet illumination and the continuous re-introduction of the caged compound, which, despite interest, makes for a difficult transition beyond in vitro preparations. Thus, the tremendous progress in the in vivo application of photo-stimulation tools over the past five years has been largely facilitated by two 'exciting' new photo-stimulation technologies: photo-biological stimulation of a rapidly increasing arsenal of light-sensitive ion channels and pumps ('optogenetic' probes[15-18]) and direct photo-thermal stimulation of neural tissue with an IR laser [19-21]. The Journal of Neural Engineering has dedicated a special section in this issue to highlight advances in optical stimulation technology, which includes original peer-reviewed contributions dealing with the design of modern optical systems for spatial-temporal control of optical excitation patterns and with the biophysics of neural-thermal interaction mediated by electromagnetic waves. The paper by Nikolenko, Peterka and Yuste [22] presents a compact design of a microscope-photo-stimulator based on a transmissive phase-modulating spatial-light modulator (SLM). Computer-generated holographic photo-stimulation using SLMs [12-14, 23] allows the efficient parallel projection of intense sparse patterns of light, and the welcome development of compact, user-friendly systems will likely reduce the barrier to its widespread adoption. The paper by Losavio et al [24] presents the design and functional characteristics of their acousto-optical deflector (AOD) systems for studying spatial-temporal dendritic integration in single neurons in vitro. Both single-photon (UV) and two-photon (femtosecond pulsed IR) AOD uncaging systems are described in detail. The paper presents an excellent overview of the current state of the art and limitations of

  3. An Examination of the State of Imitation Research in Children with Autism: Issues of Definition and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevlever, Melina; Gillis, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that children with autism are impaired in their ability to imitate others. However, diverse methodologies, contradictory findings, and varying theoretical explanations continue to exist in the literature despite decades of research. A comprehensive account of imitation in children with autism is hampered by the lack…

  4. Methodological issues affecting the study of fish parasites. I. Duration of live fish storage prior to dissection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 2 (2016), s. 107-115. ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Parasite community * Temporal changes * Carassius gibelio * Fish holding * Methodology * Parasitological examination Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.752, year: 2014

  5. Development of phantom and methodology for 3D and 4D dose intercomparisons for advanced lung radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are few reported intercomparisons or audits of combinations of advanced radiotherapy methods, particularly for 4D treatments. As part of an evaluation of the implementation of advanced radiotherapy technology, a phantom and associated methods, initially developed for in-house commissioning and QA of 4D lung treatments, has been developed further with the aim of using it for end-to-end dose intercomparison of 4D treatment planning and delivery. The respiratory thorax phantom can house moving inserts with variable speed (breathing rate) and motion amplitude. In one set-up mode it contains a small ion chamber for point dose measurements, or alternatively it can hold strips of radiochromic film to measure dose distributions. Initial pilot and feasibility measurements have been carried out in one hospital to thoroughly test the methods and procedures before using it more widely across a range of hospitals and treatment systems. Overall, the results show good agreement between measured and calculated doses and distributions, supporting the use of the phantom and methodology for multi-centre intercomparisons. However, before wider use, refinements of the method and analysis are currently underway particularly for the film measurements

  6. Design and assessment approach on advanced SFR safety with emphasis on core disruptive accident issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A basic safety approach in designing sodium fast reactors (SFRs) is essentially the same as one taken in light water reactors (LWRs). The concept of defence in depth (DiD), as widely applied to the design of LWRs, shall be applied to the safety design of SFRs.With a primary emphasis on preventing and detecting abnormal occurrences, safety design measures shall be provided under postulated abnormal conditions. Those are the appropriate means to shutdown the reactor, cool the residual heat in the reactor core and contain radioactive materials within the reactor facility. Even though the philosophy involved in the DiD concept has been universally accepted, the SFR-specific issues shall be taken into account in technical implementation. The recriticality issue on core disruptive accident (CDA) is highly important in the commercialization of SFRs. Because the fast reactor core is not in the highest reactivity configuration, the recriticality issue in CDA condition has been one of the major safety issues of SFR from the beginning of its development history. The conventional safety approach to this issue is (1) to minimize the occurrence probability of CDA by utilizing, for example, two independent reliable reactor shutdown systems, and (2) to assess the mechanical energy release due to recriticality events assuming hypothetical CDA, confirming the integrity of reactor vessel and component against the estimated mechanical energy and/or loading due to burning of sodium that could be spilled out from the reactor vessel. The assessment method of the CDA has been improved from the very beginning Bethe-Tait model in 1956, which assumes the gravitational fall down of the core fuel, to the recent more mechanistic models such as SAS 4A and SIMMER-III code, which consider various material motion and phase- change mechanism based on in-pile and out-of-pile experiments. Even though their early designs consider CDAs directly in the safety design, the treatment in safety

  7. The Diffusion and Adoption of Advanced Technologies in Canada: An Overview of the Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Elad Gafni

    2005-01-01

    The adoption of advanced technologies is a means of fostering productivity improvement. Many theories seek to explain the process of advanced technology diffusion and adoption. Canadian firms generally trail their U.S. counterparts in the adoption of advanced technology. There are many critical gaps in our knowledge and understanding of technological diffusion in Canada. Key gaps include the identification of leading and lagging industries in terms of adoption; key barriers to technological d...

  8. Evaluating the impact of a locality based social policy intervention on mental health: conceptual and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A; Huxley, P; Thomas, R; Robson, B; Evans, S; Stordy, J; Gately, C

    2001-01-01

    Urban regeneration initiatives provide an opportunity for examining the impact of changes in socio-economic circumstances on the mental health of different groups and individuals within localities. This paper sets out the conceptual and methodological bases for evaluating the impact of a population based social policy intervention on mental health. We suggest the need to integrate a range of disciplinary and methodological developments in research on health inequalities in exploring the impact of urban regeneration on mental health. A combination of multi-level modelling, subjective indicators and narrative accounts of individuals about mental health in the context of locality and personal changes are central for developing theories and methods appropriate for exploring the action and interaction of effects operating between structural and individual/agency levels. PMID:11694057

  9. Development of a HRA method based on Human Factor Issues for advanced NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for various plant systems including nuclear power plants (NPPs) is rapidly moving toward fully digital I and C and modern computer techniques have been gradually introduced into the design of advanced main control room (MCR). In advanced MCR, computer based Human-System Interfaces (HSIs) such as CRT based displays, large display panels (LDP), advanced information system, soft control and computerized procedure system (CPS) are applied in advanced MCR. Human operators in an advanced MCR still play an important role. However, various research and experiences from NPPs with an advanced MCR show that characteristics of human operators' task would be changed due to the use of inexperienced HSIs. This gives implications to the PSFs (Performance Shaping Factors) in HRA (Human Reliability Analysis). PSF in HRA is an aspect of the human's individual characteristics, environment, organization, or task that specifically decrements or improves human performance resulting in increasing or decreasing the likelihood of human error. These PSFs have been suggested in various ways depending on the HRA methods used. In most HRA methods, however, there is a lack of inconsistency for the derivation of the PSFs and a lack of considerations of how the changes implemented in advanced MCR give impact on the operators' task. In this study, a framework for the derivation of and evaluation in the PSFs to be used in HRA for advanced NPPs is suggested

  10. Characterisation of contaminated metals using an advanced statistical toolbox - Geostatistical characterisation of contaminated metals: methodology and illustrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological characterisation plays an important role in the process to recycle contaminated or potentially contaminated metals. It is a platform for planning, identification of the extent and nature of contamination, assessing potential risk impacts, cost estimation, radiation protection, management of material arising from decommissioning as well as for the release of the materials as well as the disposal of the generated secondary waste as radioactive waste. Key issues in radiological characterisation are identification of objectives, development of a measurement and sampling strategy (probabilistic, judgmental or a combination thereof), knowledge management, traceability, recording and processing of obtained information. By applying advanced combination of statistical and geostatistical in the concept better performance can be achieved at a lower cost. This paper will describe the benefits with the usage of the available methods in the different stages of the characterisation, treatment and clearance processes aiming for reliable results in line with the data quality objectives. (authors)

  11. EPA Workshop on Temporal Exposure Issues for Environmental Pollutants: Health Effects and Methodologies for Estimating Risk (January 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA hosted a workshop to explore the state-of-the-science regarding the influence of duration and time-dependent concentrations or doses on a range of endpoints (health effects) and best practices for estimating risk. Additionally, the agency sought to advance the development ...

  12. Putin, Bush issue statement on advancing US-Russian human contacts

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "In addition to interstate, bilateral, regional and global issues discussed by Russian President Vladimir Putin and US President George Bush during their Kremlin summit on 24 May, the two leaders considered issues related to people-to-people contacts, ties between cities, states and regions, institutions and organizations" (1 page).

  13. Development of a practical fuel management system for PSBR based on advanced three-dimensional Monte Carlo coupled depletion methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippayakul, Chanatip

    The main objective of this research is to develop a practical fuel management system for the Pennsylvania State University Breazeale research reactor (PSBR) based on several advanced Monte Carlo coupled depletion methodologies. Primarily, this research involved two major activities: model and method developments and analyses and validations of the developed models and methods. The starting point of this research was the utilization of the earlier developed fuel management tool, TRIGSIM, to create the Monte Carlo model of core loading 51 (end of the core loading). It was found when comparing the normalized power results of the Monte Carlo model to those of the current fuel management system (using HELIOS/ADMARC-H) that they agreed reasonably well (within 2%--3% differences on average). Moreover, the reactivity of some fuel elements was calculated by the Monte Carlo model and it was compared with measured data. It was also found that the fuel element reactivity results of the Monte Carlo model were in good agreement with the measured data. However, the subsequent task of analyzing the conversion from the core loading 51 to the core loading 52 using TRIGSIM showed quite significant difference of each control rod worth between the Monte Carlo model and the current methodology model. The differences were mainly caused by inconsistent absorber atomic number densities between the two models. Hence, the model of the first operating core (core loading 2) was revised in light of new information about the absorber atomic densities to validate the Monte Carlo model with the measured data. With the revised Monte Carlo model, the results agreed better to the measured data. Although TRIGSIM showed good modeling and capabilities, the accuracy of TRIGSIM could be further improved by adopting more advanced algorithms. Therefore, TRIGSIM was planned to be upgraded. The first task of upgrading TRIGSIM involved the improvement of the temperature modeling capability. The new TRIGSIM was

  14. Progress in the development of tooling and dismantling methodologies for the Windscale advanced gas cooled reactor (WAGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (WAGR) is a major UK reactor decommissioning project co-funded by the UK Government, the European Commission and Magnox Electric. WAGR was a CO2 cooled, graphite moderated reactor which served as a test bed for the development of Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor technology in the UK. It operated from 1963 until shutdown in 1981. AEA Technology plc are currently the Managing Agents on behalf of UKAEA for the WAGR decommissioning project and are responsible for the co-ordination of the project up to the point when the contents of the reactor core and associated radioactive materials are removed and either disposed of or packaged for disposal at some time in the future. Decommissioning has progressed to the point where the reactor has been dismantled down to the level of the hot gas collection manifold with the removal of the top biological shield, the refuelling standpipes and the top section of the reactor pressure vessel. The 4 heat exchangers have also been removed and committed to shallow land burial. This paper describes the work carried out by AEA Technology under separate contracts of UKAEA in developing some of the equipment and deployment methods for the next phase of active operations required in preparation for the dismantling of the core structure. Most recent work has concentrated on the development of specialist tooling for removal of items of operational waste stored within the reactor core, equipment for cutting and removal of the highly radioactive stainless steel 'loop' pressure tubes, diamond wire cutting equipment for sectioning large diameter pipework, and equipment for dismantling the reactor neutron shield. The paper emphasises the process of adaptation and extension of existing technologies for cost-effective application in the decommissioning environment, the need for adequate forward planning of decommissioning methodologies together with large-scale 'mock-up' testing of equipment to

  15. Qualification issues associated with the use of advanced instrumentation and control systems hardware in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in advanced reactors will make extensive use of digital controls, microprocessors, multiplexing, and fiber-optic transmission. Elements of these advances in I ampersand C have been implemented on some current operating plants. However, the widespread use of the above technologies, as well as the use of artificial intelligence with minimum reliance on human operator control of reactors, highlights the need to develop standards for qualifying I ampersand C used in the next generation of nuclear power plants. As a first step in this direction, the protection system I ampersand C for present-day plants was compared to that proposed for advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). An evaluation template was developed by assembling a configuration of a safety channel instrument string for a generic ALWR, then comparing the impact of environmental stressors on that string to their effect on an equivalent instrument string from an existing light water reactor. The template was then used to address reliability issues for microprocessor-based protection systems. Standards (or lack thereof) for the qualification of microprocessor-based safety I ampersand C systems were also identified. This approach addresses in part issues raised in Nuclear Regulatory Commission policy document SECY-91-292, which recognizes that advanced I ampersand C systems for the nuclear industry are open-quotes being developed without consensus standards, as the technology available for design is ahead of the technology that is well understood through experience and supported by application standards.close quotes

  16. Advances in sports nutrition, exercise and medicine: Olympic issues, the legacy and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Carmont Mike

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the run up to the London 2012 Olympics, this editorial introduces the cross-journal article collection Advances in Sports Nutrition, Exercise and Medicine http://www.biomedcentral.com/series/asnem

  17. Structural and piping issues in the design certification of advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the design certification of structures and piping for evolutionary and passive advanced light water reactors. Advanced reactor designs are based on a set of assumed site-related parameters that are selected to envelop a majority of potential nuclear power plant sites. Multiple time histories are used as the seismic design basis in order to cover the majority of potential sites in the US. Additionally, design are established to ensure that surface motions at a particular site will not exceed the enveloped standard design surface motions. State-of-the-art soil-structure interaction (SSI) analyses have been performed for the advanced reactors, which include structure-to-structure interaction for all seismic Category 1 structures. Advanced technology has been utilized to exclude the dynamic effects of pipe rupture from structural design by demonstrating that the probability of pipe rupture is extremely low. For piping design, the advanced reactor vendors have developed design acceptance criteria (DAC) which provides the piping design analysis methods, design procedures, and acceptance criteria. In SECY-93-087 the NRC staff recommended that the Commission approve the approach to eliminate the OBE from the design of structures and piping in advanced reactors and provided guidance which identifies the necessary changes to existing seismic design criteria. The supplemental criteria address fatigue, seismic anchor motion, and piping stress limits when the OBE is eliminated

  18. On the Experimental Evaluation of Vehicular Networks: Issues, Requirements and Methodology Applied to a Real Use Case

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukada, Manabu; Santa, José; Matsuura, Satoshi; Ernst, Thierry; Fujikawa, Kazutoshi

    2014-01-01

    International audience One of the most challenging fields in vehicular communications has been the experimental assessment of protocols and novel technologies. Researchers usually tend to simulate vehicular scenarios and/or partially validate new contributions in the area by using constrained testbeds and carrying out minor tests. In this line, the present work reviews the issues that pioneers in the area of vehicular communications and, in general, in telematics, have to deal with if they...

  19. Noninvasive Fetal Trisomy (NIFTY test: an advanced noninvasive prenatal diagnosis methodology for fetal autosomal and sex chromosomal aneuploidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Fuman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventional prenatal screening tests, such as maternal serum tests and ultrasound scan, have limited resolution and accuracy. Methods We developed an advanced noninvasive prenatal diagnosis method based on massively parallel sequencing. The Noninvasive Fetal Trisomy (NIFTY test, combines an optimized Student’s t-test with a locally weighted polynomial regression and binary hypotheses. We applied the NIFTY test to 903 pregnancies and compared the diagnostic results with those of full karyotyping. Results 16 of 16 trisomy 21, 12 of 12 trisomy 18, two of two trisomy 13, three of four 45, X, one of one XYY and two of two XXY abnormalities were correctly identified. But one false positive case of trisomy 18 and one false negative case of 45, X were observed. The test performed with 100% sensitivity and 99.9% specificity for autosomal aneuploidies and 85.7% sensitivity and 99.9% specificity for sex chromosomal aneuploidies. Compared with three previously reported z-score approaches with/without GC-bias removal and with internal control, the NIFTY test was more accurate and robust for the detection of both autosomal and sex chromosomal aneuploidies in fetuses. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a powerful and reliable methodology for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis.

  20. Advanced control rooms and crew performance issues: Implications for human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent trends in advanced control room (ACR) design are considered with respect to their impact on human performance. It is concluded that potentially negative influences exist, however, a variety of factors make it difficult to model, analyze, and quantify these effects for human reliability analyses (HRAs)

  1. Editorial of INSIGHT Special Issue: AFIS Doctoral Symposium: Advancing Systems Analysis and Modeling in French Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Panetto, Hervé; Mayer, Frédérique; Bonjour, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of INSIGHT section includes the main contributions presented in workshops that have held during the Systems Engineering Academia-Industry Forum. The aim of this issue is to provide an overview of the French research in the domain of Systems Engineering. This Systems Engineering Academia-Industry Forum is organized by AFIS (Association Française d'Ingénierie Système), the French chapter of INCOSE, and supported by French universities as a regular series, usually every two ye...

  2. Cognitive Issues in Learning Advanced Physics: An Example from Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We are investigating cognitive issues in learning quantum mechanics in order to develop effective teaching and learning tools. The analysis of cognitive issues is particularly important for bridging the gap between the quantitative and conceptual aspects of quantum mechanics and for ensuring that the learning tools help students build a robust knowledge structure. We discuss the cognitive aspects of quantum mechanics that are similar or different from those of introductory physics and their implications for developing strategies to help students develop a good grasp of quantum mechanics.

  3. Medición en salud: Algunas consideraciones metodológicas Some methodological issues about measurements in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Alarcon M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement process is a part of everyday work of health professionals. Technological advances have created precise and sensitive instruments whose results are highly accurate and cast little doubts. However, health care has diversified, becoming a multidimensional and complex task. This means that new aspects, that are difficult to measure, must be addressed, such as health perception by patients or cost usefulness ratios of health actions. Therefore, clinicians and researchers must have a good perception of the quality of measures that they use in their daily work, to make the correct diagnostic, therapeutic or prognostic decisions. This article explores the operational concepts that help in the development and assessment of measuring instruments in terms of validity and truthfulness (Rev Méd Chile 2008; 136: 125-30

  4. Methodological issues about techniques for the spiking of standard OECD soil with nanoparticles: evidence of different behaviours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglietta, Maria Lucia, E-mail: mara.miglietta@enea.it; Rametta, Gabriella; Manzo, Sonia; Salluzzo, Antonio; Rimauro, Juri; Francia, Girolamo Di [ENEA, Portici Technical Unit, C.R. Portici (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate at what extent the results of standard nanoparticle (NP) toxicity testing methodologies are affected by the different exposure procedures on soil organisms. In this view, differences in physicochemical properties of ZnO NPs (<100 nm), ZnO bulk (<200 nm) and ionic Zinc (ZnCl{sub 2}) and their ecotoxicological potential toward Lepidium sativum were investigated with respect to three different spiking methods. Results show that the spiking procedures give homogeneous distribution of the testing nanomaterial in soil but the physicochemical and ecotoxicological properties of the testing species differ according to the spiking procedure. Dry spiking produced the highest ZnO solubility whereas spiking through dispersions of ZnO in water and in aqueous soil extracts produced the lowest. At the same time, the ecotoxic effects showed different trends with regard to the spiking route. The need for a definition of agreed methods concerning the NP spiking procedures is, therefore, urgent.

  5. Methodological issues about techniques for the spiking of standard OECD soil with nanoparticles: evidence of different behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to investigate at what extent the results of standard nanoparticle (NP) toxicity testing methodologies are affected by the different exposure procedures on soil organisms. In this view, differences in physicochemical properties of ZnO NPs (<100 nm), ZnO bulk (<200 nm) and ionic Zinc (ZnCl2) and their ecotoxicological potential toward Lepidium sativum were investigated with respect to three different spiking methods. Results show that the spiking procedures give homogeneous distribution of the testing nanomaterial in soil but the physicochemical and ecotoxicological properties of the testing species differ according to the spiking procedure. Dry spiking produced the highest ZnO solubility whereas spiking through dispersions of ZnO in water and in aqueous soil extracts produced the lowest. At the same time, the ecotoxic effects showed different trends with regard to the spiking route. The need for a definition of agreed methods concerning the NP spiking procedures is, therefore, urgent

  6. Advances in Graduate Marketing Curriculum: Paying Attention to Ethical, Social, and Sustainability Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, James

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the impact of coercive, mimetic, and normative isomorphic pressures on the coverage and offering of courses addressing ethical, social, and sustainability issues (ESSI) in business schools' graduate marketing curricula. Data from the Aspen Institute's Beyond Grey Pinstripes program are analyzed to detect if…

  7. Global energy and environmental issues, reflected in Toyota's advanced powertrain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Toshiaki [Toyota Motor Corporation, Aichi (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    Energy diversification is proceeding due to environmental issues and need for energy security. At the same time, the environmental challenges for the automobile are becoming more and more severe due to the requirement for low fuel consumption and air pollution. While the alternative fuels are expanding due to concerns on future oil supply, automakers need to promote multi-directional developments. However it is considered that oil will remain as the main fuel source in the next few decades. Thus, the development of internal combustion engine (ICE) and of high efficiency vehicle systems will remain an important challenge. Furthermore hybrid vehicle (HV) technology and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology are expected to be one effective technology to save oil usage. For that purpose, promoting electricity production which emits low CO{sub 2} and the development of a high energy density battery is important. In addition to the energy issue, air pollution issue is also an important matter. Although the emission regulations are continuously becoming more stringent to respond to the air pollution issue, many areas have a mismatch between emission regulation and suitable fuel quality. Therefore automakers are taking action for resolving the contradiction. Since it will take time until fuel quality meets the required specification, developing the technologies to prevent the major matters for consumers can't be avoided. Coordination of fuel properties and quality over a wide area is essential for improving air quality locally and globally. (orig.)

  8. Aspectos metodológicos e constitutivos do pensamento do adulto Methodological and concerning issues from an adult's thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alberto da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do pensamento do adulto apresenta algumas particularidades metodológicas que dificultam a investigação. Para a análise das estruturas e dos processos mentais, os pesquisadores da Epistemologia Genética têm por referência o Método Clínico-Crítico ou, simplesmente, Método Clínico. Todavia, os estudos de Piaget e da Escola de Genebra se ocupam, principalmente, do desenvolvimento em termos psicogenéticos, isto é, da evolução intelectual a partir da criança. No caso dos adultos, o Método Clínico precisa sofrer algumas adaptações, pois estes apresentam estruturas e processos de pensamento singulares. Em geral, o raciocínio mais apurado e rápido dos adultos pode levar à abertura de múltiplos possíveis e de incontáveis patamares de hipóteses que se reúnem em quadros dedutíveis simultâneos. É particularmente difícil averiguar um pensamento que pode seguir ao mesmo tempo mais do que um percurso, bem como descartar ligeiramente algumas hipóteses em favor de outras. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar possibilidades metodológicas de pesquisa que atendam as especificidades do adulto. Em particular, abordaremos a prática do Método Clínico e suas nuances na aplicação com sujeitos maiores de 20 anos. Dada a variedade de operações lógico-matemáticas possíveis, destacaremos a investigação na perspectiva do sujeito psicológico e da construção da significação.The study of the adults' thought has some methodological features that hinder the investigation. For the analysis of structures and mental processes of the researchers are reference Epistemology Genetics Clinical-Critical Method, or simply Clinical Method. However, the studies of Piaget and the Geneva School of dealing, mainly in terms of psychogenetic development i.e. the intellectual development from the child. For adults, the clinical method needs some adjustments because they have structures and processes of thinking individuals. In general

  9. Critical review of controversial issues in the management of advanced pediatric liver tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abha A; Gerstle, J Ted; Ng, Vicky; Wong, Ansely; Fecteau, Annie; Malogolowkin, Marcio H; Meyers, Rebecka L; Grant, David; Grant, Ronald M

    2011-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatoblastoma (HB) are the most common primary tumors of liver in children. The management of patients with locally advanced, unresectable disease or those with extra-hepatic distant metastases provides substantial challenges to pediatric oncologists, hepatologists, and surgeons. Herein, we critically debate the two sides of three specific controversies: (1) the role of chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced pediatric HCC; (2) the indications for liver transplantation in children with HCC, specifically, the appropriateness of using adult Milan criteria; and (3) the role of liver trasplantation in children with unresectable HB that present with metastatic disease. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2011;56:1013-1018. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21488153

  10. Tutorial on Computing: Technological Advances, Social Implications, Ethical and Legal Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Debnath, Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Computing and information technology have made significant advances. The use of computing and technology is a major aspect of our lives, and this use will only continue to increase in our lifetime. Electronic digital computers and high performance communication networks are central to contemporary information technology. The computing applications in a wide range of areas including business, communications, medical research, transportation, entertainments, and education are transforming lo...

  11. Methodological issues associated with collecting sensitive information over the telephone - experience from an Australian non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullerton Simon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collecting population data on sensitive issues such as non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is problematic. Case note audits or hospital/clinic based presentations only record severe cases and do not distinguish between suicidal and non-suicidal intent. Community surveys have largely been limited to school and university students, resulting in little much needed population-based data on NSSI. Collecting these data via a large scale population survey presents challenges to survey methodologists. This paper addresses the methodological issues associated with collecting this type of data via CATI. Methods An Australia-wide population survey was funded by the Australian Government to determine prevalence estimates of NSSI and associations, predictors, relationships to suicide attempts and suicide ideation, and outcomes. Computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI on a random sample of the Australian population aged 10+ years of age from randomly selected households, was undertaken. Results Overall, from 31,216 eligible households, 12,006 interviews were undertaken (response rate 38.5%. The 4-week prevalence of NSSI was 1.1% (95% ci 0.9-1.3% and lifetime prevalence was 8.1% (95% ci 7.6-8.6. Methodological concerns and challenges in regard to collection of these data included extensive interviewer training and post interview counselling. Ethical considerations, especially with children as young as 10 years of age being asked sensitive questions, were addressed prior to data collection. The solution required a large amount of information to be sent to each selected household prior to the telephone interview which contributed to a lower than expected response rate. Non-coverage error caused by the population of interest being highly mobile, homeless or institutionalised was also a suspected issue in this low prevalence condition. In many circumstances the numbers missing from the sampling frame are small enough to not cause worry

  12. Functional issues and environmental qualification of digital protection systems of advanced light-water nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issues of obsolescence and lack of infrastructural support in (analog) spare parts, coupled with the potential benefits of digital systems, are driving the nuclear industry to retrofit analog instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems with digital and microprocessor-based systems. While these technologies have several advantages, their application to safety-related systems in nuclear power plants raises key issues relating to the systems' environmental qualification and functional reliability. To bound the problem of new I ampersand C system functionality and qualification, the authors focused this study on protection systems proposed for use in ALWRs. Specifically, both functional and environmental qualification issues for ALWR protection system I ampersand C were addressed by developing an environmental, functional, and aging data template for a protection division of each proposed ALWR design. By using information provided by manufacturers, environmental conditions and stressors to which I ampersand C equipment in reactor protection divisions may be subjected were identified. The resulting data were then compared to a similar template for an instrument string typically found in an analog protection division of a present-day nuclear power plant. The authors also identified fiber-optic transmission systems as technologies that are relatively new to the nuclear power plant environment and examined the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber-optic components and systems. One reason for the exercise of caution in the introduction of software into safety-critical systems is the potential for common-cause failure due to the software. This study, however, approaches the functionality problem from a systems point of view. System malfunction scenarios are postulated to illustrate the fact that, when dealing with the performance of the overall integrated system, the real issues are functionality and fault tolerance, not hardware vs. software

  13. Preface of the special issue on Advances in Control and Fault-Tolerant Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Korbicz, Jozef; Maquin, Didier; THEILLIOL, DIDIER

    2012-01-01

    Today's automatic control systems are of high degrees of integration, complexity, embedding and networking of heterogeneous entities. This trend is driven by the industrial needs for achieving new technical performance and meeting additional performance demands. A most critical and important issue surrounding the design and operation of complex automatic systems is the application of Fault Detection and Isolation and Fault-Tolerant Control (FDI/FTC) technology, aiming at guaranteeing high sys...

  14. US National Climate Assessment (NCA) Scenarios for Assessing Our Climate Future: Issues and Methodological Perspectives Background Whitepaper for Participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Richard H.; Engle, Nathan L.; Hall, John; Jacobs, Kathy; Lempert, Rob; Mearns, L. O.; Melillo, Jerry; Mote, Phil; O' Brien, Sheila; Rosenzweig, C.; Ruane, Alex; Sheppard, Stephen; Vallario, Robert W.; Wiek, Arnim; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    This whitepaper is intended to provide a starting point for discussion at a workshop for the National Climate Assessment (NCA) that focuses on the use and development of scenarios. The paper will provide background needed by participants in the workshop in order to review options for developing and using scenarios in NCA. The paper briefly defines key terms and establishes a conceptual framework for developing consistent scenarios across different end uses and spatial scales. It reviews uses of scenarios in past U.S. national assessments and identifies potential users of and needs for scenarios for both the report scheduled for release in June 2013 and to support an ongoing distributed assessment process in sectors and regions around the country. Because scenarios prepared for the NCA will need to leverage existing research, the paper takes account of recent scientific advances and activities that could provide needed inputs. Finally, it considers potential approaches for providing methods, data, and other tools for assessment participants. We note that the term 'scenarios' has many meanings. An important goal of the whitepaper (and portions of the workshop agenda) is pedagogical (i.e., to compare different meanings and uses of the term and make assessment participants aware of the need to be explicit about types and uses of scenarios). In climate change research, scenarios have been used to establish bounds for future climate conditions and resulting effects on human and natural systems, given a defined level of greenhouse gas emissions. This quasi-predictive use contrasts with the way decision analysts typically use scenarios (i.e., to consider how robust alternative decisions or strategies may be to variation in key aspects of the future that are uncertain). As will be discussed, in climate change research and assessment, scenarios describe a range of aspects of the future, including major driving forces (both human activities and natural processes

  15. Design and Assessment Approach on Advanced SFR Safety with Emphasis on the Core Disruptive Accident Issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of future sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs) will be achieved at the same level as that achieved for future light water reactors (LWRs). The concept of defence in depth, as widely applied to the design of LWRs, will be applied to the safety design of advanced SFRs. Through the prevention, detection and control of accidents, core disruptive accidents (CDAs) will be excluded from design basis events. Considering that the SFR reactor core is not the most reactive configuration, unlike in LWRs, design measures to prevent CDAs and to mitigate the consequences of them are being considered as provisions for beyond design basis events. To meet future nuclear energy system safey goals effectively, advanced SFR designs should exploit passive safety features to increase safety margins and to enhance reliability, i.e. prevention and/or mitigation of CDAs. In particular, the safety approach needed to eliminate severe recriticality will be highly desirable, because with this approach, severe accidents in SFRs can be simply regarded as being similar to LWRs. In addition, it is easier to make full use of the excellent heat transport characteristics of sodium coolant in achieving in-vessel cooling and the retention of post-accident core debris. (author)

  16. Sudden death in advanced abdominal pregnancy: a case report and discussion of the related medicolegal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, M; Sreenivas, M; Singh, Bajrang; Behera, C; Dikshit, P C

    2013-04-01

    We report sudden unexpected death in a 35-year-old woman with pregnancy of seven months duration. There was an allegation by the parents of the woman that she was subjected to an assault prior to death. Autopsy examination showed an abdominal pregnancy with a dead fetus, ruptured gestational sac, massive haemorrhage and secondary placental attachment. During her antenatal check-ups, she had persistently complained of abdominal pain and loose stools, but the diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy was missed clinically and on ultrasound scan. In this paper we discuss the diagnostic difficulties and medicolegal issues in such cases. PMID:23362236

  17. Proceedings of the 3rd Biennial Conference of the Society for Implementation Research Collaboration (SIRC) 2015: advancing efficient methodologies through community partnerships and team science

    OpenAIRE

    Kerns, Suzanne; Puspitasari, Ajeng; Hendricks, Karin; Pierson, Andria; Fizur, Phil; Comtois, Katherine A.; Green, Amy E; Trott, Elise M.; Willging, Cathleen E.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Woolf, Nicholas H.; Liang, Shuting Lily; Heredia, Natalia I.; Kegler, Michelle; Risendal, Betsy

    2016-01-01

    Table of contents Introduction to the 3rd Biennial Conference of the Society for Implementation Research Collaboration: advancing efficient methodologies through team science and community partnerships Cara Lewis, Doyanne Darnell, Suzanne Kerns, Maria Monroe-DeVita, Sara J. Landes, Aaron R. Lyon, Cameo Stanick, Shannon Dorsey, Jill Locke, Brigid Marriott, Ajeng Puspitasari, Caitlin Dorsey, Karin Hendricks, Andria Pierson, Phil Fizur, Katherine A. Comtois A1: A behavioral economic perspective ...

  18. Advances in civic engagement research: issues of civic measures and civic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaff, Jonathan F; Kawashima-Ginsberg, Kei; Lin, Emily S

    2011-01-01

    Civic engagement has gained prominence over the past two decades as an important topic in developmental science. Much has been learned about what civic engagement means, how it is measured, and how young people develop civic engagement. In this chapter, we discuss emerging areas of research for civic engagement and core questions that we believe need to be explored. In particular, we focus on a broader conceptualization of civic engagement beyond behavioral measures, consider the relevance of cultural and political contexts on the development of civic engagement among under-served populations, and discuss the implications of advancing the civic engagement field on the civic participation of youth in the United States and throughout the world. PMID:23259196

  19. Applications of Advanced Nondestructive Measurement Techniques to Address Safety of Flight Issues on NASA Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Advanced nondestructive measurement techniques are critical for ensuring the reliability and safety of NASA spacecraft. Techniques such as infrared thermography, THz imaging, X-ray computed tomography and backscatter X-ray are used to detect indications of damage in spacecraft components and structures. Additionally, sensor and measurement systems are integrated into spacecraft to provide structural health monitoring to detect damaging events that occur during flight such as debris impacts during launch and assent or from micrometeoroid and orbital debris, or excessive loading due to anomalous flight conditions. A number of examples will be provided of how these nondestructive measurement techniques have been applied to resolve safety critical inspection concerns for the Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), and a variety of launch vehicles and unmanned spacecraft.

  20. Introduction to the special issue on Advances in intelligent nonlinear control for robotic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chee Khiang PANG; Huajin TANG; Qing Wei JIA

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the last two decades, robotic systems have achieved wide applications in every aspect of human society, including industrial manufacturing, automotive production, medical devices, and social lives. With the diversity of application do-mains, control techniques have pervaded from industrial robot manipulators, wheeled or legged mobile robots, unmanned autonomous aerial, ground, and underwater vehicles, to humanoid robots, and haptic devices, etc. The growing number of applications of robotics and increasing requirements for system stability, reliability, and safety, are posing new and challenging theoretical and technological problems for modeling and control of these highly nonlinear systems. Control of these complex systems is highly challenging due to the inherent nonlinear response and strong heterogeneity in dif-ferent parts as computers, sensors, hardware objects, etc. As such, novel nonlinear control strategies are essential to the advancement of robotic systems and corresponding technologies.

  1. Treatment of advanced Hodgkin lymphomas in adolescents and young adults: efficacy and toxicity issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Larina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL is highly sensitive to chemo- and radiotherapy. Long-term tumor-free survival in patients with early stages is close to 95–98 %. Therapy results in patients with advanced stages is worse that requires an intensification of treatment and creates the issuesof late toxicity prevention. These problems are especially relevant in young adults with a life expectancy of 40 years or more. Escalated BEACOPP protocol developed by the German study group allows to achieve cure the majority of patients with advanced-stage Hodgkin’s lymphoma, but this regime has significant toxicity. It causes infertility in almost all patients. BEACOPP-14 with comparable activity contains less cumulative doses of potentially gonadotoxic alkylating agents. Efficacy and toxicity of this regime has been analyzed in 29 patients with prognostically unfavorable stages of HL (m – 13, f – 16 received 8 courses BEACOPP-14 without a dose reduction of cytostatics. The median age of patients was 24 (20–35 years. With a median follow-up of 32.8 (4–66 months, event-free survival was 92.8 %, disease-free – 96.2 %, and overall survival – 95.2 %. Of the 16 women included in the study, the menstrual cycle was restored in 14 patients during 3–6 months. 2 patients were not evaluated because of switch to more intensive chemotherapy in the early stages of treatment. Of the remaining 14 patients pregnancy occurred in 3 (18.7 %, delivery – in 2, abortion – in 1. Delivery was term, children born healthy. Most of the patients according to the doctors’ recommendations protects and continues to avoid pregnancy for 2 years after treatment. The data indicate a potentially less reproductive damaging of BEACOPP-14 in females retaining high anti-tumor efficacy.

  2. Treatment of advanced Hodgkin lymphomas in adolescents and young adults: efficacy and toxicity issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Larina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL is highly sensitive to chemo- and radiotherapy. Long-term tumor-free survival in patients with early stages is close to 95–98 %. Therapy results in patients with advanced stages is worse that requires an intensification of treatment and creates the issuesof late toxicity prevention. These problems are especially relevant in young adults with a life expectancy of 40 years or more. Escalated BEACOPP protocol developed by the German study group allows to achieve cure the majority of patients with advanced-stage Hodgkin’s lymphoma, but this regime has significant toxicity. It causes infertility in almost all patients. BEACOPP-14 with comparable activity contains less cumulative doses of potentially gonadotoxic alkylating agents. Efficacy and toxicity of this regime has been analyzed in 29 patients with prognostically unfavorable stages of HL (m – 13, f – 16 received 8 courses BEACOPP-14 without a dose reduction of cytostatics. The median age of patients was 24 (20–35 years. With a median follow-up of 32.8 (4–66 months, event-free survival was 92.8 %, disease-free – 96.2 %, and overall survival – 95.2 %. Of the 16 women included in the study, the menstrual cycle was restored in 14 patients during 3–6 months. 2 patients were not evaluated because of switch to more intensive chemotherapy in the early stages of treatment. Of the remaining 14 patients pregnancy occurred in 3 (18.7 %, delivery – in 2, abortion – in 1. Delivery was term, children born healthy. Most of the patients according to the doctors’ recommendations protects and continues to avoid pregnancy for 2 years after treatment. The data indicate a potentially less reproductive damaging of BEACOPP-14 in females retaining high anti-tumor efficacy.

  3. Overview of thermal management issues for advanced military space nuclear reactor power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the functional and system imposed design constraints and development issues related to military space nuclear power thermal management. The envisioned requirements related to power level, power form and profile, operating duration, and life encompass a wide variety of conceptual future military spacecraft missions. ''Baseload,'' near-constant power output, and ''burstload,'' high peak to average power profile requirements introduce a wide spectrum of potential space reactor configuration needs with a corresponding range of steady state and transient, periodic thermal management technological needs. Spacecraft system operational conditions and design constraints (allowable power/payload mass and volume fractions, survivability and endurability, autonomy, integrability, and orbital operations considerations) impose additional thermal management technological needs. Candidate thermal management technologies are described in terms of their attributes and state of development

  4. Advancements of Data Anomaly Detection Research in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Open Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Aizaini Maarof

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are important and necessary platforms for the future as the concept “Internet of Things” has emerged lately. They are used for monitoring, tracking, or controlling of many applications in industry, health care, habitat, and military. However, the quality of data collected by sensor nodes is affected by anomalies that occur due to various reasons, such as node failures, reading errors, unusual events, and malicious attacks. Therefore, anomaly detection is a necessary process to ensure the quality of sensor data before it is utilized for making decisions. In this review, we present the challenges of anomaly detection in WSNs and state the requirements to design efficient and effective anomaly detection models. We then review the latest advancements of data anomaly detection research in WSNs and classify current detection approaches in five main classes based on the detection methods used to design these approaches. Varieties of the state-of-the-art models for each class are covered and their limitations are highlighted to provide ideas for potential future works. Furthermore, the reviewed approaches are compared and evaluated based on how well they meet the stated requirements. Finally, the general limitations of current approaches are mentioned and further research opportunities are suggested and discussed.

  5. Modelling activities of experimental facilities related to advanced reactors. Considerations on 1D/3D issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of art of modelling activities related to integral experimental facilities of advanced passive reactors show to date important open items. The main advantage of using 1D plant codes is the capability of simulating the full interaction between components traditionally correctly modelled (condensers, heat exchangers, pipes and vessels) and other components for which codes are not 100% suitable (pools and containments). Polytechnical University of Catalonia (UPC) and Polytechnical University of Valencia (UPV) cooperated with other European research organizations in the 'Technology Enhancement for Passive Safety Systems' (TEPSS) project, within the European Fourth Framework Programme. It was a task of both Universities to supply analytical support of PANDA tests. The paper deals with the 1D/3D discussion in the framework of modelling activities related to integral passive facilities like PANDA. It starts choosing reference tests among those corresponding to our participation in TEPSS project. The discrepancies observed in a 1D simulation of the selected tests will be shown and analyzed. An evaluation of how the 3D version can lead to a better agreement with data will be included. Disadvantages of 3D codes will be shown too. Combining the use of different codes, and considering analyst criteria, will make possible to establish suitable recommendations from both engineering and scientific point of view. (author)

  6. Advancements of data anomaly detection research in wireless sensor networks: a survey and open issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassam, Murad A; Zainal, Anazida; Maarof, Mohd Aizaini

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are important and necessary platforms for the future as the concept "Internet of Things" has emerged lately. They are used for monitoring, tracking, or controlling of many applications in industry, health care, habitat, and military. However, the quality of data collected by sensor nodes is affected by anomalies that occur due to various reasons, such as node failures, reading errors, unusual events, and malicious attacks. Therefore, anomaly detection is a necessary process to ensure the quality of sensor data before it is utilized for making decisions. In this review, we present the challenges of anomaly detection in WSNs and state the requirements to design efficient and effective anomaly detection models. We then review the latest advancements of data anomaly detection research in WSNs and classify current detection approaches in five main classes based on the detection methods used to design these approaches. Varieties of the state-of-the-art models for each class are covered and their limitations are highlighted to provide ideas for potential future works. Furthermore, the reviewed approaches are compared and evaluated based on how well they meet the stated requirements. Finally, the general limitations of current approaches are mentioned and further research opportunities are suggested and discussed. PMID:23966182

  7. Requirements Development Issues for Advanced Life Support Systems: Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levri, Julie A.; Fisher, John W.; Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Long duration missions pose substantial new challenges for solid waste management in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. These possibly include storing large volumes of waste material in a safe manner, rendering wastes stable or sterilized for extended periods of time, and/or processing wastes for recovery of vital resources. This is further complicated because future missions remain ill-defined with respect to waste stream quantity, composition and generation schedule. Without definitive knowledge of this information, development of requirements is hampered. Additionally, even if waste streams were well characterized, other operational and processing needs require clarification (e.g. resource recovery requirements, planetary protection constraints). Therefore, the development of solid waste management (SWM) subsystem requirements for long duration space missions is an inherently uncertain, complex and iterative process. The intent of this paper is to address some of the difficulties in writing requirements for missions that are not completely defined. This paper discusses an approach and motivation for ALS SWM requirements development, the characteristics of effective requirements, and the presence of those characteristics in requirements that are developed for uncertain missions. Associated drivers for life support system technological capability are also presented. A general means of requirements forecasting is discussed, including successive modification of requirements and the need to consider requirements integration among subsystems.

  8. Gas centrifuge enrichment plants inspection frequency and remote monitoring issues for advanced safeguards implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Erpenbeck, Heather H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miller, Karen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ianakiev, Kiril D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reimold, Benjamin A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ward, Steven L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Howell, John [GLASGOW UNIV.

    2010-09-13

    Current safeguards approaches used by the IAEA at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low enriched uranium (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect high enriched uranium (BEU) production with adequate probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of declared cylinders of uranium hexafluoride that are used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. This paper contains an analysis of how possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems including process monitoring and possible on-site destructive analysis (DA) of samples could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements providing more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We have also studied a few advanced safeguards systems that could be assembled for unattended operation and the level of performance needed from these systems to provide more effective safeguards. The analysis also considers how short notice random inspections, unannounced inspections (UIs), and the concept of information-driven inspections can affect probability of detection of the diversion of nuclear material when coupled to new GCEPs safeguards regimes augmented with unattended systems. We also explore the effects of system failures and operator tampering on meeting safeguards goals for quantity and timeliness and the measures needed to recover from such failures and anomalies.

  9. Qualidade de vida e saúde: aspectos conceituais e metodológicos Quality of life and health: conceptual and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maria Fleury Seidl

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O conceito qualidade de vida tem suscitado pesquisas e cresce a sua utilização nas práticas desenvolvidas nos serviços de saúde, por equipes profissionais que atuam junto a usuários acometidos por enfermidades diversas. O presente artigo tem como objetivo descrever a evolução histórica e tecer algumas considerações sobre aspectos conceituais e metodológicos do conceito qualidade de vida (QV no campo da saúde. Baseando-se na revisão da literatura, dois aspectos do termo são destacados no plano conceitual: subjetividade e multidimensionalidade. Quanto aos aspectos metodológicos, uma tendência significativa tem sido a construção e/ou adaptação de instrumentos de medida e de avaliação da QV. Conclui-se que os esforços teórico-metodológicos têm contribuído para a clarificação e relativa maturidade do conceito. Trata-se de um construto eminentemente interdisciplinar, o que implica a contribuição de diferentes áreas do conhecimento para o seu aprimoramento conceitual e metodológico. Sua utilização, portanto, pode contribuir para a melhoria da qualidade e da integralidade da assistência na perspectiva da saúde como direito de cidadania.The quality of life (QL concept has led to extensive scientific research and has been increasingly used by health care professionals treating a wide range of diseases. This paper addresses the historical use of the concept and specific issues linked to conceptual and methodological aspects of the QL construct within the health care context. Reviewing the literature, two aspects stand out: subjectivity and multidimensionality. In the methodological field, the construction and/or adaptation of QL measurement instruments appear as a significant trend. Theoretical and methodological efforts have helped clarify and improve the concept's adequacy. The QL construct is definitely interdisciplinary, encompassing contributions by different areas of knowledge and research, thereby improving its

  10. High-tech skills in low-tech hands. Issues of advanced practice and collaborative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, M D; DelGiudice, G T

    1993-01-01

    Nurse-midwifery practice has been defined by the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) as "the independent management of essentially normal newborns and women ... occurring within a health care system which provides for medical consultation, collaborative management or referral .... "As the health care delivery system in the United States becomes increasingly complex and reliant on new forms of technology, it has become necessary to clarify roles and responsibilities for the nurse-midwife. In addition, mechanisms for acquiring new skills and for collaborating with physician colleagues must be well understood. A question frequently asked is where the boundaries of nurse-midwifery practice end and those of medical practice begin. Although practice scenarios vary for individual nurse-midwives and nurse-midwifery services, recent statements approved by the ACNM Board of Directors discuss these issues in an attempt to clarify the potentially confusing areas of collaboration and skill acquisition. This article explores the areas of expanded nurse-midwifery practice and collaborative management. Although individual clinical skills are not necessarily endorsed, a step-by-step approach that nurse-midwives can use for incorporation of new skills is presented. The concepts discussed will be a valuable tool to nurse-midwives in their practice. PMID:8483015

  11. Dietary intake measurement using 7 d diet diaries in British men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study: a focus on methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentjes, Marleen A H; McTaggart, Alison; Mulligan, Angela A; Powell, Natasha A; Parry-Smith, David; Luben, Robert N; Bhaniani, Amit; Welch, Ailsa A; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the energy, nutrient and crude v. disaggregated food intake measured using 7 d diet diaries (7dDD) for the full baseline Norfolk cohort recruited for the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk) study, with emphasis on methodological issues. The first data collection took place between 1993 and 1998 in Norfolk, East Anglia (UK). Of the 30,445 men and women, aged 40-79 years, registered with a general practitioner invited to participate in the study, 25,639 came for a health examination and were asked to complete a 7dDD. Data from diaries with data recorded for at least 1 d were obtained for 99% members of the cohort; 10,354 (89·8%) of the men and 12,779 (91·5%) of the women completed the diet diaries for all 7 d. Mean energy intake (EI) was 9·44 (SD 2·22) MJ/d and 7·15 (SD 1·66) MJ/d, respectively. EI remained approximately stable across the days, but there was apparent under-reporting among the participants, especially among those with BMI >25 kg/m². Micronutrient density was higher among women than among men. In conclusion, under-reporting is an issue, but not more so than that found in national surveys. How foods were grouped (crude or disaggregated) made a difference to the estimates obtained, and comparison of intakes showed wide limits of agreement. The choice of variables influences estimates obtained from the food group data; while this may not alter the ranking of individuals within studies, this issue may be relevant when comparing absolute food intakes between studies. PMID:24041116

  12. Issues Of Managerial Accounting Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Barulina E.V; Barulina M.S

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with management accounting, its role and objectives during financial planning process. Research of on American, German and Russian scientists are also considered. Author formulates his own definitions of aims of management accounting, highlighters that object of financial accounting have to include economic costs, economic revenue and economic added value, economic interest. More  over Author defines methods of managment accounting.

  13. Issues Of Managerial Accounting Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barulina E.V

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with management accounting, its role and objectives during financial planning process. Research of on American, German and Russian scientists are also considered. Author formulates his own definitions of aims of management accounting, highlighters that object of financial accounting have to include economic costs, economic revenue and economic added value, economic interest. More  over Author defines methods of managment accounting.

  14. Edge Plasma Physics Issues for the Fusion Advanced Studies Torus (FAST) in Reactor Relevant Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of First wall materials and compatibility with ITER /DEMO relevant plasmas is among the RD missions for possible new European plasma fusion devices that the FAST project will address. FAST can operate with ITER relevant values of P/R (up to 22 MW/m, against the ITER 24 MW/m, inclusive of the α particles power), thanks to its compactness; thus it can investigate the physics of large heat loads on divertor plates. The FAST divertor will be made of bulk W tiles, for basic operations, but also fully toroidal divertor targets made of liquid lithium (L-Li) are foreseen. To have reliable predictions of the thermal loads on the divertor plates and of the core plasma purity a number of numerical self-consistent simulations have been made for the H-mode and steady-state scenario by using the code COREDIV. This code, already validated in the past on experimental data (namely JET, FTU, Textor), is able to describe self-consistently the core and edge plasma in a tokamak device by imposing the continuity of energy and particle fluxes and of particle densities and temperatures at the separatrix. In the present work the results of such calculations will be illustrated, including heat loads on the divertor. The overall picture shows that, marginally in the intermediate and, necessarily in the high density H-mode scenarios (e>=2 and 5·1020 m-3 respectively), impurity seeding should be foreseen with W as target material: however, only a small amount of Ar (0.03% atomic concentration), not affecting the core purity, is sufficient to maintain the divertor peak loads below 18 MW/m2, that represents the safety limit for the W mono block technology, presently accepted for the ITER divertor tiles. Li always needs additional impurities for decreasing divertor heat loads, the Zeff value being ≤ than 1.8. At low plasma densities (but ≥ 1.3·1020 m-3), typical of steady state regimes, W by alone is effective in dissipating the input power by radiative losses, without excessive

  15. Edge plasma issues of the tokamak FAST (Fusion Advanced Studies Torus) in reactor relevant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the R and D missions for possible new European plasma fusion devices, the FAST project will address the issue of 'First wall materials and compatibility with ITER /DEMO relevant plasmas'. FAST can operate with ITER relevant values of P/R (up to 22 MW/m, against the ITER 24 MW/m, inclusive of the alpha particles power), thanks to its compactness; thus it can investigate the physics of large heat loads on divertor plates. The FAST divertor will be made of bulk W tiles, for basic operations, but also fully toroidal divertor targets made of liquid lithium (L-Li) are foreseen. Viability tests of such a solution for DEMO divertor will be carried out as final step of an extended program started on FTU tokamak by using a liquid lithium limITER. To have reliable predictions of the thermal loads on the divertor plates and of the core plasma purity a number of numerical self-consistent simulations have been made for the H-mode and steady-state scenario by using the code COREDIV. This code, already validated in the past on experimental data (namely JET, FTU, Textor), is able to describe self-consistently the core and edge plasma in a tokamak device by imposing the continuity of energy and particle fluxes and of particle densities and temperatures at the separatrix. In the present work the results of such calculations will be illustrated, including heat loads on the divertor. The overall picture shows that at the low plasma densities typical of steady state regimes W is effective in dissipating input power by radiative losses, while Li needs additional impurities (Ar, Ne). In the intermediate and, mainly, in the high density H-mode scenarios impurity seeding is needed with either Li or W as target material, but a small (0.08% atomic concentration) amount of Ar, not affecting the core purity, is sufficient to maintain the divertor peak loads below 18 MW/m2 that represents the safety limit for the W monoblock technology, presently accepted for the ITER divertor tiles. The

  16. Toward the ultimate goal of tritium self-sufficiency: Technical issues and requirements imposed on ARIES advanced power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the lack of external tritium sources, all fusion power plants must demonstrate a closed tritium fuel cycle. The tritium breeding ratio (TBR) must exceed unity by a certain margin. The key question is: how large is this margin and how high should the calculated TBR be? The TBR requirement is design and breeder-dependent and evolves with time. At present, the ARIES requirement is 1.1 for the calculated overall TBR of LiPb systems. The Net TBR during plant operation could be around 1.01. The difference accounts for deficiencies in the design elements (nuclear data evaluation, neutronics code validation, and 3D modeling tools). Such a low Net TBR of 1.01 is potentially achievable in advanced designs employing advanced physics and technology. A dedicated R and D effort will reduce the difference between the calculated TBR and Net TBR. A generic breeding issue encountered in all fusion designs is whether any fusion design will over-breed or under-breed during plant operation. To achieve the required Net TBR with sufficient precision, an online control of tritium breeding is highly recommended for all fusion designs. This can easily be achieved for liquid breeders through online adjustment of Li enrichment.

  17. Review of methodological analysis for the nuclear material accounting and control in the advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear materials accounting and verification in radiochemical processing facilities is essential, because it is the first possible time in the nuclear fuel cycle that plutonium can be measured. In these facilities, effective nuclear materials accounting systems and international safeguards inspections rely heavily upon nondestructive assay measurements. Therefore, it is important to know whether the radiation-based nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques for Advanced Spent Fuel Management Process are applicable or not. As a result of reviewing the existing NDA techniques for nuclear material accounting, it was revealed that γ-ray spectrometry, x-ray fluorescence/ densitometry and calorimetry techniques are not applicable to the advanced spent fuel management process because of the size of the measuring devices installed in a hot cell and the samples including some fission products. Therefore, the neutron technique is only applicable to this processing facility. The results reviewed in this study can be used to design a hot cell for the advanced spent fuel management process

  18. Advanced nano lithography via soft materials-derived and reversible nano-patterning methodology for molding of infrared nano lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hong; Jang, Hyun Ik; Park, Jun Yong; Jeon, Seok Woo; Kim, Woo Choong; Kim, Hee Yeoun; Ahn, Chi Won

    2015-03-01

    The methodology suggested in this research provides the great possibility of creating nanostructures composed of various materials, such as soft polymer, hard polymer, and metal, as well as Si. Such nanostructures are required for a vast range of optical and display devices, photonic components, physical devices, energy devices including electrodes of secondary batteries, fuel cells, solar cells, and energy harvesters, biological devices including biochips, biomimetic or biosimilar structured devices, and mechanical devices including micro- or nano-scale sensors and actuators.

  19. The monitoring, evaluation, reporting, and verification of climate change mitigation projects: Discussion of issues and methodologies and review of existing protocols and guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E.; Sathaye, J.

    1997-12-01

    Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, the US and other countries are implementing, by themselves or in cooperation with one or more other nations (i.e., joint implementation), climate change mitigation projects. These projects will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or sequester carbon, and will also result in non-GHG impacts (i.e., environmental, economic, and social impacts). Monitoring, evaluating, reporting, and verifying (MERV) guidelines are needed for these projects in order to accurately determine their net GHG, and other, benefits. Implementation of MERV guidelines is also intended to: (1) increase the reliability of data for estimating GHG benefits; (2) provide real-time data so that mid-course corrections can be made; (3) introduce consistency and transparency across project types and reporters; and (4) enhance the credibility of the projects with stakeholders. In this paper, the authors review the issues and methodologies involved in MERV activities. In addition, they review protocols and guidelines that have been developed for MERV of GHG emissions in the energy and non-energy sectors by governments, nongovernmental organizations, and international agencies. They comment on their relevance and completeness, and identify several topics that future protocols and guidelines need to address, such as (1) establishing a credible baseline; (2) accounting for impacts outside project boundaries through leakage; (3) net GHG reductions and other impacts; (4) precision of measurement; (5) MERV frequency; (6) persistence (sustainability) of savings, emissions reduction, and carbon sequestration; (7) reporting by multiple project participants; (8) verification of GHG reduction credits; (9) uncertainty and risk; (10) institutional capacity in conducting MERV; and (11) the cost of MERV.

  20. Issues in Applying Bio-Inspiration, Cognitive Critical Mass and Developmental-Inspired Principles to Advanced Intelligent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg-Cross, Gary; Samsonovich, Alexei V.

    This Chapter summarizes ideas presented at the special PerMIS 2008 session on Biological Inspiration for Intelligent Systems. Bio-inspired principles of development and evolution are a special part of the bio-models and principles that can be used to improve intelligent systems and related artifacts. Such principles are not always explicit. They represent an alternative to incremental engineering expansion using new technology to replicate human intelligent capabilities. They are more evident in efforts to replicate and produce a “critical mass” of higher cognitive functions of the human mind or their emergence through cognitive developmental robotics (DR) and self-regulated learning (SRL). DR approaches takes inspiration from natural processes, so that intelligently engineered systems may create solutions to problems in ways similar to what we hypothesize is occurring with biologics in their natural environment. This Chapter discusses how an SRL-based approach to bootstrap a “critical mass” can be assessed by a set of cognitive tests. It also uses a three-level bio-inspired framework to illustrate methodological issues in DR research. The approach stresses the importance of using bio-realistic developmental principles to guide and constrain research. Of particular importance is keeping models and implementation separate to avoid the possible of falling into a Ptolemaic paradigm that may lead to endless tweaking of models. Several of Lungarella's design principles [36] for developmental robotics are discussed as constraints on intelligence as it emerges from an ecologically balanced, three-way interaction between an agents' control systems, physical embodiment, and the external environment. The direction proposed herein is to explore such principles to avoid slavish following of superficial bio-inspiration. Rather we should proceed with a mature and informed developmental approach using developmental principles based on our incremental understanding of how

  1. Encouraging the pursuit of advanced degrees in science and engineering: Top-down and bottom-up methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Anthony B.; Smith-Maddox, Renee P.; Penick, Benson E.

    1989-01-01

    The MassPEP/NASA Graduate Research Development Program (GRDP) whose objective is to encourage Black Americans, Mexican Americans, American Indians, Puerto Ricans, and Pacific Islanders to pursue graduate degrees in science and engineering is described. The GRDP employs a top-down or goal driven methodology through five modules which focus on research, graduate school climate, technical writing, standardized examinations, and electronic networking. These modules are designed to develop and reinforce some of the skills necessary to seriously consider the goal of completing a graduate education. The GRDP is a community-based program which seeks to recruit twenty participants from a pool of Boston-area undergraduates enrolled in engineering and science curriculums and recent graduates with engineering and science degrees. The program emphasizes that with sufficient information, its participants can overcome most of the barriers perceived as preventing them from obtaining graduate science and engineering degrees. Experience has shown that the top-down modules may be complemented by a more bottom-up or event-driven methodology. This approach considers events in the academic and professional experiences of participants in order to develop the personal and leadership skills necessary for graduate school and similar endeavors.

  2. Evaluating of scale-up methodologies of gas-solid spouted beds for coating TRISO nuclear fuel particles using advanced measurement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Neven Y.

    The work focuses on implementing for the first time advanced non-invasive measurement techniques to evaluate the scale-up methodology of gas-solid spouted beds for hydrodynamics similarity that has been reported in the literature based on matching dimensionless groups and the new mechanistic scale up methodology that has been developed in our laboratory based on matching the radial profile of gas holdup since the gas dynamics dictate the hydrodynamics of the gas-solid spouted beds. These techniques are gamma-ray computed tomography (CT) to measure the cross-sectional distribution of the phases' holdups and their radial profiles along the bed height and radioactive particle tracking (RPT) to measure in three-dimension (3D) solids velocity and their turbulent parameters. The measured local parameters and the analysis of the results obtained in this work validate our new methodology of scale up of gas-solid spouted beds by comparing for the similarity the phases' holdups and the dimensionless solids velocities and their turbulent parameters that are non-dimensionalized using the minimum spouting superficial gas velocity. However, the scale-up methodology of gas-solid spouted beds that is based on matching dimensionless groups has not been validated for hydrodynamics similarity with respect to the local parameters such as phases' holdups and dimensionless solids velocities and their turbulent parameters. Unfortunately, this method was validated in the literature by only measuring the global parameters. Thus, this work confirms that validation of the scale-up methods of gas-solid spouted beds for hydrodynamics similarity should reside on measuring and analyzing the local hydrodynamics parameters.

  3. 真菌毒素快速检测技术研究进展%Methodological advances for rapid detection of mycotoxins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜; 武爱波

    2014-01-01

    -time, low-cost and large-scale analyses. In this article, state-of-the-art methodo-logical advances for rapid detection of mycotoxins as target analytes in recent 3 years have been summarized, supporting as valuable reference for highly efficient monitoring of mycotoxin contamination in the whole framework of food safety issues.

  4. Methodological advances for rapid detection of mycotoxins%真菌毒素快速检测技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜; 武爱波

    2014-01-01

    -time, low-cost and large-scale analyses. In this article, state-of-the-art methodo-logical advances for rapid detection of mycotoxins as target analytes in recent 3 years have been summarized, supporting as valuable reference for highly efficient monitoring of mycotoxin contamination in the whole framework of food safety issues.

  5. Critical review of methodology and application of risk ranking for prioritisation of food and feed related issues, on the basis of the size of anticipated health impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Asselt, van E.D.; Raley, M.; Poulsen, M.; Korsgaard, H.; Bredsdorff, L.; Nauta, M.; Flari, V.; Agostino, D' M.; Coles, D.G.; Frewer, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to critically review methodologies for ranking of risks related to feed/food safety and nutritional hazards, on the basis of their anticipated human health impact. An extensive systematic literature review was performed to identify and characterize the available methodologies for ri

  6. Development and application of the Safe Performance Index as a risk-based methodology for identifying major hazard-related safety issues in underground coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinilakodi, Harisha

    The underground coal mining industry has been under constant watch due to the high risk involved in its activities, and scrutiny increased because of the disasters that occurred in 2006-07. In the aftermath of the incidents, the U.S. Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act), which strengthened the existing regulations and mandated new laws to address the various issues related to a safe working environment in the mines. Risk analysis in any form should be done on a regular basis to tackle the possibility of unwanted major hazard-related events such as explosions, outbursts, airbursts, inundations, spontaneous combustion, and roof fall instabilities. One of the responses by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 2007 involved a new pattern of violations (POV) process to target mines with a poor safety performance, specifically to improve their safety. However, the 2010 disaster (worst in 40 years) gave an impression that the collective effort of the industry, federal/state agencies, and researchers to achieve the goal of zero fatalities and serious injuries has gone awry. The Safe Performance Index (SPI) methodology developed in this research is a straight-forward, effective, transparent, and reproducible approach that can help in identifying and addressing some of the existing issues while targeting (poor safety performance) mines which need help. It combines three injury and three citation measures that are scaled to have an equal mean (5.0) in a balanced way with proportionate weighting factors (0.05, 0.15, 0.30) and overall normalizing factor (15) into a mine safety performance evaluation tool. It can be used to assess the relative safety-related risk of mines, including by mine-size category. Using 2008 and 2009 data, comparisons were made of SPI-associated, normalized safety performance measures across mine-size categories, with emphasis on small-mine safety performance as compared to large- and

  7. Materials Issues in Advanced Nuclear Systems: Executive Summary of DOE Basic Research Needs Workshop, 'Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global utilization of nuclear energy has come a long way from its humble beginnings in the first sustained nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942. Today, there are over 440 nuclear reactors in 31 countries producing approximately 16% of the electrical energy used worldwide. In the United States, 104 nuclear reactors currently provide 19% of electrical energy used nationally. The International Atomic Energy Agency projects significant growth in the utilization of nuclear power over the next several decades due to increasing demand for energy and environmental concerns related to emissions from fossil plants. There are 28 new nuclear plants currently under construction including 10 in China, 8 in India, and 4 in Russia. In the United States, there have been notifications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of intentions to apply for combined construction and operating licenses for 27 new units over the next decade. The projected growth in nuclear power has focused increasing attention on issues related to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technologies and materials, and the sustainability of a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the effective utilization of nuclear power will require continued improvements in nuclear technology, particularly related to safety and efficiency. In all of these areas, the performance of materials and chemical processes under extreme conditions is a limiting factor. The related basic research challenges represent some of the most demanding tests of our fundamental understanding of materials science and chemistry, and they provide significant opportunities for advancing basic science with broad impacts for nuclear reactor materials, fuels, waste forms, and separations techniques. Of particular importance is the role that new nanoscale characterization and computational tools can play in addressing these challenges. These tools, which include DOE synchrotron X

  8. An estimation methodology for the dynamic operational rating of a new residential building using the advanced case-based reasoning and stochastic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This study estimates the dynamic operational rating of a new residential building. • The advanced case-based reasoning (A-CBR) and stochastic approaches were used. • The prediction accuracy of the A-CBR model was determined at 96.8% for electricity. • The prediction accuracy of the A-CBR model was determined at 86.6% for gas energy. • The letter rating of cluster No.6 was estimated to be “B” with 83.46% probability. - Abstract: To ensure the high energy performance of a new building, its operational rating should be accurately estimated in the early design phase. Toward this end, this study developed an estimation methodology for the dynamic operational rating (DOR) of a new residential building using the advanced case-based reasoning (A-CBR) and stochastic approaches. This study was conducted in three steps: (i) establishment of a case database; (ii) retrieval of similar cases using the A-CBR approach; and (iii) estimation of the dynamic operational rating using the stochastic approach. The residential buildings located in Pusan, South Korea, were selected to validate the applicability of the developed methodology. Also, this study used the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) to evaluate the prediction accuracy of the developed methodology (which means the difference between the predicted and measured energy performance). As a result, it was determined that the MAPE of the A-CBR model (i.e., 96.8% for electricity and 86.6% for gas energy) is superior to those of the other models (i.e., the basic CBR, multiple regression analysis, and artificial neural network models). In addition, based on the stochastic approach, it was estimated that cluster No.6, as a case study, would have the letter rating of ‘B’ grade (i.e., 25 < DOR ⩽ 50) with 83.46% of probability; and the letter rating of ‘C’ grade (i.e., 50 < DOR ⩽ 75) with 16.54%. The developed methodology can be used to easily and accurately estimate the dynamic operational

  9. Pivotal importance of STAT3 in protecting the heart from acute and chronic stress: new advancement and unresolved issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foaud A. Zouein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3 has been implicated in protecting the heart from acute ischemic injury under both basal conditions and as a crucial component of pre- and post-conditioning protocols. A number of anti-oxidant and antiapoptotic genes are upregulated by STAT3 via canonical means involving phosphorylation on Y705 and S727, although other incompletely defined posttranslational modifications are involved. In addition, STAT3 is now known to be present in cardiac mitochondria and to exert actions that regulate the electron transport chain, reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP opening. These non-canonical actions of STAT3 are enhanced by S727 phosphorylation. The molecular basis for the mitochondrial actions of STAT3 are poorly understood, but STAT3 is known to interact with a critical subunit of complex I and to regulate complex I function. Dysfunctional complex I has been implicated in ischemic injury, heart failure, and the aging process. Evidence also indicates that STAT3 is protective to the heart under chronic stress conditions, including hypertension, pregnancy, and advanced age. Paradoxically, the accumulation of unphosphorylated STAT3 (U-STAT3 in the nucleus has been suggested to drive pathological cardiac hypertrophy and inflammation via noncanonical gene expression, perhaps involving a distinct acetylation profile. U-STAT3 may also regulate chromatin stability. Our understanding of how the noncanonical genomic and mitochondrial actions of STAT3 in the heart are regulated and coordinated with the canonical actions of STAT3 is rudimentary. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about the pleotropic actions of STAT3 in the heart in order to highlight controversies and unresolved issues.

  10. Advancing the Potential of Citizen Science for Urban Water Quality Monitoring: Exploring Research Design and Methodology in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, D.; Farnham, D. J.; Gibson, R.; McGillis, W. R.; Culligan, P. J.; Cooper, C.; Larson, L.; Mailloux, B. J.; Buchanan, R.; Borus, N.; Zain, N.; Eddowes, D.; Butkiewicz, L.; Loiselle, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Citizen Science is a fast-growing ecological research tool with proven potential to rapidly produce large datasets. While the fields of astronomy and ornithology demonstrate particularly successful histories of enlisting the public in conducting scientific work, citizen science applications to the field of hydrology have been relatively underutilized. We demonstrate the potential of citizen science for monitoring water quality, particularly in the impervious, urban environment of New York City (NYC) where pollution via stormwater runoff is a leading source of waterway contamination. Through partnerships with HSBC, Earthwatch, and the NYC Water Trail Association, we have trained two citizen science communities to monitor the quality of NYC waterways, testing for a suite of water quality parameters including pH, turbidity, phosphate, nitrate, and Enterococci (an indicator bacteria for the presence of harmful pathogens associated with fecal pollution). We continue to enhance these citizen science programs with two additions to our methodology. First, we designed and produced at-home incubation ovens for Enterococci analysis, and second, we are developing automated photo-imaging for nitrate and phosphate concentrations. These improvements make our work more publicly accessible while maintaining scientific accuracy. We also initiated a volunteer survey assessing the motivations for participation among our citizen scientists. These three endeavors will inform future applications of citizen science for urban hydrological research. Ultimately, the spatiotemporally-rich dataset of waterway quality produced from our citizen science efforts will help advise NYC policy makers about the impacts of green infrastructure and other types of government-led efforts to clean up NYC waterways.

  11. The Delphi method: methodological issues arising from a study examining factors influencing the publication or non-publication of mental health nursing research

    OpenAIRE

    MacInnes, D. L.; Flanagan, T.; Ashmore, R.; Banks, D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The paper describes how the classic Delphi method can be adapted and structured to ensure that specific research questions are clearly addressed. Design/methodology/approach – As part of a larger mixed method project, a modified Delphi study was undertaken to explore factors influencing publication and non-publication of mental health nursing research. Findings - This paper reports brief findings from the Delphi study. However, its main focus is the methodological ...

  12. Spaces of Global Security: Beyond Methodological Nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson , Fiona B.

    2016-01-01

    The changing political and social meanings of space under conditions of advanced globalization point to the need to analyze security – or the deployment and management of violence -- as a socio-spatial practice. This article draws attention to the “methodological nationalist” bias that has traditionally characterized mainstream security studies, and discusses its effect on how security issues are studied and conceptualized. Building on insights from political geography and sociology, the art...

  13. Methodology and algorithms for railway crew management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, R.; Gomide, F. [State Univ. of Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Lagrimante, R. [MRS Logistica S.A, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Crew management problems are highly important for many transportation systems such as airlines, railways and public bus transportation. Despite recent advances, scheduling methodologies and decision support systems still need improvement, especially their computational efficiency, practical feasibility and use. This paper briefly overview classic crew management approaches. It discusses various practical issues concerning classic methods and suggests a new approach and algorithms. Computational results and experience with actual data and real world situations are also reported. (orig.)

  14. Work Group on American Indian Research and Program Evaluation Methodology, Symposium on Research and Evaluation Methodology: Lifespan Issues Related to American Indians/Alaska Natives with Disabilities (Washington, DC, April 26-27, 2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jamie D., Ed.; Erickson, Jill Shepard, Ed.; Johnson, Sharon R., Ed.; Marshall, Catherine A., Ed.; Running Wolf, Paulette, Ed.; Santiago, Rolando L., Ed.

    This first symposium of the Work Group on American Indian Research and Program Evaluation Methodology (AIRPEM) explored American Indian and Alaska Native cultural considerations in relation to "best practices" in research and program evaluation. These cultural considerations include the importance of tribal consultation on research projects and…

  15. Results of the Workshop on Two-Phase Flow, Fluid Stability and Dynamics: Issues in Power, Propulsion, and Advanced Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillen, John; Rame, Enrique; Kassemi, Mohammad; Singh, Bhim; Motil, Brian

    2003-01-01

    The Two-phase Flow, Fluid Stability and Dynamics Workshop was held on May 15, 2003 in Cleveland, Ohio to define a coherent scientific research plan and roadmap that addresses the multiphase fluid problems associated with NASA s technology development program. The workshop participants, from academia, industry and government, prioritized various multiphase issues and generated a research plan and roadmap to resolve them. This report presents a prioritization of the various multiphase flow and fluid stability phenomena related primarily to power, propulsion, fluid and thermal management and advanced life support; and a plan to address these issues in a logical and timely fashion using analysis, ground-based and space-flight experiments.

  16. Staff Report to the Senior Department Official on Recognition Compliance Issues. Recommendation Page: Association of Advanced Rabbinical and Talmudic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Association of Advanced Rabbinical and Talmudic Schools, Accreditation Commission (AARTS) accredits advanced rabbinical and Talmudic institutions that grant postsecondary degrees such as the baccalaureate, master's, doctorate, first rabbinic, and first Talmudic degrees. AARTS-accredited schools offer a program of Talmud and related studies.…

  17. An Applied Study of Implementation of the Advanced Decommissioning Costing Methodology for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik, Sweden with special emphasis to the application of the Omega code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented study is focused on an analysis of decommissioning costs for the Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel (FA) facility in Studsvik prepared by SVAFO and a proposal of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology application. Therefore, this applied study concentrates particularly in the following areas: 1. Analysis of FA facility cost estimates prepared by SVAFO including description of FA facility in Studsvik, summarised input data, applied cost estimates methodology and summarised results from SVAFO study. 2. Discussion of results of the SVAFO analysis, proposals for enhanced cost estimating methodology and upgraded structure of inputs/outputs for decommissioning study for FA facility. 3. Review of costing methodologies with the special emphasis on the advanced costing methodology and cost calculation code OMEGA. 4. Discussion on implementation of the advanced costing methodology for FA facility in Studsvik together with: - identification of areas of implementation; - analyses of local decommissioning infrastructure; - adaptation of the data for the calculation database; - inventory database; and - implementation of the style of work with the computer code OMEGA

  18. An Applied Study of Implementation of the Advanced Decommissioning Costing Methodology for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik, Sweden with special emphasis to the application of the Omega code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofova, Kristina; Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter [DECOM Slovakia, spol. s.r.o., J. Bottu 2, SK-917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lindskog, Staffan [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    The presented study is focused on an analysis of decommissioning costs for the Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel (FA) facility in Studsvik prepared by SVAFO and a proposal of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology application. Therefore, this applied study concentrates particularly in the following areas: 1. Analysis of FA facility cost estimates prepared by SVAFO including description of FA facility in Studsvik, summarised input data, applied cost estimates methodology and summarised results from SVAFO study. 2. Discussion of results of the SVAFO analysis, proposals for enhanced cost estimating methodology and upgraded structure of inputs/outputs for decommissioning study for FA facility. 3. Review of costing methodologies with the special emphasis on the advanced costing methodology and cost calculation code OMEGA. 4. Discussion on implementation of the advanced costing methodology for FA facility in Studsvik together with: - identification of areas of implementation; - analyses of local decommissioning infrastructure; - adaptation of the data for the calculation database; - inventory database; and - implementation of the style of work with the computer code OMEGA.

  19. New research advancement in electrical engineering field of China-Reviews on special issue of Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI ShengWei; MA Jin

    2009-01-01

    Based on,but not limited to the research results of electrical engineering published in the special issue of Science in China Series E,June 2008,this essay gives a brief review on a wide range of state-of-art advancement in electrical engineering field of China,which includes power system modeling,analysis and control,risk assessments in power system,etc.

  20. On out-of-phase higher mode oscillations with rotation and oscillation of symmetry line using an advanced integral stability methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Advanced integral stability analysis methodology has been developed. • Out-of-phase mode with rotation and oscillation of symmetry line has been simulated. • Higher order out-of-phase modes have been obtained. • Limit cycle oscillations are associated to the occurrence of supercritical Hop bifurcation. - Abstract: A new stability analysis methodology for the Swiss BWRs is being established at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) based on the best-estimate coupled neutronic/thermal–hydraulics code, SIMULATE-3K (S3K). For each new stability investigation, the concept is to apply a systematic methodology, combining a single unique S3K vessel T/H model with a full 3-D core model directly transferred from the upstream validated core model, without any adjustments of neither circulation loop components nor fuel assembly geometries/characteristics nor calculation options (e.g. physical models). Through this, the aim is to achieve an integral methodology that can then be applied with strengthened reliability for predictions and/or interpretations of the complex non-linear and strongly coupled neutronics/dynamical phenomena characterizing BWR stability However, the methodology has so far not been validated for regional instabilities and to that aim, a special KKL cycle 07 stability test was selected. Indeed, during this test, the core not only showed growing power oscillation amplitudes in an out-of-phase regime but also an oscillating and rotating symmetry line. Thereby, it was considered highly appropriate to start the validation of the PSI S3K methodology for regional instabilities using this particular test and to gain, on that basis, more insights on the causes for oscillatory and rotational behavior of symmetry lines. The results obtained so far are presented in this paper. First, it is found that the S3K results are in good agreement with measurements both qualitatively and quantitatively, although the resonance frequency is slightly over

  1. Environmental epidemiology: What's at stake: open issues and methodologies -- report from the 26th Annual Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carugno, Michele

    2015-01-01

    At the end of last August, the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle welcomed over 1,100 attendees at the 26th Annual ISEE Conference - "From Local to Global: Advancing Science for Policy in Environmental Health"... PMID:25607291

  2. Methodological issues on the use of administrative data in healthcare research: the case of heart failure hospitalizations in Lombardy region, 2000 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzali, Cristina; Paganoni, Anna Maria; Ieva, Francesca; Masella, Cristina; Maistrello, Mauro; Agostoni, Ornella; Scalvini, Simonetta; Frigerio, Maria; ,

    2016-01-01

    Background Administrative data are increasingly used in healthcare research. However, in order to avoid biases, their use requires careful study planning. This paper describes the methodological principles and criteria used in a study on epidemiology, outcomes and process of care of patients hospitalized for heart failure (HF) in the largest Italian Region, from 2000 to 2012. Methods Data were extracted from the administrative data warehouse of the healthcare system of Lombardy, Italy. Hospit...

  3. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in behavioral and food addiction: a systematic review of efficacy, technical, and methodological issues

    OpenAIRE

    Sauvaget, Anne; Trojak, Benoît; Bulteau, Samuel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Wolz, Ines; Menchón, José M.; Achab, Sophia; Vanelle, Jean-Marie; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Behavioral addictions (BA) are complex disorders for which pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments have shown their limits. Non-invasive brain stimulation, among which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), has opened up new perspectives in addiction treatment. The purpose of this work is to conduct a critical and systematic review of tDCS efficacy, and of technical and methodological considerations in the field of BA. Methods: A bibliographic search has been ...

  4. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in behavioral and food addiction: A systematic review of efficacy, technical and methodological issues

    OpenAIRE

    Anne eSauvaget; Benoit eTrojak; Samuel eBulteau; Susana eJiménez-Murcia; Fernando eFernandez-Aranda; Ines eWolz; Jose M Menchon; Sophia eAchab; Jean-Marie eVanelle; Marie eGrall-Bronnec

    2015-01-01

    Objectives.Behavioral addictions (BA) are complex disorders for which pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments have shown their limits. Non-invasive brain stimulation, among which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), has opened up new perspectives in addiction treatment. The purpose of this work is to conduct a critical and systematic review of tDCS efficacy, and of technical and methodological considerations in the field of BA.Methods.A bibliographic search has been conduc...

  5. Employer-Led Organizations and Skill Supply Chains: Linking Worker Advancement with the Skill Needs of Employers. Issue Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jack; Prince, Heath

    Skill supply chains apply a chain strategy to human resources to make the labor market more efficient. They link the multiple skill levels in a given labor market within a network of recruitment pathways for employers and advancement pathways for workers. Skill supply chains are based on employers' actual skill needs and on the principle that…

  6. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in behavioral and food addiction: A systematic review of efficacy, technical and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eSauvaget

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives.Behavioral addictions (BA are complex disorders for which pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments have shown their limits. Non-invasive brain stimulation, among which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, has opened up new perspectives in addiction treatment. The purpose of this work is to conduct a critical and systematic review of tDCS efficacy, and of technical and methodological considerations in the field of BA.Methods.A bibliographic search has been conducted on the Medline and ScienceDirect databases until December 2014, based on the following selection criteria: clinical studies on tDCS and BA (namely eating disorders, compulsive buying, Internet addiction, pathological gambling, sexual addiction, sports addiction, video games addiction. Study selection, data analysis and reporting were conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines.Results.Out of 402 potential articles, seven studies were selected. So far focusing essentially on abnormal eating, these studies suggest that tDCS (right prefrontal anode / left prefrontal cathode reduces food craving induced by visual stimuli.ConclusionsDespite methodological and technical differences between studies, the results are promising. So far, only few studies of tDCS in BA have been conducted. New research is recommended on the use of tDCS in BA, other than eating disorders.

  7. Advances in Bio-Imaging From Physics to Signal Understanding Issues State-of-the-Art and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Racoceanu, Daniel; Gouaillard, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Advances in Imaging Devices and Image processing stem from cross-fertilization between many fields of research such as Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer Sciences. This BioImaging Community feel the urge to integrate more intensively its various results, discoveries and innovation into ready to use tools that can address all the new exciting challenges that Life Scientists (Biologists, Medical doctors, ...) keep providing, almost on a daily basis. Devising innovative chemical probes, for example, is an archetypal goal in which image quality improvement must be driven by the physics of acquisition, the image processing and analysis algorithms and the chemical skills in order to design an optimal bioprobe. This book offers an overview of the current advances in many research fields related to bioimaging and highlights the current limitations that would need to be addressed in the next decade to design fully integrated BioImaging Device.

  8. Q methodology to define policy issues and promote stakeholder dialogue in Praia da Vitória Bay in Terceira, Azores

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Helena

    2011-01-01

    When dealing with complex issues commonly found in Coastal Zones, there is a need to find an efficient assessment strategy of processes and their causes, as well as a method which could effectively promote a dialogue with the stakeholder affected by these processes. This dialogues is an essential part of problem structuring routine since it allows mutual learning by generating and evaluating divergent knowledge claims and viewpoints. Problem structuring can start from a broad subject that is ...

  9. Temas ambientais como "temas geradores": contribuições para uma metodologia educativa ambiental crítica, transformadora e emancipatória Environmental issues as generating issues: contributions to a critical, transforming and emancipating environmental educating methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Freitas de Campos Tozoni-Reis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A educação ambiental crítica e emancipatória exige que os conhecimentos sejam apropriados, construídos, de forma dinâmica, coletiva, cooperativa, contínua, interdisciplinar, democrática e participativa, voltados para a construção de sociedades sustentáveis. Este artigo trata dos temas ambientais como temas geradores para a educação ambiental, inspirados na pedagogia Paulo Freire, para quem educar é um ato de conhecimento da realidade concreta, das situações vividas, um processo de aproximação crítica da própria realidade: compreender, refletir, criticar e agir são as ações pedagógicas pretendidas. Os temas geradores são, portanto, estratégias metodológicas de um processo de conscientização da realidade opressora vivida nas sociedades desiguais; são o ponto de partida para o processo de construção da descoberta, e, por emergir do saber popular, os temas geradores são extraídos da prática de vida dos educandos, substituindo os conteúdos tradicionais e buscados através da pesquisa do universo dos educandos. O caráter político da pedagogia freireana faz-se presente, de forma radical, nos temas geradores, isto é, temas geradores só são geradores de ação-reflexão-ação se forem carregados de conteúdos sociais e políticos com significado concreto para a vida dos educandos. Assim, as propostas educativas ambientais conscientizadoras podem tomar os temas ambientais locais como temas geradores desta ação conscientizadora, desde que estes temas contenham conteúdos socioambientais significativos para os educandos e sejam definidos coletiva e participativamente.The emancipating and critical environmental education demands that knowledge must be adequate, build up in a dynamic, collective, cooperating, continuous, interdisciplinary, democratic and participating way directed to the construction of self-maintaining societies. This paper deals with environmental issues as generating issues for an environmental

  10. Revised Definitions for Statistical Units – Methodology, Application and User Needs. The Main Conceptual Issues of the “Units Discussion” of the Years 2009–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Sturm

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2009 to 2014 in the European Statistical System (ESS modified definitions for basic statistical units have been proposed and discussed. The author took part in this discussion as regular participant in the ESS “Working Group Business Registers and Statistical Units”, as participant in the ESSnet “Profiling of large and complex multinational enterprise groups” (2009–2013 and as member of the Eurostat task force “Statistical Units” which worked from 2013 to 2015 on the main issues...

  11. Clinical Education, the lessons learned from practical applications - Albanian issues, East Europe and the advanced international practices on Clinical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Alban Koci

    2015-01-01

    While studying the law, for the students is very important to be in touch with legal issues and the real needs of the society. A legal clinic, also called a law school clinic or law clinic, is a program organized through a law school that allows students to receive law school credit as they work part-time in real legal service atmospheres. In legal clinics, students perform various tasks just as an attorney would do in the same job position, such as doing legal research, drafting briefs an...

  12. Algunos aspectos metodológicos de la investigación en resolución de problemas en física: una revisión Some methodological issues involved in Physics problems solving: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Buteler

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo presenta una revisión de los aspectos metodológicos involucrados en el estudio de las representaciones mentales puestas en juego por las personas para realizar ciertas tareas cognitivas. La revisión se acota al ámbito de la investigación en enseñanza de las ciencias y en particular, a un conjunto de investigaciones que abordan tareas estrechamente relacionadas con la resolución de problemas en Física. La revisión permite analizar y discutir los alcances y limitaciones de las decisiones metodológicas usuales para el estudio de la resolución de problemas en Física. Se ponen en consideración algunas directrices metodológicas plausibles de ser tenidas en cuenta para esta tarea.This work presents a review of the methodological issues involved in the studies of the representations used by people carrying out cognitive tasks. The review is based on literature dealing with cognitive tasks related to Physics problem solving. This review allows the analysis and discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the usual methodological decisions in Physics problem solving. Methodological directions for physics problem solving are considered.

  13. Socioscientific Issues: A Path Towards Advanced Scientific Literacy and Improved Conceptual Understanding of Socially Controversial Scientific Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzino, Dean William

    This thesis investigates the use of socioscientific issues (SSI) in the high school science classroom as an introduction to argumentation and socioscientific reasoning, with the goal of improving students' scientific literacy (SL). Current research is reviewed that supports the likelihood of students developing a greater conceptual understanding of scientific theories as well as a deeper understanding of the nature of science (NOS), through participation in informal and formal forms of argumentation in the context of SSI. Significant gains in such understanding may improve a student's ability to recognize the rigor, legitimacy, and veracity of scientific claims and better discern science from pseudoscience. Furthermore, students that participate in significant SSI instruction by negotiating a range of science-related social issues can make significant gains in content knowledge and develop the life-long skills of argumentation and evidence-based reasoning, goals not possible in traditional lecture-based science instruction. SSI-based instruction may therefore help students become responsible citizens. This synthesis also suggests that that the improvements in science literacy and NOS understanding that develop from sustained engagement in SSI-based instruction will better prepare students to examine and scrutinize socially controversial scientific theories (i.e., evolution, global warming, and the Big Bang).

  14. Methodological Issues to Consider When Collecting Data to Estimate Poverty Impact in Economic Evaluations in Low-income and Middle-income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Sedona; Vassall, Anna; Foster, Nicola; Simms, Victoria; Ilboudo, Patrick; Kimaro, Godfather; Mudzengi, Don; Guinness, Lorna

    2016-02-01

    Out-of-pocket spending is increasingly recognized as an important barrier to accessing health care, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) where a large portion of health expenditure comes from out-of-pocket payments. Emerging universal healthcare policies prioritize reduction of poverty impact such as catastrophic and impoverishing healthcare expenditure. Poverty impact is therefore increasingly evaluated alongside and within economic evaluations to estimate the impact of specific health interventions on poverty. However, data collection for these metrics can be challenging in intervention-based contexts in LMICs because of study design and practical limitations. Using a set of case studies, this letter identifies methodological challenges in collecting patient cost data in LMIC contexts. These components are presented in a framework to encourage researchers to consider the implications of differing approaches in data collection and to report their approach in a standardized and transparent way. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26774106

  15. Permitting and solid waste management issues for the Bailly Station wet limestone Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pure Air (a general partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc.). is constructing a wet limestone co-current advanced flue gas desulfurization (AFGD) system that has technological and commercial advantages over conventional FGD systems in the United States. The AFGD system is being installed at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company's Bailly Generating Station near Gary, Indiana. The AFGD system is scheduled to be operational by the Summer, 1992. The AFGD system will remove at least 90 percent of the sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the flue gas from Boilers 7 and 8 at the Station while burning 3.2 percent sulfur coal. Also as part of testing the AFGD system, 95 percent removal of SO2 will be demonstrated on coals containing up to 4.5 percent sulfur. At the same time that SO2 is removed from the flue gas, a gypsum by-product will be produced which will be used for wallboard manufacturing. Since the AFGD system is a pollution control device, one would expect its installation to be received favorably by the public and regulatory agencies. Although the project was well received by regulatory agencies, on public group (Save the Dunes Council) was initially concerned since the project is located adjacent to the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The purpose of this paper is to describe the project team's experiences in obtaining permits/approvals from regulatory agencies and in dealing with the public. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  16. Clinical Education, the lessons learned from practical applications - Albanian issues, East Europe and the advanced international practices on Clinical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Koci

    2015-01-01

    In legal clinics, students perform various tasks just as an attorney would do in the same job position, such as doing legal research, drafting briefs and other legal documents, and interviewing clients. Many jurisdictions even allow students to appear in court on behalf of clients, even in criminal defense. Legal clinics is part of the academic law program in the most of the law faculties all over the world and it has a great impact in the community’s life. Throughout legal clinics students not only get the opportunity to be part of an important experience, but also they can be effective and help the people in need with their work. This paper aims to bring attention to the importance of clinical education in the formation of young lawyers and how one can learn from experience. There will be discussed important issues about legal clinic, the objectives and its mission, how to apply it and the benefits legal clinic brings not only for the academic area but also for the society.

  17. Evaluation of materials' corrosion and chemistry issues for advanced gas cooled reactor steam generators using full scale plant simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors (AGRS) employ once-through steam Generators of unique design to provide steam at approximately 530 degrees C and 155 bar to steam turbines of similar design to those of fossil plants. The steam generators are highly compact, and have either a serpentine or helical tube geometry. The tubes are heated on the outside by hot C02 gas, and steam is generated on the inside of the tubes. Each individual steam generator tube consists of a carbon steel feed and primary economiser section, a 9%Cr steel secondary economiser, evaporator and primary superheater, and a Type 316L austenitic stainless steel secondary superheater, all within a single tube pass. The multi-material nature of the individual tube passes, the need to maintain specific thermohydraulic conditions within the different material sections, and the difficulties of steam generator inspection and repair, have required extensive corrosion-chemistry test programmes to ensure waterside corrosion does not present a challenge to their integrity. A major part of these programmes has been the use of a full scale steam generator test facility capable of simulating all aspects of the waterside conditions which exist in the plant. This facility has been used to address a wide variety of possible plant drainage/degradation processes. These include; single- and two-phase flow accelerated corrosion of carbon steel, superheat margins requirements and the stress-corrosion behaviour of the austenitic superheaters, on-load corrosion of the evaporator materials, and iron transport and oxide deposition behaviour. The paper outlines a number of these, and indicates how they have been of value in helping to maintain reliable operation of the plant. (author)

  18. Advance directives in the perioperative setting: Managing ethical and legal issues when patient rights and perceived obligations of the healthcare provider conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stephen P; Howe, Christopher L

    2013-01-01

    Perhaps individual wishes are not always acknowledged or accepted when it comes to end-of-life care. This possibility, in conjunction with the experiences of healthcare risk managers, should cause concern in the healthcare risk management community. One particularly concerning issue where a persistent failure to honor a patient's wishes exists is with Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) orders in the perioperative arena. Despite a strong focus on informed consent and advance directives, evidence suggests a number of healthcare organizations either have no policy in place regarding DNR orders during the perioperative period, or, for those organizations that do have a policy, many call for automatic suspension of the DNR order without consultation with the patient. This latter practice poses many ethical, medico-legal, and regulatory concerns, and healthcare organizations with such a policy in place should strongly consider revisiting this practice. PMID:23609975

  19. Development of Methodologies for Technology Deployment for Advanced Outage Control Centers that Improve Outage Coordination, Problem Resolution and Outage Risk Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawn St. Germain; Ronald Farris; Heather Medeman

    2013-09-01

    This research effort is a part of the Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by Department of Energy (DOE) and performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs that provides the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRS program serves to help the U.S. nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. The long term viability of existing nuclear power plants in the U.S. will depend upon maintaining high capacity factors, avoiding nuclear safety issues and reducing operating costs. The slow progress in the construction on new nuclear power plants has placed in increased importance on maintaining the output of the current fleet of nuclear power plants. Recently expanded natural gas production has placed increased economic pressure on nuclear power plants due to lower cost competition. Until recently, power uprate projects had steadily increased the total output of the U.S. nuclear fleet. Errors made during power plant upgrade projects have now removed three nuclear power plants from the U.S. fleet and economic considerations have caused the permanent shutdown of a fourth plant. Additionally, several utilities have cancelled power uprate projects citing economic concerns. For the past several years net electrical generation from U.S. nuclear power plants has been declining. One of few remaining areas where significant improvements in plant capacity factors can be made is in minimizing the duration of refueling outages. Managing nuclear power plant outages is a complex and difficult task. Due to the large number of complex tasks and the uncertainty that accompanies them, outage durations routinely exceed the planned duration. The ability to complete an outage on or near

  20. THE METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES OF ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Solopenko

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of economic ground of administrative decisions related to the operation, staff, financial, investment, information & telecommunication, innovative, marketing and international economic activities of an aviation enterprise is determined foe such an enterprise, and the procedure of economic substantiation of administrative decisions with use of economico-mathematical modelling in automated control system (ACS for an aviation enterprise is implemented.

  1. Evaluation of labour market policy : methodological issues

    OpenAIRE

    Lassnigg, Lorenz

    1997-01-01

    'Aktive Arbeitsmarktpolitik hat in vielen OECD-Ländern an Bedeutung gewonnen, um die Funktionsweise der Arbeitsmärkte zu verbessern und die steigende Arbeitslosigkeit zu bekämpfen. Daher bekommt auch die Frage wachsende Bedeutung, wie diese Politik effektiver gemacht werden kann. Das Papier gibt einen Überblick über das Feld, und diskutiert welche Prioritätensetzungen und welche Schritte zu einer umfassenden Evaluationspraxis führen können. Es wird gezeigt, daß jede der verschiedenen Arten vo...

  2. Quality in interpreting: some methodological issues

    OpenAIRE

    Moser-Mercer, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    Quality in interpreting is a frequently discussed yet little explored concept. As services are increasingly evaluated the way products are, with ISO 9000 and TQM having became the hallmarks of production in post-industrial societies, translation and interpreting cannot claim special status as "works of art", to be evaluated much the same way as gymnastics, dance or figure skating competitions. This is not to say that translating or interpreting lack artistic value or creativ...

  3. ECONOMIC PRINCIPLES IN ISLAM: SOME METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Saiful Azhar Rosly

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of economic principles in Islam. Two types of economic principles are identified. The first type refers to the economic laws derived from revelation-based sources namely the Quran, Sunnah, Ijtihad and Ijma. The second type refers to economic lwas derived from reasoning and experience. The former is the economic system and the latter is economic theory. Both forms of economic laws are in harmony and have no basis for compartmentalization as there is no conflict b...

  4. Sampling survey methodology issues of SBS- survey

    OpenAIRE

    Liljana Boci; Elona Berberi

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at providing an insight on what is required to build an efficient and high quality business statistics from sample survey procedures, and on the effective and appropriate use of survey data in analysis. It aims at describing a general overview of what is required to have a good survey estimate. It shows in practice how to estimate characteristics of the population in SBS considering: weighting, non-response adjustments, post stratification, estimating a population totals, the ...

  5. Measuring and analyzing child labor: methodological issues

    OpenAIRE

    Grimsrud, Bjorne

    2002-01-01

    Current statistics on child labor are generally based on economically active children. This paper will argue that these figures are not a workable proxy for data on child labor, generating numbers of child laborers, and their gender composition that do not represent the group described by the international definition of child labor. This raises the question of reliable alternatives ways of measuring children's activities, with the aim of analyzing the incidence of child labor. The paper addre...

  6. Measuring and analyzing child labor : methodological issues

    OpenAIRE

    Grimsrud, Bjorne

    2001-01-01

    The paper argues that the current statistics on child labor (generally based on economically active children), are not a workable proxy for data on child labor, generating numbers of child laborers, and their gender composition, that do not represent the groups described by the international definition of child labor. This raises the question of reliable alternative ways of measuring children's activities, with the aim of analyzing the incidence of child labor. The paper addresses this, and p...

  7. Methodological issues in regional impacts research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the literature concerning regional impacts of climatic change research reveals common elements. Global climatic change scenarios are used to derive regional climate change scenarios, but there is no standard approach for doing so. These scenarios are applied as inputs to impact models that have been used to describe past variations but may not be calibrated for global scenarios. The human element (technology, land use, population density) is generally assumed to remain unchanged. The general process of performing a study on the impacts of projected global warming on the physical and human environments involves three main steps: develop or specify a scenario for global warming for the study area; develop or specify an impact model for the activity in question; and apply the scenario to the impact model. Problems include defining a baseline, resolution of the scenarios, scenario data for regional-scale features, combination of model output with station data, and validation of impact models using archived climate data as inputs. A review of scenario application procedures indicates that four general approaches have been used: the study area baseline is combined with the scenario anomaly of the nearest center of the grid square; the scenario anomaly field is objectively interpreted and combined with the baseline value; the baseline field is objectively interpreted so that data are produced for the same points as the scenario anomaly field; and the baseline and several scenario's anomaly fields are interpolated and combined into one scenario using dynamical/empirical reasoning. 48 refs., 1 fig

  8. Definition of an object oriented library for the dynamic simulation of advanced energy systems: methodologies, tools and application to combined ICE-ORC power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Vaja, Iacopo

    2009-01-01

    The present Thesis covers part of the work that has been carried out during the three year Ph.D. course in Industrial Engineering at the University of Parma. Scope of the work is developing theoretical methodologies and a full library of dynamic models that can represent the components that usually appear in energy conversion systems. The proposed library should endorse the possibility to create any desire arrangement of the studied systems, to overcome the lack of testing facilities in or...

  9. Methodological issues and preliminary results from a combined sediment fingerprinting and radioisotope dating approach to explore changes in sediment sources with land-use change in the Brantian Catchment, Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rory; Higton, Sam; Marshall, Jake; Bidin, Kawi; Blake, William; Nainar, Anand

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports some methodological issues and early results of a project investigating the erosional impacts of land use changes (multiple selective logging and progressive, partial conversion to oil palm) over the last 25-40 years in the 600km2 Brantian river catchment in Sabah, Borneo. A combined sediment fingerprinting and radioisotope dating approach is being applied to sediment cores taken in stream hierarchical fashion across the intermediate catchment scale. Changes in sediment sources and sedimentation rates over time can be captured by changes in the relative importance of geochemical elements with depth in downstream sediment cores, which in turn can be linked to parallel changes in upstream cores by the application of unmixing models and statistical techniques. Radioisotope analysis of the sediment cores allows these changes to be dated and sedimentation rates to be estimated. Work in the neighbouring Segama catchment had successfully demonstrated the potential of such an approach in a rainforest environment (Walsh et al. 2011). The paper first describes steps taken to address methodological issues. The approach relies on taking continuous sediment cores which have aggraded progressively over time and remain relatively undisturbed and uncontaminated. This issue has been tackled (1) through careful core sampling site selection with a focus on lateral bench sites and (2) deployment of techniques such as repeat-measurement erosion bridge transects to assess the contemporary nature of sedimentation to validate (or reject) candidate sites. The issue of sediment storage and uncertainties over lag times has been minimised by focussing on sets of above- and below-confluence sites in the intermediate zone of the catchment, thus minimising sediment transit times between upstream contributing and downstream destination core sites. This focus on the intermediate zone was also driven by difficulties in finding suitable core sites in the mountainous headwaters

  10. Advanced Mechatronics and MEMS Devices

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Mechatronics and MEMS Devicesdescribes state-of-the-art MEMS devices and introduces the latest technology in electrical and mechanical microsystems. The evolution of design in microfabrication, as well as emerging issues in nanomaterials, micromachining, micromanufacturing and microassembly are all discussed at length in this volume. Advanced Mechatronics also provides a reader with knowledge of MEMS sensors array, MEMS multidimensional accelerometer, artificial skin with imbedded tactile components, as well as other topics in MEMS sensors and transducers. The book also presents a number of topics in advanced robotics and an abundance of applications of MEMS in robotics, like reconfigurable modular snake robots, magnetic MEMS robots for drug delivery and flying robots with adjustable wings, to name a few. This book also: Covers the fundamentals of advanced mechatronics and MEMS devices while also presenting new state-of-the-art methodology and technology used in the application of these devices Prese...

  11. Advanced materials and design for electromagnetic interference shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Xingcun Colin

    2008-01-01

    Exploring the role of EMI shielding in EMC design, this book introduces the design guidelines, materials selection, characterization methodology, manufacturing technology, and future potential of EMI shielding. It covers an array of issues in advanced shielding materials and design solutions, including enclosures and composites.

  12. Using the Tuning Methodology to design the founding benchmark competences for a new academic professional field: the case of advanced rehabilitation technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Ann-Marie; Freeman, Christopher; Banks, Tom; Savelberg, Hans; Gobbi, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Designing innovative high quality educational programmes to meet the workforce needs in emerging interdisciplinary areas of practice can present challenges to academics, students, employers and industrial partners. This paper demonstrates how the Tuning Process successfully helped to construct benchmark learning outcomes and competences in the area of healthcare practice where advanced technologies are used to improve movement namely Rehabilitation Technologies (RTs). The paper also discuss...

  13. On methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheesman, Robin; Faraone, Roque

    2002-01-01

    This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública".......This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública"....

  14. Dosimetric methodology of the ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishment of guidance for the protection of workers and members of the public from radiation exposures necessitates estimation of the radiation dose to tissues of the body at risk. The dosimetric methodology formulated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is intended to be responsive to this need. While developed for radiation protection, elements of the methodology are often applied in addressing other radiation issues; e.g., risk assessment. This chapter provides an overview of the methodology, discusses its recent extension to age-dependent considerations, and illustrates specific aspects of the methodology through a number of numerical examples

  15. Questões metodológicas para a investigação dos efeitos da poluição do ar na saúde Methodological issues of the research on the health effects of air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermano Albuquerque de Castro

    2003-06-01

    poluição do ar e saúde, levando-se em conta essas questões. Desse modo, pode-se garantir uma melhor qualidade na informação que será utilizada pelos gestores que implementarão essas políticas.Urbanization and the growth of cities have contributed to increase the load of contaminants in the environment. Among contaminants, air pollutants remain a major cause of concern due to their capacity to affect large populations and the fact that several adverse health effects associated with exposure to air pollution have been described in the past few years. This article reviews and discusses some methodological issues involved in the assessment of these health effects. The first issue relates to environmental health indicators (EHI. These indicators can be seen as measures that summarize aspects of the relationship between health and the environment. The EHI methodology proposed by the World Health Organisation for the development of environmental health actions has been applied in the area of air quality. A second aspect relates to the assessment of exposure to air pollution. This is perhaps the most difficult task for studies in this area. Issues concerning different microenvironments (indoor and outdoor are relevant and should be taken in to account in order to minimize the errors associated with the correct assessment of exposure to air pollutants. Lastly, a brief discussion of the main epidemiological study designs used to examine the association between air pollution and health effects is presented. The advantages and disadvantages of the main study types and their main applications are discussed. These are not the only essential issues when studying the deleterious health effects of air pollution on health. However, in order to have sound environmental health policies one needs well designed and conducted epidemiological studies taking in to account these main issues. In this manner, better information will be available to those involved in the decision

  16. 粤语本字考订之观念与方法问题刍议%Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Textual Researches on Etymological Characters of Cantonese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周仕敏

    2015-01-01

    Textual research on etymological characters is a traditional part of research on Chinese dialects. Limited by the form of traditional textual research, existing researches on etymological characters have not reached any agreement on the definition of etymological characters, the connection between characters and pronunciation, the specific purpose of the researches and the methods used; meanwhile, a series of conceptions supposed to be implemented have not been put into practice. By analyzing typical researches in recent years, the present study aims to summarize some conceptual and methodological issues, which may be especially essential to the future progress in textual researches on etymological characters.%依本字考订乃方言研究中一个传统项目. 受传统考据体式局限,现有之方言本字考研究有时难以将本字之定义、"字"与语音之明确关系、考本字之明确目的与实际运用之研究方法内部统一起来;一系列早被公认应当揭櫫之研究观念,往往又未能付诸方法. 通过对近年来经典研究成果进行具体分析,尽可能系统总结若干观念与方法问题,对日后本字考订研究取得质的进步,显得尤为必要.

  17. Advances and challenges in innovation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Castellacci, F.; Grodal, S.; Mendonça, S; Wibe, M.

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses recent advances and future challenges in innovation studies. First, it separately considers four main strands of research, studying innovation at the organizational, systemic, sectoral and macroeconomic levels. Then, considering the field as a whole, the article points to the existence of important neglected topics and methodological challenges for future research. In fact, several fundamental issues are still unexplored, such as the co-evolution betwee...

  18. Methodological guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs

  19. Methodological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-04-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs.

  20. Paraguay; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyses Paraguay’s effective interest spreads using various methodologies. Operational costs, rising profits, and the need to cover credit and liquidity risks are the main factors behind Paraguay’s effective spreads. Improving data quality and mechanisms for sharing credit information could contribute to reduced spreads. The paper provides some background and stylized facts on the Paraguayan banking sector, and presents the methodology and results of interest r...

  1. Questões metodológicas da pesquisa no campo da saúde Aspectos metodológicos de la investigación en el campo de la salud Methodological issues concerning research in the health field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Collet

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar reflexão sobre o método de pesquisa no campo da saúde. Algumas questões que envolvem o emprego do método das ciências naturais e o método das ciências sociais são apresentadas, buscando compreender alguns problemas metodológicos de um e de outro. Problemas relacionados às questões metodológicas na elaboração de um projeto de investigação são pontuados: diferenciação da natureza do objeto de investigação; contexto em que determinado problema é identificado; tipo de pergunta ao problematizá-lo; procedimentos técnicos, teoria e esquema interpretativo; dicotomia sujeito/objeto do conhecimento; neutralidade do pesquisador; conceito de causalidade.Este trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar una reflexión sobre el método de investigación en el campo de la salud. Presentamos algunas cuestiones que encierran el empleo de las ciencias naturales y el método de las ciencias sociales, tratando de esclarecer algunos problemas metodológicos tanto de uno como del otro. Abordamos problemas relacionados con los aspectos metodológicos para la elaboración de un proyecto de investigación que necesitan ser continuamente discutidos, incluyendo: la diferenciación de la naturaleza del objetivo de la investigación, el contexto en que determinado problema es identificado, el tipo de pregunta que se hace al problematizarlo, los procedimientos técnicos, la teoría y el esquema interpretativo que lo fundamentan; la dicotomía sujeto/objeto del conocimiento, la neutralidad del investigador, el concepto de causalidad.This work aims at presenting a reflection on the method of research in the health field. Some questions are presented which involve the use of the method of natural sciences and that of social sciences in an attempt at understanding some methodological problems concerning the former and the latter. Problems related to the methodological issues in the elaboration of investigation projects

  2. Multifractal methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Salat, Hadrien; Arcaute, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    Various methods have been developed independently to study the multifractality of measures in many different contexts. Although they all convey the same intuitive idea of giving a "dimension" to sets where a quantity scales similarly within a space, they are not necessarily equivalent on a more rigorous level. This review article aims at unifying the multifractal methodology by presenting the multifractal theoretical framework and principal practical methods, namely the moment method, the histogram method, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) and modulus maxima wavelet transform (MMWT), with a comparative and interpretative eye.

  3. MIRD methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) system was established by the Society of Nuclear Medicine of USA in 1960 to assist the medical community in the estimation of the dose in organs and tissues due to the incorporation of radioactive materials. Since then, 'MIRD Dose Estimate Report' (from the 1 to 12) and 'Pamphlets', of great utility for the dose calculations, were published. The MIRD system was planned essentially for the calculation of doses received by the patients during nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. The MIRD methodology for the absorbed doses calculations in different tissues is explained

  4. PSA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this text is first to ask a certain number of questions on the methods related to PSAs. Notably we will explore the positioning of the French methodological approach - as applied in the EPS 13001 and EPS 9002 PSAs - compared to other approaches (Part One). This reflection leads to more general reflection: what contents, for what PSA? This is why, in Part Two, we will try to offer a framework for definition of the criteria a PSA should satisfy to meet the clearly identified needs. Finally, Part Three will quickly summarize the questions approached in the first two parts, as an introduction to the debate. 15 refs

  5. Beware of agents when flying aircraft: Basic principles behind a generic methodology for the evaluation and certification of advanced aviation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaux, Denis; Masson, Michel; Dekeyser, Veronique

    1994-01-01

    There is currently a growing interest in the aeronautical community to assess the effects of the increasing levels of automation on pilots' performance and overall safety. The first effect of automation is the change in the nature of the pilot's role on the flight deck. Pilots have become supervisors who monitor aircraft systems in usual situations and intervene only when unanticipated events occur. Instead of 'hand flying' the airplane, pilots contribute to the control of aircraft by acting as mediators, instructions given to the automation. By eliminating the need for manually controlling normal situations, such a role division has reduced the opportunities for the pilot to acquire experience and skills necessary to safely cope with abnormal events. Difficulties in assessing the state and behavior of automation arise mainly from four factors: (1) the complexity of current systems and consequence mode-related problems; (2) the intrinsic autonomy of automation which is able to fire mode transitions without explicit commands from the pilots; (3) the bad quality of feed-back from the control systems displays and interfaces to the pilots; and (4) the fact that the automation currently has no explicit representation of the current pilots' intentions and strategy. Assuming certification has among its major goals to guarantee the passengers' and pilots' safety and the airplane integrity under normal and abnormal operational conditions, the authors suggest it would be particularly fruitful to come up with a conceptual reference system providing the certification authorities both with a theoretical framework and a list of principles usable for assessing the quality of the equipment and designs under examination. This is precisely the scope of this paper. However, the authors recognize that the conceptual presented is still under development and would thus be best considered as a source of reflection for the design, evaluation and certification processes of advanced

  6. Avanços metodológicos da microscopia na avaliação de alimentos Methodological advances of microscopy in food-stuff evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Lempp

    2007-07-01

    , as well as the development of samples preparation techniques, provided excellent tools in the several science areas. The evaluations at the microscope, electron or optical, of edible products utilized for ruminants, has helped in the cause/effect relationship understanding in animal performance. Of paramount importance are the advances obtained in the action mode of rumen microorganisms in the substrates knowledge, mainly of the particle-associated bacteria. Advances were also achieved in the knowledge of factors that affect the forage dry matter degradability, especially of the C3 species, but these advances also contribute to the knowledge of the C4. These studies results allowed the establishment of several research lines, creating the possibility of discrimination in the early stages of grasses and legumes selection, those which present the greatest qualitative potential. There is especial merit also in the studies to increase the corn and alfalfa stalk degradability, as well as those to identify how the agricultural byproducts treatment can increase its quality, and to verify the effect of inoculants, such as exogenous enzymes, in the dry matter degradability rate. Besides the verification of the tannin effect, especially in legumes, into the digestibility, which may in the future to foster the utilization of additives that can minimize or prevent their harmful effects on forage consumption. With relation to cereal grains, it may be verified the genotype influence on degradability. The results achieved up to now, give the base for the genetic manipulation of feed stuff utilized by ruminants, which probably will be object of research in the next decades.

  7. MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The issues of vehicle safety are considered. The methodology of approach to analyzing and solving the problem of safety management of vehicles and overall traffic is offered. The distinctive features of organization and management of vehicle safety are shown. There has been drawn a conclusion that the methodological approach to solving traffic safety problems is reduced to selection and classification of safety needs.

  8. Research methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    This book deals with how students should use of research methods in their university projects. It aims at helping students in developing comprehensive research strategies for their projects. It also provides introduction to issues of philosophy of science as applied in the social sciences. That is...... it provides them with a fair understanding of the root assumptions that guide researchers in their investigations and how these assumptions inform their theoretical thinking and choice of methods....

  9. EnergiTools. A methodology for performance monitoring and diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EnergiTools is a performance monitoring and diagnostic tool that combines the power of on-line process data acquisition with advanced diagnosis methodologies. Analytical models based on thermodynamic principles are combined with neural networks to validate sensor data and to estimate missing or faulty measurements. Advanced diagnostic technologies are then applied to point out potential faults and areas to be investigated further. The diagnosis methodologies are based on Bayesian belief networks. Expert knowledge is captured in the form of the fault-symptom relationships and includes historical information as the likelihood of faults and symptoms. The methodology produces the likelihood of component failure root causes using the expert knowledge base. EnergiTools is used at Ringhals nuclear power plants. It has led to the diagnosis of various performance issues. Three case studies based on this plant data and model are presented and illustrate the diagnosis support methodologies implemented in EnergiTools . In the first case, the analytical data qualification technique points out several faulty measurements. The application of a neural network for the estimation of the nuclear reactor power by interpreting several plant indicators is then illustrated. The use of the Bayesian belief networks is finally described. (author)

  10. Shattering the Glass Ceiling. Issues and Solutions in Promoting the Advancement of Women and Minorities to Executive Management in Corporate America. White Paper 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microquest Corp., San Rafael, CA.

    Despite their progress in the workplace in recent years, women and minorities still remain greatly underrepresented in executive roles in major U.S. companies. The barriers, attitudes, and practices that deter the advancement of women and minorities into executive ranks collectively result in the phenomenon known as the "Glass Ceiling." The cases…

  11. METHODOLOGY OF PROFESSIONAL PEDAGOGICAL EDUCATION: THEORY AND PRACTICE (theoretical and methodological foundations of vocational teacher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny M. Dorozhkin

    2014-01-01

    methodology taking into consideration the target orientation, principles and approaches to the organization and its’ methods of scientific and educational activities implementation. The qualification structure formation of the teachers’ vocational training and providing advance principles of education are considered to be the most important conditions for the development of vocational teacher education. Scientific novelty. The research demonstrates creating the project of further vocational teacher education development in the post-industrial society. The pedagogical innovations transforming research findings into educational practice are considered to be the main tool of integration methodology means. Practical significance. The research findings highlight the proposed reforms for further teachers training system development of vocational institutes, which are in need of drastic restructuring. In the final part of the article the authors recommend some specific issues that can be discussed at the methodological workshop. 

  12. ADVANCE PAYMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative Circular Nº 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  13. Advance payments

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2003-01-01

    Administrative Circular N 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  14. Methodological Issues in Using the Rasch Model To Select Cross Culturally Equivalent Items in Order To Develop a Quality of Life Index: The Analysis of Four WHOQOL-100 Data Sets (Argentina, France, Hong Kong, United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leplege, Alain; Ecosse, Emmanuel

    2000-01-01

    Describes the source instrument, the database, and the experimental methodology that have been used in developing the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) profiles to allow the comparison of quality of life findings from a variety of cultural settings. Illustrates the precautions necessary in interpreting scores from different…

  15. Construct Validity: Advances in Theory and Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Milton E.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2009-01-01

    Measures of psychological constructs are validated by testing whether they relate to measures of other constructs as specified by theory. Each test of relations between measures reflects on the validity of both the measures and the theory driving the test. Construct validation concerns the simultaneous process of measure and theory validation. In this chapter, we review the recent history of validation efforts in clinical psychological science that has led to this perspective, and we review f...

  16. Strategic Leadership: A Model for Promoting, Sustaining, and Advancing Institutional Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kenneth E.; Johnson, Mimi

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the methods, materials, and manpower required to create a strategic leadership program for promoting, sustaining, and advancing institutional significance. The functionality of the program is based on the Original Case Study Design (OCSD) methodology, in which participants are given actual college issues to investigate from a…

  17. Review on current advances, future challenges and consideration issues for post-combustion CO2 capture using amine-based absorbents☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwu Liang; Kaiyun Fu; Raphael Idem; Paitoon Tontiwachwuthikul

    2016-01-01

    Among the current technologies for post-combustion CO2 capture, amine-based chemical absorption appears to be the most technologically mature and commercial y viable method. This review highlights the opportunities and challenges in post-combustion CO2 capture using amine-based chemical absorption technologies. In addi-tion, this review provides current types and emerging trends for chemical solvents. The issues and performance of amine solvents are reviewed and addressed in terms of thermodynamics, kinetics, mass transfer, regeneration and solvent management. This review also looks at emerging and future trends in post-combustion CO2 capture using chemical solvents in the near to mid-term.

  18. Parkinson's Disease: The Newest Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Parkinson's Disease: The Newest Advances Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... Landis What are the risk factors for developing Parkinson's? The clearest risk factor is age. In addition, ...

  19. Parkinson's Disease: The Newest Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Parkinson's Disease: The Newest Advances Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table ... number of genes that cause or contribute to Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as potential environmental risk factors. ...

  20. Large-scale simulations on thermal-hydraulics in fuel bundles of advanced nuclear reactors (Annual Report of the Earth Simulator Center, Dec 2008, 2007 issue)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to predict the water-vapor two-phase flow dynamics in a fuel bundle of an advanced light-water reactor, large-scale numerical simulations were performed using a highly parallel-vector supercomputer, the earth simulator. Although conventional analysis methods such as subchannel codes and system analysis codes need composition equations based on the experimental data, it is difficult to obtain high prediction accuracy when experimental data to obtain the composition equations. Then, the present large-scale direct simulation method of water-vapor two-phase flow was proposed. The void fraction distribution in a fuel bundle under boiling heat transfer condition was analyzed and the bubble dynamics around the fuel rod surface were predicted quantitatively. (author)

  1. Advances in Tube Hydroforming - An Enabling Technology for Low-Mass Vehicle Manufacturing - Material, Lubrication,Loading, Simulation Issues, and Alternatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muammer Ko(c)

    2004-01-01

    The tube hydroforming process (THF) has recently found a wide application opportunity in the automotive industry, and is of increasing interest to other industries as well. The increased interest stems from the fact that, through the THF process, manufacturers are able to produce complex, consolidated, lightweight parts with reduced number of post-processing than through alternative metal forming techniques. In order to fully realize the benefits of this technology, various aspects have been under investigation in academia and industry world-wide. In this paper, effect of loading path, incoming material variation, and lubrication on the robustness of the hydroforming process and final part specifications are summarized based on previous experimental and computational work. In addition, the simulation of hydroforming and examples are presented in comparison with experimental findings. Briefly, results emphasized the importance of the loading path design whereas material variation within the experimentally tested range was not found to be significantly effective on the final part specifications. Selection of a lubricant for hydroforming of a frame rail part was presented demonstrating several aspects of lubrication selection methodology. Results of friction experiments show that only thickness, axial feeding, and force measurements are good indications of lubricant performance as these are found to be strongly discriminative.

  2. Emotional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Care for Duchenne / Emotional Issues Print Email Emotional Issues Duchenne’s emotional toll on a child can manifest in a ... important things you can provide to ensure the emotional health of your child. Parents of a child ...

  3. Qualidade de vida infantil: limites e possibilidades das questões teórico-metodológicas Children's quality of life: limits and possiblities of theorical - methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Bazanelli Prebianchi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As pesquisas sobre QV infantil não têm sido sistemáticas, dificultando o equacionamento das questões teórico-metodológicas suscitadas quando se deseja aprimorar processos diagnósticos e a avaliação de resultados de tratamentos de saúde. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar os limites e possibilidades das principais questões teórico-metodológicas relativas ao conceito QV das crianças, mediante de uma pesquisa bibliográfica cobrindo o período 1995-2005. Os resultados encontrados foram semelhantes àqueles de trabalhos sobre o estado-da-arte. Concluiu-se que a proliferação de instrumentos de QV e de pesquisas na área ocorreu sem aprofundamento das questões conceituais e metodológicas e com falta de informação obtida das próprias crianças.The researches on child QV have not been systematic and this way it has been difficult to answer the theoretical-methodological questions when the goal is to improve the diagnosis processes and the systematic assessment of health care outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the limits and possibilities of the main theoretical-methodological questions related to the children's QV concept, through a bibliographic research, covering the period 1995-2005. The results were similar to those works on state-of-art. It was concluded that the proliferation of instruments of QV and researches in this area have occurred without deepening of the conceptual and methodological questions and without the information provided by the children themselves.

  4. Systemization of Design and Analysis Technology for Advanced Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is performed to establish the base for the license application of the original technology by systemization and enhancement of the technology that is indispensable for the design and analysis of the advanced reactors including integral reactors. Technical reports and topical reports are prepared for this purpose on some important design/analysis methodology; design and analysis computer programs, structural integrity evaluation of main components and structures, digital I and C systems and man-machine interface design. PPS design concept is complemented reflecting typical safety analysis results. And test plans and requirements are developed for the verification of the advanced reactor technology. Moreover, studies are performed to draw up plans to apply to current or advanced power reactors the original technologies or base technologies such as patents, computer programs, test results, design concepts of the systems and components of the advanced reactors. Finally, pending issues are studied of the advanced reactors to improve the economics and technology realization

  5. Mexico; Selected Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes the global crisis and potential growth in Mexico. The paper uses two methodologies to assess to what extent the global crisis is likely to weigh on Mexico’s growth potential. The first approach is sectoral, examining the historical relationship between financial stress and growth in manufacturing industries. The second approach uses a growth-accounting framework to take a closer look at likely developments in the factors that drive potential growth. The p...

  6. Editorial: Advanced learning technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Lan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent rapid development of advanced information technology brings high expectations of its potential to improvement and innovations in learning. This special issue is devoted to using some of the emerging technologies issues related to the topic of education and knowledge sharing, involving several cutting edge research outcomes from recent advancement of learning technologies. Advanced learning technologies are the composition of various related technologies and concepts such as mobile technologies and social media towards learner centered learning. This editorial note provides an overview of relevant issues discussed in this special issue.

  7. Editorial: Advanced learning technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Ju Lan; Gang-Shan Fu; Stephen J.H. Yang; Jeff J.S. Huang

    2012-01-01

    Recent rapid development of advanced information technology brings high expectations of its potential to improvement and innovations in learning. This special issue is devoted to using some of the emerging technologies issues related to the topic of education and knowledge sharing, involving several cutting edge research outcomes from recent advancement of learning technologies. Advanced learning technologies are the composition of various related technologies and concepts such as mobile tech...

  8. Qualitative Methodology in Unfamiliar Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Christian Franklin

    2014-01-01

    This case study discusses qualitative fieldwork in Malaysia. The trends in higher education led to investigating how and why young Indians and Chinese in Malaysia are using the university to pursue a life strategy. Given the importance of field context in designing and analysing research based on a...... qualitative methodology, conscious reflection on research design and objectivity is important when doing fieldwork. This case study discusses such reflections. Emphasis throughout is given to applied qualitative methodology and its contributions to the social sciences, in particular having to do with...... relational, emotional, and ethical issues associated with interviewing and personal observation. Although the empirical setting of this case is Southeast Asia, the various discussions and interrelatedness of methodology, theory, and empirical reflections will prove applicable to field studies throughout the...

  9. Methodological remarks on contraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    Because contraction analysis stems from a differential and incremental framework, the nature and methodology of contraction-based proofs are significantly different from those of their Lyapunov-based counterparts. This paper specifically studies this issue, and illustrates it by revisiting some...... classical examples traditionally addressed using Lyapunov theory. Even in these cases, contraction tools can often yield significantly simplified analysis. The examples include adaptive control, robotics, and a proof of convergence of the deterministic Extended Kalman Filter....

  10. Lionel Robbins: a methodological reappraisal

    OpenAIRE

    RESENDE, Marcelo; Rodrigo M. Zeidan

    2007-01-01

    Lionel Robbins contributions are often discussed in terms of two main aspects. First, the delineation of the scope of economics in terms of decision making conditional on scarcity. Second, a more methodological concern with respect to scientific neutrality and the possibility of meaningful separation between positive and normative statements in economics. The related demarcation issue is subject to intense debate and Robbins is often associated with a strong neutrality view [see e.g. Davis (2...

  11. Recent advances and issues on locoweed-fungal endophyte%疯草内生真菌研究现状与存在问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周启武; 白松; 路浩; 赵宝玉; 陈基萍

    2012-01-01

    Locoweed is the most seriously poisonous plant which threats the sustainable development of pasture husbandry throughout the world. As has been confirmed, the main constituent of the locoweed which causes livestock poisoning is the indolizidine alkaloid-swainsonine. Swainsonine has significant phar- macological activity of antibacterial, antiviral, anti-tumor, and improves immune system in addition to its toxicity. Most of the attentions of the research on SW concentrates on the producing mechanisms, toxicol- ogy and pharmacological activities of the SW. Rresearchers domestic and foreign has started to focus on the locoweed endophyte biodiversity, the relationship between the locoweed endophytic fungi and its produc- tion of swainsonine, as well as the mechanism of stress resistance since the end of 20th century to revealing the production mechanism of the toxic substances, the relationship between the endophytic fungi and the stress resistance, especially the interaction between the toxic substances and the endophytic fungi. Swain- sonine-producing endophytic fungus has been isolated from a variety of locoweeds. And it has been found that there existed a close relationship between locoweed endophytic fungi and locoweed. This paper reviewed the main content and the present situation of the researches about locoweed endophytic fungi and made discussion about a number of issues in the field.%疯草是世界范围内危害草原畜牧业可持续发展最严重的毒草。引起家畜疯草中毒的主要成分是吲哚里西啶生物碱——苦马豆素,苦马豆素除具有毒性外,还具有显著的抗菌、抗病毒、抗肿瘤、增强免疫等药理活性,有关苦马豆素产生机制、毒理和药理活性研究已成为人们研究的热点。为了揭示疯草毒性物质产生机制、疯草内生真菌与疯草抗逆性,特别是疯草毒性物质与疯草内生真菌互作关系等诸多问题,国内外科技工作者从20世纪末就开始致力于

  12. Comparative Study of ERP Implementation Methodology Case Study: Accelerated SAP VS Dantes & Hasibuan Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Hilman, M.; Setiadi, F.; Sarika, I.; Budiasto, J.; Alfian, R.

    2013-01-01

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system is a concept of enterprise system that describe the integration of the whole process in the organization. Study in this field mostly about external development paradigm on information system development. So, issue in ERP is all about how to adopt it in the organization, not about the application development. This paper reviews two methodologies on ERP system implementation, one is vendor perspective methodology and new generic perspective methodology....

  13. Aspectos metodológicos do Projeto SBBrasil 2010 de interesse para inquéritos nacionais de saúde Relevant methodological issues from the SBBrasil 2010 Project for national health surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O Projeto SBBrasil 2010 (SBB10 foi concebido como um levantamento epidemiológico em saúde bucal, de base nacional, dentro da estratégia de vigilância em saúde. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar aspectos da metodologia do SBB10 que possam contribuir para ampliar e desenvolver conhecimentos na área de saúde. Com relação ao plano amostral, trata-se de uma pesquisa por conglomerados e com múltiplos estágios. Capitais e municípios do interior das cinco regiões brasileiras compõem os domínios da amostra, cujas unidades amostrais foram, respectivamente, setor censitário e domicílio para as capitais, e município, setor censitário e domicílio para o interior. Nas capitais foram sorteados 30 setores e, no interior de cada região, 30 municípios. A precisão considerou os domínios agrupados segundo o grau de densidade no total da população e a variabilidade interna dos índices. Foram avaliadas as condições de cárie dentária, doença periodontal, oclusopatias, fluorose, traumatismo dentário e edentulismo em cinco grupos etários (5, 12, 15 a 19, 35 a 44 e 65 a 74 anos.The SBBrasil 2010 Project (SBB10 was designed as a nationwide oral health epidemiological survey within a health surveillance strategy. This article discusses methodological aspects of the SBB10 Project that can potentially help expand and develop knowledge in the health field. This was a nationwide survey with stratified multi-stage cluster sampling. The sample domains were 27 State capitals and 150 rural municipalities (counties from the country's five major geographic regions. The sampling units were census tracts and households for the State capitals and municipalities, census tracts, and households for the rural areas. Thirty census tracts were selected in the State capitals and 30 municipalities in the countryside. The precision considered the demographic domains grouped by density of the overall population and the internal variability of oral health

  14. A case on vendor selection methodology: An integrated approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil C. Shil

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Vendor selection methodology is a highly researched area in supply chain management l terature and a very significant decision taken by supply chain managers due to technological advances in the manufacturing process. Such research has two basic dimensions: one is related to the identification of variables affecting the performance of the vendors and the other deals with the methodology to be applied. Most of the research conducted in this area deal with the upfront selection of vendors. However, it is very common to have a list of dedicated vendors due to the development of sophisticated production technologies like just in time (JIT, a lean or agile manufacturing process where continuous flow of materials is a requirement. This paper addresses the issue of selecting the optimal vendor from the internal database of a company. Factor analysis, analytical hierarchy process and regression analysis is used in an integrated way to supplement the vendor selection process. The methodology presented here is simply a proposal where every possible room for adjustment is available.

  15. Differing Methodological Perspectives in Artificial Intelligence Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Rogers P.; Kibler, Dennis F.

    1985-01-01

    A variety of proposals for preferred methodological approaches has been advanced in the recent artificial intelligence (AI) literature. Rather than advocating a particular approach, this article attempts to explain the apparent confusion of efforts in the field in terms of differences among underlying methodological perspectives held by practicing researchers. The article presents a review of such perspectives discussed in the existing literature and then considers a descriptive and relativel...

  16. CUSTOMER SUBJECTIVE PERCEPTION AS A MAIN ISSUE IN CONCEPTUAL PRODUCT DESING: A METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL LA PERCEPCIÓN SUBJETIVA COMO FACTOR PRIMORDIAL EN EL DISEÑO CONCEPTUAL DE PRODUCTOS: UNA PROPUESTA METODOLÓGICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A León Duarte

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Present economic scenarios compel organizations to introduce new strategies directed to increase their competitiveness. Industrial design is not detached from this tendency; commonly organizations declare that their products are the effect of " listening to the user" . Nevertheless, this process is identified by two basic characteristics: the associated linguistic nature to and the difficulty for interpreting, categorizing and incorporating the user's needs into product specifications. In this sense, the lack of solid and reliable mechanisms to integrate the user's perceived requirements into product characteristics is well known. A particular emphasis is made in the need to incorporate intangible attributes related to product perception by the user. A mechanism to detect and interpret product attributes in the conceptual or early desig and, a procedure to evaluate the user's subjective perception are incorporated. The methodology draws upon particular mechanisms for detection, interpretation and categorization of the requirements in two basic domains. These attributes, once identified, are incorporated in an affordances structure that shows sets of interactions in which the properties of the object are perceived by the user as action possibilities. This structure serves as a guide for the creative team in the detailed design phase, incorporating aspects that the user values the most, employing a combination of mechanisms that include the Kano method, Osgood's semantic differentials, factor analysis and fuzzy logic.El escenario económico actual obliga a las organizaciones a implantar estrategias novedosas, dirigidas a incrementar su competitividad. El diseño industrial no es ajeno a esto; en la actualidad las organizaciones presumen que sus productos son resultado de escuchar al usuario. Sin embargo, este proceso se distingue por dos características: la naturaleza lingüística asociada al mismo y la dificultad para interpretar, categorizar y

  17. Intelligence for embedded systems a methodological approach

    CERN Document Server

    Alippi, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Addressing current issues of which any engineer or computer scientist should be aware, this monograph is a response to the need to adopt a new computational paradigm as the methodological basis for designing pervasive embedded systems with sensor capabilities. The requirements of this paradigm are to control complexity, to limit cost and energy consumption, and to provide adaptation and cognition abilities allowing the embedded system to interact proactively with the real world. The quest for such intelligence requires the formalization of a new generation of intelligent systems able to exploit advances in digital architectures and in sensing technologies. The book sheds light on the theory behind intelligence for embedded systems with specific focus on: ·        robustness (the robustness of a computational flow and its evaluation); ·        intelligence (how to mimic the adaptation and cognition abilities of the human brain), ·        the capacity to learn in non-stationary and evolv...

  18. Pain: advances and issues in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M; Cotanch, P H

    1987-09-01

    The milieu of the critical care unit is stressful for both the patient and health care professionals. As such, it has the potential to increase pain perception in patients, and decrease the nurse's awareness of pain relief needs of the patient. Several physical and pharmacologic methods of pain relief were discussed in this article. Nontechnologic analgesia such as hypnosis and relaxation were introduced as adjuncts or alternatives to more familiar methods of pain relief. Although critically ill patients are not always able to express their discomfort, it is the responsibility of the nurse to recognize the potential for pain, and plan treatment accordingly. This article suggests several strategies for dealing with pain in critically ill patients. PMID:3302958

  19. Advance Care Planning: Medical Issues to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer or end stage chronic illness accompanied by anorexia (lack of appetite) and cachexia (muscles wasting away ... care and administrative program support. Share this: Twitter Facebook Google Search for: Choosing a Hospice: 16 Questions ...

  20. Disability Issues are Women's Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Mijoo Kim

    2009-01-01

    Mijoo Kim from Women with Disabilities Arts and Culture Network, Korea, speaks on behalf of women with disabilities when she underlines that disability issues are women's issues. She asks why women with disabilities have been invisible in the women's movement, based on her work over the past 15 years in the movement of women with disabilities in Korea and internationally. Development (2009) 52, 230–232. doi:10.1057/dev.2009.10

  1. THE AGILE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charul Deewan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The technologies are numerous and Software is the one whichis most widely used. Some companies have their owncustomized methodology for developing their software but themajority speaks about two kinds of methodologies: Traditionaland Agile methodologies. In this paper, we will discuss someof the aspects of what Agile methodology is, how it can beused to get the best result from a project, how do we get it towork in an organization.

  2. Research Methodology in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight pitfalls in research methodology that may explain why studies in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) often provide very divergent results. It is hoped that insight into this issue may help clinicians decide which published studies are the most valid. It may help...... researchers to eliminate methodological flaws in future studies, which may hopefully come to some kind of agreement about the usefulness of diagnostic tests and treatments in RPL....

  3. SOFTWARE METRICS VALIDATION METHODOLOGIES IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    K.P. Srinivasan; T. Devi

    2014-01-01

    In the software measurement validations, assessing the validation of software metrics in software engineering is a very difficult task due to lack of theoretical methodology and empirical methodology [41, 44, 45]. During recent years, there have been a number of researchers addressing the issue of validating software metrics. At present, software metrics are validated theoretically using properties of measures. Further, software measurement plays an important role in understanding...

  4. Emerging issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some formal and informal mechanisms were implemented at the Ontario Ministry of the Environment that allow the identification of emerging environmental issues. The early warning is most often provided through the expertise of the personnel and their contacts. The Ministry commissioned a study to review the process, learn from the processes in place in other organizations, and implement the appropriate changes into its emerging issues procedure. The team conducting the review answered four specific questions. The first question was: What are the necessary elements of an emerging issues tool? The second question was: What are some of the best practices in other jurisdictions? It was followed by the question: How do those jurisdictions implement emerging issues models? The final question was: What implementation is appropriate for the Ontario Ministry of the Environment? The approach involved reviewing the appropriate literature and reviewing the best practices in place in other jurisdictions, both in the United States and in Europe. Senior officials in Canada and the United States were interviewed, and the procedure was identified and described. A case study concerning the acid rain problem in the 1960s and 1970s was used to test the developed procedure retroactively. This procedure involves a variation of the top-down, bottom-up input procedure at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), with a formal issues scanning process, and the prioritizing and analysis of the steps. It was noted that if the procedure had been in place in the late 1960s in Ontario, it would have been possible to identify one or more impacts from the acid rain situation ten years earlier. Preventive and remedial action could have been implemented, leading to environmental and economic benefits for the province of Ontario. The broad involvement of stakeholders is required for an open and systematic prioritization of the issues. The authors concluded the study by identifying

  5. Nuclear EMP: ingredients of an EMP protection engineering methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fundamental methodology of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) protection engineering is described. Operations performed within the framework of this methodology are discussed. These operations, along with problem constraints and data, constitute the essential ingredients needed to implement the overall engineering methodology. Basic definitions and descriptions of these essential ingredients are provided. The issues discussed represent the first step in developing a methodology for protecting systems against EMP effects

  6. METHODOLOGY OF PROFESSIONAL PEDAGOGICAL EDUCATION: THEORY AND PRACTICE (THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF VOCATIONAL TEACHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Dorozhkin

    2015-03-01

    analysis of methodology taking into consideration the target orientation, principles and approaches to the organization and its’ methods of scientific and educational activitiesimplementation. The qualification structure formation of the teachers’ vocational training and providing advance principles of education are considered to be the most important conditions for the development of vocational teacher education.Scientific novelty. The research demonstrates creating the project of further vocational teacher education development in the post-industrial society. The pedagogical innovations transforming research findings into educational practice are considered to be the main tool of integration methodology means.Practical significance. The research findings highlight the proposed reforms for further teachers training system development of vocational institutes, which are in need of drastic restructuring. In the final part of the article the authors recommend some specific issues that can be discussed at the methodological workshop.

  7. Defect reduction through Lean methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Kathleen; Kindt, Louis; Densmore, Jim; Benson, Craig; Zhou, Nancy; Leonard, John; Whiteside, Cynthia; Nolan, Robert; Shanks, David

    2010-09-01

    Lean manufacturing is a systematic method of identifying and eliminating waste. Use of Lean manufacturing techniques at the IBM photomask manufacturing facility has increased efficiency and productivity of the photomask process. Tools, such as, value stream mapping, 5S and structured problem solving are widely used today. In this paper we describe a step-by-step Lean technique used to systematically decrease defects resulting in reduced material costs, inspection costs and cycle time. The method used consists of an 8-step approach commonly referred to as the 8D problem solving process. This process allowed us to identify both prominent issues as well as more subtle problems requiring in depth investigation. The methodology used is flexible and can be applied to numerous situations. Advantages to Lean methodology are also discussed.

  8. Advances in welding science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the years, welding has been more of an art than a science, but in the last few decades major advances have taken place in welding science and technology. With the development of new methodologies at the crossroads of basic and applied sciences, enormous opportunities and potential exist to develop a science-based design of composition, structure, and properties of welds with intelligent control and automation of the welding processes. In the last several decades, welding has evolved as an interdisciplinary activity requiring synthesis of knowledge from various disciplines and incorporating the most advanced tools of various basic applied sciences. A series of international conferences and other publications have covered the issues, current trends and directions in welding science and technology. In the last few decades, major progress has been made in (i) understanding physical processes in welding, (ii) characterization of microstructure and properties, and (iii) intelligent control and automation of welding. This paper describes some of these developments

  9. Design for manufacturability with advanced lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Bei

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the most advanced research results on Design for Manufacturability (DFM) with multiple patterning lithography (MPL) and electron beam lithography (EBL).  The authors describe in detail a set of algorithms/methodologies to resolve issues in modern design for manufacturability problems with advanced lithography.  Unlike books that discuss DFM from the product level, or physical manufacturing level, this book describes DFM solutions from a circuit design level, such that most of the critical problems can be formulated and solved through combinatorial algorithms. Enables readers to tackle the challenge of layout decompositions for different patterning techniques; Presents a coherent framework, including standard cell compliance and detailed placement, to enable Triple Patterning Lithography (TPL) friendly design; Includes coverage of the design for manufacturability with E-Beam lithography.

  10. Sanskrit Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barbara Stoler, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    This issue of "Mahfil" is devoted to Sanskrit literature and contains a note on Sanskrit pronunciation and selections of Sanskrit literature. It also contains articles analyzing and discussing various aspects of the literature, including "Sanskrit Rhetoric and Poetic,""The Creative Role of the Goddess Vac in the 'Rgveda,'""Vedic and Epic…

  11. Tourism Methodologies - New Perspectives, Practices and Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume offers methodological discussions within the multidisciplinary field of tourism and shows how tourism researchers develop and apply new tourism methodologies. The book is presented as an anthology, giving voice to many diverse researchers who reflect on tourism methodology in different...... interview and field work situations, and how do we engage with the performative aspects of tourism as a field of study? The book acknowledges that research is also performance and that it constitutes an aspect of intervention in the situations and contexts it is trying to explore. This is an issue dealt...

  12. Joining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Messler, Robert W

    1993-01-01

    Provides an unusually complete and readable compilation of the primary and secondary options for joining conventional materials in non-conventional ways. Provides unique coverage of adhesive bonding using both organic and inorganic adhesives, cements and mortars. Focuses on materials issues without ignoring issues related to joint design, production processing, quality assurance, process economics, and joining performance in service.Joining of advanced materials is a unique treatment of joining of both conventional and advanced metals andalloys, intermetallics, ceramics, glasses, polymers, a

  13. Professional Emergence on Transnational Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    . These approaches are important in identifying the sources of what becomes established, but less geared to identifying interactions that are emergent. This article extends a linked ecologies approach to emergence, arguing that interaction on transnational issues should first be understood by how they are...... what are included and excluded. A linked ecologies approach provides a fruitful way of identifying actors and distinctions on issues that are emergent. These conceptual and methodological points are demonstrated through a study of how medical experts, demographers, and economists forge issue...

  14. Methodological problems in Rorschach research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić-Jočić Dragana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive System of Rorschach interpretation is considered as nomotetic system that makes possible using of projective method in research projects. However, research use of Rorschach method besides of appropriate knowledge of assign procedures and interpretation rules, means a knowledge of specific methodological issues. The Rorschach indicators are nor independent, as they are a part of specific net, so in some research it is necessary to control basic variables not to get artifacts in our research. This is basically relied on researches where we compare groups, as well as in normative studies where through cross-cultural we compare Rorschach indicators. .

  15. Methodologies for tracking learning paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Gilje, Øystein; Lindstrand, Fredrik;

    2009-01-01

    filmmakers: what furthers their interest and/or hinders it, and what learning patterns emerge. The aim of this article is to present and discuss issues regarding the methodology and meth- ods of the study, such as developing a relationship with interviewees when conducting inter- views online (using MSN). We...... suggest two considerations about using online interviews: how the interviewees value the given subject of conversation and their familiarity with being online. The benefit of getting online communication with the young filmmakers offers ease, because it is both practical and appropriates a meeting...

  16. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  17. Miscellaneous issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee has examined several issues regarding the restructuring of the province's electricity sector. This report presents issues that require guidance for implementation, with particular focus on options available for their resolutions. The issues include: (1) rate principles for stranded offer service (SOS) supply, (2) the ability of contestable customers to return to SOS after having left it, (3) whether loads embedded in distribution systems are eligible to participate in the bilateral contract market, (4) whether generators or suppliers can offer capacity and energy to SOS suppliers in competition with the SOS supplier, and (5) details for the balancing market, including pricing, bidding protocols, settlements and how intermittent power sources can participate in the market. A section on pricing for SOS explains pricing principles, the use of export profits, pricing for SOS capacity, and time of use pricing. The Committee has made recommendations for the electricity system in the province to have an energy imbalance service that can move towards a market in order to develop an efficient and effective service. This report also explains pricing in the balancing market, penalties, and settlements. 7 refs

  18. Transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This session on transmission issues focused on the role that transmission plays in electricity markets and the importance of getting the market structure right in terms of generation divestiture with buy back contracts, demand side responsive programs, transmission upgrades and long term contracts. The difficulties of distinguishing between market power and scarcity were examined along with some of the complications that ensue if transmission experiences congestion, as exemplified by the August 2003 blackout in eastern North America. The presentations described the best ways to handle transmission issues, and debated whether transmission should be deregulated or follow market forces. Issues of interconnections and reliability of connections were also debated along with the attempt to integrate renewables into the grid. Some presentations identified what new transmission must be built and what must be done to ensure that transmission gets built. The challenges and business opportunities for transmission in Alberta were discussed with reference to plans to invest in new infrastructure, where it is going outside of the province and how it works with other jurisdictions. Manitoba's Conawapa Hydro Project and its 2000 MW tie line to Ontario was also discussed. Some examples of non-optimal use of interconnections in Europe were also discussed in an effort to learn from these mistakes and avoid them in Canada. tabs., figs

  19. Undergrounding issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a general review of British Columbia Hydro's rights-of-way policies, a task group was formed to explore and assess the technical, social, environmental, and economic issues related to the provision of suitable underground rights-of-way for distribution and transmission lines. Issues considered were: evaluations of undergrounding; designation of service areas as underground areas; the BC Hydro fund to assist municipalities in beautifying selected areas by placing existing overhead lines underground; community funding of undergrounding; underground options to transmission and distribution requirements; and long-range underground row planning. Key findings are as follows. Undergrounding is technically feasible and available for all BC Hydro operating voltages, but initial construction costs of undergrounding continue to exceed equivalent overhead by a significant margin. Undergrounding can contribute to the optimization of existing rights-of-way. Public safety is improved with undergrounding and long-term benefits to BC Hydro and society are provided by undergrounding, compared to overhead options. Customers have shown some willingness to contribute to the cost of undergrounding, and it is generally agreed that those communities that want undergrounding should pay for it. Policy recommendations are made under each of the issue areas, and justifications for the recommendations are given along with implementation costs and alternative options

  20. Microbiological Methodology in Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyzov, S. S.; Gerasimenko, L. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Mitskevich, I. N.; Mulyukin, A. L.; Poglazova, M. N.; Rozanov, A. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Searching for life in astromaterials to be delivered from the future missions to extraterrestrial bodies is undoubtedly related to studies of the properties and signatures of living microbial cells and microfossils on Earth. As model terrestrial analogs of Martian polar subsurface layers are often regarded the Antarctic glacier and Earth permafrost habitats where alive microbial cells preserved viability for millennia years due to entering the anabiotic state. For the future findings of viable microorganisms in samples from extraterrestrial objects, it is important to use a combined methodology that includes classical microbiological methods, plating onto nutrient media, direct epifluorescence and electron microscopy examinations, detection of the elemental composition of cells, radiolabeling techniques, PCR and FISH methods. Of great importance is to ensure authenticity of microorganisms (if any in studied samples) and to standardize the protocols used to minimize a risk of external contamination. Although the convincing evidence of extraterrestrial microbial life will may come from the discovery of living cells in astromaterials, biomorphs and microfossils must also be regarded as a target in search of life evidence bearing in mind a scenario that alive microorganisms had not be preserved and underwent mineralization. Under the laboratory conditions, processes that accompanied fossilization of cyanobacteria were reconstructed, and artificially produced cyanobacterial stromatolites resembles by their morphological properties those found in natural Earth habitats. Regarding the vital importance of distinguishing between biogenic and abiogenic signatures and between living and fossil microorganisms in analyzed samples, it is worthwhile to use some previously developed approaches based on electron microscopy examinations and analysis of elemental composition of biomorphs in situ and comparison with the analogous data obtained for laboratory microbial cultures and

  1. VISION 21 SYSTEMS ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.S. Samuelsen; A. Rao; F. Robson; B. Washom

    2003-08-11

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into power plant systems that meet performance and emission goals of the Vision 21 program. The study efforts have narrowed down the myriad of fuel processing, power generation, and emission control technologies to selected scenarios that identify those combinations having the potential to achieve the Vision 21 program goals of high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. The technology levels considered are based on projected technical and manufacturing advances being made in industry and on advances identified in current and future government supported research. Included in these advanced systems are solid oxide fuel cells and advanced cycle gas turbines. The results of this investigation will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  2. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  3. Scenario development methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the period 1981-1994, SKB has studied several methodologies to systematize and visualize all the features, events and processes (FEPs) that can influence a repository for radioactive waste in the future. All the work performed is based on the terminology and basic findings in the joint SKI/SKB work on scenario development presented in the SKB Technical Report 89-35. The methodologies studied are a) Event tree analysis, b) Influence diagrams and c) Rock Engineering Systems (RES) matrices. Each one of the methodologies is explained in this report as well as examples of applications. One chapter is devoted to a comparison between the two most promising methodologies, namely: Influence diagrams and the RES methodology. In conclusion a combination of parts of the Influence diagram and the RES methodology is likely to be a promising approach. 26 refs

  4. Fire PSA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fire PSA methodology, which NUPEC has introduced from one of US IPEEE fire PSA methodologies, was applied to a Japanese typical 1,100 Mwe class four loop PWR to confirm the applicability. Through this application, some consideration is given on some key parameters, such as fire frequencies and severity factor, in the fire PSA methodology to develop the fire PSA models specific to Japanese plants. (author)

  5. Important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima accident several investigation committees issued reports with lessons learned from the accident in Japan. Among those lessons, several recommendations have been made on severe accident research. Similar to the EURSAFE efforts under EU Program, review of specific severe accident research items was started before Fukushima accident in working group of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) in terms of significance of consequences, uncertainties of phenomena and maturity of assessment methodology. Re-investigation has been started since the Fukushima accident. Additional effects of Fukushima accident, such as core degradation behaviors, sea water injection, containment failure/leakage and re-criticality have been covered. The review results are categorized in ten major fields; core degradation behavior, core melt coolability/retention in containment vessel, function of containment vessel, source term, hydrogen behavior, fuel-coolant interaction, molten core concrete interaction, direct containment heating, recriticality and instrumentation in severe accident conditions. Based on these activities and also author's personal view, the present paper describes the perspective of important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident. Those are specifically investigation of damaged core and components, advanced severe accident analysis capabilities and associated experimental investigations, development of reliable passive cooling system for core/containment, analysis of hydrogen behavior and investigation of hydrogen measures, enhancement of removal function of radioactive materials of containment venting, advanced instrumentation for the diagnosis of severe accident and assessment of advanced containment design which excludes long-term evacuation in any severe accident situations. (author)

  6. Open verification methodology cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Glasser, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Functional verification is an art as much as a science. It requires not only creativity and cunning, but also a clear methodology to approach the problem. The Open Verification Methodology (OVM) is a leading-edge methodology for verifying designs at multiple levels of abstraction. It brings together ideas from electrical, systems, and software engineering to provide a complete methodology for verifying large scale System-on-Chip (SoC) designs. OVM defines an approach for developing testbench architectures so they are modular, configurable, and reusable. This book is designed to help both novic

  7. Recent molecular genetic studies and methodological issues in suicide research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shih-Jen; Hong, Chen-Jee; Liou, Ying-Jay

    2011-06-01

    Suicide behavior (SB) spans a spectrum ranging from suicidal ideation to suicide attempts and completed suicide. Strong evidence suggests a genetic susceptibility to SB, including familial heritability and common occurrence in twins. This review addresses recent molecular genetic studies in SB that include case-control association, genome gene-expression microarray, and genome-wide association (GWA). This work also reviews epigenetics in SB and pharmacogenetic studies of antidepressant-induced suicide. SB fulfills criteria for a complex genetic phenotype in which environmental factors interact with multiple genes to influence susceptibility. So far, case-control association approaches are still the mainstream in SB genetic studies, although whole genome gene-expression microarray and GWA studies have begun to emerge in recent years. Genetic association studies have suggested several genes (e.g., serotonin transporter, tryptophan hydroxylase 2, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor) related to SB, but not all reports support these findings. The case-control approach while useful is limited by present knowledge of disease pathophysiology. Genome-wide studies of gene expression and genetic variation are not constrained by our limited knowledge. However, the explanatory power and path to clinical translation of risk estimates for common variants reported in genome-wide association studies remain unclear because of the presence of rare and structural genetic variation. As whole genome sequencing becomes increasingly widespread, available genomic information will no longer be the limiting factor in applying genetics to clinical medicine. These approaches provide exciting new avenues to identify new candidate genes for SB genetic studies. The other limitation of genetic association is the lack of a consistent definition of the SB phenotype among studies, an inconsistency that hampers the comparability of the studies and data pooling. In summary, SB involves multiple genes interacting with non-genetic factors. A better understanding of the SB genes by combining whole genome approaches with case-control association studies, may potentially lead to developing effective screening, prevention, and management of SB. PMID:20977922

  8. Video Analysis in Cross-Cultural Environments and Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montandon, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of videography combined with group interviews, as a way to better understand the informal learnings of 11-12 year old children in cross-cultural encounters during French-German school exchanges. The complete, consistent video data required the researchers to choose the most significant sequences to highlight the…

  9. Nutrition and risk of dementia: overview and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Martha Clare

    2016-03-01

    After two decades of research on nutrition and dementia there is strong evidence for preventive effects of vitamin E, B vitamins, and n-3 fatty acids and deleterious effects of saturated fat on dementia. Among specific foods with evidence of neuroprotection are green leafy vegetables, other vegetables, berries, and seafood. A number of studies have examined dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet and DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension), neither of which is tailored to the specific foods and nutrients that have been identified as neuroprotective. A new diet called MIND (Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay) incorporates many elements of the Mediterranean diet and DASH but with modifications that reflect current evidence for brain neuroprotection. The evidence in support of the relation of various nutrients and the Mediterranean diet to dementia has been inconsistent. The inconsistencies may be explained by inattention to nutrient/food intake levels in the interpretation of study findings and trial design, including a shifting metric among studies for scoring adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Future studies should pay particular attention to levels of intake in the design and analyses of nutritional studies. PMID:27116239

  10. Cancer During Adolescence: Psychosocial Consequences and Methodological Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Mattsson, Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate psychosocial consequences of cancer during adolescence, using a longitudinal approach. An additional aim was to investigate if mode of administration has an influence on adolescents’ and young adults’ self-reported psychosocial function. In Study I participants, aged 13-23 years, were randomised according to two modes of administration, telephone interview and postal questionnaire, and asked to complete the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scal...

  11. E-cigarettes: methodological and ideological issues and research priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Etter, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette combustion, rather than either tobacco or nicotine, is the cause of a public health disaster. Fortunately, several new technologies that vaporize nicotine or tobacco, and may make cigarettes obsolete, have recently appeared. Research priorities include the effects of vaporizers on smoking cessation and initiation, their safety and toxicity, use by non-smokers, dual use of vaporizers and cigarettes, passive vaping, renormalization of smoking, and the development of messages that effe...

  12. Methodological issues concerning the development of sustainable industrial parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian NASTASE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in order to make a sustainable economic growth possible, especially within manufacturing industries, with auspicious effects concerning the standard of living and the employment rates, the governments should develop and implement projects and strategies, aiming the transition towards knowledge-based economy. The entities that need investments the most are the countries which are crossing a development process, usually facing difficulties in developing a high-performance industrial sector. Under these circumstances, industrial parks prove to be important tools in order to ensure the competitiveness of the national industry. However, the more and more frequent relocation of industrial companies within industrial parks, as a consequence of amplifying the urban areas’ environmental regulations, is due to generate uncontrollable pollution centers, placed just nearby towns and cities, with highly destructive impact upon the environment. This article aims to describe and recommend several strategic options for developing sustainable industrial parks, focused on protecting the environment and promoting the “new economy’s” principles. Among the strategic options recommended, some of them are highly innovative, such as environmental benchmarking or environmental leadership.

  13. Methodological Issues in the Quantification of Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia

    OpenAIRE

    Denver, John W.; Reed, Shawn F.; Porges, Stephen W.

    2006-01-01

    Although respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a commonly quantified physiological variable, the methods for quantification are not consistent. This manuscript questions the assumption that respiration frequency needs to be manipulated or monitored to generate an accurate measure of RSA amplitude. A review of recent papers is presented that contrast RSA amplitude with measures that use respiratory parameters to adjust RSA amplitude. In addition, data from two studies are presented to evaluate...

  14. Forecasting and Technology Management: Statistical Theory and Methodological Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning

    technology. The conclusion is that widespread awareness of the growing force of technology and increasing concern over its impact means that forecasting of technological development and consequences is absolutely essential in many managerial decision situations. Examples cover e.g. identification of...... directions and targets for a R and D project, monitoring of a given area by a public agency, and evaluation of the future competitive situation for a company. This paper gives a brief introduction to the field of technological forecasting especially in relation to the strategic planning process as the...... essential phase where decisions concerning introduction of new technology are taken in companies. It includes as well a description of the problems related to the marketing area and of methods applicable in practising technological forecasting....

  15. Exploring issues in the development of Ayurvedic research methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Ram H Singh

    2010-01-01

    Research is the prime need of contemporary Ayurveda, but modern research on Ayurveda has not been very rewarding for Ayurveda itself. Much of it uses Ayurveda to extend modern bioscience. In contrast, Ayurveda needs research designed to test and validate its fundamental concepts as well as its treatments. In this context, if Ayurveda is to be truly explored and validated in all its aspects, scientific inputs should conform to Ayurveda′s principles and philosophy. While its evidence base, esta...

  16. The Methodological Impact of Feminism: A Troubling Issue for Sociology?

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, R L; Hughes, C; Lampard, R

    2011-01-01

    As British Sociology seeks to overcome a historical distaste for quantitative research methods, one of the discipline’s most dynamic sub-fields may prove troublesome. Feminist research thrives both within and outside sociology. As such it provides new insights and enriches the discipline, something recognized by the 2010 Benchmarking Review of Sociology. Yet, feminist research has long been associated with an antipathy towards quantitative methods. This article explores the extent to which th...

  17. Methodological issues in the assessment of substance use phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Michael C; Aggen, Steven H; Maes, Hermine H; Kubarych, Thomas S; Schmitt, J Eric

    2006-06-01

    The measurement of behavior is inherently problematic, and this is especially true of substance use and abuse phenotypes. The contingent nature of many assessments, such that symptoms of abuse and dependence cannot be obtained from those who have not initiated substance use, presents special difficulties. Furthermore, it is not clear whether individual differences in liability to use, abuse and dependence are best characterized as dimensions or classes or a combination of both. This article outlines research designs and methods suitable for quantifying liability to substance use. The value of data collected from relatives is emphasized in this context, as they permit identification of models normally compromised because data on, e.g., substance dependence symptoms, are systematically missing in those who have not initiated use of the substance in question. PMID:16723188

  18. Estimating Water Quality Benefits: Theoretical and Methodological Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Ribaudo, Marc; Hellerstein, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    Knowledge of the benefits and costs to water users is required for a complete assessment of policies to create incentives for water-quality improving changes in agricultural production. A number of benefit estimation methods are required to handle the varying nature of water quality effects. This report reviews practical approach~s and theoretical foundations for estimating the economic value of changes in water quality to recreation, navigation, reservoirs, municipal water treatment and use,...

  19. Development of patient satisfaction questionnaires: I. Methodological issues.

    OpenAIRE

    Bamford, C; Jacoby, A.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To develop a method for conducting postal surveys of patients' views and experiences of general practitioner care and to produce an off the shelf tool for general practice audit. DESIGN--Prospective study of performance of two patient questionnaires assessing accessibility to services (questionnaire 1) and interpersonal aspects of care (questionnaire 2) in comparing general practices. SETTING--Five general practices in Newcastle upon Tyne. PATIENTS--3800 patients aged 16 and over,...

  20. Methodological Issues in Building, Training, and Testing Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ozesmi, Stacy L.; Ozesmi, Uygar; Tan, Can Ozan

    2005-01-01

    We review the use of artificial neural networks, particularly the feedforward multilayer perceptron with back-propagation for training (MLP), in ecological modelling. Overtraining on data or giving vague references to how it was avoided is the major problem. Various methods can be used to determine when to stop training in artificial neural networks: 1) early stopping based on cross-validation, 2) stopping after a analyst defined error is reached or after the error levels off, 3) use of a tes...

  1. Light therapy: Methodological issues from an engineering perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J van; Westerlaken, AC; Aarts, MPJ; Wouters, EJM; Schoutens, AMC; Sinoo, MM; Aries, MBC

    2012-01-01

    Light therapy is increasingly administered and studied as a non-pharmacologic treatment for a variety of health-related problems, including treatment of people with dementia. Light therapy comes in a variety of ways, ranging from being exposed to daylight, to being exposed to light emitted by light

  2. Light therapy: Methodological issues from an engineering perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J van; Westerlaken,; Aries,; Schoutens,; Aarts,; Sinoo,; Wouters, EJM; Van Someren,

    2011-01-01

    Light therapy is increasingly administered and studied as a non-pharmacologic treatment for a variety of health-related problems. Light therapy comes in a variety of ways, ranging from being exposed to daylight to being exposed to light from light boxes and ambient bright light. Light therapy is an

  3. Modeling postpartum depression in rats: theoretic and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Chou, Shinn-Yi

    2016-07-18

    The postpartum period is when a host of changes occur at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels to prepare female humans for the challenge of maternity. Alteration or prevention of these normal adaptions is thought to contribute to disruptions of emotion regulation, motivation and cognitive abilities that underlie postpartum mental disorders, such as postpartum depression. Despite the high incidence of this disorder, and the detrimental consequences for both mother and child, its etiology and related neurobiological mechanisms remain poorly understood, partially due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In recent decades, there have been a number of attempts to model postpartum depression disorder in rats. In the present review, we first describe clinical symptoms of postpartum depression and discuss known risk factors, including both genetic and environmental factors. Thereafter, we discuss various rat models that have been developed to capture various aspects of this disorder and knowledge gained from such attempts. In doing so, we focus on the theories behind each attempt and the methods used to achieve their goals. Finally, we point out several understudied areas in this field and make suggestions for future directions. PMID:27469254

  4. Methodological Issues in Using Multiple Years of the MCBS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In the systematic review, we identified 22 pooled, 17 repeated cross-sectional, and 17 longitudinal studies. Less than half of these studies explicitly described...

  5. General Issue

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    ORDERING INFORMATION The issue can be ordered by contacting at the Presses Universitaires d'Angers. It will be online in Spring 2015. CONTENTS Linda Collinge-Germain Foreword Mathilde La Cassagnère Heavy nothings in Virginia Woolf’s “Kew Gardens" Daniel Thomières Being and Time in Ernest Hemingway’s “Cat in the Rain” Stella Deen E.H. Young’s “The Stream,” Good Housekeeping, and the Cultivation of Active Readers Alice Clark-Wehinger The p...

  6. LWR design decision methodology. Phase III. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally, management decisions regarding design options have been made using quantitative cost information and qualitative safety information. A Design Decision Methodology, which utilizes probabilistic risk assessment techniques, including event trees and fault trees, along with systems engineering and standard cost estimation methods, has been developed so that a quantitative safety measure may be obtained as well. The report documents the development of this Design Decision Methodology, a demonstration of the methodology on a current licensing issue with the cooperation of the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS), and a discussion of how the results of the demonstration may be used addressing the various issues associated with a licensing position on the issue

  7. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  8. Methodology for evaluating economic impacts of transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Guoxiong

    1990-01-01

    This research addresses two important issues facing transportation economists and planners: the relationship between transportation investment and economic development and the methodology for evaluating transportation projects and programs. Transportation is viewed as an important factor which enters the production functions of firms and the consumption functions of individuals. The demand for and the supply of transportation cannot be determined within the transportation syste...

  9. Methodological challenges in retailer buying behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and low...

  10. (Per)Forming Archival Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillet, Lynee Lewis

    2012-01-01

    This article raises multiple issues associated with archival research methodologies and methods. Based on a survey of recent scholarship and interviews with experienced archival researchers, this overview of the current status of archival research both complicates traditional conceptions of archival investigation and encourages scholars to adopt…

  11. Critical issues from SAFFIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAFFIRE signifies a Self-Sustained, Advanced-Fuel Field-REversed Configuration. It was devised in an earlier conceptual design study a D-He3 pilot unit to demonstrate on a near term scale the feasibility of burning advanced fuels / EPRI AP-1437, July 1980/. Topics covered in the design report include: equilibrium field and diamagnetic current contributions; fueling; plasma stability; SAFFIRE start-up; fusion product heating and transport; divertor design; blanket energy recovery systems; pilot unit; small size power reactor; cost estimate and economic plausibility of SAFFIRE; comparison of direct capital costs; SAFFIRE indirect costs and cell cost reduction. Critical issues from this work will be discussed with emphasis on problems related to steady-state operation. These include fueling and diamagnetic currents, ash build-up, and the gas blanket. Comments will also be given about the mass production concept and cost projections for a reactor version of SAFFIRE

  12. A Guide to the Systematic Literature Review Methodology in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durach, Christian F.; Wieland, Andreas; Kembro, Joakim

    methodological developments in the application systematic literature reviews in supply chain management. It analyzes what approaches researchers in supply chain management have taken to follow the requirements of a systematic review, identifies issues in the approaches and provides authors, reviewers and editors...... developments, since three seminal methodology papers on systematic reviews in management research have been published between 2003-2009. This research shows that there is still a need for more transparency in the approaches taken. Systematic literature reviews have a high potential to advance the field, but a......Literature reviews lay the foundation for almost every academic research project, and sometimes are a scholarly contribution in its own right. To increase rigor and credibility the findings have to be valid and reliable just as in any other type of research. This paper summarizes recent...

  13. PARAMETER DESIGN OF AN ELECTRO PNEUMATIC SYSTEM USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajakannu Amuthakkannan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present scenario, more number of software based mechanical systems are coming with advanced technologies like embedded system control or computer system control for various industrial applications. Mechatronics is a popular technology in the evolutionary process of modern engineering automation system design. The ineffective parameter design in software based mechatronics system may produce the severe consequences in the application field, even there is a chance of accidents. So, careful process parameter design is an essential issue in software based mechatronics systems. The response surface methodology has widely used in industry for the purpose of finding factors that are most important in achieving useful goals in any processes. This research outlines the optimization of parameters in a software based electro pneumatic system for the response of time taken to complete the sequence of operations by applying response surface methodology. In this work, the parameters from both hardware and software products are taken to analyze the software based mechatronics system.

  14. Some Findings Concerning Requirements in Agile Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Pilar; Yagüe, Agustín; Alarcón, Pedro P.; Garbajosa, Juan

    Agile methods have appeared as an attractive alternative to conventional methodologies. These methods try to reduce the time to market and, indirectly, the cost of the product through flexible development and deep customer involvement. The processes related to requirements have been extensively studied in literature, in most cases in the frame of conventional methods. However, conclusions of conventional methodologies could not be necessarily valid for Agile; in some issues, conventional and Agile processes are radically different. As recent surveys report, inadequate project requirements is one of the most conflictive issues in agile approaches and better understanding about this is needed. This paper describes some findings concerning requirements activities in a project developed under an agile methodology. The project intended to evolve an existing product and, therefore, some background information was available. The major difficulties encountered were related to non-functional needs and management of requirements dependencies.

  15. Menopause and Methodological Doubt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Menopause and methodological doubt begins by making a tongue-in-cheek comparison between Descartes' methodological doubt and the self-doubt that can arise around menopause. A hermeneutic approach is taken in which Cartesian dualism and its implications for the way women are viewed in society are examined, both through the experiences of women…

  16. VEM: Virtual Enterprise Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Vesterager, Johan

    2003-01-01

    This chapter presents a virtual enterprise methodology (VEM) that outlines activities to consider when setting up and managing virtual enterprises (VEs). As a methodology the VEM helps companies to ask the right questions when preparing for and setting up an enterprise network, which works as a b...

  17. Systems selection methodology for civil nuclear power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology for evaluation and selection of a preferred Advanced Small or Medium Power Reactor (SMPR) for commercial electric power generation is discussed, and an illustrative example is presented with five U.S. Advanced SMPR power plants. The evaluation procedure was developed from a methodology for ranking small. advenced nuclear power plant designs under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD). The methodology involves establishing numerical probability distributions for each of fifteen evaluation criteria for each Advanced SMPR plant. A resultant single probability distribution with its associated numerical mean value is then developed for each Advanced SMPR plant by Monte Carlo sampling techniques in order that each plant may be ranked with an associated statement of certainty. The selection methodology is intended as a screening procedure for commercial offerings to preclude detailed technical and commercial assessments from being conducted for those offerings which do not meet the initial screening criteria. (auhtor)

  18. Preliminary safety analysis methodology for the SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Chung, Y. J.; Kim, H. C.; Sim, S. K.; Lee, W. J.; Chung, B. D.; Song, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    This technical report was prepared for a preliminary safety analysis methodology of the 330MWt SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which has been developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) since July 1996. This preliminary safety analysis methodology has been used to identify an envelope for the safety of the SMART conceptual design. As the SMART design evolves, further validated final safety analysis methodology will be developed. Current licensing safety analysis methodology of the Westinghouse and KSNPP PWRs operating and under development in Korea as well as the Russian licensing safety analysis methodology for the integral reactors have been reviewed and compared to develop the preliminary SMART safety analysis methodology. SMART design characteristics and safety systems have been reviewed against licensing practices of the PWRs operating or KNGR (Korean Next Generation Reactor) under construction in Korea. Detailed safety analysis methodology has been developed for the potential SMART limiting events of main steam line break, main feedwater pipe break, loss of reactor coolant flow, CEA withdrawal, primary to secondary pipe break and the small break loss of coolant accident. SMART preliminary safety analysis methodology will be further developed and validated in parallel with the safety analysis codes as the SMART design further evolves. Validated safety analysis methodology will be submitted to MOST as a Topical Report for a review of the SMART licensing safety analysis methodology. Thus, it is recommended for the nuclear regulatory authority to establish regulatory guides and criteria for the integral reactor. 22 refs., 18 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  19. Portal implementation methodology based on EMRIS methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Modic, Sašo

    2011-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis explores the possibility of usage of unified methodology for developing information systems for implementation of SharePoint system into business environment. The idea for the thesis originates in compulsory work pratice, regulated by the Faculty of computer and information science in Ljubljana. During my practice I obtained basic knowledge about the implementation of SharePoint systems and dificulties arising from this process. After consultation with my advisor, who...

  20. Editorial: AABFJ Volume 9, Issue 1, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Monir Mir

    2015-01-01

    There are six excellent and diversified papers published in this edition of the Australasian Accounting, Business and Finance Journal. As highlighted below, these papers’ contributions range from issues relating to accounting standard setting process to the efficient market hypothesis including a paper based on alternative accounting research methodology that explores the issues of career choices by women in a developing economy.

  1. Advanced Control Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Jianjun

    1999-01-01

    This book is developed as a textbook for the course Advanced Control Engineering. The book is intended for students in mechanical engineering and its aim is to provide an understanding of modern control theory as well as methodologies and applications for state space modeling and design. For this...

  2. Code qualification of structural materials for AFCI advanced recycling reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Li, M.; Majumdar, S.; Nanstad, R.K.; Sham, T.-L. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (ORNL)

    2012-05-31

    ) and the Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM), the NRC/Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) raised numerous safety-related issues regarding elevated-temperature structural integrity criteria. Most of these issues remained unresolved today. These critical licensing reviews provide a basis for the evaluation of underlying technical issues for future advanced sodium-cooled reactors. Major materials performance issues and high temperature design methodology issues pertinent to the ARR are addressed in the report. The report is organized as follows: the ARR reference design concepts proposed by the Argonne National Laboratory and four industrial consortia were reviewed first, followed by a summary of the major code qualification and licensing issues for the ARR structural materials. The available database is presented for the ASME Code-qualified structural alloys (e.g. 304, 316 stainless steels, 2.25Cr-1Mo, and mod.9Cr-1Mo), including physical properties, tensile properties, impact properties and fracture toughness, creep, fatigue, creep-fatigue interaction, microstructural stability during long-term thermal aging, material degradation in sodium environments and effects of neutron irradiation for both base metals and weld metals. An assessment of modified versions of Type 316 SS, i.e. Type 316LN and its Japanese version, 316FR, was conducted to provide a perspective for codification of 316LN or 316FR in Subsection NH. Current status and data availability of four new advanced alloys, i.e. NF616, NF616+TMT, NF709, and HT-UPS, are also addressed to identify the R&D needs for their code qualification for ARR applications. For both conventional and new alloys, issues related to high temperature design methodology are described to address the needs for improvements for the ARR design and licensing. Assessments have shown that there are significant data gaps for the full qualification and licensing of the ARR structural materials. Development and evaluation of

  3. Proceedings of the 2004 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants - ICAPP'04

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2004 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP'04) provides a forum for the industry to exchange the latest ideas and research findings on nuclear plants from all perspectives. This conference builds on the success of last year's meeting held in Cordoba, Spain, and on the 2002 inaugural meeting held in Hollywood, Florida. Because of the hard work of many volunteers from around the world, ICAPP'04 has been successful in achieving its goal. More than 325 invited and contributed papers/presentations are part of this ICAPP. There are 5 invited plenary sessions and 70 technical sessions with contributed papers. The ICAPP'04 Proceedings contain almost 275 papers prepared by authors from 25 countries covering topics related to advances in nuclear power plant technology. The program by technical track deals with: 1 - Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues (Status of All New Water-Cooled Reactor Programs; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage I; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage II; Advanced PWRs: Basic Design Stage; Advanced BWRs; Economics, Regulation, Licensing, and Construction; AP1000); 2 - High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (Pebble Bed Modular Reactors; Very High Temperature Reactors; HTR Fuels and Materials; Innovative HTRs and Fuel Cycles); 3 - Long Term Reactor Programs and Strategies (Supercritical Pressure Water Reactors; Lead-Alloy Fast Reactors; Sodium and Gas Fast Reactors; Status of Advanced Reactor Programs; Non-classical Reactor Concepts); 4 - Operation, Performance, and Reliability Management (Information Technology Effect on Plant Operation; Operation, Maintenance and Reliability; Improving Performance and Reducing O and M Costs; Plant Modernization and Retrofits); 5 - Plant Safety Assessment and Regulatory Issues (LOCA and non-LOCA Analysis Methodologies; LOCA and non-LOCA Plant Analyses; In-Vessel Retention; Containment Performance and Hydrogen Control; Advances in Severe Accident Analysis; Advances in Severe Accident

  4. Smart Grid Development Issues for Terrestrial and Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James F.

    2014-01-01

    The development of the so called Smart Grid has as many definitions as individuals working in the area. Based on the technology or technologies that are of interest, be it high speed communication, renewable generation, smart meters, energy storage, advanced sensors, etc. they can become the individual defining characteristic of the Smart Grid. In reality the smart grid encompasses all of these items and quite at bit more. This discussion attempts to look at what the needs are for the grid of the future, such as the issues of increased power flow capability, use of renewable energy, increased security and efficiency and common power and data standards. It also shows how many of these issues are common with the needs of NASA for future exploration programs. A common theme to address both terrestrial and space exploration issues is to develop micro-grids that advertise the ability to enable the load leveling of large power generation facilities. However, for microgrids to realize their promise there needs to a holistic systems approach to their development and integration. The overall system integration issues are presented along with potential solution methodologies.

  5. Overriding information issues. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Vibeke

    1998-04-01

    The Nordic project on overriding information issues focus on why an information project, how to inform about a difficult subject in a modern society, how to provide advance information, how to inform when the accident has occurred and how to inform about NKS and projects. (au)

  6. Overriding information issues. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nordic project on overriding information issues focus on why an information project, how to inform about a difficult subject in a modern society, how to provide advance information, how to inform when the accident has occurred and how to inform about NKS and projects. (au)

  7. Design Methodology - Design Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2003-01-01

    Design Methodology is part of our practice and our knowledge about designing, and it has been strongly supported by the establishing and work of a design research community. The aim of this article is to broaden the reader¿s view of designing and Design Methodology. This is done by sketching the......ABSTRACT Design Methodology shall be seen as our understanding of how to design; it is an early (emerging late 60ies) and original articulation of teachable and learnable methodics. The insight is based upon two sources: the nature of the designed artefacts and the nature of human designing. Today...... development of Design Methodology through time and sketching some important approaches and methods. The development is mainly forced by changing industrial condition, by the growth of IT support for designing, but also by the growth of insight into designing created by design researchers....

  8. Design Methodology - Design Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT Design Methodology shall be seen as our understanding of how to design; it is an early (emerging late 60ies) and original articulation of teachable and learnable methodics. The insight is based upon two sources: the nature of the designed artefacts and the nature of human designing. Today...... Design Methodology is part of our practice and our knowledge about designing, and it has been strongly supported by the establishing and work of a design research community. The aim of this article is to broaden the reader¿s view of designing and Design Methodology. This is done by sketching the...... development of Design Methodology through time and sketching some important approaches and methods. The development is mainly forced by changing industrial condition, by the growth of IT support for designing, but also by the growth of insight into designing created by design researchers....

  9. Hazard classification methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility

  10. VEM: Virtual Enterprise Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Vesterager, Johan

    2003-01-01

    This chapter presents a virtual enterprise methodology (VEM) that outlines activities to consider when setting up and managing virtual enterprises (VEs). As a methodology the VEM helps companies to ask the right questions when preparing for and setting up an enterprise network, which works as a b...... breeding ground for setting up VEs. The VEM applies the Virtual Enterprise Reference Architecture (VERA) as an underlying structure. Both VEM and VERA are developed as a part of the GLOBEMEN project.......This chapter presents a virtual enterprise methodology (VEM) that outlines activities to consider when setting up and managing virtual enterprises (VEs). As a methodology the VEM helps companies to ask the right questions when preparing for and setting up an enterprise network, which works as a...

  11. Object-oriented methodology for Marine Corps software development

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. This thesis answers three questions: What is object-oriented development methodology and why is it good for the Marine Corps? How is object- oriented methodology different from what the Marine Corps is doing now? What should the Marine Corps do and when should they do it? To explore these issues, this thesis designed a typical Marine Corps application (a COmpany Personnel System (COPS)) using both Systems Development Methodology (SDM) an...

  12. Competitive analysis in banking: appraisal of the methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Cetorelli

    1999-01-01

    How do we measure in the banking industry? This article provides an overview of the methodology currently used in competitive analysis and highlights an alternative techniques that could be used to complement this methodology. Given the ongoing process of consolidation in U.S. banking, assessing the competitiveness of financial services markets is an important issue for policymakers.

  13. Multivariate curve resolution: a review of advanced and tailored applications and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckebusch, C; Blanchet, L

    2013-02-26

    Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) is a widespread methodology for the analysis of process data in many different application fields. This article intends to propose a critical review of the recently published works. Particular attention will be paid to situations requiring advanced and tailored applications of multivariate curve resolution, dealing with improvements in preprocessing methods, multi-set data arrangements, tailored constraints, issues related to non-ideal noise structure and deviation to linearity. These analytical issues are tackling the limits of applicability of MCR methods and, therefore, they can be considered as the most challenging ones. PMID:23410623

  14. Survey of Dynamic PSA Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hansul; Kim, Hyeonmin; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taewan [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Event Tree(ET)/Fault Tree(FT) are significant methodology in Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) for Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs). ET/FT methodology has the advantage for users to be able to easily learn and model. It enables better communication between engineers engaged in the same field. However, conventional methodologies are difficult to cope with the dynamic behavior (e.g. operation mode changes or sequence-dependent failure) and integrated situation of mechanical failure and human errors. Meanwhile, new possibilities are coming for the improved PSA by virtue of the dramatic development on digital hardware, software, information technology, and data analysis.. More specifically, the computing environment has been greatly improved with being compared to the past, so we are able to conduct risk analysis with the large amount of data actually available. One method which can take the technological advantages aforementioned should be the dynamic PSA such that conventional ET/FT can have time- and condition-dependent behaviors in accident scenarios. In this paper, we investigated the various enabling techniques for the dynamic PSA. Even though its history and academic achievement was great, it seems less interesting from industrial and regulatory viewpoint. Authors expect this can contribute to better understanding of dynamic PSA in terms of algorithm, practice, and applicability. In paper, the overview for the dynamic PSA was conducted. Most of methodologies share similar concepts. Among them, DDET seems a backbone for most of methodologies since it can be applied to large problems. The common characteristics sharing the concept of DDET are as follows: • Both deterministic and stochastic approaches • Improves the identification of PSA success criteria • Helps to limit detrimental effects of sequence binning (normally adopted in PSA) • Helps to avoid defining non-optimal success criteria that may distort the risk • Framework for comprehensively considering

  15. Survey of Dynamic PSA Methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Event Tree(ET)/Fault Tree(FT) are significant methodology in Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) for Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs). ET/FT methodology has the advantage for users to be able to easily learn and model. It enables better communication between engineers engaged in the same field. However, conventional methodologies are difficult to cope with the dynamic behavior (e.g. operation mode changes or sequence-dependent failure) and integrated situation of mechanical failure and human errors. Meanwhile, new possibilities are coming for the improved PSA by virtue of the dramatic development on digital hardware, software, information technology, and data analysis.. More specifically, the computing environment has been greatly improved with being compared to the past, so we are able to conduct risk analysis with the large amount of data actually available. One method which can take the technological advantages aforementioned should be the dynamic PSA such that conventional ET/FT can have time- and condition-dependent behaviors in accident scenarios. In this paper, we investigated the various enabling techniques for the dynamic PSA. Even though its history and academic achievement was great, it seems less interesting from industrial and regulatory viewpoint. Authors expect this can contribute to better understanding of dynamic PSA in terms of algorithm, practice, and applicability. In paper, the overview for the dynamic PSA was conducted. Most of methodologies share similar concepts. Among them, DDET seems a backbone for most of methodologies since it can be applied to large problems. The common characteristics sharing the concept of DDET are as follows: • Both deterministic and stochastic approaches • Improves the identification of PSA success criteria • Helps to limit detrimental effects of sequence binning (normally adopted in PSA) • Helps to avoid defining non-optimal success criteria that may distort the risk • Framework for comprehensively considering

  16. MARA - methodology to analyze environmental risks; MARA - elaboracao de metodologia para analise dos riscos ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Renato F.; Yogui, Regiane [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Minniti, Vivienne [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Analise de Riscos; Lopes, Carlos F. [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Operacoes de Emergencia; Milaneli, Joao [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Ubatuba, SP (Brazil). Agencia Ambiental de Ubatuba; Torres, Carlos [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude; Rodrigues, Gabriela; Mariz, Eduardo [Consultoria Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In the oil industry, the environmental impact assessment of an accident is both multi and interdisciplinary and goes through several approaches and depths. Due to the enormous complexity of the environmental analyses issues, mainly for being a science in development and not technological consensus, a macro methodology is presented for the purpose of identify areas that can be impacted by pipeline leakages and recommend improvements are applicable working as a table top response plan. The methodology of the Environmental Risk Mapping-MARA for pipelines rows, describes its concept and justifies the adoption of the environmental mapping during Risk Analyses studies, for PETROBRAS/TRANSPETRO new and existing pipelines. The development of this methodology is justified by the fact that it is a practical tool for identification, analysis and categorization of the more vulnerable environmental elements along a pipeline row and vicinities, during simulated occurrence of accidental spills of hydrocarbons in the environment. This methodology is a tool that allows Environmental Agencies and PETROBRAS a better way to manage in advance the Company emergencies. (author)

  17. Radioisotope methodology course radioprotection aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advancement knowledge in molecular and cell biology, biochemistry, medicine and pharmacology, which has taken place during the last 50 years, after World War II finalization, is really outstanding. It can be safely said that this fact is principally due to the application of radioisotope techniques. The research on metabolisms, biodistribution of pharmaceuticals, pharmacodynamics, etc., is mostly carried out by means of techniques employing radioactive materials. Radioisotopes and radiation are frequently used in medicine both as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The radioimmunoanalysis is today a routine method in endocrinology and in general clinical medicine. The receptor determination and characterization is a steadily growing methodology used in clinical biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. The use of radiopharmaceuticals and radiation of different origins, for therapeutic purposes, should not be overlooked. For these reasons, the importance to teach radioisotope methodology is steadily growing. This is principally the case for specialization at the post-graduate level but at the pre graduate curriculum it is worthwhile to give some elementary theoretical and practical notions on this subject. These observations are justified by a more than 30 years teaching experience at both levels at the School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. In 1960 we began to teach Physics III, an obligatory pregraduate course for biochemistry students, in which some elementary notions of radioactivity and measurement techniques were given. Successive modifications of the biochemistry pregraduate curriculum incorporated radiochemistry as an elective subject and since 1978, radioisotope methodology, as obligatory subject for biochemistry students. This subject is given at the radioisotope laboratory during the first semester of each year and its objective is to provide theoretical and practical knowledge to the biochemistry students, even

  18. Overview of the ISAM safety assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ISAM safety assessment methodology consists of the following key components: specification of the assessment context description of the disposal system development and justification of scenarios formulation and implementation of models running of computer codes and analysis and presentation of results. Common issues run through two or more of these assessment components, including: use of methodological and computer tools, collation and use of data, need to address various sources of uncertainty, building of confidence in the individual components, as well as the overall assessment. The importance of the iterative nature of the assessment should be recognised

  19. Introduction to accident sequence precursor methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report consists of the following sections: (1) Introduction to the issue (Use of accident sequence precursor (ASP) programs; Definition of ASP, indicators, information; Status of ASP evaluation methodology); (2) Selection of potential precursors; (3) Detailed analysis of selected potential precursors (Methodology; ASP analysis software; Indicators and presentation of results); Potential for ASP evaluation at Czech nuclear power plants (Procedure for Conditional Core Damage Probability and Event Importance assessment by the NRC method; Experience in ASP in the Czech Republic; Application of the ASP evaluation method to the Dukovany NPP); Plan of Activities; and Conclusions. (P.A.)

  20. Issue-Oriented Science: Using Socioscientific Issues to Engage Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Laura; Willcox, Maia K.

    2012-01-01

    In today's global society, with science and technology advancing at a rapid pace, issues about biological topics are common. A typical standards-based high school or general college-level biology classroom naturally lends itself to teaching issue-oriented science. In an issue-oriented classroom, students analyze and discuss personal, societal, and…