WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced wastewater treatment

  1. Advanced wastewater treatment system (SEADS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' This presentation will describe the nature, scope, and findings of a third-party evaluation of a wastewater treatment technology identified as the Advanced Wastewater Treatment System Inc.'s Superior Extended Aerobic Digester System (SEADS). SEADS is an advanced miniaturized wastewater treatment plant that can meet advanced wastewater treatment standards for effluent public reuse. SEADS goes beyond primary and secondary treatment operations to reduce nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, which are typically found in excessive quantities in traditional wastewater treatment effluent. The objective of this evaluation will be to verify the performance and reliability of the SEADS to treat wastewater from a variety of sources, including domestic wastewater and commercial industrial wastewater. SEADS utilizes remote telemetry equipment to achieve added reliability and reduces monitoring costs as compared to many package wastewater treatment plants. The evaluation process will be overseen and coordinated by the Environmental Technology Evaluation Center (EvTEC), a program of the Civil Engineering Research Foundation (CERF), the research and technology transfer arm of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). EvTEC is a pilot program evaluating innovative environmental technologies under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. Among other performance issues, the SEADS technology evaluation will address its ability to treat low flows-from remote individual and clustered housing applications, and individual commercial applications in lieu of a main station conventional wastewater treatment plant. The unneeded reliance on particular soil types for percolation and the improved effluent water quality over septic systems alone look to make these types of package treatment plants a viable option for rural communities, small farms, and other low-flow remote settings. Added benefits to be examined

  2. RECENT ADVANCES IN LEATHER TANNERY WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOFRANO Giusy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tannery industry is one of the most important economic sectors in many countries, representing an important economic field also in developing countries. Leather tannery industry is water intensive and originates highly polluted wastewater that contain various micropollutants raising environmental and health concerns. Tannery wastewater is difficult to treat biologically because of complex characteristics like high salinity e high content of xenobiotics compounds. After conventional treatment (i.e., chromium precipitation–primary sedimentation–biological oxidation–secondary sedimentation, effluents still do not meet the required limits, at least for some parameters such as BOD, COD, salinity, ammonia and surfactants. The leather industry is being pressured to search cleaner, economically as well as environmentally friendly wastewater treatment technologies alternative or integrative to the conventional treatment in order to face the challenge of sustainability. The most spread approach to manage tannery wastewater is the steam segregation before conveying wastewaters to in treatment plants that typically include pre-treatment, mechanical and physico-chemical treatment, biological treatment, and treatment of the generated sludge. Thus proper treatment technologies are needed to handle tannery wastewater to remove effectively the environmental benign pollutants. However among various processes applied or proposed the sustainable technologies are emerging concern. This paper, as the-state-of-the-art, attempts to revise the over world trends of treatment technologies and advances for pollution prevention from tannery chemicals and wastewater.

  3. Electrocatalysis in wastewater treatment: recent mechanism advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Martínez-Huitle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50 years, several scientists and industries have developed new alternatives for wastewater treatment and remediation. Recently, electrochemical technology has been largely developed mainly because of its versatility and environmental compatibility. Scientific contributions about role of the electrode material have allowed determining that the influence of material in the selectivity is an important parameter. However, to interpret this behavior, comprehensive physical chemistry models for organics destruction, related to electrochemical phenomena and material surfaces, were proposed in the last decades. So, this paper presents a critical and comprehensive review about the principles and recent mechanism advances in electrocatalysis for wastewater treatment.

  4. Evaluation of advanced wastewater treatment systems for water reuse in the era of advanced wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Hisao; Watanabe, Masahiro

    This study focuses on effluent COD concentration from wastewater treatment in regards to the reduction of pathogenic bacteria and trace substances in public waters. The main types of secondary wastewater treatment were conventional activated sludge processes. Recently, however, advance wastewater treatment processes have been developed aimed at the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus, and the effluent quality of these processes was analyzed in this study. Treatment processes for water reclamation that make effluent to meet the target water quality for reuse purposes were selected and also optimum design parameters for these processes were proposed. It was found that the treatment cost to water reclamation was greatly affected by the effluent COD of the secondary treatment. It is important to maintain low COD concentration in the secondary treated effluent. Therefore, it is considered that adequate cost benefits would be obtained by achieving target COD quality through shifting from a conventional activated sludge process to an advanced treatment process.

  5. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    , which includes technical, economical and environmental aspects. The technical and economical assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, membrane bioreactor (MBR) and UV in combination......As a consequence of the EU Water Framework Directive more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advanced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment...... with advanced oxidation. The technical assessment is based on 12 hazardous substances comprising heavy metals, organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The environmental assessment is performed by life cycle assessment (LCA) comprising 9 of the specific hazardous substances...

  6. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , which includes technical, economic and environmental aspects. The technical and economic assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, Membrane Bioreactor (MBR), and UV in combination......As a consequence of the EU Water Framwork Directive, more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advenced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment...... with advanced oxidation. The technical assessment is based on 12 hazardous substances comprising heavy metals, organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The environmental assessment is performed by life cycle assessment (LCA) comprising 9 of the specific hazardous substances...

  7. Advanced oxidation technologies : photocatalytic treatment of wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusions

    The last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application.

  8. Advances in HTGR Wastewater Treatment System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junfeng; Qiu Yu; Wang Jianlong; Jia Fei

    2014-01-01

    The source terms of radioactive wastewater from HTR-PM were introduced. Concentration process should be used to reduce volume. A radioactive wastewater treatment system was designed by using Disc tubular reverse osmosis (DTRO) membrane system. The pretreatment system was simplify by using a cartridge filter. A three-stage membrane system was built. The operated characters to treat low and intermediate radioactive waste water were studied. A concentration rates of 25-50 is reached. The decontamination factor of the membrane system can reach 30-100. (author)

  9. Advanced oxidation technologies : photocatalytic treatment of wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusions

    The last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application. However, despite all this research, there is still much to investigate. Suggested photocatalytic mechanisms, such as those for oxidation by hydroxyl radicals and for oxidation at the surface of photocata...

  10. Solutions to microplastic pollution - Removal of microplastics from wastewater effluent with advanced wastewater treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talvitie, Julia; Mikola, Anna; Koistinen, Arto; Setälä, Outi

    2017-10-15

    Conventional wastewater treatment with primary and secondary treatment processes efficiently remove microplastics (MPs) from the wastewater. Despite the efficient removal, final effluents can act as entrance route of MPs, given the large volumes constantly discharged into the aquatic environments. This study investigated the removal of MPs from effluent in four different municipal wastewater treatment plants utilizing different advanced final-stage treatment technologies. The study included membrane bioreactor treating primary effluent and different tertiary treatment technologies (discfilter, rapid sand filtration and dissolved air flotation) treating secondary effluent. The MBR removed 99.9% of MPs during the treatment (from 6.9 to 0.005 MP L -1 ), rapid sand filter 97% (from 0.7 to 0.02 MP L -1 ), dissolved air flotation 95% (from 2.0 to 0.1 MP L -1 ) and discfilter 40-98.5% (from 0.5 - 2.0 to 0.03-0.3 MP L -1 ) of the MPs during the treatment. Our study shows that with advanced final-stage wastewater treatment technologies WWTPs can substantially reduce the MP pollution discharged from wastewater treatment plants into the aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Advanced oxidation-based treatment of furniture industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichonovas, Martynas; Krugly, Edvinas; Grybauskas, Arturas; Jankūnaitė, Dalia; Račys, Viktoras; Martuzevičius, Dainius

    2017-07-16

    The paper presents a study on the treatment of the furniture industry wastewater in a bench scale advanced oxidation reactor. The researched technology utilized a simultaneous application of ozone, ultraviolet radiation and surface-immobilized TiO 2 nanoparticle catalyst. Various combinations of processes were tested, including photolysis, photocatalysis, ozonation, catalytic ozonation, photolytic ozonation and photocatalytic ozonation were tested against the efficiency of degradation. The efficiency of the processes was primarily characterized by the total organic carbon (TOC) analysis, indicating the remaining organic material in the wastewater after the treatment, while the toxicity changes in wastewater were researched by Daphnia magna toxicity tests. Photocatalytic ozonation was confirmed as the most effective combination of processes (99.3% of TOC reduction during 180 min of treatment), also being the most energy efficient (4.49-7.83 MJ/g). Photocatalytic ozonation and photolytic ozonation remained efficient across a wide range of pH (3-9), but the pH was an important factor in photocatalysis. The toxicity of wastewater depended on the duration of the treatment: half treated water was highly toxic, while fully treated water did not possess any toxicity. Our results indicate that photocatalytic ozonation has a high potential for the upscaling and application in industrial settings.

  12. Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day before releasing it back to the environment. Treatment plants reduce pollutants in wastewater to a level nature can handle. Wastewater is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food ...

  13. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  14. Removal of antibiotics in conventional and advanced wastewater treatment: implications for environmental discharge and wastewater recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, A J; Murby, E J; Costanzo, S D

    2007-10-01

    Removal of 28 human and veterinary antibiotics was assessed in a conventional (activated sludge) and advanced (microfiltration/reverse osmosis) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Brisbane, Australia. The dominant antibiotics detected in wastewater influents were cephalexin (med. 4.6 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), ciprofloxacin (med. 3.8 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), cefaclor (med. 0.5 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), sulphamethoxazole (med. 0.36 microg L(-1), freq. 100%) and trimethoprim (med. 0.34 microg L(-1), freq. 100%). Results indicated that both treatment plants significantly reduced antibiotic concentrations with an average removal rate from the liquid phase of 92%. However, antibiotics were still detected in both effluents from the low-to-mid ng L(-1) range. Antibiotics detected in effluent from the activated sludge WWTP included ciprofloxacin (med. 0.6 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), sulphamethoxazole (med. 0.27 microg L(-1), freq. 100%) lincomycin (med. 0.05 microg L(-1), freq. 100%) and trimethoprim (med. 0.05 microg L(-1), freq. 100%). Antibiotics identified in microfiltration/reverse osmosis product water included naladixic acid (med. 0.045 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), enrofloxacin (med. 0.01 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), roxithromycin (med. 0.01 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), norfloxacin (med. 0.005 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), oleandomycin (med. 0.005 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), trimethoprim (med. 0.005 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), tylosin (med. 0.001 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), and lincomycin (med. 0.001 microg L(-1), freq. 66%). Certain traditional parameters, including nitrate concentration, conductivity and turbidity of the effluent were assessed as predictors of total antibiotic concentration, however only conductivity demonstrated any correlation with total antibiotic concentration (p=0.018, r=0.7). There is currently a lack of information concerning the effects of these chemicals to critically assess potential risks for environmental discharge and water recycling.

  15. Cosmetic wastewater treatment by coagulation and advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumczyk, Jeremi; Bogacki, Jan; Marcinowski, Piotr; Kowalik, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the treatment process of three cosmetic wastewater types has been investigated. Coagulation allowed to achieve chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 74.6%, 37.7% and 74.0% for samples A (Al2(SO4)3), B (Brentafloc F3) and C (PAX 16), respectively. The Fenton process proved to be effective as well - COD removal was equal to 75.1%, 44.7% and 68.1%, respectively. Coagulation with FeCl3 and the subsequent photo-Fenton process resulted in the best values of final COD removal equal to 92.4%, 62.8% and 90.2%. In case of the Fenton process, after coagulation these values were equal to 74.9%, 50.1% and 84.8%, while in case of the H2O2/UV process, the obtained COD removal was 83.8%, 36.2% and 80.9%. High value of COD removal in the Fenton process carried out for A and C wastewater samples was caused by a significant contribution of the final neutralization/coagulation. Very small effect of the oxidation reaction in the Fenton process in case of sample A resulting from the presence of antioxidants, 'OH radical scavengers' in the wastewater.

  16. Immersed membrane technology for advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkies, J.W. [Zenon Municipal Systems Inc., Oakville, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The use of membrane technology for both municipal water purification and wastewater/sewage treatment was discussed. Membranes are available in a wide range of forms and configurations. Their primary characteristics are pore size and molecular weight separation which classifies then as either microfiltration, ultrafiltration or reverse osmosis membranes. Ultrafiltration can separate soluble organics and insoluble solids such as bacteria, viruses, colloids and suspended particles. Microfiltration can separate most suspended solids including bacteria, many viruses and other suspended solids. It is not, however a complete barrier to viruses and is best used in conjunction with an ultra-violet disinfecting process. Different membrane configurations currently available were described along with their performance and efficiency. The ZenoGem{sup R} process which operates at high organic loadings, meets surface water discharge criteria. This membrane bioreactor makes wastewater reuse an achievable and cost-effective option, particularly when it is combined with carbon filtration and ultra-violet disinfection. The Cycle-Let{sup R} system produces a treated stream that is suitable for re-use in non-potable applications such as toilet flush water or for irrigation. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  17. Treatment of persistent organic pollutants in wastewater using hydrodynamic cavitation in synergy with advanced oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badmus, Kassim Olasunkanmi; Tijani, Jimoh Oladejo; Massima, Emile; Petrik, Leslie

    2018-03-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are very tenacious wastewater contaminants. The consequences of their existence have been acknowledged for negatively affecting the ecosystem with specific impact upon endocrine disruption and hormonal diseases in humans. Their recalcitrance and circumvention of nearly all the known wastewater treatment procedures are also well documented. The reported successes of POPs treatment using various advanced technologies are not without setbacks such as low degradation efficiency, generation of toxic intermediates, massive sludge production, and high energy expenditure and operational cost. However, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have recently recorded successes in the treatment of POPs in wastewater. AOPs are technologies which involve the generation of OH radicals for the purpose of oxidising recalcitrant organic contaminants to their inert end products. This review provides information on the existence of POPs and their effects on humans. Besides, the merits and demerits of various advanced treatment technologies as well as the synergistic efficiency of combined AOPs in the treatment of wastewater containing POPs was reported. A concise review of recently published studies on successful treatment of POPs in wastewater using hydrodynamic cavitation technology in combination with other advanced oxidation processes is presented with the highlight of direction for future research focus.

  18. Recent advances and industrial viewpoint for biological treatment of wastewaters by oleaginous microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Luo, Mu-Tan; Chen, Xue-Fang; Xiong, Lian; Li, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Xin-De

    2017-05-01

    Recently, technology of using oleaginous microorganisms for biological treatment of wastewaters has become one hot topic in biochemical and environmental engineering for its advantages such as easy for operation in basic bioreactor, having potential to produce valuable bio-products, efficient wastewaters treatment in short period, etc. To promote its industrialization, this article provides some comprehensive analysis of this technology such as its advances, issues, and outlook especially from industrial viewpoint. In detail, the types of wastewaters can be treated and the kinds of oleaginous microorganisms used for biological treatment are introduced, the potential of industrial application and issues (relatively low COD removal, low lipid yield, cost of operation, and lack of scale up application) of this technology are presented, and some critical outlook mainly on co-culture method, combination with other treatments, process controlling and adjusting are discussed systematically. By this article, some important information to develop this technology can be obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of winery wastewater by physicochemical, biological and advanced processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, L A; Li Puma, G; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2015-04-09

    Winery wastewater is a major waste stream resulting from numerous cleaning operations that occur during the production stages of wine. The resulting effluent contains various organic and inorganic contaminants and its environmental impact is notable, mainly due to its high organic/inorganic load, the large volumes produced and its seasonal variability. Several processes for the treatment of winery wastewater are currently available, but the development of alternative treatment methods is necessary in order to (i) maximize the efficiency and flexibility of the treatment process to meet the discharge requirements for winery effluents, and (ii) decrease both the environmental footprint, as well as the investment/operational costs of the process. This review, presents the state-of-the-art of the processes currently applied and/or tested for the treatment of winery wastewater, which were divided into five categories: i.e., physicochemical, biological, membrane filtration and separation, advanced oxidation processes, and combined biological and advanced oxidation processes. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the main parameters/factors affecting the efficiency of winery wastewater treatment are discussed. Both bench- and pilot/industrial-scale processes have been considered for this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Water Quality Renovation by Advanced Soil-Based Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.; Loomis, G.; Kalen, D.; Boving, T.; Morales, I.; DeLuca, J.; Amador, J.

    2013-12-01

    25% of US households utilize onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) for wastewater management. Advanced technologies were designed to overcome the inadequate wastewater treatment by conventional OWTS in critical shallow water table areas, such as coastal zones, in order to protect ground water quality. In addition to the septic tank and soil drainfield that comprise a conventional OWTS, advanced systems claim improved water renovation with the addition of sand filtration, timed dosing controls, and shallow placement of the infiltrative zone. We determined water quality renovation functions under current water table and temperature conditions, in anticipation of an experiment to measure OWTS response to a climate change scenario of 30-cm increase in water table elevation and 4C temperature increase. Replicate (n=3) intact soil mesocosms were used to evaluate the effectiveness of drainfields with a conventional wastewater delivery (pipe-and-stone) compared to two types of pressurized, shallow narrow drainfield. Results under steady state conditions indicate complete removal of fecal coliform bacteria, phosphorus and BOD by all soil-based systems. By contrast, removal of total nitrogen inputs was 16% in conventional and 11% for both advanced drainfields. Effluent waters maintained a steady state pH between 3.2 - 3.7 for all technologies. Average DO readings were 2.9mg/L for conventional drainfield effluent and 4.6mg/L for advanced, showing the expected oxygen uptake with shallow placement of the infiltrative zone. The conventional OWTS is outperforming the advanced with respect to nitrogen removal, but renovating wastewater equivalently for all other contaminants of concern. The results of this study are expected to facilitate development of future OWTS regulation and planning guidelines, particularly in coastal zones and in the face of a changing climate.

  1. Wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđel N. Kitanović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on Earth in the future will largely depend on the amount of safe water. As the most fundamental source of life, water is relentlessly consumed and polluted. To halt this trend, many countries are taking extensive measures and investing substantial resources in order to stop the contamination of water and return at least tolerably good water quality to nature. The goal of water purification is to obtain clean water with the sewage sludge as a by-product. Clean water is returned to nature, and further treatment of sludge may be subject to other procedures. The conclusion of this paper is simple. The procedure with purified water is easily achievable, purified water is discharged into rivers, lakes and seas, but the problem of further treatment of sludge remains. This paper presents the basic methods of wastewater treatment and procedures for processing the products from contaminated water. The paper can serve as a basis for further elaboration. Water Pollution In order to ensure normal life of living creatures, the water in which they live or the water they use must have a natural chemical composition and natural features. When, as a result of human activities, the chemical composition of water and the ratio of its chemical elements significantly change, we say that water is polluted. When the pollutants come from industrial plants, we are talking about industrial wastewater, and when they come from households and urban areas, we are talking about municipal wastewater. Both contain a huge amount of pollutants that eventually end up in rivers. Then, thousands of defenseless birds, fish and other animals suffer, and environmental consequences become immeasurable. In addition, the waste fed to the water often ends up in the bodies of marine animals, so they can return to us as food. Thermal water pollution also has multiple effects on the changes in the wildlife composition of aquatic ecosystems. Polluted water can be purified by

  2. Advanced treatment of sodium dithionite wastewater using the combination of coagulation, catalytic ozonation, and SBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Ling

    2017-10-01

    A combined process of coagulation-catalytic ozonation-anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR)-SBR was developed at lab scale for treating a real sodium dithionite wastewater with an initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 21,760-22,450 mg/L. Catalytic ozonation with the prepared cerium oxide (CeO 2 )/granular activated carbon catalyst significantly enhances wastewater biodegradability and reduces wastewater microtoxicity. The results show that, under the optimum conditions, the removal efficiencies of COD and suspended solids are averagely 99.3% and 95.6%, respectively, and the quality of final effluent can meet the national discharge standard of China. The coagulation and ASBR processes remove a considerable proportion of organic matter, while the SBR plays an important role in post-polish of final effluent. The ecotoxicity of the wastewater is greatly reduced after undergoing the hybrid treatment. This work demonstrates that the hybrid system has the potential to be applied for the advanced treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater.

  3. Experimental Study of Advanced Treatment of Coking Wastewater Using MBR-RO Combined Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Hwang, Jiannyang; Leng, Ting; Xue, Gaifeng; Chang, Hongbing

    A membrane bioreactor-reverse osmosis (MBR-RO) combined process was used for advanced treatment of coking wastewater from secondary biological treatment. MBR and RO units' treatment efficiency for the pollution removal were conducted, and effects of raw water conductivity and trans-membrane pressure on water yield and desalination rate in RO unit were investigated in detail. The experimental results proved that MBR-RO combined process ran steadily with good treatment effect, which could obtain stable effluent water quality and met the requirement of "Design Criterion of the Industrial Circulating Cooling Water Treatment" (GB 50050-2007).

  4. Cork boiling wastewater treatment and reuse through combination of advanced oxidation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Robles, L; Miralles-Cuevas, S; Oller, I; Agüera, A; Trinidad-Lozano, M J; Yuste, F J; Malato, S

    2017-03-01

    Industrial preparation of cork consists of its immersion for approximately 1 hour in boiling water. The use of herbicides and pesticides in oak tree forests leads to absorption of these compounds by cork; thus, after boiling process, they are present in wastewater. Cork boiling wastewater shows low biodegradability and high acute toxicity involving partial inhibition of their biodegradation when conventional biological treatment is applied. In this work, a treatment line strategy based on the combination of advanced physicochemical technologies is proposed. The final objective is the reuse of wastewater in the cork boiling process; thus, reducing consumption of fresh water in the industrial process itself. Coagulation pre-treatment with 0.5 g/L of FeCl 3 attained the highest turbidity elimination (86 %) and 29 % of DOC elimination. Similar DOC removal was attained when using 1 g/L of ECOTAN BIO (selected for ozonation tests), accompanied of 64 % of turbidity removal. Ozonation treatments showed less efficiency in the complete oxidation of cork boiling wastewater, compared to solar photo-Fenton process, under the studied conditions. Nanofiltration system was successfully employed as a final purification step with the aim of obtaining a high-quality reusable permeate stream. Monitoring of unknown compounds by LC-QTOF-MS allowed the qualitative evaluation of the whole process. Acute and chronic toxicity as well as biodegradability assays were performed throughout the whole proposed treatment line.

  5. Treatment of industrial wastewater effluents using hydrodynamic cavitation and the advanced Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakinala, Anand G; Gogate, Parag R; Burgess, Arthur E; Bremner, David H

    2008-01-01

    For the first time, hydrodynamic cavitation induced by a liquid whistle reactor (LWR) has been used in conjunction with the advanced Fenton process (AFP) for the treatment of real industrial wastewater. Semi-batch experiments in the LWR were designed to investigate the performance of the process for two different industrial wastewater samples. The effect of various operating parameters such as pressure, H2O2 concentration and the initial concentration of industrial wastewater samples on the extent of mineralization as measured by total organic carbon (TOC) content have been studied with the aim of maximizing the extent of degradation. It has been observed that higher pressures, sequential addition of hydrogen peroxide at higher loadings and lower concentration of the effluent are more favourable for a rapid TOC mineralization. In general, the novel combination of hydrodynamic cavitation with AFP results in about 60-80% removal of TOC under optimized conditions depending on the type of industrial effluent samples. The combination described herein is most useful for treatment of bio-refractory materials where the diminution in toxicity can be achieved up to a certain level and then conventional biological oxidation can be employed for final treatment. The present work is the first to report the use of a hydrodynamic cavitation technique for real industrial wastewater treatment.

  6. Combination of Advanced Oxidation Processes and biological treatments for wastewater decontamination-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oller, I.; Malato, S.; Sanchez-Perez, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is a continuously increasing worldwide concern for development of alternative water reuse technologies, mainly focused on agriculture and industry. In this context, Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) are considered a highly competitive water treatment technology for the removal of those organic pollutants not treatable by conventional techniques due to their high chemical stability and/or low biodegradability. Although chemical oxidation for complete mineralization is usually expensive, its combination with a biological treatment is widely reported to reduce operating costs. This paper reviews recent research combining AOPs (as a pre-treatment or post-treatment stage) and bioremediation technologies for the decontamination of a wide range of synthetic and real industrial wastewater. Special emphasis is also placed on recent studies and large-scale combination schemes developed in Mediterranean countries for non-biodegradable wastewater treatment and reuse. The main conclusions arrived at from the overall assessment of the literature are that more work needs to be done on degradation kinetics and reactor modeling of the combined process, and also dynamics of the initial attack on primary contaminants and intermediate species generation. Furthermore, better economic models must be developed to estimate how the cost of this combined process varies with specific industrial wastewater characteristics, the overall decontamination efficiency and the relative cost of the AOP versus biological treatment.

  7. Industrial wastewater advanced treatment via catalytic ozonation with an Fe-based catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xufang; Chen, Weiyu; Ma, Luming; Wang, Hongwu; Fan, Jinhong

    2018-03-01

    An Fe-based catalyst was used as a heterogeneous catalyst for the ozonation of industrial wastewater, and key operational parameters (pH and catalyst dosage) were studied. The results indicated that the Fe-based catalyst significantly improved the mineralization of organic pollutants in wastewater. TOC (total organic carbon) removal was high, at 78.7%, with a catalyst concentration of 200 g/L, but only 31.6% with ozonation alone. The Fe-based catalyst significantly promoted ozone decomposition by 70% in aqueous solution. Hydroxyl radicals (·OH) were confirmed to be existed directly via EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) experiments, and ·OH were verified to account for about 34.4% of TOC removal with NaHCO 3 as a radical scavenger. Through characterization by SEM-EDS (field emission scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive spectrometer), XRD (X-ray powder diffraction) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), it was deduced that FeOOH on the surface of the catalyst was the dominant contributor to the catalytic efficiency. The catalyst was certified as having good stability and excellent reusability based on 50 successive operations and could be used as a filler simultaneously. Thereby, it is a promising catalyst for practical industrial wastewater advanced treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Advanced Treatment of Pesticide-Containing Wastewater Using Fenton Reagent Enhanced by Microwave Electrodeless Ultraviolet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The photo-Fenton reaction is a promising method to treat organic contaminants in water. In this paper, a Fenton reagent enhanced by microwave electrodeless ultraviolet (MWEUV/Fenton method was proposed for advanced treatment of nonbiodegradable organic substance in pesticide-containing biotreated wastewater. MWEUV lamp was found to be more effective for chemical oxygen demand (COD removal than commercial mercury lamps in the Fenton process. The pseudo-first order kinetic model can well describe COD removal from pesticide-containing wastewater by MWEUV/Fenton, and the apparent rate constant (k was 0.0125 min−1. The optimal conditions for MWEUV/Fenton process were determined as initial pH of 5, Fe2+ dosage of 0.8 mmol/L, and H2O2 dosage of 100 mmol/L. Under the optimal conditions, the reaction exhibited high mineralization degrees of organics, where COD and dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentration decreased from 183.2 mg/L to 36.9 mg/L and 43.5 mg/L to 27.8 mg/L, respectively. Three main pesticides in the wastewater, as Dimethoate, Triazophos, and Malathion, were completely removed by the MWEUV/Fenton process within 120 min. The high degree of pesticides decomposition and mineralization was proved by the detected inorganic anions.

  9. Evaluation of water quality functions of conventional and advanced soil-based onsite wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jennifer A; Loomis, George W; Kalen, David V; Amador, Jose A

    2015-05-01

    Shallow narrow drainfields are assumed to provide better wastewater renovation than conventional drainfields and are used for protection of surface and ground water. To test this assumption, we evaluated the water quality functions of two advanced onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) drainfields-shallow narrow (SND) and Geomat (GEO)-and a conventional pipe and stone (P&S) drainfield over 12 mo using replicated ( = 3) intact soil mesocosms. The SND and GEO mesocosms received effluent from a single-pass sand filter, whereas the P&S received septic tank effluent. Between 97.1 and 100% of 5-d biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), fecal coliform bacteria, and total phosphorus (P) were removed in all drainfield types. Total nitrogen (N) removal averaged 12.0% for P&S, 4.8% for SND, and 5.4% for GEO. A mass balance analysis accounted for 95.1% (SND), 94.1% (GEO), and 87.6% (P&S) of N inputs. When the whole treatment train (excluding the septic tank) is considered, advanced systems, including sand filter pretreatment and SND or GEO soil-based treatment, removed 99.8 to 99.9% of BOD, 100% of fecal coliform bacteria and P, and 26.0 to 27.0% of N. In contrast, the conventional system removed 99.4% of BOD and 100% of fecal coliform bacteria and P but only 12.0% of N. All drainfield types performed similarly for most water quality functions despite differences in placement within the soil profile. However, inclusion of the pretreatment step in advanced system treatment trains results in better N removal than in conventional treatment systems despite higher drainfield N removal rates in the latter. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Integrated nitrogen removal biofilter system with ceramic membrane for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dong-Jin; Yun, Chan-Young; Kim, Woo-Yeol; Zhang, Xing-Ya; Kim, Dae-Gun; Chang, Duk; Sunwoo, Young; Hong, Ki-Ho

    2016-12-01

    The pre-denitrification biofilm process for nitrogen removal was combined with ceramic membrane with pore sizes of 0.05-0.1 µm as a system for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater. The system was operated under an empty bed hydraulic retention time of 7.8 h, recirculation ratio of 3, and transmembrane pressure of 0.47 bar. The system showed average removals of organics, total nitrogen, and solids as high as 93%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. Rapid nitrification could be achieved and denitrification was performed in the anoxic filter without external carbon supplements. The residual particulate organics and nitrogen in effluent from biofilm process could be also removed successfully through membrane filtration and the removal of total coliform was noticeably improved after membrane filtration. Thus, a system composed of the pre-denitrification biofilm process with ceramic membrane would be a compact and flexible option for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater.

  11. Phenol wastewater remediation: advanced oxidation processes coupled to a biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubalcaba, A; Suárez-Ojeda, M E; Stüber, F; Fortuny, A; Bengoa, C; Metcalfe, I; Font, J; Carrera, J; Fabregat, A

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, there are increasingly stringent regulations requiring more and more treatment of industrial effluents to generate product waters which could be easily reused or disposed of to the environment without any harmful effects. Therefore, different advanced oxidation processes were investigated as suitable precursors for the biological treatment of industrial effluents containing phenol. Wet air oxidation and Fenton process were tested batch wise, while catalytic wet air oxidation and H2O2-promoted catalytic wet air oxidation processes were studied in a trickle bed reactor, the last two using over activated carbon as catalyst. Effluent characterisation was made by means of substrate conversion (using high liquid performance chromatography), chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon. Biodegradation parameters (i.e. maximum oxygen uptake rate and oxygen consumption) were obtained from respirometric tests using activated sludge from an urban biological wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The main goal was to find the proper conditions in terms of biodegradability enhancement, so that these phenolic effluents could be successfully treated in an urban biological WWTP. Results show promising research ways for the development of efficient coupled processes for the treatment of wastewater containing toxic or biologically non-degradable compounds.

  12. Survival, reproduction, growth, and parasite resistance of aquatic organisms exposed on-site to wastewater treated by advanced treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter-Vorberg, Lisa; Knopp, Gregor; Cornel, Peter; Ternes, Thomas; Coors, Anja

    2017-05-01

    Advanced wastewater treatment technologies are generally known to be an effective tool for reducing micropollutant discharge into the aquatic environment. Nevertheless, some processes such as ozonation result in stable transformation products with often unknown toxicity. In the present study, whole effluents originating from nine different steps of advanced treatment combinations were compared for their aquatic toxicity. Assessed endpoints were survival, growth and reproduction of Lumbriculus variegatus, Daphnia magna and Lemna minor chronically exposed in on-site flow-through tests based on standard guidelines. The treatment combinations were activated sludge treatment followed by ozonation with subsequent filtration by granular activated carbon or biofilters and membrane bioreactor treatment of raw wastewater followed by ozonation. Additionally, the impact of treated wastewater on the immune response of invertebrates was investigated by challenging D. magna with a bacterial endoparasite. Conventionally treated wastewater reduced reproduction of L. variegatus by up to 46%, but did not affect D. magna and L. minor with regard to survival, growth, reproduction and parasite resistance. Instead, parasite susceptibility was significantly reduced in D. magna exposed to conventionally treated as well as ozonated wastewater in comparison to D. magna exposed to the medium control. None of the three test organisms provided clear evidence that wastewater ozonation leads to increased aquatic toxicity. Rather than to the presence of toxic transformation products, the affected performance of L. variegatus could be linked to elevated concentrations of ammonium and nitrite that likely resulted from treatment failures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of advanced treatment systems on the removal of antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment plants from Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Mingmei

    2013-08-06

    This study aimed at quantifying the concentration and removal of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in three municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) employing different advanced treatment systems [biological aerated filter, constructed wetland, and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection]. The concentrations of tetM, tetO, tetQ, tetW, sulI, sulII, intI1, and 16S rDNA genes were examined in wastewater and biosolid samples. In municipal WWTPs, ARG reductions of 1-3 orders of magnitude were observed, and no difference was found among the three municipal WWTPs with different treatment processes (p > 0.05). In advanced treatment systems, 1-3 orders of magnitude of reductions in ARGs were observed in constructed wetlands, 0.6-1.2 orders of magnitude of reductions in ARGs were observed in the biological aerated filter, but no apparent decrease by UV disinfection was observed. A significant difference was found between constructed wetlands and biological filter (p removal of ARGs and 16S rDNA genes (R(2) = 0.391-0.866; p removal values with WWTP (p > 0.05) but also have the advantage in ARG relative abundance removal, and it should be given priority to be an advanced treatment system for further ARG attenuation from WWTP.

  14. Advanced treatment of swine wastewater using an agent synthesized from amorphous silica and hydrated lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuo; Hasegawa, Teruaki; Sugimoto, Kiyomi; Miura, Keiichi; Aketo, Tsuyoshi; Minowa, Nobutaka; Toda, Masaya; Kinoshita, Katsumi; Yamashita, Takahiro; Ogino, Akifumi

    2014-01-01

    Advanced treatment using an agent synthesized from amorphous silica and hydrated lime (M-CSH-lime) was developed and applied to swine wastewater treatment. Biologically treated wastewater and M-CSH-lime (approximately 6 w/v% slurry) were fed continuously into a column-shaped reactor from its bottom. Accumulated M-CSH-lime gradually formed a bed layer. The influent permeated this layer and contacted the M-CSH-lime, and the treatment reaction progressed. Treated liquid overflowing from the top of the reactor was neutralized with CO₂gas bubbling. The colour removal rate approximately exceeded 50% with M-CSH-lime addition rates of > 0.15 w/v%. The removal rate of PO(3⁻)(4) exceeded 80% with the addition of>0.03 w/v% of M-CSH-lime. The removal rates of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli exceeded 99.9% with > 0.1 w/v%. Accumulated M-CSH-lime in the reactor was periodically withdrawn from the upper part of the bed layer. The content of citric-acid-soluble P₂O₅ in the recovered matter was>15% when the weight ratio of influent PO(3⁻)(4) -P to added M-CSH-lime was > 0.15. This content was comparable with commercial phosphorus fertilizer. The inhibitory effect of recovered M-CSH-lime on germination and growth of leafy vegetable komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) was evaluated by an experiment using the Neubauer's pot. The recovered M-CSH-lime had no negative effect on germination and growth. These results suggest that advanced water treatment with M-CSH-lime was effective for simultaneous removal of colour, [Formula: see text] and coliform bacteria at an addition rate of 0.03-0.15 w/v%, and that the recovered M-CSH-lime would be suitable as phosphorus fertilizer.

  15. Advanced tertiary treatment of municipal wastewater using raw and modified diatomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinlu; Yang, Y S; Lin, Jinhua

    2005-12-09

    Advanced technology for more efficient and effective wastewater treatment is always timely needed. The feasibility of using raw and modified diatomite for advanced treatment of secondary sewage effluents (SSE) was investigated in this study. Raw diatomite at a dosing rate of 300 mg/l showed a similar potential as activated carbon for removing most organic pollutants and toxic metals from SSE. Its performance was found poor in removal of arsenic and crop nutrient constituents (e.g. ammoniacal nitrogen and phosphate) and remained unsatisfactory even when the dosing rate increased up to 500 mg/l. Where modified diatomite was in lieu of raw diatomite, the removal efficiency for all target constituents was improved by 20-50%. At the dosing rate of 150 mg/l, modified diatomite enabled the post-treated effluents to satisfy the discharge consents, with the levels of all target constituents below the regulatory limits. Modified diatomite has advantages over raw diatomite in improving removal efficiency and reducing the dosing rate required for satisfactory treatment of SSE. It is concluded that modified diatomite is much more effective and efficient than raw diatomite, as an alternative to activated carbon, for economic treatment of SSE.

  16. Advanced Oxidation Treatment of Drinking Water and Wastewater Using High-energy Electron Beam Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Behjat

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Application of electron beam as a strong oxidation method for disinfection of drinking water and wastewater has been investigated. Drinking water samples were prepared from wells in rock zones in Yazd Province. Wastewater samples were collected from Yazd Wastewater Treatment Plant. Samples were irradiated by 10 MeV electron beam accelerator at Yazd Radiation Processing Center. The irradiation dose range varied from 0.5-5 kGy. Biological parameters and microbial agents such as aerobic mesophiles and coliforms including E. coli count before and after irradiation versus irradiation dose were obtained using MPN method. The data obtained from irradiated water and wastewater were compared with un-irradiated (control samples. The results showed a removal of 90% of all microorganisms at irradiation doses below 5 kGy, suggesting electron beam irradiation as an effective method for disinfection of wastewater.

  17. Weighing environmental advantages and disadvantages of advanced wastewater treatment of micro-pollutants using environmental life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Larsen, Henrik Fred; Clauson-Kaas, Jes

    2008-01-01

    Much research and development effort is directed towards advances in municipal wastewater treatment aiming at reducing the effluent content of micro-pollutants and pathogens. The objective is to further reduce the eco-toxicity, hormone effects and pathogenic effects of the effluent. Such further ...

  18. Weighing environmental advantages and disadvantages of advanced wastewater treatment of micro-pollutants using environmental life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Larsen, Henrik Fred; Clauson-Kaas, Jes

    2007-01-01

    Much research and development effort is directed towards advances in municipal wastewater treatment aiming at reducing the effluent content of micro-pollutants and pathogens. The objective is to further reduce the eco-toxicity, hormone effects and pathogenic effects of the effluent. Such further ...

  19. Treatment of winery wastewater by electrochemical methods and advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kollar, Robert; Nad, Karlo; Mikelic, Ivanka Lovrencic; Gustek, Stefica Findri

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was development of new system for the treatment of highly polluted wastewater (COD = 10240 mg/L; SS = 2860 mg/L) originating from vine-making industry. The system consisted of the main treatment that included electrochemical methods (electro oxidation, electrocoagulation using stainless steel, iron and aluminum electrode sets) with simultaneous sonication and recirculation in strong electromagnetic field. Ozonation combined with UV irradiation in the presence of added hydrogen peroxide was applied for the post-treatment of the effluent. Following the combined treatment, the final removal efficiencies of the parameters color, turbidity, suspended solids and phosphates were over 99%, Fe, Cu and ammonia approximately 98%, while the removal of COD and sulfates was 77% and 62%, respectively. A new approach combining electrochemical methods with ultrasound in the strong electromagnetic field resulted in significantly better removal efficiencies for majority of the measured parameters compared to the biological methods, advanced oxidation processes or electrocoagulation. Reduction of the treatment time represents another advantage of this new approach.

  20. Ozone-UV-catalysis based advanced oxidation process for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichonovas, Martynas; Krugly, Edvinas; Jankunaite, Dalia; Racys, Viktoras; Martuzevicius, Dainius

    2017-07-01

    A bench-scale advanced oxidation (AO) reactor was investigated for the degradation of six pollutants (2-naphthol, phenol, oxalic acid, phthalate, methylene blue, and D-glucose) in a model wastewater at with the aim to test opportunities for the further upscale to industrial applications. Six experimental conditions were designed to completely examine the experimental reactor, including photolysis, photocatalysis, ozonation, photolytic ozonation, catalytic ozonation, and photocatalytic ozonation. The stationary catalyst construction was made from commercially available TiO 2 nanopowder by mounting it on a glass support and subsequently characterized for morphology (X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy) as well as durability. The ozone was generated in a dielectrical barrier discharge reactor using air as a source of oxygen. The degradation efficiency was estimated by the decrease in total organic carbon (TOC) concentration as well as toxicity using Daphnia magna, and degradation by-products by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The photocatalytic ozonation was the most effective for the treatment of all model wastewater. The photocatalytic ozonation was most effective against ozonation and photolytic ozonation at tested pH values. A complete toxicity loss was obtained after the treatment using photocatalytic ozonation. The possible degradation pathway of the phthalate by oxidation was suggested based on aromatic ring opening reactions. The catalyst used at this experiment confirmed as a durable for continuous use with almost no loss of activity over time. The design of the reactor was found to be very effective for water treatment using photocatalytic ozonation. Such design has a high potential and can be further upscaled to industrial applications due to the simplicity and versatility of manufacturing and maintenance.

  1. Effectivity of advanced wastewater treatment: reduction of in vitro endocrine activity and mutagenicity but not of in vivo reproductive toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebner, Sabrina; Ostermann, Sina; Straskraba, Susanne; Oetken, Matthias; Oehlmann, Jörg; Wagner, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have a limited capacity to eliminate micropollutants. One option to improve this is tertiary treatment. Accordingly, the WWTP Eriskirch at the German river Schussen has been upgraded with different combinations of ozonation, sand, and granulated activated carbon filtration. In this study, the removal of endocrine and genotoxic effects in vitro and reproductive toxicity in vivo was assessed in a 2-year long-term monitoring. All experiments were performed with aqueous and solid-phase extracted water samples. Untreated wastewater affected several endocrine endpoints in reporter gene assays. The conventional treatment removed the estrogenic and androgenic activity by 77 and 95 %, respectively. Nevertheless, high anti-estrogenic activities and reproductive toxicity persisted. All advanced treatment technologies further reduced the estrogenic activities by additional 69-86 % compared to conventional treatment, resulting in a complete removal of up to 97 %. In the Ames assay, we detected an ozone-induced mutagenicity, which was removed by subsequent filtration. This demonstrates that a post treatment to ozonation is needed to minimize toxic oxidative transformation products. In the reproduction test with the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a decreased number of embryos was observed for all wastewater samples. This indicates that reproductive toxicants were eliminated by neither the conventional nor the advanced treatment. Furthermore, aqueous samples showed higher anti-estrogenic and reproductive toxicity than extracted samples, indicating that the causative compounds are not extractable or were lost during extraction. This underlines the importance of the adequate handling of wastewater samples. Taken together, this study demonstrates that combinations of multiple advanced technologies reduce endocrine effects in vitro. However, they did not remove in vitro anti-estrogenicity and in vivo reproductive toxicity. This

  2. Enhanced biodegradation of petrochemical wastewater using ozonation and BAC advanced treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chi-Kang; Tsai, Tsung-Yueh; Liu, Jiunn-Ching; Chen, Mei-Chen [Energy and Resources Labs., ITRI, Hsinchu (Taiwan)

    2001-07-01

    The characteristics of degradation/conversion of bio-refractory and the growth of a biofilm are investigated in laboratory-scale pre-ozonation and lifted moving-bed biological activated carbon (BAC) advanced treatment processes treating phenol, benzoic acid, aminobenzoic acid and petrochemical industry wastewater which contains acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). The optimal reaction time and ozone dosage of pre-ozonation for bio-refractory conversion were determined to be 30 min and 100-200mg O{sub 3}/hr, respectively. After pre-ozonation of 30 min treatment, BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio of influent and effluent increased apparently from 20 to 35%, approximately. However, the change of pH in pre-ozonation was inconspicuous. The optimal flow rate of influent and air were controlled at 1.6 1/h and 120-l50nl/min in lifted moving-bed BAC advanced treatment reactor. A COD removal efficiency of 85-95% and 70-90% may be maintained by using an organic loading of 3.2-6.3kg COD/m{sup 3} day and 0.6-1.6 kg-COD/m{sup 3} day with an HRT of 6.0 h as secondary and advanced treatment system, respectively. The time required for the BAC bed to be regenerated by a thermal regeneration is prolonged 4-5 times more than that of GAC system. It can be estimated that the enhanced COD removal capability of the biofilm was not only due to the increase in the COD removal capability of acclimated bacteria, but also due to species succession of bacteria in bio-film ecosystem. (Author)

  3. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    description of biological phosphorus removal, physicalchemical processes, hydraulics and settling tanks. For attached growth systems, biofilm models have progressed from analytical steady-state models to more complex 2D/3D dynamic numerical models. Plant-wide modeling is set to advance further the practice......The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...

  4. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    description of biological phosphorus removal, physical–chemical processes, hydraulics, and settling tanks. For attached growth systems, biofilm models have progressed from analytical steady-state models to more complex 2-D/3-D dynamic numerical models. Plant-wide modeling is set to advance further......The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...

  5. Behaviour of pharmaceuticals and psychotic drugs in conventional and advanced wastewater treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortacans Torre, J. A.; Castillo Gonzalez, I. del; Hernandez Lehmann, A.; Hernandez Munoz, A.; Rodriguez Barrera, X.

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of various pharmaceuticals and psychotic drugs in wastewater and their removal rates in a conventional wastewater treatment plant has been investigated. The psychoactive drugs are poorly removed in the biological step. However, most pharmaceuticals except of carbamazepine, are significantly biodegraded depending the removal degree on the type of compound and on the sludge retention time of the biological treatment. Also, the removal efficiency of conventional tertiary treatments and ultrafiltration and nano filtration membranes using two pilot plants was examined. the effects of retaining pharmaceuticals with ultrafiltration and nano filtration membranes do not greatly differ despite the difference in their pore size. (Author) 25 refs.

  6. [Advanced treatment of coking wastewater with a novel heterogeneous electro-Fenton technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Tao; Li, Yu-Ping; Zhang, An-Yang; Cao, Hong-Bin; Li, Xin-Gang; Zhang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    A novel electro-catalytic reactor, with oxygen-reduction cathode (PAQ/GF), dimensionally stable anode (IrO2-RuO2 -TiO2/ Ti) and heterogeneous catalysts, is developed for advanced treatment of coking wastewater after biological process, integrating cathodic and anodic simultaneous oxidation processes. A PAQ/GF electrode was synthesized by the electro-polymerization of 2-ethyl anthraquinone on graphite felt, which was characterized with cyclic voltametry measurements; the results indicated that the PAQ/GF electrode showed high reversibility for oxidation-reduction reaction of anthraquinone and catalytic activity for O2 reduction to H2O2; 13.5 mmol/L H2O2 was obtained after electrolysis for 6 h at -0.7 V (vs. SCE) and pH 6 with a current efficiency of 50% in a membrane reactor. Fe-Cu/Y350 catalysts, prepared by impregnation method, could catalyze the production of hydroxyl radicals (*OH) from H2O2, which was confirmed both by fading reaction of crystal violet and oxidation of *OH-probe compound (p-chlorobenzoic acid); Fe-Cu/Y350 also showed high catalytic-activity for the oxidation of organics by hypochlorous sodium, because COD removal of coking wastewater reached 26% in the catalytic process while only 11% of COD removal was obtained in the absence of Fe-Cu/Y350. COD removal of coking wastewater reached 49.4% (26.0% and 23.4% in cathodic system and anodic system, respectively) in the developed electrolytic-reactor, which was higher than that of conventional cathodic-anodic-oxidation process (29.8%). At optimal reaction condition of initial COD = 192 mg/L, I = 10A x m(-2) and pH 4-5, more than 50% COD were removed after electrolysis for 1 h. The mechanism might be as follows: in cathodic system, H2O2 is generated from reduction of O2 on PAQ/GF cathode, and catalyzed by Fe-Cu/Y350 for production of *OH, which causes mineralization and degradation of organic pollutants; in anodic system, Cl2 and HClO are generated from Cl- oxidation on IrO2-RuO2-TiO2/Ti anode and the

  7. Integrated Evaluation Concept to Assess the Efficacy of Advanced Wastewater Treatment Processes for the Elimination of Micropollutants and Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternes, Thomas A; Prasse, Carsten; Eversloh, Christian Lütke; Knopp, Gregor; Cornel, Peter; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Schwartz, Thomas; Alexander, Johannes; Seitz, Wolfram; Coors, Anja; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2017-01-03

    A multidisciplinary concept has been developed to compare advanced wastewater treatment processes for their efficacy of eliminating micropollutants and pathogens. The concept is based on (i) the removal/formation of selected indicator substances and their transformation products (TPs), (ii) the assessment of ecotoxicity via in vitro tests, and (iii) the removal of pathogens and antibiotic resistant bacteria. It includes substances passing biological wastewater treatment plants regulated or proposed to be regulated in the European Water Framework Directive, TPs formed in biological processes or during ozonation, agonistic/antagonistic endocrine activities, mutagenic/genotoxic activities, cytotoxic activities, further activities like neurotoxicity as well as antibiotics resistance genes, and taxonomic gene markers for pathogens. At a pilot plant, ozonation of conventionally treated wastewater resulted in the removal of micropollutants and pathogens and the reduction of estrogenic effects, whereas the in vitro mutagenicity increased. Subsequent post-treatment of the ozonated water by granular activated carbon (GAC) significantly reduced the mutagenic effects as well as the concentrations of remaining micropollutants, whereas this was not the case for biofiltration. The results demonstrate the suitability of the evaluation concept to assess processes of advanced wastewater treatment including ozonation and GAC by considering chemical, ecotoxicological, and microbiological parameters.

  8. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs for Refinery Wastewater Treatment Contains High Phenol Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah Alif Nurul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum Refinery wastewater is characterized by a high phenol content. Phenol is toxic and resistant to biological processes for treatment of the petroleum refinery wastewater. The combination of an AOP and a biological process can be used for treatment of the refinery wastewater. It is necessary to conduct a study to determine the appropriate condition of AOP to meet the phenol removal level. Two AOP configurations were investigated: H2O2 / UV and H2O2 / UV / O3. From each process samples, COD, phenol and pH were measured. The oxidation was carried out until the targeted phenol concentration of treated effluent were obtained. The better result obtained by using process H2O2 / UV / O3 with the H2O2 concentration 1000 ppm. After 120 minutes, the final target has been achieved in which phenol concentration of 37.5 mg/L or phenol degradation of 93.75%.

  9. Microbubble enhanced ozonation process for advanced treatment of wastewater produced in acrylic fiber manufacturing industry

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Tianlong

    2015-02-02

    This work investigated microbubble-ozonation for the treatment of a refractory wet-spun acrylic fiber wastewater in comparison to macrobubble-ozonation. CODcr, NH3-N, and UV254 of the wastewater were removed by 42%, 21%, and 42%, respectively in the microbubble-ozonation, being 25%, 9%, and 35% higher than the removal rates achieved by macrobubble-ozonation at the same ozone dose. The microbubbles (with average diameter of 45μm) had a high concentration of 3.9×105 counts/mL at a gas flow rate of 0.5L/min. The gas holdup, total ozone mass-transfer coefficient, and average ozone utilization efficiency in the microbubble-ozonation were 6.6, 2.2, and 1.5 times higher than those of the macrobubble-ozonation. Greater generation of hydroxyl radicals and a higher zeta potential of the bubbles were also observed in the microbubble ozonation process. The biodegradability of the wastewater was also significantly improved by microbubble-ozonation, which was ascribed to the enhanced degradation of alkanes, aromatic compounds, and the many other bio-refractory organic compounds in the wastewater. Microbubble-ozonation can thus be a more effective treatment process than traditional macrobubble-ozonation for refractory wastewater produced by the acrylic fiber manufacturing industry.

  10. Monitoring the biological activity of micropollutants during advanced wastewater treatment with ozonation and activated carbon filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macova, M; Escher, B I; Reungoat, J; Carswell, S; Chue, K Lee; Keller, J; Mueller, J F

    2010-01-01

    A bioanalytical test battery was used to monitor the removal efficiency of organic micropollutants during advanced wastewater treatment in the South Caboolture Water Reclamation Plant, Queensland, Australia. This plant treats effluent from a conventional sewage treatment plant for industrial water reuse. The aqueous samples were enriched using solid-phase extraction to separate some organic micropollutants of interest from metals, nutrients and matrix components. The bioassays were chosen to provide information on groups of chemicals with a common mode of toxic action. Therefore they can be considered as sum indicators to detect certain relevant groups of chemicals, not as the most ecologically or human health relevant endpoints. The baseline toxicity was quantified with the bioluminescence inhibition test using the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The specific modes of toxic action that were targeted with five additional bioassays included aspects of estrogenicity, dioxin-like activity, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and phytotoxicity. While the accompanying publication discusses the treatment steps in more detail by drawing from the results of chemical analysis as well as the bioanalytical results, here we focus on the applicability and limitations of using bioassays for the purpose of determining the treatment efficacy of advanced water treatment and for water quality assessment in general. Results are reported in toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQ), that is, the concentration of a reference compound required to elicit the same response as the unknown and unidentified mixture of micropollutants actually present. TEQ proved to be useful and easily communicable despite some limitations and uncertainties in their derivation based on the mixture toxicity theory. The results obtained were reproducible, robust and sensitive. The TEQ in the influent ranged in the same order of magnitude as typically seen in effluents of conventional sewage treatment plants. In the

  11. Nutrient removal and biomass production: advances in microalgal biotechnology for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abinandan, Sudharsanam; Subashchandrabose, Suresh R; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2018-05-17

    Owing to certain drawbacks, such as energy-intensive operations in conventional modes of wastewater treatment (WWT), there has been an extensive search for alternative strategies in treatment technology. Biological modes for treating wastewaters are one of the finest technologies in terms of economy and efficiency. An integrated biological approach with chemical flocculation is being conventionally practiced in several-sewage and effluent treatment plants around the world. Overwhelming responsiveness to treat wastewaters especially by using microalgae is due to their simplest photosynthetic mechanism and ease of acclimation to various habitats. Microalgal technology, also known as phycoremediation, has been in use for WWT since 1950s. Various strategies for the cultivation of microalgae in WWT systems are evolving faster. However, the availability of innovative approaches for maximizing the treatment efficiency, coupled with biomass productivity, remains the major bottleneck for commercialization of microalgal technology. Investment costs and invasive parameters also delimit the use of microalgae in WWT. This review critically discusses the merits and demerits of microalgal cultivation strategies recently developed for maximum pollutant removal as well as biomass productivity. Also, the potential of algal biofilm technology in pollutant removal, and harvesting the microalgal biomass using different techniques have been highlighted. Finally, an economic assessment of the currently available methods has been made to validate microalgal cultivation in wastewater at the commercial level.

  12. Advances in algal-prokaryotic wastewater treatment: A review of nitrogen transformations, reactor configurations and molecular tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Keeley, Ryan; Zalivina, Nadezhda; Halfhide, Trina; Scott, Kathleen; Zhang, Qiong; van der Steen, Peter; Ergas, Sarina J

    2018-07-01

    The synergistic activity of algae and prokaryotic microorganisms can be used to improve the efficiency of biological wastewater treatment, particularly with regards to nitrogen removal. For example, algae can provide oxygen through photosynthesis needed for aerobic degradation of organic carbon and nitrification and harvested algal-prokaryotic biomass can be used to produce high value chemicals or biogas. Algal-prokaryotic consortia have been used to treat wastewater in different types of reactors, including waste stabilization ponds, high rate algal ponds and closed photobioreactors. This review addresses the current literature and identifies research gaps related to the following topics: 1) the complex interactions between algae and prokaryotes in wastewater treatment; 2) advances in bioreactor technologies that can achieve high nitrogen removal efficiencies in small reactor volumes, such as algal-prokaryotic biofilm reactors and enhanced algal-prokaryotic treatment systems (EAPS); 3) molecular tools that have expanded our understanding of the activities of algal and prokaryotic communities in wastewater treatment processes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance Assessment of Chemical Coagulation Together with Advanced Oxidation Peroxone Regarding Dye Wastewater Treatment of Appliance Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Shahriyari Farfani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Considering the important role of industry in polluting the environment, the present study aimed to evaluate the performance of chemical coagulation together with advanced oxidation (peroxone regarding dye wastewater treatment of appliance factories. Methods: This study was experimental, which it’s pilot-scale was conducted on the wastewater of the painting appliance Factory. The sample was selected via the combined sampling procedure. The processes used in the present study consisted of chemical coagulation and advanced oxidation (peroxone processes and 250 samples were analyzed. MgCl2, PAC and FeCl3, Bentonite, Cationic Polymer were used for chemical coagulation. The used equipments consisted of Spectrophotometer DR 2000, Jar taste and a ozonation reactor. COD and dye of samples were measured according to standard method. Results: The results revealed that each of the coagulants in its optimal pH were able to arrange the magnesium chloride 86.85%, poly aluminum chloride 88.47% and ferric chloride 85.41% in removal of COD. Poly aluminum chloride achieved the highest dye removal 90.92%. Furthermore, the highest COD removal efficiency was related to the combination of magnesium chloride (1.4 mg/l, poly aluminum chloride (0.6 mg/l and cationic polymers (0.4 mg/l with an efficiency of 89.11%, which managed to remove the dye up to 93.38%. COD removal efficiency reached to 99.67% using advanced oxidation process by peroxone method on pretreated wastewater (with chemical coagulation. Conclusions: For better performance of peroxone treatment, the wastewater should be pretreated for removal of dissolved solids. As a result, due to its suspension status of using peroxone method together chemical coagulation has a high capability to remove COD and dye from appliance Factore ,s wastewater.

  14. Slaughterhouse wastewater characteristics, treatment, and management in the meat processing industry: A review on trends and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2015-09-15

    A thorough review of advancement in slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) characteristics, treatment, and management in the meat processing industry is presented. This study also provides a general review of the environmental impacts, health effects, and regulatory frameworks relevant to the SWW management. A significant progress in high-rate anaerobic treatment, nutrient removal, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), and the combination of biological treatment and AOPs for SWW treatment is highlighted. The treatment processes are described and few examples of their applications are given. Conversely, few advances are accounted in terms of waste minimization and water use reduction, reuse, and recycle in slaughterhouses, which may offer new alternatives for cost-effective waste management. An overview of the most frequently applied technologies and combined processes for organic and nutrient removal during the last decade is also summarized. Several types of individual and combined processes have been used for the SWW treatment. Nevertheless, the selection of a particular technology depends on the characteristics of the wastewater, the available technology, and the compliance with regulations. This review facilitates a better understanding of current difficulties that can be found during production and management of the SWW, including treatment and characteristics of the final effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  16. Life cycle environmental impacts of advanced wastewater treatment techniques for removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepon Tarpani, Raphael Ricardo; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-06-01

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are of increasing interest because of their ecotoxicological properties and environmental impacts. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are the main pathway for their release into freshwaters due to the inefficiency of conventional WWTPs in removing many of these contaminants from effluents. Therefore, different advanced effluent treatment techniques have been proposed for their treatment. However, it is not known at present how effective these treatment methods are and whether on a life cycle basis they cause other environmental impacts which may outweigh the benefits of the treatment. In an effort to provide an insight into this question, this paper considers life cycle environmental impacts of the following advanced treatment techniques aimed at reducing freshwater ecotoxicity potential of PPCPs: granular activated carbon (GAC), nanofiltration (NF), solar photo-Fenton (SPF) and ozonation. The results suggest that on average NF has the lowest impacts for 13 out of 18 categories considered. GAC is the best alternative for five impacts, including metals and water depletion, but it has the highest marine eutrophication. SPF and ozonation are the least sustainable for eight impacts, including ecotoxicity and climate change. GAC and NF are also more efficient in treating heavy metals while avoiding generation of harmful by-products during the treatment, thus being more suitable for potable reuse of wastewater. However, releasing the effluent without advanced treatment to agricultural land achieves a much higher reduction of freshwater ecotoxicity than treating it by any of the advanced treatments and releasing to the environment. Therefore, the use of advanced effluent treatment for agricultural purposes is not recommended. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of airborne bacteria and noroviruses in air emission from a new highly-advanced hospital wastewater treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrbrand, Katrine; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Koivisto, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to bioaerosols can pose a health risk to workers at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and to habitants of their surroundings. The main objective of this study was to examine the presence of harmful microorganisms in the air emission from a new type of hospital WWTP employing advanced...... wastewater treatment technologies. Air particle measurements and sampling of inhalable bacteria, endotoxin and noroviruses (NoVs) were performed indoor at the WWTP and outside at the WWTP ventilation air exhaust, downwind of the air exhaust, and upwind of the WWTP. No significant differences were seen...... in particle and endotoxin concentrations between locations. Bacterial concentrations were comparable or significantly lower in the exhaust air than inside the WWTP and in the upwind reference. Bacterial isolates were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry...

  18. Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal is the first volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, presenting an integrated view of water quality and wastewater treatment. The book covers the following topics: wastewater characteristics (flow and major constituents) impact of wastewater discharges to rivers and lakes overview of wastewater treatment systems complementary items in planning studies. This book, with its clear and practical approach, lays the foundations f...

  19. Performance analysis and optimization of an advanced pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant through a visual basic software tool (PWWT.VB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Parimal; Thakura, Ritwik; Chakrabortty, Sankha

    2016-05-01

    A user-friendly, menu-driven simulation software tool has been developed for the first time to optimize and analyze the system performance of an advanced continuous membrane-integrated pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant. The software allows pre-analysis and manipulation of input data which helps in optimization and shows the software performance visually on a graphical platform. Moreover, the software helps the user to "visualize" the effects of the operating parameters through its model-predicted output profiles. The software is based on a dynamic mathematical model, developed for a systematically integrated forward osmosis-nanofiltration process for removal of toxic organic compounds from pharmaceutical wastewater. The model-predicted values have been observed to corroborate well with the extensive experimental investigations which were found to be consistent under varying operating conditions like operating pressure, operating flow rate, and draw solute concentration. Low values of the relative error (RE = 0.09) and high values of Willmott-d-index (d will = 0.981) reflected a high degree of accuracy and reliability of the software. This software is likely to be a very efficient tool for system design or simulation of an advanced membrane-integrated treatment plant for hazardous wastewater.

  20. Dairy wastewater treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... treatment processes to treat dairy wastewater such as activated sludge system .... Gas chromatograph. (Perkin Elmer, Auto system XL), equipped with thermal conductivity ..... Enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses. Bioresour. Tech.

  1. Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Individual permits for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...

  2. Advanced treatment of acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater with a combined microbubble-ozonation/ultraviolet irradiation process

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Tianlong; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Qunhui; Tian, Yanli; Shi, Zhining; Smale, Nicholas; Xu, Banghua

    2015-01-01

    This work investigated the effectiveness of a combination of microbubble-ozonation and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for the treatment of secondary wastewater effluent of a wet-spun acrylic fiber manufacturing plant. Under reactor condition (ozone dosage of 48 mg L-1, UV fluence rate of 90 mW cm-2, initial pH of 8.0, and reaction time of 120 min), the biodegradability (represented as BOD5/CODcr) of the wastewater improved from 0.18 to 0.47. This improvement in biodegradability is related to the degradation of alkanes, aromatic compounds, and other bio-refractory organic compounds. The combination of microbubble-ozonation and UV irradiation synergistically improved treatment efficiencies by 228%, 29%, and 142% for CODcr, UV254 removal and BOD5/CODcr respectively after 120 min reaction time, as compared with the sum efficiency of microbubble-ozonation alone and UV irradiation alone. Hydroxyl radical production in the microbubble-ozonation/UV process was about 1.8 times higher than the sum production in microbubble-ozonation alone and UV irradiation alone. The ozone decomposition rate in the combined process was about 4.1 times higher than that in microbubble-ozonation alone. The microbubble-ozonation/UV process could be a promising technique for the treatment of bio-refractory organics in the acrylic fiber manufacturing industry. © 2015 Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Sequencing treatment of industrial wastewater with ultraviolet/H2O2 advanced oxidation and moving bed bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Mehrabani Ardekani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The main purpose of this study was to determine the efficiency of a sequencing treatment including ultraviolet (UV/H 2 O 2 oxidation followed by a moving bed bioreactor (MBBR. Materials and Methods: Effect of solution pH, reaction time, and H 2 O 2 concentration were investigated for an industrial wastewater sample. The effluent of the advanced oxidation processes unit was introduced to the MBBR operated for three hydraulic retention times of 4, 8, and 12 h. Results: The optimum condition for industrial wastewater treatment via advanced oxidation was solution pH: 7, H 2 O 2 dose: 1000 mg/L and 90 min reaction time. These conditions led to 74.68% chemical oxygen demand (COD removal and 66.15% biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 removal from presedimentation step effluent that initially had COD and BOD 5 contents of 4,400 and 1,950 mg/L, respectively. Conclusion: Combination of UV/H 2 O 2 advanced oxidation with MBBR could result in effluents that meet water quality standards for discharge to receiving waters.

  4. Hydrothermally modified fly ash for heavy metals and dyes removal in advanced wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visa, Maria, E-mail: maria.visa@unitbv.ro; Chelaru, Andreea-Maria, E-mail: andreea.chelaru1@yahoo.com

    2014-06-01

    Fly ash resulted from coal burning is a waste that can be used in wastewater treatment for removal of dyes and heavy metals by adsorption. Class “F” fly ash (FA), collected from the Central Heat and Power (CHP) Plant Brasov (Romania), with oxides composition SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} over 2.4 was used for obtaining a new substrate with good adsorption capacity for dyes and heavy metals from wastewater. A new material was obtained from modified fly ash with NaOH and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) a cationic surfactant. Contact time, optimum amount of substrate and the pH corresponding to 50 mL solution of pollutants were the parameters optimized for obtaining the maximum efficiency in the adsorption process. The optimized adsorption parameters were further used in thermodynamic and kinetic studies of the adsorption processes. The adsorption kinetic mechanisms, and the substrate capacities are further discussed correlated with the surface structure (XRD), composition (EDS, FTIR), and morphology (SEM, AFM). The results indicate that the novel nano-substrate composite with fly ash modified can be used as an efficient and low cost adsorbent for simultaneous removal of dyes and heavy metals, the resulted water respects the discharge regulations.

  5. Hydrothermally modified fly ash for heavy metals and dyes removal in advanced wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visa, Maria; Chelaru, Andreea-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Fly ash resulted from coal burning is a waste that can be used in wastewater treatment for removal of dyes and heavy metals by adsorption. Class “F” fly ash (FA), collected from the Central Heat and Power (CHP) Plant Brasov (Romania), with oxides composition SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 over 2.4 was used for obtaining a new substrate with good adsorption capacity for dyes and heavy metals from wastewater. A new material was obtained from modified fly ash with NaOH and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) a cationic surfactant. Contact time, optimum amount of substrate and the pH corresponding to 50 mL solution of pollutants were the parameters optimized for obtaining the maximum efficiency in the adsorption process. The optimized adsorption parameters were further used in thermodynamic and kinetic studies of the adsorption processes. The adsorption kinetic mechanisms, and the substrate capacities are further discussed correlated with the surface structure (XRD), composition (EDS, FTIR), and morphology (SEM, AFM). The results indicate that the novel nano-substrate composite with fly ash modified can be used as an efficient and low cost adsorbent for simultaneous removal of dyes and heavy metals, the resulted water respects the discharge regulations.

  6. Isotopomer analysis of production and consumption mechanisms of N2O and CH4 in an advanced wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Sakae; Suzuki, Yuuri; Hattori, Shohei; Yamada, Keita; Fujii, Ayako; Yoshida, Naohiro; Kouno, Rina; Murayama, Kouki; Shiomi, Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    Wastewater treatment processes are believed to be anthropogenic sources of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and methane (CH(4)). However, few studies have examined the mechanisms and controlling factors in production of these greenhouse gases in complex bacterial systems. To elucidate production and consumption mechanisms of N(2)O and CH(4) in microbial consortia during wastewater treatment and to characterize human waste sources, we measured their concentrations and isotopomer ratios (elemental isotope ratios and site-specific N isotope ratios in asymmetric molecules of NNO) in water and gas samples collected by an advanced treatment system in Tokyo. Although the estimated emissions of N(2)O and CH(4) from the system were found to be lower than those from the typical treatment systems reported before, water in biological reaction tanks was supersaturated with both gases. The concentration of N(2)O, produced mainly by nitrifier-denitrification as indicated by isotopomer ratios, was highest in the oxic tank (ca. 4000% saturation). The dissolved CH(4) concentration was highest in in-flow water (ca. 3000% saturation). It decreased gradually during treatment. Its carbon isotope ratio indicated that the decrease resulted from bacterial CH(4) oxidation and that microbial CH(4) production can occur in anaerobic and settling tanks.

  7. UASB reactor startup for the treatment of municipal wastewater followed by advanced oxidation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Bhatti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was done to shorten the start-up time of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor. Two different nutrients were used during the UASB start-up period, which was designed to decrease the hydraulic retention time (HRT from 48 to 24 and 12 to 6 hrs at average temperatures of 25-34 ºC. In the first stage, start-up was with glucose for 14 days and then the reactor was also fed with macro- and micronutrients as a synthetic nutrient influent (SNI from 15 to 45 days as the second stage. For the control, a second reactor was kept on glucose feeding from day 1 to 45. The removal efficiencies of the chemical oxygen demand (COD were 80% and 98% on the 6th and 32nd day of the first and second stage, respectively. The maximum substrate removal rate of 0.08 mg COD mg-1 VSS d-1 was observed for glucose and synthetic nutrient influent (SNI on the 8th and 40th days, respectively. When the reactor reached the maximum COD removal efficiency it was then shifted to municipal wastewater (MWW mixed with industrial wastewater. The HRT was reduced gradually with a one week gap while treating MWW. For further cleaning, the UASB effluent was treated with 40% waste hydrogen peroxide. The whole integrated treatment process was successful to reduce the COD by 99%, total suspended solids (TSS by 73%, total nitrogen (TN by 84% and turbidity by 67%.

  8. Removal of total and antibiotic resistant bacteria in advanced wastewater treatment by ozonation in combination with different filtering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüddeke, Frauke; Heß, Stefanie; Gallert, Claudia; Winter, Josef; Güde, Hans; Löffler, Herbert

    2015-02-01

    Elimination of bacteria by ozonation in combination with charcoal or slow sand filtration for advanced sewage treatment to improve the quality of treated sewage and to reduce the potential risk for human health of receiving surface waters was investigated in pilot scale at the sewage treatment plant Eriskirch, Baden-Wuerttemberg/Germany. To determine the elimination of sewage bacteria, inflowing and leaving wastewater of different treatment processes was analysed in a culture-based approach for its content of Escherichia coli, enterococci and staphylococci and their resistance against selected antibiotics over a period of 17 month. For enterococci, single species and their antibiotic resistances were identified. In comparison to the established flocculation filtration at Eriskirch, ozonation plus charcoal or sand filtration (pilot-scale) reduced the concentrations of total and antibiotic resistant E. coli, enterococci and staphylococci. However, antibiotic resistant E. coli and staphylococci apparently survived ozone treatment better than antibiotic sensitive strains. Neither vancomycin resistant enterococci nor methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were detected. The decreased percentage of antibiotic resistant enterococci after ozonation may be explained by a different ozone sensitivity of species: Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, which determined the resistance-level, seemed to be more sensitive for ozone than other Enterococcus-species. Overall, ozonation followed by charcoal or sand filtration led to 0.8-1.1 log-units less total and antibiotic resistant E. coli, enterococci and staphylococci, as compared to the respective concentrations in treated sewage by only flocculation filtration. Thus, advanced wastewater treatment by ozonation plus charcoal or sand filtration after common sewage treatment is an effective tool for further elimination of microorganisms from sewage before discharge in surface waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  9. LCA of Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    2018-01-01

    of LCA studies addressing wastewater treatment have from the very first published cases, been on energy and resource consumption. In recent time, the use of characterisation has increased and besides global warming potential, especially eutrophication is in focus. Even the toxicity-related impact......The main purpose of wastewater treatment is to protect humans against waterborne diseases and to safeguard aquatic bio-resources like fish. The dominating environmental concerns within this domain are indeed still potential aquatic eutrophication/oxygen depletion due to nutrient/organic matter...

  10. Effects of advanced treatments of wastewater effluents on estrogenic and reproductive health impacts in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filby, Amy L; Shears, Janice A; Drage, Briane E; Churchley, John H; Tyler, Charles R

    2010-06-01

    Whether the implementation of additional treatments for the removal of estrogens from wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) effluents will eliminate their feminizing effects in exposed wildlife has yet to be established, and this information is crucial for future decisions on investment into WwTWs. Here, granular activated carbon (GAC), ozone (O(3)), and chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) were investigated for their effectiveness in reducing steroidal estrogen levels in a WwTW effluent and assessments made on the associated estrogenic and reproductive responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed for 21 days. All treatments reduced the estrogenicity of the standard-treated (STD) effluent, but with different efficacies; ranging between 70-100% for total estrogenicity and 53-100% for individual steroid estrogens. In fish exposed to the GAC- and ClO(2)- (but not O(3)-) treated effluents, there was no induction of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) or reduction in the weight of the fatpad, a secondary sex character in males, as occurred for fish exposed to STD effluent. This finding suggests likely benefits of employing these treatment processes for the reproductive health in wild fish populations living in rivers receiving WwTW discharges. Exposure of pair-breeding minnows to the GAC-treated effluent, however, resulted in a similar inhibition of egg production to that occurring for exposure to the STD effluent (34-40%). These data, together with a lack of effect on egg production of the estrogen, ethinylestradiol (10 ng/L), alone, suggest that chemical/physical properties of the effluents rather than their estrogenicity were responsible for the reproductive effect and that these factor(s) were not remediated for through GAC treatment. Collectively, our findings illustrate the importance of assessing integrative biological responses, rather than biomarkers alone, in the assessment and improvement of WwTW technologies for the protection of wild fish populations.

  11. Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment is the second volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, and focusses on the unit operations and processes associated with biological wastewater treatment. The major topics covered are: microbiology and ecology of wastewater treatment reaction kinetics and reactor hydraulics conversion of organic and inorganic matter sedimentation aeration The theory presented in this volume forms the basis upon which the other books...

  12. Effect of physical property of supporting media and variable hydraulic loading on hydraulic characteristics of advanced onsite wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Meena Kumari; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory-scale study was carried out to investigate the effects of physical properties of the supporting media and variable hydraulic shock loads on the hydraulic characteristics of an advanced onsite wastewater treatment system. The system consisted of two upflow anaerobic reactors (a septic tank and an anaerobic filter) accommodated within a single unit. The study was divided into three phases on the basis of three different supporting media (Aqwise carriers, corrugated ring and baked clay) used in the anaerobic filter. Hydraulic loadings were based on peak flow factor (PFF), varying from one to six, to simulate the actual conditions during onsite wastewater treatment. Hydraulic characteristics of the system were identified on the basis of residence time distribution analyses. The system showed a very good hydraulic efficiency, between 0.86 and 0.93, with the media of highest porosity at the hydraulic loading of PFF≤4. At the higher hydraulic loading of PFF 6 also, an appreciable hydraulic efficiency of 0.74 was observed. The system also showed good chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids removal efficiency of 80.5% and 82.3%, respectively at the higher hydraulic loading of PFF 6. Plug-flow dispersion model was found to be the most appropriate one to describe the mixing pattern of the system, with different supporting media at variable loading, during the tracer study.

  13. Impacts of backwashing on granular activated carbon filters for advanced wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Joshua; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian; Jekel, Martin

    2015-12-15

    The use of granular activated carbon (GAC) in fixed bed filters is a promising option for the removal of organic micropollutants (OMP) from wastewater treatment plant effluents. Frequent backwashing of the filter bed is inevitable, but its effect on potential filter stratification is not well understood yet and thus has been evaluated in the present study for two commercial GAC products. Backwashing of GAC filters was simulated with 10 or 100 filter bed expansions of 20 or 100% at backwash velocities of 12 and 40 m/h, respectively. Five vertical fractions were extracted and revealed a vertical stratification according to grain sizes and material densities. Sieve analyses indicated increasing grain sizes towards the bottom for one GAC while grain sizes of the other GAC were more homogeneously distributed throughout the filter bed. The apparent densities of the top sections were significantly lower than that of the bottom sections of both products. Comparative long term fixed bed adsorption experiments with the top and bottom sections of the stratified GAC showed remarkable differences in breakthrough curves of dissolved organic carbon, UV light absorption at 254 nm wavelength (UVA254) and OMP. GAC from the upper section showed constantly better removal efficiencies than GAC from the bottom section, especially for weakly adsorbing OMP such as sulfamethoxazole. Furthermore correlations between UVA254 reductions and OMP removals were found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to explore the possibilities of using microalgal biofilms for the treatment of municipal wastewater, with a focus on the post-treatment of municipal wastewater effluent. The potential of microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment was first investigated using a

  15. Microbubble enhanced ozonation process for advanced treatment of wastewater produced in acrylic fiber manufacturing industry

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Tianlong; Wang, Qunhui; Zhang, Tao; Shi, Zhining; Tian, Yanli; Shi, Shanshan; Smale, Nicholas; Wang, Juan

    2015-01-01

    zeta potential of the bubbles were also observed in the microbubble ozonation process. The biodegradability of the wastewater was also significantly improved by microbubble-ozonation, which was ascribed to the enhanced degradation of alkanes, aromatic

  16. Wastewater Treatment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur

    treatment in these regions. However, designing, constructing and operating wastewater collection systems in the Arctic is challenging because of e.g. permafrost conditions, hard rock surfaces, freezing, limited quantity of water and high costs of electricity, fuel and transportation, as well as a settlement...... or water saving toilets. This opens up for co-treatment of organic waste fractions. Freezing and thawing has also been recognised as being a cost-effective wastewater treatment method in cold regions. Thus it was chosen to concentrate on the effect of the mentioned processes, namely freezing, anaerobic...... spreading of nutrients, diseases and potential pollution issues. Due to the above mentioned challenges alternative treatment methods are needed, especially in small and remotely located communities. Decentralized solutions are well suited for Greenland. Ideal solutions should reduce the need for expensive...

  17. Comparison of NF membrane fouling and cleaning by two pretreatment strategies for the advanced treatment of antibiotic production wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxing; Li, Kun; Yu, Dawei; Zhang, Junya; Wei, Yuansong; Chen, Meixue; Shan, Baoqing

    2016-01-01

    The nanofiltration (NF) membrane fouling characteristics and cleaning strategies were investigated and compared for treating membrane bioreactor (MBR) effluent and MBR-granular activated carbon (GAC) effluent of an antibiotic production wastewater by DK membrane. Results showed that the fouling of treating MBR effluent was more severe than that of treating MBR-GAC effluent. After filtering for 216 h, the difference of membrane flux decline was obvious between MBR effluent and MBR-GAC effluent, with 14.9% and 10.3% flux decline, respectively. Further study showed that organic fouling is the main NF membrane fouling in the advanced treatment of antibiotic production wastewater for both of the two different effluents. Soluble microbial by-product like and tyrosine-like substances were the dominant components in the foulants, whereas humic-like substances existing in the effluents had little contribution to the NF membrane fouling. A satisfactory efficiency of NF chemical cleaning could be obtained using combination of acid (HCl, pH 2.0-2.5) and alkali (NaOH + 0.3 wt% NaDS, pH 10.0-10.5). The favorable cleaning strategy is acid-alkali for treating the MBR-GAC effluent, while it is alkali-acid for treating the MBR effluent.

  18. Advanced treatment of biotreated textile industry wastewater with ozone, virgin/ozonated granular activated carbon and their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Seremet, Ozden

    2004-01-01

    Biotreated textile wastewater (CODo = 248 mg L(-1); TOCo = 58 mg L(-1); A620 = 0.007 cm(-1); A525 = 0.181 cm(-1); A436 = 0.198 cm(-1)) was subjected to advanced treatment with ozonation, granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption in serial and simultaneous applications. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of applied ozone dose, ozone absorption rate, specific ozone absorption efficiency, GAC dose, and reaction pH on the treatment performance of the selected tertiary treatment scheme. In separate experiments, the impact of virgin GAC ozonation on its adsorptive capacity for biotreated and biotreated + ozonated textile effluent was also investigated. Ozonation appeared to be more effective for decolorization (kd = 0.15 min(-1) at pH = 3), whereas GAC adsorption yielded higher COD removal rates (54% at pH = 3). It was also found that GAC addition (4 g/L) at pH = 7 and 9 enhanced the COD abatement rate of the ozonation process significantly and that the sequential application of ozonation (at pH = 3-11, 675 mg L(-1) O3) followed by GAC adsorption (at pH = 3-7, 10 g L(-1) GAC) resulted in the highest treatment performances both in terms of color and COD reduction. Simultaneous application of GAC and ozone at acidic and alkaline pH seriously inhibited COD abatement rates as a consequence of competitive adsorption and partial oxidation of textile components and GAC. It could also be established that ozone absorption efficiency decreased after color removal was complete. Ozonation of biotreated textile wastewater with 113 mg L(-1) ozone resulted in an appreciable enhancement of GAC adsorptive capacity in terms of residual color removal. Ozonation of GAC at relatively low doses (= 10.8 mg/g GAC) did not improve its overall adsorption capacity.

  19. Integrated biological and advanced oxidation based treatment of hexamine bearing wastewater: Effect of cow-dung as a co-substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Mandeep Kumar; Mittal, Atul K., E-mail: akmittal@civil.iitd.ac.in

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Treatment by biological process and Fenton’s reagent. • Cow dung as co-substrate. • Hydrolysis of wastewater improved treatment. - Abstract: This work examines the treatment of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) bearing effluent from N, N-dinitroso pentamethylene tetra-mine producing industrial plants in India. Chemical treatment using Fenton’s reagent and aerobic treatment using batch reactors with co-substrate were investigated. Aerobic batch reactors integrated with advanced oxidation process of Fenton’s reagent provides effective treatment of HMT effluents. Influence of Fenton’s reagent dose reaction/contact and effect of varying co-substrate with effluent initial concentration was observed. Higher dose 100 mL of Fenton’s reagent with higher reaction time 20 h resulted better degradation (34.88%) of wastewater. HMT hydrolyzes in acidic environment to ammonia and formaldehyde. Formaldehyde under normal conditions is toxic for biological treatment processes. When hydrolysis and acidification in the reactors are accompanied by low pH, aerobic batch reactors with use of co-substrates glucose, sucrose, and cow-dung extract separately in different proportion to wastewater ranging from 0.67 to 4.00, degraded wastewater effectively. Higher proportion of co-substrate to wastewater resulted better degradation. The relationships between nitrate, pH, turbidity and COD are discussed.

  20. Integrated biological and advanced oxidation based treatment of hexamine bearing wastewater: Effect of cow-dung as a co-substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Mandeep Kumar; Mittal, Atul K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Treatment by biological process and Fenton’s reagent. • Cow dung as co-substrate. • Hydrolysis of wastewater improved treatment. - Abstract: This work examines the treatment of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) bearing effluent from N, N-dinitroso pentamethylene tetra-mine producing industrial plants in India. Chemical treatment using Fenton’s reagent and aerobic treatment using batch reactors with co-substrate were investigated. Aerobic batch reactors integrated with advanced oxidation process of Fenton’s reagent provides effective treatment of HMT effluents. Influence of Fenton’s reagent dose reaction/contact and effect of varying co-substrate with effluent initial concentration was observed. Higher dose 100 mL of Fenton’s reagent with higher reaction time 20 h resulted better degradation (34.88%) of wastewater. HMT hydrolyzes in acidic environment to ammonia and formaldehyde. Formaldehyde under normal conditions is toxic for biological treatment processes. When hydrolysis and acidification in the reactors are accompanied by low pH, aerobic batch reactors with use of co-substrates glucose, sucrose, and cow-dung extract separately in different proportion to wastewater ranging from 0.67 to 4.00, degraded wastewater effectively. Higher proportion of co-substrate to wastewater resulted better degradation. The relationships between nitrate, pH, turbidity and COD are discussed.

  1. Wastewater treatment by nanofiltration membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyanti, R.; Susanto, H.

    2018-03-01

    Lower energy consumption compared to reverse osmosis (RO) and higher rejection compared to ultrafiltration make nanofiltration (NF) membrane get more and more attention for wastewater treatment. NF has become a promising technology not only for treating wastewater but also for reusing water from wastewater. This paper presents various application of NF for wastewater treatments. The factors affecting the performance of NF membranes including operating conditions, feed characteristics and membrane characteristics were discussed. In addition, fouling as a severe problem during NF application is also presented. Further, future prospects and challenges of NF for wastewater treatments are explained.

  2. Oxidative treatment characteristics of biotreated textile-dyeing wastewater and chemical agents used in a textile-dyeing process by advanced oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, B R; Hu, H Y; Ahn, K H; Fujie, K

    2004-01-01

    The oxidative treatment characteristics of biotreated textile-dyeing wastewater and typical chemicals such as desizing, scouring, dispersing and swelling agents used in the textile-dyeing process by advanced oxidation process were experimentally studied. The refractory organic matters remained in the effluent of biological treatment process without degradation may be suitable for the improvement of biodegradability and mineralized to CO2 by combined ozonation with and without hydrogen peroxide. On the other hand, the refractory chemicals contained in the scouring agent A and swelling agent may not be mineralized and their biodegradability may not be improved by ozonation. However, the BOD/DOC ratio of scouring agent B increased from 0.3 to 0.45 after ozonation. Based on the results described above, advanced treatment process involving the ozonation without and with the addition of hydrogen peroxide, followed by biological treatment was proposed for the treatment of refractory wastewater discharged from the textile-dyeing process.

  3. Modeling Nitrogen Losses in Conventional and Advanced Soil-Based Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems under Current and Changing Climate Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Ivan; Cooper, Jennifer; Amador, José A; Boving, Thomas B

    2016-01-01

    Most of the non-point source nitrogen (N) load in rural areas is attributed to onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS). Nitrogen compounds cause eutrophication, depleting the oxygen in marine ecosystems. OWTS rely on physical, chemical and biological soil processes to treat wastewater and these processes may be affected by climate change. We simulated the fate and transport of N in different types of OWTS drainfields, or soil treatment areas (STA) under current and changing climate scenarios, using 2D/3D HYDRUS software. Experimental data from a mesocosm-scale study, including soil moisture content, and total N, ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations, were used to calibrate the model. A water content-dependent function was used to compute the nitrification and denitrification rates. Three types of drainfields were simulated: (1) a pipe-and-stone (P&S), (2) advanced soil drainfields, pressurized shallow narrow drainfield (PSND) and (3) Geomat (GEO), a variation of SND. The model was calibrated with acceptable goodness-of-fit between the observed and measured values. Average root mean square error (RSME) ranged from 0.18 and 2.88 mg L-1 for NH4+ and 4.45 mg L-1 to 9.65 mg L-1 for NO3- in all drainfield types. The calibrated model was used to estimate N fluxes for both conventional and advanced STAs under current and changing climate conditions, i.e. increased soil temperature and higher water table. The model computed N losses from nitrification and denitrification differed little from measured losses in all STAs. The modeled N losses occurred mostly as NO3- in water outputs, accounting for more than 82% of N inputs in all drainfields. Losses as N2 were estimated to be 10.4% and 9.7% of total N input concentration for SND and Geo, respectively. The highest N2 losses, 17.6%, were estimated for P&S. Losses as N2 increased to 22%, 37% and 21% under changing climate conditions for Geo, PSND and P&S, respectively. These findings can provide practitioners

  4. A novel advanced oxidation process——wet electrocatalytic oxidation for high concentrated organic wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI QiZhou; ZHOU MingHua; LEI LeCheng; ZHANG Xing Wang

    2007-01-01

    A novel advanced oxidation process-wet electrocatalytic oxidation(WEO)was studied with p-nitrophenol as model pollutant and β-PbO2 electrode as the anode.Compared with the effect of the individual wet air oxidation(WAO)and electrochemical oxidation(EO),the effect of WEO showed synergistic effect on COD removal under the conditions of temperature 160℃,C=1000mg·L-1,PN2=0.50MPa,Po2=0.9 MPa,current density=3 mA·cm-2,Na2SO4 3 g·L-1.And the synergistic factor got the best value of 0.98 within 120 min after 180 min treatment.The synergistic factor was studied after 120 min treatment at 100℃,120℃,140℃and 160℃,and the effect of 120℃was the best with the value of 1.26.Possible mechanism for the synergistic effect was discussed based on the analysis of free-radical generation and intermediates detected by HPLC and GC/MS.

  5. Electrokinetic treatment of polluted soil at pilot level coupled to an advanced oxidation process of its wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, B.; Ramos, L.; Garibay, A.; Pérez-Corona, M.; Cuevas, M. C.; Cárdenas, J.; Teutli, M.; Bustos, E.

    2016-02-01

    Soil contaminated with hydrocarbons is a current problem of great importance. These contaminants may be toxic, can retain water and block gas exchange with the atmosphere, which produces a poor-quality soil unsuitable for ecological health. Electroremediation is among the treatments for the removal of such contaminants. In this research, a pilot-level electroremediation test was applied using a circular arrangement of electrodes with a Ti cathode at the middle of the cell surrounded by six IrO2-Ta2O5 | Ti anodes. The presence of an NaOH electrolyte helps to develop the electromigration and electro-osmosis of gasoline molecules (at 1126 mg kg-1) surrounded by Na+ ions. The hydrocarbons are directed towards the cathode and subsequently removed in an aqueous Na+ - hydrocarbon solution, and the -OH migrates to the anode. During electrokinetic treatment, the physicochemical characteristics of the soil close to either the cathode or anode and at the half-cell were evaluated during the three weeks of treatment. During that time, more than 80% of hydrocarbons were removed. Hydrocarbons removed by the electrokinetic treatment of gasoline-polluted soil were collected in a central wastewater compartment and subsequently treated with a Fenton-type advanced oxidation process. This achieved more than 70% mineralization of the hydrocarbons to CO2 and H2O within 1.5 h; its low toxicity status was verified using the Deltatox® kit test. With this approach, the residual water complied with the permissible limits of COD, pH, and electrical conductivity for being discharged into water bodies, according to Mexican norm NOM-001-SEMARNAT-1996.

  6. Advanced Wastewater Treatment Engineering—Investigating Membrane Fouling in both Rotational and Static Membrane Bioreactor Systems Using Empirical Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parneet Paul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced wastewater treatment using membranes are popular environmental system processes since they allow reuse and recycling. However, fouling is a key limiting factor and so proprietary systems such as Avanti’s RPU-185 Flexidisks membrane bioreactor (MBR use novel rotating membranes to assist in ameliorating it. In earlier research, this rotating process was studied by creating a simulation model based on first principles and traditional fouling mechanisms. In order to directly compare the potential benefits of this rotational system, this follow-up study was carried out using Avanti’s newly developed static (non-rotating Flexidisks MBR system. The results from operating the static pilot unit were simulated and modelled using the rotational fouling model developed earlier however with rotational switching functions turned off and rotational parameters set to a static mode. The study concluded that a rotating MBR system could increase flux throughput when compared against a similar static system. It is thought that although the slowly rotating spindle induces a weak crossflow shear, it is still able to even out cake build up across the membrane surface, thus reducing the likelihood of localised critical flux being exceeded at the micro level and lessening the potential of rapid trans-membrane pressure increases at the macro level.

  7. Fouling characteristics and cleaning strategies of NF membranes for the advanced treatment of antibiotic production wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxing; Li, Kun; Yu, Dawei; Zhang, Junya; Wei, Yuansong

    2017-04-01

    The nanofiltration (NF) membrane fouling characteristics and cleaning strategies were investigated through a laboratory-scale NF fouling test treating membrane bioreactor (MBR) effluent and MBR-granular activated carbon (GAC) effluent of an antibiotic production wastewater by DK and NF90 membranes, respectively. Results showed that organic fouling is the main NF membrane fouling for treating both the MBR effluent and MBR-GAC effluent. Soluble microbial by-product (SMP)-like and aromatic protein-like substances were the dominant components in the foulants, whereas humic-like substances had little contribution to the NF fouling. The fouling of DK was more severe than that of NF90. However, foulants respond by UV 254 were more easily to foul NF90 membrane. It could get satisfactory effect using combined cleaning of acid (HCl, pH 2.0∼2.5) and alkali (NaOH + 0.3 wt% NaDS, pH 10.0∼10.5). The favorable cleaning strategy is "acid + alkali" for treating MBR-GAC effluent, while it is "alkali + acid" for treating MBR effluent.

  8. Wastewater treatment by flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Puget

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the performance analysis of a separation set-up characterized by the ejector-hydrocyclone association, applied in the treatment of a synthetic dairy wastewater effluent. The results obtained were compared with the results from a flotation column (cylindrical body of a hydrocyclone operated both batch and continuously. As far as the experimental set-up studied in this work and the operating conditions imposed to the process, it is possible to reach a 25% decrease in the total effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD. This corresponds approximately to 60% of the COD of the material in suspension. The best results are obtained for ratios air flow rate-feed flow rate (Qair/Q L greater then 0.15 and for ratios underflow rate-overflow rate (Qu/Qo lower than 1.0.

  9. Possibility of removing radionuclides in landfill leachate using advanced wastewater treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nao K.; Umita, Teruyuki; Ito, Ayumi

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclides released by the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant are being partly concentrated to sewage sludge ash and waste ash. These ashes, in which radiocesium concentration is lower than 8000 Bq/kg, are being disposed of in a controlled landfill site. The leachate from the landfill site is treated in a leachate treatment system combined with some treatment steps before it is discharged into receiving water. In this study, in place of radionuclides, stable element concentrations in the leachate and treated water at each treatment step were measured to estimate the possible extent of radionuclide removal from the leachate step-by-step. It was found that Cs was not removed in any treatment steps, while more than 85% of the Sr, Co, Ni, and Mn present was removed in the alkaline earth element removal step. (author)

  10. Dissolved organic nitrogen recalcitrance and bioavailable nitrogen quantification for effluents from advanced nitrogen removal wastewater treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lu; Brett, Michael T; Jiang, Wenju; Li, Bo

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the composition of nitrogen (N) in the effluents of advanced N removal (ANR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study also tested two different experimental protocols for determining dissolved N recalcitrance. An analysis of 15 effluent samples from five WWTPs, showed effluent concentrations and especially effluent composition varied greatly from one system to the other, with total nitrogen (TN) ranging between 1.05 and 8.10 mg L -1 . Nitrate (NO 3 - ) accounted for between 38 ± 32% of TN, and ammonium accounted for a further 29 ± 28%. All of these samples were dominated by dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN; NO 3 -  + NH 4 + ), and uptake experiments indicated the DIN fraction was as expected highly bioavailable. Dissolved organic N (DON) accounted for 20 ± 11% for the total dissolved N in these effluents, and uptake experiments indicated the bioavailability of this fraction varied between 27 ± 26% depending on the WWTP assessed. These results indicate near complete DIN removal should be the primary goal of ANR treatment systems. The comparison of bioavailable nitrogen (BAN) quantification protocols showed that the dissolved nitrogen uptake bioassay approach was clearly a more reliable way to determine BAN concentrations compared to the conventional cell yield protocol. Moreover, because the nitrogen uptake experiment was much more sensitive, this protocol made it easier to detect extrinsic factors (such as biological contamination or toxicity) that could affect the accuracy of these bioassays. Based on these results, we recommend the nitrogen uptake bioassay using filtered and autoclaved samples to quantify BAN concentrations. However, for effluent samples indicating toxicity, algal bioassays will not accurately quantify BAN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Transformation products and reaction kinetics of fragrances in advanced wastewater treatment with ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janzen, Niklas; Dopp, Elke; Hesse, Julia

    2011-01-01

    ) ethanone (musk ketone/MK), and 1-(2,3,8,8-tetramethyl-1,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydronaphthalen-2-yl)ethanone (OTNE) with ozone in tap water as well as waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents is described. Several transformation products are characterized by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass...

  12. Fluidized-bed Fenton coupled with ceramic membrane separation for advanced treatment of flax wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dong; Ding, Lili; Huang, Hui; Chen, Mengtian; Ren, Hongqiang

    2017-10-15

    Fluidized-bed Fenton coupled with ceramic membrane separation to treat the flax secondary effluent was investigated. The operating variables, including initial pH, dosage of H 2 O 2 and Fe 0 , air flow rate, TMP and pore size, were optimized. The distributions of DOMs in the treatment process were analyzed. Under the optimum condition (600mgL -1 H 2 O 2 , 1.4gL -1 Fe 0 , pH=3, 300Lh -1 air flow rate and 15psi TMP), the highest TOC and color removal efficiencies were 84% and 94% in the coupled reactor with 100nm ceramic membrane, reducing 39% of total iron with similar removal efficiency compared with Fluidized-bed Fenton. Experimental results showed that the ceramic membrane could intercept catalyst particles (average particle size >100nm), 10.4% macromolecules organic matter (AMW>20000Da) and 12.53% hydrophobic humic-like component. EEM-PARAFAC identified four humic-like (M1-M4) and one protein-like components (M5), and the fluorescence intensities of M1-M5 in the secondary effluent were 63.27, 63.05, 33.41, 16.71 and 0.72 QSE, respectively. After the coupled treatment, the removal efficiencies of M1(81%), M2(86%) were higher than M3, M4(63%, 61%). Pearson correlation analysis suggested that M1, M2 and M3 were the major contributors to the cake layer, and M4, M5 might more easily lead to pore blockages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Integration of biofiltration and advanced oxidation processes for tertiary treatment of an oil refinery wastewater aiming at water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, A A; Bassin, J P; Cerqueira, A C; Dezotti, M

    2016-05-01

    The combination of biological and chemical oxidation processes is an interesting approach to remove ready, poor, and non-biodegradable compounds from complex industrial wastewaters. In this study, biofiltration followed by H2O2/UV oxidation (or microfiltration) and final reverse osmosis (RO) step was employed for tertiary treatment of an oil refinery wastewater. Biofiltration alone allowed obtaining total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), ammonium, and turbidity removal of around 46, 46, 23, 50, and 61 %, respectively. After the combined biological-chemical oxidation treatment, TOC and UV254 removal amounted to 88 and 79 %, respectively. Whereas, the treatment performance achieved with different UV lamp powers (55 and 95 W) and therefore distinct irradiance levels (26.8 and 46.3 mW/cm(2), respectively) were very similar and TOC and UV254 removal rates were highly affected by the applied C/H2O2 ratio. Silt density index (SDI) was effectively reduced by H2O2/UV oxidation, favoring further RO application. C/H2O2 ratio of 1:4, 55 W UV lamp, and 20-min oxidation reaction corresponded to the experimental condition which provided the best cost/benefit ratio for TOC, UV254, and SDI reduction from the biofilter effluent. The array of treatment processes proposed in this study has shown to be adequate for tertiary treatment of the oil refinery wastewater, ensuring the mitigation of membrane fouling problems and producing a final effluent which is suitable for reuse applications.

  14. Dissolved organic nitrogen recalcitrance and bioavailable nitrogen quantification for effluents from advanced nitrogen removal wastewater treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Lu; Brett, Michael T.; Jiang, Wenju; Li, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the composition of nitrogen (N) in the effluents of advanced N removal (ANR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study also tested two different experimental protocols for determining dissolved N recalcitrance. An analysis of 15 effluent samples from five WWTPs, showed effluent concentrations and especially effluent composition varied greatly from one system to the other, with total nitrogen (TN) ranging between 1.05 and 8.10 mg L −1 . Nitrate (NO 3 − ) accounted for between 38 ± 32% of TN, and ammonium accounted for a further 29 ± 28%. All of these samples were dominated by dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN; NO 3 −  + NH 4 + ), and uptake experiments indicated the DIN fraction was as expected highly bioavailable. Dissolved organic N (DON) accounted for 20 ± 11% for the total dissolved N in these effluents, and uptake experiments indicated the bioavailability of this fraction varied between 27 ± 26% depending on the WWTP assessed. These results indicate near complete DIN removal should be the primary goal of ANR treatment systems. The comparison of bioavailable nitrogen (BAN) quantification protocols showed that the dissolved nitrogen uptake bioassay approach was clearly a more reliable way to determine BAN concentrations compared to the conventional cell yield protocol. Moreover, because the nitrogen uptake experiment was much more sensitive, this protocol made it easier to detect extrinsic factors (such as biological contamination or toxicity) that could affect the accuracy of these bioassays. Based on these results, we recommend the nitrogen uptake bioassay using filtered and autoclaved samples to quantify BAN concentrations. However, for effluent samples indicating toxicity, algal bioassays will not accurately quantify BAN. - Highlights: • DIN was the dominated N pool for most of the tested effluent samples. • DON bioavailability considerably varied depending on the WWTP assessed.

  15. Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the latest research advances, innovations, and applications in the field of water management and environmental engineering as presented by leading researchers, engineers, life scientists and practitioners from around the world at the Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment (FICWTM), held in Palermo, Italy in May 2017. The topics covered are highly diverse and include the physical processes of mixing and dispersion, biological developments and mathematical modeling, such as computational fluid dynamics in wastewater, MBBR and hybrid systems, membrane bioreactors, anaerobic digestion, reduction of greenhouse gases from wastewater treatment plants, and energy optimization. The contributions amply demonstrate that the application of cost-effective technologies for waste treatment and control is urgently needed so as to implement appropriate regulatory measures that ensure pollution prevention and remediation, safeguard public health, and preserve the environment. The contrib...

  16. Treatment of dairy wastewater in UASB reactors inoculated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of dairy wastewater in UASB reactors inoculated with flocculent biomass. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... of using flocculent sludge in UASB reactors applied to the treatment of dairy ...

  17. Techniques of Wastewater Treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    organisms: These are small plants as well as animals and they are some of the most difficult ... It is measured by the oxygen consumption of a pre-inoculated sample at 20-250C in .... Organic wastewater components may be oxidised all the way to CO2.

  18. Catalytic Wastewater Treatment Using Pillared Clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    After introduction on the use of solid catalysts in wastewater treatment technologies, particularly advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), this review discussed the use of pillared clay (PILC) materials in three applications: (i) wet air catalytic oxidation (WACO), (ii) wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) on Cu-PILC and Fe-PILC, and (iii) behavior of Ti-PILC and Fe-PILC in the photocatalytic or photo-Fenton conversion of pollutants. Literature data are critically analyzed to evidence the main direction to further investigate, in particularly with reference to the possible practical application of these technologies to treat industrial, municipal, or agro-food production wastewater.

  19. Advanced treatment technique for swine wastewater using two agents: Thermally polymerized amorphous silica and hydrated lime for color and phosphorus removal and sulfur for nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Teruaki; Kurose, Yohei; Tanaka, Yasuo

    2017-10-01

    The efficacy of advanced treatment of swine wastewater using thermally polymerized, modified amorphous silica and hydrated lime (M-CSH-lime) for color and phosphorus removal and sulfur for nitrogen removal was examined with a demonstration-scale treatment plant. The color removal rate was approximately 78% at M-CSH-lime addition rates of > 0.055 wt/v%. The PO43--P removal rate exceeded 99.9% with > 0.023 wt/v%. pH of the effluent from the M-CSH-lime reactor increased with the addition rate till a maximum value of 12.7, which was effective in disinfection. The recovered M-CSH-lime would be suitable as a phosphorus fertilizer because the total P 2 O 5 content was approximately 10%. The nitrogen oxide (NOx-N) removal rate by sulfur denitrification increased to approximately 80% when the NOx-N loading rate was around 0.1 kg-N/ton-S/day. It was suggested that the combination of the two processes would be effective in the advanced treatment of swine wastewater. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Removal of Emerging Contaminants and Estrogenic Activity from Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent with UV/Chlorine and UV/H₂O₂ Advanced Oxidation Treatment at Pilot Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rott, Eduard; Kuch, Bertram; Lange, Claudia; Richter, Philipp; Kugele, Amélie; Minke, Ralf

    2018-05-07

    Effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was treated on-site with the UV/chlorine (UV/HOCl) advanced oxidation process (AOP) using a pilot plant equipped with a medium pressure UV lamp with an adjustable performance of up to 1 kW. Results obtained from parallel experiments with the same pilot plant, where the state of the art UV/H₂O₂ AOP was applied, were compared regarding the removal of emerging contaminants (EC) and the formation of adsorbable organohalogens (AOX). Furthermore, the total estrogenic activity was measured in samples treated with the UV/chlorine AOP. At an energy consumption of 0.4 kWh/m³ (0.4 kW, 1 m³/h) and in a range of oxidant concentrations from 1 to 6 mg/L, the UV/chlorine AOP had a significantly higher EC removal yield than the UV/H₂O₂ AOP. With free available chlorine concentrations (FAC) in the UV chamber influent of at least 5 mg/L (11 mg/L of dosed Cl₂), the total estrogenic activity could be reduced by at least 97%. To achieve a certain concentration of FAC in the UV chamber influent, double to triple the amount of dosed Cl₂ was needed, resulting in AOX concentrations of up to 520 µg/L.

  1. 高级氧化技术处理造纸废水的应用研究%Application of Advanced Oxidation Processes in Papermaking Wastewater Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德敏; 王兵

    2011-01-01

    The advanced oxidation processes has attracted more and more extensive attention due to its higher ability to remove the refractory organic materials in wastewater. The mechanism and the application development in papermaking wastewater treatment of the advanced oxidation processes, such as Fenton reagent oxidation, supercritical water oxidation, photocatalytic oxidation, ultrasonic oxidation, electrocatalytic oxidation, ozone oxidization and wet oxidation, are summarized. The characteristic and existing problems as well as the developing tendency of different advanced oxidation processes are analyzed.%介绍了Fenton类氧化法、超临界水氧化法、光催化氧化法、超声氧化法、电催化氧化法、臭氧氧化法和湿式氧化法等高级氧化技术的作用机理及其在造纸废水处理中的应用进展,分析并指出了各种高级氧化技术的特点以及存在的问题和今后的主要发展方向.

  2. Production of demineralized water for use in thermal power stations by advanced treatment of secondary wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A; Gkotsis, Petros; Castellana, Massimo; Cartechini, Fabricio; Zouboulis, Anastasios I

    2017-04-01

    The operation and efficiency of a modern, high-tech industrial full-scale water treatment plant was investigated in the present study. The treated water was used for the supply of the boilers, producing steam to feed the steam turbine of the power station. The inlet water was the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant of the city of Bari (Italy). The treatment stages comprised (1) coagulation, using ferric chloride, (2) lime softening, (3) powdered activated carbon, all dosed in a sedimentation tank. The treated water was thereafter subjected to dual-media filtration, followed by ultra-filtration (UF). The outlet of UF was subsequently treated by reverse osmosis (RO) and finally by ion exchange (IX). The inlet water had total organic carbon (TOC) concentration 10-12 mg/L, turbidity 10-15 NTU and conductivity 3500-4500 μS/cm. The final demineralized water had TOC less than 0.2 mg/L, turbidity less than 0.1 NTU and conductivity 0.055-0.070 μS/cm. Organic matter fractionation showed that most of the final DOC concentration consisted of low molecular weight neutral compounds, while other compounds such as humic acids or building blocks were completely removed. It is notable that this plant was operating under "Zero Liquid Discharge" conditions, implementing treatment of any generated liquid waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES FOR FOOD INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER DECONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Krzemińska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available High organic matter content is a basic problem in food industry wastewaters. Typically, the amount and composition of the effluent varies considerably. In the article four groups of advanced processes and their combination of food industry wastewater treatment have been reviewed: electrochemical oxidation (EC, Fenton’s process, ozonation of water and photocatalytic processes. All advanced oxidation processes (AOP`s are characterized by a common chemical feature: the capability of exploiting high reactivity of HO• radicals in driving oxidation processes which are suitable for achieving decolonization and odour reduction, and the complete mineralization or increase of bioavailability of recalcitrant organic pollutants.

  4. Imprinted Polymers in Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastman, Christopher; Goodrich, Scott; Gartner, Isabelle; Mueller, Anja

    2004-03-31

    In wastewater treatment, a method that specifically recognizes a variety of impurities in a flexible manner would be useful for treatment facilities with varying needs. Current purification techniques (i.e. bacteria, oxidation, reduction, precipitation and filtration) are nonspecific and difficult to control in complex mixtures. Heavy metal removal is particularly important in improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment, as they inhibit or even destroy the bacteria used for filtration. Imprinting polymerization is a technique that allows for the efficient removal of specific compounds and has been used in purification of enantiomers. It has potential to be applied in wastewater systems with the impurities acting as the template for the imprinting polymerization. The polymer with the bound impurities intact can then be removed via precipitation. After removal of the impurity the polymer can be reused. Data for the imprinting polymerization of polyacrylates and polyacrylamides for several metal complexes will be presented. Imprinting polymerization in combination with emulsion polymerization to improve the removal of hydrophobic contaminants will be described. Removal efficiencies will be presented and compared with conventional wastewater treatment methods.

  5. Green Systems for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Plants found in marshlands and wetlands in many parts of the world may play an increasing part in a very new, yet very old approach to treatment of water and wastewater--the application of biological methods. Biological water pollution control methods being utilized around the world are examined. (BT)

  6. Combination of ozonation, activated carbon, and biological aerated filter for advanced treatment of dyeing wastewater for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Ling

    2015-06-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were performed to investigate and evaluate the performance and removal characteristics of organics, color, and genotoxicity by an integrated process including ozonation, activated carbon (AC), and biological aerated filter (BAF) for recycling biotreated dyeing wastewater (BTDW) collected from a cotton textile factory. Influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the range of 156 - 252 mg/L, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) of 13.5 - 21.7 mg/L, and color of 58 - 76° were observed during the 20-day continuous operation. Outflows with average COD of 43 mg/L, BOD5 of 6.6 mg/L, and color of 5.6° were obtained after being decontaminated by the hybrid system with ozone dosage of 0.25 mg O3applied/mg COD0, 40 min ozonation contact time, 30 min hydraulic retention time (HRT) for AC treatment, and 2.5 h HRT for BAF treatment. More than 82 % of the genotoxicity of BTDW was eliminated in the ozonation unit. The genotoxicity of the BAF effluent was less than 1.33 μg 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide/L. Ozonation could change the organics molecular structures, destroy chromophores, increase the biodegradability, and obviously reduce the genotoxicity of BTDW. Results showed that the combined process could guarantee water reuse with high quality.

  7. Combination of granular activated carbon adsorption and deep-bed filtration as a single advanced wastewater treatment step for organic micropollutant and phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Johannes; Rehfeld, Daniel; Träder, Kai; Sperlich, Alexander; Jekel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Adsorption onto granular activated carbon (GAC) is an established technology in water and advanced wastewater treatment for the removal of organic substances from the liquid phase. Besides adsorption, the removal of particulate matter by filtration and biodegradation of organic substances in GAC contactors has frequently been reported. The application of GAC as both adsorbent for organic micropollutant (OMP) removal and filter medium for solids retention in tertiary wastewater filtration represents an energy- and space saving option, but has rarely been considered because high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and suspended solids concentrations in the influent of the GAC adsorber put a significant burden on this integrated treatment step and might result in frequent backwashing and unsatisfactory filtration efficiency. This pilot-scale study investigates the combination of GAC adsorption and deep-bed filtration with coagulation as a single advanced treatment step for simultaneous removal of OMPs and phosphorus from secondary effluent. GAC was assessed as upper filter layer in dual-media downflow filtration and as mono-media upflow filter with regard to filtration performance and OMP removal. Both filtration concepts effectively removed suspended solids and phosphorus, achieving effluent concentrations of 0.1 mg/L TP and 1 mg/L TSS, respectively. Analysis of grain size distribution and head loss within the filter bed showed that considerable head loss occurred in the topmost filter layer in downflow filtration, indicating that most particles do not penetrate deeply into the filter bed. Upflow filtration exhibited substantially lower head loss and effective utilization of the whole filter bed. Well-adsorbing OMPs (e.g. benzotriazole, carbamazepine) were removed by >80% up to throughputs of 8000-10,000 bed volumes (BV), whereas weakly to medium adsorbing OMPs (e.g. primidone, sulfamethoxazole) showed removals activated carbon (PAC) to deep-bed filtration as a direct

  8. Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Munk; Nierychlo, Marta; Albertsen, Mads

    Incoming microorganisms to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are usually considered to be removed in the treatment process. Analyses of the effluent generally show a very high degree of reduction of pathogens supporting this assumption. However, standard techniques for detecting bacteria......-independent 16SrRNA gene amplicon sequencing was applied for the identification and quantification of the microorganisms. In total 84 effluent samples from 14 full-scale Danish wastewater treatment plants were investigated over a period of 3 months. The microbial community composition was investigated by 16S r...... contain pathogenic species. One of these was Arcobacter (Campylobacteraceae) which was found in up to 16% relative abundance. This indicates that Arcobacter, and perhaps other pathogenic genera, are not being removed efficiently in full-scale plants and may pose a potential health safety problem. Further...

  9. Micropollutant degradation, bacterial inactivation and regrowth risk in wastewater effluents: Influence of the secondary (pre)treatment on the efficiency of Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Voumard, Margaux; Grandjean, Dominique; Magnet, Anoys; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Pulgarin, César

    2016-10-01

    In this work, disinfection by 5 Advanced Oxidation Processes was preceded by 3 different secondary treatment systems present in the wastewater treatment plant of Vidy, Lausanne (Switzerland). 5 AOPs after two biological treatment methods (conventional activated sludge and moving bed bioreactor) and a physiochemical process (coagulation-flocculation) were tested in laboratory scale. The dependence among AOPs efficiency and secondary (pre)treatment was estimated by following the bacterial concentration i) before secondary treatment, ii) after the different secondary treatment methods and iii) after the various AOPs. Disinfection and post-treatment bacterial regrowth were the evaluation indicators. The order of efficiency was Moving Bed Bioreactor > Activated Sludge > Coagulation-Flocculation > Primary Treatment. As far as the different AOPs are concerned, the disinfection kinetics were: UVC/H2O2 > UVC and solar photo-Fenton > Fenton or solar light. The contextualization and parallel study of microorganisms with the micropollutants of the effluents revealed that higher exposure times were necessary for complete degradation compared to microorganisms for the UV-based processes and inversed for the Fenton-related ones. Nevertheless, in the Fenton-related systems, the nominal 80% removal of micropollutants deriving from the Swiss legislation, often took place before the elimination of bacterial regrowth risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Artificial wetland for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias I, Carlos A; Brix, Hans

    2003-01-01

    The development of constructed wetland technology for wastewater treatment has gone a long way and from an experimental and unknown empirical method, which was capable of handling wastewater a sound technology was developed. Thanks to research, and the work of many public and private companies that have gather valuable operation information, constructed wetland technology has evolved to be a relievable, versatile and effective way to treat wastewater, run off, handle sludge and even improve environmental quality and provide recreation sites, while maintaining low operation and maintenance costs, and at the same time, producing water of quality that can meet stringent regulations, while being and environmental friendly solution to treat waste-waters. Constructed wetlands can be established in many different ways and its characteristics can differ greatly, according to the user needs, the geographic site and even the climatic conditions of the area. The following article deals with the general characteristics of the technology and the physical and chemical phenomena that govern the pollution reduction with in the different available systems

  11. Biological treatment of winery wastewater: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreottola, G; Foladori, P; Ziglio, G

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of winery wastewater can realised using several biological processes based both on aerobic or anaerobic systems using suspended biomass or biofilms. Several systems are currently offered by technology providers and current research envisages the availability of new promising technologies for winery wastewater treatment. The present paper intends to present a brief state of the art of the existing status and advances in biological treatment of winery wastewater in the last decade, considering both lab, pilot and full-scale studies. Advantages, drawbacks, applied organic loads, removal efficiency and emerging aspects of the main biological treatments were considered and compared. Nevertheless in most treatments the COD removal efficiency was around 90-95% (remaining COD is due to the un-biodegradable soluble fraction), the applied organic loads are very different depending on the applied technology, varying for an order of magnitude. Applied organic loads are higher in biofilm systems than in suspended biomass while anaerobic biofilm processes have the smaller footprint but in general a higher level of complexity.

  12. Techniques of Wastewater Treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of Chemical Engineering in UDCT and works ... tional methods of treatment. Currently the need is ... temperature causes the organic molecule to undergo oxidative degradation. ... When ultrasound is applied to effluent, water undergoes ther-.

  13. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, Petros

    2017-12-01

    Energy requirement for wastewater treatment is of major concern, lately. This is not only due to the increasing cost of electrical energy, but also due to the effects to the carbon footprint of the treatment process. Conventional activated sludge process for municipal wastewater treatment may consume up to 60% of the total plant power requirements for the aeration of the biological tank. One way to deal with high energy demand is by eliminating aeration needs, as possible. The proposed process is based on enhanced primary solids removal, based on advanced microsieving and filtration processes, by using a proprietary rotating fabric belt MicroScreen (pore size: 100-300 μm) followed by a proprietary Continuous Backwash Upflow Media Filter or cloth media filter. About 80-90% reduction in TSS and 60-70% reduction in BOD5 has been achieved by treating raw municipal wastewater with the above process. Then the partially treated wastewater is fed to a combination low height trickling filters, combined with encapsulated denitrification, for the removal of the remaining BOD and nitrogen. The biosolids produced by the microsieve and the filtration backwash concentrate are fed to an auger press and are dewatered to about 55% solids. The biosolids are then partially thermally dried (to about 80% solids) and conveyed to a gasifier, for the co-production of thermal (which is partly used for biosolids drying) and electrical energy, through syngas combustion in a co-generation engine. Alternatively, biosolids may undergo anaerobic digestion for the production of biogas and then electric energy. The energy requirements for complete wastewater treatment, per volume of inlet raw wastewater, have been calculated to 0.057 kWh/m 3 , (or 0.087 kWh/m 3 , if UV disinfection has been selected), which is about 85% below the electric energy needs of conventional activated sludge process. The potential for net electric energy production through gasification/co-generation, per volume of

  14. Treatment of an actual slaughterhouse wastewater by integration of biological and advanced oxidation processes: Modeling, optimization, and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2016-11-01

    Biological and advanced oxidation processes are combined to treat an actual slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) by a sequence of an anaerobic baffled reactor, an aerobic activated sludge reactor, and a UV/H2O2 photoreactor with recycle in continuous mode at laboratory scale. In the first part of this study, quadratic modeling along with response surface methodology are used for the statistical analysis and optimization of the combined process. The effects of the influent total organic carbon (TOC) concentration, the flow rate, the pH, the inlet H2O2 concentration, and their interaction on the overall treatment efficiency, CH4 yield, and H2O2 residual in the effluent of the photoreactor are investigated. The models are validated at different operating conditions using experimental data. Maximum TOC and total nitrogen (TN) removals of 91.29 and 86.05%, respectively, maximum CH4 yield of 55.72%, and minimum H2O2 residual of 1.45% in the photoreactor effluent were found at optimal operating conditions. In the second part of this study, continuous distribution kinetics is applied to establish a mathematical model for the degradation of SWW as a function of time. The agreement between model predictions and experimental values indicates that the proposed model could describe the performance of the combined anaerobic-aerobic-UV/H2O2 processes for the treatment of SWW. In the final part of the study, the optimized combined anaerobic-aerobic-UV/H2O2 processes with recycle were evaluated using a cost-effectiveness analysis to minimize the retention time, the electrical energy consumption, and the overall incurred treatment costs required for the efficient treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater effluents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Applications of nanotechnology in wastewater treatment--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Tanujjal; Dutta, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    Water on Earth is a precious and finite resource, which is endlessly recycled in the water cycle. Water, whose physical, chemical, or biological properties have been altered due to the addition of contaminants such as organic/inorganic materials, pathogens, heavy metals or other toxins making it unsafe for the ecosystem, can be termed as wastewater. Various schemes have been adopted by industries across the world to treat wastewater prior to its release to the ecosystem, and several new concepts and technologies are fast replacing the traditional methods. This article briefly reviews the recent advances and application of nanotechnology for wastewater treatment. Nanomaterials typically have high reactivity and a high degree of functionalization, large specific surface area, size-dependent properties etc., which makes them suitable for applications in wastewater treatment and for water purification. In this article, the application of various nanomaterials such as metal nanoparticles, metal oxides, carbon compounds, zeolite, filtration membranes, etc., in the field of wastewater treatment is discussed.

  16. Challege and Opportunities of Membrane Bioelctrochemical Reactors for Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are potentially advantageous as an energy-efficient approach for wastewater treatment. Integrating membrane filtration with MFCs could be a viable option for advanced wastewater treatment with a low energy input. Such an integration is termed as membrane bioelectrochemical reactors (MBERs). Comparing to the conventional membrane bioreactors or anaerobic membrane bioreactors, MBER could be a competitive technology, due to the its advantages on energy consumption and...

  17. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  18. Textile wastewater reuse after additional treatment by Fenton's reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marília Cleto Meirelles; Starling, Maria Clara V M; Leão, Mônica Maria Diniz; de Amorim, Camila Costa

    2017-03-01

    This study verifies textile wastewater reuse treated by the conventional activated sludge process and subjected to further treatment by advanced oxidation processes. Three alternative processes are discussed: Fenton, photo-Fenton, and UV/H 2 O 2 . Evaluation of treatments effects was based on factorial experiment design in which the response variables were the maximum removal of COD and the minimum concentration of residual H 2 O 2 in treated wastewater. Results indicated Fenton's reagent, COD/[H 2 O 2 ]/[Fe 2+ ] mass ratio of 1:2:2, as the best alternative. The selected technique was applied to real wastewater collected from a conventional treatment plant of a textile mill. The quality of the wastewater before and after the additional treatment was monitored in terms of 16 physicochemical parameters defined as suitable for the characterization of waters subjected to industrial textile use. The degradation of the wastewater was also evaluated by determining the distribution of its molecular weight along with the organic matter fractionation by ultrafiltration, measured in terms of COD. Finally, a sample of the wastewater after additional treatment was tested for reuse at pilot scale in order to evaluate the impact on the quality of dyed fabrics. Results show partial compliance of treated wastewater with the physicochemical quality guidelines for reuse. Removal and conversion of high and medium molecular weight substances into low molecular weight substances was observed, as well as the degradation of most of the organic matter originally present in the wastewater. Reuse tests indicated positive results, confirming the applicability of wastewater reuse after the suggested additional treatment. Graphical abstract Textile wastewater samples after additional treatment by Fenton's reagent, photo-Fenton and H 2 O 2 /UV tested in different conditions.

  19. Behaviour of pharmaceuticals and psychotic drugs in conventional and advanced wastewater treatments; Comportamiento de medicamentos y psicofarmacos en tratamaientos de depuracion convencionales y terciarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortacans Torre, J. A.; Castillo Gonzalez, I. del; Hernandez Lehmann, A.; Hernandez Munoz, A.; Rodriguez Barrera, X.

    2009-07-01

    The occurrence of various pharmaceuticals and psychotic drugs in wastewater and their removal rates in a conventional wastewater treatment plant has been investigated. The psychoactive drugs are poorly removed in the biological step. However, most pharmaceuticals except of carbamazepine, are significantly biodegraded depending the removal degree on the type of compound and on the sludge retention time of the biological treatment. Also, the removal efficiency of conventional tertiary treatments and ultrafiltration and nano filtration membranes using two pilot plants was examined. the effects of retaining pharmaceuticals with ultrafiltration and nano filtration membranes do not greatly differ despite the difference in their pore size. (Author) 25 refs.

  20. Treatment of wastewaters from manufactured gas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocheci, V.; Bogatu, C.; Radovan, C. [Technical University of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    1995-12-31

    The treatment of wastewaters with high concentrations of organic compounds often represents a difficult problem. In some cases, for the destruction and removal of toxic compounds using processes like biological and chemical oxidation were proposed. Wastewaters from manufactured gas plants contain high concentrations of organic pollutants and ammonia. In this paper a technology for the treatment of these wastewaters is proposed. The experiments were realized with wastewaters from two Romanian manufactured gas plants. The process consists of the following steps: polycondensation-settling-stripping-biological treatment-electrocoagulation-electrochemical oxidation, or chemical oxidation. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. Treatment and recycling of textile wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciardelli, G.; Brighetti, G.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an experimental campaign involving the treatment of textile wastewaters for recycle by mean of an absorption resins pilot plant are briefly described. The case study concerned the treatment and reuse of yarns dyeing wastewaters. Results obtained indicate the possibility of an industrial scale implementation of the technique [it

  2. Nutrients requirements in biological industrial wastewater treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In both these wastewaters nutrients were not added. A simple formula is introduced to calculate nutrient requirements based on removal efficiency and observed biomass yield coefficient. Key Words: Olive mill wastewater; anaerobic treatment; aerobic treatment; sequencing batch reactor; biomass yield; nutrient requirement.

  3. [Ecological security of wastewater treatment processes: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sai; Hua, Tao

    2013-05-01

    Though the regular indicators of wastewater after treatment can meet the discharge requirements and reuse standards, it doesn't mean the effluent is harmless. From the sustainable point of view, to ensure the ecological and human security, comprehensive toxicity should be considered when discharge standards are set up. In order to improve the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, toxicity reduction should be considered when selecting and optimizing the treatment processes. This paper reviewed the researches on the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, with the focus on the purposes of various treatment processes, including the processes for special wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, and for the safety of receiving waters. Conventional biological treatment combined with advanced oxidation technologies can enhance the toxicity reduction on the base of pollutants removal, which is worthy of further study. For the process aimed at wastewater reuse, the integration of different process units can complement the advantages of both conventional pollutants removal and toxicity reduction. For the process aimed at ecological security of receiving waters, the emphasis should be put on the toxicity reduction optimization of process parameters and process unit selection. Some suggestions for the problems in the current research and future research directions were put forward.

  4. A novel integration of three-dimensional electro-Fenton and biological activated carbon and its application in the advanced treatment of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Baolin; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Xu, Peng; Jia, Shengyong; Li, Kun

    2015-11-01

    A novel integrated process with three-dimensional electro-Fenton (3D EF) and biological activated carbon (BAC) was employed in advanced treatment of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater. SAC-Fe (sludge deserved activated carbon from sewage and iron sludge) and SAC (sludge deserved activated carbon) were used in 3D EF as catalytic particle electrodes (CPEs) and in BAC as carriers respectively. Results indicated that 3D EF with SAC-Fe as CPEs represented excellent pollutants and COLOR removals as well as biodegradability improvement. The efficiency enhancement attributed to generating more H2O2 and OH. The integrated process exhibited efficient performance of COD, BOD5, total phenols, TOC, TN and COLOR removals at a much shorter retention time, with the corresponding concentrations in effluent of 31.18, 6.69, 4.29, 17.82, 13.88mg/L and <20 times, allowing discharge criteria to be met. The integrated system was efficient, cost-effective and ecological sustainable and could be a promising technology for engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal chemical industry wastewater using the catalytic ozonation process combined with a gas-liquid-solid internal circulating fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Feng; You, Hong; Ding, Yi; Yao, Jie; Jin, Chao

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigated the performance of the combined system of catalytic ozonation and the gas-liquid-solid internal circulating fluidized bed reactor for the advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal chemical industry wastewater (CCIW). The results indicated that with ozonation alone for 60min, the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) could reach 34%. The introduction of activated carbon, pumice, γ-Al 2 O 3 carriers improved the removal performance of COD, and the removal efficiency was increased by 8.6%, 4.2%, 2%, respectively. Supported with Mn, the catalytic performance of activated carbon and γ-Al 2 O 3 were improved significantly with COD removal efficiencies of 46.5% and 41.3%, respectively; however, the promotion effect of pumice supported with Mn was insignificant. Activated carbon supported with Mn had the best catalytic performance. The catalytic ozonation combined system of MnO X /activated carbon could keep ozone concentration at a lower level in the liquid phase, and promote the transfer of ozone from the gas phase to the liquid phase to improve ozonation efficiency.

  6. Electron beam treatment of industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, JinKyu; Kim, Yuri

    2004-01-01

    For industrial wastewater with low impurity levels such as contaminated ground water, cleaning water and etc., purification only with electron beam is possible, but it should be managed carefully with reducing required irradiation doses as low as possible. Also for industrial wastewater with high impurity levels such as dyeing wastewater, leachate and etc., purification only with electron beam requires high amount of doses and far beyond economies. Electron beam treatment combined with conventional purification methods such as coagulation, biological treatment, etc. is suitable for reduction of non-biodegradable impurities in wastewater and will extend the application area of electron beam. A pilot plant with electron beam for treating 1,000 m 3 /day of wastewater from dyeing industries has constructed and operated continuously since Oct 1998. Electron beam irradiation instead of chemical treatment shows much improvement in removing impurities and increases the efficiency of biological treatment. Actual plant is under consideration based upon the experimental results. (author)

  7. Physicochemical treatments of anionic surfactants wastewater: Effect on aerobic biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, Fathi; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-05-15

    The effect of different physicochemical treatments on the aerobic biodegradability of an industrial wastewater resulting from a cosmetic industry has been investigated. This industrial wastewater contains 11423 and 3148mgL(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants, respectively. The concentration of COD and anionic surfactants were followed throughout the diverse physicochemical treatments and biodegradation experiments. Different pretreatments of this industrial wastewater using chemical flocculation process with lime and aluminium sulphate (alum), and also advanced oxidation process (electro-coagulation (Fe and Al) and electro-Fenton) led to important COD and anionic surfactants removals. The best results were obtained using electro-Fenton process, exceeding 98 and 80% of anionic surfactants and COD removals, respectively. The biological treatment by an isolated strain Citrobacter braakii of the surfactant wastewater, as well as the pretreated wastewater by the various physicochemical processes used in this study showed that the best results were obtained with electro-Fenton pretreated wastewater. The characterization of the treated surfactant wastewater by the integrated process (electro-coagulation or electro-Fenton)-biological showed that it respects Tunisian discharge standards.

  8. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... and NH4; therefore it is classified as a strong waste. ... Key words: Wastewater, treatment plants, water reuse, wastewater characteristics, wastewater treatment,. Jordan. ..... MSc. thesis, university of Jordan. Bataineh F, Najjar ...

  9. Secondary wastewater treatment by microalgae isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microalgae play a fundamental role in primary and secondary wastewater treatment. In this work the growth, photosynthetic activity and removal of phosphorus from wastewater effluents by indigenous blue-green algal species, Spirulina and Oscillatoria, isolated from Gaborone oxidation ponds was studied. Oscillatoria and ...

  10. Domestic wastewater treatment using electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrely, Sueli I.

    1995-01-01

    This work aims the application of an industrial electron beam accelerator to disinfect sludge and to remove organic matter existent in the influent and effluent from the Mairipora domestic wastewater treatment plant. The in vitro Co-60 radiosensitivity of the major representative Salmonella species in wastewater from Sao Paulo city was also studied. (author). 66 refs., 19 figs., 12 tabs

  11. An experimental investigation of wastewater treatment using electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami-Meibodi, M.; Parsaeian, M. R.; Amraei, R.; Banaei, M.; Anvari, F.; Tahami, S. M. R.; Vakhshoor, B.; Mehdizadeh, A.; Fallah Nejad, N.; Shirmardi, S. P.; Mostafavi, S. J.; Mousavi, S. M. J.

    2016-08-01

    Electron beam (EB) is used for disinfection and treatment of different types of sewage and industrial wastewater. However, high capital investment required and the abundant energy consumed by this process raise doubts about its cost-effectiveness. In this paper, different wastewaters, including two textile sewages and one municipal wastewater are experimentally studied under different irradiation strategies (i.e. batch, 60 l/min and 1000 m3/day) in order to establish the reliability and the optimum conditions for the treatment process. According to the results, EB improves the efficiency of traditional wastewater treatment methods, but, for textile samples, coagulation before EB irradiation is recommended. The cost estimation of EB treatment compared to conventional methods shows that EB has been more expensive than chlorination and less expensive than activated sludge. Therefore, EB irradiation is advisable if and only if conventional methods of textile wastewater treatment are insufficient or chlorination of municipal wastewater is not allowed for health reasons. Nevertheless, among the advanced oxidation processes (AOP), EB irradiation process may be the most suitable one in industrial scale operations.

  12. Treatment of Preserved Wastewater with UASB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The preserved wastewater was treated by the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, the effects of the anaerobic time on COD, turbidity, pH, conductivity, SS, absorbance, and decolorization rate of the preserved wastewater were investigated. The results showed that with the increase of the anaerobic time, the treatment effect of the UASB reactor on the preserved wastewater was improved. Under the optimum anaerobic time condition, the COD removal rate, turbidity removal rate, pH, conductivity, SS removal rate, absorbance, and decoloration rate of the wastewater were 49.6%, 38.5%, 5.68, 0.518×104, 24%, 0.598, and 32.4%, respectively. Therefore, the UASB reactor can be used as a pretreatment for the preserved wastewater, in order to reduce the difficulty of subsequent aerobic treatment.

  13. Dynamics of Nutrients Transport in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, G.; De, M.

    2013-05-01

    Domestic wastewater is abundant in nutrients¬ that originate from various activities in the households. In developed countries, wastewater is largely managed by (1) centralized treatment where wastewater from large population is collected, treated, and discharged and (2) onsite treatment where wastewater is collected from an individual house, treated, and dispersed onsite; this system is commonly known as septic system or onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and consist of a septic tank (collects wastewater) and drain-field (disperses wastewater in soil). In areas with porous sandy soils, the transport of nutrients from drain-field to shallow groundwater is accelerated. To overcome this limitation, elevated disposal fields (commonly called mounds) on top of the natural soil are constructed to provide unsaturated conditions for wastewater treatment. Our objective was to study the dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport in the vadose zone and groundwater in traditional and advanced OWTS. Soil water samples were collected from the vadose zone by using suction cup lysimeters and groundwater samples were collected by using piezometers. Collected samples (wastewater, soil-water, groundwater) were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The pH (4.39-4.78) and EC (0.28-0.34 dS/m) of groundwater was much lower than both wastewater and soil-water. In contrast to >50 mg/L of ammonium-N in wastewater, concentrations in all lysimeters (0.02-0.81 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.82 mg/L) were 99% disappeared (primarily nitrified) in the vadose zone (20 mg/L in the vadose zones of traditional systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench). Concentrations of chloride showed a distinct pattern of nitrate-N breakthrough in vadose zone and groundwater; the groundwater nitrate-N was elevated upto 19.2 mg/L after wastewater delivery in tradional systems. Total P in the wastewater was ~10 mg/L, but low in all lysimeters (0.046-1.72 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.78 mg

  14. Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary technical assessment. ... living in informal settlements with the effluent produced being used on agricultural land. ... Banana and taro required 3 514 mm of irrigation effluent.

  15. Anaerobic treatment of textile dyeing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S R; Szpyrkowicz, L; Rodighiero, I

    2003-01-01

    Aerobic treatment commonly applied to textile wastewater results in good or even excellent removal of organic load. This is not, however, accompanied by an equally good removal of colour. Traditional or advanced chemical methods of decolourisation are costly and not always reliable in justifying an interest in microbial decolourisation. Among several processes anaerobic methods seem most promising. In this paper, the results of a study conducted in two pilot-scale plants comprising anaerobic fixed bed biofilters of 15 L and 5 m3 operating as continuous reactors are presented, along with evaluation of the microbial kinetics. As is shown the process proved efficient in a long-term study with no stability problems of the biofilters. The six-month performance of the pilot plant confirmed also that the pre-treated wastewater could be applied in the operation of dyeing. For the majority of the colours applied in the factory no problems were encountered when the dyeing baths were prepared by substituting 90% of fresh water to the effluent treated by a sequence of activated sludge processes: anaerobic-aerobic.

  16. Selection of technologies for municipal wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Rodríguez Miranda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In water environmental planning in watersheds should contain aspects for the decontamination of receiving water body, therefore the selection of the treatment plants municipal wastewater in developing countries, you should consider aspects of the typical composition raw wastewater pollutant removal efficiency by technology, performance indicators for technology, environmental aspects of localization and spatial localization strategy. This methodology is built on the basis of technical, economic and environmental attributes, such as a tool for decision making future investments in treatment plants municipal wastewater with multidisciplinary elements.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment as a tool for green Chemistry: Application to different advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Ortiz, I.; Domenech Antunez, X.; Malato Rodriguez, S.

    2006-07-01

    The development of chemistry during the twentieth century has changed our lives. In fact, chemistry and chemicals surrounds US in our daily activities, due to the huge supply of products aimed at improving our quality of life. Chemistry has resulted in the medical revolution of the past century, in which drugs as antibiotics have been used to cure diseases that affected mankind for centuries. These advances have led to the rise in the average life expectancy from 47 in 1900, to 75 years in the 1990s (Breslow 1997). On the other hand, the world's food supply has seen an explosive expansion because of the development of pesticides as well as fertilisers that protect crops and improve their productivity. Other common chemicals are those related to hygiene, such as soaps, detergents, disinfectants, toothpaste, etc. Therefore, there is practically no facet in material life-transportation communication, clothing, shelter, office- in which chemistry does not play an important role, either to supply consumer products or to improve services addressed to society in general (Domenech 2005). In spite of all these clear benefits, the chemical industry is often viewed by the general public as causing more harm than good (Lancaster 2002). A major reason for this is that the industry is perceived as being polluting and causing significant environmental damage. Indeed, the manufacture, use and disposal of chemicals consume large amounts of resources, and originates emissions of pollutants to all environmental compartments, not to mention the numerous accidents and disasters in which the chemical industry has been involved in the recent past. (Author)

  18. Treatment of wastewater with the constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, R.; Olivares, S.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed wetland is an environmental sound, actual and economic solution for the treatment of wastewater. The use of these constructed wetlands increased in the last few years, principally in developed countries. However there is not much information about the performance of these biological systems in tropical and subtropical climates. In these review the state of art of these technology is given, and also the advantage of the use of the constructed wetland for the wastewater treatment in our country

  19. Wastewater treatment processes for the removal of emerging organic pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Rubio Clemente

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging organic pollutants form a very heterogeneous group of substances that have negative effects on aquatic organisms, so they should be removed from the environment. Unfortunately, conventional processes in wastewater treatment plants, especially biological ones, are inefficient in the degradation of these substances. It is therefore necessary to evaluate and optimize the effectiveness of the treatments, including advanced oxidation and membrane filtration processes. However, both techniques have drawbacks that may limit their stand-alone application, so it is proposed that the best solution may be to combine these technologies with biological processes to treat wastewater contaminated with emerging organic pollutants.

  20. Industrial wastewater treatment with electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bumsoo; Ko, Jaein; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yuri; Chung, Wooho [Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries Co., Taejon (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1945, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with electron beam irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an electron beam pilot plant for treating 1,000m{sup 3}/day of wastewater from 80,000m{sup 3}/day of total dyeing wastewater has constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for S-paper Co. in Cheongwon City, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. (author)

  1. Industrial wastewater treatment with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Ko, Jaein; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yuri; Chung, Wooho

    2001-01-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1945, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with electron beam irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an electron beam pilot plant for treating 1,000m 3 /day of wastewater from 80,000m 3 /day of total dyeing wastewater has constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for S-paper Co. in Cheongwon City, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. (author)

  2. Treatment of acid mine wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, D.; Barnard, R.

    1993-01-01

    Acid mine drainage often results from the oxidation sulfide minerals to form sulfuric acid. As a consequence, high concentrations of metals in the both the suspended and dissolved state result from the low pH water. This paper discusses several of the more common treatment methods for acid mine drainage including the use of chemical precipitation agents, pH correction agents, filtration methods, and biodegradation methods. Advanced treatment technologies are also briefly described and include microfiltration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodialysis

  3. Post-treatment of biologically treated wastewater containing organic contaminants using a sequence of H2O2 based advanced oxidation processes: photolysis and catalytic wet oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Márquez, J J; Sillanpää, M; Pocostales, P; Acevedo, A; Manzano, M A

    2015-03-15

    In this paper the feasibility of a multi-barrier treatment (MBT) for the regeneration of synthetic industrial wastewater (SIWW) was evaluated. Industrial pollutants (orange II, phenol, 4-chlorophenol and phenanthrene) were added to the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant. The proposed MBT begins with a microfiltration membrane pretreatment (MF), followed by hydrogen peroxide photolysis (H2O2/UVC) and finishing, as a polishing step, with catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) using granular activated carbon (GAC) at ambient conditions. During the microfiltration step (0.7 μm) the decrease of suspended solids concentration, turbidity and Escherichia coli in treated water were 88, 94 and 99%, respectively. Also, the effluent's transmittance (254 nm) was increased by 14.7%. Removal of more than 99.9% of all added pollutants, mineralization of 63% of organic compounds and complete disinfection of total coliforms were reached during the H2O2/UVC treatment step (H2O2:TOC w/w ratio = 5 and an UVC average dose accumulated by wastewater 8.80 WUVC s cm(-2)). The power and efficiency of the lamp, the water transmittance and photoreactor geometry are taken into account and a new equation to estimate the accumulated dose in water is suggested. Remaining organic pollutants with a higher oxidation state of carbon atoms (+0.47) and toxic concentration of residual H2O2 were present in the effluent of the H2O2/UVC process. After 2.3 min of contact time with GAC at CWPO step, 90 and 100% of total organic carbon and residual H2O2 were removed, respectively. Also, the wastewater toxicity was studied using Vibrio fischeri and Sparus aurata larvae. The MBT operational and maintenance costs (O&M) was estimated to be 0.59 € m(-3). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recent Progress in TiO2-Mediated Solar Photocatalysis for Industrial Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper reviews the application of TiO2-mediated solar photocatalysis for industrial wastewater treatment, starting with a brief introduction on the background of industrial wastewater and the development of wastewater treatment processes, especially advanced oxidation processes (AOPs. We, then, discuss the application of solar TiO2 photocatalysis in treating different kinds of industrial wastewater, such as paper mill wastewater, textile wastewater, and olive mill wastewater. In the end, we compare solar TiO2 photocatalysis with other AOPs in terms of effectiveness, energy, and chemical consumption. Personal perspectives are also given, which may provide new insights to the future development of TiO2 photocatalysis for industrial wastewater.

  5. Application of reverse osmosis in radioactive wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong; Guo Weiqun

    2012-01-01

    Considering the disadvantages of the conventional evaporation and ion exchange process for radioactive wastewater treatment, the reverse osmosis is used to treat the low level radioactive wastewater. The paper summarizes the research and application progress of the reverse osmosis in the radioactive wastewater treatment and indicates that the reverse osmosis in the radioactive wastewater treatment is very important. (authors)

  6. Tertiary Treatment Process of Preserved Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qingyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the composite coagulants on coagulation sedimentation for the preserved wastewater was investigated by changing the composite coagulant dosages, and the coagulant was composed of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS, polyaluminium chloride (PAC, and polyaluminum ferric silicate (PAFSC, while the effect of the tertiary treatment process on the preserved wastewater was tested, which was exceeded the standard seriously. The results showed that 400 mg/L was the optimum composite coagulant dosage. The removal rates of salt and sugar were as high as 99.1% and 99.5% respectively, and the removal rates of CODCr and SS were 99.3% and 96.0%, respectively after the preserved wastewater was treated by the tertiary treatment technology, which both reached the primary standard of “The Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard” (GB8978-1996.

  7. High power accelerators and wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Kim, S.M.; Makaov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources are receiving increasing attention throughout the world. The increased population, higher living standards, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities of humankind are all leading to degradation of the environment. Increasing urbanization has been accompanied by significant water pollution. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. Therefore, cost-effective treatment of the municipal and industrial wastewater containing refractory pollutant with electron beam is actively studied in EB TECH Co.. Electron beam treatment of wastewater is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis (hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom). However, to have advantages over existing processes, the electron beam process should have cost-effective and reliable in operation. Therefore high power accelerators (400kW∼1MW) are developed for environmental application and they show the decrease in the cost of construction and operation of electron beam plant. In other way to reduce the cost for wastewater treatment, radical reactions accompanied by the other processes are introduced, and the synergistic effect upon the use of combined methods such as electron beam treatment with ozonation, biological treatment and physico-chemical adsorption and others also show the improvement of the effect of electron beam treatment for the wastewater purification. (author)

  8. Removal of Arsenic from Wastewaters by Airlift Electrocoagulation: Part 3: Copper Smelter Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    The arsenic content in wastewater is of major concern for copper smelters. A typical complex wastewater treatment is needed with a combination of chemical and physical processes. Electrocoagulation (EC) has shown its potential for arsenic removal due to the formation of ferric hydroxide-arsenate ...... threshold value for wastewater discharge could rapidly be reached when the conventional method did not clean the wastewater sufficiently....

  9. Inter-Municipal Cooperation For Wastewater Treatment: Case studies from Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon; Kliot, Nurit

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, local authorities in Israel have been engaged in promoting advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) projects throughout the country, resulting in the “wastewater treatment revolution” of the 1990s. These achievements are extremely important in the water-scarce

  10. Evaluation of tertiary treatments for the reduction of refractory micropollutants in wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Besnault, S.; Martin Ruel, S.; Baig, S.; Heiniger, B.; Esperanza, M.; Budzinski, H.; Miege, C.; Coquery, M.; Dauthuille, P.

    2012-01-01

    Some refractory micropollutants remain in treated wastewater after secondary treatments. In order to reduce their concentration in treated water, tertiary treatments can be used such as advanced oxidation processes and activated carbon. The efficiency of granular activated carbon in a long term is not well known and advanced oxidation processes have mostly been studied at laboratory scale. Advanced oxidation processes and granular activated carbon pilots were studied in two different wastewat...

  11. Treatment of Antibiotic Pharmaceutical Wastewater Using a Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjun Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating biological contactors (RBC are effective for treating wastewater, while they are rarely reported to be used for treating antibiotic pharmaceutical wastewater (APW. The current study investigates treatment of APW using an RBC. The effects of influent concentration, number of stages, and temperature on the remediation of APW were studied. The results indicated, even at low ambient temperature, 45% COD and 40% NH4+-N removal efficiencies. Moreover, the BOD5 removal efficiency was 85%. Microscopic observations illustrated that there were various active microorganisms displayed in the biofilms and their distribution changed from stage to stage. Compared with activated sludge, the biofilms in this study have higher content of dry matter and are easier to dehydrate and settle. Compared with current commercial incineration processes or advanced oxidation processes, RBC can greatly reduce the treatment cost. This research shows RBC is effective for such an inherently biorecalcitrant wastewater even at low ambient temperature.

  12. Treatment of coffee wastewater by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Y.; Consuegra, R.; Rapado, M.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation energy can be an important resource in the treatment of wastewaters from different industries both directly and in combination with other processes to improve economics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ionizing radiation on coffee wastewater in order to decompose chemical organic refractory substances which cannot be degradated by biological treatment. One of the approaches employed in the survey was the chemical treatment followed by the irradiation of the samples since no nuclear changes of the coagulant solution or wastewater samples were expected. Irradiation is a high cost treatment although it has increased its applications nowadays. The method is safe, fast and effective and it does not generate any pollution

  13. Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaolei; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Li, Qilin

    2013-08-01

    Providing clean and affordable water to meet human needs is a grand challenge of the 21st century. Worldwide, water supply struggles to keep up with the fast growing demand, which is exacerbated by population growth, global climate change, and water quality deterioration. The need for technological innovation to enable integrated water management cannot be overstated. Nanotechnology holds great potential in advancing water and wastewater treatment to improve treatment efficiency as well as to augment water supply through safe use of unconventional water sources. Here we review recent development in nanotechnology for water and wastewater treatment. The discussion covers candidate nanomaterials, properties and mechanisms that enable the applications, advantages and limitations as compared to existing processes, and barriers and research needs for commercialization. By tracing these technological advances to the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, the present review outlines the opportunities and limitations to further capitalize on these unique properties for sustainable water management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of various advanced oxidation processes used in remediation of industrial wastewater laden with recalcitrant pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, S.; Rawindran, H.; Sinnathambi, C. M.; Lim, J. W.

    2017-06-01

    Due to the scarcity of water, it has become a necessity to improve the quality of wastewater that is discharged into the environment. Conventional wastewater treatment can be either a physical, chemical, and/or biological processes, or in some cases a combination of these operations. The main purpose of wastewater treatment is to eliminate nutrients, solids, and organic compounds from effluents. Current wastewater treatment technologies are deemed ineffective in the complete removal of pollutants, particularly organic matter. In many cases, these organic compounds are resistant to conventional treatment methods, thus creating the necessity for tertiary treatment. Advanced oxidation process (AOP), constitutes as a promising treatment technology for the management of wastewater. AOPs are characterised by a common chemical feature, where they utilize the highly reactive hydroxyl radicals for achieving complete mineralization of the organic pollutants into carbon dioxide and water. This paper delineates advanced oxidation processes currently used for the remediation of water and wastewater. It also provides the cost estimation of installing and running an AOP system. The costs are separated into three categories: capital, operational, and operating & maintenance.

  15. Development of chemical flocculant for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jang Jin; Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, M. J.; Yang, M. S.; Park, H. S.

    2000-12-01

    Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' which were developed as coagulants for industrial wastewater treatment in the study showed far superior performance to the existing inorganic coagulants such as Alum and Iron salt(FeSO4) when compared to their wastewater treatment performance in color and COD removal. Besides, it was not frozen at -25 deg C ∼ -30 deg C. When reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' were used as coagulant for wastewater treatment, the proper dosage was ranged from 0.1% to 0.5%(v/v) and proper pH range was 10.5 ∼ 11.5 in the area of alkaline pH.Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' showed good performance with 95% or more removal of color-causing material and 60% or more removal of COD

  16. Development of chemical flocculant for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jang Jin; Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, M. J.; Yang, M. S.; Park, H. S

    2000-12-01

    Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' which were developed as coagulants for industrial wastewater treatment in the study showed far superior performance to the existing inorganic coagulants such as Alum and Iron salt(FeSO4) when compared to their wastewater treatment performance in color and COD removal. Besides, it was not frozen at -25 deg C {approx} -30 deg C. When reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' were used as coagulant for wastewater treatment, the proper dosage was ranged from 0.1% to 0.5%(v/v) and proper pH range was 10.5 {approx} 11.5 in the area of alkaline pH.Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' showed good performance with 95% or more removal of color-causing material and 60% or more removal of COD.

  17. Electron beam treatment plant for textile dyeing wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m 3 of textile dyeing wastewater per day with electron beam has constructed and operated continuously in Daegu, Korea since 1998. This plant is combined with biological treatment system and it shows the reduction of chemical reagent consumption, and also the reduction in retention time with the increase in removal efficiencies of COD Cr and BOD 5 up to 30∼40%. Increase in biodegradability after radiation treatment of aqueous-organic systems is due to radiolytical conversions of non-biodegradable compounds. On the basis of data obtained from pilot plant operation, construction of actual industrial scale plant has started in 2003, and will be finished by 2005. This plant is located on the area of existing wastewater treatment facility (Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex) and to have treatment capacity 10,000 m 3 of wastewater per day using one 1 MeV, 400 kW accelerator, and combined with existing bio- treatment facility. The overall construction cost and the operation cost in the radiation processing, when compared to other conventional and advanced oxidation techniques, are more cost-effective and convenient for wastewater treatment. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government. (author)

  18. Forward Osmosis in Wastewater Treatment Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korenak, Jasmina; Basu, Subhankar; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, membrane technology has been widely used in wastewater treatment and water purification. Membrane technology is simple to operate and produces very high quality water for human consumption and industrial purposes. One of the promising technologies for water and wastewater treatment...... is the application of forward osmosis. Essentially, forward osmosis is a process in which water is driven through a semipermeable membrane from a feed solution to a draw solution due to the osmotic pressure gradient across the membrane. The immediate advantage over existing pressure driven membrane technologies...... briefly review some of the applications within water purification and new developments in forward osmosis membrane fabrication....

  19. Application of radiation for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bumsoo; Kim Jinkyu; Kim Yuri

    2006-01-01

    Electron beam processing of wastewater is non-chemical, and uses fast formation of short-lived reactive radicals that can interact with a wide range of pollutants. Such reactive radicals are strong oxidizing or reducing agents that can transform the pollutants in the liquids wastes. The first studies on the radiation treatment of wastes were carried out in the 1950s principally for disinfection. In the 1960s, these studies were extended to the purification of water and wastewater. After some laboratory research on industrial wastewaters and polluted groundwater in 1970s and 1980s, several pilot plants were built for extended research in the 1990s. The first full-scale application was reported for the purification of wastewater at the Voronezh synthetic rubber plant in Russia. Two accelerators (50 kW each) were used to convert the non-biodegradable emulsifier, 'nekal', present in the wastewater to a biodegradable form . The installation treats up to 2000 m3 of effluent per day. A pilot plant of 1000 m 3 /d for treating textile-dyeing wastewater has been constructed in Daegu, Korea with 1 MeV, 40 kW electron accelerator. High-energy irradiation produces instantaneous radiolytical transformations by energy transfer from accelerated electrons to orbital electrons of water molecules. Absorbed energy disturbs the electron system of the molecule and results in breakage of inter-atomic bonds. Hydrated electron eaq, H atom, . OH and HO 2 . radicals and hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 and H 2 are the most important products of the primary interactions (radiolysis products). Generally, radiation processing of wastewater has maximum efficiency at pollutant concentration less than 10 -3 mol/L (∼100 ppm). The treatment of such wastewater is simple, requires low dose (about 1 kGy or less) and gives almost complete elimination of odor, color, taste and turbidity. The radiation processing of polluted water containing specific contaminants may require creation of special conditions to

  20. Chemical oxygen demand reduction in coffee wastewater through chemical flocculation and advanced oxidation processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAYAS Pérez Teresa; GEISSLER Gunther; HERNANDEZ Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The removal of the natural organic matter present in coffee processing wastewater through chemical coagulation-flocculatio and advanced oxidation processes(AOP)had been studied.The effectiveness of the removal of natural organic matter using commercial flocculants and UV/H202,UVO3 and UV/H-H202/O3 processes was determined under acidic conditions.For each of these processes,different operational conditions were explored to optimize the treatment efficiency of the coffee wastewater.Coffee wastewater is characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand(COD)and low total suspended solids.The outcomes of coffee wastewater reeatment using coagulation-flocculation and photodegradation processes were assessed in terms of reduction of COD,color,and turbidity.It was found that a reductiOn in COD of 67%could be realized when the coffee wastewater was treated by chemical coagulation-flocculatlon witll lime and coagulant T-1.When coffee wastewater was treated by coagulation-flocculation in combination with UV/H202,a COD reduction of 86%was achieved,although only after prolonged UV irradiation.Of the three advanced oxidation processes considered,UV/H202,uv/03 and UV/H202/03,we found that the treatment with UV/H2O2/O3 was the most effective,with an efficiency of color,turbidity and further COD removal of 87%,when applied to the flocculated coffee wastewater.

  1. Wastewater Treatment for Pollution Control | Nzabuheraheza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of a Dynamic Roughing Filter (DRF) coupled with a Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland (HSSFCW) in the treatment of a wastewater was studied in tropical conditions. The results show that in HSSFCW planted with Cyperus papyrus and Phragmites mauritianus in series, the removal rates of TDS, ...

  2. Developing Anammox for mainstream municipal wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotti, T.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), like activated sludge systems, are energy demanding requiring a large electrical energy supply (e.g. 25 kWh PE-1 year-1) which, especially during peak-load periods, may account for an important quote of the grid installed power of the surrounding

  3. Wastewater treatment modelling: dealing with uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belia, E.; Amerlinck, Y.; Benedetti, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper serves as a problem statement of the issues surrounding uncertainty in wastewater treatment modelling. The paper proposes a structure for identifying the sources of uncertainty introduced during each step of an engineering project concerned with model-based design or optimisation...

  4. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    1995-01-01


    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will

  5. Radiation treatment of polluted water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    Strategies to tackle environmental pollution have been receiving increasing attention throughout the world in recent years. Radiation processing using electron beam accelerators and gamma irradiators has shown very promising results in this area. Radiation processing in wastewater treatment is an additive-free process that uses the short lived reactive species formed during the radiolysis of water for efficient decomposition of pollutants therein. The rapid growth of the global population, together with the increased development of agriculture and industry, have led to the generation of large quantities of polluted industrial and municipal wastewater. The recognition that these polluted waters may pose a serious threat to humans has led technologists to look for cost effective technologies for their treatment. A variety of methods based on biological, chemical, photochemical and electrochemical processes are being explored for decomposing the chemical and biological contaminants present in the wastewaters. Studies in recent years have demonstrated the effectiveness of ionizing radiation such as, gamma rays and electron beams or in combination with other treatments, in the decomposition of refractory organic compounds in aqueous solutions and in the effective removal or inactivation of various microorganisms and parasites. The application of electron beam processing for drinking water, wastewater and groundwater treatment offers the promise of a cost effective process. The installation of the first full scale electron beam plant in Daegu, Republic of Korea, to treat 10 000 m 3 day -1 textile wastewater has demonstrated that the process is a cost effective technology when compared to conventional treatment. The regular operation of this facility provides operational data on reliability and additional data for a detailed economic evaluation. The IAEA has been supporting activities in this area by organizing advisory group meetings, consultants meetings, symposia and

  6. Wastewater treatment and pollution control in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danu, Sugiarto

    2006-01-01

    Present status of radiation facilities for Co-60 gamma ray irradiation and electron beam irradiation in Indonesia is first presented. Wastewater treatment is explained: kinds of waste, industrial, agricultural, municipal and nuclear. Each liquid wastewater containing various kinds of contaminants, radioactive or non-radioactive is differently treated by waste treatment industries. On-going project is use of electron beams in which combination with ozone to reduce chlorinated solvent, disinfected sludge from sewage treatment containing organic and inorganic components for soil fertilizer, and high color river water for water supplying. The cost factor and the effect of combined treatment are being examined. Other on-going projects are applications of electron beams for vulcanization of natural rubber latex and flue gas treatment by BATAN. (S. Ohno)

  7. Treatment of Biodiesel Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anchalee Srirangsan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the optimum conditions for biodiesel wastewater treatment using an electrocoagulation process. Wastewater samples were obtained from a small-scale, commercial biodiesel production plant that employs an alkali-catalyzed tranesterification process. The wastewater was characterized by the high contents of alkali and high oil content of 6,020 mg/L. Tested operational conditions included types of electrode, current density, retention time and initial pH. The tested electrode materials for electrocoagulation were aluminum (Al, iron (Fe and graphite (C. Five tested pairs of anode and cathode materials included Fe-Fe, Fe-C, Al-Al, Al-C, C-C. Results show that the optimum conditions were achieved by using the electrodes of Al-C, applying the current density of 8.32 mA/cm2 to the wastewater with an initial pH value of 6 for 25 min. The removal efficiency was found to be 97.8 % for grease & oil (G&O, 96.9 % for SS and 55.4 % for COD. Moreover, the small amount of produced sludge was readily to remove from the treated wastewater.

  8. 高级氧化技术在废水处理中的应用研究进展%Application and Progress of Advanced Oxidation Processes inWastewater Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟理; 詹怀宇

    2000-01-01

    探讨了高级氧化技术(Advanced Oxidation Processes,即AOPs)如:O3/H2O2,Fenton试剂均相湿式催化氧化;H2O2/UV、O3/UV、O3/H2O2/UV均相光催化氧化;多相湿式催化氧化,多相光催化氧化,多相催化和生化氧化等过程处理废水及其反应机理,论述了AOPs技术在工业废水处理方面的研究进展。%The wastewater treatment and reaction mechanism by Advanced Oxidation Processes such as homogeneous wet catalytic oxidation of O3/H2O2 and Fenton agent, homogeneous photocatalytic oxidation of H2O2/UV,O3/UV and O2/H2O2/UV, and heterogeneous wet catalytic oxidation, heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation, heterogeneous catalytic and biochemical oxidation were explored. The investigation and progress of AOPs technique in industrial wastewater treatment were overviewed.

  9. Potential exposure and treatment efficiency of nanoparticles in water supplies based on wastewater reclamation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Peter; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Rygaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity brings an increased focus on wastewater reclamation for drinking water supply. Meanwhile, the production volume of nanoparticles (NPs) is rapidly increasing, but to date there has been little attention given to the fate of NPs in water systems based on wastewater reclamation. We have...... investigated the possible concentrations of silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in tap water for water supplies based on reclaimed wastewater. Tap water concentrations of the NPs were assessed by mass flow analyses of two typical wastewater reclamation concepts: 1) advanced...... studies are available on the removal efficiencies of NPs by advanced water treatment processes with a majority of the identified studies focusing on removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment plants and fate in surface waters. The NP removal efficiency of several treatment processes is unknown...

  10. MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR FOR TREATMENT OF RECALCITRANT WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprihatin Suprihatin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The low biodegradable wastewaters remain a challenge in wastewater treatment technology. The performance of membrane bioreactor systems with submerged hollow fiber micro- and ultrafiltration membrane modules were examined for purifying recalcitrant wastewaters of leachate of a municipal solid waste open dumping site and effluent of pulp and paper mill. The use of MF and UF membrane bioreactor systems showed an efficient treatment for both types wastewaters with COD reduction of 80-90%. The membrane process achieved the desirable effects of maintaining reasonably high biomass concentration and long sludge retention time, while producing a colloid or particle free effluent. For pulp and paper mill effluent a specific sludge production of 0.11 kg MLSS/kg COD removed was achieved. A permeate flux of about 5 L/m²h could be achieved with the submerged microfiltration membrane. Experiments using ultrafiltration membrane produced relatively low permeate fluxes of 2 L/m²h. By applying periodical backwash, the flux could be improved significantly. It was indicated that the particle or colloid deposition on membrane surface was suppressed by backwash, but reformation of deposit was not effectively be prevented by shear-rate effect of aeration. Particle and colloid started to accumulate soon after backwash. Construction of membrane module and operation mode played a critical role in achieving the effectiveness of aeration in minimizing deposit formation on the membrane surface.

  11. Sterols indicate water quality and wastewater treatment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichwaldt, Elke S; Ho, Wei Y; Zhou, Wenxu; Ghadouani, Anas

    2017-01-01

    As the world's population continues to grow, water pollution is presenting one of the biggest challenges worldwide. More wastewater is being generated and the demand for clean water is increasing. To ensure the safety and health of humans and the environment, highly efficient wastewater treatment systems, and a reliable assessment of water quality and pollutants are required. The advance of holistic approaches to water quality management and the increasing use of ecological water treatment technologies, such as constructed wetlands and waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs), challenge the appropriateness of commonly used water quality indicators. Instead, additional indicators, which are direct measures of the processes involved in the stabilisation of human waste, have to be established to provide an in-depth understanding of system performance. In this study we identified the sterol composition of wastewater treated in WSPs and assessed the suitability of human sterol levels as a bioindicator of treatment efficiency of wastewater in WSPs. As treatment progressed in WSPs, the relative abundance of human faecal sterols, such as coprostanol, epicoprostanol, 24-ethylcoprostanol, and sitostanol decreased significantly and the sterol composition in wastewater changed significantly. Furthermore, sterol levels were found to be correlated with commonly used wastewater quality indicators, such as BOD, TSS and E. coli. Three of the seven sterol ratios that have previously been used to track sewage pollution in the environment, detected a faecal signal in the effluent of WSPs, however, the others were influenced by high prevalence of sterols originating from algal and fungal activities. This finding poses a concern for environmental assessment studies, because environmental pollution from waste stabilisation ponds can go unnoticed. In conclusion, faecal sterols and their ratios can be used as reliable indicators of treatment efficiency and water quality during wastewater

  12. Removal of Emerging Contaminants and Estrogenic Activity from Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent with UV/Chlorine and UV/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation Treatment at Pilot Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Rott

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP was treated on-site with the UV/chlorine (UV/HOCl advanced oxidation process (AOP using a pilot plant equipped with a medium pressure UV lamp with an adjustable performance of up to 1 kW. Results obtained from parallel experiments with the same pilot plant, where the state of the art UV/H2O2 AOP was applied, were compared regarding the removal of emerging contaminants (EC and the formation of adsorbable organohalogens (AOX. Furthermore, the total estrogenic activity was measured in samples treated with the UV/chlorine AOP. At an energy consumption of 0.4 kWh/m3 (0.4 kW, 1 m3/h and in a range of oxidant concentrations from 1 to 6 mg/L, the UV/chlorine AOP had a significantly higher EC removal yield than the UV/H2O2 AOP. With free available chlorine concentrations (FAC in the UV chamber influent of at least 5 mg/L (11 mg/L of dosed Cl2, the total estrogenic activity could be reduced by at least 97%. To achieve a certain concentration of FAC in the UV chamber influent, double to triple the amount of dosed Cl2 was needed, resulting in AOX concentrations of up to 520 µg/L.

  13. Removal of Emerging Contaminants and Estrogenic Activity from Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent with UV/Chlorine and UV/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation Treatment at Pilot Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuch, Bertram; Lange, Claudia; Richter, Philipp; Kugele, Amélie; Minke, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    Effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was treated on-site with the UV/chlorine (UV/HOCl) advanced oxidation process (AOP) using a pilot plant equipped with a medium pressure UV lamp with an adjustable performance of up to 1 kW. Results obtained from parallel experiments with the same pilot plant, where the state of the art UV/H2O2 AOP was applied, were compared regarding the removal of emerging contaminants (EC) and the formation of adsorbable organohalogens (AOX). Furthermore, the total estrogenic activity was measured in samples treated with the UV/chlorine AOP. At an energy consumption of 0.4 kWh/m3 (0.4 kW, 1 m3/h) and in a range of oxidant concentrations from 1 to 6 mg/L, the UV/chlorine AOP had a significantly higher EC removal yield than the UV/H2O2 AOP. With free available chlorine concentrations (FAC) in the UV chamber influent of at least 5 mg/L (11 mg/L of dosed Cl2), the total estrogenic activity could be reduced by at least 97%. To achieve a certain concentration of FAC in the UV chamber influent, double to triple the amount of dosed Cl2 was needed, resulting in AOX concentrations of up to 520 µg/L. PMID:29735959

  14. Treatment of wastewater by lemna minor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iram, S.; Zahra, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to study the performance of bio-treatment ponds after one year of functioning at National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad, Pakistan. The physical parameters (colour, pH, EC, TDS, turbidity) and chemical parameters (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Mn, Fe and Pb) are with in the limits which are not sub-lethal for fish rearing. Lemna accumulates higher concentration of heavy metals as compared to wastewater and best for phyto remediation purpose. The treated wastewater is currently used for rearing of fish and irrigation of crops and plants. The plants around the bio-treatment ponds are healthy, green and showing enough production. The present investigation indicates that in future it would be possible to construct bio-treatment ponds in polluted areas of Pakistan. (author)

  15. Perspectives on modelling micropollutants in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clouzot, Ludiwine; Cloutier, Frédéric; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Models for predicting the fate of micropollutants (MPs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been developed to provide engineers and decision-makers with tools that they can use to improve their understanding of, and evaluate how to optimize, the removal of MPs and determine their impact......) addressing advancements in WWTP treatment technologies, (iii) making use of common approaches to data acquisition for model calibration and (iv) integrating ecotoxicological effects of MPs in receiving waters....... on the receiving waters. This paper provides an overview of such models, and discusses the impact of regulation, engineering practice and research on model development. A review of the current status of MP models reveals that a single model cannot represent the wide range of MPs that are present in wastewaters...

  16. Sediment microbial fuel cells for wastewater treatment: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Bojun; Ge, Zheng; He, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) have been intensively investigated for the harvest of energy from natural sediment, but studies of their application for wastewater treatment mainly occurred in the past 2-3 years. SMFCs with simple structures can generate electrical energy while decontaminating wastewater. Most SMFCs used for wastewater treatment contain plants to mimic constructed wetlands. Both synthetic and real wastewaters have been used as substrates in SMFCs that achieved satisfact...

  17. Wastewater sludge treatment at selected wastewater treatment plants of the region Banska Bystrica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samesova, D.; Mitterpach, J.; Martinkova, A.

    2014-01-01

    The management of sewage sludges in water treatment plants of Banska Bystrica region. The paper deals with the problems of sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants, its origin and possibilities how to use it in accordance with the current legislation of the Slovak Republic. We described radioactive pollution of sewage sludges. The paper consists of review of sludge production and its usage in the Slovak Republic and in selected states of the European Union. The paper deals with the sludge treatment in selected wastewater treatment plants in Banska Bystrica region in the context of biogas production and its usage by the help of the electricity and heat production. (authors)

  18. Treatment of kitchen wastewater using Eichhornia crassipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parwin, Rijwana; Karar Paul, Kakoli

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of Eichhornia crassipes for treatment of raw kitchen wastewater was studied in the present research work. An artificial wetland of 30 liter capacity was created for phytoremediation of kitchen wastewater using Eichhornia crassipes. Kitchen wastewater samples were collected from hostel of an educational institute in India. Samples were characterized based on physical and chemical parameters such as pH, turbidity, total hardness, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, sulphate, dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon and total dissolved solid. The physico-chemical parameter of kitchen wastewater samples were analysed for durations of 0 (initial day), 4 and 8 days. After 8 days of retention period, it was observed that pH value increases from 6.25 to 6.63. However, percentage reduction for turbidity, total hardness, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, sulphate, dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon and total dissolved solid were found to be 74.71%, 50%, 78.75%, 60.28%, 25.31%, 33.33%, 15.38% and 69.97%, respectively. Hence water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is found efficient and easy to handle and it can be used for low cost phytoremediation technique.

  19. Forward Osmosis in Wastewater Treatment Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenak, Jasmina; Basu, Subhankar; Balakrishnan, Malini; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Petrinic, Irena

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, membrane technology has been widely used in wastewater treatment and water purification. Membrane technology is simple to operate and produces very high quality water for human consumption and industrial purposes. One of the promising technologies for water and wastewater treatment is the application of forward osmosis. Essentially, forward osmosis is a process in which water is driven through a semipermeable membrane from a feed solution to a draw solution due to the osmotic pressure gradient across the membrane. The immediate advantage over existing pressure driven membrane technologies is that the forward osmosis process per se eliminates the need for operation with high hydraulic pressure and forward osmosis has low fouling tendency. Hence, it provides an opportunity for saving energy and membrane replacement cost. However, there are many limitations that still need to be addressed. Here we briefly review some of the applications within water purification and new developments in forward osmosis membrane fabrication.

  20. Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yingyu; Ye, Liu; Pan, Yuting; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from wastewater treatment plants vary substantially between plants, ranging from negligible to substantial (a few per cent of the total nitrogen load), probably because of different designs and operational conditions. In general, plants that achieve high levels of nitrogen removal emit less N2O, indicating that no compromise is required between high water quality and lower N2O emissions. N2O emissions primarily occur in aerated zones/compartments/periods owing to active stripping, and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, rather than heterotrophic denitrifiers, are the main contributors. However, the detailed mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated, despite strong evidence suggesting that both nitrifier denitrification and the chemical breakdown of intermediates of hydroxylamine oxidation are probably involved. With increased understanding of the fundamental reactions responsible for N2O production in wastewater treatment systems and the conditions that stimulate their occurrence, reduction of N2O emissions from wastewater treatment systems through improved plant design and operation will be achieved in the near future. PMID:22451112

  1. Electrochemical treatment of olive oil mill wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhi, P.; Fiori, G [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Vodopivec, B. [Milan Univ. Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Biotechnologies and Biosciences

    2001-04-01

    The possibility of oxidizing at a PbO{sub 2} anode the phenols and polyphenols, present in the olive oil mill wastewater, has been studied as a pre-treatment for the submission of such wastewater to the traditional biological treatments. The results obtained operating at current densities ranging 500 to 2000 A/m{sup 2} show that it is possible to reduce the concentration of the phenolic components, which interfere with the biological treatments, down to low values without decreasing too much the total organic content of the wastewater. [Italian] E' stata studiata la possibilita' di ossidare anodicamente i componenti fenolici delle acque reflue di frantoio, quale pretrattamento delle stesse prima del loro invio ai processi di trattamento biologico. I risultati ottenuti impiegando PbO{sub 2} quale materiale anodico e operando con densita' di corrente comprese tra 500 e 2000 A/m{sup 2} mostrano come sia possibile eliminare, o almeno diminuire sino a concentrazioni accettabili, dalle acque di frantoio i fenoli e i polifenoli, che interferiscono con i normali trattamenti biologici, senza diminuire eccessivamente il carico organico totale.

  2. Characterization of livestock wastewater at various stages of wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting Teo Ming; Kim, Tak Hyun; Lee, Myun Joo

    2007-01-01

    A characterization study has been conducted at Gongju Livestock Wastewater Treatment Plant, Gongju, South Korea. It is owned and operated by the government with treatment capacity of 250 tons per day. Livestock wastewater was collected from individual farmer and treated at the treatment plant. The centralized livestock wastewater treatment plant has various treatment processes namely pre-treatment, anaerobic digestion, nitrification, de-nitrification , chemical treatment, sand filtration and ozonization. The livestock wastewater was characterized by high COD, SS, T-N and T-P with concentration of 20600 mg/l, 6933 mg/l, 2820 mg/l and 700 mg/ l, respectively. After the wastewater has undergone various treatment processes it was discharged to waterways with concentration of COD, SS, T-N and T-P at 105 mg/l, 73 mg/l, 2.1 mg/l and 9 mg/l, respectively. This is part of the study to investigate the potential of irradiation to be applied at the centralized livestock wastewater treatment plant. Although livestock wastewater can be potentially applied to crop as source of nutrients it also affect the water quality due to runoff and leaching. When the wastewater applied at the rates in excess of crop uptake rates, the excess wastewater could potentially enter surface and groundwater and polluted them. (author)

  3. Analysis of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency in a Soft Drinks Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguniewicz-Zabłocka, Joanna; Capodaglio, Andrea G.; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    During manufacturing processes, most industrial plants generate wastewater which could become harmful to the environment. Discharge of untreated or improperly treated industrial wastewaters into surface water could, in fact, lead to deterioration of the receiving water body's quality. This paper concerns wastewater treatment solutions used in the soft drink production industry: wastewater treatment plant effectiveness analysis was determined in terms of basic pollution indicators, such as BOD, COD, TSS and variable pH. Initially, the performance of mechanic-biological systems for the treatment of wastewater from a specific beverages production process was studied in different periods, due to wastewater flow fluctuation. The study then showed the positive effects on treatment of wastewater augmentation by methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus salts dosed into it during the treatment process. Results confirm that after implemented modification (methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus additions) pollution removal occurs mostly with higher efficiency.

  4. Fate and distribution of pharmaceuticals in wastewater and sewage sludge of the conventional activated sludge (CAS) and advanced membrane bioreactor (MBR) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radjenović, Jelena; Petrović, Mira; Barceló, Damià

    2009-02-01

    case of loratidine the experimentally determined sorption coefficients (Kds) were in the range 2214-3321 L/kg (mean). The results obtained for the solid phase indicated that MBR wastewater treatment yielding higher biodegradation rate could reduce the load of pollutants in the sludge. Also, the overall output load in the aqueous and solid phase of the investigated WWTP was calculated, indicating that none of the residual pharmaceuticals initially detected in the sewage sludge were degraded during the anaerobic digestion. Out of the 26 pharmaceutical residues passing through the WWTP, 20 were ultimately detected in the treated sludge that is further applied on farmland.

  5. Electron beam treatment of wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, H.; Hosono, M.; Shimizu, K.; Sugiyama, M.

    1991-01-01

    Supernatant comes from dewaterization of sewage sludge, and contains biologically nondegradable organics so that it is hard to be treated by conventional activated sludge. By electron beam (EB) irradiation, any kinds of organics in water can be oxidized to biodegradable organic acids. We studied the treatment of supernatant by application of this effect. The direct irradiation of the original supernatant was found not to be so effective to decrease COD. In order to increase the irradiation effect, supernatant was pretreated biologically to decrease the biodegradable organics in it. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) were decreased from 800 and 910 mg/L to 78 and 5 mg/L by this pretreatment, respectively. This pretreated supernatant was irradiated by EB of 2 MeV using a batch type reactor. The COD was gradually decreased with dose. In contrast, BOD was increased markedly, indicating increase in biodegradability. The irradiated sample water was treated biologically again. After the final biological treatment, COD was decreased below 30 mg/L in the case of 10 - 12 kGy irradiation. Finally, the initial COD of 800 mg/L was decreased below 30 mg/L by the combination of EB irradiation and biological treatment. The cost of irradiation for this process was evaluated preliminarily. (author)

  6. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an increasing trend to require more efficient use of water resources, both in urban and rural environments. In Jordan, the increase in water demand, in addition to water shortage has led to growing interest in wastewater reuse. In this work, characteristics of wastewater for four wastewater treatment plants were ...

  7. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Young Choi; Seung-Ryong Baek; Jae-In Kim; Jeong-Woo Choi; Jin Hur; Tae-U Lee; Cheol-Joon Park; Byung Joon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industri...

  8. Radiotracer Applications in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater containing pollutants resulting from municipal and industrial activities are normally collected in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for processing before discharge to the environment. The WWTPs are the last barrier against contamination of downstream surface waters such as rivers, lakes and sea. Treated wastewater is reused for irrigation, particularly in arid and semi-arid countries. Therefore, it is very important to maintain optimal operating conditions of WWTPs to eliminate or reduce environmental pollution. Wastewater treatment plants are complicated systems, where the processes of mixing, separation, aeration, biological and chemical reactions occur. A WWTP is basically a multiphase system, and the efficiency of an installation strongly depends on liquid, solid and gas phase flow structures and their residence time distributions (RTDs). However, the fluid dynamic properties of such systems are not yet completely understood, rendering difficult the theoretical prediction of important process parameters such as flow rates, phase distributions, mixing and sediment characteristics. Tracer techniques are very useful tools to investigate the efficiency of purification in WWTPs, aiding both their design and performance optimization. There are many kinds of tracers. Radioactive tracers are the most sensitive and are largely used for on-line diagnosis of various operations in WWTPs. The success of radiotracer applications rests upon their extremely high detection sensitivity, and the strong resistance against severe process conditions. During the last few decades, many radiotracer studies have been conducted worldwide for investigation of various installations for wastewater treatment, such as mixer, aeration tank, clarifiers, digester, filter, wetland and oxidation units. Various radiotracer methods and techniques have been developed by individual tracer groups. However, the information necessary for the preservation of knowledge and transfer of

  9. Novel Solar Photocatalytic Reactor for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutisna; Rokhmat, M.; Wibowo, E.; Murniati, R.; Khairurrijal; Abdullah, M.

    2017-07-01

    A new solar photocatalytic reactor (photoreactor) using TiO2 nanoparticles coated onto plastic granules has been designed. Catalyst granules are placed into the cavity of a reactor panel made of glass. A pump is used to circulate wastewater in the photoreactor. Methylene blue (MB) dissolved in water was chosen as the wastewater model. The performance of the photoreactor was evaluated based on changes in MB concentration with respect to time. The photoreactor showed a good performance by degrading 10 L of MB solution up to 96.54% after 48 h of solar irradiation. The photoreactor was scaled up by enlarging the panel area to twice its original size. The increase in the surface area of the reactor panel and therefore of the mass of catalyst granules and reactor volume led to a three-fold increase of the photodegradation rate. In addition, the MB degradation kinetics were also studied. Data analysis confirmed the applicability of the pseudo-first-order Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The proposed photoreactor has great potential for use in large-scale wastewater treatment.

  10. Biological wastewater treatment; Tratamiento biologico de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, C.; Isac, L.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Over the last years, many physical, chemical and biological processes for wastewater treatment have been developed. Biological wastewater treatment is the most widely used because of the less economic cost of investment and management. According to the type of wastewater contaminant, biological treatment can be classified in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this work, biodiversity and microbial interactions of carbonaceous compounds biodegradation are described. (Author) 13 refs.

  11. Brewer, Maine Wastewater Treatment Plant Recognized for Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brewer Water Pollution Control Facility was recently honored with a 2015 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Excellence Award by the US Environmental Protection Agency's New England regional office.

  12. Modification of Wastewater Treatment Technology at Cottonseed Oil Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshabab Mary Shick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewaters from cottonseed oil producing plant in Syria were studied in laboratory experiments. Aim of the study was to suggest modification of wastewater treatment technology in order to increase its efficiency. Concentration of pollutants in wastewaters was controlled by measurement of COD. According to the results of experiments it was suggested to decrease significantly (8-20 times dosages of reagents (acidifier, coagulant, flocculant in several actual stages of treatment (acidification, separation, coagulation and sedimentation and add stage of dispersed air flotation before coagulation treatment. The modified wastewater treatment technology would reduce COD to the values allowed for irrigation waters by Syrian National Standard.

  13. Efficiency of advanced wastewater treatment technologies for the reduction of hormonal activity in effluents and connected surface water bodies by means of vitellogenin analyses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Anja; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine effects in the aquatic environment are in the focus of scientists and media along with debates on the necessity of further steps in wastewater treatment. In the present study VTG responses were compared to evaluate upgrades at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). We investigated several advanced sewage treatment technologies at two WWTPs connected to the Schussen, a tributary of Lake Constance, for the reduction of hormonal activity: (1) a powdered activated charcoal filter at the WWTP Langwiese; and (2) a combination of ozonation, sand filter, and granulated activated carbon filter at the WWTP Eriskirch. Rainbow trout and brown trout were either directly exposed to the effluents in aquaria or cages, or in a bypass system flown through by surface water of the Schussen. As a reference, trout were kept in bypass aquaria at the Argen River, which is less influenced by micropollutants. As a biomarker for estrogenicity, we analyzed the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin in immature rainbow trout and brown trout and in trout larvae (100 days post-fertilization) prior to and after the upgrade with the new technologies. Trout of different ages and species were used to detect differences in their sensitivity. At both bypass stations, larvae of brown trout showed significantly higher vitellogenin levels prior to the upgrade compared to negative control levels. Female brown trout exposed at the bypass station downstream of the WWTP showed decreased vitellogenin levels after the upgrade. In 1-year-old immature trout directly exposed to the respective effluents, no significant effects of the upgrades on vitellogenin levels were found. In general, larger effects were observed in brown trout than in rainbow trout, indicating that they are more sensitive test organisms.

  14. Treatment of variable and intermittently flowing wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocasoy, Günay

    1993-11-01

    The biological treatment of wastewaters originating from hotels and residential areas of seasonal use, flowing intermittently, is difficult due to the fact that bacteria cannot survive during periods of no-flow. An investigation has been conducted in order to develop a system which will be able to overcome the difficulties encountered. After a long investigation the following system has given satisfactory results. The wastewater was taken initially into an aeration tank operating as a sequential batch reactor. Waste was taken after the sedimentation phase of the reactor into a coagulation-flocculation tank where it was treated by chemical means, and then settled in order to separate the floes. When the population of bacteria in the aeration tank reached the required level, the physico-chemical treatment was terminated and the tank used for chemical treatment has been started to be used as an equalization tank while the aeration and sedimentation tanks have been used as an activated sludge unit. This system has been proved to be a satisfactory method for the above mentioned wastes.

  15. Nanoparticles in Constanta-North Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaitescu, I. M.; Panaitescu, Fanel-Viorel L.; Panaitescu, Ileana-Irina F. V.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we describe the route of the nanoparticles in the WWTP and demonstrate how to use the simulation flow sensitivity analysis within STOATTM program to evaluate the effect of variation of the constant, "k" in the equation v= kCh settling on fixed concentration of nanoparticles in sewage water from a primary tank of physical-biological stage. Wastewater treatment facilities are designed to remove conventional pollutants from sanitary waste. Major processes of treatment includes: a) physical treatment-remove suspended large solids by settling or sedimentation and eliminate floating greases; b) biological treatment-degradation or consumption of the dissolved organic matter using the means of cultivated in activated sludge or the trickling filters; c) chemical treatment-remove other matters by the means of chemical addition or destroying pathogenic organisms through disinfection; d) advanced treatment- removing specific constituents using processes such as activated carbon, membrane separation, or ion exchange. Particular treatment processes are: a) sedimentation; b) coagulation and flocculation; c) activated sludge; d) sand filters; e) membrane separation; f) disinfection. Methods are: 1) using the STOATTM program with input and output data for primary tank and parameters of wastewater. 2) generating a data file for influent using a sinusoidal model and we accepted defaults STOATTM data. 3) After this, getting spreadsheet data for various characteristics of wastewater for 48 hours:flow, temperature, pH, volatile fatty acids, soluble BOD, COD inert soluble particulate BOD, COD inert particles, volatile solids, volatile solids, ammonia, nitrate and soluble organic nitrogen. Findings and Results:1.Graphics after 48 hour;. 2.Graphics for parameters - flow,temperature, pH/units hours; 3.Graphics of nanoparticles; 4. Graphics of others volatile and non-volatile solids; 5. Timeseries data and summary statistics. Biodegradation of nanoparticles is the breakdown of

  16. Radiological Risk Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-05

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document develops plausible and/or likely scenarios, including the identification of likely radioactive materials and quantities of those radioactive materials to be involved. These include 60Co, 90Sr, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra, plutonium, and 241Am. Two broad categories of scenarios are considered. The first category includes events that may be suspected from the outset, such as an explosion of a "dirty bomb" in downtown Seattle. The explosion would most likely be heard, but the type of explosion (e.g., sewer methane gas or RDD) may not be immediately known. Emergency first responders must be able to quickly detect the radioisotopes previously listed, assess the situation, and deploy a response to contain and mitigate (if possible) detrimental effects resulting from the incident. In such scenarios, advance notice of about an hour or two might be available before any contaminated wastewater reaches a treatment plant. The second category includes events that could go initially undetected by emergency personnel. Examples of such a scenario would be the inadvertent or surreptitious introduction of radioactive material into the sewer system. Intact rogue radioactive sources from industrial radiography devices, well-logging apparatus, or

  17. About the use and treatment of reclaimed wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin Galvin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Demand of water in our actual society is increasing each day. Taking into account the irregular climatic situation experienced in a lot of zones of Spain, it is necessary to use all the available resources. Among the conventional resources of sweet waters (surface and underground), we must pay attention to the desalted waters and to the reclaimed wastewater. In this way, the practical use of reclaimed wastewater must be supported in three basic items: normative about reusing of reclaimed wastewater, that of treated wastewater and effluents discarded to natural environment and finally, treatment processes to reclaim wastewater. (Author) 11 refs

  18. A summary of studies on mine wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yao; Hu Baoqun; Sun Zhanxue

    2006-01-01

    The composition of mine wastewater is complicated and is harmful to the environment. The mine wastewater treatment methods include mainly neutralization, constructed wetland and microorganism methods. The three methods are summarized, with focus on the microorganism method. The mechanisms, characteristics and influencing factors of the sulfate reducing bacteria and the iron oxidizing bacteria are described in detail. The treatment methods of uranium mine wastewater are presented. (authors)

  19. Electron beam wastewater treatment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Duarte, C.L.; Borrely, S.I.; Oikawa, H.; Somessari, E.S.R.; Silveira, C.G.; Costa, F.E.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments were performed at laboratory scale and at pilot plant scale to study the efficiency on using EB to remove and degrade toxic and refractory pollutants mainly from industrial origins. An upflow stream hydraulic system that governs the efficiency of the EB energy transferred to the stream was developed. Two different sources of samples were used to treat industrial effluents from a pharmaceutical chemical industry located in Sao Paulo and from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Sao Paulo State, which receives the major quantity of industrial wastewater. Using samples from this WWTP, studies to combine EB irradiation process with conventional treatment were carried out with experimentation doses of 5 kGy, 10 kGy and 20 kGy and the irradiation effects were evaluated in the following parameters: COD, BOD, solids, TOC, THMs. PCE, TCE, BTX and concentration of organic acids by-products. Toxicity studies were also carried out for different sites and industrial activities showing significant removal of acute toxicity by increasing values of the EC-50 for most of the experiments. The economic aspects of this technology were evaluated and the estimated processing costs for some values of delivered doses and operation are reported here. (author)

  20. Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment: a physicochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.

    2007-01-01

    A physicochemical study for the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater was performed. Objective of the laboratory investigation was to study the removal of color, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), turbidity and phenol and bring them up to the allowable limits for reuse purposes. Efficiency of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, sand filtration followed by activated carbon adsorption was determined. It was found that tested coagulants (alum, ferric chloride, and ferrous sulphate) are not much effective and required high dosage for the removal; of TSS, BOD, COD and turbidity. Alum was found to be more effective among tested coagulants and reduce TSS, BOD, COD and turbidity 79.6%, 34.8, 48.6% and 69.2% respectively. Sand filtration further reduced the studied parameters 97.7%, 95.7%, 93.9% and 76.9% respectively. As the concentration of phenol in the studied pharmaceutical wastewater was 100 mg/l, granular activated carbon was used to remove phenol up to the allowable limit for reuse purpose. Activated carbon adsorption further reduces phenol, TDS, TSS, BOD, and COD up to 99.9%, 99.1%, 21.4%, 81.3% and 71.1% respectively. High removal of color observed after activated carbon adsorption. It was concluded that the suggested treatment scheme is suitable to bring the effluent quality up to the water quality standards. (author)

  1. Study on Olive Oil Wastewater Treatment: Nanotechnology Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nika Gholamzadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The olive mill wastewater (OMW is generated from olive oil extraction in olive mills. It contains a very high organic load and considerable quantities of phytotoxicity compounds. Comprehensive articles with different methods have been published about the treatment of OMW. This paper reviews the recent reports on the variety methods of OMW treatment. Biological process, containing aerobic pre-treatment by using different cultures and anaerobic co-digestion with other sewage and also added external nutrient with optimum ratio attracted much attention in the treatment of OMW. However, advanced oxidation process (AOP due to the high oxidation potential which causes destruction of organic pollutants, toxic and chlorinated compounds have been considered. Furthermore, membrane technologies consist of microfiltration, ultrafiltration and especially nanofiltrationin wastewater treatment are growing in recent years. They offer high efficiency and mediocre investments owing to novel membrane materials, membrane design technics, module figures and improvement of the skills. In addition, fouling reduces the membrane performances in time, which is a main problem of cost efficiency.

  2. The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the

  3. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES (AOX) TEXTILE WASTEWATER

    OpenAIRE

    Salas C., G.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOX) are based on the in situ generation of hydroxyradicals (·OH), which have a high oxidation potential. In the case of Fenton processes !he generation of hydroxy radicals takes place by the combination of an oxidation agent (H202) with a catalyst (Fe(II)). These radicals are not selective and they react very fast with the organic matter,being able to oxidize a high variety of organic compounds. This property allows the degradation of pollutants into more biodeg...

  4. Environmental Pollution, Toxicity Profile and Treatment Approaches for Tannery Wastewater and Its Chemical Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Gaurav; Chandra, Ram; Bharagava, Ram Naresh

    Leather industries are key contributors in the economy of many developing countries, but unfortunately they are facing serious challenges from the public and governments due to the associated environmental pollution. There is a public outcry against the industry due to the discharge of potentially toxic wastewater having alkaline pH, dark brown colour, unpleasant odour, high biological and chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids and a mixture of organic and inorganic pollutants. Various environment protection agencies have prioritized several chemicals as hazardous and restricted their use in leather processing however; many of these chemicals are used and discharged in wastewater. Therefore, it is imperative to adequately treat/detoxify the tannery wastewater for environmental safety. This paper provides a detail review on the environmental pollution and toxicity profile of tannery wastewater and chemicals. Furthermore, the status and advances in the existing treatment approaches used for the treatment and/or detoxification of tannery wastewater at both laboratory and pilot/industrial scale have been reviewed. In addition, the emerging treatment approaches alone or in combination with biological treatment approaches have also been considered. Moreover, the limitations of existing and emerging treatment approaches have been summarized and potential areas for further investigations have been discussed. In addition, the clean technologies for waste minimization, control and management are also discussed. Finally, the international legislation scenario on discharge limits for tannery wastewater and chemicals has also been discussed country wise with discharge standards for pollution prevention due to tannery wastewater.

  5. Chemical and biological treatment technologies for leather tannery chemicals and wastewaters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofrano, Giusy; Meriç, Sureyya; Zengin, Gülsüm Emel; Orhon, Derin

    2013-09-01

    Although the leather tanning industry is known to be one of the leading economic sectors in many countries, there has been an increasing environmental concern regarding the release of various recalcitrant pollutants in tannery wastewater. It has been shown that biological processes are presently known as the most environmental friendly but inefficient for removal of recalcitrant organics and micro-pollutants in tannery wastewater. Hence emerging technologies such as advanced oxidation processes and membrane processes have been attempted as integrative to biological treatment for this sense. This paper, as the-state-of-the-art, attempts to revise the over world trends of treatment technologies and advances for pollution prevention from tannery chemicals and wastewater. It can be elucidated that according to less extent advances in wastewater minimization as well as in leather production technology and chemicals substitution, biological and chemical treatment processes have been progressively studied. However, there has not been a full scale application yet of those emerging technologies using advanced oxidation although some of them proved good achievements to remove xenobiotics present in tannery wastewater. It can be noted that advanced oxidation technologies integrated with biological processes will remain in the agenda of the decision makers and water sector to apply the best prevention solution for the future tanneries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level.

  7. Chromium toxicity to nitrifying bacteria: implications to wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromium, a heavy metal that enters wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through industrial discharges, can be toxic to microorganisms carrying out important processes within biological wastewater treatment systems. The effect of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on ammonia dependent specific ox...

  8. Nutrients valorisation via Duckweed-based wastewater treatment and aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed El-Shafai, S.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Development of a sustainable wastewater treatment scheme to recycle sewage nutrients and water in tilapia aquaculture was the main objective of this PhD research. Use of an Integrated UASB-duckweed ponds system for domestic wastewater treatment linked to tilapia aquaculture was investigated.

  9. Design Seminar for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirjian, Y. A.

    This document reports the development and operation of a country-wide wastewater treatment program. The program was designed to treat liquid wastewater by biological treatment in aerated lagoons, store it, and then spray irrigate on crop farmland during the growing season. The text discusses the physical design of the system, agricultural aspects,…

  10. Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (components of 'personal care products' and other common household chemicals), pharmaceuticals (human prescription and nonprescription medical drugs), and coliphage (viruses that infect coliform bacteria, and found in high concentrations in municipal wastewater) in onsite wastewater (septic tank effluent) and in a shallow, unconfined, sandy aquifer that serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents near La Pine, Oregon, was documented. Samples from two types of observation networks provided basic occurrence data for onsite wastewater and downgradient ground water. One observation network was a group of 28 traditional and innovative (advanced treatment) onsite wastewater treatment systems and associated downgradient drainfield monitoring wells, referred to as the 'innovative systems network'. The drainfield monitoring wells were located adjacent to or under onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. Another observation network, termed the 'transect network', consisted of 31 wells distributed among three transects of temporary, stainless-steel-screened, direct-push monitoring wells installed along three plumes of onsite wastewater. The transect network, by virtue of its design, also provided a basis for increased understanding of the transport of analytes in natural systems. Coliphage were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Coliphage concentrations in onsite wastewater were highly variable, ranging from less than 1 to 3,000,000 plaque forming units per 100 milliliters. Coliphage were occasionally detected (eight occurrences) at low concentrations in samples from wells located downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. However, coliphage concentrations were below method detection limits in replicate or repeat samples collected from the eight sites. The consistent absence of coliphage detections in the replicate or repeat samples is interpreted to indicate

  11. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hongzhu; Zhang Xinhai; Ma Qingliang; Wang Bo

    2009-01-01

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  12. Ozone treatment of textile wastewaters for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardelli, G; Capannelli, G; Bottino, A

    2001-01-01

    Treatment of textile wastewaters by means of an ozonation pilot plant are described. Wastewaters used were produced by a dyeing and finishing factory and were first treated in an active sludge plant and filtrated through sand. In the appropriate conditions very high colour removal (95-99%) was achieved and the effluent could be reused in production processes requiring water of high quality as dyeing yarns or light colorations. Even if the chemical oxygen demand of treated waters was still in a range (75-120 mg/l, a decrease of up to 60%) that was usually considered to be too high for recycling purposes, recycling experiments were successful. The economical viability of the techniques implementation was also demonstrated and the industrial plant is currently under realisation under an EU financed project. The paper considers also the possible improvement of ozone diffusion by means of membrane contactors realised in a second pilot plant, in order to further reduce operating costs of the technique. With respect to traditional systems, the gas/liquid contact surface is much higher being that of the membrane. Ozone at the interface is therefore immediately solubilized and potentially consumed with no additional resistance to the mass transfer.

  13. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Hongzhu, E-mail: hzmachem@snnu.edu.cn [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Zhang Xinhai [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Ma Qingliang [Department of Applied Physics, College of Sciences, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 Taiyuan (China); Wang Bo [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  14. The application of ionising radiation in industrial wastewater treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, L. [Inst. of Knitting Technology and Techniques, Lodz (Poland); Perkowski, J. [Inst. of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Technical Univ. of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Ledakowicz, S. [Dept. of Bioprocess Engineering, Technical Univ. of Lodz, Lodz (Poland)

    2003-07-01

    An attempt was made to apply radiation techniques in the treatment of industrial wastewater from a dairy, brewery and sugar factory. For degradation of pollutants present in the wastewater, the following methods were used: irradiation, irradiation combined with aeration, ozonation, and combined irradiation and ozonation. For all three types of wastewater, the best method among these listed above appeared to be the method of irradiation combined with ozonation. Most degradable was the wastewater produced in sugar factories, and the least biodegradable appeared to be dairy wastewater. Depending on the dose of ozone and radiation, a maximum 60% reduction of COD was obtained. No effect of the wastewater aeration on its degradation by radiation was found. Changes in the content of mineral compounds were observed in none of the cases. The process of biological treatment of wastewater was carried out in a low-loaded, wetted bed. Pretreatment of the wastewater had no significant effect on the improvement of the biological step operation. Some effect was observed only in the case of the wastewater coming from a sugar factory. For medium concentrated wastewater from food industry, it is not economically justified to apply the pretreatment with the use of ionising radiation. (orig.)

  15. The Wastewater Treatment Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, S.A.; Kent, T.E.; Taylor, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Wastewater Treatment Test Facility (WTTF) contains 0.5 L/min test systems which provide a wide range of physical and chemical separation unit operations. The facility is a modified 48 foot trailer which contains all the unit operations of the ORNL's Process Waste Treatment Plant and Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant including chemical precipitation, clarification, filtration, ion-exchange, air stripping, activated carbon adsorption, and zeolite system. This facility has been used to assess treatability of potential new wastewaters containing mixed radioactive, hazardous organic, and heavy metal compounds. With the ability to simulate both present and future ORNL wastewater treatment systems, the WTTF has fast become a valuable tool in solving wastewater treatment problems at the Oak Ridge reservation

  16. Efficiency of Moringa oleifera Seeds for Treatment of Laundry Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Gheethi AA; Mohamed RMSR; Wurochekke AA; Nurulainee NR; Mas Rahayu J; Amir Hashim MK

    2017-01-01

    Laundry wastewater has simple characteristics in which the detergents compounds are the main constitutes. But these compounds have adverse effects on the aquatic organisms in the natural water bodies which received these wastes without treatment. Few studies were conducted on these wastes because it represent a small part of the total wastewater generated from different human activities. Moreover, the coagulation process for laundry wastewater might be effective to remove of detergents compou...

  17. Microbial Community Profiles in Wastewaters from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Jałowiecki

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the potential of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs methodology as an assay for characterization of the metabolic diversity of wastewater samples and to link the metabolic diversity patterns to efficiency of select onsite biological wastewater facilities. Metabolic fingerprints obtained from the selected samples were used to understand functional diversity implied by the carbon substrate shifts. Three different biological facilities of onsite wastewater treatment were evaluated: fixed bed reactor (technology A, trickling filter/biofilter system (technology B, and aerated filter system (the fluidized bed reactor, technology C. High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among the samples from the three onsite wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, as shown by the diversity indices. Principal components analysis (PCA showed that the diversity and CLPPs of microbial communities depended on the working efficiency of the wastewater treatment technologies. This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of investigated samples in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and technologies of onsite WWTPs used. The results obtained confirmed that metabolic profiles could be used to monitor treatment processes as valuable biological indicators of onsite wastewater treatment technologies efficiency. This is the first step toward understanding relations of technology types with microbial community patterns in raw and treated wastewaters.

  18. Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant sewage sludge as a source of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) contamination in the environment The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.

  19. Treatment of Laboratory Wastewater by Sequence Batch reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imtiaz, N.; Butt, M.; Khan, R.A.; Saeed, M.T.; Irfan, M.

    2012-01-01

    These studies were conducted on the characterization and treatment of sewage mixed with waste -water of research and testing laboratory (PCSIR Laboratories Lahore). In this study all the parameters COD, BOD and TSS etc of influent (untreated waste-water) and effluent (treated waste-water) were characterized using the standard methods of examination for water and waste-water. All the results of the analyzed waste-water parameters were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) set at National level. Treatment of waste-water was carried out by conventional sequencing batch reactor technique (SBR) using aeration and settling technique in the same treatment reactor at laboratory scale. The results of COD after treatment were reduced from (90-95 %), BOD (95-97 %) and TSS (96-99 %) and the reclaimed effluent quality was suitable for gardening purposes. (author)

  20. Anaerobic bacteria in wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyprowski, Marcin; Stobnicka-Kupiec, Agata; Ławniczek-Wałczyk, Anna; Bakal-Kijek, Aleksandra; Gołofit-Szymczak, Małgorzata; Górny, Rafał L

    2018-03-28

    The objective of this study was to assess exposure to anaerobic bacteria released into air from sewage and sludge at workplaces from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Samples of both sewage and sludge were collected at six sampling points and bioaerosol samples were additionally collected (with the use of a 6-stage Andersen impactor) at ten workplaces covering different stages of the technological process. Qualitative identification of all isolated strains was performed using the biochemical API 20A test. Additionally, the determination of Clostridium pathogens was carried out using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The average concentration of anaerobic bacteria in the sewage samples was 5.49 × 10 4 CFU/mL (GSD = 85.4) and in sludge-1.42 × 10 6 CFU/g (GSD = 5.1). In turn, the average airborne bacterial concentration was at the level of 50 CFU/m 3 (GSD = 5.83) and the highest bacterial contamination (4.06 × 10 3  CFU/m 3 ) was found in winter at the bar screens. In total, 16 bacterial species were determined, from which the predominant strains belonged to Actinomyces, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Propionibacterium and Peptostreptococcus genera. The analysis revealed that mechanical treatment processes were responsible for a substantial emission of anaerobic bacteria into the air. In both the sewage and air samples, Clostridium perfringens pathogen was identified. Anaerobic bacteria were widely present both in the sewage and in the air at workplaces from the WWTP, especially when the technological process was performed in closed spaces. Anaerobic bacteria formed small aggregates with both wastewater droplets and dust particles of sewage sludge origin and as such may be responsible for adverse health outcomes in exposed workers.

  1. Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, J.; Hallett, K.; DeWolfe, J.; Venner, I.

    2012-01-01

    Water and wastewater systems are significant energy consumers with an estimated 3%-4% of total U.S. electricity consumption used for the movement and treatment of water and wastewater. Water-energy issues are of growing importance in the context of water shortages, higher energy and material costs, and a changing climate. In this economic environment, it is in the best interest for utilities to find efficiencies, both in water and energy use. Performing energy audits at water and wastewater treatment facilities is one way community energy managers can identify opportunities to save money, energy, and water. In this paper the importance of energy use in wastewater facilities is illustrated by a case study of a process energy audit performed for Crested Butte, Colorado's wastewater treatment plant. The energy audit identified opportunities for significant energy savings by looking at power intensive unit processes such as influent pumping, aeration, ultraviolet disinfection, and solids handling. This case study presents best practices that can be readily adopted by facility managers in their pursuit of energy and financial savings in water and wastewater treatment. This paper is intended to improve community energy managers understanding of the role that the water and wastewater sector plays in a community's total energy consumption. The energy efficiency strategies described provide information on energy savings opportunities, which can be used as a basis for discussing energy management goals with water and wastewater treatment facility managers.

  2. Using natural zeolites to improve anaerobic abattoir wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Jimenez, L.; Herrera-Ramirez, E.; Carlos Hernandez, S

    2009-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater have high concentrations of soluble and insoluble organics which represents environmental troubles, E. G. de oxygenation of rivers, underground water contamination. Anaerobic digestion is an efficient process for wastewater treatment. Performance are increased using microorganisms supported on porous solids. (Author)

  3. Using natural zeolites to improve anaerobic abattoir wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Jimenez, L.; Herrera-Ramirez, E.; Carlos Hernandez, S

    2009-07-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater have high concentrations of soluble and insoluble organics which represents environmental troubles, E. G. de oxygenation of rivers, underground water contamination. Anaerobic digestion is an efficient process for wastewater treatment. Performance are increased using microorganisms supported on porous solids. (Author)

  4. Wastewater treatment plants as a source of microbial pathogens in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater treatment facilities have become sin quo non in ensuring the discharges of high quality wastewater effluents into receiving water bodies and consequence, a healthier environment. Due to massive worldwide increases in human population, water has been predicted to become one of the scarcest resources in ...

  5. Constructed wetlands for saline wastewater treatment: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saline wastewater originating from sources such as agriculture, aquaculture, and many industrial sectors usually contains high levels of salts and other contaminants, which can adversely affect both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Therefore, the treatment of saline wastewater (removal of both sa...

  6. STUDY ON WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS IN HOSPITALS OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Majlesi Nasr, A. R. Yazdanbakhsh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, water resources shortage is one of the most important issues for environmental engineers and managers as well as its conservation due to population growth and ever-increasing water demands. Besides, hospital wastewater has the same quality as municipal wastewater, but may also potentially contain various hazardous components. In this paper, physical and chemical specifications of produced wastewater in hospitals of Iran were investigated experiments. Results were compared with the effluent parameters of wastewater standards of Iranian Department of the Environment. 70 governmental hospitals from different provinces of Iran were selected by purposive (non-random sampling method. For data analysis, SPSS and EXCEL softwares were applied. The findings of the study showed that 52% of the surveyed hospitals were not equipped and 48% were equipped with wastewater treatment systems. The mean of Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Total Suspended Solids of the effluent of wastewater treatment systems were reported as 113, 188 and 99 mg/L respectively. Comparison of the indicators between effluents of wastewater treatment systems and the standards of Departments of the Environment, showed the inefficiency in these systems and it was concluded that despite the recent improvements in hospital wastewater treatment systems, they should be upgraded based on the remarks in this paper.

  7. Benchmarking of Control Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastewater treatment plants are large non-linear systems subject to large perturbations in wastewater flow rate, load and composition. Nevertheless these plants have to be operated continuously, meeting stricter and stricter regulations. Many control strategies have been proposed in the literature...

  8. Radiation protection -Operation of chemical wastewater treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. J.; Lim, M. H.; Ahn, S. S.; Jeong, Y. S.

    1996-12-01

    The wastewater and sewage treatment facility have been operated. From the results of operation, it was confirmed that the quality of treated wastewater was 1/5 or 1/10 lower than that of regulation of law for environmental conservation. The quality of treated sewage has been maintained to 70% of regulation of law for environmental conservation. (author). 14 tabs., 8 figs

  9. Decision support for redesigning wastewater treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Jennifer R; Künzle, Rahel; Messmer, Ulrike; Udert, Kai M; Larsen, Tove A

    2014-10-21

    This paper offers a methodology for structuring the design space for innovative process engineering technology development. The methodology is exemplified in the evaluation of a wide variety of treatment technologies for source-separated domestic wastewater within the scope of the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge. It offers a methodology for narrowing down the decision-making field based on a strict interpretation of treatment objectives for undiluted urine and dry feces and macroenvironmental factors (STEEPLED analysis) which influence decision criteria. Such an evaluation identifies promising paths for technology development such as focusing on space-saving processes or the need for more innovation in low-cost, energy-efficient urine treatment methods. Critical macroenvironmental factors, such as housing density, transportation infrastructure, and climate conditions were found to affect technology decisions regarding reactor volume, weight of outputs, energy consumption, atmospheric emissions, investment cost, and net revenue. The analysis also identified a number of qualitative factors that should be carefully weighed when pursuing technology development; such as availability of O&M resources, health and safety goals, and other ethical issues. Use of this methodology allows for coevolution of innovative technology within context constraints; however, for full-scale technology choices in the field, only very mature technologies can be evaluated.

  10. Wastewater management in Khartoum Region Soba wastewater treatment plant (stabilization ponds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, A. M. E.

    2010-03-01

    Soba wastewater treatment plant will be replaced shortly by new plant based on activate sludge. This study was carried in order to evaluate: the design, physical, chemical and biological characteristics and the capacity of the plant. Outlet Effluents quality was compared with Sudan wastewater treatment standards. Samples analyses were carried by UNESCO CHAIR 2006 (Khartoum State). It was found that the result is not as: The designed and standard level especially for BOD, COD, TBC and TC. It was also found that BOD and COD of the effluents were not complying with adopted standards for treated wastewater to be discharged to the environment. The study reached the conclusions that plant is overloaded and the characteristics of the wastewater received is not as the design which affects the efficiency of the treatment process. (Author)

  11. Treatment Of Wastewater For Reuse With Mobile Electron Beam Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Zommer, N.

    2012-01-01

    The use of alternative disinfectants to chlorine for the wastewater treatment has received increasing attention in recent years to treat either liquid or solids streams within wastewater treatment plants for pathogens and trace organics (TOrCs). Although several technologies have come to the forefront as an alternative to chlorine (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] and hydrogen peroxide), the majority of these technologies are chemically based, with the exception of UV. An attractive physical disinfection approach is by electron beam (EB) irradiation. EB treatment of wastewater leads to their purification from various pollutants. It is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis: hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom [Pikaev (1986)]. Sometimes methods such as EB with biological treatment, adsorption and others improve the effect of EB treatment of the wastewater purification. In the process of EB treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. At sufficiently high absorbed doses these transformations can result in complete decomposition (removal) of the substance. Under real conditions, i.e., at rather high content of pollutants in a wastewater and economically acceptable doses, partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages, efficiency of the process being notably influenced by irradiation conditions and wastewater composition [Woods and Pikaev (1994)]. (author)

  12. Treatment Of Wastewater For Reuse With Mobile Electron Beam Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, Y. R. [EB TECH Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Zommer, N. [Pele Inc., Milpitas Californaa (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The use of alternative disinfectants to chlorine for the wastewater treatment has received increasing attention in recent years to treat either liquid or solids streams within wastewater treatment plants for pathogens and trace organics (TOrCs). Although several technologies have come to the forefront as an alternative to chlorine (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] and hydrogen peroxide), the majority of these technologies are chemically based, with the exception of UV. An attractive physical disinfection approach is by electron beam (EB) irradiation. EB treatment of wastewater leads to their purification from various pollutants. It is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis: hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom [Pikaev (1986)]. Sometimes methods such as EB with biological treatment, adsorption and others improve the effect of EB treatment of the wastewater purification. In the process of EB treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. At sufficiently high absorbed doses these transformations can result in complete decomposition (removal) of the substance. Under real conditions, i.e., at rather high content of pollutants in a wastewater and economically acceptable doses, partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages, efficiency of the process being notably influenced by irradiation conditions and wastewater composition [Woods and Pikaev (1994)]. (author)

  13. Optimization model for the design of distributed wastewater treatment networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrić Nidret

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the synthesis problem of distributed wastewater networks using mathematical programming approach based on the superstructure optimization. We present a generalized superstructure and optimization model for the design of the distributed wastewater treatment networks. The superstructure includes splitters, treatment units, mixers, with all feasible interconnections including water recirculation. Based on the superstructure the optimization model is presented. The optimization model is given as a nonlinear programming (NLP problem where the objective function can be defined to minimize the total amount of wastewater treated in treatment operations or to minimize the total treatment costs. The NLP model is extended to a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP problem where binary variables are used for the selection of the wastewater treatment technologies. The bounds for all flowrates and concentrations in the wastewater network are specified as general equations. The proposed models are solved using the global optimization solvers (BARON and LINDOGlobal. The application of the proposed models is illustrated on the two wastewater network problems of different complexity. First one is formulated as the NLP and the second one as the MINLP. For the second one the parametric and structural optimization is performed at the same time where optimal flowrates, concentrations as well as optimal technologies for the wastewater treatment are selected. Using the proposed model both problems are solved to global optimality.

  14. Application of waterworks sludge in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Thornberg, D.; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    The potential for reuse of iron-rich sludge from waterworks as a replacement for commercial iron salts in wastewater treatment was investigated using acidic and anaerobic dissolution. The acidic dissolution of waterworks sludge both in sulphuric acid and acidic products such as flue gas washing...... for removal of phosphate in the wastewater treatment was limited, because the dissolved iron in the digester liquid was limited by siderite (FeCO3) precipitation. It is concluded that both acidic and anaerobic dissolution of iron-rich waterworks sludge can be achieved at the wastewater treatment plant...

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TERTIARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY COMPUTER SIMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Iordache; Nicolae Petrescu; Cornel Ianache

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to asses conditions for implementation of a Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) process in theWastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) of Moreni city (Romania). In order to meet the more increased environmentalregulations, the wastewater treatment plant that was studied, must update the actual treatment process and have tomodernize it. A comparative study was undertaken of the quality of effluents that could be obtained by implementationof biological nutrient removal process li...

  16. Treatment of Wastewater from Electroplating, Metal Finishing and Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    One of four manuals dealing with the operation of wastewater plants, this document was designed to address the treatment of wastewater from electroplating, metal finishing, and printed circuit board manufacturing. It emphasizes how to operate and maintain facilities which neutralize acidic and basic waters; treat waters containing metals; destroy…

  17. Chemical Compounds Recovery in Carboxymethyl Cellulose Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-H. Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is a kind of cellulose ether widely used in industrial production. CMC wastewater usually have high chemical oxygen demand (COD and salinity (>10 %, which result from organic and inorganic by-products during CMC production. It is significant that the wastewater is pretreated to decrease salinity and recover valuable organics before biochemical methods are employed. In this paper, distillation-extraction method was used to pretreat CMC wastewater and recover valuable chemical compounds from wastewater (Fig. 1. Initial pH of CMC wastewater was adjusted to different values (6.5, 8.5, 9.5, 10.5, 12.0 before distillation to study the effect of pH on by-products in wastewater. By-products obtained from CMC wastewater were extracted and characterized by NMR, XRD and TGA. Distillate obtained from distillation of wastewater was treated using biological method, i.e., upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB-contact oxidation process. Domestic sewage and flushing water from manufacturing shop was added into distillate to decrease initial COD and increase nutrients such as N, P, K. Experimental results showed that by-products extracted from CMC wastewater mainly include ethoxyacetic acid and NaCl, which were confirmed by NMR and XRD (Fig. 2. TGA results of by-products indicated that the content of NaCl in inorganic by-products reached 96 %. Increasing initial pH value of CMC wastewater might significantly raise the purity of ethoxyacetic acid in organic by-products. UASB-contact oxidation process showed a good resistance to shock loading. Results of 45-day continuous operation revealed that CODCr of final effluent might be controlled below 500 mg l−1 and meet Shanghai Industrial Wastewater Discharge Standard (CODCr −1, which indicated that the treatment process in this study was appropriate to treat distillate of wastewater from CMC production industry.

  18. The radioactive organic wastewater treatment of INER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Chinchang; Chen Chaorui; Chung Jenchren

    2014-01-01

    The treatment strategy of radioactive organic wastewater was to separate it at first, then to treat it step by step by the characteristics of liquid layer. The waste liquid has separated into three layers, the organic layer, aqueous layer and the bottom gel mastic by natural sedimentation. The organic layer has occupied 23% of the total volume, the intermediate aqueous layer occupied 75% of the total volume, the bottom mastic was about 2% of the total. The aqueous layer of organic waste was with Total Organic Carbon (TOC) 20,000ppm. The combustion test shows good treatment performance and all samples can be decomposed completely by incineration. The experiment of incineration has passed the test more than 200 batches and 3000L low-level radioactive organic aqueous solution. The process goes smoothly and gas emission values far below the regulatory limit. Each kilogram of polymer absorber can absorb 45 kg aqueous solution to form a solid combustible material and can be decomposed by incineration. Organic waste solvents were diesel miscible and similar calorific value and small viscosity. It can be used as an incinerator auxiliary fuel of radioactive incinerator. The method testing has begun in this year. It has expected to save diesel fuel consumption of incineration, and well solved such kind waste liquid. (author)

  19. Effects of oxide nanomaterials used in flotation process in wastewater treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA COVALIU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Important challenges in the global water situation, mainly resulting from worldwide population growth and climate change, require novel innovative water technologies in order to ensure a supply of drinking water and reduce global water pollution. For this purpose, highly advanced nanotechnology offers new opportunities in technological developments for advanced water and wastewater technology processes. This paper presents an important method used in the wastewater treatment and in the mineral separation, named the flotation. Also, this paper presents the factors that influence the froth flotation process, such as: nanoparticle hydrophobicity, nanoparticle diameter, particle softness etc.

  20. Oil refinery wastewater treatment using physicochemical, Fenton and Photo-Fenton oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony, Maha A; Purcell, Patrick J; Zhao, Yaqian

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to the treatment of wastewaters contaminated with hydrocarbon oil. Three different oil-contaminated wastewaters were examined and compared: (i) a 'real' hydrocarbon wastewater collected from an oil refinery (Conoco-Phillips Whitegate refinery, County Cork, Ireland); (ii) a 'real' hydrocarbon wastewater collected from a car-wash facility located at a petroleum filling station; and (iii) a 'synthetic' hydrocarbon wastewater generated by emulsifying diesel oil and water. The AOPs investigated were Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) (Fenton's reagent), Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)/UV (Photo-Fenton's reagent) which may be used as an alternative to, or in conjunction with, conventional treatment techniques. Laboratory-scale batch and continuous-flow experiments were undertaken. The photo-Fenton parametric concentrations to maximize COD removal were optimized: pH = 3, H(2)O(2) = 400 mg/L, and Fe(2+) = 40 mg/L. In the case of the oil-refinery wastewater, photo-Fenton treatment achieved approximately 50% COD removal and, when preceded by physicochemical treatment, the percentage removal increased to approximately 75%.

  1. Advanced purification of petroleum refinery wastewater by catalytic vacuum distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Long; Ma, Hongzhu; Wang, Bo; Mao, Wei; Chen, Yashao

    2010-06-15

    In our work, a new process, catalytic vacuum distillation (CVD) was utilized for purification of petroleum refinery wastewater that was characteristic of high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and salinity. Moreover, various common promoters, like FeCl(3), kaolin, H(2)SO(4) and NaOH were investigated to improve the purification efficiency of CVD. Here, the purification efficiency was estimated by COD testing, electrolytic conductivity, UV-vis spectrum, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and pH value. The results showed that NaOH promoted CVD displayed higher efficiency in purification of refinery wastewater than other systems, where the pellucid effluents with low salinity and high COD removal efficiency (99%) were obtained after treatment, and the corresponding pH values of effluents varied from 7 to 9. Furthermore, environment estimation was also tested and the results showed that the effluent had no influence on plant growth. Thus, based on satisfied removal efficiency of COD and salinity achieved simultaneously, NaOH promoted CVD process is an effective approach to purify petroleum refinery wastewater. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Highly Effective Photochemical System for Complex Treatment of Heavily Contaminated Wastewaters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krystyník, Pavel; Klusoň, Petr; Hejda, S.; Mašín, P.; Tito, D.N.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 11 (2014), s. 2212-2220 ISSN 1061-4303 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/065 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : advanced oxidation processes * photochemical oxidation * wastewater treatment Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.865, year: 2014

  3. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Young Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industrial discharges in a biological WWTP. In contrast to most previous studies targeting a specific group of organic compounds or traditional water quality indices, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD, this study was purposed to quantify and characterize the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions of the wastewater organic matter. Chemical oxygen demand (COD fractionation tests and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the industrial discharge from dyeing or pulp mill factories contained more non-biodegradable soluble organic matter than did the domestic wastewater. Statistical analysis on the WWTPs’ monitoring data indicated that the industrial discharge containing non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was not treated effectively in a biological WWTP, but was escaping from the system. Thus, industrial discharge that contained non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was a major factor in the decrease in biodegradability of the discharge, affecting the ultimate fate of wastewater organic matter in a biological WWTP. Further application of COD fractionation and fluorescence spectroscopy to wastewaters, with various industrial discharges, will help scientists and engineers to better design and operate a biological WWTP, by understanding the fate of wastewater organic matter.

  4. Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia. ... Discharge of untreated rubber effluent to waterways resulted in water pollution that affected the human health. ... Key words: Rubber industry, effluent, waste management, Malaysia.

  5. Bacteriophages-potential for application in wastewater treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withey, S.; Cartmell, E.; Avery, L.M.; Stephenson, T.

    2005-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and lyse bacteria. Interest in the ability of phages to control bacterial populations has extended from medical applications into the fields of agriculture, aquaculture and the food industry. Here, the potential application of phage techniques in wastewater treatment systems to improve effluent and sludge emissions into the environment is discussed. Phage-mediated bacterial mortality has the potential to influence treatment performance by controlling the abundance of key functional groups. Phage treatments have the potential to control environmental wastewater process problems such as: foaming in activated sludge plants; sludge dewaterability and digestibility; pathogenic bacteria; and to reduce competition between nuisance bacteria and functionally important microbial populations. Successful application of phage therapy to wastewater treatment does though require a fuller understanding of wastewater microbial community dynamics and interactions. Strategies to counter host specificity and host cell resistance must also be developed, as should safety considerations regarding pathogen emergence through transduction

  6. Modeling Jambo wastewater treatment system to predict water re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    C++ programme to implement Brown's model for determining water quality usage ... predicting the re-use options of the wastewater treatment system was a ... skins from rural slaughter slabs/butchers, slaughter .... City (Karnataka State, India).

  7. Treatment of textile wastewater with membrane bioreactor: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Chen, Jingyu; Navaratna, Dimuth; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Shu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been used widely for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional bioreactors. Treatment of textile wastewater using MBR has been investigated as a simple, reliable and cost-effective process with a significant removal of contaminants. However, a major drawback in the operation of MBR is membrane fouling, which leads to the decline in permeate flux and therefore requires membrane cleaning. This eventually decreases the lifespan of the membrane. In this paper, the application of aerobic and anaerobic MBR for textile wastewater treatment as well as fouling and control of fouling in MBR processes have been reviewed. It has been found that long sludge retention time increases the degradation of pollutants by allowing slow growing microorganisms to establish but also contributes to membrane fouling. Further research aspects of MBR for textile wastewater treatment are also considered for sustainable operations of the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... while the available sources of water are limited and de-. *Corresponding author. ... 186223 m3/d inflow to Asamra wastewater treatment plant. (ASTP) (Bataineh et al., ..... MSc. thesis, university of Jordan. Bataineh F, Najjar M, ...

  9. Wastewater Treatment Plants, North America, 2010, Dun and Bradstreet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — D&B 20101220 Wastewater Treatment Plants Points for the United States, including Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands, Canada, and Mexico, Released Quarterly...

  10. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent effects on fish reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined t...

  11. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains data on wastewater treatment plants, based on EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS), EPA's Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)...

  12. USBF-system of biological wastewater treatment; Elsistema USBF en la depuracion biologica de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ampudia Gutierrez, J.

    2003-07-01

    An advanced system of biological wastewater treatment, has been developed by the company Depuralia. This system brings up a technological innovation, which has been awarded with several international awards. The wastewater treatment, occurs in an activated sludge reactor of extended aeration with a very low mass loading, with a nitrification-denitrification process, and water separation-clarification by upflow sludge blanket-filtration. The arrangement of a compact biological reactor enables complex wastewater treatment. High efficiency of the separation through sludge filtration provides functionality of the equipment with high concentration of activated sludge, with less implementation surface and volume. The elements of the biological reactor are described, the advantages are enumerated, and the results obtained in several accomplishments are shown; in the industrial as well as in the urban water treatment plants. (Author) 9 refs.

  13. Public health aspects of waste-water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, E.

    1975-01-01

    Among the bacteria, viruses and parasites which may be found in waste-water and polluted waters, those that are pathogenic to man are briefly described. The efficiency of different conventional waste-water treatments in removing the pathogens is reviewed, as well as additional factors of importance for the presence of micro-organisms in recipient waters. It is concluded that at present for treated waters no conventional treatment results in an effluent free from pathogens if they are present in the original waste-water. This is also true for sludges apart from pasteurization. The importance to public health of the presence of pathogens in recipient waters is briefly discussed. (author)

  14. Off Grid Photovoltaic Wastewater Treatment and Management Lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlace, Lucas A.; Moody, Bridget D.

    2015-01-01

    The SSC wastewater treatment system is comprised of key components that require a constant source of electrical power or diesel fuel to effectively treat the wastewater. In alignment with the President's new Executive Order 13653, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade, this project aims to transform the wastewater treatment system into a zero emissions operation by incorporating the advantages of an off grid, photovoltaic system. Feasibility of implementation will be based on an analytical evaluation of electrical data, fuel consumption, and site observations.

  15. The use of mathematical models in teaching wastewater treatment engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, Eberhard Friedrich; Arvin, Erik; Vanrolleghem, P.

    2002-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of wastewater treatment processes has become increasingly popular in recent years. To prepare students for their future careers, environmental engineering education should provide students with sufficient background and experiences to understand and apply mathematical models...... efficiently and responsibly. Approaches for introducing mathematical modeling into courses on wastewater treatment engineering are discussed depending on the learning objectives, level of the course and the time available....

  16. BIOFILTERS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT AFTER RECYCLED PLASTIC MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Kania-Surowiec

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of using biological deposits in wastewater treatment of recycled plastics were presented. There are many aspects of this issue that should be considered to be able to use information technology solutions in the industry. This includes, inter alia, specify the types of laboratory tests based on the analysis of changes in the fluid during the wastewater treatment process, knowledge and selection factors for proper growth of biofilm in the deposit and to develop the...

  17. Bacterial communities in full-scale wastewater treatment systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zieli?ska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial metabolism determines the effectiveness of biological treatment of wastewater. Therefore, it is important to define the relations between the species structure and the performance of full-scale installations. Although there is much laboratory data on microbial consortia, our understanding of dependencies between the microbial structure and operational parameters of full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is limited. This mini-review presents the types of microbial consortia in...

  18. Pharmaceutical Compounds in Wastewater: Wetland Treatment as a Potential Solution

    OpenAIRE

    White, John R.; Belmont, Marco A.; Metcalfe, Chris D.

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds are being released into the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge around the globe. While there is limited removal of these compounds within wastewater treatment plants, wetland treatment might prove to be an effective means to reduce the discharge of the compounds into the environment. Wetlands can promote removal of these pharmaceutical compounds through a number of mechanisms including photolysis, plant uptake, microbial degradation, and sorption to the ...

  19. Micro-electrolysis technology for industrial wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi-Zhong; Zhang, Yue-Feng; Li, Wei

    2003-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the role of micro-electrolysis in removing chromaticity and COD and improving the biodegradability of wastewater from pharmaceutical, dye-printing and papermaking plants. Results showed that the use of micro-electrolysis technology could remove more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD and greatly improved the biodegradability of pharmaceutical wastewater. Lower initial pH could be advantageous to the removal of chromaticity. A retention time of 30 minutes was recommended for the process design of micro-electrolysis. For the use of micro-electrolysis in treatment of dye-printing wastewater, the removal rates of both chromaticity and COD were increased from neutral condition to acid condition for disperse blue wastewater; more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD could be removed in neutral condition for vital red wastewater.

  20. Validation and implementation of model based control strategies at an industrial wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demey, D; Vanderhaegen, B; Vanhooren, H; Liessens, J; Van Eyck, L; Hopkins, L; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the practical implementation and validation of advanced control strategies, designed using model based techniques, at an industrial wastewater treatment plant is demonstrated. The plant under study is treating the wastewater of a large pharmaceutical production facility. The process characteristics of the wastewater treatment were quantified by means of tracer tests, intensive measurement campaigns and the use of on-line sensors. In parallel, a dynamical model of the complete wastewater plant was developed according to the specific kinetic characteristics of the sludge and the highly varying composition of the industrial wastewater. Based on real-time data and dynamic models, control strategies for the equalisation system, the polymer dosing and phosphorus addition were established. The control strategies are being integrated in the existing SCADA system combining traditional PLC technology with robust PC based control calculations. The use of intelligent control in wastewater treatment offers a wide spectrum of possibilities to upgrade existing plants, to increase the capacity of the plant and to eliminate peaks. This can result in a more stable and secure overall performance and, finally, in cost savings. The use of on-line sensors has a potential not only for monitoring concentrations, but also for manipulating flows and concentrations. This way the performance of the plant can be secured.

  1. Application of electron beam to industrial wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, D.K.; Boo, J.Y.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.; Chung, W.; Choi, J.S.; Kang, H.J.; Pikaev, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1995, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with EB irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an EB pilot plant for treating 1,000m 3 /day of wastewater from 60,000m 3 /day of total dyeing wastewater has been constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for S-paper Co. in Cheongwon City, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. (author)

  2. A study on the treatment process of industrial wastewater related to heavy metal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Kim, J. H.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, M. J.; Son, J. S.; Park, H. S.

    1999-08-01

    The supernatant from metal wastewater by using magnesium hydroxide and dolomite was used to treat dyeing wastewater. In the case of magnesium hydroxide. In the case of magnesium hydroxide, the optimum dosage was 10 % (v/v) for supernatant A and 3 % (v/v) for separation B. Color turbidity and COD removal was 99 to 100 % , 85 to 97 % and 43 to 53 %, respectively. In the case of dolomite, the optimum dosage was 30 % (v/v) for supernatant A and 3% for supernatant B. Color, turbidity and COD removal was 96 to 99 %, 62 to 91 % and 52 to 53 %, respectively. In dyeing wastewater treatment by using supernatant from metal wastewater, the cost of chemicals was reduced by about 80 %

  3. Appling hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process in the treatment of petrochemical wastewater: From bench scale reactor to full scale wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Changyong; Zhou, Yuexi; Sun, Qingliang; Fu, Liya; Xi, Hongbo; Yu, Yin; Yu, Ruozhen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process can be used to treat petrochemical wastewater. • The toxicity and treatability changed significantly after hydrolysis acidification. • The type and concentration of organics reduced greatly after treatment. • The effluent shows low acute toxicity by luminescent bacteria assay. • Advanced treatment is recommended for the effluent. - Abstract: A hydrolysis acidification (HA)-anoxic–oxic (A/O) process was adopted to treat a petrochemical wastewater. The operation optimization was carried out firstly by a bench scale experimental reactor. Then a full scale petrochemical wastewater treatment plant (PCWWTP, 6500 m 3 h −1 ) was operated with the same parameters. The results showed that the BOD 5 /COD of the wastewater increased from 0.30 to 0.43 by HA. The effluent COD was 54.4 mg L −1 for bench scale reactor and 60.9 mg L −1 for PCWWTP when the influent COD was about 480 mg L −1 on optimized conditions. The organics measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) reduced obviously and the total concentration of the 5 organics (1,3-dioxolane, 2-pentanone, ethylbenzene, 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane and indene) detected in the effluent was only 0.24 mg L −1 . There was no obvious toxicity of the effluent. However, low acute toxicity of the effluent could be detected by the luminescent bacteria assay, indicating the advanced treatment is needed. The clone library profiling analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in the system were Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. HA-A/O process is suitable for the petrochemical wastewater treatment.

  4. Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11 h against 30 h) and a lower sludge production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. HIGH-RATE ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF ALCOHOLIC WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment processes are rapidly becoming popular for industrial wastewater treatment. However, until recently stable process conditions could not be guaranteed for alcoholic wastewaters containing higher concentrations of methanol. Although methanol can be directly converted into methane by methanogens, under specific conditions it can also be converted into acetate and butyrate by acetogens. The accumulation of volatile fatty acids can lead to reactor instability in a weakly buffered reactor. Since this process was insufficiently understood, the application of high-rate anaerobic reactors was highly questionable. This research investigated the environmental factors that are of importance in the predominance of methylotrophic methanogens over acetogens in a natural mixed culture during anaerobic wastewater treatment in upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors. Technological and microbiological aspects were investigated. Additionally, the route by which methanol is converted into methane is also presented

  6. RARE EARTH ELEMENT IMPACTS ON BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Y.; Barnes, J.; Fox, S.

    2016-09-01

    Increasing demand for rare earth elements (REE) is expected to lead to new development and expansion in industries processing and or recycling REE. For some industrial operators, sending aqueous waste streams to a municipal wastewater treatment plant, or publicly owned treatment works (POTW), may be a cost effective disposal option. However, wastewaters that adversely affect the performance of biological wastewater treatment at the POTW will not be accepted. The objective of our research is to assess the effects of wastewaters that might be generated by new rare earth element (REE) beneficiation or recycling processes on biological wastewater treatment systems. We have been investigating the impact of yttrium and europium on the biological activity of activated sludge collected from an operating municipal wastewater treatment plant. We have also examined the effect of an organic complexant that is commonly used in REE extraction and separations; similar compounds may be a component of newly developed REE recycling processes. Our preliminary results indicate that in the presence of Eu, respiration rates for the activated sludge decrease relative to the no-Eu controls, at Eu concentrations ranging from <10 to 660 µM. Yttrium appears to inhibit respiration as well, although negative impacts have been observed only at the highest Y amendment level tested (660 µM). The organic complexant appears to have a negative impact on activated sludge activity as well, although results are variable. Ultimately the intent of this research is to help REE industries to develop environmentally friendly and economically sustainable beneficiation and recycling processes.

  7. Carbon footprint of aerobic biological treatment of winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, D; Bolzonella, D

    2009-01-01

    The carbon associated with wastewater and its treatment accounts for approximately 6% of the global carbon balance. Within the wastewater treatment industry, winery wastewater has a minor contribution, although it can have a major impact on wine-producing regions. Typically, winery wastewater is treated by biological processes, such as the activated sludge process. Biomass produced during treatment is usually disposed of directly, i.e. without digestion or other anaerobic processes. We applied our previously published model for carbon-footprint calculation to the areas worldwide producing yearly more than 10(6) m(3) of wine (i.e., France, Italy, Spain, California, Argentina, Australia, China, and South Africa). Datasets on wine production from the Food and Agriculture Organisation were processed and wastewater flow rates calculated with assumptions based on our previous experience. Results show that the wine production, hence the calculated wastewater flow, is reported as fairly constant in the period 2005-2007. Nevertheless, treatment process efficiency and energy-conservation may play a significant role on the overall carbon-footprint. We performed a sensitivity analysis on the efficiency of the aeration process (alphaSOTE per unit depth, or alphaSOTE/Z) in the biological treatment operations and showed significant margin for improvement. Our results show that the carbon-footprint reduction via aeration efficiency improvement is in the range of 8.1 to 12.3%.

  8. Evaluation of constructed wetland treatment performance for winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, Mark E; Carr, Melanie A; Shepherd, Heather L

    2003-01-01

    Rapid expansion of wineries in rural California during the past three decades has created contamination problems related to winery wastewater treatment and disposal; however, little information is available about performance of on-site treatment systems. Here, the project objective was to determine full-scale, subsurface-flow constructed wetland retention times and treatment performance through assessment of water quality by daily sampling of total dissolved solids, pH, total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), tannins, nitrate, ammonium, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, phosphate, sulfate, and sulfide across operating systems for winery wastewater treatment. Measurements were conducted during both the fall crush season of heavy loading and the spring following bottling and racking operations at the winery. Simple decay model coefficients for these constituents as well as COD and tannin removal efficiencies from winery wastewater in bench-scale reactors are also determined. The bench-scale study used upward-flow, inoculated attached-growth (pea-gravel substrate) reactors fed synthetic winery wastewater. Inlet and outlet tracer studies for determination of actual retention times were essential to analyses of treatment performance from an operational subsurface-flow constructed wetland that had been overloaded due to failure to install a pretreatment system for suspended solids removal. Less intensive sampling conducted at a smaller operational winery wastewater constructed wetland that had used pretreatment suspended solids removal and aeration indicated that the constructed wetlands were capable of complete organic load removal from the winery wastewater.

  9. Occurrence of phthalates in aquatic environment and their removal during wastewater treatment processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Khalid Muzamil; Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2017-07-01

    Phthalates are plasticizers and are concerned environmental endocrine-disrupting compounds. Due to their extensive usage in plastic manufacturing and personal care products as well as the potential to leach out from these products, phthalates have been detected in various aquatic environments including drinking water, groundwater, surface water, and wastewater. The primary source of their environmental occurrence is the discharge of phthalate-laden wastewater and sludge. This review focuses on recent knowledge on the occurrence of phthalate in different aquatic environments and their fate in conventional and advanced wastewater treatment processes. This review also summarizes recent advances in biological removal and degradation mechanisms of phthalates, identifies knowledge gaps, and suggests future research directions.

  10. Treatment of Tehran refinery wastewater using rotating biological contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, Masoud; Mirsajadi, Hassan; Ganjidoust, Hossien [Tarbeyat Modarres Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1993-12-31

    Tehran Refinery is a large plant which produces several petroleum products. The wastewaters are generated from several different refinery processes and units. Because of the wastewaters uniqueness they need to be treated in each specific plant. Currently, an activated sludge system is the main biological wastewater treatment process in Tehran refinery plant. A study was initiated in order to find a more suitable and reliable process which can produce a better treated effluent which might, in case the process be successful, be reused for irrigation lands. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Treatment of Tehran refinery wastewater using rotating biological contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, Masoud; Mirsajadi, Hassan; Ganjidoust, Hossien [Tarbeyat Modarres Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1994-12-31

    Tehran Refinery is a large plant which produces several petroleum products. The wastewaters are generated from several different refinery processes and units. Because of the wastewaters uniqueness they need to be treated in each specific plant. Currently, an activated sludge system is the main biological wastewater treatment process in Tehran refinery plant. A study was initiated in order to find a more suitable and reliable process which can produce a better treated effluent which might, in case the process be successful, be reused for irrigation lands. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Environmental sustainability of wastewater sludge treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer-Souchet, Florence; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    treatment for municipal waste water. A special focus area in Neptune is sludge handling because the sludge amount is expected to increase due to advanced waste water treatment. The main sludge processing methods assessed in Neptune can be divided into two categories: disintegration processes before...... anaerobic digestion (thermal hydrolysis and ultrasound disintegration) and inertisation processes performed at high temperatures (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification, wet oxidation) but they all aim at volume reduction and removal of biodegradable compounds before safe sludge disposal or reuse of its...... resources. As part of a sustainability assessment (or “best practice evaluation”), a comparison between the existing and new sludge handling techniques have been done by use of life cycle assessment (LCA).The concept of induced impacts as compared to avoided impacts when introducing a new sludge treatment...

  13. The effects of physicochemical wastewater treatment operations on forward osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Raw municipal wastewater from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was physicochemically pretreated in a large pilot-scale system comprising coagulation, flocculation, microsieve and microfiltration operated in various configurations. The produced microsieve filtrates and microfiltration...... for small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants. The study demonstrates that physicochemical pretreatment can improve the FO water flux by up to 20%. In contrast, the solute rejection decreases significantly compared to the FO-treated wastewater with mechanical pretreatment....... permeates were then concentrated using forward osmosis (FO). Aquaporin Inside(TM) FO membranes were used for both the microsieve filtrate and microfiltration permeates, and Hydration Technologies Inc.-thin-film composite membranes for the microfiltration permeate using only NaCl as the draw solution. The FO...

  14. Effect of time on dyeing wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tingjin; Chen, Xin; Xu, Zizhen; Chen, Xiaogang; Shi, Liang; He, Lingfeng; Zhang, Yongli

    2018-03-01

    The preparation of carboxymethylchitosan wrapping fly-ash adsorbent using high temperature activated fly ash and sodium carboxymethyl chitosan (CWF), as with the iron-carbon micro-electrolysis process simulation and actual printing and dyeing wastewater. The effects of mixing time and static time on decolorization ratio, COD removing rate and turbidness removing rate were investigated. The experimental results show that the wastewater stirring times on the decolorization rate and COD removal rate and turbidity removal rate influence, with increasing of the stirring time, three showed a downward trend, and reached the peak at 10 min time; wastewater time on the decolorization ratio and COD removing efficiency and turbidness removing rate influence, along with standing time increase, three who declined and reached the maximum in 30min time.

  15. Occurrence of bisphenol A in wastewater and wastewater sludge of CUQ treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Prakash Mohapatra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification and quantification of bisphenol A (BPA in wastewater (WW and wastewater sludge (WWS is of major interest to assess the endocrine activity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. BPA is manufactured in high quantities fro its use in adhesives, powder paints, thermal paper and paper coatings among others. Due to the daily use of these products, high concentration of BPA was observed in WW and WWS. BPA was measured in samples from Urban Community of Quebec wastewater treatment plant located in Quebec (Canada using LC-MS/MS method. The results showed that BPA was present in significant quantities (0.07 μg L–1 to 1.68 μg L–1 in wastewater and 0.104 μg g–1 to 0.312 μg g–1 in wastewater sludge in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. The treatment plant is efficient (76 % in removal of pollutant from process stream, however, environmentally significant concentrations of 0.41 μg L–1 were still present in the treated effluent. Rheological study established the partitioning of BPA within the treatment plant. This serves as the base to judge the portion of the process stream requiring more treatment for degradation of BPA and also in selection of different treatment methods. Higher BPA concentration was observed in primary and secondary sludge solids (0.36 and 0.24 μg g–1, respectively as compared to their liquid counterpart (0.27 and 0.15 μg L–1, respectively separated by centrifugation. Thus, BPA was present in significant concentrations in the WWTP and mostly partitioned in the solid fraction of sludge (Partition coefficient (Kd for primary, secondary and mixed sludge was 0.013, 0.015 and 0.012, respectively.

  16. Analysis of Treated Wastewater Produced from Al-Lajoun Wastewater Treatment Plant, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Manasreh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of treated wastewater produced from Al-Lajoun collection tanks of the wastewater treatment plant in Karak province was carried out in term of physical properties, its major ionic composition, heavy metals and general organic content, for both wastewater influent and effluent. Sampling was done in two periods during (2005-2006 summer season and during winter season to detect the impact of climate on treated wastewater quality. Soil samples were collected from Al-Lajoun valley where the treated wastewater drained, to determine the heavy metal and total organic carbon concentrations at same time. The study showed that the treated wastewater was low in its heavy metals contents during both winter and summer seasons, which was attributed to high pH value enhancing their precipitations. Some of the major ions such as Cl-, Na+, HCO33-, Mg2+ in addition to biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were higher than the recommended Jordanian guidelines for drained water in valleys. The treated wastewater contained some organic compounds of toxic type such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Results showed that the soil was low in its heavy metal contents and total organic carbon with distance from the discharging pond, which attributed to the adsorption of heavy metals, total organic carbon and sedimentation of suspended particulates. From this study it was concluded that the treated wastewater must be used in situ for production of animal fodder and prohibit its contact with the surface and groundwater resources of the area specially Al-Mujeb dam where it is collected.

  17. Treatment of Arctic Wastewater by Chemical Coagulation, UV and Peracetic Acid Disinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Klupsch, Ewa; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2017-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment is challenging in the Arctic region due to the cold climate and scattered population. Thus, no wastewater treatment plant exists in Greenland and raw wastewater is discharged directly to nearby waterbodies without treatment. We investigated the efficiency of physico-chemical wastewater treatment, in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Raw wastewater from Kangerlussuaq was treated by chemical coagulation and UV disinfection. By applying 7.5 mg Al/L polyaluminium chlorid...

  18. CO₂-neutral wastewater treatment plants or robust, climate-friendly wastewater management? A systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Tove A

    2015-12-15

    CO2-neutral wastewater treatment plants can be obtained by improving the recovery of internal wastewater energy resources (COD, nutrients, energy) and reducing energy demand as well as direct emissions of the greenhouse gases N2O and CH4. Climate-friendly wastewater management also includes the management of the heat resource, which is most efficiently recovered at the household level, and robust wastewater management must be able to cope with a possible resulting temperature decrease. At the treatment plant there is a substantial energy optimization potential, both from improving electromechanical devices and sludge treatment as well as through the implementation of more energy-efficient processes like the mainstream anammox process or nutrient recovery from urine. Whether CO2 neutrality can be achieved depends not only on the actual net electricity production, but also on the type of electricity replaced: the cleaner the marginal electricity the more difficult to compensate for the direct emissions, which can be substantial, depending on the stability of the biological processes. It is possible to combine heat recovery at the household scale and nutrient recovery from urine, which both have a large potential to improve the climate friendliness of wastewater management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of physicochemical wastewater treatment operations on forward osmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; La Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Raw municipal wastewater from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was physicochemically pretreated in a large pilot-scale system comprising coagulation, flocculation, microsieve and microfiltration operated in various configurations. The produced microsieve filtrates and microfiltration permeates were then concentrated using forward osmosis (FO). Aquaporin Inside(TM) FO membranes were used for both the microsieve filtrate and microfiltration permeates, and Hydration Technologies Inc.-thin...

  20. Pulsed reactor modelling for catalytic micropollutant treatment in wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Juarros Bertolín, Helena Georgina

    2011-01-01

    This study stems from the problem of the presence of micropollutants (including phenolic compounds such as Bisphenol A, Nonylphenol and Triclosan) in urban and industrial wastewaters. Systems used in the wastewater treatment plants are inefficient in removing these micropollutants that are harmful for the environment. In an ongoing project, laccases, a group of enzymes, are used to efficiently catalyse the degradation of phenolic micropollutants. In this master thesis, it is proposed...

  1. Winery wastewater treatment using the land filter technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, E W; Quayle, W C; Marcoux, M A; Arienzo, M; Jayawardane, N S

    2010-08-01

    This study outlines a new approach to the treatment of winery wastewater by application to a land FILTER (Filtration and Irrigated cropping for Land Treatment and Effluent Reuse) system. The land FILTER system was tested at a medium size rural winery crushing approximately 20,000 tonnes of grapes. The approach consisted of a preliminary treatment through a coarse screening and settling in treatment ponds, followed by application to the land FILTER planted to pasture. The land FILTER system efficiently dealt with variable volumes and nutrient loads in the wastewater. It was operated to minimize pollutant loads in the treated water (subsurface drainage) and provide adequate leaching to manage salt in the soil profile. The land FILTER system was effective in neutralizing the pH of the wastewater and removing nutrient pollutants to meet EPA discharge limits. However, suspended solids (SS) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) levels in the subsurface drainage waters slightly exceeded EPA limits for discharge. The high organic content in the wastewater initially caused some soil blockage and impeded drainage in the land FILTER site. This was addressed by reducing the hydraulic loading rate to allow increased soil drying between wastewater irrigations. The analysis of soil characteristics after the application of wastewater found that there was some potassium accumulation in the profile but sodium and nutrients decreased after wastewater application. Thus, the wastewater application and provision of subsurface drainage ensured adequate leaching, and so was adequate to avoid the risk of soil salinisation. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Method for treatment of wastewater of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Katsumi; Suzuki, Mamoru; Minato, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    A method for treatment of wastewater of nuclear power plants is characterized by the fact that concentration and volume reduction are performed after Ca and Mg as components for the formation of an adhering scale is converted to an 8-oxyquinoline complex, which is hardly soluble in water, and does not precipitate out as an adhering scale, by the addition of 8-oxyquinoline into nuclear power plant wastewater

  3. Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in cold climate - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Zhang, Dong Qing; Dong, Jian Wen; Tan, Soon Keat

    2017-07-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been successfully used for treating various wastewaters for decades and have been identified as a sustainable wastewater management option worldwide. However, the application of CW for wastewater treatment in frigid climate presents special challenges. Wetland treatment of wastewater relies largely on biological processes, and reliable treatment is often a function of climate conditions. To date, the rate of adoption of wetland technology for wastewater treatment in cold regions has been slow and there are relatively few published reports on CW applications in cold climate. This paper therefore highlights the practice and applications of treatment wetlands in cold climate. A comprehensive review of the effectiveness of contaminant removal in different wetland systems including: (1) free water surface (FWS) CWs; (2) subsurface flow (SSF) CWs; and (3) hybrid wetland systems, is presented. The emphasis of this review is also placed on the influence of cold weather conditions on the removal efficacies of different contaminants. The strategies of wetland design and operation for performance intensification, such as the presence of plant, operational mode, effluent recirculation, artificial aeration and in-series design, which are crucial to achieve the sustainable treatment performance in cold climate, are also discussed. This study is conducive to further research for the understanding of CW design and treatment performance in cold climate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Phytotoxicity testing of winery wastewater for constructed wetland treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, Michele; Christen, Evan W; Quayle, Wendy C

    2009-09-30

    Rapid and inexpensive phytotoxicity bioassays for winery wastewater (WW) are important when designing winery wastewater treatment systems involving constructed wetlands. Three macrophyte wetland species (Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus validus and Juncus ingens) were tested using a pot experiment simulating a wetland microcosm. The winery wastewater concentration was varied (0.5%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) and pH was corrected for some concentrations using lime as an amendment. The tolerance of the three aquatic macrophytes species to winery wastewater was studied through biomass production, total chlorophyll and nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium tissue concentrations. The results showed that at greater than 25% wastewater concentration all the macrophytes died and that Phragmites was the least hardy species. At less than 25% wastewater concentration the wetland microcosms were effective in reducing chemical oxygen demand, phenols and total soluble solids. We also evaluated the performance of two laboratory phytotoxicity assays; (1) Garden Cress (Lepidium sativum), and (2) Onion (Allium coepa). The results of these tests revealed that the effluent was highly toxic with effective concentration, EC(50), inhibition values, as low as 0.25%. Liming the WW increased the EC(50) by 10 fold. Comparing the cress and onion bioassays with the wetland microcosm results indicated that the thresholds for toxicity were of the same order of magnitude. As such we suggest that the onion and cress bioassays could be effectively used in the wine industry for rapid wastewater toxicity assessment.

  5. SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Mahvi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater to surface or groundwater is very dangerous to the environment. Therefore treatment of any kind of wastewater to produce effluent with good quality is necessary. In this regard choosing an effective treatment system is important. Sequencing batch reactor is a modification of activated sludge process which has been successfully used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater. The process could be applied for nutrients removal, high biochemical oxygen demand containing industrial wastewater, wastewater containing toxic materials such as cyanide, copper, chromium, lead and nickel, food industries effluents, landfill leachates and tannery wastewater. Of the process advantages are single-tank configuration, small foot print, easily expandable, simple operation and low capital costs. Many researches have been conducted on this treatment technology. The authors had been conducted some investigations on a modification of sequencing batch reactor. Their studies resulted in very high percentage removal of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total suspended solids respectively. This paper reviews some of the published works in addition to experiences of the authors.

  6. Phytoremediation of Nitrogen as Green Chemistry for Wastewater Treatment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennevey Kinidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is noteworthy that ammoniacal nitrogen contamination in wastewater has reportedly posed a great threat to the environment. Although there are several conventional technologies being employed to remediate ammoniacal nitrogen contamination in wastewater, they are not sustainable and cost-effective. Along this line, the present study aims to highlight the significance of green chemistry characteristics of phytoremediation in nitrogen for wastewater treatment. Notably, ammoniacal nitrogen can be found in many types of sources and it brings harmful effects to the environment. Hence, the present study also reviews the phytoremediation of nitrogen and describes its green chemistry characteristics. Additionally, the different types of wastewater contaminants and their effects on phytoremediation and the phytoremediation consideration in wastewater treatment application and sustainable waste management of harvested aquatic macrophytes were reviewed. Finally, the present study explicates the future perspectives of phytoremediation. Based on the reviews, it can be concluded that green chemistry characteristics of phytoremediation in nitrogen have proved that it is sustainable and cost-effective in relation to other existing ammoniacal nitrogen remediation technologies. Therefore, it can be deduced that a cheaper and more environmental friendly ammoniacal nitrogen technology can be achieved with the utilization of phytoremediation in wastewater treatment.

  7. BIOFILTERS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT AFTER RECYCLED PLASTIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kania-Surowiec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the possibility of using biological deposits in wastewater treatment of recycled plastics were presented. There are many aspects of this issue that should be considered to be able to use information technology solutions in the industry. This includes, inter alia, specify the types of laboratory tests based on the analysis of changes in the fluid during the wastewater treatment process, knowledge and selection factors for proper growth of biofilm in the deposit and to develop the right concept and a prototype for a particular processing plant, plastic processing plant. It is possible to determine the parameters that will increase the efficiency of sewage treatment while minimizing the financial effort on the part of the Company. Selection methods of wastewater treatment is also associated with the environmental strategy of the country at the enterprise level specified in the Environmental Policy. This is an additional argument for the use of biological methods in the treatment of industrial waste water.

  8. Development of Blumlein Line Generator and Reactor for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainuddin Nawawi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the harm effects of wastewater from industrial sectors toward the environment become one of public major concern. There are several wastewater treatment methods and techniques which have been introduced such as by using biological, chemical, and physical process. However, it is found that there are some shortcomings in the current available methods and techniques. For instance, the application of chlorine can cause bacterial disinfection but produce secondary harmful carcinogenic disinfection.  And the application of ozone treatment –  which is one of the most reliable technique – requires improvement in term of ozone production and treatment system. In order to acquire a better understanding in wastewater treatment process, a study of wastewater treatment system and Hybrid Discharge reactor – to acquire gas-liquid phase corona like discharge – is carried out. In addition to the laboratory experiment, designing and development of the Blumlein pulse power circuit, and modification of reactor for wastewater treatment are accomplished as well.

  9. Wastewater Treatment with Ammonia Recovery System

    OpenAIRE

    M. Örvös; T. Balázs; K. F. Both

    2008-01-01

    From environmental aspect purification of ammonia containing wastewater is expected. High efficiency ammonia desorption can be done from the water by air on proper temperature. After the desorption process, ammonia can be recovered and used in another technology. The calculation method described below give some methods to find either the minimum column height or ammonia rich solution of the effluent.

  10. Degradation of cytotoxic agent in soap and detergent wastewater by advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Bhatti, I.A.; Nisar, J.

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater from soap and detergent industries is a source of high pollution and contamination for water sheds. In present investigation, cytotoxic profiling was documented from Faisalabad, Sargodha and Gujranwala cities, Pakistan, followed by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) treatments (UV and gamma radiation). The cytotoxicity was evaluated by Allium cepa, haemolytic and brine shrimp bioassays. Independent variables such as gamma radiation absorbed dose, H2O2, TiO2 concentrations, reaction time, pH and shaking speed were optimized using statistical techniques. The raw soap and detergent wastewater showed cytotoxicity up to high extent. At optimized conditions, > 94% degradation was achieved both in case of UV (exposure time 100 min, TiO2 concentration 5.93 g/L, H2O2 4.39%, pH 6.50 and shaking speed 110 rpm) and gamma radiation (12.69 kGy absorbed dose in the presence of 4.65% H2O2) treated samples and water quality parameters (WQP) also improved significantly. The cytotoxicity reduced sharply as a result of AOPs treatment at optimized conditions. From the results, it is evident that AOPs under investigation could be used for the degradation and cytotoxicity reduction of soap and detergent wastewater. (author)

  11. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-30

    Previous research over a period of six years has identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response (DR), automated demand response (Auto-­DR), and Energy Efficiency (EE) measures. This report summarizes that work, including the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy used and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and automated demand response opportunities. Furthermore, this report summarizes the DR potential of three wastewater treatment facilities. In particular, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has collected data at these facilities from control systems, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. The collected data were then used to generate a summary of wastewater power demand, factors affecting that demand, and demand response capabilities. These case studies show that facilities that have implemented energy efficiency measures and that have centralized control systems are well suited to shed or shift electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. In summary, municipal wastewater treatment energy demand in California is large, and energy-­intensive equipment offers significant potential for automated demand response. In particular, large load reductions were achieved by targeting effluent pumps and centrifuges. One of the limiting factors to implementing demand response is the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration at an earlier stage of the process. Another limiting factor is that cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities, limit a facility’s potential to participate in other DR activities.

  12. Car wash wastewater treatment and water reuse - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaneti, R N; Etchepare, R; Rubio, J

    2013-01-01

    Recent features of a car wash wastewater reclamation system and results from a full-scale car wash wastewater treatment and recycling process are reported. This upcoming technology comprises a new flocculation-column flotation process, sand filtration, and a final chlorination. A water usage and savings audit (22 weeks) showed that almost 70% reclamation was possible, and fewer than 40 L of fresh water per wash were needed. Wastewater and reclaimed water were characterized by monitoring chemical, physicochemical and biological parameters. Results were discussed in terms of aesthetic quality (water clarification and odour), health (pathological) and chemical (corrosion and scaling) risks. A microbiological risk model was applied and the Escherichia coli proposed criterion for car wash reclaimed water is 200 CFU 100 mL(-1). It is believed that the discussions on car wash wastewater reclamation criteria may assist institutions to create laws in Brazil and elsewhere.

  13. Membrane bioreactors and their uses in wastewater treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le-Clech, Pierre [New South Wales Univ., Sydney (Australia). UNESCO Centre for Membrane Science and Technology

    2010-12-15

    With the current need for more efficient and reliable processes for municipal and industrial wastewaters treatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has received considerable attention. After just a couple of decades of existence, MBR can now be considered as an established wastewater treatment system, competing directly with conventional processes like activated sludge treatment plant. However, MBR processes still suffer from major drawbacks, including high operational costs due to the use of anti-fouling strategies applied to the system to maintain sustainable filtration conditions. Moreover, this specific use of membranes has not reached full maturity yet, as MBR suppliers and users still lack experience regarding the long-term performances of the system. Still, major improvements of the MBR design and operation have been witnessed over the recent years, making MBR an option of choice for wastewater treatment and reuse. This mini-review reports recent developments and current research trends in the field. (orig.)

  14. Cryptosporidium and Giardia removal by secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran-Benshoshan, Marina; Ofer, Naomi; Dalit, Vaizel-Ohayon; Aharoni, Avi; Revhun, Menahem; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Nasser, Abidelfatah M

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater disposal may be a source of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium and Giardia. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw and treated wastewater effluents. A prevalence of 100% was demonstrated for Giardia cysts in raw wastewater, at a concentration range of 10 to 12,225 cysts L(-1), whereas the concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in raw wastewater was 4 to 125 oocysts L(-1). The removal of Giardia cysts by secondary and tertiary treatment processes was greater than those observed for Cryptosporidium oocysts and turbidity. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were present in 68.5% and 76% of the tertiary effluent samples, respectively, at an average concentration of 0.93 cysts L(-1) and 9.94 oocysts L(-1). A higher detection limit of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater was observed for nested PCR as compared to immune fluorescent assay (IFA). C. hominis was found to be the dominant genotype in wastewater effluents followed by C. parvum and C. andersoni or C. muris. Giardia was more prevalent than Cryptosporidium in the studied community and treatment processes were more efficient for the removal of Giardia than Cryptosporidium. Zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium were also present in the human community. To assess the public health significance of Cryptosporidium oocysts present in tertiary effluent, viability (infectivity) needs to be assessed.

  15. Microbial Communities in Danish Wastewater Treatment Plants with Nutrient Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielczarek, Artur Tomasz

    Activated sludge treatment plants are the most used wastewater treatment systems worldwide for biological nutrient removal from wastewater. Nevertheless, the treatment systems have been for many years operated as so called “black-box”, where specific process parameters were adjusted without...... that plants with return sludge Side-Stream Hydrolysis (SSH) instead of the normal anaerobic process tank tended to have significantly fewer unwanted GAOs in contrast to many plants with traditional mainstream anaerobic tank and thus it was proposed that this system might be an effective strategy of control...

  16. Efficiency of Moringa oleifera Seeds for Treatment of Laundry Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Gheethi AA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laundry wastewater has simple characteristics in which the detergents compounds are the main constitutes. But these compounds have adverse effects on the aquatic organisms in the natural water bodies which received these wastes without treatment. Few studies were conducted on these wastes because it represent a small part of the total wastewater generated from different human activities. Moreover, the coagulation process for laundry wastewater might be effective to remove of detergents compounds. Therefore, in the present study, the efficiency of coagulation process by using chemical (ferrous sulphate and natural coagulants (Moringa oleifera seeds were investigated. The raw laundry wastewater samples were collected from laundromat located at Taman Universiti, Parit Raja. The characteristics of these wastes were determined and then the wastewater was subjected for the treatment process consisted of three units including aeration, coagulation and sedimentation process. The chemical and natural coagulants were used with four dosage (30, 60, 90 and 120 mg L−1 and the coagulation process was carried out at room temperature (25±2ºC for one hour. The results revealed that the laundry wastewater have high concentrations of turbidity (57.8-68.1 NTU and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD (423-450 mg L−1 with pH value between 7.96 and 8.37. M. oleifera seeds exhibited high efficiency for removal of turbidity (83.63% with 120 mg L−1 of dosage, while 30 mg L−1 of FeSO4 was the best for removal of COD (54.18%. However, both parameters still more than Standard B for wastewater disposal suggesting the need to increase the period of coagulation process with M. oleifera seeds or to subject of the treated effluents for a secondary coagulation process with natural coagulant products to improve the characteristics of laundry wastewater without a secondary products as that generated with the chemical coagulants.

  17. Physical-chemical pretreatment as an option for increased sustainability of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : municipal wastewater treatment, physical-chemical pretreatment, chemically enhanced primary treatment, organic polymers, environmental sustainability

    Most of the currently applied municipal wastewater treatment plants in The Netherlands are

  18. Introduction to Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    Presented are basic concepts of chemistry necessary for operators who manage drinking water treatment plants and wastewater facilities. It includes discussions of chemical terms and concepts, laboratory procedures for basic analyses of interest to operators, and discussions of appropriate chemical calculations. Exercises are included and answer…

  19. Future wastewater solutions: removal of pharmaceuticals in conventional wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    Residues of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and industrial chemicals find their way into the environment mainly through incomplete removal in the conventional urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and appear as micro-pollutants at pg L-1 to μg L-1 concentrations. WWTPs were designed...

  20. Improvement of biodegradability of industrial wastewaters by radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, H.J.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, J.G.; Jung, J.; Choi, J.S.; Park, Y.K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the use of gamma-ray treatment as a pretreatment to conventional biological methods, the effects of gamma-irradiation on biodegradability (BOD 5 /COD) of textile and pulp wastewaters were investigated. For all wastewaters studied in this work, the efficiency of treatment based on TOC removal was insignificant even at an absorbed dose of 20 kGy. However, the change of biodegradability was noticeable and largely dependent on the chemical property of wastewaters and the absorbed dose of gamma-rays. For textile wastewaters, gamma-ray treatment increased the biodegradability of desizing effluent due to degradation of polymeric sizing agents such as polyvinyl alcohol. Interestingly, the weight-loss showed the highest value of 0.97 at a relatively low dose of 1 kGy. This may be caused by the degradation of less biodegradable ethylene glycol prior to terephthalic acid decomposition. For pulp wastewater, the gamma-ray treatment did not improve the biodegradability of cooking and bleaching of C/D effluents. However, the biodegradability of bleaching E1 and final effluents was abruptly increased up to 5 kGy then slowly decreased as the absorbed dose was increased. The initial increase of biodegradability may be induced by the decomposition of refractory organic compounds such as chlorophenols, which are known to be the main components of bleaching C/D and final effluents. (author)

  1. Biological treatment and nanofiltration of denim textile wastewater for reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Uzal, Nigmet; Yetis, Ulku; Dilek, Filiz B.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims at coupling of activated sludge treatment with nanofiltration to improve denim textile wastewater quality to reuse criteria. In the activated sludge reactor, the COD removal efficiency was quite high as it was 91 ± 2% and 84 ± 4% on the basis of total and soluble feed COD, respectively. The color removal efficiency was 75 ± 10%, and around 50-70% of removed color was adsorbed on biomass or precipitated within the reactor. The high conductivity of the wastewater, as high as 8 mS/cm, did not adversely affect system performance. Although biological treatment is quite efficient, the wastewater does not meet the reuse criteria. Hence, further treatment to improve treated water quality was investigated using nanofiltration. Dead-end microfiltration (MF) with 5 μm pore size was applied to remove coarse particles before nanofiltration. The color rejection of nanofiltration was almost complete and permeate color was always lower than 10 Pt-Co. Similarly, quite high rejections were observed for COD (80-100%). Permeate conductivity was between 1.98 and 2.67 mS/cm (65% conductivity rejection). Wastewater fluxes were between 31 and 37 L/m 2 /h at 5.07 bars corresponding to around 45% flux declines compared to clean water fluxes. In conclusion, for denim textile wastewaters nanofiltration after biological treatment can be applied to meet reuse criteria

  2. Adaptive model based control for wastewater treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Niet, Arie; van de Vrugt, Noëlle Maria; Korving, Hans; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Savic, D.A.; Kapelan, Z.; Butler, D.

    2011-01-01

    In biological wastewater treatment, nitrogen and phosphorous are removed by activated sludge. The process requires oxygen input via aeration of the activated sludge tank. Aeration is responsible for about 60% of the energy consumption of a treatment plant. Hence optimization of aeration can

  3. Electrochemical treatment of tannery wastewater using DSA electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Carla Regina; Botta, Clarice M.R.; Espindola, Evaldo L.G.; Olivi, Paulo

    2008-01-01

    In this work we studied the electrochemical treatment of a tannery wastewater using dimensionally stable anodes (DSA) containing tin, iridium, ruthenium, and titanium. The electrodes were prepared by thermal decomposition of the polymeric precursors. The electrolyses were performed under galvanostatic conditions, at room temperature. Effects of the oxide composition, current density, and effluent conductivity were investigated, and the current efficiency was calculated as a function of the time for the performed electrolyses. Results showed that all the studied electrodes led to a decrease in the content of both total phenolic compounds and total organic carbon (TOC), as well as lower absorbance in the UV-vis region. Toxicity tests using Daphnia similis demonstrated that the electrochemical treatment reduced the wastewater toxicity. The use of DSA type electrodes in the electrochemical treatment of tannery wastewater proved to be useful since it can promote a decrease in total phenolic compounds, TOC, absorbance, and toxicity

  4. Integration of energy and environmental systems in wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Suzanna [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 215 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7621 (United States); Cudney, Elizabeth [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 217 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7931 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Most wastewater treatment facilities were built when energy costs were not a concern; however, increasing energy demand, changing climatic conditions, and constrained energy supplies have resulted in the need to apply more energy-conscious choices in the maintenance or upgrade of existing wastewater treatment facilities. This research develops an integrated energy and environmental management systems model that creates a holistic view of both approaches and maps linkages capable of meeting high-performing energy management while meeting environmental standards. The model has been validated through a case study on the Rolla, Missouri Southeast Wastewater Treatment Plant. Results from plant performance data provide guidance to improve operational techniques. The significant factors contributing to both energy and environmental systems are identified and balanced against considerations of cost.

  5. Electrochemical treatment of tannery wastewater using DSA electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Carla Regina [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CEP 14049-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Botta, Clarice M.R.; Espindola, Evaldo L.G. [Nucleo de Estudos em Ecossistemas Aquaticos, Centro de Recursos Hidricos e Ecologia Aplicada, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 292, CEP 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Olivi, Paulo [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CEP 14049-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: olivip@ffclrp.usp.br

    2008-05-01

    In this work we studied the electrochemical treatment of a tannery wastewater using dimensionally stable anodes (DSA) containing tin, iridium, ruthenium, and titanium. The electrodes were prepared by thermal decomposition of the polymeric precursors. The electrolyses were performed under galvanostatic conditions, at room temperature. Effects of the oxide composition, current density, and effluent conductivity were investigated, and the current efficiency was calculated as a function of the time for the performed electrolyses. Results showed that all the studied electrodes led to a decrease in the content of both total phenolic compounds and total organic carbon (TOC), as well as lower absorbance in the UV-vis region. Toxicity tests using Daphnia similis demonstrated that the electrochemical treatment reduced the wastewater toxicity. The use of DSA type electrodes in the electrochemical treatment of tannery wastewater proved to be useful since it can promote a decrease in total phenolic compounds, TOC, absorbance, and toxicity.

  6. Optimal design of regional wastewater pipelines and treatment plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Noam; Ostfeld, Avi

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript describes the application of a genetic algorithm model for the optimal design of regional wastewater systems comprised of transmission gravitational and pumping sewer pipelines, decentralized treatment plants, and end users of reclaimed wastewater. The algorithm seeks the diameter size of the designed pipelines and their flow distribution simultaneously, the number of treatment plants and their size and location, the pump power, and the required excavation work. The model capabilities are demonstrated through a simplified example application using base runs and sensitivity analyses. Scaling of the proposed methodology to real life wastewater collection and treatment plants design problems needs further testing and developments. The model is coded in MATLAB using the GATOOL toolbox and is available from the authors.

  7. Electron Beam Treatment Plant for Textile Dyeing Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Yuri; Choi, Jangseung; Ahn, Sangjun

    2006-01-01

    High positive effect of electron-beam treatment involved into the process of wastewater purification is now well established. The most effective for the purpose seem to be combine methods including both electron beam and any conventional treatment stages, i.e., under conditions when some synergistic effects can take place. Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex (DDIC) includes about hundred factories occupying the area of 600,000m 2 with 13,000 employees in total. The production requires high consumption of water (90,000m 3 /day), steam, and electric power, being characterized by large amount of highly colored industrial wastewater. Because of increase in productivity and increased assortment of dyes and other chemicals, substantial necessity appears in re-equipment of purification facilities by application of efficient methods of wastewater treatment

  8. Biological Treatment of Wastewater by Sequencing Batch Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetko Prokopov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the operation of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in the town of Hisarya which includes a biological stage with aeration basins of cyclic type (SBR-method was studied. The values of the standard indicators of input and output water from the wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Moreover, the reached effects due to the biological treatment of the wastewater in terms of the COD (95.7%, BOD5 (96.6%, total nitrogen (81.3%, total phosphorus (53.7% and suspended solids (95.7% were established. It was concluded that the indexes of the treated water were significantly below the emission limits specified in the discharge permit

  9. A review of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-15

    Wastewater treatment ponds (lagoons) are one of the most common types of technologies used for wastewater management worldwide, especially in small cities and towns. They are particularly well-suited for systems where the effluent is reused for irrigation. However, the efficiency of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems is not very well understood. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the major findings related to virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems and to statistically analyze results reported in the literature from field studies on virus removal in these systems. A comprehensive analysis of virus removal reported in the literature from 71 different wastewater treatment pond systems reveals only a weak to moderate correlation of virus removal with theoretical hydraulic retention time. On average, one log10 reduction of viruses was achieved for every 14.5-20.9 days of retention, but the 95th percentile value of the data analyzed was 54 days. The mechanisms responsible for virus removal in wastewater treatment ponds were also reviewed. One recent finding is that sedimentation may not be a significant virus removal mechanism in some wastewater ponds. Recent research has also revealed that direct and indirect sunlight-mediated mechanisms are not only dependent on pond water chemistry and optics, but also on the characteristics of the virus and its genome. MS2 coliphage is considered to be the best surrogate for studying sunlight disinfection in ponds. The interaction of viruses with particles, with other microorganisms, and with macroinvertebrates in wastewater treatment ponds has not been extensively studied. It is also unclear whether virus internalization by higher trophic-level organisms has a protective or a detrimental effect on virus viability and transport in pond systems. Similarly, the impact of virus-particle associations on sunlight disinfection in ponds is not well understood. Future research should focus on

  10. Use of Both Anode and Cathode Reactions in Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillas, Enric; Sirés, Ignasi; Cabot, Pere LluíS.

    Here, we describe the fundamentals, laboratory experiments, and environmental applications of indirect electrooxidation methods based on H2O2 electrogeneration such as electro-Fenton, photoelectro-Fenton and peroxicoagulation for the treatment of acidic wastewaters containing toxic and recalcitrant organics. These methods are electrochemical advanced oxidation processes that can be used in divided and undivided electrolytic cells in which pollutants are oxidized by hydroxyl radical (•OH) produced from anode and/or cathode reactions. H2O2 is generated from the two-electron reduction of O2 at reticulated vitreous carbon, graphite, carbon-felt, and O2-diffusion cathodes. The most usual method is electro-Fenton where Fe2 + added to the wastewater reacts with electrogenerated H2O2 to yield •OH and Fe3 + from Fenton's reaction. An advantage of this technique is that Fe2 + is continuously regenerated from cathodic reduction of Fe3 +. The characteristics of different electro-Fenton systems where pollutants are simultaneously destroyed by •OH formed in the medium from Fenton's reaction and at the anode surface from water oxidation are explained. The effect of the anode [Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD)] and cathode (carbon-felt or O2-diffusion) on the degradation rate of persistent industrial by-products, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, dyes, etc. is examined. Initial pollutants react much more rapidly with •OH formed in the medium and their degradation sequences are discussed from aromatic intermediates and finally short aliphatic acids are detected. The synergetic positive catalytic effect of Cu2 + on the electro-Fenton process is evidenced. The photoelectro-Fenton method involves the irradiation of the wastewater with UVA light that rapidly photodecomposes complexes of Fe3 + with final carboxylic acids enhancing total decontamination. The peroxicoagulation method uses a sacrificial Fe anode that is continuously oxidized to Fe2 + and organics are either mineralized

  11. Disinfection of wastewater from a Riyadh Wastewater Treatment Plant with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, A.A.; Abdel Rehim, F.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this research was to establish the applicability of the electron beam treatment process for treating wastewater intended for reuse. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of gamma irradiation in the disinfection of wastewater, and the improvement of the water quality by determining the changes in organic matter as indicated by the measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Samples of effluent, before and after chlorination, and sludge were obtained from a Riyadh Wastewater Treatment Plant. The studies were conducted using a laboratory scale 60 Co gamma source. The improvement in quality of the irradiated samples was demonstrated by the reduction in bacteria, and the reduction in the BOD, COD and TOC. Radiation of the wastewater provided adequate disinfection while at the same time increasing the water quality. This treatment could lead to additional opportunities for the reuse of this valuable resource. Limited studies, conducted on the anaerobically digested secondary biosolids, showed an improvement in bacterial content and no change in COD

  12. Optimizing the selection of small-town wastewater treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianping; Zhang, Siqi

    2018-04-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment is energy-intensive. This high energy consumption causes high sewage treatment plant operating costs and increases the energy burden. To mitigate the adverse impacts of China’s development, sewage treatment plants should adopt effective energy-saving technologies. Artificial fortified natural water treatment and use of activated sludge and biofilm are all suitable technologies for small-town sewage treatment. This study features an analysis of the characteristics of small and medium-sized township sewage, an overview of current technologies, and a discussion of recent progress in sewage treatment. Based on this, an analysis of existing problems in municipal wastewater treatment is presented, and countermeasures to improve sewage treatment in small and medium-sized towns are proposed.

  13. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xiaoyi, E-mail: yangxiaoyi@buaa.edu.cn [Department of Thermal Energy Engineering, BeiHang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  14. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoyi

    2009-01-01

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  15. Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants by Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, A.; Taguchi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Maruyama, A. [Gunma Prefectural Sewerage Manegement General Office (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    We have investigated the treatment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and halogented organic compounds (HOCs) in wastewater by ionizing radiation in the CRP. Three samples of the actual wastewater having estrogen activity were analyzed by the yeast two-hybrid assay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Treatment of the wastewater is required to decrease the estrogen activity to less than 1 ng / L; the lower limit concentration of appearance of endocrine disrupting property. Medaka estrogen activity (mEA) initially increased and then decreased by β-ray irradiation, indicating that decomposition products in the real wastewaters also have the estrogen activity. The doses required to decrease in mEA of samples 1 to 3 below 1 ng / L, D{sub 1ng}, were estimated to be 100, 200 and 150 Gy (J kg{sup -1}), respectively. Since the D{sub 1ng} of 17 β-stradiol (E2) at 500 ng/L (1.8 nmol/L) in pure water was estimated to be 5 Gy as mentioned in the previous CRP, the elimination of estrogen activity of real wastewater is considered to be interfered by organic impurities. The economic cost of the treatment process of EDCs using electron beam was estimated at 17 yen m{sup -3}. (author)

  16. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyi

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  17. Construction of Industrial Electron Beam Plant for Wastewater Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborate the optimal technology of the electron beam treatment of wastewater with increased reliability at instant changes in the composition of wastewater. Installation of the e-beam pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, appreciable to reduction of chemical reagent consumption, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000 m3/day, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government

  18. Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants by Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, A.; Taguchi, M.; Maruyama, A.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the treatment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and halogented organic compounds (HOCs) in wastewater by ionizing radiation in the CRP. Three samples of the actual wastewater having estrogen activity were analyzed by the yeast two-hybrid assay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Treatment of the wastewater is required to decrease the estrogen activity to less than 1 ng / L; the lower limit concentration of appearance of endocrine disrupting property. Medaka estrogen activity (mEA) initially increased and then decreased by β-ray irradiation, indicating that decomposition products in the real wastewaters also have the estrogen activity. The doses required to decrease in mEA of samples 1 to 3 below 1 ng / L, D 1ng , were estimated to be 100, 200 and 150 Gy (J kg -1 ), respectively. Since the D 1ng of 17 β-stradiol (E2) at 500 ng/L (1.8 nmol/L) in pure water was estimated to be 5 Gy as mentioned in the previous CRP, the elimination of estrogen activity of real wastewater is considered to be interfered by organic impurities. The economic cost of the treatment process of EDCs using electron beam was estimated at 17 yen m -3 . (author)

  19. Addressing social aspects associated with wastewater treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla-Rivera, Alejandro; Morgan-Sagastume, Juan Manuel; Noyola, Adalberto; Güereca, Leonor Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF), technical and financial aspects have been considered a priority, while other issues, such as social aspects, have not been evaluated seriously and there is not an accepted methodology for assessing it. In this work, a methodology focused on social concerns related to WWTF is presented. The methodology proposes the use of 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance to evaluate the progress in moving towards sustainability. The methodology was applied to test its applicability and effectiveness in two WWTF in Mexico (urban and rural). This evaluation helped define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the facilities. In this context, the urban facility showed a better overall performance, a result that may be explained mainly by the better socioeconomic context of the urban municipality. Finally, the evaluation of social aspects using the semi-qualitative approach proposed in this work allows for a comparison between different facilities and for the identification of strengths and weakness, and it provides an alternative tool for achieving and improving wastewater management. - Highlights: • The methodology proposes 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance in wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation helped to define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation of social aspects allows the identification of strengths and weakness for improving wastewater management. • It provides a social profile of the facility that highlights the best and worst performances.

  20. Addressing social aspects associated with wastewater treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla-Rivera, Alejandro; Morgan-Sagastume, Juan Manuel; Noyola, Adalberto; Güereca, Leonor Patricia, E-mail: lguerecah@iingen.unam.mx

    2016-02-15

    In wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF), technical and financial aspects have been considered a priority, while other issues, such as social aspects, have not been evaluated seriously and there is not an accepted methodology for assessing it. In this work, a methodology focused on social concerns related to WWTF is presented. The methodology proposes the use of 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance to evaluate the progress in moving towards sustainability. The methodology was applied to test its applicability and effectiveness in two WWTF in Mexico (urban and rural). This evaluation helped define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the facilities. In this context, the urban facility showed a better overall performance, a result that may be explained mainly by the better socioeconomic context of the urban municipality. Finally, the evaluation of social aspects using the semi-qualitative approach proposed in this work allows for a comparison between different facilities and for the identification of strengths and weakness, and it provides an alternative tool for achieving and improving wastewater management. - Highlights: • The methodology proposes 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance in wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation helped to define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation of social aspects allows the identification of strengths and weakness for improving wastewater management. • It provides a social profile of the facility that highlights the best and worst performances.

  1. Study on industrial wastewater treatment using superconducting magnetic separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Zhengquan; Xu, Xiangdong; Li, Laifeng

    2011-06-01

    The mechanism of industrial wastewater treatment using superconducting magnetic separation is investigated. Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles were prepared by liquid precipitation and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Polyacrylic acid (PAA) film was coated on the magnetic particles using plasma coating technique. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation and infrared spectrum measurement indicate that the particle surface is well coated with PAA, and the film thickness is around 1 nm. Practical paper factory wastewater treatment using the modified magnetic seeds in a superconducting magnet (SCM) was carried out. The results show that the maximum removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) by SCM method can reach 76%.

  2. Treatment of wastewater from service areas at motorways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Małgorzata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with wastewater treatment systems placed in motorway service areas (MSAs. In the years 2008-2009 eight of such facilities installed on the stretch of the A2 motorway between Poznań and Nowy Tomyśl were examined and analyzed. The system consists of a septic tank, a submerged aerated biofilter and an outflow filter. The volume of traffic on the highway was analyzed, the amount of water use was measured and peak factors were calculated. On this basis it was concluded that the inflows to the wastewater treatment systems in many cases exceeded the nominal design values.

  3. Thermoeconomic analysis applied to an alternative wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamas, Wendell de Queiroz [University of Taubate, Post-graduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil); Sao Paulo State University, Faculty of Engineering, Campus of Guaratingueta, Postgraduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil); Silveira, Jose Luz; Mattos dos Reis, Luiz Octavio [Sao Paulo State University, Faculty of Engineering, Campus of Guaratingueta, Postgraduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil); Oscare Giacaglia, Giorgio Eugenio [University of Taubate, Post-graduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    This work develops a methodology for the determination of costs associated to products generated in a small wastewater treatment station. The methodology begins with plant units identification, relating their fluid and thermodynamics features to each point indicated in its process diagram. Following, a functional diagram and a formulation are developed in exergetic basis, describing all equations for these points, which are the constraints for optimisation and are used to determine costs associated to products generated in a Small Wastewater Treatment Station - SWTS. The methodology is applied to a hypothetical system based on SWTS plants and presents consistent results when compared to values based on previous experiments and evaluations. (author)

  4. Highly Polluted Wastewaters Treatment by Improved Dissolved Air Flotation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moga, I. C.; Covaliu, C. I.; Matache, M. G.; Doroftei, B. I.

    2017-06-01

    Numerous investigations are oriented towards the development of new wastewater treatment technologies, having high efficiencies for removing even low concentrations of pollutants found in water. These efforts were determined by the destroyer impact of the pollutants to the environment and human’s health. For this reason this paper presents our study concerning an improved dissolved air flotation technology for wastewater treatment. There is described a dissolved air flotation (DAF) installation composed by two equipments: pressurized capsule and lamellar settling. Also, there are presented some advantages of using nanoparticles as flotation collectors.

  5. Coagulation and Adsorption Treatment of Printing Ink Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Klančnik, Maja

    2014-01-01

    The intention of the study was to improve the efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) and colour removal from the wastewater samples polluted with flexographic printing ink following coagulation treatments with further adsorption onto activated carbons and ground orange peel. The treatment efficiencies were compared to those of further flocculation treatments and of coagulation and adsorption processes individually. Coagulation was a relatively effective single-treatment method, removing 99...

  6. Prokaryotic community profiling of local algae wastewaters using advanced 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limayem, Alya; Micciche, Andrew; Nayak, Bina; Mohapatra, Shyam

    2018-01-01

    Algae biomass-fed wastewaters are a promising source of lipid and bioenergy manufacture, revealing substantial end-product investment returns. However, wastewaters would contain lytic pathogens carrying drug resistance detrimental to algae yield and environmental safety. This study was conducted to simultaneously decipher through high-throughput advanced Illumina 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing, the cultivable and uncultivable bacterial community profile found in a single sample that was directly recovered from the local wastewater systems. Samples were collected from two previously documented sources including anaerobically digested (AD) municipal wastewater and swine wastewater with algae namely Chlorella spp. in addition to control samples, swine wastewater, and municipal wastewater without algae. Results indicated the presence of a significant level of Bacteria in all samples with an average of approximately 95.49% followed by Archaea 2.34%, in local wastewaters designed for algae cultivation. Taxonomic genus identification indicated the presence of Calothrix, Pseudomonas, and Clostridium as the most prevalent strains in both local municipal and swine wastewater samples containing algae with an average of 17.37, 12.19, and 7.84%, respectively. Interestingly, swine wastewater without algae displayed the lowest level of Pseudomonas strains algae indicates potential coexistence between these strains and algae microenvironment, suggesting further investigations. This finding was particularly relevant for the earlier documented adverse effects of some nosocomial Pseudomonas strains on algae growth and their multidrug resistance potential, requiring the development of targeted bioremediation with regard to the beneficial flora.

  7. Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmolla, Emad S., E-mail: em_civil@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); Chaudhuri, Malay [Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} The work focused on hazardous wastewater (antibiotic wastewater) treatment. {center_dot} Complete degradation of the antibiotics achieved by the treatment process. {center_dot} The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio below 0.40. {center_dot} Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process is a feasible treatment process for the antibiotic wastewater. - Abstract: The study examined combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment of an antibiotic wastewater containing amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Optimum H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio of the photo-Fenton pretreatment were observed to be 2.5 and 20, respectively. Complete degradation of the antibiotics occurred in one min. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the wastewater treated under different photo-Fenton operating conditions (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio). The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio of the photo-Fenton treated wastewater. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that it was possible to reduce the Fe{sup 2+} dose and increase the irradiation time of the photo-Fenton pretreatment. The best operating conditions of the combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment were observed to be H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD molar ratio 2, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio 150, irradiation time 90 min and HRT of 12 h. Under the best operating conditions, 89% removal of sCOD with complete nitrification was achieved and the SBR effluent met the discharge standards.

  8. Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmolla, Emad S.; Chaudhuri, Malay

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · The work focused on hazardous wastewater (antibiotic wastewater) treatment. · Complete degradation of the antibiotics achieved by the treatment process. · The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD 5 /COD ratio below 0.40. · Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process is a feasible treatment process for the antibiotic wastewater. - Abstract: The study examined combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment of an antibiotic wastewater containing amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Optimum H 2 O 2 /COD and H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio of the photo-Fenton pretreatment were observed to be 2.5 and 20, respectively. Complete degradation of the antibiotics occurred in one min. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the wastewater treated under different photo-Fenton operating conditions (H 2 O 2 /COD and H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio). The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD 5 /COD ratio of the photo-Fenton treated wastewater. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that it was possible to reduce the Fe 2+ dose and increase the irradiation time of the photo-Fenton pretreatment. The best operating conditions of the combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment were observed to be H 2 O 2 /COD molar ratio 2, H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio 150, irradiation time 90 min and HRT of 12 h. Under the best operating conditions, 89% removal of sCOD with complete nitrification was achieved and the SBR effluent met the discharge standards.

  9. Coagulation and Adsorption Treatment of Printing Ink Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klančnik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The intention of the study was to improve the efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC and colour removal from the wastewater samples polluted with flexographic printing ink following coagulation treatments with further adsorption onto activated carbons and ground orange peel. The treatment efficiencies were compared to those of further flocculation treatments and of coagulation and adsorption processes individually. Coagulation was a relatively effective single-treatment method, removing 99.7% of the colour and 86.9% of the organic substances (TOC from the printing ink wastewater samples. Further flocculation did not further eliminate organic pollutants, whereas subsequent adsorption with 7 g/l of granular activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 35.1%, and adsorption with 7 g/l of powdered activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 59.3%. Orange peel was an inappropriate adsorbent for wastewater samples with low amounts of pollution, such as water that had been treated by coagulation. However, in highly polluted printing ink wastewater samples, the adsorption treatment with ground orange peel achieved efficiencies comparable to those of the granular activated carbon treatments.

  10. Incentives in the water chain: wastewater treatment and reuse in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengenbach, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    The proper management of wastewater and its reuse is crucial in order to reduce hazards and maintain a variety of benefits. The merits of improvements in wastewater management are particularly high where effective wastewater treatment is not in place and completely untreated wastewater is reused.

  11. Investigation of combined coagulation and advanced oxidation process efficiency for the removal of Clarithromycin from wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ahmad reza Yazdanbakhsh

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: In general the results of the performed tests indicated that combined coagulation and advanced oxidation process has high efficiency in removal of Claritromycin wastewater COD. But application this method in the industry should be surveyed.

  12. Treatment of wastewaters and methane fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescure, J P; Bourlet, P

    1980-01-01

    The laboratory, pilot plant, and industrial scale experiments were conducted on the anaerobic fermentation of spent sugar beet pulps and wastewater from wineries. The product of the fermentation was a gas typically containing CH/sub 4/ 65, CO/sub 2/ 15, H/sub 2/S 2.4, 0.3, N 0.8, and nonidentified substances 16.1 volume %. A 500 L pilot plant could process 10 kg/day of the spent beet pulp containing 20% solids and produce 500-600 L/day gas. The conversion of organic C was 66-91%.

  13. Progress report: Use of water hyacinth in wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof, Abdullah bin

    1981-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that water hyacinth shows remarkable ability to remove, besides heavy metals, BOD and COD load from wastewaters which contain mainly organic pollutants. A survey was conducted to select suitable industrial effluents for pilot field studies, in particular wastewaters which were organic in nature such as those from food industries. A proposal to set up a pilot treatment system for field studies m addition to laboratory investigations was consistent with the recommendation put forward at the First Interim Project Review Meeting held in 1980 . It has been reported that introduction of water hyacinth into digested sugar waste would significantly enhance the efficiency of purification of the waste. Brief trials with a sugar refinery effluent in the laboratory showed the possibility of subjecting the wastewater to the water hyacinth treatment system in a pilot field study and arrangements were then made for the study to be carried out at site

  14. Occurrence of antibiotics in pharmaceutical industrial wastewater, wastewater treatment plant and sea waters in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahrani, Leyla; Van Loco, Joris; Ben Mansour, Hedi; Reyns, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics are among the most commonly used group of pharmaceuticals in human medicine. They can therefore reach surface and groundwater bodies through different routes, such as wastewater treatment plant effluents, surface runoff, or infiltration of water used for agricultural purposes. It is well known that antibiotics pose a significant risk to environmental and human health, even at low concentrations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of aminoglycosides and phenicol antibiotics in municipal wastewaters, sea water and pharmaceutical effluents in Tunisia. All analysed water samples contained detectable levels of aminoglycoside and phenicol antibiotics. The highest concentrations in wastewater influents were observed for neomycin and kanamycin B (16.4 ng mL(-1) and 7.5 ng mL(-1), respectively). Chloramphenicol was found in wastewater influents up to 3 ng mL(-1). It was observed that the waste water treatment plants were not efficient in completely removing these antibiotics. Chloramphenicol and florfenicol were found in sea water samples near aquaculture sites at levels up to, respectively, 15.6 ng mL(-1) and 18.4 ng mL(-1). Also aminoglycoside antibiotics were found near aquaculture sites with the highest concentration of 3.4 ng mL(-1) for streptomycin. In pharmaceutical effluents, only gentamycin was found at concentrations up to 19 ng mL(-1) over a sampling period of four months.

  15. Persistence of pathogenic prion protein during simulated wastewater treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, G.T.; Johnson, C.J.; Jacobson, K.H.; Bartholomay, C.; Mcmahon, K.D.; McKenzie, D.; Aiken, Judd M.; Pedersen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are a class of fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting a variety of mammalian species including humans. A misfolded form of the prion protein (PrP TSE) is the major, if not sole, component of the infectious agent. Prions are highly resistant to degradation and to many disinfection procedures suggesting that, if prions enter wastewater treatment systems through sewers and/or septic systems (e.g., from slaughterhouses, necropsy laboratories, rural meat processors, private game dressing) or through leachate from landfills that have received TSE-contaminated material, prions could survive conventional wastewater treatment Here, we report the results of experiments examining the partitioning and persistence of PrPTSE during simulated wastewater treatment processes including activated and mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. Incubation with activated sludge did not result in significant PrPTSE degradation. PrPTSE and prion infectivity partitioned strongly to activated sludge solids and are expected to enter biosolids treatment processes. A large fraction of PrPTSE survived simulated mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. The small reduction in recoverable PrPTSE after 20-d anaerobic sludge digestion appeared attributable to a combination of declining extractability with time and microbial degradation. Our results suggest that if prions were to enter municipal wastewater treatment systems, most would partition to activated sludge solids, survive mesophilic anaerobic digestion, and be present in treated biosolids. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  16. Integrated Risk Framework for Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Steven; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Thomas, Evan; Hargreaves, Megan; Frost, Ray; Dawes, Les

    2006-08-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are becoming increasingly important for the treatment and dispersal of effluent in new urbanised developments that are not serviced by centralised wastewater collection and treatment systems. However, the current standards and guidelines adopted by many local authorities for assessing suitable site and soil conditions for OWTS are increasingly coming under scrutiny due to the public health and environmental impacts caused by poorly performing systems, in particular septic tank-soil adsorption systems. In order to achieve sustainable onsite wastewater treatment with minimal impacts on the environment and public health, more appropriate means of assessment are required. This paper highlights an integrated risk based approach for assessing the inherent hazards associated with OWTS in order to manage and mitigate the environmental and public health risks inherent with onsite wastewater treatment. In developing a sound and cohesive integrated risk framework for OWTS, several key issues must be recognised. These include the inclusion of relevant stakeholders throughout framework development, the integration of scientific knowledge, data and analysis with risk assessment and management ideals, and identification of the appropriate performance goals for successful management and mitigation of associated risks. These issues were addressed in the development of the risk framework to provide a generic approach to assessing risk from OWTS. The utilisation of the developed risk framework for achieving more appropriate assessment and management techniques for OWTS is presented in a case study for the Gold Coast region, Queensland State, Australia.

  17. Industrial detergent wastewater treatment via fenton reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zairie Mohd Yusuff; Mohd Zulkifli Mohamad Noor; Izirwan Izhab

    2010-01-01

    Production of detergent can generates wastewater containing an organic matter with will consume an oxidation demand, surfactants, suspended solids, fat and oil. Besides, sulfate concentration is high in the most detergent plant effluent because of the sulphonation process that has physiological and toxic effects on marine organisms. Therefore, a research must be conducted to find the solution for this problem. The feasibility of Fentons reagent to treat detergent waste was investigated in this study. The sample of detergent wastewater was taken from FPG Oleo chemicals Sdn. Bhd. This experiment studied the effect of temperature towards the feasibility of Fentons reagent process besides the dosage between hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and ferrous ion (Fe 2+ ) in the reagent. While, evaluated efficiency of Fentons reagent in term of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solid (TSS) and the turbidity reduction within the experimental design. The result found that overall removal was achieved until 96.2 % in term of COD, 98.1 % in term of TSS and 99.6 % in term of turbidity using Fentons reagent process. Besides, also found that this process is optimum at temperature 35 degree Celsius are able to achieve the Standard A of Parameter Limit of Effluent of Standard A and Standard B were outlined by Department of Environment Malaysia (DOE) based on Environment Quality Act 1974. (author)

  18. Seabrook, N.H. Wastewater Treatment Plant Chief Operator Recognized for Outstanding Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin Price, a resident of Berwick Maine and the Chief Operator of the Seabrook, N.H. Wastewater Treatment Plant, was honored by EPA with a 2016 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator of the Year Excellence Award.

  19. COMPARISON OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, TOTAL COLIFORM, AND FECAL COLIFORM POPULATIONS AS INDICATORS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli, total coliform, and fecal coliform data were collected from two wastewater treatment facilities, a subsurface constructed wetlands, and the receiving stream. Results are presented from individual wastewater treatment process streams, final effluent and river sit...

  20. Status of industrial scale radiation treatment of wastewater and its future. Proceedings of a consultants meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    Providing access to clean water resources is one of the most important objectives of the UN's Millennium Project. Contamination of surface water is a big problem for many, mostly developing countries. The main sources of liquid polluted effluents are municipalities and industry. Effective, mostly biological wastewater technologies for wastewater purification are available nowadays. However, they cannot be applied to solve all existing problems. Destruction of non-biodegradable organic compounds is one problem and biological contamination (caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc.) of sludge is another. Methods of their purification are sought. Ionizing radiation (gamma or X rays, electron beams) is a very effective form of energy, which can destroy organic or biological contaminants. The IAEA promotes and supports research on radiation treatment of liquid effluents. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Remediation of Polluted Waters and Wastewater by Radiation Processing aims to establish optimal treatment methodologies to disinfect and decontaminate actual samples of drinking water and wastewater by using ionizing radiation. Quite a few technical cooperation (TC) projects concerning radiation treatment of wastewater and sludge are under development. In the frame of one of such TC projects pilot plant for electron beam treatment of textile dyeing complex wastewater was constructed in the Republic of Korea. To discuss developments achieved under these projects and results of the pilot plant operation, the IAEA organized a consultants meeting in Daejon, Republic of Korea, 13-16 October 2003. These proceedings will be of value to research groups working in the field of radiation technology development. Developing Member States with radiation technology programmes will benefit from research in this area. The meeting dealt with advanced radiation processing of wastewater and its technical and economical aspects. It informed about high power accelerators ELV-12

  1. Applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment fields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING Xiao-xia; WANG Bo; MENG De-tao

    2005-01-01

    Current applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are summarized. Wastewater treatment plants use expert system mainly in the operation decision-making and fault diagnosis of system operation, use artificial neuron network for system modeling, water quality forecast and soft measure, and use fuzzy control technology for the intelligence control of wastewater treatment process. Finally, the main problems in applying artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are analyzed.

  2. Treatment of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Reactive Red 198 by Electrocoagulation Process

    OpenAIRE

    N.M Mahmoodi; A Ameri; M Gholami; A Jonidi jafari; A Dalvand

    2011-01-01

    "nBackground and Objectives: Discharge of textile colored wastewater industries without providing enough treatment in water bodies, is harmful for human and aquatic organisms and poses serious damages to the environment. Most of conventional wastewater treatment methods don't have enough efficiency to remove textile dyes from colored wastewater; thus in this research the efficiency of electrocoagulation treatment process with aluminum electrodes for treatment of a synthetic wastewater co...

  3. Development of an irradiation device for electron beam wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rela, Paulo Roberto

    2003-01-01

    When domestic or industrial effluents with synthetic compounds are disposed without an adequate treatment, they impact negatively the environment with damages to aquatic life and for the human being. Both population and use of goods and services that contribute for the hazardous waste are growing. Hazardous regulations are becoming more restrictive and technologies, which do not destroy these products, are becoming less acceptable. The electron beam radiation process is an advanced oxidation process, that produces highly reactive radicals resulting in mineralization of the contaminant. In this work was developed an irradiation system in order to optimize the interaction of electron beam delivered from the accelerator with the processed effluent. It is composed by an irradiation device where the effluent presents to the electron beam in an up flow stream and a process control unit that uses the calorimetric principle. The developed irradiation device has a different configuration from the devices used by others researchers that are working with this technology. It was studied the technical and economic feasibility, comparing with the literature the results of the irradiation device demonstrated that it has a superior performance, becoming an process for use in disinfection and degradation of hazardous organic compounds of wastewater from domestic and industrial origin, contributing as an alternative technology for Sanitary Engineering. (author)

  4. Treatment of Furfural Wastewater by (AOPs Photo-Fenton Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmen A. Mustafa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs in the treatment of wastewater contaminated with furfural. The AOPs investigated is the homogeneous photo-Fenton (UV/H2O2/Fe+2 process. The experiments were conducted by using cylindrical stainless steel batch photo-reactor. The influence of different variables: initial concentration of H2O2 (300-1300mg/L, Fe+2(20-70mg/L, pH(2-7 and initial concentration of furfural (50-300 mg/L and their relationship with the mineralization efficiency were studied. Complete mineralization for the system UV/H2O2/Fe+2 was achieved at: initial H2O2 = 1300mg/L, Fe+2 = 30mg/L, pH=3, temperature =30oC and irradiation time of 60 min, for 300mg/L furfural concentration. The results have shown that the oxidation reagent H2O2 plays a very important role in the furfural mineralization.

  5. Wastewater treatment using hybrid treatment schemes based on cavitation and Fenton chemistry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagal, Manisha V; Gogate, Parag R

    2014-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes such as cavitation and Fenton chemistry have shown considerable promise for wastewater treatment applications due to the ease of operation and simple reactor design. In this review, hybrid methods based on cavitation coupled with Fenton process for the treatment of wastewater have been discussed. The basics of individual processes (Acoustic cavitation, Hydrodynamic cavitation, Fenton chemistry) have been discussed initially highlighting the need for combined processes. The different types of reactors used for the combined processes have been discussed with some recommendations for large scale operation. The effects of important operating parameters such as solution temperature, initial pH, initial pollutant concentration and Fenton's reagent dosage have been discussed with guidelines for selection of optimum parameters. The optimization of power density is necessary for ultrasonic processes (US) and combined processes (US/Fenton) whereas the inlet pressure needs to be optimized in the case of Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) based processes. An overview of different pollutants degraded under optimized conditions using HC/Fenton and US/Fenton process with comparison with individual processes have been presented. It has been observed that the main mechanism for the synergy of the combined process depends on the generation of additional hydroxyl radicals and its proper utilization for the degradation of the pollutant, which is strongly dependent on the loading of hydrogen peroxide. Overall, efficient wastewater treatment with high degree of energy efficiency can be achieved using combined process operating under optimized conditions, as compared to the individual process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Foraging at wastewater treatment works increases the potential for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater treatment works (WWTWs) are known to provide profitable foraging areas for insectivorous bats in Europe and the New World because of their association with high abundance of pollution-tolerant midges (Diptera). However, bats that feed on these insects may also accumulate metal pollutants such as cadmium ...

  7. A systematic methodology for controller tuning in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Jørgensen, S.B.; Sin, G.

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants are typically subject to continuous disturbances caused by influent variations which exhibits diurnal patterns as well as stochastic changes due to rain and storm water events. In order to achieve an efficient operation, the control system of the plant should be able t...

  8. Sludge Reduction by Lumbriculus Variegatus in Ahvaz Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hendrickx

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensivehealth hazards. Application of aquatic worm is an approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. In the present research reduction of the amount of waste sludge from Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant was studied with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a reactor concept. The sludge reduction in the reactor with worm was compared to sludge reduction in a blank reactor (without worm.The effects of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO concentration up to 3 mg/L (run 1 and up to 6 mg/L (run 2 were studied in the worm and blank reactors. No meaningful relationship was found between DO concentration and the rate of total suspended solids reduction. Theaverage sludge reductions were obtained as 33% (run 2 and 32% (run 1 in worm reactor,and 16% (run 1 and 12% (run 2 in the blank reactor. These results showed that the worm reactors may reduce the waste sludge between 2 and 2.75 times higher than in the blankconditions. The obtained results showed that the worm reactor has a high potential for use in large-scale sludge processing.

  9. Current status of radiation treatment of water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    This is a brief review of the current status of radiation treatment of surface water, groundwater, wastewaters, and sewage sludges. Sources of ionizing radiation, and combination radiation methods for purification are described in some detail. Special attention is paid to pilot and industrial facilities. (author)

  10. Lipase-producing fungi for potential wastewater treatment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of fungal biomass as a lipase biocatalyst represents an attractive approach for the treatments of oil wastewater as well as for the production of biodiesel from oil and residual grease, due to its greater stability, possibility of reuse, and lower cost. In this work, 20 filamentous fungi were isolated from the grease trap ...

  11. Assessment of dairy wastewater treatment and its potential for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent of pollution of dairy wastewater treated in a septic tank and its potential for biogas production was investigated. Performance of the existing treatment system was assessed through characterization of both raw and treated effluents. From the analysis parameters likeChemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical ...

  12. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants, Manual of Practice No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Orrie E.; And Others

    This book is intended to be a reference or textbook on the operation of wastewater treatment plants. The book contains thirty-one chapters and three appendices and includes the description, requirements, and latest techniques of conventional unit process operation, as well as the symptoms and corrective measures regarding process problems. Process…

  13. Guidelines to Career Development for Wastewater Treatment Plant Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Education and Manpower Planning.

    The guidelines were written to promote job growth and improvement in the personnel who manage, operate, and maintain wastewater treatment plants. Trained operators and technicians are the key components in any water pollution control facility. The approach is to move from employment to training through specific modules for 21 standard job…

  14. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Home Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater treatment plant operators to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. The objective of this manual is to provide the knowledge and skills necessary for certification. Participants learn the basic operational aspects of treatment…

  15. Benchmarking Biological Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant...

  16. Efficiency of domestic wastewater treatment plant for agricultural reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Fonseca Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for water has made the treatment and reuse of wastewater a topic of global importance. This work aims to monitor and evaluate the efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant’s (WWTP physical and biological treatment of wastewater by measuring the reduction of organic matter content of the effluent during the treatment and the disposal of nutrients in the treated residue. The WWTP has been designed to treat 2500 liters of wastewater per day in four compartments: a septic tank, a microalgae tank, an upflow anaerobic filter and wetlands with cultivation of Zantedeschia aethiopica L. A plant efficiency of 90% of organic matter removal was obtained, resulting in a suitable effluent for fertigation, including Na and Ca elements that showed high levels due to the accumulation of organic matter in the upflow anaerobic filter and wetlands. The WWTP removes nitrogen and phosphorus by the action of microalgae and macrophytes used in the process. The final effluent includes important agricultural elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and potassium and, together with the load of organic matter and salts, meets the determination of NBR 13,969/1997 (Standard of the Brazilian Technical Standards Association for reuse in agriculture, but periodic monitoring of soil salinity is necessary.

  17. Treatment of grain distillation wastewaters in an upflow anaerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In operation of the full-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) system at the Stellenbosch Farmers' Winery (SFW) Wellington distillery, a problem encountered in the treatment of grain distillation wastewater was the accumulation of a floating scum layer. On occasion this was so severe that it forced shutdown of the UASB ...

  18. Behavior of natural radionuclides in wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, A.; Montaña, M.; Vallés, I.; Devesa, R.; Céspedes-Sánchez, R.; Serrano, I.; Blázquez, S.; Barjola, V.

    2012-01-01

    56 samples, including influent, primary effluent, secondary effluent and final effluent wastewater from two Spanish municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), were analyzed to assess both the occurrence and behavior of natural radioactivity during 12 sampling campaigns carried out over the period 2007–2010. Influent and final effluent wastewaters were sampled by taking into account the hydraulic residence time within the WWTP. A wide range of gross alpha activities (15–129 mBq/L) and gross beta activities (477–983 mBq/L) in liquid samples were obtained. A correlation analysis between radioactivity in liquid samples and the performance characteristics of the WWTPs was performed. The results in liquid samples showed that gross beta activities were not influenced by treatment in the studied WWTPs. However, gross alpha activities behave differently and an increase was detected in the effluent values compared with influent wastewater. This behavior was due to the increase in the total dissolved uranium produced during secondary treatment. The results indicate that the radiological characteristics of the effluents do not present a significant radiological risk and make them suitable for future applications. - Highlights: ► Liquids from WWTPs were analyzed to know the behavior of natural radionuclides. ► Gross beta activities were not influenced by treatment in the studied WWTPs. ► Increase in gross alpha activity was observed due to uranium desorption/solubilisation. ► Correlation between gross alpha activity and the chemical oxygen demand was found

  19. Operation and effluent quality of a small rural wastewater treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of effluent and sludge discharges of an abattoir wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) on the operation of a municipal aerated pond WWTP. Experiments were carried out in Cervera WWTP, located in northeastern Spain, which comprises four ponds operating in series.

  20. Methodology for Plantwide Design and Optimization of Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maria Dragan, Johanna; Zubov, Alexandr; Sin, Gürkan

    2017-01-01

    Design of Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is a complex engineering task which requires integration of knowledge and experience from environmental biotechnology, process engineering, process synthesis and design as well as mathematical programming. A methodology has been formulated and applied...... for the systematic analysis and development of plantwide design of WWTPs using mathematical optimization and statistical methods such as sensitivity and uncertainty analyses....

  1. Public and Private Management of Wastewater Treatment: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Laurence J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The costs and performance of contract management of municipal wastewater treatment facilities are considered, using information from a nationwide empirical examination of evidence from individual plants, municipalities, and regulatory agencies. The broad issues arising in the evaluation are outlined as the specifics are discussed. (SLD)

  2. STUDY ON OIL WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH POLYMERIC REAGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA BUCUROIU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Used the polymeric reagents in oil wastewater treatment is an effective method of eliminate hydrocarbons. The present study aims to finding reagents that lead to lowering of extractible (EXT, suspended solids (SS and chemical oxygen demand (COD of industrial wastewater from washing cars in loading ramps petroleum products. For this purpose five reagents were tested, namely: polyamines, cationic polyacrylamides, polydiallydimethyl ammonium chloride (PolyDADMAC, melamine formaldehyde polymer resin and polydicyandiamide polymer resin. Obtaining removal degrees over 80 % justifies using this method in the industrial practice.

  3. Electrochemical treatment of pharmaceutical and industrial wastewater by anodic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menapace, H. M.; Fellerer, M.; Treschnitzer, M.

    2009-01-01

    In modern medicine pharmaceuticals play a decisive role: because of an increased life expectancy and intensive care medicine an increasing amount of pharmaceuticals is produced. thus these substances are consumed in a mass of tons per year in industrialized countries. Wastewater effluents from sewage treatment plants (STP) are important point sources for residues of pharmaceuticals and complexing agents in the aquatic environment. For this reason a research project, which started in December 2006, was established to eliminate pharmaceutical substances and complexing agents found in wastewater as micropollutants. (Author)

  4. Efficiency of electrical coagulation process using aluminum electrodes for municipal wastewater treatment: a case study at Karaj wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Gholami Yengejeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The reuse of treated municipal wastewater is an important source of water for different purposes. This study evaluated the efficiency of the electrocoagulation process in removing turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS, chemical oxygen demand (COD, nitrate, and phosphate from wastewater at the treatment facility in Karaj, Iran. Methods: This experimental study was performed at a pilot scale and in a batch system. A 4-liter tank made from safety glass with 4 plate electrodes made from aluminum was unipolarly connected to a direct current power supply with a parallel arrangement. Wastewater samples were taken from the influent at the Karaj wastewater treatment facility. Rates of turbidity, TSS, COD, nitrate, and phosphate removal under different conditions were determined. Results: The highest efficiency of COD, TSS, nitrate, turbidity, and phosphate elimination was achieved at a voltage of 30 volts and a reaction time of 30 minutes. The rates were 88.43%, 87.39%, 100%, 80.52%, and 82.69%, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, electrocoagulation is an appropriate method for use in removing nitrate, phosphate, COD, turbidity, and TSS from wastewater.

  5. Treatment of heavy oil wastewater by UASB-BAFs using the combination of yeast and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Ling

    2015-01-01

    A novel system integrating an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a two-stage biological aerated filter (BAF) system was investigated as advanced treatment of heavy oil wastewater with large amounts of dissolved recalcitrant organic substances and low levels of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients. #1 BAF, inoculated with two yeast strains (Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula dairenensis), was installed in the upper reaches of #2 BAF inoculated with activated sludge. During the 180-day study period, the chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), oil and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the wastewater were removed by 90.2%, 90.8%, 86.5% and 89.4%, respectively. Although the wastewater qualities fluctuated and the hydraulic retention time continuously decreased, the effluent quality index met the national discharge standard steadily. The UASB process greatly improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, while #1 BAF played an important role not only in degrading COD but also in removing oil and high molecular weight PAHs. This work demonstrates that the hybrid UASB-BAFs system containing yeast-bacteria consortium has the potential to be used in bioremediation of high-strength oily wastewater.

  6. Treatment and valorization of olive mill wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Slimani Alaoui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the physicochemical process with lime and ferric chloride in removing the pollution generated by the olive mill wastewaters (OMW .The characterization of the samples has shown that they are acidic, with a black color and a strong organic load due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The combination of the lime and the ferric chloride allows the removal of 87% of the total suspended solid (TSs, 58% of chemical oxygen demand (COD and 75% of Phenolic compounds. After purification the treated OMW were valorised as wash water or used for irrigation of green spaces and the generated sludge were dried and used to combustion. 

  7. Operation, Maintenance and Management of Wastewater Treatment Facilities: A Bibliography of Technical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Dottie

    This is an annotated bibliography of wastewater treatment manuals. Fourteen manuals are abstracted including: (1) A Planned Maintenance Management System for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants; (2) Anaerobic Sludge Digestion, Operations Manual; (3) Emergency Planning for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities; (4) Estimating Laboratory Needs…

  8. Problematic effects of antibiotics on anaerobic treatment of swine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D L; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Chang, S W; Nguyen, D D; Kumar, S Mathava; Du, B; Wei, Q; Wei, D

    2018-05-04

    Swine wastewaters with high levels of organic pollutants and antibiotics have become serious environmental concerns. Anaerobic technology is a feasible option for swine wastewater treatment due to its advantage in low costs and bioenergy production. However, antibiotics in swine wastewater have problematic effects on micro-organisms, and the stability and performance of anaerobic processes. Thus, this paper critically reviews impacts of antibiotics on pH, COD removal efficiencies, biogas and methane productions as well as the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the anaerobic processes. Meanwhile, impacts on the structure of bacteria and methanogens in anaerobic processes are also discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, to better understand the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes, detailed information about antimicrobial mechanisms of antibiotics and microbial functions in anaerobic processes is also summarized. Future research on deeper knowledge of the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes are suggested to reduce their adverse environmental impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy Data Management Manual for the Wastewater Treatment Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemar, Paul [Resource Dynamics Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); De Fontaine, Andre [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Energy efficiency has become a higher priority within the wastewater treatment sector, with facility operators and state and local governments ramping up efforts to reduce energy costs and improve environmental performance. Across the country, municipal wastewater treatment plants are estimated to consume more than 30 terawatt hours per year of electricity, which equates to about $2 billion in annual electric costs. Electricity alone can constitute 25% to 40% of a wastewater treatment plant’s annual operating budget and make up a significant portion of a given municipality’s total energy bill. These energy needs are expected to grow over time, driven by population growth and increasingly stringent water quality requirements. The purpose of this document is to describe the benefits of energy data management, explain how it can help drive savings when linked to a strong energy management program, and provide clear, step-by-step guidance to wastewater treatment plants on how to appropriately track energy performance. It covers the basics of energy data management and related concepts and describes different options for key steps, recognizing that a single approach may not work for all agencies. Wherever possible, the document calls out simpler, less time-intensive approaches to help smaller plants with more limited resources measure and track energy performance. Reviews of key, publicly available energy-tracking tools are provided to help organizations select a tool that makes the most sense for them. Finally, this document describes additional steps wastewater treatment plant operators can take to build on their energy data management systems and further accelerate energy savings.

  10. Supported graphene oxide hollow fibre membrane for oily wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Nur Hidayati; Alias, Nur Hashimah; Shahruddin, Munawar Zaman; Hussein, Siti Nurliyana Che Mohamed; Dollah, Aqilah

    2017-12-01

    Oil and gas industry deals with a large amount of undesirable discharges of liquid, solid, and gaseous wastes and the amounts can considerably change during the production phases. Oilfield wastewater or produced water is known to constitute various organic and inorganic components. Discharging the produced water can pollute surface and underground water and therefore the necessity to treat this oily wastewater is an inevitable challenge. The current technologies for the treatment of this metastable oil-in-water are not really effective and very pricey. As a result, there is a great interest from many parties around the world in finding cost-effective technologies. In recent years, membrane processes have been utilized for oily wastewater treatment. In these work, a graphene oxide membrane supported on a highly porous Al2O3 hollow fibre was prepared using vacuum assisted technique and its performance in treating oily wastewater was investigated. Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared using a modified Hummer's method and further characterized using XRD, FTIR, TGA and SEM. The results showed that the GO was successfully synthesized. The GO membrane was deposited on alumina hollow fibre substrates. The membrane performance was then investigated using dead-end filtration setup with synthetic oily wastewater as a feed. The effects of operating times on rejection rate and permeate flux were investigated. The experimental results showed that the oil rejections were over 90%. It was concluded that the supported GO membrane developed in this study may be considered feasible in treating oily wastewater. Detail study on the effects of transmembrane pressure, oil concentration, pH and fouling should be carried out in the future

  11. Carbon footprint of four different wastewater treatment scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diafarou, Moumouni; Mariska, Ronteltap, ,, Dr.; Damir, Brdjanovic, ,, Prof.

    2014-05-01

    Since the era of industrialization, concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) have tremendously increased in the atmosphere, as a result of the extensive use of fossil fuels, deforestation, improper waste management, transport, and other economic activities (Boer, 2008).This has led to a great accumulation of greenhouse gases, forming a blanket around the Earth which contributes in the so-called "Global Warming". Over the last decades, wastewater treatment has developed strongly and has become a very important asset in mitigating the impact of domestic and industrial effluents on the environment. There are many different forms of wastewater treatment, and one of the most effective treatment technology in terms COD, N and P removal, activated sludge is often criticized for its high energy use. Some other treatment concepts have a more "green" image, but it is not clear whether this image is justified based on their greenhouse gas emission. This study focuses on the estimation of GHG emissions of four different wastewater treatment configurations, both conventional and innovative systems namely: (1) Harnaschpolder, (2) Sneek, (3) EIER-Ouaga and (4) Siddhipur. This analysis is based on COD mass balance, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 guidelines for estimating CO2 and CH4, and literature review. Furthermore, the energy requirements for each of the systems were estimated based on energy survey. The study showed that an estimated daily average of 87 g of CO2 equivalent, ranging between 38 to 192 g, was derived to be the per capita CO2 emission for the four different wastewater treatment scenarios. Despite the fact that no electrical energy is used in the treatment process, the GHG emission from EIER Ouaga anaerobic pond systems is found to be the highest compared to the three other scenarios analysed. It was estimated 80% higher than the most favourable scenario (Sneek). Moreover, the results indicate that the GHGs emitted from these WWTPs are

  12. Membrane bio-reactor for textile wastewater treatment plant upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubello, C; Gori, R

    2005-01-01

    Textile industries carry out several fiber treatments using variable quantities of water, from five to forty times the fiber weight, and consequently generate large volumes of wastewater to be disposed of. Membrane Bio-reactors (MBRs) combine membrane technology with biological reactors for the treatment of wastewater: micro or ultrafiltration membranes are used for solid-liquid separation replacing the secondary settling of the traditional activated sludge system. This paper deals with the possibility of realizing a new section of one existing WWTP (activated sludge + clariflocculation + ozonation) for the treatment of treating textile wastewater to be recycled, equipped with an MBR (76 l/s as design capacity) and running in parallel with the existing one. During a 4-month experimental period, a pilot-scale MBR proved to be very effective for wastewater reclamation. On average, removal efficiency of the pilot plant (93% for COD, and over 99% for total suspended solids) was higher than the WWTP ones. Color was removed as in the WWTP. Anionic surfactants removal of pilot plant was lower than that of the WWTP (90.5 and 93.2% respectively), while the BiAS removal was higher in the pilot plant (98.2 vs. 97.1). At the end cost analysis of the proposed upgrade is reported.

  13. Treatment of Wastewater by Ozone Produced in Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bhatta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is rapid diminishing of water resources in many countries due to, for example, population growth and constant reduction in fresh water supply. The sewage wastewater, industrial effluents, and municipal wastewater are directly and indiscriminately discharged into rivers and lakes and thus primarily cause water pollution in Nepal. This has increased the water crisis and also causes environmental deterioration. Therefore, the need for the development of an effective, cheap, and environmentally friendly process for the treatment of wastewater before discharging into aquatic environment has emerged. Treatment by ozone produced from dielectric barrier discharge is one of the emerging technologies for such application. The ozonation process is more effective for disinfection and degradation of organic pollutants from water. The current study describes the treatment of wastewater of selected site within Kathmandu. Results on various physicochemical and microbial parameters of the inlet and outlet samples are discussed. Our results showed slight increase in pH, decrease in chemical oxygen demand, and significant increase in dissolved oxygen after ozonation. Importantly, ozonation caused total reduction of fecal coliform.

  14. Treatment of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewater by wet air oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Luan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wet air oxidation (WAO is one of the most economical and environmentally-friendly advanced oxidation processes. It makes a promising technology for the treatment of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. In wet air oxidation aqueous waste is oxidized in the liquid phase at high temperatures (125–320 °C and pressures (0.5–20 MPa in the presence of an oxygen-containing gas (usually air. The advantages of the process include low operating costs and minimal air pollution discharges. The present review is concerned about the literature published in the treatment of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters, such as dyes. Phenolics were taken as model pollutants in most cases. Reports on effect of treatment for the WAO of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters are reviewed, such as emulsified wastewater, TNT red water, etc. Discussions are also made on the mechanism and kinetics of WAO and main technical parameters influencing WAO. Finally, development direction of WAO is summed up.

  15. Reduction of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Fecal Indicators by Bardenpho Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Bradley W; Moriyama, Hitoha; Haramoto, Eiji; Kitajima, Masaaki; Sherchan, Samendra; Gerba, Charles P; Pepper, Ian L

    2018-06-19

    Increased demand for water reuse and reclamation accentuates the importance for optimal wastewater treatment to limit protozoa in effluents. Two wastewater treatment plants utilizing advanced Bardenpho were investigated over a 12-month period to determine the incidence and reduction of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Cyclospora, and fecal indicators. Results were compared to facilities that previously operated in the same geographical area. Protozoa (oo)cysts were concentrated using an electronegative filter and subsequently detected by fluorescent microscopy and/or PCR methods. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were frequently detected in raw sewage, but Cyclospora was not detected in any wastewater samples. Facilities with Bardenpho treatment exhibited higher removals of (oo)cysts than facilities utilizing activated sludge or trickling filters. This was likely due to Bardenpho systems having increased solid wasting rates; however, this mechanism cannot be confirmed as sludge samples were not analyzed. Use of dissolved-air-flotation instead of sedimentation tanks did not result in more efficient removal of (oo)cysts. Concentrations of protozoa were compared with each other, Escherichia coli, somatic coliphage, and viruses (pepper mild mottle virus, Aichi virus 1, adenovirus, and polyomaviruses JC and BK). Although significant correlations were rare, somatic coliphage showed the highest potential as an indicator for the abundance of protozoa in wastewaters.

  16. Wastewater Sludge Stabilization Using Lime A Case Study of West Ahwaz Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Farzadkia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lime stabilization is a chemical method used for wastewater sludge stabilization. It is capable of decreasing large quantities of pathogens and of preventing microbial degradation of sludge organic materials. The main objective of the present experimental research was to investigate stabilization of the sludge from west Ahwaz wastewater treatment plant by lime addition and to control if the microbial quality of this sludge conforms to the USEPA standards for sludge reuse and safe disposal. The study was carried out on a pilot scale in 5 stages over a period of 12 months (July 2005 to June 2006 at west Ahwaz wastewater treatment plant laboratory using raw sludge. For the purposes of this study, a 30-liter reactor was commissioned and loaded with sludge and appropriate quantities of hydrated lime were added based on the solid waste percent. The parameters used to determine stabilization efficiency were pH, Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform, and parasite eggs. The results showed that lime addition at a ratio of 265g Ca(OH2/kg. ds was the optimum level for sludge stabilization in westAhwazwastewater treatment plant, which is acceptable from both economic and technical viewpoints. The method is capable of achieving class B but never satisfied class A of USEPA standards.

  17. PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR TREATMENT WETLAND APPLICATION FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN DISPERSED DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Gajewska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the conducted analyses of pre-feasibility study of different approaches for wastewater management in a settlement of 180 persons. In the assessment both technical and economic aspects were analyzed. The costs were calculated for three different and, at the same time, most popular as well as possible technical solutions like: (i construction of local wastewater treatment plant with gravitational and pressurized networks, (ii construction of single family wastewater treatment plants, (iii construction of sealed septic tanks. Carried out analyses of investment and maintenance costs revealed that at the stage of construction the most expensive is local sewer network with treatment plant, while the construction of a single family treatment plant has similar cost regardless of the technology used. When the long term operation and investment cost are accounted the most economical reasonable solution is the application of wetland treatment for household wastewater treatment.

  18. Strategies to Combat Antibiotic Resistance in the Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Barancheshme

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this manuscript is to review different treatment strategies and mechanisms for combating the antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs in the wastewater environment. The high amount of antibiotics is released into the wastewater that may promote selection of ARB and ARGs which find their way into natural environments. Emerging microbial pathogens and increasing antibiotic resistance among them is a global public health issue. The propagation and spread of ARB and ARGs in the environment may result in an increase of antibiotic resistant microbial pathogens which is a worldwide environmental and public health concern. A proper treatment of wastewater is essential before its discharge into rivers, lake, or sewage system to prevent the spread of ARB and ARGs into the environment. This review discusses various treatment options applied for combating the spread of ARB and ARGs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. It was reported that low-energy anaerobic–aerobic treatment reactors, constructed wetlands, and disinfection processes have shown good removal efficiencies. Nanomaterials and biochar combined with other treatment methods and coagulation process are very recent strategies regarding ARB and ARGs removal and need more investigation and research. Based on current studies a wide-ranging removal efficiency of ARGs can be achieved depending on the type of genes present and treatment processes used, still, there are gaps that need to be further investigated. In order to find solutions to control dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the environment, it is important to (1 study innovative strategies in large scale and over a long time to reach an actual evaluation, (2 develop risk assessment studies to precisely understand occurrence and abundance of ARB/ARGs so that their potential risks to human health can be determined, and (3 consider operating and environmental factors that affect the

  19. Occurrence and fate of illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in wastewater from two wastewater treatment plants in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Causanilles, A.; Ruepert, C.; Ibáñez, M.; Emke, E.; Hernández, F.; de Voogt, P.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical analysis of raw wastewater in order to assess the presence of biological markers entering a wastewater treatment plant can provide objective information about the health and lifestyle of the population connected to the sewer system. This work was performed in a tropical country of Central

  20. Advanced oxidation process-biological system for wastewater containing a recalcitrant pollutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, I; Malato, S; Sánchez-Pérez, J A; Maldonado, M I; Gernjak, W; Pérez-Estrada, L A

    2007-01-01

    Two advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), ozonation and photo-Fenton, combined with a pilot aerobic biological reactor at field scale were employed for the treatment of industrial non-biodegradable saline wastewater (TOC around 200 mgL(-1)) containing a biorecalcitrant compound, alpha-methylphenylglycine (MPG), at a concentration of 500 mgL(-1). Ozonation experiments were performed in a 50-L reactor with constant inlet ozone of 21.9 g m(-3). Solar photo-Fenton tests were carried out in a 75-L pilot plant made up of four compound parabolic collector (CPC) units. The catalyst concentration employed in this system was 20 mgL(-1) of Fe2+ and the H2O2 concentration was kept in the range of 200-500mgL(-1). Complete degradation of MPG was attained after 1,020 min of ozone treatment, while only 195 min were required for photo-Fenton. Samples from different stages of both AOPs were taken for Zahn-Wellens biocompatibility tests. Biodegradability enhancement of the industrial saline wastewater was confirmed (>70% biodegradability). Biodegradable compounds generated during the preliminary oxidative processes were biologically mineralised in a 170-L aerobic immobilised biomass reactor (IBR). The global efficiency of both AOP/biological combined systems was 90% removal of an initial TOC of over 500 mgL(-1).

  1. Treatment of laundry wastewater by biological and electrocoagulation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramcharan, Terelle; Bissessur, Ajay

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes an improvement in the current electrocoagulation treatment process and focuses on a comparative study for the clean-up of laundry wastewater (LWW) after each wash and rinse cycle by biological and electrocoagulation treatment methods. For biological treatment, the wastewater was treated with a Bacillus strain of aerobic bacteria especially suited for the degradation of fats, lipids, protein, detergents and hydrocarbons. Treatment of the LWW by electrocoagulation involved the oxidation of aluminium metal upon the application of a controlled voltage which produces various aluminium hydroxy species capable of adsorbing pollutants from the wastewater. The efficiency of the clean-up of LWW using each method was assessed by determination of surfactant concentration, chemical oxygen demand and total dissolved solids. A rapid decrease in surfactant concentration was noted within 0.5 hour of electrocoagulation, whereas a notable decrease in the surfactant concentration was observed only after 12 hour of biological treatment. The rapid generation of aluminium hydroxy species in the electrocoagulation cell allowed adsorption of pollutants at a faster rate when compared to the aerobic degradation of the surfactant; hence a reduced period of time is required for treatment of LWW by electrocoagulation.

  2. Post treatment of antibiotic wastewater by adsorption on activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullai, P.; Rajesh, V.

    2018-02-01

    The most common method of treating industrial wastewater involves biomethanation in anaerobic digesters. This biological treatment process is ineffective in color removal and it requires post-treatment methods. The color is the first contaminant in wastewater which affects the water bodies in several ways. As the anaerobically digested antibiotic wastewater was found with color, an attempt was made to remove color using granulated activated carbon as an adsorbent. Experiments were carried out in batch reactors to find out the color removal efficiency of the wastewater at four different dosages such as 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg of adsorbent material at each of the four different initial concentrations of effluent like 1956, 1450, 1251 and 1040 mg COD/L. The steady state values of color removal efficiencies were 96.6, 97.64, 98.64 and 99.63%, respectively, using 100 mg of activated carbon under shaking condition at the end of the 120th min. The effect of contact time on the percentage of color removal was also studied. It was observed that the adsorption of effluent obtained equilibrium at 120 minutes. The equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms.

  3. The effects of physicochemical wastewater treatment operations on forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix Nielsen, Claus; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2017-09-01

    Raw municipal wastewater from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was physicochemically pretreated in a large pilot-scale system comprising coagulation, flocculation, microsieve and microfiltration operated in various configurations. The produced microsieve filtrates and microfiltration permeates were then concentrated using forward osmosis (FO). Aquaporin Inside TM FO membranes were used for both the microsieve filtrate and microfiltration permeates, and Hydration Technologies Inc.-thin-film composite membranes for the microfiltration permeate using only NaCl as the draw solution. The FO performance was evaluated in terms of the water flux, water flux decline and solute rejections of biochemical oxygen demand, and total and soluble phosphorus. The obtained results were compared with the results of FO after only mechanical pretreatment. The FO permeates satisfied the Swedish discharge demands for small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants. The study demonstrates that physicochemical pretreatment can improve the FO water flux by up to 20%. In contrast, the solute rejection decreases significantly compared to the FO-treated wastewater with mechanical pretreatment.

  4. A critical review on textile wastewater treatments: Possible approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holkar, Chandrakant R; Jadhav, Ananda J; Pinjari, Dipak V; Mahamuni, Naresh M; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2016-11-01

    Waste water is a major environmental impediment for the growth of the textile industry besides the other minor issues like solid waste and resource waste management. Textile industry uses many kinds of synthetic dyes and discharge large amounts of highly colored wastewater as the uptake of these dyes by fabrics is very poor. This highly colored textile wastewater severely affects photosynthetic function in plant. It also has an impact on aquatic life due to low light penetration and oxygen consumption. It may also be lethal to certain forms of marine life due to the occurrence of component metals and chlorine present in the synthetic dyes. So, this textile wastewater must be treated before their discharge. In this article, different treatment methods to treat the textile wastewater have been presented along with cost per unit volume of treated water. Treatment methods discussed in this paper involve oxidation methods (cavitation, photocatalytic oxidation, ozone, H2O2, fentons process), physical methods (adsorption and filtration), biological methods (fungi, algae, bacteria, microbial fuel cell). This review article will also recommend the possible remedial measures to treat different types of effluent generated from each textile operation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Kinetic coefficients for the biological treatment of tannery wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydar, S.

    2008-01-01

    Determination of kinetic coefficients for a particular wastewater is imperative for the rational design of biological treatment-facilities. The present study was undertaken with the objective of finding out kinetic coefficients for tannery wastewater. A bench-scale model of aerated lagoon, consisting of an aeration tank and final clarifier, was use to conduct the studies. The model was operated continuously for 96 days, by varying the detention times from 3 to 9 days. Influent for the aerated lagoon was settled tannery wastewater. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of the influent and effluent and the mixed-liquor suspended solids (MLSS) of aeration tank were determined at various detention-times so as to generate data for kinetic coefficients. The kinetic coefficients k, Ks, Y and Ed were found to be 3.125 day/sup -1/, 488 mg/L, 0.64 and 0.035 day/sup -1/ respectively. Overall rate-constant of BOD, removal 'K' was also determined and was found to be 1.43 day/sup -1/. Kinetic coefficients were determined, at mean reactor-temperature of 30.2 degree C. These coefficients may be utilized for the design of biological-treatment facilities for tannery wastewater. (author)

  6. Nutrient recovery from airplane wastewater: composition, treatment and ecotoxicological assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Jorge Luiz da Paixão; Tonetti, Adriano Luiz; Guimarães, Martha Tavanielli; Silva, Dailto

    2017-04-01

    For the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games, Brazil has expanded its airport infrastructure. This will lead to an increase in wastewater generation from aircrafts. This wastewater is traditionally taken from the aircrafts and disposed in the public sewage collection system. However, this residual water may have a different composition than the usual sanitary sewage. Therefore, it is important to study an alternative to treat this kind of wastewater. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize and analyze the treatment of wastewater from airplane toilets through chemical precipitation for the removal of ammonia in the form of struvite. The airplanes' effluent showed a composition similar to human urine with pH 8.9, ammonia nitrogen 4,215 mg L -1 , phosphorus 430 mg L -1 and a very high acute toxicity (Vibrio fischeri). The best treatment for struvite formation was with pH 9.0 and molar ratio Mg:NH 4 :PO 4 equal to 1.5:1.0:1.0. In this case, the removal of ammonia and phosphorus achieved 97.0% and 95.3%, respectively. After this procedure, the toxicity by Vibrio fischeri decreased.

  7. Influences of mechanical pre-treatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada

    2016-01-01

    municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pre-treatment configurations, e.g., direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forward osmosis was tested using raw wastewater and wastewater subjected to different types of mechanical pre-treatment......, e.g., microsieving and microfiltration permeation, as a potential technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis was performed using thin-film-composite, Aquaporin Inside(TM) and HTI membranes with NaCl as the draw solution. Both types of forward osmosis membranes were tested......-sized wastewater treatment plants....

  8. Biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment from organic wastewater by anaerobic fermentation with UASB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Yong-feng; Wang, Yi-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    In order to discuss the ability of H2-production and wastewater treatment, an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) using a synthesized substrate with brown sugar wastewater was conducted to investigate the hydrogen yield, hydrogen producing rate, fermentation type of biohydrogen production, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate, respectively. The results show that when the biomass of inoculants was 22.5 g SSṡL-1 and the influent concentration, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and initial pH were within the ranges of 4000˜6000 mg CODṡL-1, 8 h and 5-5.5, respectively, and the biohydrogen producing reactor could work effectively. The maximum hydrogen production rate is 5.98 Lṡd-1. Simultaneously, the concentration of ethanol and acetic acid is around 80% of the aqueous terminal production in the system, which presents the typical ethanol type fermentation. pH is at the range of 4˜4.5 during the whole performing process, however, the removal rate of COD is just about 20%. Therefore, it's still needs further research to successfully achieve the biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment, simultaneously.

  9. Application of Ionizing Radiation on the Cork Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, R.; Madureira, J.; Verde, S. Cabo; Nunes, I.; Santos, P. M.P.; Silva, T.; Leal, J. P.; Botelho, M. L. [Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Sacavém (Portugal)

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the CRP on “Radiation treatment of wastewater for reuse with particular focus on wastewaters containing organic pollutants” Portuguese team is been developed studies on the implementation of ionizing radiation technology as a complementary treatment for industrial effluents and increase the added value of these wastewaters. Based on these assumptions, preliminary studies of the gamma radiation effects on the antioxidant compounds present in cork cooking water were carried out. Radiation studies were performed by using radiation between 20 and 50 kGy at 0.4 kGy/h and 2.4 kGy/h. The radiation effects on organic matter content were evaluated by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The antioxidant activity was measured by Ferric Reducing Power (FRAP) assay. The total phenolic content was studied by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Results point out that gamma radiation increases both the amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of cork cooking water. By the other hand, the radiolytic degradation by ionizing radiation of gallic acid and esculetin as models for recalcitrants were studied. The objective of this study was to find out if radiolytic degradation, followed by microbial degradation could increase the treatment efficiency. A natural cork wastewater bacterium was selected from the irradiated wastewater at 9 kGy. The applied methodology was based on the evaluation of growth kinetics of the selected bacteria by turbidimetry and colony forming units, in minimal salt medium with non-irradiated and irradiated phenolic as substrate. The overall obtained results highlights the potential of this technology for increase the add value of cork waters and raised some issues to explain by new methodological setup on biodegradation studies. (author)

  10. Application of Ionizing Radiation on the Cork Wastewater Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, R.; Madureira, J.; Verde, S. Cabo; Nunes, I.; Santos, P.M.P.; Silva, T.; Leal, J.P.; Botelho, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the CRP on “Radiation treatment of wastewater for reuse with particular focus on wastewaters containing organic pollutants” Portuguese team is been developed studies on the implementation of ionizing radiation technology as a complementary treatment for industrial effluents and increase the added value of these wastewaters. Based on these assumptions, preliminary studies of the gamma radiation effects on the antioxidant compounds present in cork cooking water were carried out. Radiation studies were performed by using radiation between 20 and 50 kGy at 0.4 kGy/h and 2.4 kGy/h. The radiation effects on organic matter content were evaluated by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The antioxidant activity was measured by Ferric Reducing Power (FRAP) assay. The total phenolic content was studied by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Results point out that gamma radiation increases both the amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of cork cooking water. By the other hand, the radiolytic degradation by ionizing radiation of gallic acid and esculetin as models for recalcitrants were studied. The objective of this study was to find out if radiolytic degradation, followed by microbial degradation could increase the treatment efficiency. A natural cork wastewater bacterium was selected from the irradiated wastewater at 9 kGy. The applied methodology was based on the evaluation of growth kinetics of the selected bacteria by turbidimetry and colony forming units, in minimal salt medium with non-irradiated and irradiated phenolic as substrate. The overall obtained results highlights the potential of this technology for increase the add value of cork waters and raised some issues to explain by new methodological setup on biodegradation studies. (author)

  11. Chemical treatment of wastewaters produced during separation of iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.; Marcaillou, J.; Amavis, R.

    1959-01-01

    The authors report the development and assessment of a chemical treatment of radioactive wastewaters by co-precipitation. This treatment is aimed at replacing a treatment based on the use of calcium phosphate which proved to be insufficient for wastewaters resulting from the production of iodine 131. After a presentation of the characteristics of the effluents to be processed, the authors report co-precipitation tests performed on effluents before release in the storage vessel (by using barium hydroxide, lead acetate or lead sulfate) and on effluents diluted on the storage vessel. They show that a co-precipitation method based on the use of lead sulfate in alkaline medium gives the best results

  12. Wastewater Treatment Optimization for Fish Migration Using Harmony Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Woo Geem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain types of fish migrate between the sea and fresh water to spawn. In order for them to swim without any breathing problem, river should contain enough oxygen. If fish is passing along the river in municipal area, it needs sufficient dissolved oxygen level which is influenced by dumped amount of wastewater into the river. If existing treatment methods such as settling and biological oxidation are not enough, we have to consider additional treatment methods such as microscreening filtration and nitrification. This study constructed a wastewater treatment optimization model for migratory fish, which considers three costs (filtration cost, nitrification cost, and irrigation cost and two environmental constraints (minimal dissolved oxygen level and maximal nitrate-nitrogen concentration. Results show that the metaheuristic technique such as harmony search could find good solutions robustly while calculus-based technique such as generalized reduced gradient method was trapped in local optima or even divergent.

  13. Pollution abatement with peat onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, J L [University of Maine, Orano, ME (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of onsite wastewater treatment is to provide economical removal of dissolved nutrients, pathogens and other contaminates from septic tank effluent to avoid the pollution of groundwater or creation of other health hazards. The effective use of conventional soil adsorption systems is limited by a number of factors including site characteristics, soil type and condition, and the proximity of the system to surface waters or a source of potable water. On adverse sites, where the use of conventional subsurface soil adsorption systems does not provide acceptable levels of treatment, Sphagnum peat may be used as an economical method of onsite wastewater treatment. The peat system, when properly designed and constructed, is relatively simple to install, requires minimal energy and maintenance, and provides a high quality effluent without additional disinfection. 19 refs.

  14. Pharmaceutical Compounds in Wastewater: Wetland Treatment as a Potential Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. White

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical compounds are being released into the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge around the globe. While there is limited removal of these compounds within wastewater treatment plants, wetland treatment might prove to be an effective means to reduce the discharge of the compounds into the environment. Wetlands can promote removal of these pharmaceutical compounds through a number of mechanisms including photolysis, plant uptake, microbial degradation, and sorption to the soil. We review relevant laboratory research on these various mechanisms and provide data on the few studies that have examined wetland removal. There is a need to document the degree to which various pharmaceutical compounds are removed in full-scale treatment wetlands, as there is a paucity of data on overall pharmaceutical removal rates.

  15. New framework for standardized notation in wastewater treatment modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corominas, L.; Rieger, L.; Takacs, I.

    2010-01-01

    Many unit process models are available in the field of wastewater treatment. All of these models use their own notation, causing problems for documentation, implementation and connection of different models (using different sets of state variables). The main goal of this paper is to propose a new...... is a framework that can be used in whole plant modelling, which consists of different fields such as activated sludge, anaerobic digestion, sidestream treatment, membrane bioreactors, metabolic approaches, fate of micropollutants and biofilm processes. The main objective of this consensus building paper...... notational framework which allows unique and systematic naming of state variables and parameters of biokinetic models in the wastewater treatment field. The symbols are based on one main letter that gives a general description of the state variable or parameter and several subscript levels that provide...

  16. The effect of advanced treatment of sewage effluents on metal speciation and (bio)availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, A; Merrington, G; Leverett, D; Ellor, B; Lofts, S; Gravell, A

    2014-02-01

    The bioavailability of metals can be strongly influenced by dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Wastewater treatment effluents add considerable quantities of DOC and metals to receiving waters, and as effluent controls become more stringent advanced effluent treatments may be needed. We assessed the effects of two types of advanced treatment processes on metal availability in wastewater effluents. Trace metal availability was assessed using diffuse gradients in thin films and predicted through speciation modelling. The results show little difference in metal availability post-advanced treatment. EDTA-like compounds are important metal complexants in the effluents.

  17. Exposure to Airborne Noroviruses and Other Bioaerosol Components at a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrbrand, Katrine; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to bioaerosols associated with wastewater treatment processes may represent an occupational health risk for workers at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). A high frequency of acute symptoms in the gastrointestinal tract among the wastewater workers at a Danish WWTP has been reported. Th...

  18. Wastewater treatment facilities: Energy efficient improvements and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunkle, R.; Gray, R.; Delzel, D.

    1992-10-01

    The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) has worked with both the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the US Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance to local governments. Based on a recent study conducted by Ecotope for WSEO, local governments spend an estimated $45 million on utility bills statewide. Water and wastewater facilities account for almost a third of this cost. As a result, WSEO decided to focus its efforts on the energy intensive water and wastewater sector. The ultimate goal of this project was to develop mechanisms to incorporate energy efficiency improvements into wastewater treatment facilities in retrofits and during upgrades, remodels, and new construction. Project activities included the following: The review of the existing regulatory environment for treatment system construction, A summary of financing options for efficiency improvements in treatment facilities, A literature review of energy efficiency opportunities in treatment plants, Survey and site visits to characterize existing facilities in Washington State, Estimates of the energy efficiency and cogeneration potential in the sector, and A case study to illustrate the implementation of an efficiency improvement in a treatment facility

  19. Sustainable Optimization for Wastewater Treatment System Using PSF-HS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Woo Geem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability in a river with respect to water quality is critical because it is highly related with environmental pollution, economic expenditure, and public health. This study proposes a sustainability problem of wastewater treatment system for river ecosystem conservation which helps the healthy survival of the aquatic biota and human beings. This study optimizes the design of a wastewater treatment system using the parameter-setting-free harmony search algorithm, which does not require the existing tedious value-setting process for algorithm parameters. The real-scale system has three different options of wastewater treatment, such as filtration, nitrification, and diverted irrigation (fertilization, as well as two existing treatment processes (settling and biological oxidation. The objective of this system design is to minimize life cycle costs, including initial construction costs of those treatment options, while satisfying minimal dissolved oxygen requirements in the river, maximal nitrate-nitrogen concentration in groundwater, and a minimal nitrogen requirement for crop farming. Results show that the proposed technique could successfully find solutions without requiring a tedious setting process.

  20. Life Cycle Assessment to Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J. s.; Herrera, I.; Rodriguez, A.

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation was done at a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWTP), through the application of the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) performed by using a commercial tool called SIMAPRO. The objective of this study was to apply Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in two systems: municipal wastewater effluent without treatment and Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that is operating in poor condition and has a direct discharge to a natural body, which is a threat to the environment. A LCA was done using SIMAPRO 7, in order to determine the environmental impact in each scenery was assessed, a comparison of the impacts and propose improvements to decrease, following the steps this methodology and according to the respective standardized normative (ISO 14040/ ISO 14044). In this study, most of used data have been reported by the plant from early 2010 and some data from literature. We identified the environmental impacts generated by the treatment, making emphasis on those related to the subsequent use of the water body receiving the discharge, such as eutrophication (near to 15% reduction). Likewise, a comparative analysis between the impacts in the two systems, with and without treatment by analyzing the variation in the impact categories studied. Finally within this work, alternatives of improvements, in order to reduce the identified and quantified impacts are proposed. (Author) 33 refs.

  1. Fate and behaviour of ZnO engineered nanoparticles in a simulated domestic wastewater treatment plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chaúquea, EFC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) employ activated sludge processes to treat domestic wastewater using a consortium of bacteria essentially to degrade organic matter. However, bacteria activity is inhibited by toxic substances; thus, potentially...

  2. Energy and nutrient recovery for munipal wastewater treatment : how to design a feasible plant layout?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khiewwijit, R.; Temmink, B.G.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Keesman, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    Activated sludge systems are commonly used for robust and efficient treatment of municipal wastewater. However, these systems cannot achieve their maximum potential to recover valuable resources from wastewater. This study demonstrates a procedure to design a feasible novel configuration for

  3. How Does Scale of Implementation Impact the Environmental Sustainability of Wastewater Treatment Integrated with Resource Recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, Pablo K; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R

    2016-07-05

    Energy and resource consumptions required to treat and transport wastewater have led to efforts to improve the environmental sustainability of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Resource recovery can reduce the environmental impact of these systems; however, limited research has considered how the scale of implementation impacts the sustainability of WWTPs integrated with resource recovery. Accordingly, this research uses life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate how the scale of implementation impacts the environmental sustainability of wastewater treatment integrated with water reuse, energy recovery, and nutrient recycling. Three systems were selected: a septic tank with aerobic treatment at the household scale, an advanced water reclamation facility at the community scale, and an advanced water reclamation facility at the city scale. Three sustainability indicators were considered: embodied energy, carbon footprint, and eutrophication potential. This study determined that as with economies of scale, there are benefits to centralization of WWTPs with resource recovery in terms of embodied energy and carbon footprint; however, the community scale was shown to have the lowest eutrophication potential. Additionally, technology selection, nutrient control practices, system layout, and topographical conditions may have a larger impact on environmental sustainability than the implementation scale in some cases.

  4. Evaluation of on-site wastewater treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' This presentation will describe the nature, scope, and findings of a program designed to conduct a third-party group evaluation of wastewater denitrification technologies appropriate for low-flow systems, partially funded by a grant from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). The objective of this program is to verify the performance of products that provide nutrient reduction in wastewater from a variety of sources, including domestic wastewater, agricultural runoff, or other waste streams. The evaluation process will be overseen and coordinated by the Environmental Technology Evaluation Center (EvTEC), a program of the Civil Engineering Research Foundation (CERF), the research and technology transfer arm of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). EvTEC is a pilot program evaluating innovative environmental technologies under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. Among other performance issues, the potential energy savings of using nutrient reducing technologies scaled to treat low flows - larger than an individual septic tank but smaller than that of a conventional wastewater treatment plant - will be assessed. The energy savings realized by reduced construction and equipment transport costs alone could make low-flow nutrient reduction technologies viable options for rural communities, small farms, and other low-flow settings. The evaluation is being funded in part by PADEP, which is sponsoring this evaluation due to its interest in developing low-cost wastewater treatment technologies for Pennsylvania's rural communities. However, the evaluation is national in scope, and participants will come from all areas of the country. The presentation will include a description of the process for establishing the testing protocol, testing results from various nutrient reducing technologies, and obstacles encountered and lessons learned during the process. (author)

  5. Applying fenton process in acrylic fiber wastewater treatment and practice teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhui; Jiang, Shan

    2018-02-01

    Acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater, containing a wider range of pollutants, high concentration of refractory organics, poisonous and harmful matters, was significant to treat from the effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this work, a Fenton reactor was employed for advanced treatment of the WWTP effluents. An orthogonal test and a parametric study were carried out to determine the effect of the main operating conditions and the Fenton process attain excellent performance on the degradation of pollutants under an optimal condition of ferrous dosage was 6.25 mM, hydrogen peroxide was 75 mM and initial pH value was 3.0 in 90 min reaction time. The removal efficiency of COD, TOC, NH4 +-N and TN reached from 45% to 69%. Lastly, as a teaching advice, the Fenton reactor was used in practicing teaching nicely.

  6. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in an advanced wastewater reclamation plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Flowers, Riley C; Weinberg, Howard S; Singer, Philip C

    2011-10-15

    The occurrence of nineteen pharmaceutically active compounds and personal care products was followed monthly for 12 months after various stages of treatment in an advanced wastewater reclamation plant in Gwinnett County, GA, U.S.A. Twenty-four hour composite samples were collected after primary clarification, activated sludge biological treatment, membrane filtration, granular media filtration, granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption, and ozonation in the wastewater reclamation plant. Compounds were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after solid-phase extraction. Standard addition methods were employed to compensate for matrix effects. Sixteen of the targeted compounds were detected in the primary effluent; sulfadimethoxine, doxycycline, and iopromide were not found. Caffeine and acetaminophen were found at the highest concentrations (∼10(5) ng/L), followed by ibuprofen (∼10(4) ng/L), sulfamethoxazole and DEET (∼10(3) ng/L). Most of the other compounds were found at concentrations on the order of hundreds of ng/L. After activated sludge treatment and membrane filtration, the concentrations of caffeine, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, DEET, tetracycline, and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) had decreased by more than 90%. Erythromycin and carbamazepine, which were resistant to biological treatment, were eliminated by 74 and 88%, on average, by GAC. Primidone, DEET, and caffeine were not amenable to adsorption by GAC. Ozonation oxidized most of the remaining compounds by >60%, except for primidone and DEET. Of the initial 16 compounds identified in the primary effluent, only sulfamethoxazole, primidone, caffeine and DEET were frequently detected in the final effluent, but at concentrations on the order of 10-100 ng/L. Removal of the different agents by the various treatment processes was related to the physical-chemical properties of the

  7. ``Living off the land'': resource efficiency of wetland wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Odum, H. T.; Brown, M. T.; Alling, A.

    Bioregenerative life support technologies for space application are advantageous if they can be constructed using locally available materials, and rely on renewable energy resources, lessening the need for launch and resupply of materials. These same characteristics are desirable in the global Earth environment because such technologies are more affordable by developing countries, and are more sustainable long-term since they utilize less non-renewable, imported resources. Subsurface flow wetlands (wastewater gardens™) were developed and evaluated for wastewater recycling along the coast of Yucatan. Emergy evaluations, a measure of the environmental and human economic resource utilization, showed that compared to conventional sewage treatment, wetland wastewater treatment systems use far less imported and purchased materials. Wetland systems are also less energy-dependent, lessening dependence on electrical infrastructure, and require simpler maintenance since the system largely relies on the ecological action of microbes and plants for their efficacy. Detailed emergy evaluations showed that wetland systems use only about 15% the purchased emergy of conventional sewage systems, and that renewable resources contribute 60% of total emergy used (excluding the sewage itself) compared to less than 1% use of renewable resources in the high-tech systems. Applied on a larger scale for development in third world countries, wetland systems would require 1/5 the electrical energy of conventional sewage treatment (package plants), and save 2/3 of total capital and operating expenses over a 20-year timeframe. In addition, there are numerous secondary benefits from wetland systems including fiber/fodder/food from the wetland plants, creation of ecosystems of high biodiversity with animal habitat value, and aesthestic/landscape enhancement of the community. Wetland wastewater treatment is an exemplar of ecological engineering in that it creates an interface ecosystem to handle

  8. Use of hydrodynamic cavitation in (waste)water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dular, Matevž; Griessler-Bulc, Tjaša; Gutierrez-Aguirre, Ion; Heath, Ester; Kosjek, Tina; Krivograd Klemenčič, Aleksandra; Oder, Martina; Petkovšek, Martin; Rački, Nejc; Ravnikar, Maja; Šarc, Andrej; Širok, Brane; Zupanc, Mojca; Žitnik, Miha; Kompare, Boris

    2016-03-01

    The use of acoustic cavitation for water and wastewater treatment (cleaning) is a well known procedure. Yet, the use of hydrodynamic cavitation as a sole technique or in combination with other techniques such as ultrasound has only recently been suggested and employed. In the first part of this paper a general overview of techniques that employ hydrodynamic cavitation for cleaning of water and wastewater is presented. In the second part of the paper the focus is on our own most recent work using hydrodynamic cavitation for removal of pharmaceuticals (clofibric acid, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, carbamazepine), toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), green microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris), bacteria (Legionella pneumophila) and viruses (Rotavirus) from water and wastewater. As will be shown, hydrodynamic cavitation, like acoustic, can manifest itself in many different forms each having its own distinctive properties and mechanisms. This was until now neglected, which eventually led to poor performance of the technique. We will show that a different type of hydrodynamic cavitation (different removal mechanism) is required for successful removal of different pollutants. The path to use hydrodynamic cavitation as a routine water cleaning method is still long, but recent results have already shown great potential for optimisation, which could lead to a low energy tool for water and wastewater cleaning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD(5) removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

  10. Application of Electrocoagulation Process for Dairy Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Bazrafshan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy industry wastewater is characterized by high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and other pollution load. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the operating parameters such as applied voltage, number of electrodes, and reaction time on a real dairy wastewater in the electrocoagulation process. For this purpose, aluminum electrodes were used in the presence of potassium chloride as electrolytes. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD, BOD5, and TSS increased with increasing the applied voltage and the reaction time. The results indicate that electrocoagulation is efficient and able to achieve 98.84% COD removal, 97.95% BOD5 removal, 97.75% TSS removal, and >99.9% bacterial indicators at 60 V during 60 min. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of electrocoagulation techniques for the treatment of dairy wastewaters. Finally, the results demonstrated the technical feasibility of electrocoagulation process using aluminum electrodes as a reliable technique for removal of pollutants from dairy wastewaters.

  11. Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:22768233

  12. Wastewater treatment in a hybrid activated sludge baffled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tizghadam, Mostafa [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Eau et de l' Environnement, Universite de Limoges, ENSIL, Parc ESTER, 16 Rue Atlantis, F-87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Dagot, Christophe [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Eau et de l' Environnement, Universite de Limoges, ENSIL, Parc ESTER, 16 Rue Atlantis, F-87068 Limoges Cedex (France)], E-mail: dagot@ensil.unilim.fr; Baudu, Michel [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Eau et de l' Environnement, Universite de Limoges, ENSIL, Parc ESTER, 16 Rue Atlantis, F-87068 Limoges Cedex (France)

    2008-06-15

    A novel hybrid activated sludge baffled reactor (HASBR), which contained both suspended and attached-growth biomass perfect mixing cells in series, was developed by installing standing and hanging baffles and introducing plastic brushes into a conventional activated sludge (CAS) reactor. It was used for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The effects on the operational performance of developing the suspended and attached-growth biomass and reactor configuration were investigated. The change of the flow regime from complete-mix to plug-flow, and the addition of plastic brushes as a support for biofilm, resulted in considerable improvements in the COD, nitrogen removal efficiency of domestic wastewater and sludge settling properties. In steady state, approximately 98 {+-} 2% of the total COD and 98 {+-} 2% of the ammonia of the influent were removed in the HASBR, when the influent wastewater concentration was 593 {+-} 11 mg COD/L and 43 {+-} 5 mg N/L, respectively, at a HRT of 10 h. These results were 93 {+-} 3 and 6 {+-} 3% for the CAS reactor, respectively. Approximately 90 {+-} 7% of the total COD was removed in the HASBR, when the influent wastewater concentration was 654 {+-} 16 mg COD/L at a 3 h HRT, and in the organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.36 kg COD m{sup -3} day{sup -1}. The result for the CAS reactor was 60 {+-} 3%. Existing CAS plants can be upgraded by changing the reactor configuration and introducing biofilm support media into the aeration tank.

  13. Removal of indicator organisms by chemical treatment of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zutter, L; van Hoof, J

    1981-01-01

    Recently a new chemical wastewater treatment process based upon precipitation of proteins by sodium lignosulphonate under acid conditions is used to purify the wastewater from slaughterhouses and poultry processing plants. In order to determine the reduction of indicator organisms due to this treatment process, influent and effluent samples from two of such plants (plant A in a pig slaughterhouse and plant B in a poultry processing plant) were examined. The results demonstrated that the pH used in the process, has a considerable influence on the reduction of the indicator organisms. On the first sampling day in plant A the initial working-pH was 4 and the corresponding reduction of the different microorganisms varied from 0.7 to 1.5 log. According to the decrease of the pH to 2.3, the reduction increased to a minimum of at least 1.9 and a maximum of at least 4.5 log. In the other samples from this plant (working-pH 2.4) the elimination ranged from 1.8 to 4.0 log. In plant B, the removal of the indicator organisms brought about by a working-pH of 3.0 ranged from 2.1 to 3.1 log. The results showed that in comparison with the biological treatment processes this chemical wastewater treatment process realized a significant greater removal of indicator organisms.

  14. Study on the Development of Household Wastewater Treatment Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hadi Ghawi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The cities of Iraq in general and the city of Al Diwaniyah in particular are characterized by the fact that the majority of households use septic tank to dispose of sewage, leading to contamination of ground and surface water and a disturbance to the environment. The objective of this study is to protect the water and soil sources from the risk of pollution, eliminate the process of perfusion and thus, reduce costs, maintain public health, as well as design and implement the proposed purification unit for domestic wastewater treatment. A domestic wastewater treatment unit has been improved to meet the standard specifications for the quality of the effluent wastewater. In this study, a compact non-electric sewage treatment unit was improved and implemented. Treatment is based on an effective modern biological purification process. Experimental verification and analysis of results were performed to demonstrate the improvement of physical and chemical parameters. The performance of the septic tanks-bioreactor gave satisfactory results. The removal efficiencies of Total Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, Total Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, NH4-N, Total Nitrogen and Total Suspended Solid (TSS were 96.9%, 84.6%, 78.8%, 79.9% and 95.3%, respectively.

  15. Hydroponic root mats for wastewater treatment-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongbing; Cuervo, Diego Paredes; Müller, Jochen A; Wiessner, Arndt; Köser, Heinz; Vymazal, Jan; Kästner, Matthias; Kuschk, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Hydroponic root mats (HRMs) are ecotechnological wastewater treatment systems where aquatic vegetation forms buoyant filters by their dense interwoven roots and rhizomes, sometimes supported by rafts or other floating materials. A preferential hydraulic flow is created in the water zone between the plant root mat and the bottom of the treatment system. When the mat touches the bottom of the water body, such systems can also function as HRM filter; i.e. the hydraulic flow passes directly through the root zone. HRMs have been used for the treatment of various types of polluted water, including domestic wastewater; agricultural effluents; and polluted river, lake, stormwater and groundwater and even acid mine drainage. This article provides an overview on the concept of applying floating HRM and non-floating HRM filters for wastewater treatment. Exemplary performance data are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of this technology are discussed in comparison to those of ponds, free-floating plant and soil-based constructed wetlands. Finally, suggestions are provided on the preferred scope of application of HRMs.

  16. Decontamination of soil washing wastewater using solar driven advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandala, Erick R; Velasco, Yuridia; Torres, Luis G

    2008-12-30

    Decontamination of soil washing wastewater was performed using two different solar driven advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): the photo-Fenton reaction and the cobalt/peroxymonosulfate/ultraviolet (Co/PMS/UV) process. Complete sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), the surfactant agent used to enhance soil washing process, degradation was achieved when the Co/PMS/UV process was used. In the case of photo-Fenton reaction, almost complete SDS degradation was achieved after the use of almost four times the actual energy amount required by the Co/PMS/UV process. Initial reaction rate in the first 15min (IR15) was determined for each process in order to compare them. Highest IR15 value was determined for the Co/PMS/UV process (0.011mmol/min) followed by the photo-Fenton reaction (0.0072mmol/min) and the dark Co/PMS and Fenton processes (IR15=0.002mmol/min in both cases). Organic matter depletion in the wastewater, as the sum of surfactant and total petroleum hydrocarbons present (measured as chemical oxygen demand, COD), was also determined for both solar driven processes. It was found that, for the case of COD, the highest removal (69%) was achieved when photo-Fenton reaction was used whereas Co/PMS/UV process yielded a slightly lower removal (51%). In both cases, organic matter removal achieved was over 50%, which can be consider proper for the coupling of the tested AOPs with conventional wastewater treatment processes such as biodegradation.

  17. Impact of a wastewater treatment plant on microbial community composition and function in a hyporheic zone of a eutrophic river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atashgahi, S.; Aydin, R.; Rocha Dimitrov, M.; Sipkema, D.; Hamonts, K.; Lahti, Leo; Maphosa, F.; Kruse, T.; Saccenti, E.; Springael, D.; Dejonghe, W.; Smidt, H.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the installation of a technologically advanced wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) on the benthic microbial community of a vinyl chloride (VC) impacted eutrophic river was examined two years before, and three and four years after installation of the WWTP. Reduced dissolved organic carbon

  18. Occurrence of Legionella in wastewater treatment plants linked to wastewater characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, C; Beutel, S; Scheper, T; Rosenwinkel, K H; Nogueira, R

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the occurrence of Legionella in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) has often been reported. However, until now there is limited knowledge about the factors that promote Legionella's growth in such systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical wastewater parameters that might be correlated to the concentration of Legionella spp. in WWTP receiving industrial effluents. For this purpose, samples were collected at different processes in three WWTP. In 100 % of the samples taken from the activated sludge tanks Legionella spp. were detected at varying concentrations (4.8 to 5.6 log GU/mL) by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method, but not by the culture method. Statistical analysis with various parameters yielded positive correlations of Legionella spp. concentration with particulate chemical oxygen demand, Kjeldahl nitrogen and protein concentration. Amino acids were quantified in wastewater and activated sludge samples at concentrations that may not support the growth of Legionella, suggesting that in activated sludge tanks this bacterium multiplied in protozoan hosts.

  19. Characterization of the variability of settling in wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherif, Hayet; Touhami, Youssef; Shayeb, Hedi

    2009-01-01

    The processes of biological treatment of wastewater in activated sludge are complex dynamic processes are difficult to manage. The ability of the sludge settling is a key parameter for the overall effectiveness of pollution control process and for preserving the quality of the receiving environment. So for better management of wastewater treatment plants, a study of interactions between the couple reactor clarifier is necessary. A new management technique must notify the operator to problems related to sludge mainly to the loss of the sludge blanket which will have adverse effects on the environment. The approach is widely adopted and applied an approach aims to identify factors that may explain the observed phenomena in order to draw strategies that could improve the sludge settling on an industrial scale. The widely used approach is based on measuring Mohlman index and gives an impression, on the ability of the mud settling, but does not prevent the operator to anomalies that have places in the decanter.

  20. Anaerobic fluidized bed treatment of a tannery wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.J.; Li, C.T.; Shieh, W.K.

    1988-11-01

    The anaerobic fluidized bed system, in conjunction with neutralization and chemical coagulation/flocculation, was evaluated for treatment of a tannery wastewater produced from a chrome tanning operation. Neutralization with 1 N sulphuric acid was effective for removal of chromate, with complete removal achieved at pH=8.0. Chemical coagulation/flocculation with alum at a dosage of 200 mg/L was able to remove 97% of feed SS and 65% of feed grease. Evaluation of the performance of the anaerobic fluidized bed system indicated more than 75% of feed COD could be removed up to an F/M ratio of approximately 0.4 g COD/g TVS center dot day. The observed methane production rate was 0.221 of CH/sub 4/ produced per gram COD removed. The anaerobic fluidized bed system could provide an effective treatment of a pretreated tannery wastewater.

  1. Using AHP for Selecting the Best Wastewater Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdolReza Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method that is based on expert knowledge is used for the selection of the optimal anaerobic wastewater treatment process in industrial estates. This method can be applied for complicated multi-criteria decision making to obtain reasonable results. The different anaerobic processes employed in Iranian industrial estates consist of UASB, UAFB, ABR, Contact process, and Anaerobic Lagoons. Based on the general conditions in wastewater treatment plants in industrial estates and on expert judgments and using technical, economic, environmental, and administrative criteria, the processes are weighted and the results obtained are assessed using the Expert Choice Software. Finally, the five processes investigated are ranked as 1 to 5 in a descending order of UAFB, ABR, UASB, Anaerobic Lagoon, and Contact Process. Sensitivity analysis showing the effects of input parameters on changes in the results was applied for technical, economic, environmental, and administrative criteria.

  2. Treatment of wheat straw pulp wastewater by microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jianmin; Deng Yu; Li Lanqingzi

    2005-01-01

    A microwave treatment has been developed for decoloration of wheat straw pulp wastewater. Granular activated carbon (GAC) and steel slag are used as catalyst. Effective factors on chrominance removal, such as quantity and ratio of the mixed catalyst, microwave power, and reaction time, were studied. Over 95% of chrominance removal from 50 mL wastewater could be achieved by putting in it 10 gram of GAC and steel slag at a ratio of 1:23 and operating the microwave oven at 800 W for 10 minutes. It was find that when the catalyst was used for the fourth time, the chrominance removal could still be more than 80%. A kinetics study on the treatment suggested that the decoloration process accorded to a fist-order reaction. (authors)

  3. Limited dissemination of the wastewater treatment plant core resistome

    OpenAIRE

    Munck, Christian; Albertsen, Mads; Telke, Amar; Ellabaan, Mostafa M Hashim; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is a major contributor to the evolution of bacterial genomes and can facilitate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes between environmental reservoirs and potential pathogens. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are believed to play a central role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. However, the contribution of the dominant members of the WWTP resistome to resistance in human pathogens remains poorly understood. Here we use a combination of...

  4. Microbial biotechnology and circular economy in wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2017-01-01

    Summary Microbial biotechnology is essential for the development of circular economy in wastewater treatment by integrating energy production and resource recovery into the production of clean water. A comprehensive knowledge about identity, physiology, ecology, and population dynamics of process‐critical microorganisms will improve process stability, reduce CO2 footprints, optimize recovery and bioenergy production, and help finding new approaches and solutions. Examples of research needs an...

  5. Microbial contamination of the air at the wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Vítězová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs primarily serve to protect the environment. Their task is to clean waste water from the agglomerations. On the other hand wastewater treatment plants can also negatively affect the environment in their neighbourhood. These include emissions of odour and microorganisms. This article discusses the microbial contamination of the air, called bioaerosols in selected wastewater treatment plant for 18 000 p.e. From results of the work is evident that the largest group of microorganisms in the monitored air were psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria and microscopic fungi. The number of psychrophilic bacteria ranged from 14 to 12 000 CFU/m3 (colony forming units in 1 m3, the number of mesophilic bacteria varied in the range from 20 to 18 500 CFU/m3 and the fungi from 25 to 32 000 CFU/m3 in the air. The amount of actinomycetes ranged from 1 to 1 030 CFU/m3 and faecal coliform bacteria from 0 to 2 500 CFU/m3. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the highest air contamination was around the activation tank, area for dewatered sludge and around the building of mechanical cleaning, depending on the season. The density of studied microorganisms correlated with air temperature.

  6. Bacterial communities in full-scale wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zielińska, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial metabolism determines the effectiveness of biological treatment of wastewater. Therefore, it is important to define the relations between the species structure and the performance of full-scale installations. Although there is much laboratory data on microbial consortia, our understanding of dependencies between the microbial structure and operational parameters of full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is limited. This mini-review presents the types of microbial consortia in WWTP. Information is given on extracellular polymeric substances production as factor that is key for formation of spatial structures of microorganisms. Additionally, we discuss data on microbial groups including nitrifiers, denitrifiers, Anammox bacteria, and phosphate- and glycogen-accumulating bacteria in full-scale aerobic systems that was obtained with the use of molecular techniques, including high-throughput sequencing, to shed light on dependencies between the microbial ecology of biomass and the overall efficiency and functional stability of wastewater treatment systems. Sludge bulking in WWTPs is addressed, as well as the microbial composition of consortia involved in antibiotic and micropollutant removal.

  7. Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: five decades of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymazal, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The first experiments on the use of wetland plants to treat wastewaters were carried out in the early 1950s by Dr. Käthe Seidel in Germany and the first full-scale systems were put into operation during the late 1960s. Since then, the subsurface systems have been commonly used in Europe while free water surface systems have been more popular in North America and Australia. During the 1970s and 1980s, the information on constructed wetland technology spread slowly. But since the 1990 s the technology has become international, facilitated by exchange among scientists and researchers around the world. Because of the need for more effective removal of ammonia and total nitrogen, during the 1990 s and 2000s vertical and horizontal flow constructed wetlands were combined to complement each other to achieve higher treatment efficiency. Today, constructed wetlands are recognized as a reliable wastewater treatment technology and they represent a suitable solution for the treatment of many types of wastewater.

  8. Treatment of micropollutants in municipal wastewater: Ozone or powdered activated carbon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margot, Jonas; Kienle, Cornelia; Magnet, Anoÿs; Weil, Mirco; Rossi, Luca; Alencastro, Luiz Felippe de; Abegglen, Christian; Thonney, Denis; Chèvre, Nathalie; Schärer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Many organic micropollutants present in wastewater, such as pharmaceuticals and pesticides, are poorly removed in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To reduce the release of these substances into the aquatic environment, advanced wastewater treatments are necessary. In this context, two large-scale pilot advanced treatments were tested in parallel over more than one year at the municipal WWTP of Lausanne, Switzerland. The treatments were: i) oxidation by ozone followed by sand filtration (SF) and ii) powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption followed by either ultrafiltration (UF) or sand filtration. More than 70 potentially problematic substances (pharmaceuticals, pesticides, endocrine disruptors, drug metabolites and other common chemicals) were regularly measured at different stages of treatment. Additionally, several ecotoxicological tests such as the Yeast Estrogen Screen, a combined algae bioassay and a fish early life stage test were performed to evaluate effluent toxicity. Both treatments significantly improved the effluent quality. Micropollutants were removed on average over 80% compared with raw wastewater, with an average ozone dose of 5.7 mg O 3 l −1 or a PAC dose between 10 and 20 mg l −1 . Depending on the chemical properties of the substances (presence of electron-rich moieties, charge and hydrophobicity), either ozone or PAC performed better. Both advanced treatments led to a clear reduction in toxicity of the effluents, with PAC-UF performing slightly better overall. As both treatments had, on average, relatively similar efficiency, further criteria relevant to their implementation were considered, including local constraints (e.g., safety, sludge disposal, disinfection), operational feasibility and cost. For sensitive receiving waters (drinking water resources or recreational waters), the PAC-UF treatment, despite its current higher cost, was considered to be the most suitable option, enabling good removal of most

  9. Treatment of uranium contaminated wastewater – a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulama, M.; Iordache, M.; Deneanu, N.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a study of the treatment techniques used for uranium recovery from aqueous solutions, such as: precipitation, ion exchange processes, sorption processes, solvent extractions, separation by liquid membrane, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis. The necessary elements for rigorous treatment experiments that can be used to define innovative procedure for uranium contaminated wastewater treatment are described in this review. The published data were summarized and the areas for further research were identified in order to be able to propose an environmental friendly technology in the field of uranium production and recovery cycle. (authors)

  10. Occurrence of illicit drugs in water and wastewater and their removal during wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Meena K; Short, Michael D; Aryal, Rupak; Gerber, Cobus; van den Akker, Ben; Saint, Christopher P

    2017-11-01

    This review critically evaluates the types and concentrations of key illicit drugs (cocaine, amphetamines, cannabinoids, opioids and their metabolites) found in wastewater, surface water and drinking water sources worldwide and what is known on the effectiveness of wastewater treatment in removing such compounds. It is also important to amass information on the trends in specific drug use as well as the sources of such compounds that enter the environment and we review current international knowledge on this. There are regional differences in the types and quantities of illicit drug consumption and this is reflected in the quantities detected in water. Generally, the levels of illicit drugs in wastewater effluents are lower than in raw influent, indicating that the majority of compounds can be at least partially removed by conventional treatment processes such as activated sludge or trickling filters. However, the literature also indicates that it is too simplistic to assume non-detection equates to drug removal and/or mitigation of associated risks, as there is evidence that some compounds may avoid detection via inadequate sampling and/or analysis protocols, or through conversion to transformation products. Partitioning of drugs from the water to the solids fraction (sludge/biosolids) may also simply shift the potential risk burden to a different environmental compartment and the review found no information on drug stability and persistence in biosolids. Generally speaking, activated sludge-type processes appear to offer better removal efficacy across a range of substances, but the lack of detail in many studies makes it difficult to comment on the most effective process configurations and operations. There is also a paucity of information on the removal effectiveness of alternative treatment processes. Research is also required on natural removal processes in both water and sediments that may over time facilitate further removal of these compounds in receiving

  11. Treatment of Arctic Wastewater by Chemical Coagulation, UV and Peracetic Acid Disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Klupsch, Ewa; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment is challenging in the Arctic region due to the cold climate and scattered population. Thus, no wastewater treatment plant exists in Greenland and raw wastewater is discharged directly to nearby waterbodies without treatment. We investigated the efficiency...... of physico-chemical wastewater treatment, in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Raw wastewater from Kangerlussuaq was treated by chemical coagulation and UV disinfection. By applying 7.5 mg Al/L polyaluminium chloride (PAX XL100), 73% of turbidity and 28% phosphate was removed from raw wastewater. E. coli...... of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 6 mg/L and 12 mg/L peracetic acid was 2.8 and 3.1 log, respectively. Similarly, removal of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 0.21 kWh/m3 and 2.10 kWh/m3 for UV irradiation was 2.1 and greater than 4 log, respectively. Physico-chemical treatment of raw wastewater followed...

  12. Carbon and energy footprint of electrochemical vinegar wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerek, Emine Esra; Yilmaz, Seval; Savaş Koparal, A.; Nezih Gerek, Ömer

    2017-11-01

    Electrochemical treatment of wastewaters that are rich in organic compounds is a popular method, due to its acidic nature that avoids biological treatment. In many cases, the pollution hazard is considered as the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from active carbon, and the success of the treatment is measured in terms of how much this specific parameter is reduced. However, if electricity is used during the treatment process, the treatment "itself" has manufacturing and operational energy costs. Many of the studies consider energy utilization as a monetary cost, and try to reduce its amount. However, the energy cost of the treatment also causes emission of carbon at the energy producing side of the closed loop. This carbon emission can be converted into oxygen demand, too. Therefore, it can be argued that one must look for the total optimal carbon efficiency (or oxygen demand), while reducing the COD. We chose a highly acidic wastewater case of vinegar production, which is a popular food product in Turkey, to demonstrate the high energy consumption and carbon emission problem of the electrochemical treatment approach. A novel strategy is presented to monitor total oxygen demand simultaneously at the treatment and energy production sides. Necessity of renewable energy utilization and conditions on process termination points are discussed.

  13. Vertical Subsurface Flow (VSSF) constructed wetland for domestic wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdana, M. C.; Sutanto, H. B.; Prihatmo, G.

    2018-04-01

    Vertical Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland (VSSF) is appraised to become an alternative solution for treating domestic wastewater effectively and efficiently. The system which imitates the natural wetland concept is able to reduce organic material and nutrients in wastewater; therefore, it will be more feasible to be discharged to the environment. This study aimed to compare which species is more recommended to be applied for reducing organic material and nutrients in domestic wastewater. This experimental study applied four treatments, i.e 1) control (unplanted), 2) single species Iris pseudacorus, 3) single species Echinodorus palaefolius, and 4) combination (Iris pseudacorus and Echinodorus palaefolius) with three days of retention time. The application of those plants aims for holding the role in increasing wastewater quality and adding aesthetic impression at once. The plants were planted on VSSF media, in relatively same of weight and size to compare their effectiveness in decreasing organic and inorganic load. The parameters measured pervade TDS, pH, BOD5, COD, Nitrate, and Phosphate. The plants’ condition was also observed during and after the system worked. The result showed that the best average value of effectiveness for each of parameters: COD by combination treatment (50.76%), BOD5 by single I. pseudacorus (30.15%), Nitrate by single E. palaefolius (58.06%), Phosphate by single E. palaefolius (99.5%), and TDS by E.palaefolius (3.25%). The result showed that there was a significant difference of Nitrate and Phosphate reduction between control and three other treatments, while pH parameter showed non-significant change among them. In term of performance, I.pseudacorus seemed showed a preferable achievement.

  14. Combined oxidative and biological treatment of separated streams of tannery wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, G.; Nieto, J. [Environmental Science Center EULA - Chile, Univ. of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Mansilla, H.D. [Lab. of Renewable Resources, Univ. of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Bornhardt, C. [Chemical Engineering Dept., Univ. of La Frontera, Temuco (Chile)

    2003-07-01

    Leather tanning effluents are a source of severe environmental impacts. In particular, the unhairing stage, belonging to the beamhouse processes, generates an alkaline wastewater with high concentrations of organic matter, sulphides, suspended solids, and salts, which shows significant toxicity. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of this industrial wastewater by combined oxidative and biological treatments. An advanced oxidation process (AOP) with Fenton's reagent was used as batch pre-treatment. The relationships of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD were 9 and 4, respectively, reaching an organic matter removal of about 90%. Subsequently, the oxidised beamhouse effluent was fed to an activated sludge system, at increasing organic load rates (OLR), in the range of 0.4 to 1.6 g COD/L.d. The biological organic matter removal of the pre-treated wastewater ranged between 35% and 60% for COD, and from 60% to 70% for BOD. Therefore, sequential AOP pretreatment and biological aerobic treatment increased the overall COD removal up to 96%, compared to 60% without pretreatment. Bioassays with D. magna and D. pulex showed that this kind of treatment achieves only a partial toxicity removal of the tannery effluent. (orig.)

  15. Contaminant removal by wastewater treatment plants in the Stillaguamish River Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, Jack E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Wagner, Richard J.; Wolanek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human activities in most areas of the developed world typically release nutrients, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides, and other contaminants into the environment, many of which reach freshwater ecosystems. In urbanized areas, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are critical facilities for collecting and reducing the amounts of wastewater contaminants (WWCs) that ultimately discharge to rivers, coastal areas, and groundwater. Most WWTPs use multiple methods to remove contaminants from wastewater. These include physical methods to remove solid materials (primary treatment), biological and chemical methods to remove most organic matter (secondary treatment), advanced methods to reduce the concentrations of various contaminants such as nitrogen, phosphorus and (or) synthetic organic compounds (tertiary treatment), and disinfection prior to discharge (Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., 1979). This study examined the extent to which 114 organic WWCs were removed by each of three WWTPs, prior to discharge to freshwater and marine ecosystems, in a rapidly developing area in northwestern Washington State. Removal percentages for each WWC were estimated by comparing the concentrations measured in the WWTP influents with those measured in the effluents. The investigation was carried out in the 700-mi2Stillaguamish River Basin, the fifth largest watershed that discharges to Puget Sound (fig. 1).

  16. Passive treatment of wastewater and contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phifer, Mark A.; Sappington, Frank C.; Millings, Margaret R.; Turick, Charles E.; McKinsey, Pamela C.

    2007-11-06

    A bioremediation system using inorganic oxide-reducing microbial consortia for the treatment of, inter alia coal mine and coal yard runoff uses a containment vessel for contaminated water and a second, floating phase for nutrients. Biodegradable oils are preferred nutrients.

  17. Biomimetic Membranes for Water Purification and Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Chuyang Y.; Wang, Zhining; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO)-based desalination and wastewater reclamation are gaining increasing popularity driven by water shortages and population growth. Advances in membrane technology in the past few decades have resulted in great savings in energy consumption of RO processes. Further reduction...... in energy consumption calls for novel membranes with significantly enhanced water permeability compared to the current state of the art thin-film composite polyamides. An attractive option is to learn from nature's high efficiently water filtration systems that involve a group of specialised water transport...

  18. Treatment of wastewaters containing anilines using enzymes: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantha, R.; Biswas, N.; Taylor, K.E.; Bewtra, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Aromatic amines are manufactured in a large scale for use in industries dealing with resins, dyes, plastics and rubber, pesticides and explosives. The majority of the production-related waste is either incinerated or released into the environment. The majority of them are highly toxic, carcinogenic or mutagenic and impose serious health hazards to mankind. Available conventional physical-chemical processes including activated carbon adsorption processes, solvent extraction processes, microbial degradation and various chemical-oxidation processes developed over the years are not selective in terms of the range of the aromatic pollutant removed during treatment. Thus, such treatment strategies are more economically suitable for treatment of dilute wastewaters and are invariably used as polishing steps. Enzymes such as peroxidases, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, and laccases, in the presence of oxygen, catalyze the oxidation of a wide variety of phenols, biphenyls, anilines, benzidines and other related aromatic compounds. Various peroxidases and laccases have been used to treat wastewaters. With respect to anilines, the potential, scope and cost of enzymatic treatment is reviewed here and compared with conventional technology, e.g., the cost of enzymatic treatment using a crude enzyme preparation of soybean peroxidase was reported to be about $0.36/m 3 for synthetic wastewater containing 1 mM of aniline, compared to an activated sludge process of $1.05/m 3 and $1.31/m 3 for activated carbon process, while for p-toluidine, it was about $0.17/m 3 . Thus, through choice of enzyme and its mode of operation, treatment costs less than the conventional treatment strategies can be achieved. (author)

  19. MBBR evaluation for oil refinery wastewater treatment, with post-ozonation and BAC, for wastewater reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, E E; Cerqueira, A C F P; Dezotti, M

    2011-01-01

    This work evaluated the performance of a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) in the treatment of an oil refinery wastewater. Also, it investigated the possibility of reuse of the MBBR effluent, after ozonation in series with a biological activated carbon (BAC) column. The best performance of the MBBR was achieved with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 hours, employing a bed to bioreactor volume ratio (V(B)/V(R)) of 0.6. COD and N-NH₄(+) MBBR effluent concentrations ranged from 40 to 75 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 69-89%) and 2 to 6 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 45-86%), respectively. Ozonation carried out for 15 min with an ozone concentration of 5 mg L⁻¹ was able to improve the treated wastewater biodegradability. The treatment performance of the BAC columns was practically the same for ozonated and non ozonated MBBR effluents. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of the columns of the activated carbon columns (CAG) was in the range of 2.1-3.8 mg L⁻¹, and the corresponding DOC removal efficiencies were comprised between 52 and 75%. The effluent obtained at the end of the proposed treatment presented a quality, which meet the requirements for water reuse in the oil refinery.

  20. Tertiary Treatment and Recycling of Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    of the Worrell design (Figure 2.1) illustrates the modular treatment cells filled with vitrified expanded clay (or similar media) and planted with...General Construction Storm Water permit Sanitary / Storm Drainage Restriction: Absolutely no materials are to be disposed of via the sanitary ...sewer or storm water systems without consulting the Environmental Office. Exception: Water may be discharged down the sanitary sewer when:  The

  1. Wastewater treatment with Moringa oleifera seed extract: Impact on turbidity and sedimentation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi H.; Woolsey, Ian; Dalsgaard, Anders

    produced from seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree (MO) in reducing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and turbidity in wastewater. To a total of 5 x 12 glass jars containing 500 ml wastewater samples from a Danish treatment plant, 1.2 x 106 ± 1.2 x 105 oocysts L-1 were added. To half of the wastewater samples 8...

  2. Toxicity of fluoride to microorganisms in biological wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Herrera, Valeria; Banihani, Qais; León, Glendy; Khatri, Chandra; Field, James A; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2009-07-01

    Fluoride is a common contaminant in a variety of industrial wastewaters. Available information on the potential toxicity of fluoride to microorganisms implicated in biological wastewater treatment is very limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of fluoride towards the main microbial populations responsible for the removal of organic constituents and nutrients in wastewater treatment processes. The results of short-term batch bioassays indicated that the toxicity of sodium fluoride varied widely depending on the microbial population. Anaerobic microorganisms involved in various metabolic steps of anaerobic digestion processes were found to be very sensitive to the presence of fluoride. The concentrations of fluoride causing 50% metabolic inhibition (IC(50)) of propionate- and butyrate-degrading microorganisms as well as mesophilic and thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogens ranged from 18 to 43 mg/L. Fluoride was also inhibitory to nitrification, albeit at relatively high levels (IC(50)=149 mg/L). Nitrifying bacteria appeared to adapt rapidly to fluoride, and a near complete recovery of their metabolic activity was observed after only 4d of exposure to high fluoride levels (up to 500 mg/L). All other microbial populations evaluated in this study, i.e., glucose fermenters, aerobic glucose-degrading heterotrophs, denitrifying bacteria, and H(2)-utilizing methanogens, tolerated fluoride at very high concentrations (>500 mg/L).

  3. Microbial ecology of denitrification in biological wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huijie; Chandran, Kartik; Stensel, David

    2014-11-01

    Globally, denitrification is commonly employed in biological nitrogen removal processes to enhance water quality. However, substantial knowledge gaps remain concerning the overall community structure, population dynamics and metabolism of different organic carbon sources. This systematic review provides a summary of current findings pertaining to the microbial ecology of denitrification in biological wastewater treatment processes. DNA fingerprinting-based analysis has revealed a high level of microbial diversity in denitrification reactors and highlighted the impacts of carbon sources in determining overall denitrifying community composition. Stable isotope probing, fluorescence in situ hybridization, microarrays and meta-omics further link community structure with function by identifying the functional populations and their gene regulatory patterns at the transcriptional and translational levels. This review stresses the need to integrate microbial ecology information into conventional denitrification design and operation at full-scale. Some emerging questions, from physiological mechanisms to practical solutions, for example, eliminating nitrous oxide emissions and supplementing more sustainable carbon sources than methanol, are also discussed. A combination of high-throughput approaches is next in line for thorough assessment of wastewater denitrifying community structure and function. Though denitrification is used as an example here, this synergy between microbial ecology and process engineering is applicable to other biological wastewater treatment processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment of Wastewater with High Conductivity by Pulsed Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojun; Jiang, Song; Liu, Kefu

    2014-07-01

    A wastewater treatment system was established by means of pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The main advantage of this system is that the wastewater is employed as one of the electrodes for the degradation of rhodamine B, which makes use of the high conductivity and lessenes its negative influence on the discharge process. At the same time, the reactive species like ozone and ultraviolet (UV) light generated by the DBD can be utilized for the treatment of wastewater. The effects of some factors like conductivity, peak pulse voltage, discharge frequency and pH values were investigated. The results show that the combination of these reactive species could enhance the degradation of the dye while the ozone played the most important role in the process. The degradation efficiency was enhanced with the increase of energy supplied. The reduction in the concentration of rhodamine B was much more effective with high solution conductivity; under the highest conductivity condition, the degradation rate could rise to 99%.

  5. Treatment of Wastewater with High Conductivity by Pulsed Discharge Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaojun; Jiang Song; Liu Kefu

    2014-01-01

    A wastewater treatment system was established by means of pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The main advantage of this system is that the wastewater is employed as one of the electrodes for the degradation of rhodamine B, which makes use of the high conductivity and lessenes its negative influence on the discharge process. At the same time, the reactive species like ozone and ultraviolet (UV) light generated by the DBD can be utilized for the treatment of wastewater. The effects of some factors like conductivity, peak pulse voltage, discharge frequency and pH values were investigated. The results show that the combination of these reactive species could enhance the degradation of the dye while the ozone played the most important role in the process. The degradation efficiency was enhanced with the increase of energy supplied. The reduction in the concentration of rhodamine B was much more effective with high solution conductivity; under the highest conductivity condition, the degradation rate could rise to 99%. (plasma technology)

  6. Integrated copper-containing wastewater treatment using xanthate process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Kuo; Chang, Juu-En; Lin, Tzong-Tzeng; Hsu, Yu-Ming

    2002-09-02

    Although, the xanthate process has been shown to be an effective method for heavy metal removal from contaminated water, a heavy metal contaminated residual sludge is produced by the treatment process and the metal-xanthate sludge must be handled in accordance with the Taiwan EPA's waste disposal requirements. This work employed potassium ethyl xanthate (KEX) to remove copper ions from wastewater. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and semi-dynamic leaching test (SDLT) were used to determine the leaching potential and stability characteristics of the residual copper xanthate (Cu-EX) complexes. Results from metal removal experiments showed that KEX was suitable for the treatment of copper-containing wastewater over a wide copper concentration range (50, 100, 500, and 1000 mg/l) to the level that meets the Taiwan EPA's effluent regulations (3mg/l). The TCLP results of the residual Cu-EX complexes could meet the current regulations and thus the Cu-EX complexes could be treated as a non-hazardous material. Besides, the results of SDLT indicated that the complexes exhibited an excellent performance for stabilizing metals under acidic conditions, even slight chemical changes of the complexes occurred during extraction. The xanthate process, mixing KEX with copper-bearing solution to form Cu-EX precipitates, offered a comprehensive strategy for solving both copper-containing wastewater problems and subsequent sludge disposal requirements.

  7. Anaerobic treatment of winery wastewater in fixed bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Rangaraj; Rajinikanth, Rajagopal; Thanikal, Joseph V; Ramanujam, Ramamoorty Alwar; Torrijos, Michel

    2010-06-01

    The treatment of winery wastewater in three upflow anaerobic fixed-bed reactors (S9, S30 and S40) with low density floating supports of varying size and specific surface area was investigated. A maximum OLR of 42 g/l day with 80 +/- 0.5% removal efficiency was attained in S9, which had supports with the highest specific surface area. It was found that the efficiency of the reactors increased with decrease in size and increase in specific surface area of the support media. Total biomass accumulation in the reactors was also found to vary as a function of specific surface area and size of the support medium. The Stover-Kincannon kinetic model predicted satisfactorily the performance of the reactors. The maximum removal rate constant (U(max)) was 161.3, 99.0 and 77.5 g/l day and the saturation value constant (K(B)) was 162.0, 99.5 and 78.0 g/l day for S9, S30 and S40, respectively. Due to their higher biomass retention potential, the supports used in this study offer great promise as media in anaerobic fixed bed reactors. Anaerobic fixed-bed reactors with these supports can be applied as high-rate systems for the treatment of large volumes of wastewaters typically containing readily biodegradable organics, such as the winery wastewater.

  8. Review on the occurrence, fate and removal of perfluorinated compounds during wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, Olga S.; Stasinakis, Athanasios S., E-mail: astas@env.aegean.gr

    2015-08-15

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) consist of a fully fluorinated hydrophobic alkyl chain attached to a hydrophilic end group. Due to their wide use in several industrial and household applications, they have been detected in numerous Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) during the last ten years. The present review reports the occurrence of 22 PFCs (C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylates; C4–C8 and C10 sulfonates; 3 sulfonamides) in municipal or/and industrial wastewater, originating from 24 monitoring studies. PFCs levels in sewage sludge have also been reported using data from 12 studies. Most of the above monitoring data originate from the USA, North Europe and Asia and concern perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), while limited information is available from Mediterranean area, Canada and Australia. PFCs concentrations range up to some hundreds ng/L and some thousands ng/g dry weight in raw wastewater and sludge, respectively. They are not significantly removed during secondary biological treatment, while their concentrations in treated wastewater are often higher compared to raw sewage. Their biodegradation during wastewater treatment does not seem possible; whereas some recent studies have noted the potential transformation of precursor compounds to PFCs during biological wastewater treatment. PFCs sorption onto sludge has been studied in depth and seems to be an important mechanism governing their removal in STPs. Concerning tertiary treatment technologies, significant PFCs removal has been observed using activated carbon, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis or applying advanced oxidation and reduction processes. Most of these studies have been conducted using pure water, while in many cases the experiments have been performed under extreme laboratory conditions (high concentrations, high radiation source, temperature or pressure). Future efforts should be focused on better understanding of biotransformation processes occurred in aerobic and

  9. Review on the occurrence, fate and removal of perfluorinated compounds during wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvaniti, Olga S.; Stasinakis, Athanasios S.

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) consist of a fully fluorinated hydrophobic alkyl chain attached to a hydrophilic end group. Due to their wide use in several industrial and household applications, they have been detected in numerous Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) during the last ten years. The present review reports the occurrence of 22 PFCs (C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylates; C4–C8 and C10 sulfonates; 3 sulfonamides) in municipal or/and industrial wastewater, originating from 24 monitoring studies. PFCs levels in sewage sludge have also been reported using data from 12 studies. Most of the above monitoring data originate from the USA, North Europe and Asia and concern perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), while limited information is available from Mediterranean area, Canada and Australia. PFCs concentrations range up to some hundreds ng/L and some thousands ng/g dry weight in raw wastewater and sludge, respectively. They are not significantly removed during secondary biological treatment, while their concentrations in treated wastewater are often higher compared to raw sewage. Their biodegradation during wastewater treatment does not seem possible; whereas some recent studies have noted the potential transformation of precursor compounds to PFCs during biological wastewater treatment. PFCs sorption onto sludge has been studied in depth and seems to be an important mechanism governing their removal in STPs. Concerning tertiary treatment technologies, significant PFCs removal has been observed using activated carbon, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis or applying advanced oxidation and reduction processes. Most of these studies have been conducted using pure water, while in many cases the experiments have been performed under extreme laboratory conditions (high concentrations, high radiation source, temperature or pressure). Future efforts should be focused on better understanding of biotransformation processes occurred in aerobic and

  10. Treatment of dairy wastewater with a membrane bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Andrade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the food industries, the dairy industry is considered to be the most polluting one because of the large volume of wastewater generated and its high organic load. In this study, an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR was used for the treatment of wastewater from a large dairy industry and two hydraulic retention times (HRT, 6 and 8 hours, were evaluated. For both HRTs removal efficiencies of organic matter of 99% were obtained. Despite high permeate flux (27.5 L/h.m², the system operated fairly stablely. The molecular weight distribution of feed, permeate and mixed liquor showed that only the low molecular weight fraction is efficiently degraded by biomass and that the membrane has an essential role in producing a permeate of excellent quality.

  11. Application of Fenton oxidation to cosmetic wastewaters treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, P; Mohedano, A F; Gilarranz, M A; Casas, J A; Rodriguez, J J

    2007-05-08

    The removal of organic matter (TOC and COD) from a cosmetic wastewater by Fenton oxidation treatment has been evaluated. The operating conditions (temperature as well as ferrous ion and hydrogen peroxide dosage) have been optimized. Working at an initial pH equal to 3.0, a Fe(2+) concentration of 200 mg/L and a H(2)O(2) concentration to COD initial weight ratio corresponding to the theoretical stoichiometric value (2.12), a TOC conversion higher than 45% at 25 degrees C and 60% at 50 degrees C was achieved. Application of the Fenton oxidation process allows to reach the COD regional limit for industrial wastewaters discharges to the municipal sewer system. A simple kinetic analysis based on TOC was carried out. A second-order equation describes well the overall kinetics of the process within a wide TOC conversion range covering up to the 80-90% of the maximum achievable conversion.

  12. Wastewater treatment in relation to marine disposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul

    2002-01-01

    , the water is not lost (non-consumptive uses); but it is heavily polluted. Water treatment can be interpreted as the means by which to purify the water from any degree of impurity to any degree of purity that fits the desired use. Marine discharge may violate quality required for use of the marine waters......The water resource is under increasing pressure, both from the increase in population and from rising living standards. In some parts of the world with a scarce resource, the issue is the loss of water, either by evaporation or by discharge to the sea (consumptive uses). But for most urban use...

  13. Treatment of Arctic wastewater by chemical coagulation, UV and peracetic acid disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Klupsch, Ewa; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2017-02-16

    Conventional wastewater treatment is challenging in the Arctic region due to the cold climate and scattered population. Thus, no wastewater treatment plant exists in Greenland, and raw wastewater is discharged directly to nearby waterbodies without treatment. We investigated the efficiency of physicochemical wastewater treatment, in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Raw wastewater from Kangerlussuaq was treated by chemical coagulation and UV disinfection. By applying 7.5 mg Al/L polyaluminium chloride (PAX XL100), 73% of turbidity and 28% phosphate was removed from raw wastewater. E. coli and Enterococcus were removed by 4 and 2.5 log, respectively, when UV irradiation of 0.70 kWh/m 3 was applied to coagulated wastewater. Furthermore, coagulated raw wastewater in Denmark, which has a chemical quality similar to Greenlandic wastewater, was disinfected by peracetic acid or UV irradiation. Removal of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 6 and 12 mg/L peracetic acid was 2.8 and 3.1 log, respectively. Similarly, removal of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 0.21 and 2.10 kWh/m 3 for UV irradiation was 2.1 and greater than 4 log, respectively. Physicochemical treatment of raw wastewater followed by UV irradiation and/or peracetic acid disinfection showed the potential for treatment of arctic wastewater.

  14. Fungal treatment: a prospective process for eco-friendly bioremediation of wastewater sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, A. H.; Fakhru'l-Razi, A.

    2009-01-01

    None of the conventional techniques is safe and environmental friendly for wastewaters/sludge disposal. A sustainable, safe and environmental friendly biological technique is a great apprehension to the relevant scientists. Since the fungal treatment was exercised to evaluate its potentially for sustainable bioseparation and bioremediation of wastewater. Bioseparation and bioremediation of wastewater sludge by fungal inoculation implied the decreasing of bio solids, total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of wastewater. (Author)

  15. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Detected at Four U.S. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Rachel E. Rosenberg; Micallef, Shirley A.; Gibbs, Shawn G.; Davis, Johnnie A.; He, Xin; George, Ashish; Kleinfelter, Lara M.; Schreiber, Nicole A.; Mukherjee, Sampa; Sapkota, Amir; Joseph, Sam W.; Sapkota, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections is increasing in the United States, and it is possible that municipal wastewater could be a reservoir of this microorganism. To date, no U.S. studies have evaluated the occurrence of MRSA in wastewater. Objective: We examined the occurrence of MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) at U.S. wastewater treatment plants. Methods: We collected wastewater samples from two Mid...

  16. Submerged membrane bioreactor for domestic wastewater treatment and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feki; Firas; Jraou, Mouna; Loukil, Slim; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami; Arnolt, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The Mediterranean basin (and particularly North African countries) is one of the poorest regions in the world in terms of water resources. In Tunisia, treated municipal wastewater is becoming one of the main alternative sources of water. Indeed, in 2007, 99 municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) has treated a quantity of 215 millions of m 3 from which more than 30 pour cent are reused. The treated volume in 2011 is expected to be 266 millions m 3 , whereas the reused wastewaters should reach more than 50 pour cent. However, especially in the eastern and northern Mediterranean regions, wastewaters are inefficiently treated and re-used for irrigation or sanitary purposes, serving as a carrier for diseases or causing water pollution when discharged to water bodies. In the last decade, several water treatment technologies have been used in the region with little success in pathogen removal. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is a very promising alternative to those conventional water treatments as membranes act as a barrier against bacteria and viruses achieving a high degree of water purification. However, most membrane bioreactors currently in use have very high running costs because of the high pressure drop and high air-flushing rate required for their operation. The objective of this PURATREAT FP 6 EU project was to study a new approach to the operation of membrane bioreactors. This study was included a comparison of three leading membrane technologies. The operating procedure to be studied is expected to yield very low energy consumption and reduced maintenance costs. After the start up period, the MBR3 was operated with a MLSS concentration of 4.5 and 9 g/L, respectively. Different fluxes as 16, 18, 20 and 22 Lh -1 m -2 were tested. When the flux increase from 16 to 22 Lh -1 m -2 , the treatment energy consumption decreased from 7 to 5 kWh/m 3 . However the increases of MLSS concentration from 4.5 and 9 g/L raise the membrane fouling frequency from 1

  17. Wastewater treatment plants as a pathway for microplastics: Development of a new approach to sample wastewater-based microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziajahromi, Shima; Neale, Peta A; Rintoul, Llew; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2017-04-01

    Wastewater effluent is expected to be a pathway for microplastics to enter the aquatic environment, with microbeads from cosmetic products and polymer fibres from clothes likely to enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). To date, few studies have quantified microplastics in wastewater. Moreover, the lack of a standardized and applicable method to identify microplastics in complex samples, such as wastewater, has limited the accurate assessment of microplastics and may lead to an incorrect estimation. This study aimed to develop a validated method to sample and process microplastics from wastewater effluent and to apply the developed method to quantify and characterise wastewater-based microplastics in effluent from three WWTPs that use primary, secondary and tertiary treatment processes. We applied a high-volume sampling device that fractionated microplastics in situ and an efficient sample processing procedure to improve the sampling of microplastics in wastewater and to minimize the false detection of non-plastic particles. The sampling device captured between 92% and 99% of polystyrene microplastics using 25 μm-500 μm mesh screens in laboratory tests. Microplastic type, size and suspected origin in all studied WWTPs, along with the removal efficiency during the secondary and tertiary treatment stages, was investigated. Suspected microplastics were characterised using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, with between 22 and 90% of the suspected microplastics found to be non-plastic particles. An average of 0.28, 0.48 and 1.54 microplastics per litre of final effluent was found in tertiary, secondary and primary treated effluent, respectively. This study suggests that although low concentrations of microplastics are detected in wastewater effluent, WWTPs still have the potential to act as a pathway to release microplastics given the large volumes of effluent discharged to the aquatic environment. This study focused on a single sampling campaign, with

  18. Wastewater Outfalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Outfalls which discharge wastewater from wastewater treatment facilities with individual NPDES permits. It does not include NPDES general permits.

  19. Radioactive and hazardous wastewater treatment and sludge stabilization by filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.L.; Pickett, J.B.; Langton, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrated effluents from batch discharges of spent process solutions are mixed with filter cake from treatment of the dilute effluents and stored in a large tank at the optimum high pH for hydroxide precipitation of heavy metals. Supernate is decanted from the storage tanks and mixed with the dilute effluents before treatment. A filtration and stabilization process has been developed to treat and stored sludge as well as the concentrated wastewater slurry as it is generated. A 94% waste volume reduction over conventional technology can be achieved. Furthermore, leachate from the solidified waste filter cake meets the EPA land disposal restrictions

  20. Performance assessment of aquatic macrophytes for treatment of municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mumtaz; Hashmi, Hashim Nisar; Ali, Arshad; Ghumman, Abdul Razzaq

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of three different aquatic macrophytes for treatment of municipal wastewater collected from Taxila (Pakistan). A physical model of treatment plant was constructed and was operated for six experimental runs with each species of macrophyte. Every experimental run consist of thirty days period. Regular monitoring of influent and effluent concentrations were made during each experimental run. For the treatment locally available macrophyte species i.e. water hyacinth, duckweed & water lettuce were selected to use. To evaluate the treatment performance of each macrophyte, BOD5, COD, and Nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphorus) were monitored in effluent from model at different detention time of every experimental run after ensuring steady state conditions. The average reduction of effluent value of each parameter using water hyacinth were 50.61% for BOD5, 46.38% for COD, 40.34% for Nitrogen and 18.76% for Phosphorus. For duckweed the average removal efficiency for selected parameters were 33.43% for BOD5, 26.37% for COD, 17.59% for Nitrogen and 15.25% for Phosphorus and for Water Lettuce the average removal efficiency were 33.43% for BOD5, 26.37% for COD, 17.59% for Nitrogen and 15.25% for Phosphorus. The mechanisms of pollutant removal in this system include both aerobic and anaerobic microbiological conversions, sorption, sedimentation, volatilization and chemical transformations. The rapid growth of the biomass was measured within first ten days detention time. It was also observed that performance of macrophytes is influenced by variation of pH and Temperature. A pH of 6-9 and Temperature of 15-38°C is most favorable for treatment of wastewater by macrophytes. The option of macrophytes for treatment of Municipal sewage under local environmental conditions can be explored by further verifying the removal efficiency under variation of different environmental conditions. Also this is need of time that macrophyte

  1. Occurrence of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide in aqueous environment and their removal by biological and abiotic wastewater treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Česen, Marjeta; Kosjek, Tina; Laimou-Geraniou, Maria; Kompare, Boris; Širok, Brane; Lambropolou, Dimitra; Heath, Ester

    2015-09-15

    Cytostatic drug residues in the aqueous environment are of concern due to their possible adverse effects on non-target organisms. Here we report the occurrence and removal efficiency of cyclophosphamide (CP) and ifosfamide (IF) by biological and abiotic treatments including advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Cyclophosphamide was detected in hospital wastewaters (14-22,000 ng L(-1)), wastewater treatment plant influents (19-27 ng L(-1)) and effluent (17 ng L(-1)), whereas IF was detected only in hospital wastewaters (48-6800 ng L(-1)). The highest removal efficiency during biological treatment (attached growth biomass in a flow through bioreactor) was 59 ± 15% and 35 ± 9.3% for CP and IF, respectively. Also reported are the removal efficiencies of both compounds from wastewater using hydrodynamic cavitation (HC), ozonation (O3) and/or UV, either individually or in combination with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Hydrodynamic cavitation did not remove CP and IF to any significant degree. The highest removal efficiencies: 99 ± 0.71% for CP and 94 ± 2.4% for IF, were achieved using UV/O3/H2O2 at 5 g L(-1) for 120 min. When combined with biological treatment, removal efficiencies were >99% for both compounds. This is the first report of combined biological and AOP treatment of CP and IF from wastewater with a removal efficiency >99%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electron beam treatment of wastewaters and sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Various procedures for decreasing the health risks associated with the disposal of sewage sludges are discussed including land storage, thermophilic digestion, autothermal aerobic digestion, the Porteus Process, the Zimpro Process, incineration, pyrolysis, thermal pasteurisation, composting, lime utilisation, flash drying and radiation techniques. A fully automated sludge irradiation facility at Geiselbullach near Munich and an electron accelerator experimental plant near Boston are described. Advantages and disadvantages are given for both processes. Costs of electron radiation treatment of sewage sludges (a slurry containing 5 per cent solids) for a city the size of Johannesburg is estimated to be in the order of R900 000 per year at a dose rate of 4 000 Gy, which would produce a product of reasonable hygienic quality but not necessarily meet the criteria laid down by local authority medical officers at all times. In order to reduce costs it would be necessary to have a readily available market to dispose of disinfected material

  3. Electron beam treatment of wastewaters and sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, D W [City Health Dept., Johannesburg (South Africa)

    1980-12-01

    Various procedures for decreasing the health risks associated with the disposal of sewage sludges are discussed including land storage, thermophilic digestion, autothermal aerobic digestion, the Porteus Process, the Zimpro Process, incineration, pyrolysis, thermal pasteurisation, composting, lime utilisation, flash drying and radiation techniques. A fully automated sludge irradiation facility at Geiselbullach near Munich and an electron accelerator experimental plant near Boston are described. Advantages and disadvantages are given for both processes. Costs of electron radiation treatment of sewage sludges (a slurry containing 5 per cent solids) for a city the size of Johannesburg is estimated to be in the order of R900,000 per year at a dose rate of 4,000 Gy, which would produce a product of reasonable hygienic quality but not necessarily meet the criteria laid down by local authority medical officers at all times. In order to reduce costs it would be necessary to have a readily available market to dispose of disinfected material.

  4. Occurrence, fate and effects of Di (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate in wastewater treatment plants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, M; Drogui, P; Seyhi, B; Brar, S K; Buelna, G; Dubé, R

    2014-11-01

    Phthalates, such as Di (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) are compounds extensively used as plasticizer for long time around the world. Due to the extensive usage, DEHP is found in many surface waters (0.013-18.5 μg/L), wastewaters (0.716-122 μg/L), landfill leachate (88-460 μg/L), sludge (12-1250 mg/kg), soil (2-10 mg/kg). DEHP is persistent in the environment and the toxicity of the byproducts resulting from the degradation of DEHP sometime exacerbates the parent compound toxicity. Water/Wastewater treatment processes might play a key role in delivering safe, reliable supplies of water to households, industry and in safeguarding the quality of water in rivers, lakes and aquifers. This review addresses state of knowledge concerning the worldwide production, occurrence, fate and effects of DEHP in the environment. Moreover, the fate and behavior of DEHP in various treatment processes, including biological, physicochemical and advanced processes are reviewed and comparison (qualitative and quantitative) has been done between the processes. The trends and perspectives for treatment of wastewaters contaminated by DEHP are also analyzed in this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Toxic Byproduct Formation during Electrochemical Treatment of Latrine Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Justin T; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R

    2017-06-20

    Electrochemical systems are an attractive option for onsite latrine wastewater treatment due to their high efficiency and small footprint. While concerns remain over formation of toxic byproducts during treatment, rigorous studies examining byproduct formation are lacking. Experiments treating authentic latrine wastewater over variable treatment times, current densities, chloride concentrations, and anode materials were conducted to characterize byproducts and identify conditions that minimize their formation. Production of inorganic byproducts (chlorate and perchlorate) and indicator organic byproducts (haloacetic acids and trihalomethanes) during electrolysis dramatically exceeded recommendations for drinking water after one treatment cycle (∼10-30 000 times), raising concerns for contamination of downstream water supplies. Stopping the reaction after ammonium was removed (i.e., the chlorination breakpoint) was a promising method to minimize byproduct formation without compromising disinfection and nutrient removal. Though treatment was accelerated at increased chloride concentrations and current densities, byproduct concentrations remained similar near the breakpoint. On TiO 2 /IrO 2 anodes, haloacetic acids (up to ∼50 μM) and chlorate (up to ∼2 μM) were of most concern. Although boron-doped diamond anodes mineralized haloacetic acids after formation, high production rates of chlorate and perchlorate (up to ∼4 and 25 μM) made them inferior to TiO 2 /IrO 2 anodes in terms of toxic byproduct formation. Organic byproduct formation was similar during chemical chlorination and electrolysis of wastewater, suggesting that organic byproducts are formed by similar pathways in both cases (i.e., reactions with chloramines and free chlorine).

  6. Removal of bacterial contaminants and antibiotic resistance genes by conventional wastewater treatment processes in Saudi Arabia: Is the treated wastewater safe to reuse for agricultural irrigation?

    KAUST Repository

    Aljassim, Nada I.; Ansari, Mohd Ikram; Harb, Moustapha; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the removal efficiency of microbial contaminants in a local wastewater treatment plant over the duration of one year, and to assess the microbial risk associated with reusing treated wastewater in agricultural irrigation

  7. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Wastewater Treatment Plant Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, Justin M.

    2016-10-16

    Feedstock cost is the greatest barrier to the commercial production of biofuels. The merits of any thermochemical or biological conversion process are constrained by their applicability to the lowest cost feedstocks. At PNNL, a recent resource assessment of wet waste feedstocks led to the identification of waste water treatment plant (WWTP) solids as a cost-negative source of biomass. WWTP solids disposal is a growing environmental concern [1, 2] and can account for up to half of WWTP operating costs. The high moisture content is well-suited for hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), avoiding the costs and parasitic energy losses associated with drying the feedstock for incineration. The yield and quality of biocrude and upgraded biocrude from WWTP solids is comparable to that obtained from algae feedstocks but the feedstock cost is $500-1200 less per dry ton. A collaborative project was initiated and directed by the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WERF) and included feedstock identification, dewatering, shipping to PNNL, conversion to biocrude by HTL, and catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous byproduct. Additional testing at PNNL included biocrude upgrading by catalytic hydrotreatment, characterization of the hydrotreated product, and a preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) based on empirical results. This short article will cover HTL conversion and biocrude upgrading. The WERF project report with complete HTL results is now available through the WERF website [3]. The preliminary TEA is available as a PNNL report [4].

  8. Natural light-micro aerobic condition for PSB wastewater treatment: a flexible, simple, and effective resource recovery wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haifeng; Han, Ting; Zhang, Guangming; Ma, Shanshan; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) have two sets of metabolic pathways. They can degrade pollutants through light metabolic under light-anaerobic or oxygen metabolic pathways under dark-aerobic conditions. Both metabolisms function under natural light-microaerobic condition, which demands less energy input. This work investigated the characteristics of PSB wastewater treatment process under that condition. Results showed that PSB had very strong adaptability to chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration; with F/M of 5.2-248.5 mg-COD/mg-biomass, the biomass increased three times and COD removal reached above 91.5%. PSB had both advantages of oxygen metabolism in COD removal and light metabolism in resource recovery under natural light-microaerobic condition. For pollutants' degradation, COD, total organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal reached 96.2%, 91.0%, 70.5%, and 92.7%, respectively. For resource recovery, 74.2% of C in wastewater was transformed into biomass. Especially, coexistence of light and oxygen promote N recovery ratio to 70.9%, higher than with the other two conditions. Further, 93.7% of N-removed was synthesized into biomass. Finally, CO 2 emission reduced by 62.6% compared with the traditional process. PSB wastewater treatment under this condition is energy-saving, highly effective, and environment friendly, and can achieve pollution control and resource recovery.

  9. Performance of slow rate systems for treatment of domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanakakis, V E; Paranychianakis, N V; Angelakis, A N

    2007-01-01

    The performance of slow rate (SR) systems in terms of treatment efficiency, environmental and health risks, and land sustainability was investigated over a three-year period in a rural community close to Iraklio, Greece. Four plant species (Acacia cyanophylla, Eucalyptus camandulensis, Populus nigra and Arundo donax) were used in order to investigate the role of vegetation in the treatment of wastewater and in biomass production. Wastewater effluent was pre-treated in a septic tank before its application to land. Applied hydraulic loading rates were based on crop water requirements which were determined separately for each plant species. The evaluation of treatment performance was accomplished by measuring COD, TKN, NH3-N, NO3-N, total and reactive P, TC and FC in soil solution samples taken at different depths (15, 30 and 60 cm). SR systems showed great potential for COD, TKN and NH4-N removal which reached 89, 90 and 94%, respectively at a depth of 15 cm. An outstanding removal was also observed for TC and FC which reached 99.99%. The concentration of both P and NO3-N in soil solution increased with the passage of time, but it was lower in winter. Despite the differences in the application rates among the SR systems planted with different plant species, the treatment efficiency was not affected. Moreover, increasing the soil depth from 15 to 60 cm had no effect on the treatment efficiency of the SR systems.

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TERTIARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY COMPUTER SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Iordache

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to asses conditions for implementation of a Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR process in theWastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP of Moreni city (Romania. In order to meet the more increased environmentalregulations, the wastewater treatment plant that was studied, must update the actual treatment process and have tomodernize it. A comparative study was undertaken of the quality of effluents that could be obtained by implementationof biological nutrient removal process like A2/O (Anaerobic/Anoxic/Oxic and VIP (Virginia Plant Initiative aswastewater tertiary treatments. In order to asses the efficiency of the proposed treatment schemata based on the datamonitored at the studied WWTP, it were realized computer models of biological nutrient removal configurations basedon A2/O and VIP process. Computer simulation was realized using a well-known simulator, BioWin by EnviroSimAssociates Ltd. The simulation process allowed to obtain some data that can be used in design of a tertiary treatmentstage at Moreni WWTP, in order to increase the efficiency in operation.

  11. Application of Ozone MBBR Process in Refinery Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wang

    2018-01-01

    Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) is a kind of sewage treatment technology based on fluidized bed. At the same time, it can also be regarded as an efficient new reactor between active sludge method and the biological membrane method. The application of ozone MBBR process in refinery wastewater treatment is mainly studied. The key point is to design the ozone +MBBR combined process based on MBBR process. The ozone +MBBR process is used to analyze the treatment of concentrated water COD discharged from the refinery wastewater treatment plant. The experimental results show that the average removal rate of COD is 46.0%~67.3% in the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrated water by ozone MBBR process, and the effluent can meet the relevant standard requirements. Compared with the traditional process, the ozone MBBR process is more flexible. The investment of this process is mainly ozone generator, blower and so on. The prices of these items are relatively inexpensive, and these costs can be offset by the excess investment in traditional activated sludge processes. At the same time, ozone MBBR process has obvious advantages in water quality, stability and other aspects.

  12. Shrimp pond wastewater treatment using pyrolyzed chicken feather as adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Wei Chek; Jbara, Mohamad Hasan; Palaniandy, Puganeshwary; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian

    2017-10-01

    In this study, chicken feather fiber was used as a raw material to prepare a non-expensive adsorbent by pyrolysis without chemical activation. The main pollutants treated in this study were chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) from shrimp pond wastewater containing high concentrations of nutrients, which caused the eutrophication phenomenon in adjacent water. Batch adsorption studies were performed to investigate the effect of pH (5-8), mass of adsorbent (0.5-3 g), and shaking time (0.5-2 h) on the removal efficiency of COD and NH3- N. Experimental results showed that the optimum conditions were as follows: pH 5, 0.5 g of adsorbent, and 0.5 h of shaking. Under these conditions, 34.01% and 40.47% of COD and NH3-N were removed, respectively, from shrimp pond wastewater. The adsorption processes were best described by the Langmuir isotherm model for COD and NH3-N removal, with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 36.9 and 7.24 mg/g for COD and NH3-N, respectively. The results proved that chicken feather could remove COD and NH3-N from shrimp pond wastewater. However, further studies on thermal treatment should be carried out to increase the removal efficiency of pyrolyzed chicken feather fiber.

  13. Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment by internal micro-electrolysis--coagulation, biological treatment and activated carbon adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangle; Liu, Suiqing; Zhang, Qiang; He, Yiliang

    2009-12-01

    Treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater by the combined process of internal micro-electrolysis and coagulation, biological treatment and activated carbon adsorption was studied. Internal micro-electrolysis and coagulation served as the pretreatment for the wastewater before biological treatment to reduce the contaminants' toxicity to microbes and improve the biodegradability of wastewater to guarantee the smooth operation of the biological process. Biological treatment was the main body of the whole process which took an unparalleled role in removing COD (chemical oxygen demand). Activated carbon adsorption was adopted as the post-treatment process to further remove the remaining non-biodegradable particles. Results showed that the removal rates of COD and S2- (sulphide ion) by pretreatment were 66.9% and 98.9%, respectively, and the biodegradability, as measured by the ratio of biodegradable COD to initial COD, of the wastewater was greatly improved from 0.16 +/- 0.02 to 0.41 +/- 0.02. The overall removal rate of COD in the wastewater achieved by this combined treatment process was up to 96%, and the effluent COD met the Chinese tertiary discharge standard (GB 8978-1996).

  14. Combination of ozonation and photocatalysis for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnawati, Enjarlis, Slamet

    2017-11-01

    The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol removal from pharmaceutical wastewater were investigated using configuration of two circulation batch reactors in a series with ozonation and photocatalytic processes. The ozonation is conducted with O3/granulated activated carbon (O3/GAC), whereas photocatalysis with TiO2 that immobilized on pumice stone (PS-TiO2). The effect of circulation flow rate (10; 12; 15 L/min) and the amount PS-TiO2 (200 g, 250 g, 300 g) were examined. Wastewater of 20 L was circulated pass through the pipe that injected with O3 by the ozone generator, and subsequently flow through two GAC columns, and finally, go through photoreactor that contains photocatalyst PS-TiO2 which equipped with mercury lamp as a photon source. At a time interval, COD and phenol concentration were measured to assess the performance of the process. FESEM imaging confirmed that TiO2 was successfully impregnated on PS, as corroborated by EDX spectra. Meanwhile, degradation process indicated that the combined ozonation and photocatalytic processes (O3/GAC-TiO2) is more efficient compared to the ozonation and photocatalysis alone. For combination process with the circulation flow rate of 10 L/min and 300 g of PS-TiO2,the influent COD of around 1000 ppm are effectively degraded to a final effluent COD of 290 ppm (71% removal) and initial phenol concentration of 4.75 ppm down to 0 ppm for 4 h which this condition fulfill the discharge standards quality. Therefore, this portable prototype reactor is effective that can be used in the pharmaceutical wastewater treatment. For the future, this process condition will be developed for orientation on the industrial applications (portable equipment) since pharmaceutical industries produce wastewater relatively in the small amount.

  15. Wastewater treatment in a hybrid activated sludge baffled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tizghadam, Mostafa; Dagot, Christophe; Baudu, Michel

    2008-01-01

    A novel hybrid activated sludge baffled reactor (HASBR), which contained both suspended and attached-growth biomass perfect mixing cells in series, was developed by installing standing and hanging baffles and introducing plastic brushes into a conventional activated sludge (CAS) reactor. It was used for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The effects on the operational performance of developing the suspended and attached-growth biomass and reactor configuration were investigated. The change of the flow regime from complete-mix to plug-flow, and the addition of plastic brushes as a support for biofilm, resulted in considerable improvements in the COD, nitrogen removal efficiency of domestic wastewater and sludge settling properties. In steady state, approximately 98 ± 2% of the total COD and 98 ± 2% of the ammonia of the influent were removed in the HASBR, when the influent wastewater concentration was 593 ± 11 mg COD/L and 43 ± 5 mg N/L, respectively, at a HRT of 10 h. These results were 93 ± 3 and 6 ± 3% for the CAS reactor, respectively. Approximately 90 ± 7% of the total COD was removed in the HASBR, when the influent wastewater concentration was 654 ± 16 mg COD/L at a 3 h HRT, and in the organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.36 kg COD m -3 day -1 . The result for the CAS reactor was 60 ± 3%. Existing CAS plants can be upgraded by changing the reactor configuration and introducing biofilm support media into the aeration tank

  16. Nitrogen removal from concentrated latex wastewater by land treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikanda Thongnuekhang

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the concentrated latex factories in the South of Thailand discharge treated wastewater that contains high level of nitrogen to a nearby river or canals leading to a water pollution problem. A study of land treatment system was conducted to treat and utilize nitrogen in treated wastewater from the concentrated latex factory. The experimental pilot-scale land treatment system was constructed at the Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai Campus. It consisted of water convolvulus (Ipomea aquatica, I. Reptans, tropical carpet grass (Axonopus compresus (Swartz Beav. and control unit (no plantation. The treated wastewater from the stabilization pond system of the selected concentrated latex factoryin Songkhla was used to irrigate each experimental unit. Influent and effluent from the experimental units were analyzed for TKN, NH3-N, Org-N, NO3 --N, NO2 --N, BOD5, sulfate, pH and EC. The land treatment system resulted a high removal efficiency for nitrogen. Tropical carpet grass provided higher removal efficiency than other units for all parameters. The removal efficiency of water convolvulus and control unit were not significantly different. The average removal efficiency of TKN, NH3-N, Org-N, BOD5 and sulfate for tropical carpet grass unit were 92, 97, 61, 88 and 52%, for water convolvulus unit were 75, 80, 43, 41 and 30%, and for control unit were 74, 80, 41, 31 and 28%, respectively. Mass balance of nitrogen transformation was conducted. It revealed that plant uptake was the major mechanism for nitrogen removal in land treatment.

  17. Regulating specific organic substances and heavy metals in industrial wastewater discharged to municipal wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Munk, L.; Pedersen, F.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the extension of wastewater treatment plants to nutrient removal and the development towards reuse of sludge m agriculture, new guidelines for regulating industrial discharges m Denmark were needed. The paper describes how a concept for regulating the discharge of specific organic substances...... substances, present knowledge of fate and effects in biological treatment plants is too scarce to underpin the setting of general standards. Therefore, it has been decided to base the developed priority system on the data used in the EEC-system for classification of hazardous chemicals. This includes ready...... degradability, defined by the OECD-test, bio-sorption and bio-accumulation, defined by the octanol/water distribution coefficient and toxic effects on water organisms. Several potential effects of seven heavy metals have been evaluated, and the most critical effects were found to be the quality criteria...

  18. RESOURCE RECOVERY BY OSMOTIC BIOELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS  TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Recovering valuable resources from wastewater will transform wastewater management from a treatment focused to sustainability focused strategy, and creates the need for new technology development. An innovative treatment concept - osmotic bioelectrochemical system (OsBES), which is based on cooperation between bioelectrochemical systems (BES) and forward osmosis (FO), has been introduced and studied in the past few years. An OsBES can accomplish simultaneous treatment of wastewater and recove...

  19. Beyond the conventional life cycle inventory in wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo-Toja, Yago, E-mail: yago.lorenzo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Alfonsín, Carolina [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Amores, María José; Aldea, Xavier; Marin, Desirée [Cetaqua, Water Technology Centre, 08940 Cornellà de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    The conventional approach for the environmental assessment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is typically based on the removal efficiency of organic load and nutrients as well as the quantification of energy and chemicals consumption. Current wastewater treatment research entails the monitoring of direct emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and emerging pollutants such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), which have been rarely considered in the environmental assessment of a wastewater treatment facility by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. As a result of that, the real environmental impacts of a WWTP may be underestimated. In this study, two WWTPs located in different climatic regions (Atlantic and Mediterranean) of Spain were evaluated in extensive sampling campaigns that included not only conventional water quality parameters but also direct GHG emissions and PPCPs in water and sludge lines. Regarding the GHG monitoring campaign, on-site measurements of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) were performed and emission factors were calculated for both WWTPs. GHG direct emissions accounted for 62% of the total global warming potential (GWP), much more relevant than indirect CO{sub 2} emissions associated with electricity use. Regarding PPCPs, 19 compounds were measured in the main streams: influent, effluent and sludge, to perform the evaluation of the toxicity impact categories. Although the presence of heavy metals in the effluent and the sludge as well as the toxicity linked to the electricity production may shade the toxicity impacts linked to PPCPs in some impact categories, the latter showed a notable influence on freshwater ecotoxicity potential (FETP). For this impact category, the removal of PPCPs within the wastewater treatment was remarkably important and arose as an environmental benefit in comparison with the non-treatment scenario. - Highlights: • The influence of LCI quality on the environmental assessment

  20. Innovative Treatment Technologies for Natural Waters and Wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, Amy E.

    2011-07-01

    The research described in this report focused on the development of novel membrane contactor processes (in particular, forward osmosis (FO), pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), and membrane distillation (MD)) in low energy desalination and wastewater treatment applications and in renewable energy generation. FO and MD are recently gaining national and international attention as viable, economic alternatives for removal of both established and emerging contaminants from natural and process waters; PRO is gaining worldwide attention as a viable source of renewable energy. The interrelationship of energy and water are at the core of this study. Energy and water are inextricably bound; energy usage and production must be considered when evaluating any water treatment process for practical application. Both FO and MD offer the potential for substantial energy and resource savings over conventional treatment processes and PRO offers the potential for renewable energy or energy offsets in desalination. Combination of these novel technologies with each other, with existing technologies (e.g., reverse osmosis (RO)), and with existing renewable energy sources (e.g., salinity gradient solar ponds) may enable much less expensive water production and also potable water production in remote or distributed locations. Two inter-related projects were carried out in this investigation. One focused on membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment and PRO for renewable energy generation; the other focused on MD driven by a salinity gradient solar pond.

  1. The feasibility and challenges of energy self-sufficient wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yifan; Li, Yue; Li, Xuyao; Luo, Pengzhou; Wang, Hongtao; Robinson, Zoe P.; Wang, Xin; Wu, Jiang; Li, Fengting

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Various influencing factors of energy use in WWTPs are characterized. •Benchmark energy consumption in WWTPs in different countries are highlighted. •Energy recovery or saving technologies in WWTPs are summarized. •Recent advances in optimization of energy recovery technologies are highlighted. •Feasibility and challenges of energy self-sufficient WWTPs are explored. -- Abstract: Energy efficiency optimization is crucial for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) because of increasing energy costs and concerns about global climate change. Energy efficiency optimization can be achieved through a combination of energy recovery from the wastewater treatment process and energy saving-related technologies. Through these two approaches energy self-sufficiency of WWTPs is achievable, and research is underway to reduce operation costs and energy consumption and to achieve carbon neutrality. In this paper, we analyze energy consumption and recovery in WWTPs and characterize the factors that influence energy use in WWTPs, including treatment techniques, treatment capacities, and regional differences. Recent advances in the optimization of energy recovery technologies and theoretical analysis models for the analysis of different technological solutions are presented. Despite some challenges in implementation, such as technological barriers and high investment costs, particularly in developing countries, this paper highlights the potential for more energy self-sufficient WWTPs to be established in the future.

  2. Capacity of textile filters for wastewater Treatment at changeable wastewater level – a hydraulic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Spychała

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to describe in a mathematical manner the hydraulic capacity of textile filters for wastewater treatment at changeable wastewater levels during a period between consecutive doses, taking into consideration the decisive factors for flow-conditions of filtering media. Highly changeable and slightly changeable flow-conditions tests were performed on reactors equipped with non-woven geo-textile filters. Hydraulic conductivity of filter material coupons was determined. The dry mass covering the surface and contained in internal space of filtering material was then indicated and a mathematical model was elaborated. Flow characteristics during the highly changeable flow-condition test were sensitivity to differentiated values of hydraulic conductivity in horizontal zones of filtering layer. During the slightly changeable flow-conditions experiment the differences in permeability and hydraulic conductivity of different filter (horizontal zones height regions were much smaller. The proposed modelling approach in spite of its simplicity provides a satisfactory agreement with empirical data and therefore enables to simulate the hydraulic capacity of vertically oriented textile filters. The mathematical model reflects the significant impact of the filter characteristics (textile permeability at different filter height and operational conditions (dosing frequency on the textile filters hydraulic capacity.

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of urban wastewater reuse with ozonation as tertiary treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Ivan; Rodriguez, Antonio; Rosal, Roberto; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R.

    2009-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment has been used to compare different scenarios involving wastewater reuse, with special focus on toxicity-related impact categories. The study is based on bench-scale experiments applying ozone and ozone in combination with hydrogen peroxide to a wastewater effluent from a Spanish sewage treatment plant. Two alternative characterisation models have been used to account for toxicity of chemical substances, namely USES-LCA and EDIP97. Four alternative scenarios have been assessed: wastewater discharge plus desalination supply, wastewater reuse without tertiary treatment, wastewater reuse after applying a tertiary treatment consisting on ozonation, and wastewater reuse after applying ozonation in combination with hydrogen peroxide. The results highlight the importance of including wastewater pollutants in LCA of wastewater systems assessing toxicity, since the contribution of wastewater pollutants to the overall toxicity scores in this case study can be above 90%. Key pollutants here are not only heavy metals and other priority pollutants, but also non-regulated pollutants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Wastewater reuse after applying any of the tertiary treatments considered appears as the best choice from an ecotoxicity perspective. As for human toxicity, differences between scenarios are smaller, and taking into account the experimental and modelling uncertainty, the benefits of tertiary treatment are not so clear. From a global warming potential perspective, tertiary treatments involve a potential 85% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions when compared with desalination

  4. Process waste treatment system upgrades: Clarifier startup at the nonradiological wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, A.J.; McTaggart, D.R.; Van Essen, D.C.; Kent, T.E.; West, G.D.; Taylor, P.A.

    1998-07-01

    The Waste Management Operations Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently modified the design of a reactor/clarifier at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex--Building 3608, to replace the sludge-blanket softener/clarifier at the Process Waste Treatment Plant, now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex-Building 3544 (PWTC-3544). This work was conducted because periodic hydraulic overloads caused poor water-softening performance in the PWTC-3544 softener, which was detrimental to the performance and operating costs of downstream ion-exchange operations. Over a 2-month time frame, the modified reactor/clarifier was tested with nonradiological wastewater and then with radioactive wastewater to optimize softening performance. Based on performance to date, the new system has operated more effectively than the former one, with reduced employee radiological exposure, less downtime, lower costs, and improved effluent quality

  5. Personal Review: Progress and prospect in electro-Fenton process for wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Cheng-chun; ZHANG Jia-fa

    2007-01-01

    As a novel advanced oxidation process (AOP), electro-Fenton process is powerful for degrading most organic compounds including toxic and non-biodegradable ones, and so has attracted great attention. This paper reviews this process in detail including the mechanism, electrolytic bath, electrode materials, aerations and operation parameters. The application of electro-Fenton method in wastewater treatment is evaluated and summarized. Future work in this field is suggested, and three main directions of new electrode exploitation, development of assisted technologies and mechanistic study should be strengthened.

  6. Coagulation and electrocoagulation for co-treatment of stabilized landfill leachate and municipal wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohini Verma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachate and municipal wastewater at various ratios (1:20, 1:10, 1:7 and 1:5 were subjected to coagulation and electrocoagulation (EC. Alum was used in conventional coagulation at pH 6 and aluminum plate as electrode was used in EC at a current density of 386 A/m2 with 5 cm inter electrode spacing. Treatment efficiency was assessed from removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solids (TSS, turbidity, ammonia, nitrate and phosphate. At 1:5 ratio of landfill leachate to municipal wastewater, highest COD removal was with 3.8 g/L alum whereas highest turbidity removal was with 3.3 g/L alum during coagulation. EC exhibited almost similar removal efficiency for all the parameters at different ratios tested except for COD which was considerably higher at 1:20 ratio. Aluminum consumption from electrode was 0.7 g/L following EC as compared to 3.8 g/L alum used in coagulation. The amount of sludge produced was found to be higher with EC as compared to coagulation which could be due to the fact that the electrochemical method was performed for a longer duration than conventional coagulation. For minimal sludge generation, EC reaction time should be ∼30 min. Further studies with EC process on costing and sludge generation will help to advance the technology for wastewater treatment.

  7. Use of nano filtration membrane technology for ceramic industry wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moliner-Salvador, R.; Deratani, A.; Palmeri, J.; Sanchez, E.

    2012-07-01

    A study has been undertaken of an advanced wastewater treatment approach using polymer nano filtration membranes, in an attempt to obtain water of sufficient quality to allow it to be reused in the same production process or, alternatively, to be discharged without any problems. The study has initially focused on the removal of organic matter (reduction of COD) and the most representative ions present in the wastewater, such as Na{sup +}, Mg{sup 2}+, Cl{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2}. In a first part of the study, with a view to optimising the experimental phase, a simulation has been performed of the nano filtration process using the Nano Flux software. Among other things, the simulation allows the most suitable membranes to be selected as a function of the permeate flow rate and desired level of retention in the substances to be removed. The subsequent experimentation was carried out in a laboratory tangential filtration system that works with flat membranes. It was found that retention values of about 90% were obtained for the studied substances, with a good permeate flow rate, using low operating pressures. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the studied technology and its potential as a treatment for improving ceramic industry wastewater quality.

  8. Olive mill wastewater treatment in Jordan: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawab, Abeer Al; Ghannam, Noor; Abu-Mallouh, Saida; Bozeya, Ayat; Abu-Zurayk, Rund A.; Al-Ajlouni, Yazan A.; Alshawawreh, Fida'a.; Odeh, Fadwa; Abu-Dalo, Muna A.

    2018-02-01

    The environmental impact of olive mill wastewater (OMW) pollution is a public concern. OMW contains high levels of phenols, organic compounds, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), microorganisms, nutrients, and toxic compounds. The treatment of OMW has been investigated by many researchers in the Mediterranean region, using several treatment techniques to remove contaminants from OMW. These techniques include chemical, biological, physiochemical, and biophysical techniques. Surfactants and some adsorbents were used in chemical techniques, anaerobic and aerobic in biological techniques, while the combined treatment methods used Electroosmosis, ozonation and electrocoagulation processes as physiochemical methods, and ultrasonic irradiation combined with aerobic biodegradation as biophysical method. The effects of OMW, whether treated or untreated, have been evaluated on both plants’ growth and soil properties. The treatment methods as well as the environmental impact of OMW in Jordan were summarized in this review.

  9. Tracking acidic pharmaceuticals, caffeine, and triclosan through the wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul M; Foster, Gregory D

    2005-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are a class of emerging contaminants whose fate in the wastewater treatment process has received increasing attention in past years. Acidic pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, naproxen, mefenamic acid, ketoprofen, and diclofenac), caffeine, and the antibacterial triclosan were quantified at four different steps of wastewater treatment from three urban wastewater treatment plants. The compounds were extracted from wastewater samples on Waters Oasis hydrophilic-lipophilic balance solid-phase extraction columns, silylated, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. For the chemicals studied, it was found that the majority of the influent load was removed during secondary treatment (51-99%), yielding expected surface water concentrations of 13 to 56 ng/L.

  10. Financing CHP Projects at Wastewater Treatment Facilities with Clean Water State Revolving Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This factsheet provides information about CHP at wastewater treatment facilities, including applications, financial challenges, and financial opportunities, such as the Clean Water State Revolving Fund.

  11. Treatment of hospital laundry wastewater by UV/H2O2 process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotesso, Jaqueline Pirão; Cossich, Eneida Sala; Janeiro, Vanderly; Tavares, Célia Regina Granhen

    2017-03-01

    Hospitals consume a large volume of water to carry out their activities and, hence, generate a large volume of effluent that is commonly discharged into the local sewage system without any treatment. Among the various sectors of healthcare facilities, the laundry is responsible for the majority of water consumption and generates a highly complex effluent. Although several advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are currently under investigation on the degradation of a variety of contaminants, few of them are based on real wastewater samples. In this paper, the UV/H 2 O 2 AOP was evaluated on the treatment of a hospital laundry wastewater, after the application of a physicochemical pretreatment composed of coagulation-flocculation and anthracite filtration. For the UV/H 2 O 2 process, a photoreactor equipped with a low-pressure UV-C lamp was used and the effects of initial pH and [H 2 O 2 ]/chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratio on COD removal were investigated through a randomized factorial block design that considered the batches of effluent as blocks. The results indicated that the initial pH had no significant effect on the COD removal, and the process was favored by the increase in [H 2 O 2 ]/COD ratio. Color and turbidity were satisfactorily reduced after the application of the physicochemical pretreatment, and COD was completely removed by the UV/H 2 O 2 process under suitable conditions. The results of this study show that the UV/H 2 O 2 AOP is a promising candidate for hospital laundry wastewater treatment and should be explored to enable wastewater reuse in the washing process.

  12. Microbial biotechnology and circular economy in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Per Halkjaer

    2017-09-01

    Microbial biotechnology is essential for the development of circular economy in wastewater treatment by integrating energy production and resource recovery into the production of clean water. A comprehensive knowledge about identity, physiology, ecology, and population dynamics of process-critical microorganisms will improve process stability, reduce CO2 footprints, optimize recovery and bioenergy production, and help finding new approaches and solutions. Examples of research needs and perspectives are provided, demonstrating the great importance of microbial biotechnology. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER AT VILLA CLARA WATER MANAGEMENT COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floramis Pérez Martín

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the current operating and safety conditions of biological treatment systems for wastewater in the centers of swinish and poultry breeding at Villa Clara Water Management Company, with the purpose of setting a group of organizational, technical and human measures that contributes to prevent contamination and minimize biological risks. In this way it can be guaranteed the protection to the workers, the facilities, community and the environment, to have a sure occupational atmosphere in the organization. As a result of the evaluation the factors that affect the operation of the biodigestion system and the security of the process are defined.

  14. Limited dissemination of the wastewater treatment plant core resistome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munck, Christian; Albertsen, Mads; Telke, Amar; Ellabaan, Mostafa; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Sommer, Morten O A

    2015-09-30

    Horizontal gene transfer is a major contributor to the evolution of bacterial genomes and can facilitate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes between environmental reservoirs and potential pathogens. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are believed to play a central role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. However, the contribution of the dominant members of the WWTP resistome to resistance in human pathogens remains poorly understood. Here we use a combination of metagenomic functional selections and comprehensive metagenomic sequencing to uncover the dominant genes of the WWTP resistome. We find that this core resistome is unique to the WWTP environment, with resistome is comparable to that of the soil resistome.

  15. ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs for domestic wastewaters treatment was studied in laboratory scale, with the objective to define sustainable filtration conditions of the suspensions along the process. During continuous experiments, the organic matter degradation by anaerobic way showed an average DQOT removal of 85% and 93%. Indeed, the degradation generated biogas after 12 days of operation and its relative methane composition was of 60% after 25 days of operation. Additionally, the comparison between membrane bioreactors (MBRs performance in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in filterability terms, reported that both systems behave similarly once reached the stationary state.

  16. Domestic wastewater treatment as a net energy producer--can this be achieved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Perry L; Bae, Jaeho; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2011-09-01

    In seeking greater sustainability in water resources management, wastewater is now being considered more as a resource than as a waste-a resource for water, for plant nutrients, and for energy. Energy, the primary focus of this article, can be obtained from wastewater's organic as well as from its thermal content. Also, using wastewater's nitrogen and P nutrients for plant fertilization, rather than wasting them, helps offset the high energy cost of producing synthetic fertilizers. Microbial fuel cells offer potential for direct biological conversion of wastewater's organic materials into electricity, although significant improvements are needed for this process to be competitive with anaerobic biological conversion of wastewater organics into biogas, a renewable fuel used in electricity generation. Newer membrane processes coupled with complete anaerobic treatment of wastewater offer the potential for wastewater treatment to become a net generator of energy, rather than the large energy consumer that it is today.

  17. Advances in wastewater nitrogen removal by biological processes: state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G. Capodaglio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the state-of-the-art of the most recent advances in biological nitrogen removal, including process design criteria and technological innovations. With reference to the Modified Ludzck Ettinger (MLE process (pre-denitrification and nitrification in the activated sludge process, the most common nitrogen removal process used nowadays, a new design equation for the denitrification reactor based on specific denitrification rate (SDNR has been proposed. In addition, factors influencing SDNR (DO in the anoxic reactor; hydrodynamic behavior are analyzed, and technological solutions are proposed. Concerning technological advances, the paper presents a summary of various “deammonification” processes, better known by their patent names like ANAMMOX®, DEMON®, CANON®, ANITA® and others. These processes have already found applications in the treatment of high-strength wastewater such as digested sludge liquor and landfill leachate. Among other emerging denitrification technologies, consideration is given to the Membrane Biofilm Reactors (MBfRs that can be operated both in oxidation and reduction mode.

  18. Synthesis of adsorbent from Tamarix hispida and modified by lanthanum metal for fluoride ions removal from wastewater: Adsorbent characteristics and real wastewater treatment data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Habibi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This data article describes a facile method for production of an adsorbent from Tamarix hispida wasted wood and modified by lanthanum metal for fluoride ions removal from wastewater. The main characteristics of the adsorbent consist of BET surface area, functional groups, and elemental analysis is presented. The data for attenuating the pollutants from a real wastewater treatment which was provided from a glass factory is also represented. More than 90% of fluoride content of the real wastewater was treated by the adsorbent. Generally, these data would be informative for extend research aim to industrial wastewater treatment and those who work in the wastewater treatment plants.

  19. Anammox biofilm in activated sludge swine wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Ryu; Ishimoto, Chikako; Chikyu, Mikio; Aihara, Yoshito; Matsumoto, Toshimi; Uenishi, Hirohide; Yasuda, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Yasuyuki; Waki, Miyoko

    2017-01-01

    We investigated anammox with a focus on biofilm in 10 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that use activated sludge treatment of swine wastewater. In three plants, we found red biofilms in aeration tanks or final sedimentation tanks. The biofilm had higher anammox 16S rRNA gene copy numbers (up to 1.35 × 10 12 copies/g-VSS) and higher anammox activity (up to 295 μmoL/g-ignition loss/h) than suspended solids in the same tank. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Planctomycetes accounted for up to 17.7% of total reads in the biofilm. Most of them were related to Candidatus Brocadia or Ca. Jettenia. The highest copy number and the highest proportion of Planctomycetes were comparable to those of enriched anammox sludge. Thus, swine WWTPs that use activated sludge treatment can fortuitously acquire anammox biofilm. Thus, concentrated anammox can be detected by focusing on red biofilm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. SELECTION OF CHEMICAL TREATMENT PROGRAM FOR OILY WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Díaz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available When selecting a chemical treatment program for wastewater to achieve an effective flocculation and coagulation is crucial to understand how individual colloids interact. The coagulation process requires a rapid mixing while flocculation process needs a slow mixing. The behavior of colloids in water is strongly influenced by the electrokinetic charge, where each colloidal particle carries its own charge, which in its nature is usually negative. Polymers, which are long chains of high molecular weight and high charge, when added to water begin to form longer chains, allowing removing numerous particles of suspended matter. A study of physico-chemical treatment by addition of coagulant and flocculant was carried out in order to determine a chemical program for oily wastewater coming from the gravity separation process in a crude oil refinery. The tests were carried out in a Jar Test equipment, where commercial products: aluminum polychloride (PAC, aluminum sulfate and Sintec D50 were evaluated with five different flocculants. The selected chemical program was evaluated with fluids at three temperatures to know its sensitivity to this parameter and the mixing energy in the coagulation and flocculation. The chemical program and operational characteristics for physico-chemical treatment with PAC were determined, obtaining a removal of more than 93% for suspended matter and 96% for total hydrocarbons for the selected coagulant / flocculant combination.