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Sample records for advanced waste water

  1. Life cycle assessment of advanced waste water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

    The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e....... In total more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the preliminary LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach (mainly based on existing LCIA methodology) on one of the advanced treatment technologies, i...

  2. Advanced primary treatment of waste water using a bio-flocculation-adsorption sedimentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, W.; Ting, Y.P.; Chen, J.P.; Xing, C.H. [National Univ., Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Shi, S.Q. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2000-07-01

    An advanced primary treatment process for a municipal waste water was systematically studied, using a bio-flocculation-adsorption, sedimentation and stabilization process (BSS). It was shown that the organic removal efficiency was higher than that of the traditional primary treatment processes but lower than that of the traditional secondary treatment processes. Both adsorption and bio-flocculation played an important role in the removal of pollutants. The activated sludge within the bio-flocculation-adsorption tank could be considered a bio-flocculent which improved the quality of the effluent from the primary treatment process. As the effluent of the BSS process did not meet the requirements for a typical secondary effluent, the process may be regarded as an advanced (or enhanced) primary treatment process, suitable for waste water containing a high concentration of suspended solids and colloidal particles. (orig.)

  3. Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexin Wang

    2011-12-19

    The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer

  4. Development of an advanced spacecraft water and waste materials processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Schelkopf, J. D.; Middleton, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    An Integrated Waste Management-Water System (WM-WS) which uses radioisotopes for thermal energy is described and results of its trial in a 4-man, 180 day simulated space mission are presented. It collects urine, feces, trash, and wash water in zero gravity, processes the wastes to a common evaporator, distills and catalytically purifies the water, and separates and incinerates the solid residues using little oxygen and no chemical additives or expendable filters. Technical details on all subsystems are given along with performance specifications. Data on recovered water and heat loss obtained in test trials are presented. The closed loop incinerator and other projects underway to increase system efficiency and capacity are discussed.

  5. Advanced waste water cleaning with the aid of an algae biofilm; Weitergehende Abwasserreinigung mit Hilfe eines Algenbiofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, G.; Patzold, V.; Ike, A.; Sekoulov, I. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Abwasserwirtschaft

    1999-07-01

    These first investigations have led to results indicating that advanced waste water cleaning with the aid of algae biofilm as a downstream process stage is feasible. The concentration of phosphorus in waste water could be reduced to less than 1 mg per litre. Ammonium, which is toxic to fish, was nitrified, and the overall nitrogen concentration could be cut down. The concentration of bacteria was reduced by means of a close-to-nature process to less than the limiting values set by the European Union directive governing the quality of bathing waters. (orig.) [German] Die Ergebnisse dieser ersten Untersuchungen zeigen, dass eine weitergehende Abwasserreinigung mit Hilfe eines Algenbiofilms als nachgeschaltete Verfahrensstufe moeglich ist. Die Phosphorkonzentration im Abwasser konnte auf unter 1 mg/l reduziert werden. Fischgiftiges Ammonium wurde nitrifiziert und die Gesamtstickstoffkonzentration konnte gesenkt werden. Die Bakterienkonzentration konnte mit Hilfe eines naturnahen Verfahrens bis unter die Grenzwerte der EU-Richtlinie ueber die Qualitaet der Badegewaesser reduziert werden. (orig.)

  6. Advances in investigation of new technologies on biological nitrogen removal of waste water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Xu, A.; Li, R. [CUMT, Xuzhou (China). School of Environment and Spatial Information

    2004-03-15

    The progresses of biological nitrogen removal from waste water, such as the investigation on shortcut nitrification denitrification, simultaneous nitrification denitrification (SND). Toxic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) and ecology superior nitrification denitrification (ECOSUNIDES) were analyzed and discussed. The advantages of the new technology was compared with the traditional ones. It can be concluded that the new technology is promising for further investigations and applications. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Comparison of advanced oxidation processes used for municipal waste water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlin, David

    2014-01-01

    Municipal wastewater can be used as an alternative water source. However, it is essential to treat the wastewater, thereby achieving extensive removal of organic pollutants. It is also necessary to ensure a nearly complete decolouration and disinfection of the water. The use of chemical oxidation and thus advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in the processes of wastewater treatment is important in terms of ensuring an efficient degradation of the more difficult biodegradable or even non-biodeg...

  8. Post-treatment of reclaimed waste water based on an electrochemical advanced oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Murphy, Oliver J.; Hitchens, G. D.; Salinas, Carlos E.; Rogers, Tom D.

    1992-01-01

    The purification of reclaimed water is essential to water reclamation technology life-support systems in lunar/Mars habitats. An electrochemical UV reactor is being developed which generates oxidants, operates at low temperatures, and requires no chemical expendables. The reactor is the basis for an advanced oxidation process in which electrochemically generated ozone and hydrogen peroxide are used in combination with ultraviolet light irradiation to produce hydroxyl radicals. Results from this process are presented which demonstrate concept feasibility for removal of organic impurities and disinfection of water for potable and hygiene reuse. Power, size requirements, Faradaic efficiency, and process reaction kinetics are discussed. At the completion of this development effort the reactor system will be installed in JSC's regenerative water recovery test facility for evaluation to compare this technique with other candidate processes.

  9. Oxidative treatment of a waste water stream from a molasses processing using ozone and advanced oxidation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discoloration of a biologically pretreated waste water stream from a molasses processing by ozonation and two advanced oxidation processes (O3/H2O2 and O3/γ-irradiation, respectively) was studied. Colour removal occurred with all three processes with almost the same efficiency. The main difference of the methods applied was reflected by the BOD increase during the discoloration period. By ozonation it was much higher than by AOPs but it also appeared with AOPs. AOPs were, therefore, not apt for an effective BOD control during discoloration. (authors)

  10. Application of NASA's Advanced Life Support Technologies for Waste Treatment, Water Purification and Recycle, and Food Production in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Lewis, Carol E.; Covington, M. Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's advanced life support technologies are being combined with Arctic science and engineering knowledge to address the unique needs of the remote communities of Alaska through the Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) project. ALSEE is a collaborative effort involving NASA, the State of Alaska, the University of Alaska, the North Slope Borough of Alaska, and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The focus is a major issue in the state of Alaska and other areas of the Circumpolar North, the health and welfare of its people, their lives and the subsistence lifestyle in remote communities, economic opportunity, and care for the environment. The project primarily provides treatment and reduction of waste, purification and recycling of water. and production of food. A testbed is being established to demonstrate the technologies which will enable safe, healthy, and autonomous function of remote communities and to establish the base for commercial development of the resulting technology into new industries. The challenge is to implement the technological capabilities in a manner compatible with the social and economic structures of the native communities, the state, and the commercial sector. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Performance acceptance test of a portable instrument to detect uranium in water at the DOE Advanced Waste Water Treatment Plant, Fernald, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Eppendorf-Biotronik Model IC 2001-2, a portable field ruggedized ion chromatography instrument, was rigorously tested at the DOE Advanced Waste Water Treatment Plant, Fernald, Ohio. This instrument rapidly detected the uranium concentration in water, and has a detection limit in the low ppb range without using the sample concentrating feature. The test set of samples analyzed included: ''Real World'' water samples from the AWWT containing uranium concentrations in the 9--110 ppb range, a sample blank, and a performance evaluation sample. The AWWT samples contained sets of both raw water and acid-preserved water samples. Selected samples were analyzed in quadruplicate to asses the instrument's precision, and these results were compared with the results from an off-site confirmatory laboratory to assess the instrument's accuracy. Additional comparisons with on-site laboratory instruments, Chemcheck KPA-11 and Scintrex UA-3 are reported. Overall, the Eppendorf-Biotronik IC 2001-2 performed exceptionally well providing a detection limit in the low ppb region (< 10 ppb) and giving rapid (< 5 minutes) accurate and reproducible analytical results for the AWWT, ''real world'', water samples with uranium concentrations in the region of interest (10--40 ppb). The per sample operating cost for this instrument is equivalent to the per sample cost for the currently used KPA. The time required to analyze a sample and provide a result is approximately the same for the CI 2001-2, KPA, and Scintrex instruments

  12. A Primer on Waste Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

    This information pamphlet is for teachers, students, or the general public concerned with the types of waste water treatment systems, the need for further treatment, and advanced methods of treating wastes. Present day pollution control methods utilizing primary and secondary waste treatment plants, lagoons, and septic tanks are described,…

  13. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  14. Water: Too Precious to Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Geographic World, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)

  15. Advances in water resources engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The Handbook of Environmental Engineering is a collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. A sister volume to Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, this volume focuses on the theory and analysis of various water resources systems including watershed sediment dynamics and modeling, integrated simulation of interactive surface water and groundwater systems, river channel stabilization with submerged vanes, non-equilibrium sediment transport, reservoir sedimentation, and fluvial processes, minimum energy dissipation rate theory and applications, hydraulic modeling development and application, geophysical methods for assessment of earthen dams, soil erosion on upland areas by rainfall and overland flow, geofluvial modeling methodologies and applications, and an environmental water engineering glossary. This critical volume will serve as a valuable reference work for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, designers of...

  16. The kinetics of activation and deactivation in the process of water ozonising used for advanced oxidation of the dust waste from moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baliński

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding coal dust and organic carriers of the lustrous carbon to bentonite-bonded moulding sands in amounts justified by thetechnological regime and the use of cores and protective coatings based on organic compounds create serious threats to the environment.During thermal destruction of the individual components of moulding and core sands, some toxic organic compounds are emitted. They formthe majority of the Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs, and include mainly compounds like benzene, toluene, xylene, naphtalene, hexane,acetaldehyde, acrolein, aniline, cresol and cumene, their polycyclic derivatives, phenol, formaldehyde, and other similar matters. In thusformed dust waste, the amount of which constitutes about 20% of all the waste from foundries using traditional moulding and core sands, there are still full-value materials which can undergo total recycling, providing the HAPs are partially or totally removed from them. The article discusses some problems of the advanced oxidation of selected toxic chemical compounds present in bentonite-bonded moulding sands due to the effect of high temperature. The results of the investigations of the kinetics of the process of maximum water saturation with ozone (acting as an oxidiser and of the kinetics of the natural process of ozone decomposition to diatomic oxygen were presented. It has been stated that the maximum time of water saturation with ozone using an OZOMATIC OSC-MODULAR 4HC ozone generator and a 1m3 capacity tank with water is 60 minutes. After 30 minute break in the ozonising process, the ozone concentration in water decreases by 40 to 50%. To obtain maximum ozone concentration in water during the next ozonising cycle, it is necessary to have the ozone-generating device running for the next 30 minutes. The stabilisation of ozone concentration in water takes place only after the third ozonising cycle, when it reaches nearly 80%of the maximum value obtained after the first process cycle

  17. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  18. Treating water-reactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some compounds and elements, such as lithium hydride, magnesium, sodium, and calcium react violently with water to generate much heat and produce hydrogen. The hydrogen can ignite or even form an explosive mixture with air. Other metals may react rapidly only if they are finely divided. Some of the waste produced at Los Alamos National Lab. includes these metals that are contaminated with radioactivity. By far the greatest volume of water-reactive waste is lithium hydride contaminated with depleted uranium. Reactivity of the water-reactive wastes is neutralized with an atmosphere of humid nitrogen, which prevents the formation of an explosive mixture of hydrogen and air. When we adjust the temperature of the nitrogen and the humidifier, the nitrogen can be more or less humid, and the rate of reaction can be adjusted and controlled. Los Alamos has investigated the rates of reaction of lithium hydride as a function of the temperature and humidity. Los Alamos will investigate other variables. For example, the nitrogen flow will be optimized to conserve nitrogen and yet keep the reaction rates high. Reaction rates will be determined for various forms of lithium waste, from small chips to powder. Bench work will lead to the design of a skid-mounted process for treating wastes. Other water-reactive wastes will also be investigated

  19. Waste Water Disposal Design And Management IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces biological waste water treatment with basic theory and activated sludge process, which includes chemical reaction engineering with reaction velocity and mass balance, an effector, characteristic of water treatment effector and biological waste water disposal such as flow pattern and tracer test. This is biological theory of steady on waste water treatment, design and management.

  20. Advanced Conversion of Organic Waste into Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offenbacher, Elmar [BDI-BioEnergy International AG, Grambach/Graz (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    Day by day, every human generates significant amounts of organic waste that most of the time ends on landfills. Disposing of organic residues is not just a waste of energy resources but also a burden to the environment as anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are produced. In contrast to waste combustion that can't generate any energy out of organic waste but the contrary, anaerobic digestion is the most suitable technology for the sustainable and efficient conversion of all kind of organic waste into valuable biogas. Biogas generated from organic waste typically consists of 55-60% methane (CH{sub 4}) and provides an energy content of more than 20 MJ/Nm{sup 3}. The average biogas yield is around 150 Nm{sup 3} per ton of organic waste that can be converted into 350 kW of electricity plus the same amount of process heat. In other words a typical household could recover about one twentieth of its power consumption just out of the organic waste it is producing. Anaerobic digestion significantly reduces the amount of waste going to landfill as well as the uncontrolled emissions of methane. The BDI High Load Hybrid Reactor merges the core concepts of CSTR and UASB fermenters while providing a two phase anaerobic digestion system. The first process step accommodates hydrolysis and acidification to break down the complex organic molecules into simple sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids under acid conditions. In the second stage acetic acids are finally converted into methane (CH{sub 4}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water. This two-phase concept ensures maximum yield of biogas generated, paired with high loading rates and feedstock flexibility.

  1. Waste Water Treatment Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wastewater treatment plant to treat both the sanitary and industrial effluent originated from process, utilities and off site units of the refinery is described. The purpose is to obtain at the end of the treatment plant, a water quality that is in compliance with contractual requirements and relevant environmental regulations. first treatment (pretreatment). Primary de-oiling, Equalization, Neutralization, Secondary de-oiling. Second treatment (Biological), The mechanism of BOD removal, Biological flocculation, Nutrient requirements, Nitrification, De-nitrification, Effect of temperature, Effect of ph, Toxicity

  2. Waste Water Treatment And Data Book Of Method Of Water Quality Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book indicates the method of water quality analysis and waste water treatment with collecting water quality data of advanced country and WHO, which introduces poisonous substance in industrial waste water such as heavy metal, ammonia, chlorine ion, PCB, chloroform, residual chlorine and manganese, reports about influence of those materials on human health, lists on method of analysis the poisonous substance, research way like working order and precautions on treatment and method of chemical process and use.

  3. ODOR DISPOSAL EFFECT OF TRANSFER STATION WASTE WATER BY ANAEROBIC-COAGULATION-ADVANCED OXIDATION%厌氧-混凝-高级氧化对转运站污水恶臭处理效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶彬; 蒋建国; 陈爱梅; 乌佳凌

    2012-01-01

    The effect of transfer station waste water odor treatment by each unit was analyzed.The pilot scale system was based on anaerobic-coagulation-advanced oxidation.Total reduced sulfur(TRS) was taken as indexes.The amount of TRS was 0.602 mg/L in transfer station waste water.After treatment by the units of anaerobic-coagulation-advance oxidation,the values turn into 4.167,3.513 and 0.168 mg/L.Anaerobic degradation of sulfur-contained organic compounds was an important process of odor material generation.Coagulation showed little effect on waste water odor removal.Removal rate of odor material by advanced oxidation was over 95 %,comparing to effluent of coagulation.%以总还原硫(TRS)为考察指标,分析了基于厌氧-混凝-高级氧化工艺的中试系统各处理单元对转运站污水中恶臭物质的处理效果。转运站污水中,TRS总量为0.602 mg/L水,而经过厌氧、混凝、高级氧化等处理单元后依次为4.167,3.513,0.168 mg/L水。厌氧对含硫有机物的降解是恶臭物质产生的重要过程,混凝过程对污水恶臭去除作用很小。相比于混凝出水,高级氧化对恶臭物质去除率在95%以上。

  4. Advances in water resources management

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chih; Wang, Mu-Hao

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides in-depth coverage of such topics as multi-reservoir system operation theory and practice, management of aquifer systems connected to streams using semi-analytical models, one-dimensional model of water quality and aquatic ecosystem-ecotoxicology in river systems, environmental and health impacts of hydraulic fracturing and shale gas, bioaugmentation for water resources protection, wastewater renovation by flotation for water pollution control, determination of receiving water’s reaeration coefficient in the presence of salinity for water quality management, sensitivity analysis for stream water quality management, river ice process, and computer-aided mathematical modeling of water properties. This critical volume will serve as a valuable reference work for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, designers of water resources systems, and scientists and researchers. The goals of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series are: (1) to cover entire environmental fields, includin...

  5. Advances in heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current IAEA programme in advanced nuclear power technology promotes technical information exchange between Member States with major development programmes. The Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) on Advances in Heavy Water Reactors was organized by the IAEA in the framework of the activities of the International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors (IWGATWR) and hosted by the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Sixty-five participants from nine countries (Canada, Czech Republic, India, German, Japan, Republic of Korea, Pakistan, Romania and USA) and the IAEA attended the TCM. Thirty-four papers were presented and discussed in five sessions. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. All recommendations which were addressed by the participants of the Technical Committee meeting to the IWGATWR have been submitted to the 5th IWGATWR meeting in September 1993. They were reviewed and used as input for the preparation of the IAEA programme in the area of advanced water cooled reactors. This TCM was mainly oriented towards advances in HWRs and on projects which are now in the design process and under discussion. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

  7. Application of advanced oxidative process in treatment radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ion exchange resin is used in the water purification system in both nuclear research and power reactors. Combined with active carbon, the resin removes dissolved elements from water when the nuclear reactor is operating. After its consumption, it becomes a special type of radioactive waste. The usual treatment to this type of waste is the immobilization with Portland cement, which is simple and low cost. However, its low capacity of immobilization and the increase volume of waste have been the challenges. The development of new technologies capable of destroying this waste completely by increasing its solidification is the main target due to the possibility of both volume and cost reduction. The objective of this work was to evaluate ion exchange resin degradation by Advanced Oxidative Process using Fenton's Reagent (H2O2 / Fe+2) in different concentration and temperatures. One advantage of this process is that all additional organic compounds or inorganic solids produced are oxidized easily. The degradation experiments were conducted with IRA-400 resin and Fenton's Reagents, varying the H2O2 concentration (30% e 50%) and heat temperature (25, 60 and 100 deg C). The resin degradation was confirmed by the presence of BaCO3 as a white precipitate resulting from the reaction between the Ba(OH)2 and the CO2 from the resin degradation. All experiments run in duplicate. Higher degradation was observed with Fenton's Reagent (Fe+2 /H2O2 30%) at 100 deg C after 2 hours. (author)

  8. Sustainable treatment of municipal waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Augusto; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    The main goal of the EU FP6 NEPTUNE program is to develop new and improve existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling technologies for municipal waste water, in accordance with the concepts behind the EU Water Framework Directive. As part of this work, the project...... treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the first LCA results from running existing life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodology on some of the waste water treatment technologies. Keywords: Sustainability, LCA, micropollutants, waste water treatment technologies........e. heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors) in the waste water. As a novel approach, the potential ecotoxicity and human toxicity impacts from a high number of micropollutants and the potential impacts from pathogens will be included. In total, more that 20 different waste water and sludge...

  9. Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute's fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison's limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United's mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the four landfill test cases constructed in 1989 and 1991 has continued. Option 1 of the contract was approved last year to add financing for the fifth test case at the Freeman United site. The construction of the Test Case 5 cells is scheduled to begin in November, 1992. Work during this past year has focused on obtaining data on the physical and chemical properties of the landfilled wastes, and on developing a conceptual framework for interpreting this information. Results to date indicate that hydration reactions within the landfilled wastes have had a major impact on the physical and chemical properties of the materials but these reactions largely ceased after the first year, and physical properties have changed little since then. Conditions in Colorado remained dry and no porewater samples were collected. In Ohio, hydration reactions and increases in the moisture content of the waste tied up much of the water initially infiltrating the test cells

  10. Advanced Waste-To-Energy Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Branchini, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The increase in environmental and healthy concerns, combined with the possibility to exploit waste as a valuable energy resource, has led to explore alternative methods for waste final disposal. In this context, the energy conversion of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in Waste-To-Energy (WTE) power plant is increasing throughout Europe, both in terms of plants number and capacity, furthered by legislative directives. Due to the heterogeneous nature of waste, some differences with respect to a...

  11. Onsite Waste Water Treatment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs have evolved from the pit privies used widely throughout history to installations capable of producing a disinfected effluent that is fit for human consumption. Although achieving such a level of effluent quality is seldom necessary, the ability of onsite systems to remove settles able solids, floatable grease and scum, nutrients, and pathogens. From wastewater discharges defines their importance in protecting human health and environmental resources. In the modern era, the typical onsite system has consisted primarily of a septic tank and a soil absorption field, also known as a subsurface wastewater infiltration system, or SWIS. In this manual, such systems are referred to as conventional systems. Septic tanks remove most settle able and floatable material and function as an anaerobic bioreactor that promotes partial digestion of retained organic matter. Septic tank effluent, which contains significant concentrations of pathogens and nutrients, has traditionally been discharged to soil, sand, or other media absorption fields (SWISs for further treatment through biological processes, adsorption, filtration, and infiltration into underlying soils. Conventional systems work well if they are installed in areas with appropriate soils and hydraulic capacities; designed to treat the incoming waste load to meet public health, ground water, and surface water performance standards; installed properly; and maintained to ensure long-term performance. These criteria, however, are often not met. Only about one-third of the land area in the United States has soils suited for conventional subsurface soil absorption fields. System densities in some areas exceed the capacity of even suitable soils to assimilate wastewater flows and retain and transform their contaminants. In addition, many systems are located too close to ground water or surface waters and others, particularly in rural areas with newly installed public

  12. Solar detoxification of waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, J. M.

    2000-07-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis is a discipline which includes a large variety of reactions: mild or total oxidations, dehydrogenation, hydrogen transfer. oxygen-18 and deuterium isotopic exchange, metal deposition, water detoxification, gaseous pollutant removal, etc. In line with the latter point, it can be considered as one of the new Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOT) for air and water purification treatment. Several books and reviews have been recently devoted to this problem (1-6). A recent review has reported more than 1200 references on the subject (7). Heterogeneous photocatalysis can be carried out in various media: gas phase, pure organic liquid phases or aqueous solutions. As for classical heterogeneous catalysis, the overall process can be decomposed into five independent steps: 1. Transfer of the reactants in the fluid to the surface. 2. Adsorption of a least one of the reactants. 3. Reaction in the adsorbed phase 4. Desorption of the product (s) 5. Removal of the products from the interface region. (Author) 11 refs.

  13. Solar Detoxification of Waste Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, J.M.

    2002-07-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis is a discipline which includes a large variety of reactions: mild or total oxidations, dehydrogenation, hydrogen transfer, oxygen-18 and deuterium isotopic exchange, metal deposition, water detoxification, gaseous pollutant removal, etc. In line with the latter point, it can be considered as one of the new. Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOT) for air and water purification treatment. Several books and reviews have been recently devoted to this problem (1-6). A recent review has reported more than 1200 references on the subject. Heterogeneous photocatalysis can be carried out in various media: gas phase, pure organic liquid phases or aqueous solutions. As for classical heterogeneous catalysis, the overall process can be decomposed into five independent steps: 1. Transfer of the reactants in the fluid phase to the surface 2. Adsorption of a least one of the reactants 3. Reaction in the adsorbed phase 4. Desorption of the products 5. Removal of the products from the interface region. (Author)

  14. Advanced light water reactor plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giedraityte, Zivile [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaranta 8D-84, 02150 Espoo (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    For nuclear power to be competitive with the other methods of electrical power generation the economic performance should be significantly improved by increasing the time spent on line generating electricity relative to time spent off-line conducting maintenance and refueling. Maintenance includes planned actions (surveillances) and unplanned actions (corrective maintenance) to respond to component degradation or failure. A methodology is described which is used to resolve maintenance related operating cycle length barriers. Advanced light water nuclear power plant is designed with the purpose to maximize online generating time by increasing operating cycle length. (author)

  15. Advances in BWR water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews recent advances in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) water chemistry control with examples of plant experiences at U.S. designed BWRs. Water chemistry advances provide some of the most effective methods for mitigating materials degradation, reducing fuel performance concerns and lowering radiation fields. Mitigation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of materials remains a high priority and improved techniques that have been demonstrated in BWRs will be reviewed, specifically hydrogen injection combined with noble metal chemical addition (NMCA) and the newer on-line noble metal application process (OLNC). Hydrogen injection performance, an important part of SCC mitigation, will also be reviewed for the BWR fleet, highlighting system improvements that have enabled earlier injection of hydrogen including the potential for hydrogen injection during plant startup. Water chemistry has been significantly improved by the application of pre-filtration and optimized use of ion exchange resins in the CP (condensate polishing) and reactor water cleanup (RWCU) systems. EPRI has monitored and supported water treatment improvements to meet water chemistry goals as outlined in the EPRI BWR Water Chemistry Guidelines, particularly those for SCC mitigation of reactor internals and piping, minimization of fuel risk due to corrosion and crud deposits and chemistry control for radiation field reduction. In recent years, a significant reduction has occurred in feedwater corrosion product input, particularly iron. A large percentage of plants are now reporting <0.1 ppb feedwater iron. The impacts to plant operation and chemistry of lower feedwater iron will be explored. Depleted zinc addition is widely practiced across the fleet and the enhanced focus on radiation reduction continues to emphasize the importance of controlling radiation source term. In addition, shutdown chemistry control is necessary to avoid excessive release of activated corrosion products from fuel

  16. Environmental sustainability of waste water ozonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

    The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e...... and whole effluent toxicity have been developed. About 15 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies (or combinations) have been assessed. This paper will present the LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach on one of the WWTTs, i.e. ozonation....

  17. Environmental sustainability of ozonating municipal waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

    The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e....... In total more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the preliminary LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach (mainly based on existing LCIA methodology) on one of the WWTTs, i.e. ozonation....

  18. Lyophilization for Water Recovery From Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Litwiller, Eric; Reinhard, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This abstract describes the development of a solid waste treatment system designed for a near term human exploration mission. The technology being developed is an energy- efficient lyophilization technique that recovers water from spacecraft solid waste. In the lyophilization process water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, resulting in the separation of the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. This technology is ideally suited to applications where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO, is not. Water contained within solid wastes accounts for approximately 3% of the total water balance. If 100% closure of the water loop is desired the water contained within this waste would need to be recovered. To facilitate operation in microgravity thermoelectric heat pumps have be used in place of traditional fluid cycle heat pumps. A mathematical model of a thermoelectric lyophilizer has been developed and used to generate energy use and processing rate parameters. The results of laboratory investigations and discussions with ALS program management have been used to iteratively arrive at a prototype design. This design address operational limitations which were identified in the laboratory studies and handling and health concerns raised by ALS program management. The current prototype design is capable of integration into the ISS Waste Collection System.

  19. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, C. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop “advanced” glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl– in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease the waste

  20. Integrated waste and water management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

  1. Ceiba Pentradenta wood waste activated carbon for waste water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Geetha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for waste water treatment over the last decades. The low materials originated from various sources such as agricultural sources and byproducts, agricultural residues and wastes, low-cost sources from which most complex adsorbents will be produced .The farming waste material has to be disposed either safely or must be reused for some valuable purpose. In this consent Ceiba Pentradenta Wood waste, an agricultural waste material which is being converted as Activated carbon in presence of Nitrogen atmosphere at 7000 C is used as an adsorbent for dye removal. The portrayal studies such as bulk density, moisture content, ash content, fixed carbon content, soluble matter (water, acid, matter soluble in acid, pH, decolourising power, ion exchange capacity, percentage content and surface area have been carried out to assess the suitability of these carbons as absorbents in treatment of the water and wastewater. The present study reveals the recovery of valuable adsorbents from readily and cheaply available agriculture wastes.

  2. The Advanced Light Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U. S. Advanced Light Water Reactor Program is a forward-looking program designed to produce viable nuclear generating system candidates to meet the very real, and perhaps imminent, need for new power generation capacity in the U. S. and around the world. The ALRR Program is an opportunity to move ahead with confidence, to confront problems today which must be confronted if the U. S. electrical utilities are to continue to meet their commitment to provide safe, reliable, economical electrical power to the nation in the years ahead. Light water reactor technology is today playing a vital role in the production of electricity to meet the world's needs. At present about 13% of the world's electricity is supplied by nuclear power plants, most of those light water reactors. Nevertheless, there is a clear need for expanded use of nuclear generation. Here in Korea and elsewhere in Asia, demand for electricity has continued to increase at a very high rate. In the United States demand growth has been more moderate, but a large number of existing stations will be ready for replacement in the next two decades, and all countries face the problem of dwindling fuel supplies and growing environmental impact of fossil-fired power plants. Despite the evident need for expanded nuclear generation capacity in the United States, there have been no new plants ordered in the past ten years and at present there are no immediate prospects for new plant orders. Concerns about safety, the high cost of recent nuclear stations, and the current excess of electrical generation capacity in the United States, have combined to interrupt completely the growth of this vital power supply system

  3. Hanford 200 area (sanitary) waste water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Site is approximately 1,450 sq. km (560 sq. mi) of semiarid land set aside for activities of the DOE. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are located in the 200 Areas. Over the last 50 years at Hanford dicard of hazardous and sanitary waste water has resulted in billions of liters of waste water discharged to the ground. As part of the TPA, discharges of hazardous waste water to the ground and waters of Washington State are to be eliminated in 1995. Currently sanitary waste water from the 200 Area Plateau is handled with on-site septic tank and subsurface disposal systems, many of which were constructed in the 1940s and most do not meet current standards. Features unique to the proposed new sanitary waste water handling systems include: (1) cost effective operation of the treatment system as evaporative lagoons with state-of-the-art liner systems, and (2) routing collection lines to avoid historic contamination zones. The paper focuses on the challenges met in planning and designing the collection system

  4. Advanced waste forms from spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, J.P.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1995-12-31

    More than one hundred spent nuclear fuel types, having an aggregate mass of more than 5000 metric tons (2700 metric tons of heavy metal), are stored by the United States Department of Energy. This paper proposes a method for converting this wide variety of fuel types into two waste forms for geologic disposal. The method is based on a molten salt electrorefining technique that was developed for conditioning the sodium-bonded, metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) for geologic disposal. The electrorefining method produces two stable, optionally actinide-free, high-level waste forms: an alloy formed from stainless steel, zirconium, and noble metal fission products, and a ceramic waste form containing the reactive metal fission products. Electrorefining and its accompanying head-end process are briefly described, and methods for isolating fission products and fabricating waste forms are discussed.

  5. Advanced High-Level Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, David K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Kevin M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has implemented an integrated program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation from which key decisions can be made regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities with an appreciation toward reducing overall mission life. The purpose of this advanced HLW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-, mid-, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced HLW glasses and their associated models to support facility operations at WTP, including both direct feed and full pretreatment flowsheets. This plan also integrates technical support of facility operations and waste qualification activities to show the interdependence of these activities with the advanced waste glass (AWG) program to support the full WTP mission. Figure ES-1 shows these key ORP programmatic activities and their interfaces with both WTP facility operations and qualification needs. The plan is a living document that will be updated to reflect key advancements and mission strategy changes. The research outlined here is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (e.g., significant increases in waste throughput and reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized when advancements in glass formulation continue and models supporting facility operations are implemented. Developing and applying advanced

  6. Tertiary Treatment for Textile Waste Water-A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Manali Desai*1, Mehali Mehta2

    2014-01-01

    Tertiary treatment is the Industrial waste water treatment process which removes stubborn contaminants that have not been removed in secondary treatment. Effluent becomes even cleaner by Tertiary treatment through the use of stronger and more advanced treatment systems. The present work is an attempt to review all possible tertiary treatment methods for removal of dyestuff from textile effluent. Conventional method for treatment of textile effluent has own certain limitations ...

  7. for the Waste Water Cleaning Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Grigorieva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of a waste water treatment plant is investigated. The model is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations with one bounded control. An optimal control problem of minimizing concentration of the polluted water on the given time interval is stated and solved analytically with the use of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle and Green's Theorem. Computer simulations of a model of an industrial waste water treatment plant show the advantage of using our optimal strategy. Possible applications are discussed.

  8. Waste water treatment in Bukkerup (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Overgaard, Morten; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    In connection to the new waste water plan of Tølløse municipal the technical and environmental board has suggested that Bukkerup get a sewer system which brings the waste water to the treatment plant for Tysinge. All though the residents would like to list alternative suggestions which improve...... the local water environment but is still competitive.In this report the alternatives are listed, e.i. root system plants, sand filters and mini treatment plants.The conclusion is that root system plants and a combination of root system plants and sand filters are better that the sewer system....

  9. Waste Water Disposal Design And Management III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book gives descriptions of underlying chemistry, chemical conditioning, facilities, sterilization and special water treatment. It includes chemical combination and a chemical equation, molarity, normality, application of normality, chemical evaluation and law of mass action. It deals with chemical conditioning for design and management of waste water treatment.

  10. STUDY ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is more and more used as an alternative source of energy, considering the fact that it is obtained from waste materials and it can be easily used in cities and rural communities for many uses, between which, as a fuel for households. Biogas has many energy utilisations, depending on the nature of the biogas source and the local demand. Generally, biogas can be used for heat production by direct combustion, electricity production by fuel cells or micro-turbines, Combined Hest and Power generation or as vehicle fuel. In this paper we search for another uses of biogas and Anaerobe Digestion substrate, such as: waste water treatment plants and agricultural wastewater treatment, which are very important in urban and rural communities, solid waste treatment plants, industrial biogas plants, landfill gas recovery plants. These uses of biogas are very important, because the gas emissions and leaching to ground water from landfill sites are serious threats for the environment, which increase more and more bigger during the constant growth of some human communities. That is why, in the developed European countries, the sewage sludge is treated by anaerobe digestion, depending on national laws. In Romania, in the last years more efforts were destined to use anaerobe digestion for treating waste waters and management of waste in general. This paper can be placed in this trend of searching new ways of using with maximum efficiency the waste resulted in big communities.

  11. Waste water treatment in Triglav national park

    OpenAIRE

    Peterlin, Blaž

    2012-01-01

    The thesis presents the pollution problems caused by municipal waste water in the protected area of the Triglav National Park. Although most people are not detecting the problem, the consequences of water pollution in the area are clearly visible in the mountain lakes and downstream springs. Water resources near the mountain huts and agricultural land show obvious signs of nurient overload. Non- native plant and animal species recklessly discharged into the natural environment also pose a thr...

  12. N-SINK - reduction of waste water nitrogen load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Sanni; Tiirola, Marja; Arvola, Lauri; Huotari, Jussi; Tulonen, Tiina; Rissanen, Antti; Nykänen, Hannu

    2014-05-01

    Protection of the Baltic Sea from eutrophication is one of the key topics in the European Union environmental policy. One of the main anthropogenic sources of nitrogen (N) loading into Baltic Sea are waste water treatment plants, which are currently capable in removing only 40-70% of N. European commission has obliged Finland and other Baltic states to reduce nitrate load, which would require high monetary investments on nitrate removal processes in treatment plants. In addition, forced denitrification in treatment plants would increase emissions of strong greenhouse gas N2O. In this project (LIFE12 FI/ENV/597 N-SINK) we will develop and demonstrate a novel economically feasible method for nitrogen removal using applied ecosystem services. As sediment is known to have enormous capacity to reduce nitrate to nitrogen gas through denitrification, we predict that spatial optimization of the waste water discharge would be an efficient way to reduce nitrate-based load in aquatic systems. A new sediment filtration approach, which will increase both the area and time that nitrified waste water will be in contact with the reducing microbes of the sediment, is tested. Compared to the currently implemented practice, where purified waste water is discharged though one-point outlet system, we expect that sediment filtration system will result in more efficient denitrification and decreased N load to aquatic system. We will conduct three full-scale demonstrations in the receiving water bodies of waste water treatment plants in Southern and Central Finland. The ecosystem effects of sediment filtration system will be monitored. Using the most advanced stable isotope techniques will allow us accurately measure denitrification and unfavoured DNRA (reduction of nitrite to ammonium) activity.

  13. Heavy water moderated reactors advances and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy is now considered a key contributor to world electricity production, with total installed capacity nearly equal to that of hydraulic power. Nevertheless, many important challenges lie ahead. Paramount among these is gaining public acceptance: this paper makes the basic assumption that public acceptance will improve if, and only if, nuclear power plants are operated safely and economically over an extended period of time. The first task, therefore, is to ensure that these prerequisites to public acceptance are met. Other issues relate to the many aspects of economics associated with nuclear power, include capital cost, operation cost, plant performance and the risk to the owner's investment. Financing is a further challenge to the expansion of nuclear power. While the ability to finance a project is strongly dependent on meeting public acceptance and economic challenges, substantial localisation of design and manufacture is often essential to acceptance by the purchaser. The neutron efficient heavy water moderated CANDU with its unique tube reactor is considered to be particularly well qualified to respond to these market challenges. Enhanced safety can be achieved through simplification of safety systems, design of the moderator and shield water systems to mitigate severe accident events, and the increased use of passive systems. Economics are improved through reduction in both capital and operating costs, achieved through the application of state-of-the-art technologies and economy of scale. Modular features of the design enhance the potential for local manufacture. Advanced fuel cycles offer reduction in both capital costs and fuelling costs. These cycles, including slightly enriched uranium and low grade fuels from reprocessing plants can serve to increase reactor output, reduce fuelling cost and reduce waste production, while extending resource utilisation. 1 ref., 1 tab

  14. Process for the biological purification of waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1992-01-01

    Process for the biological purification of waste water by the activated sludge method, the waste water being mixed with recirculated sludge and being subjected to an anaerobic treatment, before the waste water thus treated is alternately subjected to anoxic and aerobic treatments and the waste...... water thus treated is led into a clarification zone for settling sludge, which sludge is recirculated in order to be mixed with the crude waste water. As a result, a simultaneous reduction of the content both of nitrogen and phosphorus of the waste water is achieved....

  15. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETREIVAL AND PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL

    2010-07-07

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  16. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL AND PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; MENDOZA RE

    2010-08-11

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  17. Waste water discharges into natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aqueous discharges into natural waters is a very technical solution expecially for surface buoyant discharges. It is not only convenient to limit the concentration levels of the discharges, but also to improve the turbolent processes that diluite the discharge. Mostly these processes depend by some geometric parameters of the discharge and by some physical parameters of the effluent and of the receiving water body. An appropriate choice of some parameters, using also suitable mathematical models, allows to design discharges with a very high dilution; so the decreasing of the pollutant levels is improved and the environmental impact can be reduced versus a not diluted effluent. The simulations of a mathematical model, here described, prove that in some circumstances, expecially in case of discharges of fresh water into saline water bodies with a low velocity of the current, the dilution is poor; the effluent can be trapped in a narrow water surface layer where the pollutant concentrations remain high. also far away from the discharge point

  18. Waste water reuse pathways for processing tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann;

    a safe use of waste water produced by small communities/industries (≤2000 EI) or of treated water discharged in irrigation channels. Water treatment technologies are coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management....... to use the lowest irrigation water quality without harming nor food safety neither yield and fruit or derivatives quality. The EU project SAFIR aims help farmers solve problems with low quality water and decreased access to water. New water treatment devices (prototypes) are under development to allow......  Direct or indirect water reuse involves several aspects: contamination by faecal, inorganic and xenobiotic pollutants; high levels of suspended solids and salinity; rational use of the dissolved nutrients (particularly nitrogen). The challenge is apply new strategies and technologies which allows...

  19. Electrooxidation of organics in waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchens, G. D.; Murphy, Oliver J.; Kaba, Lamine; Verostko, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    Electrooxidation is a means of removing organic solutes directly from waste waters without the use of chemical expendables. Research sponsored by NASA is currently being pursued to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept for oxidation of organic impurities common to urine, shower waters and space-habitat humidity condensates. Electrooxidation of urine and waste water ersatz was experimentally demonstrated. This paper discusses the electrooxidation principle, reaction kinetics, efficiency, power, size, experimental test results and water-reclamation applications. Process operating potentials and the use of anodic oxidation potentials that are sufficiently low to avoid oxygen formation and chloride oxidation are described. The design of an electrochemical system that incorporates a membrane-based electrolyte based on parametric test data and current fuel-cell technology is presented.

  20. Advances in modeling plastic waste pyrolysis processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Safadi, J. Zeaiter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tertiary recycling of plastics via pyrolysis is recently gaining momentum due to promising economic returns from the generated products that can be used as a chemical feedstock or fuel. The need for prediction models to simulate such processes is essential in understanding in depth the mechanisms that take place during the thermal or catalytic degradation of the waste polymer. This paper presents key different models used successfully in literature so far. Three modeling schemes are identified: Power-Law, Lumped-Empirical, and Population-Balance based equations. The categorization is based mainly on the level of detail and prediction capability from each modeling scheme. The data shows that the reliability of these modeling approaches vary with the degree of details the experimental work and product analysis are trying to achieve.

  1. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  2. Integrated water and waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, P.

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses concepts and developments within water quantity, water quality, integrated environmental assessment and wastewater treatment. The historical and the global perspectives are used in the discussion of the role of engineers in today's society. Sustainabilty and ethics are taken...... into the analysis. There is a need for re-evaluation of the resource, society and environment scenarios with a view to the totality of the system and with proper analysis of the flow of water and matter through society. Among the tools are input-output analysis and cradle to grave analysis, in combination...... with compilation of identified sets of values with respect to sustainable use of resources and ultimate fate of the environment and quality of life. The role of the engineer is to make available to society as many technical options as possible - and to put these options into the proper perspective in relation...

  3. Membrane bioreactors in waste water treatment - status and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraume, M. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Chair of Chemical and Process Engineering, Berlin (Germany); Drews, A. [HTW Berlin, FB II, Life Science Engineering, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Due to their unique advantages like controlled biomass retention, improved effluent quality, and decreased footprint, membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are being increasingly used in waste water treatment up to a capacity of several 100,000 p.e. This article reviews the current status of MBRs and reports trends in MBR design and operation. Typical operational and design parameters are given as well as guidelines for waste water treatment plant revamping. To further improve the biological performance, specific or hybrid process configurations are shown to lead to, e.g., enhanced nutrient removal. With regards to reducing membrane fouling, optimized modules, advanced control, and strategies like the addition of flux enhancers are currently emerging. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Technology Summary Advancing Tank Waste Retreival And Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them. Hanford's underground waste storage tanks hold approximately 57 million gallons of radiochemical waste from nuclear defense production - more tank waste than any other site in the United States. In addition, the waste is uniquely complicated since it contains constituents from at least six major radiochemical processes and several lesser processes. It is intermixed and complexed more than any other waste collection known to exist in the world. The multi-faceted nature of Hanford's tank waste means that legally binding agreements in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (known as the Tri-Party Agreement) and between the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors may not be met using current vitrification schedules, plans and methods. WRPS and the DOE are therefore developing, testing, and deploying technologies to ensure that they can meet the necessary commitments and complete the DOE's River Protection Project (RPP) mission within environmentally acceptable requirements. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  5. Biodegradation pathway of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) during recycling waste water through plant hydroponics for advanced life support during long-duration space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, L. H.; Kagie, H. R.; Garland, J. L.

    The degradation of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) was investigated as part of an integrated study of direct recycling of human hygiene water through hydroponic plant growth systems. Several chemical approaches were developed to characterize the degradation of Igepon and to measure the accumulation of intermediates such as fatty acids and methyl taurine. Igepon was rapidly degraded as indicated by the reduction of methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and component fatty acids. The Igepon degradation rate continued to increase over a period of several weeks following repeated daily exposure to 18 μg/l Igepon. The accumulation of free fatty acids and methyl taurine was also observed during decomposition of Igepon. The concentration of methyl taurine was below detection limit (0.2 nmol/ml) during the slow phase of Igepon degradation, and increased to 1-2 nmol/ml during the phase of rapid degradation. These findings support a degradation pathway involving initial hydrolysis of amide to release fatty acids and methyl taurine, and subsequent degradation of these intermediates.

  6. Biodegradation pathway of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) during recycling waste water through plant hydroponics for advanced life support during long-duration space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, L. H.; Kagie, H. R.; Garland, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    The degradation of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) was investigated as part of an integrated study of direct recycling of human hygiene water through hydroponic plant growth systems. Several chemical approaches were developed to characterize the degradation of Igepon and to measure the accumulation of intermediates such as fatty acids and methyl taurine. Igepon was rapidly degraded as indicated by the reduction of methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and component fatty acids. The Igepon degradation rate continued to increase over a period of several weeks following repeated daily exposure to 18 micrograms/l Igepon. The accumulation of free fatty acids and methyl taurine was also observed during decomposition of Igepon. The concentration of methyl taurine was below detection limit (0.2 nmol/ml) during the slow phase of Igepon degradation, and increased to 1-2 nmol/ml during the phase of rapid degradation. These findings support a degradation pathway involving initial hydrolysis of amide to release fatty acids and methyl taurine, and subsequent degradation of these intermediates. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  7. Biodegradation pathway of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) during recycling waste water through plant hydroponics for advanced life support during long-duration space missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, L H; Kagie, H R; Garland, J L

    2003-01-01

    The degradation of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) was investigated as part of an integrated study of direct recycling of human hygiene water through hydroponic plant growth systems. Several chemical approaches were developed to characterize the degradation of Igepon and to measure the accumulation of intermediates such as fatty acids and methyl taurine. Igepon was rapidly degraded as indicated by the reduction of methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and component fatty acids. The Igepon degradation rate continued to increase over a period of several weeks following repeated daily exposure to 18 micrograms/l Igepon. The accumulation of free fatty acids and methyl taurine was also observed during decomposition of Igepon. The concentration of methyl taurine was below detection limit (0.2 nmol/ml) during the slow phase of Igepon degradation, and increased to 1-2 nmol/ml during the phase of rapid degradation. These findings support a degradation pathway involving initial hydrolysis of amide to release fatty acids and methyl taurine, and subsequent degradation of these intermediates.

  8. Advances in light water reactor technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Takehiko; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    ""Advances in Light Water Reactor Technologies"" focuses on the design and analysis of advanced nuclear power reactors. This volume provides readers with thorough descriptions of the general characteristics of various advanced light water reactors currently being developed worldwide. Safety, design, development and maintenance of these reactors is the main focus, with key technologies like full MOX core design, next-generation digital I&C systems and seismic design and evaluation described at length. This book is ideal for researchers and engineers working in nuclear power that are interested

  9. Advanced waste form and Melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kim, Dong -Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maio, Vincent [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these “troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (also with high Al2O3 concentrations). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group. An extended duration CCIM melter test was conducted on an AZ-101 waste simulant using the CCIM platform at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The melter was continually operated for approximately 80 hours demonstrating that the AZ-101 high waste loading glass composition could be readily processed using the CCIM technology. The resulting glass was close to the targeted composition and exhibited excellent durability in both

  10. Advanced mixed waste treatment project draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AMWTP DEIS assesses the potential environmental impacts associated with four alternatives related to the construction and operation of a proposed waste treatment facility at the INEEL. Four alternatives were analyzed: The No Action Alternative, the Proposed Action, the Non-Thermal Treatment Alternative, and the Treatment and Storage Alternative. The proposed AMWTP facility would treat low-level mixed waste, alpha-contaminated low-level mixed waste, and transuranic waste in preparation for disposal. Transuranic waste would be disposed of at the Waste isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Low-level mixed waste would be disposed of at an approval disposal facility depending on decisions to be based on DOE's Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Evaluation of impacts on land use, socio-economics, cultural resources, aesthetic and scenic resources, geology, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, noise, traffic and transportation, occupational and public health and safety, INEEL services, and environmental justice were included in the assessment. The AMWTP DEIS identifies as the Preferred Alternative the Proposed Action, which is the construction and operation of the AMWTP facility

  11. Tracing Waste Water with Li isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and various domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition of the dissolved load of rivers. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. In the present study, we investigate waste water tracing by the use of Li isotopes in a small river basin near Orléans in France (l'Egoutier, 15 km² and 5 km long). It is well known that Li has strategic importance for numerous industrial applications including its use in the production of batteries for both mobile devices (computers, tablets, smartphones, etc.) and electric vehicles, but also in pharmaceutical formulations. In the present work, we collected river waters samples before and after the release from a waste water treatment plant connected to an hospital. Lithium isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters with δ7Li values around -0.5‰ ± 1 along the main course of the stream (n=7). The waste water sample is very different from the natural background of the river basin with Li concentration being twice of the values without pollution and significant heavy lithium contribution (δ7Li = +4‰). These preliminary results will be discussed in relation with factors controlling the distribution of Li and its isotopes in this specific system and compared with the release of other metals such as Pb or Zn.

  12. Neutron Activation analysis of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis for the simultaneous determination of chlorine, bromine, sodium, manganese, cobalt, copper, chromium, zinc, nickel, antimony and iron in waste water is described. They were determined in waste water samples under normal conditions by non-destructive neutron activation simultaneously using a suitable monostandard method. Standardized water samples were used and irradiated in polyethylene ampoules at a neutron flux of 1013 cm-2 s-1 for periods of 1 minute, 1 and 10 hours. A Ge hyperpure detector was used for your activity determination, with count times of 60, 180, 300 and 600 seconds. The obtained results show than the method can be utilized for the determination of this elements without realize anything previous treatment of the samples. (Author)

  13. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. SUNDARA KUMAR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been undertaken to evaluate performance efficiency of a waste water treatment plant. A sewage treatment plant operating on biological treatment method (Activated Sludge Process with an average wastewater inflow of 23MLD bas been considered for case study. Waste water samples were collected at different stages of treatment units and analysed for the major water quality parameters, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solids (TSS and total dissolved solids (TDS. Theperformance efficiency of each unit in treating the pollutants was calculated. Overall performance of the plant also has been estimated. The obtained results were very much useful in identification and rectification of operational and maintenance problems as well as the future expansion to be carried out in the plant to meet the increased hydraulic and organic loadings.

  14. The micro-electrolysis technique in waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The micro-electrolysis is one of the efficient methods to treat some kinds of waste water. The experiments have shown its high efficiency in sewage treatment and some kinds of industrial waste water. It is suitable for pre-treatment of high concentrated waste water and deep treatment of waste water for reuse purpose. The disadvantage of micro-electrolysis is its high energy consumption in case of high electrolyte concentration. (author) 2 figs., 11 tabs., 2 refs

  15. Advanced waste form and melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kim, Dong -Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maio, Vincent [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-02

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these "troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approached to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.

  16. Advanced waste forms research and development. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, G.J.

    1975-06-11

    Research and development activities on advanced (alternatives to glass) nuclear waste forms are reported. The emphasis is on two phases of the work to give essential background information on supercalcine development. The first is a report of the data obtained in the study of cesium aluminosilicate for Cs and Ru fixation. Research on the compatibility of the phases formed in the complex oxide system made up of waste and additive cations is reported. The phase stability in a number of proposed formulations was determined. (JSR)

  17. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Jovanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor river. The expected arsenic content in treated waste water after using HDS procedure is also presented.

  18. Assessment of Feasibility of the Beneficial Use of Waste Heat from the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna P. Guillen

    2012-07-01

    This report investigates the feasibility of using waste heat from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). A proposed glycol waste heat recovery system was assessed for technical and economic feasibility. The system under consideration would use waste heat from the ATR secondary coolant system to preheat air for space heating of TRA-670. A tertiary coolant stream would be extracted from the secondary coolant system loop and pumped to a new plate and frame heat exchanger, where heat would be transferred to a glycol loop for preheating outdoor air in the heating and ventilation system. Historical data from Advanced Test Reactor operations over the past 10 years indicates that heat from the reactor coolant was available (when needed for heating) for 43.5% of the year on average. Potential energy cost savings by using the waste heat to preheat intake air is $242K/yr. Technical, safety, and logistics considerations of the glycol waste heat recovery system are outlined. Other opportunities for using waste heat and reducing water usage at ATR are considered.

  19. Technology Summary Advancing Tank Waste Retrieval And Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them. This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated, developed, and deployed by WRPS to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Transformational technologies are needed to complete Hanford tank waste retrieval and treatment by 12/31/2047. Hanford's underground waste storage tanks hold approximately 57 million gallons of radiochemical waste from nuclear defense production - more tank waste than any other site in the United States. In addition, the waste is uniquely complicated because it contains constituents from at least six major radiochemical processes and several lesser processes. It is intermixed and complexed more than any other waste collection known to exist in the world. The multi-faceted nature of Hanford's tank waste means that legally binding agreements in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (known as the Tri-Party Agreement) and between the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors may not be met using current vitrification schedules, plans, and methods. WRPS and the DOE are developing, testing, and deploying technologies to meet the necessary commitments and complete the DOE's River Protection Project (RPP) mission within environmentally acceptable requirements. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them. DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) identifies the environmental management technology needs and the activities necessary to address them. The U.S. Congress then funds these activities through EM or the DOE field offices. Finally, an array of entities that include DOE site prime contractors and

  20. An Insight into the Selection of Nano Particle for Removing Contaminants in Waste Water

    OpenAIRE

    Pandipriya J; Praveena E

    2014-01-01

    Waste water treatment is a major challenge in automobile industries and manufacturing sectors. In past few decades, research in waste water treatment has gained significant importance. Feasibility of nanoparticles for removing impurities is explored. However the major challenge lies in the synthesis of these nanoparticles. But with the advancements in nanotechnology, non-hazardous nanoparticles of size less than 10nm can be synthesized and morphological characteristics can also...

  1. Integrated municipal solid waste scenario model using advanced pretreatment and waste to energy processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Appropriate solution for MSW management in new and future EU countries. • Decrease of landfill disposal applying an Integrated MSW approach. • Technological impediments and environmental assessment. - Abstract: In this paper an Integrated Municipal Solid Waste scenario model (IMSW-SM) with a potential practical application in the waste management sector is analyzed. The model takes into account quantification and characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) streams from different sources, selective collection (SC), advanced mechanical sorting, material recovery and advanced thermal treatment. The paper provides a unique chain of advanced waste pretreatment stages of fully commingled waste streams, leading to an original set of suggestions and future contributions to a sustainable IMSWS, taking into account real data and EU principles. The selection of the input data was made on MSW management real case studies from two European regions. Four scenarios were developed varying mainly SC strategies and thermal treatment options. The results offer useful directions for decision makers in order to calibrate modern strategies in different realities

  2. Materials for advanced water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current IAEA programme in advanced nuclear power technology promotes technical information exchange between Member States with major development programmes. The International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors recommended to organize a Technical Committee Meeting for the purpose of providing an international forum for technical specialists to review and discuss aspects regarding development trends in material application for advanced water cooled reactors. The experience gained from the operation of current water cooled reactors, and results from related research and development programmes, should be the basis for future improvements of material properties and applications. This meeting enabled specialists to exchange knowledge about structural materials application in the nuclear island for the next generation of nuclear power plants. Refs, figs, tabs

  3. Self Calibrating Flow Estimation in Waste Water Pumping Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Knudsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about where waste water is flowing in waste water networks is essential to optimize the operation of the network pumping stations. However, installation of flow sensors is expensive and requires regular maintenance. This paper proposes an alternative approach where the pumps and the waste...... water pit are used for estimating both the inflow and the pump flow of the pumping station. Due to the nature of waste water, the waste water pumps are heavily affected by wear and tear. To compensate for the wear of the pumps, the pump parameters, used for the flow estimation, are automatically...

  4. Water chemistry control to meet the advanced design and operation of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water chemistry control is one of the key technologies to establish safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. The road maps on R and D plans for water chemistry of nuclear power systems in Japan have been proposed along with promotion of R and D related water chemistry improvement for the advanced application of light water reactors (LWRs). The technical trends were divided into four categories, dose rate reduction, structural integrity, fuel integrity and radioactive waste reduction, and latest technical break through for each category was shown for the advanced application of LWRs. At the same time, the technical break through and the latest movements for regulation of water chemistry were introduced for each of major organizations related to nuclear engineering in the world. The conclusions were summarized as follows; 1. Water chemistry improvements might contribute to achieve the advanced application of LWRs, while water chemistry should be often changed to achieve the advanced application of LWRs. 2. Only one solution for water chemistry control was not obtained for achieving the advanced application of LWRs, but miscellaneous solutions were possible for achieving one. Optimal water chemistry control was desired for having the good practices for satisfying multi-targets at the same time and it was much affected by the plant unique systems and operational history. 3. That meant it was difficult to determine water chemistry regulation targets for achieving application of LWRs but it was necessary to prepare suitable guideline for good achievement of application of LWRs. That meant the guideline should be recommendation for good practice in the plant. 4. The water chemistry guide line should be modified along with progress of plant operation and water chemistry and related technologies. (author)

  5. RESOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER GENERATED BY CAR WASHES AND TRANSPORT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogina Elena Sergeevna

    2012-12-01

    big cities of Russia. At the same time, the quality of the waste water treated by local water treatment stations fails to meet the present-day standard requirements. Moreover, potable water shall not be used for the purpose of washing transport vehicles. Within the recent 10 years, MGSU has developed a number of research projects aimed at the resolution of this problem. The concept developed by the MGSU specialists is to attain the highest quality of treated waste water generated by car washes and transport enterprises using the most advanced technologies of water treatment rather than to design new water treatment plants. Various methods may be applied for this purpose: restructuring of water treatment facilities, advanced feed, updated regulations governing the operation of water treatment plants.

  6. Advancing Water Science through Data Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Troy, T.

    2014-12-01

    As water scientists, we are increasingly handling larger and larger datasets with many variables, making it easy to lose ourselves in the details. Advanced data visualization will play an increasingly significant role in propelling the development of water science in research, economy, policy and education. It can enable analysis within research and further data scientists' understanding of behavior and processes and can potentially affect how the public, whom we often want to inform, understands our work. Unfortunately for water scientists, data visualization is approached in an ad hoc manner when a more formal methodology or understanding could potentially significantly improve both research within the academy and outreach to the public. Firstly to broaden and deepen scientific understanding, data visualization can allow for more analyzed targets to be processed simultaneously and can represent the variables effectively, finding patterns, trends and relationships; thus it can even explores the new research direction or branch of water science. Depending on visualization, we can detect and separate the pivotal and trivial influential factors more clearly to assume and abstract the original complex target system. Providing direct visual perception of the differences between observation data and prediction results of models, data visualization allows researchers to quickly examine the quality of models in water science. Secondly data visualization can also improve public awareness and perhaps influence behavior. Offering decision makers clearer perspectives of potential profits of water, data visualization can amplify the economic value of water science and also increase relevant employment rates. Providing policymakers compelling visuals of the role of water for social and natural systems, data visualization can advance the water management and legislation of water conservation. By building the publics' own data visualization through apps and games about water

  7. Thermohydraulic relationships for advanced water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared in the context of the IAEA's Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Thermohydraulic Relationships for Advanced Water Cooled Reactors, which was started in 1995 with the overall goal of promoting information exchange and co-operation in establishing a consistent set of thermohydraulic relationships which are appropriate for use in analyzing the performance and safety of advanced water cooled reactors. For advanced water cooled reactors, some key thermohydraulic phenomena are critical heat flux (CHF) and post CHF heat transfer, pressure drop under low flow and low pressure conditions, flow and heat transport by natural circulation, condensation of steam in the presence of non-condensables, thermal stratification and mixing in large pools, gravity driven reflooding, and potential flow instabilities. The objectives of the CRP are (1) to systematically list the requirements for thermohydraulic relationships in support of advanced water cooled reactors during normal and accident conditions, and provide details of their database where possible and (2) to recommend and document a consistent set of thermohydraulic relationships for selected thermohydraulic phenomena such as CHF and post-CHF heat transfer, pressure drop, and passive cooling for advanced water cooled reactors. Chapter 1 provides a brief discussion of the background for this CRP, the CRP objectives and lists the participating institutes. Chapter 2 provides a summary of important and relevant thermohydraulic phenomena for advanced water cooled reactors on the basis of previous work by the international community. Chapter 3 provides details of the database for critical heat flux, and recommends a prediction method which has been established through international co-operation and assessed within this CRP. Chapter 4 provides details of the database for film boiling heat transfer, and presents three methods for predicting film boiling heat transfer coefficients developed by institutes

  8. Water Management Applications of Advanced Precipitation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.; Braswell, G.; Delaney, C.

    2012-12-01

    Advanced precipitation sensors and numerical models track storms as they occur and forecast the likelihood of heavy rain for time frames ranging from 1 to 8 hours, 1 day, and extended outlooks out to 3 to 7 days. Forecast skill decreases at the extended time frames but the outlooks have been shown to provide "situational awareness" which aids in preparation for flood mitigation and water supply operations. In California the California-Nevada River Forecast Centers and local Weather Forecast Offices provide precipitation products that are widely used to support water management and flood response activities of various kinds. The Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) program is being conducted to help advance the science of precipitation tracking and forecasting in support of the NWS. HMT high-resolution products have found applications for other non-federal water management activities as well. This presentation will describe water management applications of HMT advanced precipitation products, and characterization of benefits expected to accrue. Two case examples will be highlighted, 1) reservoir operations for flood control and water supply, and 2) urban stormwater management. Application of advanced precipitation products in support of reservoir operations is a focus of the Sonoma County Water Agency. Examples include: a) interfacing the high-resolution QPE products with a distributed hydrologic model for the Russian-Napa watersheds, b) providing early warning of in-coming storms for flood preparedness and water supply storage operations. For the stormwater case, San Francisco wastewater engineers are developing a plan to deploy high resolution gap-filling radars looking off shore to obtain longer lead times on approaching storms. A 4 to 8 hour lead time would provide opportunity to optimize stormwater capture and treatment operations, and minimize combined sewer overflows into the Bay.ussian River distributed hydrologic model.

  9. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V&V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V&V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V&V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M&S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V&V into subcontinuum scale M&S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.

  10. Advancements in stem cells treatment of skeletal muscle wasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mirella emeregalli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies (MDs are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders, in which progressive muscle wasting and weakness is often associated with exhaustion of muscle regeneration potential. Although physiological properties of skeletal muscle tissue are now well known, no treatments are effective for these diseases. Muscle regeneration was attempted by means transplantation of myogenic cells (from myoblast to embryonic stem cells and also by interfering with the malignant processes that originate in pathological tissues, such as uncontrolled fibrosis and inflammation. Taking into account the advances in the isolation of new subpopulation of stem cells and in the creation of artificial stem cell niches, we discuss how these emerging technologies offer great promises for therapeutic approaches to muscle diseases and muscle wasting associated with aging.

  11. Commercial pond fish culture using waste water

    OpenAIRE

    Okoye, F.C.; Ita, E.O.; Adeniji, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Waste water from some National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) housing units in Nigeria was fed to a 0.4 ha pond which was stocked with 2,200 Sarotherodon galilaeus fingerlings with a mean weight of about 36.0gm and 1000 Cyprinus carpio fingerlings with a mean weight of 10gm. This yielded after 10 months, over 2300 kg of harvestable fish plus over 20,000 Sarotherodon galilaeus fingerlings. The growth rate of C. carpio was not very encouraging possibly because of the type of plankton that colo...

  12. Advancing Water Science through Improved Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, B. J.; Miles, B.; Rai, A.; Ahalt, S.; Band, L. E.; Minsker, B.; Palmer, M.; Williams, M. R.; Idaszak, R.; Whitton, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Major scientific advances are needed to help address impacts of climate change and increasing human-mediated environmental modification on the water cycle at global and local scales. However, such advances within the water sciences are limited in part by inadequate information infrastructures. For example, cyberinfrastructure (CI) includes the integrated computer hardware, software, networks, sensors, data, and human capital that enable scientific workflows to be carried out within and among individual research efforts and across varied disciplines. A coordinated transformation of existing CI and development of new CI could accelerate the productivity of water science by enabling greater discovery, access, and interoperability of data and models, and by freeing scientists to do science rather than create and manage technological tools. To elucidate specific ways in which improved CI could advance water science, three challenges confronting the water science community were evaluated: 1) How does ecohydrologic patch structure affect nitrogen transport and fate in watersheds?, 2) How can human-modified environments emulate natural water and nutrient cycling to enhance both human and ecosystem well-being?, 3) How do changes in climate affect water availability to support biodiversity and human needs? We assessed the approaches used by researchers to address components of these challenges, identified barriers imposed by limitations of current CI, and interviewed leaders in various water science subdisciplines to determine the most recent CI tools employed. Our preliminary findings revealed four areas where CI improvements are likely to stimulate scientific advances: 1) sensor networks, 2) data quality assurance/quality control, 3) data and modeling standards, 4) high performance computing. In addition, the full potential of a re-envisioned water science CI cannot be realized without a substantial training component. In light of these findings, we suggest that CI

  13. Sonication for advanced drinking water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guang-ming; WEI Xi-zhu; LI Xiang-kun; ZHANG Jie; DOU Zi-bo

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigated the feasibility of sonication as an advanced treatment method for drinking water production and used comprehensive indexes of water quality to examine its efficiency. Results show that sonication significantly reduces the toxicity of water. Sonication with 5 W/L at 90 kHz lasting for 30 min decreases he water SUVA and the disinfection byproduct formation potential (DBPFP) by 38.7% and 27.2% respective ly. Sonieation also decreases the UV254 by more than 50% through destroying unsaturated chemical bonds.Higher sound intensity and higher frequency benefit the reduction of TOC and UV254, Besides, sonication significantly increases the affinity of organics with granular activated carbon (GAC), and thus the hybrid sonication-GAC method reduces the water TOC, COD, UV254, and DBPFP by 78. 3%, 69.4%, 75.7%, and 70. 0% respectively. Therefore, sonieation and the hybrid sonieation-GAC method are proposed as advanced treatment methods for drinking water.

  14. Waste Water Management and Infectious Disease. Part II: Impact of Waste Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert C.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of various treatment processes, such as oxidation ponds, chemical coagulation and filtration, and the soil mantle, to remove the agents of infectious disease found in waste water is discussed. The literature concerning the efficiency of removal of these organisms by various treatment processes is reviewed. (BT)

  15. BIOREMEDIATION OF INDUSTRIAL AND MUNICIPAL WASTE WATER USING BACTERIAL ISOLATES

    OpenAIRE

    P.Priya darshini*, J.Sharpudin

    2016-01-01

    Bioremediation is a treatment that uses naturally occurring organisms to break down hazardous substances into less toxic or non toxic substances. The microbes are effective in control of pollution due to waste water. The industrial and municipal waste water is analyzed for different Physico-Chemical parameters such as pH, Temperature, TDS, BOD, COD, Total Alkalinity, Chlorides. The collected waste water samples were serially diluted and pour plated on Nutrient Agar medium and incubated at 37˚...

  16. Region 9 NPDES Facilities 2012- Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA...

  17. Region 9 NPDES Facilities - Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA...

  18. How Water Advances on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, Frank; Encinas, Noemí; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Superliquid repellency can be achieved by nano- and microstructuring surfaces in such a way that protrusions entrap air underneath the liquid. It is still not known how the three-phase contact line advances on such structured surfaces. In contrast to a smooth surface, where the contact line can advance continuously, on a superliquid-repellent surface, the contact line has to overcome an air gap between protrusions. Here, we apply laser scanning confocal microscopy to get the first microscopic videos of water drops advancing on a superhydrophobic array of micropillars. In contrast to common belief, the liquid surface gradually bends down until it touches the top face of the next micropillars. The apparent advancing contact angle is 180°. On the receding side, pinning to the top faces of the micropillars determines the apparent receding contact angle. Based on these observations, we propose that the apparent receding contact angle should be used for characterizing superliquid-repellent surfaces rather than the apparent advancing contact angle and hysteresis.

  19. Recent Advances in GEO Water Cycle Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, R. G.

    2009-12-01

    Over the past few years GEO (Group on Earth Observations) efforts within the Water Societal Benefit Area (SBA) have been coordinated by the Science Committee of the former Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership (IGOS-P) IGWCO (Integrated Global Water Cycle Observations) theme. Within this framework a number of projects related to data system design, product development, and capacity building are being carried out. GEO has recently consolidated the Water SBA activities into three tasks, namely Droughts, Floods and Water Resource Management; Capacity Building for Water Resource Management (in Asia, Africa and the Americas); and Integrated Products for Water Resource Management and Research. In order to strengthen interactions with the GEO and its User Interface Committee, a Water Cycle Community of Practice (COP) was initiated. In addition, within the past year, the IGWCO Science Committee has decided to also function as a Community of Practice in collaboration with the existing Water Cycle COP. This overview will provide background and an update on the GEO Water SBA activities with an emphasis of the way in which these activities are being integrated within the three tasks. It will also describe activities that are planned for 2010 to facilitate this integration. Recent advances related to drought monitoring, capacity and network building, and observational and data systems will be highlighted. New water-related activities arising from collaborations between US GEO and Canada GEO, and through activities within the GEO Architecture and Data Committee, will also be described. This presentation will conclude with a longer-term outlook for water within the GEO framework and provide some guidance for interested experts on how they can become involved in helping to implement these plans.

  20. Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yade, N.

    1986-01-01

    The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

  1. Risk management in waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M; Strube, I

    2005-01-01

    With the continuous restructuring of the water market due to liberalisation, privatisation and internationalisation processes, the requirements on waste water disposal companies have grown. Increasing competition requires a target-oriented and clearly structured procedure. At the same time it is necessary to meet the environment-relevant legal requirements and to design the processes to be environment-oriented. The implementation of risk management and the integration of such a management instrument in an existing system in addition to the use of modern technologies and procedures can help to make the operation of the waste water treatment safer and consequently strengthen market position. The risk management process consists of three phases, risk identification, risk analysis/risk assessment and risk handling, which are based on each other, as well as of the risk managing. To achieve an identification of the risks as complete as possible, a subdivision of the kind of risks (e.g. legal, financial, market, operational) is suggested. One possibility to assess risks is the portfolio method which offers clear representation. It allows a division of the risks into classes showing which areas need handling. The determination of the appropriate measures to handle a risk (e.g. avoidance, reduction, shift) is included in the concluding third phase. Different strategies can be applied here. On the one hand, the cause-oriented strategy, aiming at preventive measures which aim to reduce the probability of occurrence of a risk (e.g. creation of redundancy, systems with low susceptibility to malfunction). On the other hand, the effect-oriented strategy, aiming to minimise the level of damage in case of an undesired occurrence (e.g. use of alarm systems, insurance cover).

  2. Aerospace vehicle water-waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    The collection and disposal of human wastes, such as urine and feces, in a spacecraft environment are performed in an aesthetic and reliable manner to prevent degradation of crew performance. The waste management system controls, transfers, and processes materials such as feces, emesis, food residues, used expendables, and other wastes. The requirements, collection, transport, and waste processing are described.

  3. Waste water treatment options for SAGD oil production facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portelance, S.N. [WorleyParsons MEG Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) water treatment facilities produce concentrated waste streams that contain high concentrations of total dissolved solids. The waste streams are typically partially recycled to upstream processes or injected into wells. However, these methods can result in the precipitation of silicate compounds and chemical imbalances in upstream water treatment processes. This study simulated 2 SAGD processes and MVC and once-through steam generator (OTSG) waste water treatment options. MVC waste water treatments were simulated with sulfuric acid only; with sulfuric acid and magnesium oxide; and low TH-high silica OTSG blowdown. Results of the simulations showed that the waste water generated was adequately treated with a combination of acid and magox. Further reductions in pH reduced silica contents and alkalinity. Costs for the treatment were estimated at $6.17 per metre{sup 3} for MVC waste water and $1.77 m{sup 3} for blowdown waste water. The addition of magox lowered the cost for silica removal to $4.60 per m{sup 3}. It was concluded that waste water treatment is needed to make produced water treatment options viable with the oil sands industry. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  4. Submerged demineralize system processing of TMI-2 accident waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accident-generated radioactive waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 includes a varity of high and low specific-activity waste. The high-specific-activity waste, particularly over one million gallons of contaminated water, required special processing and secondary waste handling. General public utilities and its contractors developed a zeolite-based ion-exchange system called the Submerged Demineralizer System to reduce contamination levels in the water to below allowable limits. Testing and modifications resulted in an operating system that had successfully processed waste water from the Reactor Coolant Bleed Tanks, the Reactor Building Basement, and the Reactor Coolant System as of August 1982. System design objectives were met and decontamination criteria established in 10 CFR 20 were attained. Additional wastes that could not be handled routinely were generated by another water-processing system, called EPICOR II. EPICOR II wastes are discussed. Low-specific-activity (LSA) wastes such as trash and resin-bed waste canisters are also included in handling. LSA wastes are routinely handled and shipped according to existing industry practice. Plant records are summarized to provide approximate yearly volumes and curie loadings of low-specific-activity wastes being shipped off the Island to a commercial burial site

  5. Development of a process to neutralize water-reactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mixed waste storage area at Los Alamos National Laboratory contains a considerable amount of lithium hydride and other water-reactive wastes. A process to neutralize these wastes by controlled hydration in an atmosphere of humid nitrogen is being developed. The kinetics of reaction of lithium hydride with water vapor has been studied at bench scale. The reaction progress can be predicted using the Unreacted Shrinking Core Model for noncatalytic solid-fluid reactions. This model will be utilized in designing of a skid-mounted treatment unit to neutralize water-reactive wastes

  6. Biological removal of nitrogen from waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombrowski, T.; Lompe, D.; Wiesmann, U.

    1989-02-01

    The biological treatment of waste water with both a high organic (2500 mg/l DOC) and high ammonia concentration (600 mg/l NH/sub 4//sup +/-N) was investigated. The first step consists of a two step anaerobic cascade of fixed bed loop reactors with polyurethan foam particles as support material for bacterica. The aerobic treatment occurs in two aerated stirred tanks with sedimentation tanks and two separate sludge recycle systems each for heterotrophic and autotrophic biomass resulting in a degradation of organic compounds (first tank) and nitrification (second tank). Finally the nitrate is reduced by biological denitrification. By optimization the total hydraulic retention time could be reduced to 7 hr. Nitrification is the most sensitive step and can be on-line controlled by measurement of oxygen consumption.

  7. Role of radiation technology in waste water management in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the problems of waste water management system of Indian cities and its impacts on overall environment conservation and Indian economy. Role of radiation technology in waste water treatment is evaluated in terms of technical and economic viability. (author)

  8. Method of treating ammonia-comprising waste water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of treating ammonia-comprising waste water in which the bicarbonate ion is the counter ion of the ammonium ion present in the waste water. According to the invention half the ammonium is converted into nitrite, yielding an ammonia- and nitrite-containing solution, a

  9. Radioactive waste management practices with KWU-boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Kraftwerk Union boiling water reactor is used to demonstrate the reactor auxiliary systems which are applied to minimize the radioactive discharge. Based on the most important design criteria the philosophy and function of the various systems for handling the off-gas, ventilation air, waste water and concentrated waste are described. (orig.)

  10. Phosphate Removal and Recovery using Drinking Water Plant Waste Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water treatment plants are used to provide safe drinking water. In parallel, however, they also produce a wide variety of waste products which, in principle, could be possible candidates as resources for different applications. Calcium carbonate is one of such residual waste in ...

  11. Methods for waste waters treatment in textile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Zezova, Silvana; Spasova, Sanja; Golomeova, Saska

    2014-01-01

    The processes of production of textiles or wet treatments and finishing processes of textile materials are huge consumers of water with high quality. As a result of these various processes, considerable amounts of polluted water are released. This paper puts emphasis on the problem of environmental protection against waste waters generated by textile industry. The methods of pretreatment or purification of waste waters in the textile industry can be: Primary (screening, sedimentation, homo...

  12. Effect of color removal agent on textiles waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of color removal agent (CRA) on textile waste water has been studied. The aim of this work is to determine the optimum condition for CRA to react on the textile waste water and to see the effect of CRA on waste water with different Chemical Oxygen Demand. 8 ml CRA was used to treat 800 mls of sample with various COD ranging between 2500 mg/ l-500 mg/ l. The results showed that CRA totally remove the colour of textile waste water at pH ranging from 6 to 8. At an optimum condition CRA works efficiently on waste water with COD 2300 mg/ l for reduction of suspended solid and turbidity. It also observed, sludge accumulation was depended on COD concentration. Color removal curves for different initial COD concentration also obtained. (author)

  13. An Insight into the Selection of Nano Particle for Removing Contaminants in Waste Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandipriya J

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste water treatment is a major challenge in automobile industries and manufacturing sectors. In past few decades, research in waste water treatment has gained significant importance. Feasibility of nanoparticles for removing impurities is explored. However the major challenge lies in the synthesis of these nanoparticles. But with the advancements in nanotechnology, non-hazardous nanoparticles of size less than 10nm can be synthesized and morphological characteristics can also be successfully studied. Owing to their extremely smaller size, good absorption characteristics, better chemical reactivity, large surface to volume ratio, nanoparticles are highly suitable for removing metal/non-metal, organic/inorganic contaminants from water. This paper provides an extensive literature survey on the suitability of various nanoparticles for waste water treatment

  14. 9 Waste Rubber Technologies Passed the Review on Advanced Applicable Technologies by MIIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiart Bozhang

    2012-01-01

    To promote the development of integrative utilization technologies of industrial solid wastes and to enhance the level of integrative utilization, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) held Reviewing Meeting of Advanced Applicable Technologies for the Integrative Utilization of Industrial Solid Wastes on April 27. 9 integrative utilization technologies of waste rubber passed this review.

  15. Microbiological treatment of oil mill waste waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranalli, A.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of the biological treatment of the oil mill waste waters, deriving from continuous system, have been carried out with selected mutant ferments, adapted to rather forced toxic conditions. The commercial microbio formulations SNKD, LLMO and PSBIO have been utilized; the last two are liquid suspensions, constituted by living micro-organisms that, in contrast to those frozen or lyophilized, do not need be revitalized before their use and became completely active in short time. The experiments with the SNKD biological preparation were carried out both on filtered oil mill outflows (type A with an initial COD of approximately 43 g/l and on waste water dephenolized by Caro-acid (type B with a COD equal to 30 g/l. The experiments with LLMO and PSBIO complexes were conduced both on oil mill outflows filtered and diluted (ratio 1:0.5 with an initial COD equal to 44 g/l (type C, and on waste water that were filtered and preventatively subjected to a cryogenic treatment (type D, with an initial COD of approximately 22 g/l. The residual COD with the microbio formulation SNKD, was about 15 g/l (type A and 5 g/l (type B; with the PSBIO It was about 7 g/l (type C and 1.5 g/l (type D; with the microbio formulation LLMO it resulted in 6 g/l (type C and 1.3 g/l (type D.

    Han sido efectuadas pruebas de tratamiento biológico de alpechines, provenientes de sistemas continuos, con fermentos seleccionados adaptados a condiciones de toxicidad muy elevadas. Han sido utilizadas las formulaciones microbianas SNKD, LLMO y PSBIO; las dos últimas son suspensiones líquidas, constituidas por microorganismos vivos, los cuales a diferencia de los liofilizados o congelados, no deben ser revitalizados antes del uso; estos tienen una fase «lag» más breve y entran antes en completa actividad. Las pruebas con la preparación biológica SNKD han sido efectuadas en los alpechines filtrados (tipo A con DQO inicial alrededor de 43 g/l, y también con alpech

  16. Efficiency Research on Meat Industry Waste Water Treatment Applying the Method of Dissolved Air Flotation

    OpenAIRE

    Valentinas Gerasimovas; Robertas Urbanavičius

    2012-01-01

    To protect environment from industrial pollution, strict requirements for waste water treatment are imposed. The purpose of research is to establish an optimal ratio of saturated liquid and meat industry waste water. Research included JCC “Traidenis” waste water treatment system installed in JSC “BHJ Baltic”. Investigations into treated waste water indicated that an optimal ratio of waste water and saturated liquid was 2/1 under duration time of 8 minutes. Efficient waste water treatment made...

  17. Mobil pilot unit of the advanced oxidation process for waste water treatment and reuse of the hydrics effluents; Unidade piloto movel de processo oxidativo avancado aplicado a tratamento e reuso de efluentes hidricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Lucia Maria Limoeiro; Pereira Junior, Oswaldo de Aquino; Henriques, Sheyla de Oliveira Carvalho; Jacinto Junior, Agenor [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The chemical oxidation processes which generate free hydroxyl radicals are called Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP). These processes have been studied, in the last decades, as a new alternative for pollutants degradation. In the (AOP)'s there are in situ formation of hydroxyl radicals (OH{center_dot}), which are highly oxidant. Its high oxidation strength becomes it indicated in the treatment of effluent with highly refractory contaminants. It can be used as a partial treatment (taking the effluent to more degradable compounds), as a final treatment (taking the effluent to complete mineralization) or as a complementary treatment to other processes, allowing, for example, its reuse. The applicability of this technology in oily water effluents in all segments of the oil industry, has taken to the development, in the LARA (Laboratory of Treatment and Reuse of Waters - CENPES), of the Advanced Oxidation Process Mobile Pilot Unit (AOP's- MU) with capacity up to 1 m3/h. The (AOP's- MU) are able to produce hydroxyl radical from Fenton's reaction, titanium dioxide heterogeneous photo catalysis and hydrogen peroxide, photo-radiated or not. It is equipped with ultraviolet reactors of different wave lengths and power. (author)

  18. Process for multi-stage treatment of radioactive waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the multi-stage treatment of radioactive waste waters with a decanter the solids contained in the waste waters are dried up to a residual moisture of 10% and are subsequently disposed. Solids remaining in the liquid part are removed with a separator up to the colloidal range, whereas the liquid product of the decanter is filtered up to the molecular range so that it can be used as industrial water. (orig.)

  19. Water and waste water reclamation in a 21st century space colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebens, H. J.; Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research on closed-life support systems initiated during a system design study on space colonization and concentrates on the water and waste water components. Metabolic requirements for the 10,000 inhabitants were supplied by an assumed earth-like diet from an intensive agriculture system. Condensed atmospheric moisture provided a source of potable water and a portion of the irrigation water. Waste water was reclaimed by wet oxidation. The dual-water supply required the condensation of 175 kg/person-day of atmospheric water and the processing of 250 kg/person-day of waste water.

  20. Experimental study on electrodialysis treatment of simulated waste water from radioactive waste incineration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste incineration facility produces low-level radioactive waste water in operation. While in treatment process, however, the Cl- existed in the waste water corrodes the evaporation equipment, and the HCO3- as well exerts negative impacts on the ion exchange process for radioactive nuclides. As for this problem, a special electrodialysis system and technical process was developed. Some experiments were carried out, including the NaCl solution direct desalination and cycle desalination experiment, the anionic selection experiment, and the desalination experiment to the simulated. Results showed that the process of electrodialysis treatment met limits on the treatment of technical waste water in terms of the concentration of nonradioactive components in desalted water, and the water balance requirement on the concentration of concentration water. (authors)

  1. Development of advanced membrane process for treatment of radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Development of advanced membrane process for treatment of radioactive liquid wastes'. 1. Surface modification technique of microfiltration membrane. Microporous hydrophobic polypropylene(PP) membrane were modified by radiation-induced grafting using hydrophilic monomers such as arylic acid(AAc), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate(HEMA) and styrenesulfonic acid(SSS). The effect of grafting conditions was investigated. Also, copolymeric condition of AAc and EGDMA for nylon membrane was studied. The structure of grafted PP membrane was examined by using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, SEM and contact angle. The grafted membrane was characterized by measureing the water flux, the ion exchange capacity or the binding capacity of the metal ions. A study on the permeation behavior of simulated waste water containing oil emulsion and characterization of membrane fouling was carried out in the crossflow membrane filtration process using capillary type PP microfiltration membrane modified by radiation induced grafting of HEMA. The effects of various operating parameters were investigated. 2. Electrofiltration Technology. In this section, the process conditions for fouling prevention of membrane by evaluating the effects of operational parameters such as external electric field strength, crossflow velocity, transmembrane pressure, etc. on the permeate flux in electrofiltration were established and the process applicability for oil emulsion wastes containing surfactant using parallel plate type electrofiltration module was evaluated

  2. Penn State advanced light water reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Three Mile Island heightened concerns over the safety of nuclear power. In response to these concerns, a research group at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) undertook the conceptual design of an advanced light water reactor (ALWR) under sponsorship of the US Dept. of Energy (DOE). The design builds on the literally hundreds of years worth of experience with light water reactor technology. The concept is a reconfigured pressurized water reactor (PWR) with the capability of being shut down to a safe condition simply by removing all ac power, both off-site and on-site. Using additional passively activated heat sinks and replacing the pressurizer with a pressurizing pump system, the concept essentially eliminates the concerns of core damage associated with a total station blackout. Evaluation of the Penn State ALWR concept has been conducted using the EPRI Modular Modeling System (MMS). Results show that a superior response to normal operating transients can be achieved in comparison to the response with a conventional PWR pressurizer. The DOE-sponsored Penn State ALWR concept has evolved into a significant reconfiguration of a PWR leading to enhanced safety characteristics. The reconfiguration has touched a number of areas in overall plant design including a shutdown turbine in the secondary system, additional passively activated heat sinks, a unique primary side pressurizing concept, a low pressure cleanup system, reactor building layout, and a low power density core design

  3. Advanced ceramic cladding for water reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the US Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiatives (NERI) program, continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCCs) are being developed as cladding for water reactor fuel elements. The purpose is to substantially increase the passive safety of water reactors. A development effort was initiated in 1991 to fabricate CFCC-clad tubes using commercially available fibers and a sol-gel process developed by McDermott Technologies. Two small-diameter CFCC tubes were fabricated using pure alumina and alumina-zirconia fibers in an alumina matrix. Densities of approximately 60% of theoretical were achieved. Higher densities are required to guarantee fission gas containment. This NERI work has just begun, and only preliminary results are presented herein. Should the work prove successful, further development is required to evaluate CFCC cladding and performance, including in-pile tests containing fuel and exploring a marriage of CFCC cladding materials with suitable advanced fuel and core designs. The possibility of much higher temperature core designs, possibly cooled with supercritical water, and achievement of plant efficiencies ge50% would be examined

  4. Status of the advanced boiling water reactor and simplified boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the excess of U.S. electrical generating capacity which has existed for the past 15 years is coming to an end as we enter the 1990s. Environmental and energy security issues associated with fossil fuels are kindling renewed interest in the nuclear option. The importance of these issues are underscored by the National Energy Strategy (NES) which calls for actions which are designed to ensure that the nuclear power option is available to utilities. Utilities, utility associations, and nuclear suppliers, under the leadership of the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (NPOC), have jointly developed a 14 point strategic plan aimed at establishing a predictable regulatory environment, standardized and pre-licensed Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) nuclear plants, resolving the long-term waste management issue, and other enabling conditions. GE is participating in this national effort and GE's family of advanced nuclear power plants feature two new reactor designs, developed on a common technology base, aimed at providing a new generation of nuclear plants to provide safe, clean, economical electricity to the world's utilities in the 1990s and beyond. Together, the large-size (1300 MWe) Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) and the small-size (600 MWe) Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) are innovative, near-term candidates for expanding electrical generating capacity in the U.S. and worldwide. Both possess the features necessary to do so safely, reliably, and economically

  5. Sources of Phthalates and Nonylphenoles in Municipal Waste Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikelsøe, J.; Thomsen, M.; Johansen, E.

    to estimate the contribution from all of these sources to the waste water as well as the role of long-range air transport. Two local rivers were analysed for comparison. Finally, waste water inlet from the local water treatment plant, where the sources converge at a single point, were analysed. A mass balance......The overall aim of the present study is to identify and evaluate the importance of sources of nonylphenoles and phthalates in waste water in a local environment. The investigations were carried out in a Danish local community, Roskilde city and surroundings. Nonylphenoles and phthalates were...... analysed in the waste water from different institutions and industries thought to be potential sources. These were: car wash centers, a hospital, a kindergarten, an adhesive industry and a industrial laundry. Furthermore, analysis of the deposition in the area were carried out. This made it possible...

  6. Method for the treatment of waste water with sludge granules

    OpenAIRE

    van Loosdrecht, M C; De Kreuk, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the treatment of waste water comprising an organic nutrient. According to the invention, the waste water is in a first step fed to sludge granules, after the supply of the waste water to be treated the sludge granules are fluidised in the presence of an oxygen-comprising gas, and in a third step, the sludge granules are allowed to settle in a settling step. This makes it possible to effectively remove not only organic nutrients but optionally also nitroge...

  7. Biogenic metals in advanced water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebel, Tom; De Gusseme, Bart; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy

    2009-02-01

    Microorganisms can change the oxidation state of metals and concomitantly deposit metal oxides and zerovalent metals on or into their cells. The microbial mechanisms involved in these processes have been extensively studied in natural environments, and researchers have recently gained interest in the applications of microbe-metal interactions in biotechnology. Because of their specific characteristics, such as high specific surface areas and high catalytic reactivity, biogenic metals offer promising perspectives for the sorption and (bio)degradation of contaminants. In this review, the precipitation of biogenic manganese and iron species and the microbial reduction of precious metals, such as palladium, platinum, silver and gold, are discussed with specific attention to the application of these biogenic metals in innovative remediation technologies in advanced water treatment.

  8. BIOREMEDIATION OF SLAUGHTER HOUSE WASTE WATER BY RHODOBACTER SP. GSKRLMBKU-02

    OpenAIRE

    Kadari Rajyalaxmi; Ramchander Merugu; S.Girisham; Reddy SM

    2015-01-01

    Biological treatment of waste waters is a sustainable alternative for waste treatment to existing treatment methods. Microbial metabolism effects pH, BOD, COD, DO and concentration of suspended solids present in slaughter house waste water. Rhodobacter sp. GSKRLMBKU-02 from paper mill waste water was used in the present study to remediate slaughter house waste water. Treatment with this bacterium caused a significant decrease in some of the parameters tested for waste water. Remediation of sl...

  9. CHARACTERIZATION AND RECYCLING OF WASTE WATER FROM GUAYULE LATEX EXTRACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayule commercialization for latex production to be used in medical products and other applications is now a reality. Currently, waste water following latex extraction is discharged into evaporation ponds. As commercialization reaches full scale, the liquid waste stream from latex extraction will b...

  10. Fixed-biofilm reactors applied to waste water treatment and aquacultural water recirculating systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovendeur, J.

    1989-01-01

    Fixed-biofilm waste water treatment may be regarded as one of the oldest engineered biological waste water treatment methods. With the recent introduction of modern packing materials, this type of reactor has received a renewed impuls for implementation in a wide field of water treatment.In this the

  11. The impact of industrial waste of Venezuelan marine water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Frank [Bechtel Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Guarino, Carmen [Guarino Engineers, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Arias, Marlene [Ministerio del Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Renovables, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1993-12-31

    The Puerto Cabello-Marron coastal area of Venezuela is an ideal location for industries that require large land areas, water, marine transportation, minimum habitation, cooling water, etc. However, mercury spills have produced concern in the entire coastal zone. The area was investigated and negative impacts were identified. Consequently, recommendations for waste water management were proceeded. 13 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. ADVERSE IMPACTS OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT ­ A CASE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industrial metal plating processes coat materials with metals, such as chromium, copper and nickel. After the plating process, excess metals are rinsed off and the rinse water is collected and then treated to remove metals prior to discharge of the rinse water into rivers. This waste water is typica...

  13. Region 9 NPDES Outfalls 2012- Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES outfalls/dischargers for waste water treatment plants which generally represent the site of the discharge....

  14. Air flotation treatment of salmon processing waste water

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses methods for the reduction of the pollution strength of salmon processing waste water. Past research has indicated the success of air pressure...

  15. Region 9 NPDES Outfalls - Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES outfalls/dischargers for waste water treatment plants which generally represent the site of the discharge....

  16. Waste-to-energy advanced cycles and new design concepts for efficient power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Branchini, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of state-of-the-art technologies for energy conversion from waste, as well as a much-needed guide to new and advanced strategies to increase Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plant efficiency. Beginning with an overview of municipal solid waste production and disposal, basic concepts related to Waste-To-Energy conversion processes are described, highlighting the most relevant aspects impacting the thermodynamic efficiency of WTE power plants. The pervasive influences of main steam cycle parameters and plant configurations on WTE efficiency are detailed and quantified. Advanc

  17. Study of water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 2: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, C. A.; Reed, A.; Renman, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The manner in which current and advanced technology can be applied to develop practical solutions to existing and emerging water supply and waste disposal problems is evaluated. An overview of water resource factors as they affect new community planning, and requirements imposed on residential waste treatment systems are presented. The results of equipment surveys contain information describing: commercially available devices and appliances designed to conserve water; devices and techniques for monitoring water quality and controlling back contamination; and advanced water and waste processing equipment. System concepts are developed and compared on the basis of current and projected costs. Economic evaluations are based on community populations of from 2,000 to 250,000. The most promising system concept is defined in sufficient depth to initiate detailed design.

  18. Waste management in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important objectives of concentrate and solid waste treatment are reduction of the waste to the smallest volume, radioactive exposure of the personnel of the power plants and outside for operation, handling and transportation, protection against migration of the concentrated radioactive substances after final disposal and observance of shipping requirements, national laws and ministerial waste storage regulations. A variety of technologies is available for the realization of these objectives. Important parameters for the selection and design of concentrate and solid waste treatment processes are waste type, quantity, activity, means for immobilization and the achievable reduction factors. The most important technologies for the treatment of liquid concentrates, combustible and non-combustible solid waste are available for example: In-Drum-Drying, Borate-Solidification (PWR), Drum Drier, Residue Filter Drying, Bituminization, Solidification with cement, Incineration, Shredding, Compacting etc. and of course combinations of the various mentioned procedures which result in the best possible waste disposal for the entire power plant. (orig./RW)

  19. Occupational Safety Management Aspects on Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Sulojeva, Jelena; Percovs, Aleksejs; Maļukova, Jeļena; Urbane, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    There are new municipal waste water treatment plants being constructed in Latvia in the framework of the projects implemented with the EU co-financing. New modern equipment requires certain approach to occupational safety provision. This paper discloses aspects for occupational safety increasing on newly constructed municipal waste water treatment plants within several samples of WWTP designs, actuated in Latvia. WWTP occupational issues are examined from two aspects: operational safety and d...

  20. Consumer satisfaction with water, wastewater and waste services in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Hormann, Karoline

    2016-01-01

    While the concept of consumer satisfaction is a central topic in modern marketing theory and practice, citizens' satisfaction with public services, and especially water and waste services, is a eld that still remains empirically rather unexplored. The following study aims to contribute to this area by analysing the determinants of user satisfaction in the water, wastewater and waste sector in Portugal, using a unique survey of 1070 consumers undertaken by the Portuguese Wat...

  1. Method of purifying tenside and detergent contaminated waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieder, E.; Stoiber, R.

    1981-12-01

    Purifying waste waters contaminated with tensides, from nuclear power plants and other plants in which radioactive substances are processed wherein before return of the water to the plant, the water is passed through an evaporator and a mixed-bed filter. Contaminant content of the water is materially reduced by first acidifying the waste water to a ph of 2.5-3, then treating with activated carbon, KNMO/sub 4/, MNSO/sub 4/ and CACO/sub 3/, and thereafter raising the ph to 8.5-9. The mixture is permitted to form a lower sludge layer and a supernatant water layer. The sludge layer is sent to waste disposal and the supernatant layer is directed to the evaporator.

  2. Discharge and Treatment of Waste Water in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the waste water treatment situation in the area of Esbjerg. This example was chosen because the situation in Esbjerg is typical of that of most towns in Denmark, and because Esbjerg is closest to the British situation with respect to the receiving water. Esbjerg has...... a population of 70.000 inhabitans, and waste water treatment takes place in two treatment plants. These plants are now being extended to perform tertiary treatment, to fulfil the new Danish requirements. From 1992, the maximum average concentrations allowed for municipal waste water discharges to receiving...... waters will be; 15 mg/1 for BOD5, 8 mg/1 for total nitrogen, and 1.5 mg/1 for total phosphorus. These general requirements cover all types of receiving waters, but regional authorities have, in a number of cases, fixed lower values for sensitive areas....

  3. Impact of Water Recovery from Wastes on the Lunar Surface Mission Water Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Hogan, John Andrew; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Pace, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Future extended lunar surface missions will require extensive recovery of resources to reduce mission costs and enable self-sufficiency. Water is of particular importance due to its potential use for human consumption and hygiene, general cleaning, clothes washing, radiation shielding, cooling for extravehicular activity suits, and oxygen and hydrogen production. Various water sources are inherently present or are generated in lunar surface missions, and subject to recovery. They include: initial water stores, water contained in food, human and other solid wastes, wastewaters and associated brines, ISRU water, and scavenging from residual propellant in landers. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the contribution of water recovery from life support wastes on the overall water balance for lunar surface missions. Water in human wastes, metabolic activity and survival needs are well characterized and dependable figures are available. A detailed life support waste model was developed that summarizes the composition of life support wastes and their water content. Waste processing technologies were reviewed for their potential to recover that water. The recoverable water in waste is a significant contribution to the overall water balance. The value of this contribution is discussed in the context of the other major sources and loses of water. Combined with other analyses these results provide guidance for research and technology development and down-selection.

  4. Efficiency Research on Meat Industry Waste Water Treatment Applying the Method of Dissolved Air Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentinas Gerasimovas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To protect environment from industrial pollution, strict requirements for waste water treatment are imposed. The purpose of research is to establish an optimal ratio of saturated liquid and meat industry waste water. Research included JCC “Traidenis” waste water treatment system installed in JSC “BHJ Baltic”. Investigations into treated waste water indicated that an optimal ratio of waste water and saturated liquid was 2/1 under duration time of 8 minutes. Efficient waste water treatment made 86% and the ratio of waste water and saturated liquid was 2/1.Article in Lithuanian

  5. Engineering for waste water treatment from tailing dumps

    OpenAIRE

    Kostadinov, Ljubisa; Micevska, Olgica; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Golomeova, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Apart from all measures to control and improve the quality (several days of purification by water settlement) of water that is discharged from tailing dumps in some periods, it is possible contaminated water to be discharge into the nearest watercourses. As a result of the discharge of contaminated water, deposition of harmful substances in the riverbeds can occur, which process causes contamination of the surrounding soil. To achieve a high level of environmental protection from waste ...

  6. Advanced robotics technology applied to mixed waste characterization, sorting and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are over one million cubic meters of radioactively contaminated hazardous waste, known as mixed waste, stored at Department of Energy facilities. Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are developing methods to safely and efficiently treat this type of waste. LLNL has automated and demonstrated a means of segregating items in a mixed waste stream. This capability incorporates robotics and automation with advanced multi-sensor information for autonomous and teleoperational handling of mixed waste items with previously unknown characteristics. The first phase of remote waste stream handling was item singulation; the ability to remove individual items of heterogeneous waste directly from a drum, box, bin, or pile. Once objects were singulated, additional multi-sensory information was used for object classification and segregation. In addition, autonomous and teleoperational surface cleaning and decontamination of homogeneous metals has been demonstrated in processing mixed waste streams. The LLNL waste stream demonstration includes advanced technology such as object classification algorithms, identification of various metal types using active and passive gamma scans and RF signatures, and improved teleoperational and autonomous grasping of waste objects. The workcell control program used an off-line programming system as a server to perform both simulation control as well as actual hardware control of the workcell. This paper will discuss the motivation for remote mixed waste stream handling, the overall workcell layout, sensor specifications, workcell supervisory control, 3D vision based automated grasp planning and object classification algorithms

  7. Advanced robotics technology applied to mixed waste characterization, sorting and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelmsen, K.; Hurd, R.; Grasz, E.

    1994-04-01

    There are over one million cubic meters of radioactively contaminated hazardous waste, known as mixed waste, stored at Department of Energy facilities. Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are developing methods to safely and efficiently treat this type of waste. LLNL has automated and demonstrated a means of segregating items in a mixed waste stream. This capability incorporates robotics and automation with advanced multi-sensor information for autonomous and teleoperational handling of mixed waste items with previously unknown characteristics. The first phase of remote waste stream handling was item singulation; the ability to remove individual items of heterogeneous waste directly from a drum, box, bin, or pile. Once objects were singulated, additional multi-sensory information was used for object classification and segregation. In addition, autonomous and teleoperational surface cleaning and decontamination of homogeneous metals has been demonstrated in processing mixed waste streams. The LLNL waste stream demonstration includes advanced technology such as object classification algorithms, identification of various metal types using active and passive gamma scans and RF signatures, and improved teleoperational and autonomous grasping of waste objects. The workcell control program used an off-line programming system as a server to perform both simulation control as well as actual hardware control of the workcell. This paper will discuss the motivation for remote mixed waste stream handling, the overall workcell layout, sensor specifications, workcell supervisory control, 3D vision based automated grasp planning and object classification algorithms.

  8. State of Art About water Uses and Waste water Management in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows the real situation about management of water and waste water in Lebanon and focuses on problems related to urban water pollution released in environment. Water and waste water infrastructures have been rebuilt since 1992. However, waste water management still remains one of the greatest challenges facing Lebanese people, since water supply projects have been given priority over wastewater projects. As a consequence of an increased demand of water by agricultural, industrial and household sectors in the last decade, waste water flows have been increased. In this paper, the existing waste water treatment plants (WWTP) operating in Lebanon are presented. Most of them are small-scale community-based ones, only two large-scale plants, constructed by the government, are currently operational. Lebanese aquatic ecosystems are suffering from the deterioration of water quality because of an insufficient treatment of waste water, which is limited mostly to pre-treatment processes. In fact, domestic and industrial effluents are mainly conducted together in the sewer pipes to the WWTP before being discharged, without adequate treatment into the rivers or directly into the Mediterranean Sea. Such discharges are threatening the coastal marine ecosystem in the Mediterranean basin. This paper aims at giving the current state of knowledge about water uses and wastewater management in Lebanon. The main conclusion drawn from this state of art is a lack of data. In fact, the available data are limited to academic research without being representative on a national scale. (author)

  9. New techniques for waste water treatment of waste treatment centers and landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaartinen, T.; Eskola, P.; Vestola, E.; Merta, E.; Mroueh, U.-M.

    2009-10-15

    In this research project new techno-economically feasible and eco-efficient techniques for waste water treatment of waste treatment centers and landfills have been developed. In this publication water quality on existing Finnish waste treatment centers and landfills has been reviewed. Examples of segregated water treatment solutions at waste treatment centers and landfills in Finland and abroad have been introduced. Experimental research concentrated on treatment of heavy metal contaminated waters. Studied techniques were biological sulphate reduction and reactive by-product materials as filter media. Both techniques yielded promising results in the treatment of heavy metal bearing waters. Next step of the research should be more precise study on the boundary conditions of the chosen techniques. Good basis for scaling up the treatment techniques from laboratory to pilot-scale plants exists after this research project. In addition an excel-based site-specifically applicable procedure for comparing water management alternatives of waste treatment centers and landfills has been developed. Applying the procedure comparisons on e.g. economy of viable water management options can be made. (orig.)

  10. 2014 Radiological Monitoring Results Associated with the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed of the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste wastewater prior to discharge into the Cold Waste Pond and of specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000161-01, Modification B). All radiological monitoring is performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  11. Treatment of radioactive waste water by flocculation method, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coagulation property of particle on the treatment of radioactive waste water by floculation method is varied with its electrical potential and mixing condition. The surface state of the particle is influenced by contents of coexistent materials in the waste water and added materials at the treatment process. In the case of using ferric hydroxide as coagulant, assuming the ions which decide the potential of the particle surface are Fe(OH)2+ and Fe(OH)4-, calculated values of the potential agree with zeta-potential of ferric hydroxide particle which is formed from FeCl4 and NaOH in demineralized water. When Na2CO3 is in the waste water as coexistent materials, anion HCO3- adsorbs on the particle surface in connection with pH variation and thus the surface charge is being minus. If Ca2+ ion is present in the waste water, the surface charge plus. ABS acts as single molecule anion at low concentration, but it forms micell at high concentration and influences zeta-potential of the particle. The potential of the particle is correlated to the coprecipitation rate of 90Sr in the waste water. (auth.)

  12. Advanced light and heavy water reactors for improved fuel utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 26-29 November 1984 the Agency convened at its Headquarters in Vienna the Technical Committee and Workshop on Advanced Light and Heavy Water Reactor Technology in order to provide an opportunity to review and discuss the current status and recent development in the lay-out and design of advanced water reactor and to identify areas in which additional research and development are needed. The meeting was attended by 45 participants from 16 nations and 2 international organizations presenting 25 papers. The Conference presentations were divided into sessions devoted to the following topics: Advanced light water reactor programmes (6 papers); Advanced light water design, technology and physics (12 papers); Advanced heavy water reactors (7 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  13. Photocatalytic post-treatment in waste water reclamation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gerald; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Verostko, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    A photocatalytic water purification process is described which effectively oxidizes organic impurities common to reclaimed waste waters and humidity condensates to carbon dioxide at ambient temperatures. With this process, total organic carbon concentrations below 500 ppb are readily achieved. The temperature dependence of the process is well described by the Arrhenius equation and an activation energy barrier of 3.5 Kcal/mole. The posttreatment approach for waste water reclamation described here shows potential for integration with closed-loop life support systems.

  14. Optimal control of a waste water cleaning plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellina V. Grigorieva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a model of a waste water treatment plant is investigated. The model is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations with one bounded control. An optimal control problem of minimizing concentration of the polluted water at the terminal time T is stated and solved analytically with the use of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. Dependence of the optimal solution on the initial conditions is established. Computer simulations of a model of an industrial waste water treatment plant show the advantage of using our optimal strategy. Possible applications are discussed.

  15. Lipid profiling of some authotrophic microalgae grown on waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Møller, Per

    that microalgae-biomass can be used as an alternative valuable resource in fish feed. In this work, 10 fresh water and marine microalgae from Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Haematococcus, Nannochloropsis, Nannochloropsis and Dunialiella species grown in waste water in Kalundborg micro algal facility were harvested...

  16. REVIEW OF EXISTING LCA STUDIES ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    The EU research project “NEPTUNE” is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and focused on the development of new waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) for municipal waste water. The sustainability of these WWTTs is going to be assessed by the use of life cycle assessment (LCA). New life...... importance of the different life cycle stages and the individual impact categories in the total impact from the waste water treatment, and the degree to which micropollutants, pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have been included in earlier studies. The results show that more than 30 different WWTT (and...... even more treatment trains/scenarios) have already been the subject of more or less detailed LCAs. All life cycle stages may be important and all impact categories (except stratospheric ozone depletion) typically included in LCAs may show significance depending on the actual scenario. Potential impacts...

  17. Advances in energy and environment. Vol. 2: Air quality, water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 5th conference of energy and environment was held on 3-6 June 1996 in Cairo. The specialists discussed the effects of advances in energy and environment. The applications of solar energy, heat transfer, thermal application, storage and bio-conversion, fuels, energy and development. This second volume covers papers presented on the subjects air pollution, environmental protection, solid and hazardous wastes, water and wastewater treatment. tabs., figs

  18. Biological treatment of cokery waste water. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop a biotechnological process for the treatment of cokery waste water a two stage bioreactor system of each 800 l volume was designed, built up and proven for its efficiency by treating process water of two different origins. A third type of cokery waste water was treated in a lab scale bioreactor. The bacterial culture used for the process consists of a basic population for the degradation of phenol and cresols. Additionally several special strains isolated for their ability to degrade polymethylated phenols, quinoline and thiocyanate were supplemented to obtain an effective mineralization of these compounds. The successful integration of these bacterial specialists could be confirmed by detection of the respective metabolic activities (e.g. pathway-specific enzyme) in the activated sludge. -In addition to chemical analyses of the waste waters before and after biological treatment a toxicological method based on bacterial bio-luminescence inhibition was applied to characterize the clean up. - The results obtained for the DMT-process reveal that independently from the constitution of the waste water a hydraulic retention time of 6 hours for phenol degradation and 12 hours for thiocyanate degradation is necessary. So thiocyanate degradation is the rate limiting step in the process. The degree of DOC removal resulted in 80 to 90%. The degradation capacities vary from 0,3 to 2,7 kg DOC/m3 d depending on the type of waste water used for the treatment. In each case biological treatment of the waste water led to a strong reduction of water toxicity. - A feasibility study, based on the results obtained from pilot plant operation, revealed specific costs of 3 DM per kg DOC removal for a commercial plant with a capacity of 10 m3/h. (orig.). 13 refs., 13 tabs., 58 figs

  19. Process water - waste water - cooling water. Papers; Prozesswasser/Abwasser/Kuehlwasser. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liese, F. (comp.)

    2002-07-01

    The 39th Metallurgical Seminar focused on water. Modern technologies for water purification and treatment were presented, legal boundary conditions were discussed, and aspects of process water, waste water and cooling water were gone into. Although the boundaries between these three types of water cannot be clearly defined, materials recovery is the prevalent aspect in process water treatment while waste water treatment primarily aims at reducing pollutant concentrations so that both environmental aspects and technical quality standards will be met. This proceedings volume attempts to give its readers a more precise picture of the issues at hand by presenting fundamental research, ecological and legal specifications, and selected examples of industrial applications. [German] Das 39. Metallurgische Seminar beschaeftigt sich mit Wasser. Neben der Praesentation grundsaetzlicher, moderner Techniken zur Reinhaltung und Aufbereitung von Wasser sowie der Darstellung der gesetzlichen Rahmenbedingungen umspannen die Fachvortraege Beitraege zu den Themen Prozesswasser, Abwasser, Kuehlwasser. Wenn auch die Grenzen innerhalb dieser Begriffe teilweise fliessend sind, so zeichnen sich die Prozesswaesser dadurch aus, dass man primaer - wie beispielsweise bei Waschsloesungen und Beizwaessern - an der Wiedergewinnung der Inhaltsstoffe interessiert ist, waehrend bei reinen Abwaessern und Kuehlturmwaessern bzw. deren Abschlaemmungen die massgebliche Aufgabe darin besteht, die Konzentration der Inhaltsstoffe so weit abzusenken, dass man einerseits den Umwelterfordernissen und andererseits den technischen Qualitaetsanforderungen gerecht wird. Ziel dieses Bandes ist es, an Hand von Grundlagen, der Darstellung der oekologischen und behoerdlichen Erfordernisse sowie ausgewaehlter Fallbeispiele aus der Industrie den Leserkreis naeher an diese Thematik heranzufuehren. (orig.)

  20. Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

  1. Biological efficacy and toxic effect of emergency water disinfection process based on advanced oxidation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yiping; Yuan, Xiaoli; Xu, Shujing; Li, Rihong; Zhou, Xinying; Zhang, Zhitao

    2015-12-01

    An innovative and removable water treatment system consisted of strong electric field discharge and hydrodynamic cavitation based on advanced oxidation technologies was developed for reactive free radicals producing and waterborne pathogens eliminating in the present study. The biological efficacy and toxic effects of this advanced oxidation system were evaluated during water disinfection treatments. Bench tests were carried out with synthetic microbial-contaminated water, as well as source water in rainy season from a reservoir of Dalian city (Liaoning Province, China). Results showed that high inactivation efficiency of Escherichia coli (>5 log) could be obtained for synthetic contaminated water at a low concentration (0.5-0.7 mg L(-1)) of total oxidants in 3-10 s. The numbers of wild total bacteria (108 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1)) and total coliforms (260 × 10(2) MPN 100 mL(-1)) in source water greatly reduced to 50 and 0 CFU mL(-1) respectively after treated by the advanced oxidation system, which meet the microbiological standards of drinking water, and especially that the inactivation efficiency of total coliforms could reach 100%. Meanwhile, source water qualities were greatly improved during the disinfection processes. The values of UV254 in particular were significantly reduced (60-80%) by reactive free radicals. Moreover, the concentrations of possible disinfection by-products (formaldehyde and bromide) in treated water were lower than detection limits, indicating that there was no harmful effect on water after the treatments. These investigations are helpful for the ecotoxicological studies of advanced oxidation system in the treatments of chemical polluted water or waste water. The findings of this work suggest that the developed water treatment system is ideal in the acute phases of emergencies, which also could offer additional advantages over a wide range of applications in water pollution control.

  2. Heavy metals in the waste and in the water discharge area of municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ermindo Cavallet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The county of Paranaguá discards 80 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW daily in the Embocuí landfill without proper treatment. The present study aimed to evaluate the concentration of arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, lead (Pb and mercury (Hg in the dump area and to compare it with reference values for soil and water quality stipulated by CETESB (2005. The methodology of the study involved the collection of waste samples (organic waste mixed with soil from a depth of 1 m deep at 12 points of the dump, and the collection of water samples from a depth of 3 m at 3 points in the deposited waste. Extraction of heavy metals in the water samples was performed according to the USEPA (1999 method and analysis followed ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometry. Analysis of the solid waste samples showed the following concentrations: (mg kg -1: As < 10; Cd < 1; Cr = 26; Pb = 52; e Hg = 0.2. The water samples showed the following concentrations: (mg L- 1: As < 5; Cd < 5; Cr =29 e Pb = 10. The amounts of heavy metals in samples of tailings and water from the landfill area fall below the values considered to create a risk of contamination.

  3. Methods for chemical analysis of water and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    This manual provides test procedures approved for the monitoring of water supplies, waste discharges, and ambient waters, under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, and Ambient Monitoring Requirements of Section 106 and 208 of Public Law 92-500. The test methods have been selected to meet the needs of federal legislation and to provide guidance to laboratories engaged in the protection of human health and the aquatic environment.

  4. Office of River Protection Advanced Low-Activity Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, A. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peeler, D. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, D. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, J. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Piepel, G. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schweiger, M. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated and leads an integrated Advanced Waste Glass (AWG) program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product performance requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation for making key decisions regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities in the context of an optimized River Protection Project (RPP) flowsheet. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key product performance and process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste vitrification facilities. These activities will be conducted with the objective of improving the overall RPP mission by enhancing flexibility and reducing cost and schedule.

  5. Office of River Protection Advanced Low-Activity Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated and leads an integrated Advanced Waste Glass (AWG) program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product performance requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation for making key decisions regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities in the context of an optimized River Protection Project (RPP) flowsheet. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key product performance and process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste vitrification facilities. These activities will be conducted with the objective of improving the overall RPP mission by enhancing flexibility and reducing cost and schedule.

  6. The Fundamentals of Waste Water Sludge Characterization and Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scales, Peter J.; Dixon, David R.; Harbour, Peter J.; Stickland, Anthony D.

    2003-07-01

    The move to greater emphasis on the disposal of waste water sludges through routes such as incineration and the added cost of landfill emplacement puts high demands on dewatering technology for these sludges. A dear problem in this area is that waste water sludges are slow and difficult to dewater and traditional methods of laboratory measurement for prediction of filtration performance are inadequate. This is highly problematic for the design and operational optimisation of centrifuges, filters and settling devices in the waste water industry. The behaviour is assessed as being due to non-linear behaviour of these sludges which negates the use of classical approaches. These approaches utilise the linear portion of a t versus V{sup 2} plot (where t is the time to filtration and V is the specific filtrate volume) to extract a simple Darcian permeability. Without this parameter, a predictive capacity for dewatering using current theory is negated. (author)

  7. Radioactive Waste Conditioning, Immobilisation, And Encapsulation Processes And Technologies: Overview And Advances (Chapter 7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken SC (United States); Lee, William E. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Ojovan, Michael I. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2012-10-19

    The main immobilization technologies that are available commercially and have been demonstrated to be viable are cementation, bituminization, and vitrification. Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either alkali borosilicate glass or alkali aluminophosphate glass. The exact compositions of nuclear waste glasses are tailored for easy preparation and melting, avoidance of glass-in-glass phase separation, avoidance of uncontrolled crystallization, and acceptable chemical durability, e.g., leach resistance. Glass has also been used to stabilize a variety of low level wastes (LLW) and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) low level wastes (MLLW) from other sources such as fuel rod cladding/decladding processes, chemical separations, radioactive sources, radioactive mill tailings, contaminated soils, medical research applications, and other commercial processes. The sources of radioactive waste generation are captured in other chapters in this book regarding the individual practices in various countries (legacy wastes, currently generated wastes, and future waste generation). Future waste generation is primarily driven by interest in sources of clean energy and this has led to an increased interest in advanced nuclear power production. The development of advanced wasteforms is a necessary component of the new nuclear power plant (NPP) flowsheets. Therefore, advanced nuclear wasteforms are being designed for robust disposal strategies. A brief summary is given of existing and advanced wasteforms: glass, glass-ceramics, glass composite materials (GCM’s), and crystalline ceramic (mineral) wasteforms that chemically incorporate radionuclides and hazardous species atomically in their structure. Cementitious, geopolymer, bitumen, and other encapsulant wasteforms and composites that atomically bond and encapsulate

  8. Ecotoxicity of waste water from industrial fires fighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobes, P.; Danihelka, P.; Janickova, S.; Marek, J.; Bernatikova, S.; Suchankova, J.; Baudisova, B.; Sikorova, L.; Soldan, P.

    2012-04-01

    As shown at several case studies, waste waters from extinguishing of industrial fires involving hazardous chemicals could be serious threat primary for surrounding environmental compartments (e.g. surface water, underground water, soil) and secondary for human beings, animals and plants. The negative impacts of the fire waters on the environment attracted public attention since the chemical accident in the Sandoz (Schweizerhalle) in November 1986 and this process continues. Last October, special Seminary on this topic has been organized by UNECE in Bonn. Mode of interaction of fire waters with the environment and potential transport mechanisms are still discussed. However, in many cases waste water polluted by extinguishing foam (always with high COD values), flammable or toxic dangerous substances as heavy metals, pesticides or POPs, are released to surface water or soil without proper decontamination, which can lead to environmental accident. For better understanding of this type of hazard and better coordination of firemen brigades and other responders, the ecotoxicity of such type of waste water should be evaluated in both laboratory tests and in water samples collected during real cases of industrial fires. Case studies, theoretical analysis of problem and toxicity tests on laboratory model samples (e.g. on bacteria, mustard seeds, daphnia and fishes) will provide additional necessary information. Preliminary analysis of waters from industrial fires (polymer material storage and galvanic plating facility) in the Czech Republic has already confirmed high toxicity. In first case the toxicity may be attributed to decomposition of burned material and extinguishing foams, in the latter case it can be related to cyanides in original electroplating baths. On the beginning of the year 2012, two years R&D project focused on reduction of extinguish waste water risk for the environment, was approved by Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.

  9. Facility for generating crew waste water product for ECLSS testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitekant, Alan; Roberts, Barry C.

    1990-01-01

    An End-use Equipment Facility (EEF) has been constructed which is used to simulate water interfaces between the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and man systems. The EEF is used to generate waste water to be treated by ECLSS water recovery systems. The EEF will also be used to close the water recovery loop by allowing test subjects to use recovered hygiene and potable water during several phases of testing. This paper describes the design and basic operation of the EEF.

  10. Tritiated waste water fixation of solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exchange kinetics between tritiated and distilled water (THO/H2O) from various zeolites, natural and synthetic analcimes, saturated with THO are reported. Kinetic parameters for the diffusion process are calculated from experimental data. Tritiated water releases from the zeolites saturated with THO into distilled water is given for various temperatures and times. Ferric, zinc, cobalt and sodium zeolites are investigated. Results indicated that cobalt zeolite and synthetic analcime release rates of THO are superior to the other zeolites tested

  11. Advanced feed water distributing system for WWER 440 steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O.; Klinga, J. [Energovyzkum Ltd, Brno (Switzerland); Grazl, K. [Vitkovice s.c., Ostrava (Switzerland); Tischler, J.; Mihalik, M. [SEP Atomove Elektrarne Bohunice (Slovakia)

    1995-12-31

    The original designed feed water distributing system was replaced by an advanced one. The characteristics of both feed water distributing systems have been measured and evaluated. The paper deals with the problems of measurement and evaluation of both feed water distributing system characteristics and comparison of statistical data obtained. (orig.). 3 refs.

  12. Mimic Behavior in Home Waste-waters Management

    OpenAIRE

    Polomé, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    We present results of a household-level survey on behaviors regarding refuses in the home waste-waters network. Interpreting survey results in a panel-data logit results show that most socio-economic and public good-related respondent's characteristics do not play a significant role in explaining choices to discard in the home waste-waters network. The only significant regressor, apart from the nature of the refuse itself, is, by far, the belief that the respondent has about her neighbors' an...

  13. Waste water shows traces of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sludge at sewage treatment plants has been found to contain radioactive substances originating in hospitals, nuclear weapon tests, the Chernobyl accident, the Finnish nuclear power plants and natural sources. Radioactive substances also enter sewers together with excretions after patients have left the hospital. Hospitals used to let the excretions of patients receiving the iodine 131 treatment into the sewer system only after the activity of the excretions had decreased. Today, excretions can be led into the sewer directly. Calculations have shown that hospital staff receive higher radiation doses when the waste is collected than sewage treatment plant staff receive when the radioactive iodine is led directly into the sewer

  14. STUDY ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2015-01-01

    Biogas is more and more used as an alternative source of energy, considering the fact that it is obtained from waste materials and it can be easily used in cities and rural communities for many uses, between which, as a fuel for households. Biogas has many energy utilisations, depending on the nature of the biogas source and the local demand. Generally, biogas can be used for heat production by direct combustion, electricity production by fuel cells or micro-turbines, Combined Hest and Power ...

  15. Monitoring the waste water of LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Rühl, I

    1999-01-01

    Along the LEP sites CERN is discharging water of differing quality and varying amounts into the local rivers. This wastewater is not only process water from different cooling circuits but also water that infiltrates into the LEP tunnel. The quality of the discharged wastewater has to conform to the local environmental legislation of our Host States and therefore has to be monitored constantly. The most difficult aspect regarding the wastewater concerns LEP Point 8 owing to an infiltration of crude oil (petroleum), which is naturally contained in the soil along octant 7-8 of the LEP tunnel. This paper will give a short summary of the modifications made to the oil/water separation unit at LEP Point 8. The aim was to obtain a satisfactory oil/water separation and to install a monitoring system for a permanent measurement of the amount of hydrocarbons in the wastewater.

  16. An advective diffusion process on hot wasted water discharged to a depression angle direction into water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of change in wasted water from nuclear or fossil fuel power plants discharging direction from horizontal one to depression angle one on an advective diffusion process of hot wasted water was investigated. As a result, it could be confirmed that an effect of depression angle jet discharge on water temperature reduction and so forth could be applied present experimental equation on horizontal discharging by a coordinate transformation of various factors with discharging water angle. And, a judgement equation to obtain a limiting area of hot wasted water affecting with bed surface was obtained by using distance from the lowest point of jet to the sea bed, inner diameter of discharging pipe, and field number for parameters, to elucidate its effectiveness. Furthermore, a diagram to estimate an effect of depression angle discharging water in the area on water temperature reduction and so forth was also proposed. (G.K.)

  17. Wash water waste pretreatment system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The use of real wash water had no adverse effect on soap removal when an Olive Leaf soap based system was used; 96 percent of the soap was removed using ferric chloride. Numerous chemical agents were evaluated as antifoams for synthetic wash water. Wash water surfactants used included Olive Leaf Soap, Ivory Soap, Neutrogena and Neutrogena Rain Bath Gel, Alipal CO-436, Aerosol 18, Miranol JEM, Palmeto, and Aerosol MA-80. For each type of soapy wash water evaluated, at least one antifoam capable of causing nonpersistent foam was identified. In general, the silicones and the heavy metal ions (i.e., ferric, aluminum, etc.) were the most effective antifoams. Required dosage was in the range of 50 to 200 ppm.

  18. Advanced Methods for Treatment of Organic Compounds Contamined Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PREDESCU Andra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The progress recorded in the field of science and advanced engineering at nanometric scale supplies largeopportunities for more efficient (from the point of view of the costs and more ecological approach of the processes ofwater purifying. This paper delivers a short description of the possibilities of using advanced materials in purifying thecontamined water with toxic metallic ions, organic and anorganic compounds. The opportunities and challenges werealso emphasized when nanomaterials were used for the surface, underground and industrial used waters treatment.

  19. Domestic applications for aerospace waste and water management technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disanto, F.; Murray, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the aerospace developments in solid waste disposal and water purification, which are applicable to specific domestic problems are explored. Also provided is an overview of the management techniques used in defining the need, in utilizing the available tools, and in synthesizing a solution. Specifically, several water recovery processes will be compared for domestic applicability. Examples are filtration, distillation, catalytic oxidation, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis. Solid disposal methods will be discussed, including chemical treatment, drying, incineration, and wet oxidation. The latest developments in reducing household water requirements and some concepts for reusing water will be outlined.

  20. Ionometric determination of chloride ion in circulating and waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebeshko, G.I.; Afanas' eva, V.I.; Danielova, I.I.; Dmitriev, M.A.; Radchenko, A.F.

    1986-09-01

    The authors attempt to develop selective ionometric methods to determine chloride ion in waste and circulating waters from technological ore processing, containing significant amounts of sulfide ion and various flotation reagents. These waters contain practically no cations that form hard to dissolve compounds with chloride ion such as Ag/sup +/, Cu/sup +/, Hg/sup +/ or Pb/sup 2 +/. The chloride ion concentration in water varies between 10 and 100 mg/liter. Information is shown on the concentration of the main anions and flotation reagents in waters that were analyzed.

  1. Study of Advanced Oxidation System for Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hygiene water is still a big problem globally as well as energy and food, especially in Indonesia where more than 70 % lived in Java island. One of the efforts in treating hygiene water is to recycle the used water. In this case it is needed clean water technology. Many methods have been done, this paper describes the advanced oxidation technology system based on ozone, titania and plasma discharge. (author)

  2. Integrated waste and water management in mining and metallurgical industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.K.C.CHAN; S.BOUZALAKOS; A.W.L.DUDENEY

    2008-01-01

    Extractive operations usually co-produce large quantities of unmarketable materials (mineral wastes),most of which are conventionally discarded to dumps (coarse material) and tailings ponds (fines).Escalating cost and regulation worldwide highlight an increasing need for reduction and re-use of such wastes.The present paper introduces a new integrated waste management scheme for solids and water.The scheme was exemplified by novel treatment of synthetic waste and process water linked to the biohydrometallurgical processing of metal sulphide flotation concentrates.Bioleaching of sulphide concentrate leads to two types of solid waste:a ferrihydrite/gypsum precipitate from neutralisation of the bioleach liquor and un-leached gangue.The paper indicates that,depending upon the minor components involved,the solid phases in admixture might be usefully distributed among three types of product:conventional underground backfill,cemented civil engineering backfill (particularly controlled low strength material or CLSM) and manufactured soil.It emphasizes CLSM containing simulated mineral waste,showing that such material can exhibit the required characteristics of strength,porosity and permeability.When toxic components,e.g.,arsenic from refractory gold ore,are present,encapsulation will be required.Process water is typically recycled as far as possible,although any excess should be treated before re-use or discharge.The paper also highlights treatment by reverse osmosis (one of the few methods able to generally remove dissolved components),particularly showing that arsenic in oxidation state +6 can be readily removed for discharge (<50×10-12 As),although additional ion exchange is needed for potable water (<10×10-12 As).

  3. Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernández-Bolaños

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  4. The Determination of Anionic Surfactants in Natural and Waste Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, P. T.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and results of an experiment suitable for measuring subpart per million concentrations of anionic surfactants in natural waters and waste effluents are provided. The experiment required only a spectrophotometer or filter photometer and has been successfully performed by students in an undergraduate environmental…

  5. India : Municipal Financing Requirements - Water, Sewerage, and Solid Waste

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the main results from cost models that were developed as an input to the High Powered Expert Committee on Urban Development in order to estimate the investment, operations, and maintenance requirements for urban water, sanitation and municipal solid waste in India. The cost models are designed as tools that allow linking the various building blocks of the cost estimat...

  6. Antioxidative properties of some phototropic microalgae grown in waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Møller, Peter

    for the screening and selection of the species. In this study,the potential antioxidant activities of 12 micro algal sample from Chlorella., Spirulina., Euglena, Scenedesmus and Haematococcus species grown in waste water in Kalundborg micro algal facilities were evaluated using three antioxidant assays, including...

  7. Waste water treatment through public-private partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpintero, Samuel; Petersen, Ole Helby

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the experience of the regional government of Aragon (Spain) that has extensively used public-private partnerships for the construction and operation of waste water treatment plants. The paper argues that although overall the implementation of this PPP program might be considered...

  8. An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Operator Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

    The occupational analysis contains a brief job description for the waste water treatment occupations of operator and maintenance mechanic and 13 detailed task statements which specify job duties (tools, equipment, materials, objects acted upon, performance knowledge, safety considerations/hazards, decisions, cues, and errors) and learning skills…

  9. An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Maintenance Mechanic Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the waste water treatment mechanics occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Twelve duties are broken…

  10. Fetal loss and work in a waste water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R W; Kheifets, L; Obrinsky, D L; Whorton, M D; Foliart, D E

    1984-01-01

    We investigated pregnancy outcomes in 101 wives of workers employed in a waste water treatment plant (WWTP), and verified fetal losses by hospital records. Paternal work histories were compiled and each of the 210 pregnancies was assigned a paternal exposure category. The relative risk of fetal loss was increased when paternal exposure to the WWTP occurred around the time of conception. PMID:6711728

  11. Relative potential hazards of radioactive waste in various water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential hazard to man arising from the hypothetical release of radioactive spent fuel waste into various water systems has been evaluated. Radionuclide transport and human exposure were simulated for six water systems: a large Northwestern river, a small Northeastern river, a small Northwestern river, a large Central Region river, a lake with no outflow in an arid region, and an aquifer discharging directly into an ocean

  12. Detection of sources of alpha radiation in waste water and drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from the monitoring of emission from nuclear installations and nuclear fuel processing plant, the measurement of total α activity is used by many official measuring places in the context of monitoring the general environmental radioactivity. The monitored media are waste water and sewage in community sewage works, drinking water, surface water, suspended matter and sediment. (orig.)

  13. Russian technology advancements for waste mixing and retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineers at the Mining and Chemical Combine nuclear facility, located in Zheleznogorsk, Russia, have developed a pulsating mixer/sluicer to mobilize a layer of consolidated, hardened sludge at the bottom of their 12-m-diameter by 30-m-high nuclear waste tanks. This waste has resisted mobilization by conventional sluicing jets. The new pulsating mixer/sluicer draws tank liquid into a pressure vessel, then expels it at elevated pressure either through a set of submerged mixing jets or a steerable through-air jet. Four versions (or generations) of this technology have been developed. Following testing of three other Russian mobilization and transfer systems at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, a first generation of the new pulsating mixer/sluicer was identified for possible waste retrieval applications in U.S. high-level waste tanks (1). A second-generation pulsating mixer/sluicer was developed and successfully deployed in Tank TH-4 at the Oak Ridge Reservation, located in Tennessee, US (2). A thud-generation pulsating mixed/sluicer with a dual nozzle design was developed and is being tested for possible use by the Hanford Site's River Protection Project to retrieve waste from Tank 241-S-102, a single-shell tank containing radioactive saltcake and sludge. In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy Tanks Focus Area, the Mining and Chemical Combine is conducting cold (that is, nonradioactive) tests and demonstrations of the third-generation system in 2001 and 2002. This work is being conducted through the Tank Retrieval and Closure Demonstration Center, which is sponsored by the National Nuclear Safety Administration's Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (NN-40). A fourth-generation dual-nozzle pulsating mixer/sluicer is undergoing cold testing for use at the Mining and Chemical Combine to retrieve radioactive sludge there in 2004

  14. Processing of combined domestic bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flushing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation of processes and system configurations for reclaiming combined bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flush water was conducted. A 90-min recycle flow was effective in removing particulates and in improving other physical characteristics to the extent that the filtered water was subjectively acceptable for reuse. The addition of a charcoal filter resulted in noticeable improvements in color, turbidity, and suds elimination. Heating and chlorination of the waste waters were investigated for reducing total organism counts and eliminating coliform organisms. A temperature of 335.9 K (145 F) for 30 min and chlorine concentrations of 20 mg/l in the collection tank followed by 10 mg/l in the storage tank were determined to be adequate for this purpose. Water volume relationships and energy-use rates for the waste water reuse systems are also discussed.

  15. Advanced oxidation and adsorption modification of dust waste from standard moulding sands

    OpenAIRE

    A. Baliński

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the process of advanced oxidation (AO) with application of ultrasounds and surface modification of the dust waste collected during dry dedusting of processed moulding sands with bentonite binder. A beneficial effect of both AO and adsorption modification of dust waste, when performed with the selected type of polyelectrolyte, on the technological and mechanical properties of moulding sands prepared with an addition of this dust has been stated. In spite of the bentonite ...

  16. Disposal of NPP wastes by all-round service based on most advanced methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The all-round service includes waste conditioning with stationary and non-stationary facilities in conjunction with the MOSTRAM system. Optimum radwaste treatment involves the application of incineration, high-pressure compaction, separation of radionuclides, advanced cementation, cast-tank and container technology. The service also covers testing of the final storage drums produced for their storability in the KONRAD facility, comprehensive documentation, and the intermediate storage and transport of raw wastes and conditioned radwaste. (DG)

  17. Attenuation of Chromium toxicity in mine waste water using water hyacinth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanty M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The mine waste water at South Kaliapani chromite mining area of Orissa (India showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr+6. Cr+6 contaminated mine waste water poses potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The current field based phytoremediation study is an in situ approach for attenuation of Cr+6 from mine waste water using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes weeds by rhizofiltration method. The weeds significantly reduced (up to 54% toxic concentrations of Cr+6 from contaminated mine waste water when passed through succeeding water hyacinth ponds. The reduction of toxic chromium level varied with the plant age and passage distance of waste water. Chromium phytoaccumulation and Bio-Concentration Factor (BCF was maximum at growing stage of plant i.e. 75 days old plant. High BCF (10,924 and Transportation Index (32.09 for water hyacinth indicated that the weeds can be used as a tool of phytoremediation to combat the problem of in situ Cr contamination in mining areas.

  18. Process for treating waste water having low concentrations of metallic contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Brian B; Millings, Margaret R; Nichols, Ralph L; Payne, William L

    2014-12-16

    A process for treating waste water having a low level of metallic contaminants by reducing the toxicity level of metallic contaminants to an acceptable level and subsequently discharging the treated waste water into the environment without removing the treated contaminants.

  19. Biological processes for advancing lignocellulosic waste biorefinery by advocating circular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-09-01

    The actualization of a circular economy through the use of lignocellulosic wastes as renewable resources can lead to reduce the dependence from fossil-based resources and contribute to a sustainable waste management. The integrated biorefineries, exploiting the overall lignocellulosic waste components to generate fuels, chemicals and energy, are the pillar of the circular economy. The biological treatment is receiving great attention for the biorefinery development since it is considered an eco-friendly alternative to the physico-chemical strategies to increase the biobased product recovery from wastes and improve saccharification and fermentation yields. This paper reviews the last advances in the biological treatments aimed at upgrading lignocellulosic wastes, implementing the biorefinery concept and advocating circular economy. PMID:27131870

  20. Performance characterization of water recovery and water quality from chemical/organic waste products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, W. M.; Rogers, T. D.; Chowdhury, H.; Cullingford, H. S.

    1989-01-01

    The water reclamation subsystems currently being evaluated for the Space Shuttle Freedom are briefly reviewed with emphasis on a waste water management system capable of processing wastes containing high concentrations of organic/inorganic materials. The process combines low temperature/pressure to vaporize water with high temperature catalytic oxidation to decompose volatile organics. The reclaimed water is of potable quality and has high potential for maintenance under sterile conditions. Results from preliminary experiments and modifications in process and equipment required to control reliability and repeatability of system operation are presented.

  1. PRIMING OF A LOW CAPACITY WASTE WATER TREATEMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Luminiţa Jurj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In wastewater treatment plants, secondary biologic treatment is generally compulsory for the localities having less than 10,000 equivalent inhabitants, with a supplementary removal of nutrients if the area is a sensitive one. For the areas which are not suitable for centralized household used water collecting network individual treatment devices or collective low capacity devices are recommended. For certain settlements, for instance for the mountainous dispersed villages, or for detached individual households or farms the collective devices can not be an economic solution as involves high maintenance costs and exploiting problems due to long pipes for low flow rates. Priming is one of the starting up processes of a waste water treatment plant. This is not a very difficult process and requires no specialized staff. However, for helping the owners of a low capacity treatment plant, priming of ORM 5 type mechanical - biological equipment consisting in a tank with four compartments, designed for five equivalent inhabitants was studied inside the plant of Timisoara municipality. For the experimental tests waste water from the Timisoara city sewage network was used. This is mixed waste water resulted from faecal/domestic, industrial and rain water. The study comprised tests in unfavorable technological conditions. The conclusions of the monitoring process underline the need of control of the aeration process and the negative technological and consequently the negative economic effect of the less effective process control.

  2. Advanced control of a water supply system: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional automatic production flow control and pump pressure control of water supply systems are robust and simple: production flow is controlled based on the level in the clear water reservoir and pump pressure is controlled on a static set-point. Recently, more advanced computer-based control

  3. Strategic methodology for advancing food manufacturing waste management paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosentrater, Kurt A.

    2004-12-01

    As manufacturing industries become more cognizant of the ecological effects that their firms have on the surrounding environment, their waste streams are increasingly becoming viewed not as materials in need of disposal, but rather as resources that can be reused, recycled, or reprocessed into valuable products. Within the food processing sector there are many examples of value-added use of processing residues, although many of these focus solely on utilization as livestock feed ingredients. In addition to livestock feed, though, many other potential avenues exist for food processing waste streams, including food grade as well as industrial products. Unfortunately, the challenge to food processors is actually conducting the byproduct development work. In fact, no clear delineation exists that describes necessary components for an effective byproduct development program. This paper describes one such strategic methodology that could help fill this void. It consists of identifying, quantifying, characterizing, developing, analyzing, optimizing, and modeling the waste stream of interest. This approach to byproduct development represents an inclusive strategy that can be used to more effectively implement value-added utilization programs. Not only is this methodology applicable to food processing operations, but any industrial or manufacturing firm could benefit from instituting the formal components described here. Thus, this methodology, if implemented by a manufacturer, could hold the potential for increasing the probability of meeting the goals of industrial ecology, namely, that of developing and operating sustainable systems.

  4. Advances in technologies for the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years the authorized maximum limits for radioactive discharges into the environment have been reduced considerably, and this, together with the requirement to minimize the volume of waste for storage or disposal and to declassify some wastes from intermediate to low level or to non-radioactive wastes, has initiated studies of ways in which improvements can be made to existing decontamination processes and also to the development of new processes. This work has led to the use of more specific precipitants and to the establishment of ion exchange treatment and evaporation techniques. Additionally, the use of combinations of some existing processes or of an existing process with a new technique such as membrane filtration is becoming current practice. New biotechnological, solvent extraction and electrochemical methods are being examined and have been proven at laboratory scale to be useful for radioactive liquid waste treatment. In this report an attempt has been made to review the current research and development of mature and advanced technologies for the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive liquid wastes, both aqueous and non-aqueous. Non-aqueous radioactive liquid wastes or organic liquid wastes typically consist of oils, reprocessing solvents, scintillation liquids and organic cleaning products. A brief state of the art of existing processes and their application is followed by the review of advances in technologies, covering chemical, physical and biological processes. 213 refs, 33 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Advances in the Glass Formulations for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong Sang

    2015-01-14

    The Department of Energy-Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) is constructing the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to treat radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at the Hanford site in Washington. The WTP that is being designed and constructed by a team led by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) will separate the tank waste into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fractions with the majority of the mass (~90%) directed to LAW and most of the activity (>95%) directed to HLW. The pretreatment process, envisioned in the baseline, involves the dissolution of aluminum-bearing solids so as to allow the aluminum salts to be processed through the cesium ion exchange and report to the LAW Facility. There is an oxidative leaching process to affect a similar outcome for chromium-bearing wastes. Both of these unit operations were advanced to accommodate shortcomings in glass formulation for HLW inventories. A by-product of this are a series of technical challenges placed upon materials selected for the processing vessels. The advances in glass formulation play a role in revisiting the flow sheet for the WTP and hence, the unit operations that were being imposed by minimal waste loading requirements set forth in the contract for the design and construction of the plant. Another significant consideration to the most recent revision of the glass models are the impacts on resolution of technical questions associated with current efforts for design completion.

  6. Advanced Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project that will focus on further concept and technology development and verification at the pilot scale of an MSE technology developed by 3M. The technology shows great promise to substantially decrease energy and water consumption in bioethanol production.

  7. Effect of dosing quillaia saponin on waste water from edible meat industry; Shokuniku kako kojo no haisui ni taisuru quillaia saponin no tenka no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasaka, M. [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-12-20

    For the waste water from meat processing factories, high in BOD and fat concentration, an effective treatment method was studied, wherein quillaia saponin was dosed. The waste water treatment facility of Factory K, manufacturer of ham and sausage, includes a total volume of 410m{sup 3} of aeration tanks taking in an average of 300m{sup 3}/day of waste water. The facility suffers from sludge overflows routinely, and, as a measure to cope with the situation, coagulating agents are dosed to the waste water for forced settlement. Under these circumstances, investigations were conducted to learn the effect of saponin dosing to the facility. Beginning on the 50th day of operation, saponin was dosed to the aeration tanks, and no coagulating agents were dosed to the waste water being treated by aeration. Approximately 3mg/liter of saponin was dosed to the influent waste water not treated. As the result, it was found that the BOD value decreased in the treated waste water while that in the influent untreated waste water increased as the run advanced. Even when the load grew heavier and the pretreatment was dispensed with, there was improvement in the treated water thanks to saponin dosing, which confirmed the effectiveness of saponin dosing. 6 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Reference waste form, basalts, and ground water systems for waste interaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deju, R.A.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Long, P.E.

    1978-09-01

    This report summarizes the type of waste form, basalt, and ground water compositions to be used in theoretical and experimental models of the geochemical environment to be simulated in studying a typical basalt repository. Waste forms to be used in the experiments include, and are limited to, glass, supercalcine, and spent unreprocessed fuel. Reference basalts selected for study include the Pomona member and the Umtanum Unit, Shwana Member, of the Columbia River Basalt Group. In addition, a sample of the Basalt International Geochemical Standard (BCR-1) will be used for cross-comparison purposes. The representative water to be used is of a sodium bicarbonate composition as determined from results of analyses of deep ground waters underlying the Hanford Site. 12 figures, 13 tables.

  9. 78 FR 64905 - Carriage of Conditionally Permitted Shale Gas Extraction Waste Water in Bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... Waste Water in Bulk AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for comments... shale gas extraction waste water in bulk via barge, and invites public comment. The policy letter... endorsement or letter allowing the barge to transport shale gas extraction waste water in bulk. The...

  10. 40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19 Section 403.19 Protection of Environment... Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term “Participating... Industrial User discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility in Owatonna, Minnesota, when...

  11. Engineered photocatalysts for detoxification of waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumder, S.A.; Prairie, M.R.; Shelnutt, J.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Khan, S.U.M. [Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry] [and others

    1996-12-01

    This report describes progress on the development of engineered photocatalysts for the detoxification of water polluted with toxic organic compounds and heavy metals. We examined a range of different oxide supports (titania, alumina, magnesia and manganese dioxide) for tin uroporphyrin and investigated the efficacy of a few different porphyrins. A water-soluble octaacetic-acid-tetraphenylporphyrin and its derivatives have been synthesized and characterized in an attempt to design a porphyrin catalyst with a larger binding pocket. We have also investigated photocatalytic processes on both single crystal and powder forms of semiconducting SiC with an ultimate goal of developing a dual-semiconductor system combining TiO{sub 2} and SiC. Mathematical modeling was also performed to identify parameters that can improve the efficiency of SiC-based photocatalytic systems. Although the conceptual TiO{sub 2}/SiC photodiode shows some promises for photoreduction processes, SiC itself was found to be an inefficient photocatalyst when combined with TiO{sub 2}. Alternative semiconductors with bandgap and band potentials similar to SiC should be tested in the future for further development and a practical utilization of the dual photodiode concept.

  12. Recent Developments in Microbiological Approaches for Securing Mine Wastes and for Recovering Metals from Mine Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barrie Johnson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mining of metals and coals generates solid and liquid wastes that are potentially hazardous to the environment. Traditional methods to reduce the production of pollutants from mining and to treat impacted water courses are mostly physico-chemical in nature, though passive remediation of mine waters utilizes reactions that are catalysed by microorganisms. This paper reviews recent advances in biotechnologies that have been proposed both to secure reactive mine tailings and to remediate mine waters. Empirical management of tailings ponds to promote the growth of micro-algae that sustain populations of bacteria that essentially reverse the processes involved in the formation of acid mine drainage has been proposed. Elsewhere, targeted biomineralization has been demonstrated to produce solid products that allow metals present in mine waters to be recovered and recycled, rather than to be disposed of in landfill.

  13. Application of Water Treatment Process for Cold-rolling Waste Water to Be Drained into Natural Water%排至自然水体的冷轧废水处理工艺应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹军喜

    2014-01-01

    The water treatment process for cold rolling waste water to be drained into natural water is introduced. Treatment methods for cold rolling waste water containing chrome, acid, oil, temper mill fluid and thin alkali are summarized. The main problems and functions of the process are also analyzed. This water treatment process has reached the advanced level in the field of domestic cold rolling waste water treatment.%介绍了排至自然水体的冷轧废水处理工艺,综述了冷轧废水中含铬废水、含酸废水、含油废水、平整液废水、稀碱废水的处理方法,对主要问题和功能进行了分析,其处理工艺达到了国内冷轧废水的先进水平。

  14. Discharges in Water and Applications to Wasted Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabe, Chobei; Yamashita, Takanori; Ihara, Satoshi

    Recently the electrical discharge in water has been used for the water treatment. In this study, various shape of electrodes were examined to observe and measure the electrical discharge phenomena in water. Both the Marx generator and the pulsed power generator were used to generate the discharge in water. The oscillation on the waveforms of both applied voltage and discharge current was observed using the pulsed power generator whose peak applied voltage was about 80-120 kV and its discharge repetition rate was about one pulse per thirty seconds although it wasn't observed on the waveforms in the practical use of the high voltage generator (peak applied voltage was about 30-40 kV) with high repetition rate of discharge (20-300 pulses per second). Bubbles were introduced into the discharge region of main electrode using the ejector and the generation of hydroxyl radicals (OH) was confirmed by the measurement of emission spectrum of discharge in water and the intensity of OH radicals increased with the ratio of G/L (where, G is gas flow rate and L is water flow rate). The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was also measured and this reactor system was applied for the de-color of water.

  15. Advanced technologies for radioactive waste characterization and free release measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetrov, A.; Sladek, P., E-mail: anton.vetrov@picoenvirotec.com [ENVINET Pico Envirotec Group, Concord, Ontario (Canada); Verbitskaya, V. [ENVINET a.s., Trebic (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-01

    Nuclear power generation, medicine and heavy industry are widely using radioactive materials and, as a result, are generating large amounts of radwaste that has to either be stored or free-released to the environment. Free-release procedures require precise detection of radionuclides that can remain in waste. The low activity of such nuclides can be on a level of natural background or even below. That requires the background influence to be removed. ENVINET has developed very low radioactivity materials which can be used to form a low background measuring chamber. The concrete composite based material has several advantages when compare with lead, which is usually used for such purposes. (author)

  16. Removal of actinides from dilute waste waters using polymer filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More stringent US Department of Energy discharge regulations for waste waters containing radionuclides (30 pCi/L total alpha) require the development of new processes to meet the new discharge limits for actinide metal ions, particularly americium and plutonium, while minimizing waste. We have been investigating a new technology, polymer filtration, that has the potential for effectively meeting these new limits. Traditional technology uses basic iron precipitation which produces large amounts of waste sludge. The new technology is based on using water-soluble chelating polymers with ultrafiltration for physical separation. The actinide metal ions are selectively bound to the polymer and can not pass through the membrane. Small molecules and nonbinding metals pass through the membrane. Advantages of polymer filtration technology compared to ion, exchange include rapid kinetics because the binding is occurring in a homogenous solution and no mechanical strength requirement on the polymer. We will present our results on the systematic development of a new class of water-soluble chelating polymers and their binding ability from dilute acid to near neutral waters

  17. Water Mock-up for the Sodium Waste Treatment Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ho Yun; Kim, Jong Man; Kim, Byung Ho; Lee, Yong Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    complex reacting phenomena in the system to observe with the naked eye. Therefore, a water mockup was carried out for the practical use of the data in the waste sodium treatment test

  18. FEMWATER BLT, Water or Waste Transport in Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: FEMWATER,BLT is used to model release and transport of contaminants from wastes stored in metallic containers in saturated or unsaturated soil systems including low- level waste disposal sites. Both programs provide two-dimensional, time-dependent, finite-element analyses. FEMWATER calculates water velocity, moisture content, and pressure head in unsaturated/ saturated porous media. BLT, a modification of the FEMWATER code, predicts container degradation, waste form leaching, and radionuclide migration in unsaturated porous media. 2 - Method of solution: FEMWATER and BLT perform two-dimensional time- dependent analyses using the finite element method. Nonlinearities in the unsaturated flow equations are handled through Picard iteration. The transport equations in BLT are linear, and Gaussian elimination is used to solve the matrix equations. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 528 finite elements (FEMWATER), 595 nodal points (FEMWATER), 225 finite elements (BLT), 252 nodal points (BLT), 100 waste-containing elements, 20 different waste types. These limits may be changed by re-dimensioning the appropriate arrays

  19. Hydrolysis behavior of tofu waste in hot compressed water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofu waste (TW) is a typical high water-containing biomass; and the hydrothermal process is preferred to utilize it with low energy cost. TW is also a special biomass characterized by high proportion of proteins and fatty acids, which will lead to a different hydrolysis result. In this work, TW was hydrolyzed by hot compressed water below 390 °C in a batch reactor heated by a salt bath. Four parameters including water density, reaction time, the ratio of TW to water and reaction temperature were investigated. Results showed that CO2 was the major component of the produced gas, a measurable fraction of H2 was produced above 300 °C and 65–75% or more of TW can be transformed into water-soluble fraction. It was found that the influence of the treatment temperature on TW conversion was the most significant. Based on the product distribution (gases, water-insolubles, oils, and water-solubles) along with temperature, a four-stage hydrothermal conversion mechanism was put forward in macroscopic view. In combination with the evolution of gas composition and infrared spectrum, the understanding about the conversion of TW in hot compressed water was further improved. -- Highlights: ► The conversion of high water content biomass in hot compressed water is investigated with Tofu waste as model biomass. ► TW conversion was seriously dependent on the reaction temperature. ► The conversion process can be divided into four stages. ► 200–250 °C, no oil but gas is generated; 250–300 °C, oil begin to be yielded. ► 300–350 °C, water-insoluble product decreases; above 350 °C oil product decreases.

  20. The Future of Water in African Cities : Why Waste Water?

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Michael; Webster, Michael; Vairavamoorthy, Kalanithy

    2012-01-01

    The overall goal of this book is to change the way urban policy makers think about urban water management, planning, and project design in Africa. African cities are growing quickly, and their current water management systems cannot keep up with growing demand. It will take a concerted effort on the part of decision makers across sectors and institutions to find a way to provide sustainabl...

  1. Waste management to improve food safety and security for health advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2009-01-01

    Economic growth inevitably influences the food chain. Growing demand with changes in lifestyle and health consciousness encourage use of packaged and pre-prepared foods. The needs of environmental protection from waste generated are largely overlooked, and a lack of knowledge about the impact on the environment and its health effects constitute food security/safety problems. Food production and waste generation directly affect resource (i.e., energy and water) consumption and often contaminate the environment. More pressure on food production has inculcated the use of pesticides, herbicides, antibiotics and chemical fertilizers which add to current global pollution. At least half of food grown is discarded before and after it reaches consumers. It is estimated that one third to half of landfill waste comes from the food sector. This landfill releases green house gases (GHG) as well as leachate which worsen soil and water quality and safety. Pharmaceutical and chemical contaminations from residential, industrial and agricultural sources make their way into nearby water and soil and can eventually affect our food systems. Phthalates, PFOA, BPA, commonly used in plastics and personal care products, are found in unacceptable concentrations in Taiwanese waters. They, too, contribute to food contamination and long-term health risk. Existing waste management strategies warrant more stringent norms for waste reduction at source. Awareness through education could reduce food waste and its consequences. This review encompasses impacts of food production systems on the environment, pollution which results from food waste, costs and economic advantages in food waste management, and health consequences of waste. PMID:19965345

  2. Advanced Methods for Treatment of Organic Compounds Contamined Water

    OpenAIRE

    PREDESCU Andra; A.Predescu; Ecaterina MATEI

    2009-01-01

    The progress recorded in the field of science and advanced engineering at nanometric scale supplies largeopportunities for more efficient (from the point of view of the costs) and more ecological approach of the processes ofwater purifying. This paper delivers a short description of the possibilities of using advanced materials in purifying thecontamined water with toxic metallic ions, organic and anorganic compounds. The opportunities and challenges werealso emphasized when nanomaterials wer...

  3. 2015 Groundwater Radiological Monitoring Results Associated with the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring results from groundwater wells associated with the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds Reuse Permit (I-161-02). All radiological monitoring is performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  4. 75 FR 38151 - Governors' Designees Receiving Advance Notification of Transportation of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Governors' Designees Receiving Advance Notification of Transportation of Nuclear Waste On January 6, 1982 (47 FR 596 and 47 FR 600), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published in the Federal Register final amendments to Title 10 of...

  5. Integrated water and waste management system for future spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingelfinger, A. L.; Murray, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Over 200 days of continuous testing have been completed on an integrated waste management-water recovery system developed by General Electric under a jointly funded AEC/NASA/AF Contract. The 4 man system provides urine, feces, and trash collection; water reclamation; storage, heating and dispensing of the water; storage and disposal of the feces and urine residue and all of other nonmetallic waste material by incineration. The heat required for the 1200 deg F purification processes is provided by a single 420-w radioisotope heater. A second 836-w radioisotope heater supplemented by 720 w of electrical heat provides for distillation and water heating. Significant test results are no pre-or-post treatment, greater than 98 per cent potable water recovery, approximately 95 per cent reduction in solids weight and volume, all outflows are sterile with the water having no bacteria or virus, and the radioisotope capsule radiation level is only 7.9 mrem/hr unshielded at 1 m (neutrons and gamma).

  6. Enzyme Activities in Waste Water and Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybroe, Ole; Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential of selected enzyme activity assays to determine microbial abundance and heterotrophic activity in waste water and activated sludge. In waste water, esterase and dehydrogenase activities were found to correlate with microbial abundance...... measured as colony forming units of heterotrophic bacteria. A panel of four enzyme activity assays, α-glucosidase, alanine-aminopeptidase, esterase and dehydrogenase were used to characterize activated sludge and anaerobic hydrolysis sludge from a pilot scale plant. The enzymatic activity profiles were...... distinctly different, suggesting that microbial populations were different, or had different physiological properties, in the two types of sludge. Enzyme activity profiles in activated sludge from four full-scale plants seemed to be highly influenced by the composition of the inlet. Addition of hydrolysed...

  7. New Methodology in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) of waste water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael

    EU research project "NEPTUNE" focusing on nutrient recycling, micro-pollutants and ecotoxicity removal, energy production, and reuse of sludge and of its resources, this paper will present the first results of the development of a new methodology for assessing advances in wastewater treatment...... chose among different waste water treatments? Which ones are most beneficial in a holistic perspective? Here, the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach as a decision supporting tool may help because its goal is to allow quantification and direct comparison of characteristics as diverse as energy...

  8. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  9. Chitosan on Reducing Chemical Oxygen Demands in Laundry Waste Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Joko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Laundry liquid waste contains several chemical substances in detergent raw materials such as phosphate, surfactants, ammonia, and total suspended solids. The existence of detergent in high concentrations and exceeds the quality standards that have been estabilished in a body of water can lead to cases of enviromental pollution in the form of increased turbidity an Chemical Oxygen Demands (COD levels. Therefore in order to maintain and to ensure the availabillity of water in terms of quality, it requires coagulation-flocculation process to laundry liquid waste before discharging into water bodies. This study aims to determine the decrease of COD levels and turbidity level in laundry liquid waste using chitosan coagulant in “X” laundry, Tembalang District, Semarang. The research is a quasi experimental study with pretest-posttest with control group research design with 6 times replication. The total samples are 60 in wich 24 tested for the levels of turbidity and 6 controls. The test results of Kruskal-Wallis with significance p-value < 0,05 indicates that dosage variation (p=0,000 gives different levels of COD and dosage variation (p=0,000 provide 755,97 mg/l and the advantage levels of turbidity before treatment was 516,20 NTU. The optimum dosage of chitosan coagulant is on the dose of 200 mg/l with the effectiveness decrease of COD levels and turbidity levels on 72,67% an 98,67% respectively.

  10. Supercritical Water Process for the Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Motonobu

    2010-11-01

    The development of chemical recycling of waste plastics by decomposition reactions in sub- and supercritical water is reviewed. Decomposition reactions proceed rapidly and selectively using supercritical fluids compared to conventional processes. Condensation polymerization plastics such as PET, nylon, and polyurethane, are relatively easily depolymerized to their monomers in supercritical water. The monomer components are recovered in high yield. Addition polymerization plastics such as phenol resin, epoxy resin, and polyethylene, are also decomposed to monomer components with or without catalysts. Recycling process of fiber reinforced plastics has been studied. Pilot scale or commercial scale plants have been developed and are operating with sub- and supercritical fluids.

  11. Progress and Lessons Learned in Transuranic Waste Disposition at The Department of Energy's Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Mousseau; S.C. Raish; F.M. Russo

    2006-05-18

    This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and operated by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC(BBWI) It describes the results to date in meeting the 6,000-cubic-meter Idaho Settlement Agreement milestone that was due December 31, 2005. The paper further describes lessons that have been learned from the project in the area of transuranic (TRU) waste processing and waste certification. Information contained within this paper would be beneficial to others who manage TRU waste for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  12. Advanced Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sean Emerson; Thomas Vanderspurt; Susanne Opalka; Rakesh Radhakrishnan; Rhonda Willigan

    2009-01-07

    The overall objectives for this project were: (1) to identify a suitable PdCu tri-metallic alloy membrane with high stability and commercially relevant hydrogen permeation in the presence of trace amounts of carbon monoxide and sulfur; and (2) to identify and synthesize a water gas shift catalyst with a high operating life that is sulfur and chlorine tolerant at low concentrations of these impurities. This work successfully achieved the first project objective to identify a suitable PdCu tri-metallic alloy membrane composition, Pd{sub 0.47}Cu{sub 0.52}G5{sub 0.01}, that was selected based on atomistic and thermodynamic modeling alone. The second objective was partially successful in that catalysts were identified and evaluated that can withstand sulfur in high concentrations and at high pressures, but a long operating life was not achieved at the end of the project. From the limited durability testing it appears that the best catalyst, Pt-Re/Ce{sub 0.333}Zr{sub 0.333}E4{sub 0.333}O{sub 2}, is unable to maintain a long operating life at space velocities of 200,000 h{sup -1}. The reasons for the low durability do not appear to be related to the high concentrations of H{sub 2}S, but rather due to the high operating pressure and the influence the pressure has on the WGS reaction at this space velocity.

  13. Simultaneous treatment of SO2 containing stack gases and waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A process for simultaneously removing sulfur dioxide from stack gases and the like and purifying waste water such as derived from domestic sewage is described. A portion of the gas stream and a portion of the waste water, the latter containing dissolved iron and having an acidic pH, are contacted in a closed loop gas-liquid scrubbing zone to effect absorption of the sulfur dioxide into the waste water. A second portion of the gas stream and a second portion of the waste water are controlled in an open loop gas-liquid scrubbing zone. The second portion of the waste water contains a lesser amount of iron than the first portion of the waste water. Contacting in the openloop scrubbing zone is sufficient to acidify the waste water which is then treated to remove solids originally present.

  14. Requirements Development Issues for Advanced Life Support Systems: Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levri, Julie A.; Fisher, John W.; Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Long duration missions pose substantial new challenges for solid waste management in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. These possibly include storing large volumes of waste material in a safe manner, rendering wastes stable or sterilized for extended periods of time, and/or processing wastes for recovery of vital resources. This is further complicated because future missions remain ill-defined with respect to waste stream quantity, composition and generation schedule. Without definitive knowledge of this information, development of requirements is hampered. Additionally, even if waste streams were well characterized, other operational and processing needs require clarification (e.g. resource recovery requirements, planetary protection constraints). Therefore, the development of solid waste management (SWM) subsystem requirements for long duration space missions is an inherently uncertain, complex and iterative process. The intent of this paper is to address some of the difficulties in writing requirements for missions that are not completely defined. This paper discusses an approach and motivation for ALS SWM requirements development, the characteristics of effective requirements, and the presence of those characteristics in requirements that are developed for uncertain missions. Associated drivers for life support system technological capability are also presented. A general means of requirements forecasting is discussed, including successive modification of requirements and the need to consider requirements integration among subsystems.

  15. Genotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Suspended Particulate Matter of River Water and Waste Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Reifferscheid

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended particulate matter of samples of river water and waste water treatment plants was tested for genotoxicity and mutagenicity using the standardized umu assay and two versions of the Ames microsuspension assay. The study tries to determine the entire DNA-damaging potential of the water samples and the distribution of DNA-damaging substances among the liquid phase and solid phase. Responsiveness and sensitivity of the bioassays are compared.

  16. Genotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Suspended Particulate Matter of River Water and Waste Water Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Georg Reifferscheid; Oepen, Britta v.

    2002-01-01

    Suspended particulate matter of samples of river water and waste water treatment plants was tested for genotoxicity and mutagenicity using the standardized umu assay and two versions of the Ames microsuspension assay. The study tries to determine the entire DNA-damaging potential of the water samples and the distribution of DNA-damaging substances among the liquid phase and solid phase. Responsiveness and sensitivity of the bioassays are compared.

  17. Recent Advances in Point-of-Access Water Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Velusamy, V.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

    Clean water is one of our most valuable natural resources. In addition to providing safe drinking water it assures functional ecosystems that support fisheries and recreation. Human population growth and its associated increased demands on water pose risks to maintaining acceptable water quality. It is vital to assess source waters and the aquatic systems that receive inputs from industrial waste and sewage treatment plants, storm water systems, and runoff from urban and agricultural lands. Rapid and confident assessments of aquatic resources form the basis for sound environmental management. Current methods engaged in tracing the presence of various bacteria in water employ bulky laboratory equipment and are time consuming. Thus, real-time water quality monitoring is essential for National and International Health and Safety. Environmental water monitoring includes measurements of physical characteristics (e.g. pH, temperature, conductivity), chemical parameters (e.g. oxygen, alkalinity, nitrogen and phosphorus compounds), and abundance of certain biological taxa. Monitoring could also include assays of biological activity such as alkaline phosphatase, tests for toxins such as microcystins and direct measurements of pollutants such as heavy metals or hydrocarbons. Real time detection can significantly reduce the level of damage and also the cost to remedy the problem. This paper presents overview of state-of-the-art methods and devices used for point-of-access water quality monitoring and suggest further developments in this area.

  18. Environmentally-friendly waste water treatment: Removal of ammonium nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide from oil refinery waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, C.; Heine, I.; Sachse, J.; Peper, H. [Holborn Europa Raffinerie GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Elster, J.

    1998-12-01

    The Holborn Europa Raffinerie (HER) in Hamburg, Germany, achieved a drastic reduction in water and air pollutants by implementation of a two step project. The first step was a modification of the H{sub 2}S-stripping of process water, which resulted ultimately in shutting down the H{sub 2}S-incinerator and conversion of the recovered H{sub 2}S to saleable elementary sulfur. Atmospheric pollution was reduced accordingly by 650 t/a SO{sub 2} and 2,200 t/a CO{sub 2}. In compliance with waste water legislation (requirements of Appendix 45, Waste Water Administrative Regulation), the ammonium nitrogen content of refinery waste water was reduced significantly in a second step. In contrast to the common biological treatment used in many refineries, it was decided to concentrate on physico-chemical treatment of the highly contaminated partstream only. To this end ammonia is effectively stripped out of the partstream under alkaline conditions, and concentrated to a 10% aqueous solution by distillation under reflux. This solution is then injected into the hot vent gas stream of the FCC-regenerator (CO-Boiler) as an NO{sub x} reduction agent, and thus disposed of in an environmentall-friendly manner. The introduction of this combination of field proven processes, namely water treatment by steam stripping and NO{sub x} reduction via SNCR, received government grant support and reduced water pollution by 250 t/a ammonium nitrogen and air pollution by 180 t/a NO{sub x}. In view of the relatively low investment and operating costs, enhanced flexibility of the existing biological water treatment plant, avoidance of additional material waste and drastic reduction of overall refinery emission, the adopted scheme is most certainly a prime example of both economical and ecological optimisation. The scheme also has future potential arising from the projected tightening up in motor fuels specifications (EU specifications for years 2000 and 2005) which will necessitate increased use of

  19. Using Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Technology To Meet Accelerated Cleanup Program Milestones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some DOE Complex facilities are entering the late stages of facility closure. As waste management operations are completed at these sites, remaining inventories of legacy mixed wastes must be finally disposed. These wastes have unique physical, chemical and radiological properties that have made their management troublesome, and hence why they have remained on site until this late stage of closure. Some of these wastes have had no approved or practical treatment alternative until just recently. Results are provided from using advanced mixed waste treatment technology to perform two treatment campaigns on these legacy wastes. Combinations of macro-encapsulation, vacuum thermal desorption (VTD), and chemical stabilization, with off-site incineration of the organic condensate, provided a complete solution to the problem wastes. One program included approximately 1,900 drums of material from the Fernald Environmental Management Project. Another included approximately 1,200 drums of material from the Accelerated Cleanup Program at the Oak Ridge Reservation. Both of these campaigns were conducted under tight time schedules and demanding specifications, and were performed in a matter of only a few months each. Coordinated rapid waste shipment, flexible permitting and waste acceptance criteria, adequate waste receiving and storage capacity, versatile feed preparation and sorting capability, robust treatment technology with a broad feed specification, and highly reliable operations were all valuable components to successful accomplishment of the project requirements. Descriptions of the waste are provided; material that was difficult or impossible to treat in earlier phases of site closure. These problem wastes included: 1) the combination of special nuclear materials mixed with high organic chemical content and/or mercury, 2) high toxic metal content mixed with high organic chemical content, and 3) very high organic chemical content mixed with debris, solids and sludge

  20. Recent advances in spray calcination of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developments over the last two decades have led to the recent successful demonstration of large-scale spray calcination equipment. The calcination process is ready for full-scale radioactive plant application. The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine. Its components are few and uncomplicated; thus maintenance is minimal, and the equipment lends itself well to remote use. Perhaps the most attractive feature of the spray calciner is its ability to accept an extremely wide range of liquid waste feed compositions. A flow control valve has previously been used to regulate the feed rate to the calciner. Recent tests demonstrate that this item may be eliminated from the feed line, thereby simplifying the overall process flowsheet. Regulation of the atomizing gas-to-liquid feed line pressures can accurately control the liquid flow rate to the calciner. Various types of spray nozzles further allow flexibility in system design. An internal mix nozzle allows the system to operate using a pressurized feed system. Nozzle abrasion has been essentially eliminated by ceramic nozzle inserts. Designs of nonpressurized feed systems have been demonstrated. To insure negligible calcine holdup on the spray chamber wall, pneumatic vibrators have been successfully used for several years without problems. Studies have now been completed based upon vibrator tests to ascertain the long-term effect of vibrator operation on the calcination system. Results indicate that the spray calciner design would not be adversely affected by vibrator operation over a typical 20-year plant life cycle

  1. Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.

  2. Advanced water treatment as a tool in water scarcity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoes, Poul

    2000-01-01

    degree of purity - except zero. The challenge of future reuse will be to account for the attitudes related to trace chemicals in water. How precautious is it prudent to be? Risk analysis is no longer an elitist business. It will involve the perception of the public, politicians (and the press)....

  3. Practical advanced oxidation processes for waste water treatment:I. the principle, characteristic, advantage and disadvantage of various advanced oxidation technologies%废水处理的实用高级氧化技术第一部分──各类高级氧化技术的原理、特性和优缺点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方景礼

    2014-01-01

    评述了芬顿氧化法、催化臭氧氧化法、光催化氧化法、电解催化氧化法、湿式空气氧化/湿式催化氧化法、超临界水氧化法、超声氧化法等各类目前认为最有实用价值的高级氧化技术的原理、特性和各自的优缺点,分析了各类高级氧化技术存在的问题和未来的发展趋势。认为金属催化臭氧氧化技术结合了臭氧氧化力强和金属催化剂易于制造、经久耐用、不需另加其他药剂和操作成本低的优点,是既经济又高效的氧化技术,也是未来较有发展前途的技术。%The principles, characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of the various most practical advanced oxidation technologies recently, for example, Fenton oxidation, catalytic ozone oxidation, photocatalytic oxidation, electrolytic catalytic oxidation, wet air oxidation and catalytic wet air oxidation, supercritical water oxidation, and supersonic oxidation, were reviewed and the problems existing in various advanced oxidation technologies and the development tendency in the further were analyzed. It is considered that the metal-catalyzed ozone oxidation is an economic and highly efficient oxidation technology combining the advantages of both ozone’s strong oxidation ability and metal catalyzer’ easy manufacturing, high durability, no need of adding other reagents, and low operation cost, showing a good development prospect in the future.

  4. 废水处理的实用高级氧化技术第一部分──各类高级氧化技术的原理、特性和优缺点%Practical advanced oxidation processes for waste water treatment:I. the principle, characteristic, advantage and disadvantage of various advanced oxidation technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方景礼

    2014-01-01

    评述了芬顿氧化法、催化臭氧氧化法、光催化氧化法、电解催化氧化法、湿式空气氧化/湿式催化氧化法、超临界水氧化法、超声氧化法等各类目前认为最有实用价值的高级氧化技术的原理、特性和各自的优缺点,分析了各类高级氧化技术存在的问题和未来的发展趋势。认为金属催化臭氧氧化技术结合了臭氧氧化力强和金属催化剂易于制造、经久耐用、不需另加其他药剂和操作成本低的优点,是既经济又高效的氧化技术,也是未来较有发展前途的技术。%The principles, characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of the various most practical advanced oxidation technologies recently, for example, Fenton oxidation, catalytic ozone oxidation, photocatalytic oxidation, electrolytic catalytic oxidation, wet air oxidation and catalytic wet air oxidation, supercritical water oxidation, and supersonic oxidation, were reviewed and the problems existing in various advanced oxidation technologies and the development tendency in the further were analyzed. It is considered that the metal-catalyzed ozone oxidation is an economic and highly efficient oxidation technology combining the advantages of both ozone’s strong oxidation ability and metal catalyzer’ easy manufacturing, high durability, no need of adding other reagents, and low operation cost, showing a good development prospect in the future.

  5. Removal of Aluminum from Water and Industrial Waste Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Ghashghaiee pour

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to introduce a procedure to remove Aluminum ions from drinking water and industrial effluents by using active carbon with different grading as absorbent. Absorption of Aluminum ions were discussed in different conditions of Aluminum concentration, contact time, impact of electrolytes and pH on Aluminum ions absorbency. Both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms used to investigate the adsorption. Thermodynamics relations governing process, such as specification of ( , ( and the enthalpy of adsorption, were calculated, which showed that Aluminum absorption on active carbon is an endothermic and spontaneous process.

  6. Development of advanced version of ACTDOR software for determination of radioactivity content of solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is a mandatory requirement of regulatory authority to know the activity content of radioactive solid waste disposed to the environment, which include assorted solid wastes and spent resins used in ion-exchange columns of process systems. This involves assessment of radioactivity content and the specification of radionuclides in the waste package before it is disposed in Near Surface Disposal Facility (NSDF). In house methods were developed at different nuclear power stations in the country to estimate the activity of the radioactive waste being generated and disposed. ACTDOR software was implemented and used at some nuclear power stations. To bring uniformity in the method of activity estimation, it was recommended to use ACTDOR at all the nuclear power stations. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) based user friendly version of ACTDOR software with additional features has been developed recently. This paper presents the development and the various features of the advanced ACTDOR software. ACTDOR is a software developed to quantify the radioactivity of solid waste in cylindrical geometry by measuring its external gamma radiation. It works on gamma shielding principles. ACTDOR software is developed in FORTRAN and the software is functioning in TEXT USER INTERFACE MODE. The advanced version of ACTDOR works in GUI MODE and has been developed with Visual Basic as Front End and Microsoft Access as Back End

  7. Advances in the hydrogeochemistry and microbiology of acid mine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2000-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a plethora of research related to the hydrogeochemistry and microbiology of acid mine waters and associated tailings and waste-rock waters. Numerous books, reviews, technical papers, and proceedings have been published that examine the complex bio-geochemical process of sulfide mineral oxidation, develop and apply geochemical models to site characterization, and characterize the microbial ecology of these environments. This review summarizes many of these recent works, and provides references for those investigating this field. Comparisons of measured versus calculated Eh and measured versus calculated pH for water samples from several field sites demonstrate the reliability of some current geochemical models for aqueous speciation and mass balances. Geochemical models are not, however, used to predict accurately time-dependent processes but to improve our understanding of these systems and to constrain possible processes that contribute to actual or potential water quality issues. Microbiological studies are demonstrating that there is much we have yet to learn about the types of different microorganisms and their function and ecology in mine-waste environments. A broad diversity of green algae, bacteria, archaea, yeasts, and fungi are encountered in acid mine waters, and a better understanding of their ecology and function may potentially enhance remediation possibilities as well as our understanding of the evolution of life.

  8. Timing of advanced water flooding in low permeability reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-qing; JIANG Han-qiao; CHEN Min-feng; LIU Tong-jing; ZHANG Wei

    2009-01-01

    It is very important to design the optimum starting time of water injection for the development of low permeability res-ervoirs. In this type of reservoir the starting time of water injection will be affected by a reservoir pressure-sensitive effect. In order to optimize the starting time of water injection in low permeability reservoirs, this effect of pressure change on rock permeability of low permeability reservoirs was, at first, studied by physical simulation. It was shown that the rock permeability decreases expo-nentially with an increase in formation pressure. Secondly, we conducted a reservoir engineering study, from which we obtained analytic relationships between formation pressure, oil production rate, water production rate and water injection rate. After our physical, theoretical and economical analyses, we proposed an approach which takes the pressure-sensitive effect into consideration and designed the optimum starting time of water injection, based on the principle of material balance. Finally, the corresponding software was developed and applied to one block of the Jiangsu Oilfield. It is shown that water injection, in advance of production, can decrease the adverse impact of the pressure-sensitive effect on low permeability reservoir development. A water-flooding pro-ject should be preferably initiated in advance of production for no more than one year and the optimum ratio of formation pressure to initial formation pressure should be maintained at a level between 1.05 and 1.2.

  9. Water quality management of aquifer recharge using advanced tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarova, Valentina; Emsellem, Yves; Paille, Julie; Glucina, Karl; Gislette, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with recycled water or other alternative resources is one of the most rapidly growing techniques that is viewed as a necessity in water-short areas. In order to better control health and environmental effects of MAR, this paper presents two case studies demonstrating how to improve water quality, enable reliable tracing of injected water and better control and manage MAR operation in the case of indirect and direct aquifer recharge. Two water quality management strategies are illustrated on two full-scale case studies, including the results of the combination of non conventional and advanced technologies for water quality improvement, comprehensive sampling and monitoring programs including emerging pollutants, tracer studies using boron isotopes and integrative aquifer 3D GIS hydraulic and hydrodispersive modelling.

  10. Baseline data on radioactivity in drinking water, groundwater, waste water, sewage sludge, residues, and wastes, referring to annual report 1989 'Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the WaBoLu series gives a comprehensive survey of the radioactivity in drinking water, groundwater, waste water, sewage sludge, residues and wastes in the FRG, as measured in the year 1989 and compiled by the Leitstelle of the WaBoLu Institute of the Federal Board of Health. (orig.)

  11. Application of Integrated Control of Linked Water and Waste Water Systems in the Hoeksche Waard

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loenen, A.; van Heeringen, K.-J.; Mol, B.

    2012-04-01

    Presented is a project in which an experimental integrated automatic control system for sewer systems and open water is developed for a rural region in The Netherlands, containing five municipalities and one water board. The goal of the project is to improve the water quality through increased cooperation between the authorities. The most effective method for realizing the water quality goals is to reduce the number of sewer spills, and to position the spills on locations less sensitive to sewer spills. In the project, three main methods are used to reduce the number of sewer spills: The first method involves optimizing the use of the available storage in the sewer system; the control of the pumps aim at keeping the filling rates of the sewer subsystems equal. A second method entails increasing the inflow of the Waste Water Treatment Plants during heavy rainfall events without disturbing the treatment process. The third method is about controlling the system in such a way that spills occur at less sensitive locations, thus avoiding spills in ecologically valuable waterbodies. All these methods require an extensive sensor network and centrally real-time controlled systems (RTC). An extensive study of the waste water chain constitutes the basis for the deployment of the automatic central control. The project has resulted so far in an extensive knowledge on the functioning of the waste water systems and an increased cooperation between water authorities. Preliminary results on the central control indicate that the number and volume of spills have decreased.

  12. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  13. Office of River Protection Advanced Low-Activity Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, David K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Dong-Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated and leads an integrated Advanced Waste Glass (AWG) program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product performance requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation for making key decisions regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities in the context of an optimized River Protection Project (RPP) flowsheet. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key product performance and process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste vitrification facilities. These activities will be conducted with the objective of improving the overall RPP mission by enhancing flexibility and reducing cost and schedule. The purpose of this advanced LAW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-term, mid-term, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced LAW glasses, property-composition models and their uncertainties, and an advanced glass algorithm to support WTP facility operations, including both Direct Feed LAW and full pretreatment flowsheets. Data are needed to develop, validate, and implement 1) new glass property-composition models and 2) a new glass formulation algorithm. Hence, this plan integrates specific studies associated with increasing the Na2O and SO3/halide concentrations in glass, because these components will ultimately dictate waste loadings for LAW vitrification. Of equal importance is the development of an efficient and economic strategy for 99Tc management. Specific and detailed studies are being implemented to understand the fate of Tc throughout

  14. Anaerobic treatment with biogas recovery of beverage industry waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly describes the application, by a leading Italian non-alcoholic beverage firm, of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket process in the treatment of waste water deriving from the production and bottling of beverages. In addition to describing the key design, operation and performance characteristics of the treatment process, the paper focuses on the economic benefits being obtained through the use of the innovative expansive sludge bed anaerobic digestion system which has proven itself to be particularly suitable for the treatment of food and beverage industry liquid wastes. The system, which has already been operating, with good results, for six months, has shown itself to be capable of yielding overall COD removal efficiencies of up to 94.8% and of producing about 0.43 Ncubic meters of biogas per kg of removed COD

  15. The role of waste thermal water in the soil degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balog, Kitti; Farsang, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    Thermal water exploitation is widespread, because it is considered to a "green" renewable energy source, the transporter of the Earth crust's heat. It is suitable for very diverse purposes: balneology, heating, mineral water, municipal hot water supply, technological water, etc. After usage, large amount of thermal water becomes sewage water with high concentrations of salts, heavy metals, ammonia, nitrate, and high temperature. Besides that, most of these waters have an unfavourable ion composition. Na+ (and in some cases Mg+) is predominant among cations. A common way of treatment is to let off the waste thermal water in unlined ground channels to leak into the soil. This can cause physical and chemical soil degradation. Continouos Na+ supply occurs, that occupies the place of Ca2+ on the ion exchange surfaces. Thus, adverse effects of Na+ can appear, like formation of extreme moisture regime, peptization, liquefaction. Beside Na+, Mg2+ also helps the formation of physical degradation in the soil. High water retain and unfavourable structure evolves. Not only the physical features of the soil are touched, fertility of production sites as well. Namely sorrounding the unlined ground channels, agricultural areas are seated, so it is important to protect productivity of the soil to maintain yield. Because of the seepage of high salt concentration waters, salt accumulation can be observed near to the channel lines. The investigated sample sites are located in the Great Hungarian Plane. We determined the main pollutants of the thermal waters, and the effects to the sorrounding soils. On two selected investigation areas (Cserkeszőlő, Tiszakécske) salt profiles and Na+ adsorption isotherms are presented to characterize soil degradation. Genetic soil types are differ on the investigated areas, so the aspect of impact is different, as well.

  16. Water detritiation processing of JET purified waste water using the TRENTA facility at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michling, R., E-mail: robert.michling@kit.edu; Bekris, N.; Cristescu, I.; Lohr, N.; Plusczyk, C.; Welte, S.; Wendel, J.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Operation of a water detritiation facility under optimized conditions for high detritiation performances. • Improvement of operational procedures to process tritiated waste water. • Handling and reduction of tritiated waste water to achieve enriched low volume tritiated water for sufficient storage. • Demonstration of the efficient availability of the TRENTA WDS facility for technical scale operation. -- Abstract: A Water Detritiation System (WDS) is required for any Fusion machine in order to process tritiated waste water, which is accumulated in various subsystems during operation and maintenance. Regarding the European procurement packages for the ITER tritium fuel cycle, the WDS test facility TRENTA applying the Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process was developed, installed and is currently in operation at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). Besides the on-going R and D work for the design of ITER WDS, the current status of the TRENTA facility provides the option to utilize the WDS for processing tritiated water. Therefore, in the framework of the EFDA JET Fusion Technology Work Programme 2011, the TLK was able to offer the capability on a representative scale to process tritiated water, which was produced during normal operation at JET. The task should demonstrate the availability of the CECE process to handle and detritiate the water in terms of tritium enrichment and volume reduction. The operational program comprised the processing of purified tritiated water from JET, with a total volume of 180 l and an activity of 74 GBq. The paper will give an introduction to the TRENTA WDS facility and an overview of the operational procedure regarding tritiated water reduction. Data concerning required operation time, decontamination and enrichment performances and different operating procedures will be presented as well. Finally, a preliminary study on a technical implementation of processing the entire stock of JET

  17. Water detritiation processing of JET purified waste water using the TRENTA facility at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Operation of a water detritiation facility under optimized conditions for high detritiation performances. • Improvement of operational procedures to process tritiated waste water. • Handling and reduction of tritiated waste water to achieve enriched low volume tritiated water for sufficient storage. • Demonstration of the efficient availability of the TRENTA WDS facility for technical scale operation. -- Abstract: A Water Detritiation System (WDS) is required for any Fusion machine in order to process tritiated waste water, which is accumulated in various subsystems during operation and maintenance. Regarding the European procurement packages for the ITER tritium fuel cycle, the WDS test facility TRENTA applying the Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process was developed, installed and is currently in operation at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). Besides the on-going R and D work for the design of ITER WDS, the current status of the TRENTA facility provides the option to utilize the WDS for processing tritiated water. Therefore, in the framework of the EFDA JET Fusion Technology Work Programme 2011, the TLK was able to offer the capability on a representative scale to process tritiated water, which was produced during normal operation at JET. The task should demonstrate the availability of the CECE process to handle and detritiate the water in terms of tritium enrichment and volume reduction. The operational program comprised the processing of purified tritiated water from JET, with a total volume of 180 l and an activity of 74 GBq. The paper will give an introduction to the TRENTA WDS facility and an overview of the operational procedure regarding tritiated water reduction. Data concerning required operation time, decontamination and enrichment performances and different operating procedures will be presented as well. Finally, a preliminary study on a technical implementation of processing the entire stock of JET

  18. The chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics of typical bath and laundry waste waters. [waste water reclamation during manned space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics are studied of typical bath and laundry waters collected during a 12 day test in which the untreated waste waters were reused for toilet flush. Most significant changes were found for ammonia, color, methylene blue active substances, phosphates, sodium, sulfates, total organic carbon, total solids, and turbidity in comparison with tap water baseline. The mean total number of microorganisms detected in the waste waters ranged from 1 million to 10 to the 7th power cells/m1 and the mean number of possible coliforms ranged from 10 to the 5th power to 1 million. An accumulation of particulates and an objectible odor were detected in the tankage used during the 12 day reuse of the untreated waste waters. The combined bath and laundry waste waters from a family of four provided 91 percent of the toilet flush water for the same family.

  19. Waste Water Treatment by Some Prepared Polymers by Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis of hydrophilic polymeric material having certain function groups with the ability to absorbs some heavy metals and some dyes from waste water is of a great importance from the point of view of environmental studies. The present work may be represented as the following : The two different methods have been used for the modification of PE-co- PP non woven fabric via two different techniques:- 1. Coating of (PE-co-PP) with mixture of CMC and AAc by using (E.B) irradiation. 2. The modification of (PE-co-PP) non-woven fabric by γ- irradiation induced grafting of (AAm) monomer . 3. The modification of hydrophilic substrate to hydrogel was carried out through the following: The preparation of clay/PVA hydrogel through freezing and thawing followed by E.B. irradiation. The different factors which affect the properties of the modified substrate were investigated. Moreover, the structure properties of the modified substrate were characterized by SEM, XRD, and IR. Thermal properties was also investigated by TGA and DSC. Hydrophilic property of the modified substrate was investigated by water uptake %. The results obtained show that the prepared substrates can be used in the removal of heavy metals and dyes from waste water.

  20. Conceptual solutions to drainage water and treatment of waste water for the settlement Muljava and its surroundings

    OpenAIRE

    Malovrh, Gašper

    2008-01-01

    In this diploma thesis, conceptual solutions of drainage and treatment of waste water for the settlements Muljava and Potok pri Muljavi are described. The procedures of designing a separate sewer system including all the supporting facilities are represented. Hydraulic calculation of the waste water and rain water sewerage is presented separately. Concerning rain water sewer system, various solutions of rain water drainage with regard to the existing situation are described. A ...

  1. Advanced oxidation and adsorption modification of dust waste from standard moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baliński

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the process of advanced oxidation (AO with application of ultrasounds and surface modification of the dust waste collected during dry dedusting of processed moulding sands with bentonite binder. A beneficial effect of both AO and adsorption modification of dust waste, when performed with the selected type of polyelectrolyte, on the technological and mechanical properties of moulding sands prepared with an addition of this dust has been stated. In spite of the bentonite content in moulding sand reduced by 43% and replaced with modified dust waste, the mechanical properties, i.e. the compression and tensile strengths, examined on sand specimens have been improved by 10% and 13%, respectively, with no harm to other basic technological sand properties. At the same time, it was also possible to reduce by about 30% the emission rate of the main gaseous component from the BTEX group, i.e. benzene.

  2. Advanced conceptual design report solid waste retrieval facility, phase I, project W-113

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.E.

    1994-03-21

    Project W-113 will provide the equipment and facilities necessary to retrieve suspect transuranic (TRU) waste from Trench 04 of the 218W-4C burial ground. As part of the retrieval process, waste drums will be assayed, overpacked, vented, head-gas sampled, and x-rayed prior to shipment to the Phase V storage facility in preparation for receipt at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP). Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) studies focused on project items warranting further definition prior to Title I design and areas where the potential for cost savings existed. This ACD Report documents the studies performed during FY93 to optimize the equipment and facilities provided in relation to other SWOC facilities and to provide additional design information for Definitive Design.

  3. Recent advances of annular centrifugal extractor for hot test of nuclear waste partitioning process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeXiang-Ming; YanYu-Shun; 等

    1998-01-01

    Advances are being made in the design of the annular centrifugal extractor fornuclear fuel reprocessing extraction process studies.The extractors have been built and tested.Twelve stages of this extractor and 50 stages are used toimplement the TRPO process for the cleanup ofcommercial and defense nuclear waste liquids,respectively.Following advances are available:(1) simple way of assembly and disassembly between rotor part and housing part of extractor,ease of manipulator operation;(2)automatic sampling from housing of extractor in hot cell;(3) compact multi-stage housing system;(4) easy interstage link;(5) computer data acquisition and monitoring system of speed.

  4. Utilization of immobilized urease for waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of using immobilized urease for urea removal from waste water for space system applications is considered, specifically the elimination of the urea toxicity problem in a 30-day Orbiting Frog Otolith (OFO) flight experiment. Because urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, control of their concentrations within nontoxic limits was also determined. The results of this study led to the use of free urease in lieu of the immobilized urease for controlling urea concentrations. An ion exchange resin was used which reduced the NH3 level by 94% while reducing the sodium ion concentration only 10%.

  5. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    A main goal in the field of In Situ Resource Utilization is to develop technologies that produce oxygen from regolith to provide consumables to an extratrrestrial outpost. The processes developed reduce metal oxides in the regolith to produce water, which is then electrolyzed to produce oxygen. Hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids are byproducts of the reduction processes, which must be removed to meet electrolysis purity standards. We previously characterized Nation, a highly water selective polymeric proton-exchange membrane, as a filtrtion material to recover pure water from the contaminated solution. While the membranes successfully removed both acid contaminants, the removal efficiency of and water flow rate through the membranes were not sufficient to produce large volumes of electrolysis-grade water. In the present study, we investigated electrodialysis as a potential acid removable technique. Our studies have show a rapid and significant reduction in chloride and fluoride concentrations in the feed solution, while generating a relatively small volume of concentrated waste water. Electrodialysis has shown significant promise as the primary separation technique in ISRU water purification processes.

  6. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen M.; Jolley, Scott T.; Captain, James G.

    2013-01-01

    A main goal in the field of In Situ Resource Utilization is to develop technologies that produce oxygen from regolith to provide consumables to an extraterrestrial outpost. The processes developed reduce metal oxides in the regolith to produce water, which is then electrolyzed to produce oxygen. Hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids are byproducts of the reduction processes, which must be removed to meet electrolysis purity standards. We previously characterized Nation, a highly water selective polymeric proton-exchange membrane, as a filtration material to recover pure water from the contaminated solution. While the membranes successfully removed both acid contaminants, the removal efficiency of and water flow rate through the membranes were not sufficient to produce large volumes of electrolysis-grade water. In the present study, we investigated electrodialysis as a potential acid removal technique. Our studies have shown a rapid and significant reduction in chloride and fluoride concentrations in the feed solution, while generating a relatively small volume of concentrated waste water. Electrodialysis has shown significant promise as the primary separation technique in ISRU water purification processes.

  7. Utilization of VAE Waste Water and Waste Residue%VAE废水和废渣的利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红卫

    2000-01-01

    the situation of VAE waste water and waste residue applied in the process of paints, adhesive, modified cement, thermal insulation materials is introduced in this paper.%介绍了VAE废水和废渣在涂料、粘合剂、水泥改性以及保温材料加工中的应用情况。

  8. Case study of the effectiveness of passive grease trap for management on domestic kitchen waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidzamuddin, M. Y.; Juffrizal, K.; Mustapha, F.; Zulfattah, Z. M.; Tan, C. F.; Taha, M. M.; Hidayah, I.; Hilwa, M. Z.

    2015-05-01

    Household waste, generally known as trash or garbage is mostly includes food wastes, product packaging, and other miscellaneous inorganic wastes that are coming from domestic household. Grease waste such as oil and fats can contaminate water and also clot on pipes provoking blockages. Thus, waste water from kitchen sink need a proper way of filtration. Grease trap developed in this paper is viable in trapping the grease residue. The experiments have been conducted in controlled environment and the objectives are to investigate the effectiveness of grease trap by proving the existence of retention time and the expected ratio of collected water and oil during experiment process using a prototype model.

  9. Advancements in waste water characterization through NMR spectroscopy: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Alexandre e Silva, Lorena M; Ferreira, Antonio G

    2015-09-01

    There are numerous organic pollutants that lead to several types of ecosystem damage and threaten human health. Wastewater treatment plants are responsible for the removal of natural and anthropogenic pollutants from the sewage, and because of this function, they play an important role in the protection of human health and the environment. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has proven to be a valuable analytical tool as a result of its versatility in characterizing both overall chemical composition as well as individual species in a wide range of mixtures. In addition, NMR can provide physical information (rigidity, dynamics, etc.) as well as permit in depth quantification. Hyphenation with other techniques such as liquid chromatography, solid phase extraction and mass spectrometry creates unprecedented capabilities for the identification of novel and unknown chemical species. Thus, NMR is widely used in the study of different components of wastewater, such as complex organic matter (fulvic and humic acids), sludge and wastewater. This review article summarizes the NMR spectroscopy methods applied in studies of organic pollutants from wastewater to provide an exhaustive review of the literature as well as a guide for readers interested in this topic. PMID:25280056

  10. Radioactive and industrial waste water collection system study, Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase I of the Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) Collection System Study has been completed, and the deliverables for this portion of the study are enclosed. The deliverables include: The Work Break-down Structure (WBS) for Phase II; The Annotated Outline for the Collection Study Report; The Process Flow Diagrams (PFD) of the RLW collection system based on current literature and knowledge; The Configuration database; The Reference Index, listing all currently held documents of the RLW collection system; The Reference Drawing Index listing all currently held, potentially applicable, drawings reviewed during the PFD development; The Regulation Identification Document for RCRA and CWA; The Regulation Database for RCRA and CWA; The Regulation Review Log, including statements justifying the non-applicability of certain regulations; Regulation Library, including the photocopied regulations with highlighted text for RCRA and CWA; The summary of RTG's waste water treatment plant design experience and associated regulations on which RTG based the design of these treatment facilities; TA-50 Influent Database; Radioactive Liquid Waste Stream Characterization Database

  11. Natural Circulation Phenomena and Modelling for Advanced Water Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of natural circulation in advanced water cooled reactor design has been extended with the adoption of passive safety systems. Some designs utilize natural circulation to remove core heat during normal operation. Most passive safety systems used in evolutionary and innovative water cooled reactor designs are driven by natural circulation. The use of passive systems based on natural circulation can eliminate the costs associated with the installation, maintenance and operation of active systems that require multiple pumps with independent and redundant electric power supplies. However, considering the weak driving forces of passive systems based on natural circulation, careful design and analysis methods must be employed to ensure that the systems perform their intended functions. Several IAEA Member States with advanced reactor development programmes are actively conducting investigations of natural circulation to support the development of advanced water cooled reactor designs with passive safety systems. To foster international collaboration on the enabling technology of passive systems that utilize natural circulation, in 2004 the IAEA initiated a coordinated research project (CRP) on Natural Circulation Phenomena, Modelling and Reliability of Passive Systems that Utilize Natural Circulation. Three reports were published within the framework of this CRP. The first report (IAEA-TECDOC-1474) contains the material developed for the first IAEA training course on natural circulation in water cooled nuclear power plants. The second report (IAEA-TECDOC-1624) describes passive safety systems in a wide range of advanced water cooled nuclear power plant designs, with the goal of gaining insights into system design, operation and reliability. This third, and last, report summarizes the research studies completed by participating institutes during the CRP period.

  12. An Overview of the Integration of Advanced Oxidation Technologies And Other Processes For Water And Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Ein-Mozaffari; Masroor Mohajerani; Mehrab Mehrvar

    2009-01-01

    Integration of advanced oxidation technologies and other traditional wastewater treatment processes has been proven to be more effective for treating polluted sources of drinking water and industrial wastewater economically. The way of selecting the methods depends on the characteristics of the waste stream, environmental regulations, and cost. Reviewing the experimental works on this area and discussing about their effectiveness as well as modeling of their works would be helpful for decidin...

  13. Water Pollution and Treatments Part II: Utilization of Agricultural Wastes to Remove Petroleum Oils From Refineries Pollutants Present in Waste Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several natural agricultural wastes, of lignocellulose nature, such as Nile flower plant (ward El-Nil), milled green leaves, sugar cane wastes, palm tree leaves (carina), milled cotton stems, milled linseed stems, fine sawdust, coarse sawdust and palm tree cover were dried and then crushed to suitable size to be evaluated and utilized as adsorbents to remove oils floating or suspended in the waste water effluents from refineries and petroleum installations. The parameters investigated include effect of adsorbent type (adsorptive efficiency), adsorbate (type and concentration), mixing time, salinity of the water, adsorbent ratio to treated water, temperature, ph and stirring. Two different Egyptian crude oils varying in their properties and several refined products such as gasoline, kerosene, gas oil, diesel oil, fuel oil and lubricating oil were employed in this work in addition to the skimmed oil from the skim basin separator. Most of the agricultural wastes proved to be very effective in adsorbing oils from waste water effluents.

  14. Advanced Test Reactor Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-11-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Advanced Test Reactor Complex facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. U.S. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool to develop the radioactive waste management basis.

  15. Advanced spent-fuel waste package fill material: Depleted uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2) particles has been investigated as fill material inside repository waste packages containing light water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The use of DUO2 fill may eliminate repository criticality concerns, reduce radionuclide release rates from the repository, and dispose of excess depleted uranium

  16. Diversity and antibiotic resistance of Aeromonas spp. in drinking and waste water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Vânia; Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Silva, Márcia; Manaia, Célia M

    2011-11-01

    The taxonomic diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of aeromonads were examined in samples from drinking and waste water treatment plants (surface, ground and disinfected water in a drinking water treatment plant, and raw and treated waste water) and tap water. Bacteria identification and intra-species variation were determined based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB and cpn60 gene sequences. Resistance phenotypes were determined using the disc diffusion method. Aeromonas veronii prevailed in raw surface water, Aeromonas hydrophyla in ozonated water, and Aeromonas media and Aeromonas puntacta in waste water. No aeromonads were detected in ground water, after the chlorination tank or in tap water. Resistance to ceftazidime or meropenem was detected in isolates from the drinking water treatment plant and waste water isolates were intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid. Most of the times, quinolone resistance was associated with the gyrA mutation in serine 83. The gene qnrS, but not the genes qnrA, B, C, D or qepA, was detected in both surface and waste water isolates. The gene aac(6')-ib-cr was detected in different waste water strains isolated in the presence of ciprofloxacin. Both quinolone resistance genes were detected only in the species A. media. This is the first study tracking antimicrobial resistance in aeromonads in drinking, tap and waste water and the importance of these bacteria as vectors of resistance in aquatic environments is discussed.

  17. G-189A analytical simulation of the integrated waste management-water system using radioisotopes for thermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggi, J. V.; Loscutoff, A. V.; Barker, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical simulation of the RITE-Integrated Waste Management and Water Recovery System using radioisotopes for thermal energy was prepared for the NASA-Manned Space Flight Center (MSFC). The RITE system is the most advanced concept water-waste management system currently under development and has undergone extended duration testing. It has the capability of disposing of nearly all spacecraft wastes including feces and trash and of recovering water from usual waste water sources: urine, condensate, wash water, etc. All of the process heat normally used in the system is produced from low penalty radioisotope heat sources. The analytical simulation was developed with the G189A computer program. The objective of the simulation was to obtain an analytical simulation which can be used to (1) evaluate the current RITE system steady state and transient performance during normal operating conditions, and also during off normal operating conditions including failure modes; and (2) evaluate the effects of variations in component design parameters and vehicle interface parameters on system performance.

  18. Status of advanced light water reactor designs 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is intended to be a source of reference information for interested organizations and individuals. Among them are decision makers of countries considering implementation of nuclear power programmes. Further, the report is addressed to government officials with an appropriate technical background and to research institutes of countries with existing nuclear programmes that wish to be informed on the global status in order to plan their nuclear power programmes including both research and development efforts and means for meeting future. The future utilization of nuclear power worldwide depends primarily on the ability of the nuclear community to further improve the economic competitiveness of nuclear power plants while meeting stringent safety requirements. The IAEA's activities in nuclear power technology development include the preparation of status reports on advanced reactor designs to provide all interested IAEA Member States with balanced and objective information on advances in nuclear plant technology. In the field of light water reactors, the last status report published by the IAEA was 'Status of Advanced Light Water Cooled Reactor Designs: 1996' (IAEA-TECDOC-968). Since its publication, quite a lot has happened: some designs have been taken into commercial operation, others have achieved significant steps toward becoming commercial products, including certification from regulatory authorities, some are in a design optimization phase to reduce capital costs, development for other designs began after 1996, and a few designs are no longer pursued by their promoters. With this general progress in mind, on the advice and with the support of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Energy's Technical Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Light Water Reactors (LWRs), the IAEA has prepared this new status report on advanced LWR designs that updates IAEA-TECDOC-968, presenting the various advanced LWR designs in a balanced way according to a common outline

  19. REVIEW ON NATURAL METHODS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar Dubey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, the most common method of disposal of waste water is by land spreading. This treatment method has numerous problems, namely high labor requirements and the potential for eutrophication of surface an d ground waters. Constructed wetlands are commonl y used for treatment of seconda ry municipal wastewaters and they have been gaining popularity for treatment of agricultural wastewaters in Ethiopia. Intermittent sand filtration may offer an alternative to traditional treatment methods. As well as providing comparable treatment performance, they also have a smaller footprint, due to the substantially higher organic loading rates that may be applied to their surfaces. Th is paper discusses the performance and design criteria of constructed wetlands for the treatment of domestic and agricultural wastewater, and sand filters for the treatment of domestic wastewater. It also proposes sand filtration as an alt ernative treatment mechanism for agricultural wa stewater and suggests design guide lines.

  20. Waste Water Treatment Plants and the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Tychsen, Peter; Munk-Nielsen, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    energy markets and prices. We are in the process of upgrading the current control system to prepare a flexible operation and Smart Grid market integration. The prototype system will be tested online at a plant in Denmark, that in the current market could save up to 300.000 DKK/year in electricity costs......Denmark's political ambitions of a fossil fuel free energy system by 2050 calls for more renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. These green energy resources fluctuate and the transition to a green energy system requires a Smart Grid with flexible consumers that balance the fluctuating......, we must update their process control system to model based predictive control that monitors the changed flexible operation and plans ahead. The primary aim of a WWTP is to treat the incoming waste water as much as possible to ensure a sufficient effluent water quality and protect the environment...

  1. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.

    2003-09-12

    Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

  2. The Continued Need for Modeling and Scaled Testing to Advance the Hanford Tank Waste Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peurrung, Loni M.; Fort, James A.; Rector, David R.

    2013-09-03

    Hanford tank wastes are chemically complex slurries of liquids and solids that can exhibit changes in rheological behavior during retrieval and processing. The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) recently abandoned its planned approach to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) supported by testing at less than full scale to verify the design of vessels that process these wastes within the plant. The commercial CFD tool selected was deemed too difficult to validate to the degree necessary for use in the design of a nuclear facility. Alternative, but somewhat immature, CFD tools are available that can simulate multiphase flow of non-Newtonian fluids. Yet both CFD and scaled testing can play an important role in advancing the Hanford tank waste mission—in supporting the new verification approach, which is to conduct testing in actual plant vessels; in supporting waste feed delivery, where scaled testing is ongoing; as a fallback approach to design verification if the Full Scale Vessel Testing Program is deemed too costly and time-consuming; to troubleshoot problems during commissioning and operation of the plant; and to evaluate the effects of any proposed changes in operating conditions in the future to optimize plant performance.

  3. Application of advanced radiographic imaging techniques for characterizing low level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BIR is currently investigating the use of two advanced x-ray imaging techniques for characterizing containers of solidified nuclear waste. These techniques, digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT), are performed by computerized imaging systems that can automatically inspect containers using a set of imaging parameters chosen by the operator. Both inspection techniques can be performed by the same imaging system. The inspection result is a computer image, or series of images, that can be manipulated by the operator to show a wide variety of features within the inspected object. For the inspections performed so far, we have used the ACTIS CT/DR system that BIR designed and built for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The inspections are being performed as part of a continuing Phase I/Phase II SBIR program for the U.S. Department of Energy. This paper discusses inspections performed on three types of waste containers: (1) a simulated waste drum imaged in Phase 1; (2) 55 gallon drums of assorted waste items supplied by the DOE'S EG and G Rocky Flats plant and by Westinghouse Hanford; and (3) several containers of glass used for solidifying radioactive substances, supplied by the DOE'S Westinghouse Savannah River site. The Phase II work also includes investigating dual energy CT imaging and designing a mechanically simplified ACTIS system and mobile trailer specifically for waste inspection. (author)

  4. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  5. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations

  6. Selective Oxidation of Organic Compounds in Waste Water by ozone-based oxidation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Boncz, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    For many different types of waste water, treatment systems have been implemented in the past decades. Waste water treatment is usually performed by biological processes, either aerobic or anaerobic, complemented with physical / chemical post treatment techniques. However, in some sectors of industry, like the tanker cleaning industry, the pharmaceutical industry and the textile industry, waste water treatment is still difficult because of the irregular presence of varying loads of often toxic...

  7. Nutrient Abatement Potential and Abatement Costs of Waste Water Treatment Plants in the Baltic Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Hautakangas, Sami; Ollikainen, Markku; Aarnos, Kari; Rantanen, Pirjo

    2013-01-01

    We assess the physical potential to reduce nutrient loads from waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region and determine the costs of abating nutrients based on the estimated potential. We take a sample of waste water treatment plants of different size classes and generalize its properties to the whole population of waste water treatment plants. Based on a detailed investment and operational cost data on actual plants, we develop the total and marginal abatement cost functions for b...

  8. PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF WASTE WATER ON. THIN FILMS OF TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhenghuang

    2001-01-01

    The degradation of organic phosphorous pesticide waste water using thin films of TiO2, which was prepared in an atmospheric vertical chemical vapor deposition system, was studied. The results show that the wafer material for coating TiO2, the photocatalytic time, the TiO2 crystal phase, the pH value and the concentration of pesticides in waste water influence the degradation rate. These facts indicate some potential for photocatalytic treatment of waste water by utilizing sunlight.

  9. Biological waste-water treatment of azo dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaul, G.M.; Dempsey, C.R.; Dostal, K.A.

    1988-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Toxic Substances evaluates existing chemicals under Section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and Premanufacture Notification (PMN) submissions under Section 5 of TSCA. Azo dyes constitute a significant portion of these PMN submissions and specific azo dyes have recently been added to the priority list for considerations in the development of test rules under Section 4. Azo dyes are of concern because some of the dyes, dye precurors, and/or their degradation products such as aromatic amines (which are also dye precurors) have been shown to be, or are suspected to be, carcinogenic. The fate of azo dyes in biological waste-water treatment systems was studied to aid in the review of PMN submissions and to assist in the possible development of test rules. Results from extensive pilot-scale activated-sludge process testing for 18 azo dyes are presented. Results from fate studies of C.I. Disperse Blue 79 in aerobic and anaerobic waste-water treatment will also be presented.

  10. Effect of textile waste water on tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwari, Richa; Khan, T I

    2012-09-01

    In this study Sanganer town, Jaipur was selected as study area. The plants of Lycopersicon esculentum var. K 21(Tomato) treated with 20 and 30% textile wastewater were analyzed for metal accumulation, growth and biochemical parameters at per, peak and post flowering stages. Findings of the study revealed that chlorophyll content was most severely affected with the increase in metal concentration. Total chlorophyll content showed a reduction of 72.44% while carbohydrate, protein and nitrogen content showed a reduction of 46.83, 71.65 and 71.65% respectively. With the increase in waste water treatment the root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight and total dry weight were reduced to 50.55, 52.06, 69.93, 72.42, 72.10% respectively. After crop harvesting, the fruit samples of the plants treated with highest concentration of textile waste water contained 2.570 mg g(-1)d.wt. of Zn, 0.800 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cu, 1.520 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cr and 2.010 mg g(-1) d.wt. Pb.

  11. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION FROM WASTE WATER USING MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannarreddy Prabu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs an electricity producing device using waste-water treatment, biosensor, eco-friendly and low cost management of energy production. In this study, investigation power generation from waste water compared with their pure culture, mixed culture and different medium ingredients with microorganism. Enhance the power production with different ingredients like monosaccharide’s, nitrogen source and amino acids, these sources increasing the electron shuttle in the medium. Glucose (0.98 V, beef extract (0.85 V and Leucine (0.92 V exhibited maximum power production with the anodic chamber. Different electrode was used; platinum showed that maximum electron capturing in the anodic chamber. The SEM photography clearly showed that biofilm formation of microorganism on the electrode. The output power was compared with mixed culture to pure culture and different ingredients, thus bio electric power was retained maximum 1.03 V in pure culture from Morganella morganii and 1.2 V in mixed culture.

  12. Effect of textile waste water on tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwari, Richa; Khan, T I

    2012-09-01

    In this study Sanganer town, Jaipur was selected as study area. The plants of Lycopersicon esculentum var. K 21(Tomato) treated with 20 and 30% textile wastewater were analyzed for metal accumulation, growth and biochemical parameters at per, peak and post flowering stages. Findings of the study revealed that chlorophyll content was most severely affected with the increase in metal concentration. Total chlorophyll content showed a reduction of 72.44% while carbohydrate, protein and nitrogen content showed a reduction of 46.83, 71.65 and 71.65% respectively. With the increase in waste water treatment the root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight and total dry weight were reduced to 50.55, 52.06, 69.93, 72.42, 72.10% respectively. After crop harvesting, the fruit samples of the plants treated with highest concentration of textile waste water contained 2.570 mg g(-1)d.wt. of Zn, 0.800 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cu, 1.520 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cr and 2.010 mg g(-1) d.wt. Pb. PMID:23734449

  13. Evaluation of water treatment sludge for ameliorating acid mine waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rensburg, L.; Morgenthal, T.L. [Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education, Potchefstroom (South Africa). School for Environmental Science & Development

    2003-10-01

    This study investigated the liming effect of water treatment sludge on acid mine spoils. The study was conducted with sludge from a water purification plant along the Vaal River catchments in South Africa. The optimum application rate for liming acid spoils and the speed and depth with which the sludge reacted with the mine waste were investigated. Chemical analysis indicated that the sludge is suitable as a liming agent because of its alkaline pH (8.08), high bicarbonate concentration (183.03 mg L{sup -1}), and low salinity (electrical conductivity = 76 mS m(-1)). The high cation exchange capacity of 15.47 cmol{sub c} kg{sup -1} and elevated nitrate concentration (73.16 mg L{sup -1}) also increase its value as an ameliorative material. The soluble concentrations for manganese, aluminum, lead, and selenium were high at a pH of 5 although only selenium (0.83 mg L{sup -1}) warranted some concern. According to experimental results, the application of 10 Mg ha{sup -1} of sludge to acid gold tailings increased the leach water pH from 4.5 to more than 7.5 and also increased the medium pH from 2.4 to 7.5. The addition of sludge further reduced the solubility of iron, manganese, copper, and zinc in the ameliorated gold tailings, but increased the electrical conductivity. The liming tempo was highest in the coal discard profile that had a coarse particle size distribution and took the longest to move through the gold tailings that had a fine particle size distribution. Results from this study indicate that the water treatment sludge investigated is suitable as a liming agent for rehabilitation of acid mine waste.

  14. Advances in Membrane Distillation for Water Desalination and Purification Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gomez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation is a process that utilizes differences in vapor pressure to permeate water through a macro-porous membrane and reject other non-volatile constituents present in the influent water. This review considers the fundamental heat and mass transfer processes in membrane distillation, recent advances in membrane technology, module configurations, and the applications and economics of membrane distillation, and identifies areas that may lead to technological improvements in membrane distillation as well as the application characteristics required for commercial deployment.

  15. Economics of advanced light water reactors - Recent update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper includes recently updated analyses of the economic prospects of advanced light water reactors (ALWRs) during the decade of the 1990s. United Engineers and Constructors (UE and C) has performed engineering economic analyses related to ALWRs over the last 5 yr using both target economics and detailed cost-estimating methodologies. It has been found through such cost comparisons that properly designed and constructed ALWRs should cost less than the target cost figures listed above and significantly less than the pressurized water reactor better experience reference LWR plant cost

  16. Advanced technologies for water cooled reactors 1990. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of the meeting was to review and discuss the status of national programmes, the progress achieved since the last meeting held in June 1988 in the field of advanced technologies and design trends for existing and future water cooled reactors. 24 specialists from 14 countries and the IAEA took part in the meeting and 12 papers were presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Advanced technologies for water cooled reactors 1990. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting was attended by 20 participants from 12 countries who reviewed and discussed the status and progress of national programmes on advanced water-cooled reactors and recommended to the Scientific Secretary a comprehensive programme for 1991/1992 which would support technology development programmes in IWGATWR Member States. This summary report outlines the activities of IWGATWR since its Second Meeting in June 1988 and main results of the Third Meeting

  18. Neutronic challenges of advanced boiling water reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advancement of Boiling Water Reactor technology has been under investigation at the Center for Advance Nuclear Energy Systems at MIT. The advanced concepts under study provide economic incentives through enabling further power uprates (i.e. increasing vessel power density) or better fuel cycle uranium utilization. The challenges in modeling of three advanced concepts with focus on neutronics are presented. First, the Helical Cruciform Fuel rod has been used in some Russian reactors, and studied at MIT for uprating the power in LWRs through increased heat transfer area per unit core volume. The HCF design requires high fidelity 3D tools to assess its reactor physics behavior as well as thermal and fuel performance. Second, an advanced core design, the BWR-HD, was found to promise 65% higher power density over existing BWRs, while using current licensing tools and existing technology. Its larger assembly size requires stronger coupling between neutronics and thermal hydraulics compared to the current practice. Third is the reduced moderation BWRs, which had been proposed in Japan to enable breeding and burning of fuel as an alternative to sodium fast reactors. Such technology suffers from stronger sensitivity of its neutronics to the void fraction than the traditional BWRs, thus requiring exact modeling of the core conditions such as bypass voiding, to correctly characterize its performance. (author)

  19. Laboratory characterization of advanced SO/sub 2/ control by-products: Spray dryer wastes: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.M.; Achord, R.D.; Blythe, G.M.

    1988-05-01

    This report on the solid waste characterization of spray dryer wastes is the first in a series of five advanced SO/sub 2/ control waste characterization reports resulting from Task 2 of Research Project 2708-1. Task 2, Solid Waste Characterization, involved a detailed characterization of solid waste products based on literature and property determinations. The chemical, physical, engineering, and leaching properties of spray dryer wastes will be used to support the evaluation of waste management design and operation and potential utilization in Tasks 3 and 4 of this project. Results indicate that spray dryer wastes, although varied in chemical composition, can be handled in conventional collection, transportation, and storage systems designed for fly ash. These waste management systems will require designs that are capable of handling larger volumes and masses of dry waste materials. Chemical differences between spray dryer wastes and fly ash are greater than the physical and engineering property differences. Spray dryer wastes were nonhazardous and could be disposed in landfills. Utilization of spray dryer wastes as mineral admixture in Portland cement concrete and blended cements might be limited by chemical compositional requirements specified for reuse.

  20. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Hugh [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Wade, Jeremy [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or "plant") in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10%-30% of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) in five houses near Syracuse, NY, and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  1. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, H.; Wade, J.

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or 'plant') in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10 to 30 percent of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Five houses near Syracuse NY were monitored. Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  2. Heat recovery from waste water by energy-saving heat pump systems in connection with water treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmann, U.; Flohrschuetz, R.

    1980-04-01

    The advantages of waste water recovery as an energy source were investigated. It was found that heat pump systems reach the highest performance coefficients and their primary energy ratios are competitive with conventional heating systems. It is concluded that the utilization of waste water treatment plants by large heat pump systems provides a considerable annual energy saving of light oil.

  3. Phosphate and ammonium removal from waste water, using constructed wetland systems

    OpenAIRE

    Drizo, Aleksandra

    1998-01-01

    Phosphorus and nitrogen in waste water from sewerage systems contribute to excessive nutrient enrichment of surface waters, presenting a threat to nature conservation, domestic and industrial water supplies, and recreation. The general objective of this research was to investigate phosphate and ammonium removal from waste water by constructed wetland systems (CWS), which are increasingly being used for low-cost water treatment. Phosphate (P) adsorption capacity and other prope...

  4. Diversity and antibiotic resistance of aeromonas spp. in drinking and waste water treatment plants

    OpenAIRE

    Figueira, Vânia; Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Silva, Márcia; Manaia, Célia M

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomic diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of aeromonads were examined in samples from drinking and waste water treatment plants (surface, ground and disinfected water in a drinking water treatment plant, and raw and treated waste water) and tap water. Bacteria identification and intra-species variation were determined based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB and cpn60 gene sequences. Resistance phenotypes were determined using the disc diffusion method. Aeromonas ver...

  5. Quantifying Deep Vadose Zone Soil Water Potential Changes at a Waste Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel M. Hubbell; Deborah L. McElroy

    2007-08-01

    Recent advances in moisture monitoring using tensiometers has resulted in long-duration, high quality data sets from within the deep vadose zone. A network of about 30 advanced tensiometers in 18 wells provided field-scale data to monitor soil water potential conditions and movement in the subsurface in and around a mixed waste disposal site at depths ranging from 6 to over 67 m below land surface (bls). Sensors are located in both sediments and fractured rock within the geologic profile and some have been in operation for over 10 years. The moisture monitoring was able to detect long term declines in soil water potential in response to lower than normal precipitation and resultant infiltration over the time period from 2000 to 2004. This trend was reversed in 2005 and 2006 in more than half of the monitoring sites over the 6 to 33 m depth interval and in several monitoring sites from 33 to 67 m, in response to above normal precipitation. These tensiometer data have the potential to effectively and rapidly validate that a remedial action such as placement of an ET cover would be successful in reducing the water moisture movement inside the disposal area to levels similar to those in undisturbed sites outside of the disposal area. This paper will describe the instrument design, how the instruments were installed, and the resultant data from this monitoring system.

  6. 77 FR 3009 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors..., ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors.''...

  7. Surface Water Modeling Using an EPA Computer Code for Tritiated Waste Water Discharge from the heavy Water Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium releases from the D-Area Heavy Water Facilities to the Savannah River have been analyzed. The U.S. EPA WASP5 computer code was used to simulate surface water transport for tritium releases from the D-Area Drum Wash, Rework, and DW facilities. The WASP5 model was qualified with the 1993 tritium measurements at U.S. Highway 301. At the maximum tritiated waste water concentrations, the calculated tritium concentration in the Savannah River at U.S. Highway 301 due to concurrent releases from D-Area Heavy Water Facilities varies from 5.9 to 18.0 pCi/ml as a function of the operation conditions of these facilities. The calculated concentration becomes the lowest when the batch releases method for the Drum Wash Waste Tanks is adopted

  8. Organic coal-water fuel: Problems and advances (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, D. O.; Strizhak, P. A.; Chernetskii, M. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The study results of ignition of organic coal-water fuel (OCWF) compositions were considered. The main problems associated with investigation of these processes were identified. Historical perspectives of the development of coal-water composite fuel technologies in Russia and worldwide are presented. The advantages of the OCWF use as a power-plant fuel in comparison with the common coal-water fuels (CWF) were emphasized. The factors (component ratio, grinding degree of solid (coal) component, limiting temperature of oxidizer, properties of liquid and solid components, procedure and time of suspension preparation, etc.) affecting inertia and stability of the ignition processes of suspensions based on the products of coaland oil processing (coals of various types and metamorphism degree, filter cakes, waste motor, transformer, and turbine oils, water-oil emulsions, fuel-oil, etc.) were analyzed. The promising directions for the development of modern notions on the OCWF ignition processes were determined. The main reasons limiting active application of the OCWF in power generation were identified. Characteristics of ignition and combustion of coal-water and organic coal-water slurry fuels were compared. The effect of water in the composite coal fuels on the energy characteristics of their ignition and combustion, as well as ecological features of these processes, were elucidated. The current problems associated with pulverization of composite coal fuels in power plants, as well as the effect of characteristics of the pulverization process on the combustion parameters of fuel, were considered. The problems hindering the development of models of ignition and combustion of OCWF were analyzed. It was established that the main one was the lack of reliable experimental data on the processes of heating, evaporation, ignition, and combustion of OCWF droplets. It was concluded that the use of high-speed video recording systems and low-inertia sensors of temperature and gas

  9. Study of optimal transformation of liquid effluents resulting from the destruction of radioactive sodium by water into ultimate solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of sodium waste processing, it has been proposed to retain only processes that treat the sodium using water, thus generating the same by-products: hydrogen and sodium hydroxide. As the objective is to minimise radioactive liquid releases and as, moreover, the authorizations with respect to sodium salt releases are highly restrictive, several solutions have been envisaged for transforming the active sodium hydroxide coming from sodium destruction processes into ultimate solid wastes that can be stored on the surface in a storage site approved by the ANDRA (National Radioactive Waste Management Agency): the Aube Storage Site (CSA). Two processes have been considered and compared: immobilisation in concrete (cementation) and immobilisation in ceramic (ceramisation). These two processes are evaluated according to several criteria: the state of advancement of the process, the quantity of sodium hydroxide (and therefore of sodium) that can be treated per package. (author)

  10. Construction of the advanced boiling water reactor in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsume, Nobuo; Noda, Hiroshi [Tokyo Electric Power Co. (Japan). Nuclear Power Plant Construction Dept.

    1996-07-01

    The Advanced Boiling Reactor (ABWR) has been developed with international cooperation between Japan and the US as the generation of plants for the 1990s and beyond. It incorporates the best BWR technologies from the world in challengeable pursuit of improved safety and reliability, reduced construction and operating cost, reduced radiation exposure and radioactive waste. Tokyo Electric Power Company (MPCO) decided to apply the first ABWRs to unit No. 6 and 7 of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station (K-6 and 7). These units are scheduled to commence commercial operation in December 1996 and July 1997 respectively. Particular attention is given in this discussion to the construction period from rock inspection for the reactor building to commercial operation, which is to be achieved in only 52 months through innovative and challenging construction methods. To date, construction work is advancing ahead of the original schedule. This paper describes not only how to shorten the construction period by adoption of a variety of new technologies, such as all-weather construction method and large block module construction method, but also how to check and test the state of the art technologies during manufacturing and installation of new equipment for K-6 and 7.

  11. Advances in encapsulation technologies for the management of mercury-contaminated hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although industrial and commercial uses of mercury have been curtailed in recent times, there is a demonstrated need for the development of reliable hazardous waste management techniques because of historic operations that have led to significant contamination and ongoing hazardous waste generation. This study was performed to evaluate whether the U.S. EPA could propose treatment and disposal alternatives to the current land disposal restriction (LDR) treatment standards for mercury. The focus of this article is on the current state of encapsulation technologies that can be used to immobilize elemental mercury, mercury-contaminated debris, and other mercury-contaminated wastes, soils, sediments, or sludges. The range of encapsulation materials used in bench-scale, pilot-scale, and full-scale applications for mercury-contaminated wastes are summarized. Several studies have been completed regarding the application of sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification, chemically bonded phosphate ceramic encapsulation, and polyethylene encapsulation. Other materials reported in the literature as under development for encapsulation use include asphalt, polyester resins, synthetic elastomers, polysiloxane, sol-gels, DolocreteTM, and carbon/cement mixtures. The primary objective of these encapsulation methods is to physically immobilize the wastes to prevent contact with leaching agents such as water. However, when used for mercury-contaminated wastes, several of these methods require a pretreatment or stabilization step to chemically fix mercury into a highly insoluble form prior to encapsulation. Performance data is summarized from the testing and evaluation of various encapsulated, mercury-contaminated wastes. Future technology development and research needs are also discussed

  12. Advances in encapsulation technologies for the management of mercury-contaminated hazardous wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Paul; Chattopadhyay, Sandip

    2004-10-18

    Although industrial and commercial uses of mercury have been curtailed in recent times, there is a demonstrated need for the development of reliable hazardous waste management techniques because of historic operations that have led to significant contamination and ongoing hazardous waste generation. This study was performed to evaluate whether the U.S. EPA could propose treatment and disposal alternatives to the current land disposal restriction (LDR) treatment standards for mercury. The focus of this article is on the current state of encapsulation technologies that can be used to immobilize elemental mercury, mercury-contaminated debris, and other mercury-contaminated wastes, soils, sediments, or sludges. The range of encapsulation materials used in bench-scale, pilot-scale, and full-scale applications for mercury-contaminated wastes are summarized. Several studies have been completed regarding the application of sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification, chemically bonded phosphate ceramic encapsulation, and polyethylene encapsulation. Other materials reported in the literature as under development for encapsulation use include asphalt, polyester resins, synthetic elastomers, polysiloxane, sol-gels, Dolocrete, and carbon/cement mixtures. The primary objective of these encapsulation methods is to physically immobilize the wastes to prevent contact with leaching agents such as water. However, when used for mercury-contaminated wastes, several of these methods require a pretreatment or stabilization step to chemically fix mercury into a highly insoluble form prior to encapsulation. Performance data is summarized from the testing and evaluation of various encapsulated, mercury-contaminated wastes. Future technology development and research needs are also discussed. PMID:15511593

  13. Introduction of advanced pressurized water reactors in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Designed >30 yr ago, pressurized water reactors (PWRs) have evolved well to match the current safety, operating, and economic requirements. The first advanced PWR generation, the N4 reactor, is under construction with 1992 as a target date for commercial operation. The N4 may be considered to be a technological outcome of PWR evolution, providing advances in the fields of safety, man/machine interfaces, and load flexibility. As a step beyond N4, a second advanced PWR generation is presently under definition with, as a main objective, a greater ability to cope with the possible deterioration of the natural uranium market. In 1986, Electricite de France (EdF) launched investigations into the possible characteristics of this advanced PWR, called REP-2000 (PWR-2000: the reactor for the next century). Framatome joined EdF in 1987 but had been working on a new tight-lattice reactor. Main options are due by 1988; preliminary studies will begin and, by 1990, detailed design will proceed with the intent of firm commitments for the first unit by 1995. Commissioning is planned in the early years of the next century. This reactor type should be either an improved version of the N4 reactor or a spectral shift convertible reactor (RCVS). Through research and development efforts, Framatome, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), and EdF are investigating the physics of fuel rod tight lattices including neutronics, thermohydraulics, fuel behavior, and reactor mechanics

  14. Status of advanced technology and design for water cooled reactors: Light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water reactors represent a high level of performance and safety. They are mature technology and they will undoubtedly continue to be the main stream of nuclear power. There are substantial technological development programmes in Member States for further improving the technology and for the development of new concepts in water reactors. Therefore the establishment of an international forum for the exchange of information and stimulation of international co-operation in this field has emerged. In 1987 the IAEA established the International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water-Cooled Reactors (IWGATWR). Within the framework of IWGATWR the IAEA Technical Report on Status of Advanced Technology and Design for Water Cooled Reactors, Part I: Light Water Reactors and Part II: Heavy Water Reactors has been undertaken to document the major current activities and different trends of technological improvements and developments for future water reactors. Part I of the report dealing with LWRs has now been prepared and is based mainly on submissions from Member States. It is hoped that this part of the report, containing the status of advanced light water reactor design and technology of the year 1987 and early 1988 will be useful for disseminating information to Agency Member States and for stimulating international cooperation in this subject area. 93 refs, figs and tabs

  15. Energy efficiency in the waste water system; Energieeffizienz im Abwasserbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panckow, Kathrin; Wienke, Andreas (comps.)

    2008-08-15

    The volume 51 of the publication series of the Municipal Environmental Campaign U.A.N. (Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the energy efficiency in the waste water section. This volume consists of the following contributions: (a) How much energy is necessary for the sewage plant? (Artur Mennerich); (b) Possibilities of energy saving in the sewer system (Wolfgang Buehler); (c) Possibilities of energy saving at sewage plants: a Survey (Ulf Theilen); (d) Possibilities of energy saving at sewage plants: Examples from the practice (Wilfried Osterloh); (e) Review of the possibilities of power generation at sewage plants (K.-H. Rosenwinkel, Linda Hinken); (f) Potentials of production and utilization of fouling gas (Johannes Mueller); (g) Realisation of a 5 MW biological gas facility with waste heat utilization for sewage sludge drying (Marc Stueben); (h) The micro gas turbine: An alternative for the compact cogeneration plant (Christian Schaum); (i) PR report: Energy efficiency - (rational utilization of energy), energy concepts - (analysis of energy, strategic perspectives) (Martin Mergelmeyer, Gerhard Seibert-Erling).

  16. 76 FR 3540 - U.S. Advanced Boiling Water Reactor Aircraft Impact Design Certification Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 52 RIN 3150-AI84 U.S. Advanced Boiling Water Reactor Aircraft Impact Design... the U.S. Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) standard plant design to comply with the NRC's aircraft...--Design Certification Rule for the U.S. Advanced Boiling Water Reactor IV. Section-by-Section Analysis...

  17. Decontamination of radioactive process waste water by adsorbing colloid flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorbing colloid flotation was tested to remove 144Ce, 60Co, 65Zn, and 89Sr from radioactive process waste water. Potassium oleate was used as the collector, and Fe(III) hydroxide, Al(III) hydroxide or Co(II) hydroxide as the coprecipitant. Under optimal conditions, removals exceeding 99% could be achieved for 65Zn with any of the tested coprecipitants, for 144Ce with Fe(III) and Co(II) hydroxides and for 60Co with only Co(II) hydroxide. For 89Sr removals of 90% could be achieved only with Fe(III) hydroxide. The adsorbing colloid flotation process was compared with both chemical precipitation and ion exchange. Advantages of adsorbing colloid flotation are discussed. (author)

  18. Life Cycle Assesment of Daugavgriva Waste Water Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, F.; Sampaio, F.; Blumberga, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the assessment of the environmental impacts caused by the treatment of Riga's waste water in the Daugavgriva plant with biogas energy cogeneration through the life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA seems to be a good tool to assess and evaluate the most serious environmental impacts of a facility The results showed clearly that the impact category contributing the most to the total impact -eutrophicationcomes from the wastewater treatment stage. Climate change also seems to be a relevant impact coming from the wastewater treatment stage and the main contributor to the Climate change is N2O. The main environmental benefits, in terms of the percentages of the total impact, associated to the use of biogas instead of any other fossil fuel in the cogeneration plant are equal to: 3,11% for abiotic depletation, 1,48% for climate change, 0,51% for acidification and 0,12% for eutrophication.

  19. Parameter identification in dynamical models of anaerobic waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, T G; Noykova, N; Gyllenberg, M; Timmer, J

    2002-01-01

    Biochemical reactions can often be formulated mathematically as ordinary differential equations. In the process of modeling, the main questions that arise are concerned with structural identifiability, parameter estimation and practical identifiability. To clarify these questions and the methods how to solve them, we analyze two different second order models for anaerobic waste water treatment processes using two data sets obtained from different experimental setups. In both experiments only biogas production rate was measured which complicates the analysis considerably. We show that proving structural identifiability of the mathematical models with currently used methods fails. Therefore, we introduce a new, general method based on the asymptotic behavior of the maximum likelihood estimator to show local structural identifiability. For parameter estimation we use the multiple shooting approach which is described. Additionally we show that the Hessian matrix approach to compute confidence intervals fails in our examples while a method based on Monte Carlo Simulation works well. PMID:11965253

  20. Solid Waste Management Requirements Definition for Advanced Life Support Missions: Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John; Levri, Julie; Fisher, John; Drysdale, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Prior to determining what Solid Waste Management (SWM) technologies should be researched and developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project for future missions, there is a need to define SWM requirements. Because future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architecture outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions. This paper reviews the results of this ongoing effort and identifies mission-dependent resource recovery requirements.

  1. Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal processes. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) has initiated research on the disposal of solid wastes from advanced coal processes. The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. To accomplish this objective, DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to design, construct, and monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored over a three year period with the emphasis on collecting data on the field disposal of these wastes. This report describes leach tests and groundwater monitoring.

  2. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Systems: An Update on Waste Water Reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferner, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    Since the mid-1980's, work has been ongoing In the development of the various environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for the space station. Part of this effort has been focused on the development of a new subsystem to reclaim waste water that had not been previously required for shuttle missions. Because of the extended manned missions proposed, reclamation of waste water becomes imperative to avoid the weight penalties associated with resupplying a crew's entire water needs for consumption and daily hygiene. Hamilton Standard, under contract to Boeing Aerospace and Electronics, has been designing the water reclamation system for space station use. Since June of 1991, Hamilton Standard has developed a combined water processor capable of reclaiming potable quality water from waste hygiene water, used laundry water, processed urine, Shuttle fuel cell water, humidity condensate and other minor waste water sources. The system was assembled and then tested with over 27,700 pounds of 'real' waste water. During the 1700 hours of system operation required to process this waste water, potable quality water meeting NASA and Boeing specifications was produced. This paper gives a schematic overview of the system, describes the test conditions and test results and outlines the next steps for system development.

  3. Prediction of water seepage into a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste

    OpenAIRE

    Birkholzer, Jens; Mukhophadhyay, Sumit; Tsang, Yvonne

    2003-01-01

    Predicting the amount of water that may seep into waste emplacement drifts is important for assessing the performance of the proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The repository would be located in thick, partially saturated fractured tuff that will be heated to above-boiling temperatures as a result of heat generation from the decay of nuclear waste. Since infiltrating water will be subject to vigorous boiling for a significant time pe...

  4. Volume reduction and encapsulation process for water containing low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In encapsulating solutions or slurries of radio-active waste within polymeric material for disposal, the water is removed therefrom by adding a water insoluble liquid forming a low boiling azeotrope and evaporating the azeotrope, and then a polymerisable composition is dispersed throughout the dewatered waste and allowed to set. (author)

  5. Selective Oxidation of Organic Compounds in Waste Water by ozone-based oxidation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncz, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    For many different types of waste water, treatment systems have been implemented in the past decades. Waste water treatment is usually performed by biological processes, either aerobic or anaerobic, complemented with physical / chemical post treatment techniques. However, in so

  6. Autotrophic nitrogen removal from low strength waste water at low temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Wang, Y.; Kampman, C.; Zeeman, G.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    Direct anaerobic treatment of municipal waste waters allows for energy recovery in the form of biogas. A further decrease in the energy requirement for waste water treatment can be achieved by removing the ammonium in the anaerobic effluent with an autotrophic process, such as anammox. Until now, an

  7. RESOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER GENERATED BY CAR WASHES AND TRANSPORT ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Gogina Elena Sergeevna; Salomeev Valeriy Petrovich; Pobegaylo Yuriy Petrovich

    2012-01-01

    The authors argue that development of car service companies has caused a new environmental problem: waste water produced by transport enterprises. Their number multiplies day to day in big cities of Russia. At the same time, the quality of the waste water treated by local water treatment stations fails to meet the present-day standard requirements. Moreover, potable water shall not be used for the purpose of washing transport vehicles. Within the recent 10 years, MGSU has developed a n...

  8. Bioenergy, material, and nutrients recovery from household waste: Advanced material, substance, energy, and cost flow analysis of a waste refinery process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Dorini, Gianluca Fabio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    are offered by waste refineries where a bioliquid is produced from enzymatic treatment of mixed waste. In this study, potential flows of materials, energy, and substances within a waste refinery were investigated by combining sampling, analyses, and modeling. Existing material, substance, and energy flow...... analysis was further advanced by development of a mathematical optimization model for determination of the theoretical recovery potential. The results highlighted that the waste refinery may recover ca. 56% of the dry matter input as bioliquid, yielding 6.2GJ biogas-energy. The potential for nitrogen...... process optimization. A challenge for the process may be digestate quality, as digestate may represent an emission pathway when applied on land. Considering the potential variability of local revenues for energy outputs, the costs for the waste refinery solution appeared comparable with alternatives...

  9. Nonlinear dynamics of rotating shallow water methods and advances

    CERN Document Server

    Zeitlin, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    The rotating shallow water (RSW) model is of wide use as a conceptual tool in geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD), because, in spite of its simplicity, it contains all essential ingredients of atmosphere and ocean dynamics at the synoptic scale, especially in its two- (or multi-) layer version. The book describes recent advances in understanding (in the framework of RSW and related models) of some fundamental GFD problems, such as existence of the slow manifold, dynamical splitting of fast (inertia-gravity waves) and slow (vortices, Rossby waves) motions, nonlinear geostrophic adjustment and wa

  10. Advanced fuels for plutonium management in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several fuel concepts are under investigation at CEA with the aim of manage plutonium inventories in pressurized water reactors. This options range from the use of mature technologies like MOX adapted in the case of MOX-EUS (enriched uranium support) and COmbustible Recyclage A ILot (CORAIL) assemblies to more innovative technologies using IMF like DUPLEX and advanced plutonium assembly (APA). The plutonium burning performances reported to the electrical production go from 7 to 60 kg (TW h)-1. More detailed analysis covering economic, sustainability, reliability and safety aspects and their integration in the whole fuel cycle would allow identifying the best candidate

  11. A Review of the Latest Advances in Encrypted Bioactive Peptides from Protein-Rich Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemes, Ailton Cesar; Sala, Luisa; Ores, Joana da Costa; Braga, Anna Rafaela Cavalcante; Egea, Mariana Buranelo; Fernandes, Kátia Flávia

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are considered the new generation of biologically active regulators that not only prevent the mechanism of oxidation and microbial degradation in foods but also enhanced the treatment of various diseases and disorders, thus increasing quality of life. This review article emphasizes recent advances in bioactive peptide technology, such as: (i) new strategies for transforming bioactive peptides from residual waste into added-value products; (ii) nanotechnology for the encapsulation, protection and release of controlled peptides; and (iii) use of techniques of large-scale recovery and purification of peptides aiming at future applications to pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:27322241

  12. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced Clean Coal Technology by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-04-12

    This twelfth quarterly report describes work done during the twelfth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ``Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to a number of outside contacts.

  13. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-01-01

    This seventeenth quarterly report describes work done during the seventeenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, submitting a manuscript and making and responding to one outside contact.

  14. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-11

    This fifteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fifteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  15. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-04-28

    This thirteenth quarterly report describes work done during the thirteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to a number of outside contacts.

  16. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-06-01

    This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  17. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-10

    This fourteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fourteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  18. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts

  19. Contaminated Groundwater N flux to Surface Waters from Biosolid Waste Application Fields at a Waste Water Treatment Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showers, W. J.; Fountain, M.; Fountain, J. C.

    2006-05-01

    Biosolids have been land applied at the Neuse River Waste Water Treatment Plant (NRWWTP) since 1980. The long biosolid application history at this site has resulted in a build up of nitrate in the ground water beneath the Waste Application Fields (WAFs). We have used an innovative river monitoring system that measures in situ nitrate concentrations and discharge above and below the plant to determine the amount of nitrate gained in the reach from the WAFs. The nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of nitrate in the WAF groundwater indicates that 18% of the monitoring wells are impacted by fertilizer N, 57% of the wells are impacted by biosolid N, 22% of the wells are affected by denitrification, and one well is impacted by A.D.N. The net daily contribution of surface / ground water and nitrate to the reach was calculated from the sum of the flux into the reach at the upper RiverNet station plus the plant discharge minus the flux out of the reach at the lower RiverNet station. The difference between the flux into the reach and plant discharge minus the flux out of the reach is termed the non-point source gain (NPS gain). The NPS gain could come from groundwater and/or surface drainage additions to the reach. On an annual basis, daily integrated NPS nitrate gains were ~70,000 kg in year 2004 and ~27,900 kg in 2005. This represents an average over the two year period of ~12% of the total nitrate flux out of the reach and 43% of the nitrate discharged from the plant. During the past year groundwater wells were installed in the river riparian buffer and N Flux was measured in a surface water drainage in the WAF. The results indicate that N is not migrating through the shallow groundwater, and most of the NPS gains in the reach can come from surface drainages which have nitrate concentrations of 30-80 mg/l. Over the next year wetlands will be reconstructed in the surface drainages to attenuate the N flux and protect river water quality.

  20. Method of processing waste water containing actinide element by fixed tannin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the waste water from a nuclear power plant is generally in an alkaline range above pH 8, in the case of processing waste water by using fixed tannin, fixed tannin is partially leached to unstable, and the adsorbing elimination rate of actinide elements contained in waste water is decreased. Accordingly, the fixed tannin is immersed and brought into contact with an aqueous solution of ammonia for pre-treatment. it is necessary that the pH value of the aqueous solution of ammonia used is higher than that of the waste water containing the actinide elements, and preferably, within a range of 10 to 12. The time of contact for ensuring the effect of the pre-treatment is at least 30 minutes for the lower limit and 60 minutes for the upper limit. In this way, the adsorbing performance itself can be improved and the processing performance for radioactive waste water can be improved. (T.M.)

  1. Sensitivity analysis of the waste composition and water content parameters on the biogas production models on solid waste landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco; Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena

    2014-05-01

    Landfills are commonly used as the final deposit of urban solid waste. Despite the waste is previously processed on a treatment plant, the final amount of organic matter which reaches the landfill is large however. The biodegradation of this organic matter forms a mixture of greenhouse gases (essentially Methane and Carbon-Dioxide as well as Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide). From the environmental point of view, solid waste landfills are therefore considered to be one of the main greenhouse gas sources. Different mathematical models are usually applied to predict the amount of biogas produced on real landfills. The waste chemical composition and the availability of water in the solid waste appear to be the main parameters of these models. Results obtained when performing a sensitivity analysis over the biogas production model parameters under real conditions are shown. The importance of a proper characterizacion of the waste as well as the necessity of improving the understanding of the behaviour and development of the water on the unsaturated mass of waste are emphasized.

  2. Treatment of gasoline-contaminated waters by advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiburtius, Elaine Regina Lopes [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP 19081, 81531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Peralta-Zamora, Patricio [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP 19081, 81531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: zamora@quimica.ufpr.br; Emmel, Alexandre [Centro Integrado de Tecnologia e Educacao Profissional, 81310-010 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-11-11

    In this study, the efficiency of advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) was investigated toward the degradation of aqueous solutions containing benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) and gasoline-contaminated waters. The results indicated that BTX can be effectively oxidized by near UV-assisted photo-Fenton process. The treatment permits almost total degradation of BTX and removal of more than 80% of the phenolic intermediates at reaction times of about 30 min. Preliminary investigations using water contaminated by gasoline suggest a good potentiality of the process for the treatment of large volumes of aqueous samples containing these polluting species. Heterogeneous photocatalysis and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system show lower degradation efficiency, probably due to the heterogeneous character of the TiO{sub 2}-mediated system and lost of photonic efficiency of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system in the presence of highly colored intermediated.

  3. Water-related environmental control requirements at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J C; Johnson, L D

    1980-09-01

    Water use and waste water production, water pollution control technology requirements, and water-related limitations to their design and commercialization are identified at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion systems. In Part I, a summary of conclusions and recommendations provides concise statements of findings relative to water management and waste water treatment of each of four municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion categories investigated. These include: mass burning, with direct production of steam for use as a supplemental energy source; mechanical processing to produce a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for co-firing in gas, coal or oil-fired power plants; pyrolysis for production of a burnable oil or gas; and biological conversion of organic wastes to methane. Part II contains a brief description of each waste-to-energy facility visited during the subject survey showing points of water use and wastewater production. One or more facilities of each type were selected for sampling of waste waters and follow-up tests to determine requirements for water-related environmental controls. A comprehensive summary of the results are presented. (MCW)

  4. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, Task 17208: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J. W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Marra, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-26

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).

  5. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, task 17208: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J. W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Marra, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-26

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).

  6. innovation in radioactive waste water-stream management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    treatment of radioactive waste dtreams is receiving considereble attention in most countries. the present work is for the radioactive wastewater stream management, by volume reduction by a mutual heating and humidificaction of a compressed dry air introduced through the wastewater. in the present work, a mathematical model describing the volume reduction by at the optimum operating condition is determined. a set of coupled first order differential equations, obtained through the mass and energy conservations laws, are used to obtain the humidity ratio, water diffused to the air stream, water temperature, and humid air stream temperature distributions through the bubbling column. these coupled differential equations are simulataneously solved numerically by the developed computer program using fourth order rung-kutta method. the results obtained, according to the present mathematical model, revealed that the air bubble state variables such as mass transfer coefficient (KG) and interfacial area (a) have a strong effect on the process. therefore, the behavior of the air bubble state variables with coulmn height can be predicted and optimized. moreover, the design curves of the volumetric reduction of the wastewater streams are obtained and assessed at the different operating conditions. an experimental setup was constructed to verify the suggested model. comperhensive comparison between suggested model results, recent experimental measurements and the results of previous work was carried out

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on textile waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the use of gamma irradiation for textile waste water treatment. Prior to irradiation, the raw wastewater was diluted to using tap water to targeted concentration of COD 400 mg/ l. The sample was irradiated at selected dose between the ranges of 2 kGy to 100 kGy. The results showed that Irradiation was effective in removing the highly colored refractory organic pollutants. The degree of removal influenced by the dose introduced during the treatment process. As the dose increased, higher removal of organic pollutant was recorded. The COD removal at lowest dose, 2 kGy is about 310 mg/ l. Meanwhile, at highest dose, 100 kGy the COD reduced to 100 mg/ l. On the other hand, other properties of the wastewater such as pH, turbidity, suspended solid, BOD and color shows tremendous changes as the dose increases. This showed the concentration of pollutants and dose of irradiation applied are directly proportional to each other. (author)

  8. Skimming the surface : Alberta company markets a portable waste water treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahony, J.

    2009-04-15

    Calgary-based Tangent Environmental Technologies Ltd. has developed a portable on-site waste water treatment system for oil and gas producers. It allows for the re-use and disposal of surface waste water on-site without contaminating the environment. The Cascade Waste Water System is not designed to handle straight drilling mud, but can process waste water that contains a measure of drilling mud and particulates. It separates hydrocarbons and organics from surface water in a staged filtration process. It also removes detergents, naturally occurring radioactive materials as well as solids such as sulphates, phosphates, chlorides and trace metals such as calcium, sodium and magnesium. The system can achieve 99.8 per cent efficiency, processing up to 110 cubic metres of water per day. Although the filtered water is clean enough to put into municipal sewers, operators will either re-use the water in rig operations or dispose 34 to 37 cubic metres of water a day through atomization. Local temperature and humidity may influence the efficiency of the process. The water recycling and disposal solution is based on proven technologies from such sectors as drilling/production waste management, oil spill recovery, mining and the process industry. It was concluded that the Cascade waste water system provides excellent results with a reduction in cost. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  9. Treatment of waste water from flue gas cleaning; Behandlung von Abwasser der Rauchgasreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiermann, Klaus; Meyerhoff, Thomas [Berkefeld - VWS Deutschland GmbH, Celle (Germany); Hagen, Klaus [Berkefeld - VWS Deutschland GmbH, Bayreuth (Germany); Basabe, Juan Luis [HPD Process Engineering S.A., Bilbao (Spain); Vendrup, Michael [Krueger A/S, Soeborg (Denmark)

    2012-11-01

    Strict limits must be adhered to for treating waste water incurred during flue gas desulphurisation (FGD). One and two-stage precipitation processes have proven themselves in FGD waste water treatment. Metals can be removed with the MetClean {sup registered} process. Another option is evaporation. Waste water ZLD systems (Zero Liquid Discharge) recover, via a falling film evaporator with subsequent crystallisation, more than 98 % of the water and produce, aside from the condensate, only solid material that can be disposed of in landfill. A further development, named ZLD CoLD trademark, significantly reduces the investment and operating costs of this solution. (orig.)

  10. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denia Djokic; Steven J. Piet; Layne F. Pincock; Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-02-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system , and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity.

  11. Conventional and Advanced Silicagel-water Adsorption Cycles Driven by Near - environmental Temperature Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelman, Elisa; B. Saha, Bidyut; Tanaka, Aiharu; Kashiwagi, Takao

    This work aims at clarifying the possible operating temperature ranges for silica gel-water adsorption refrigeration cycles driven by near-environmental temperature heat sources (between 50°C and 85°C), with relatively small regenerating temperature lifts (10 K to 65 K). A newly developed three stage advanced silica gel-water cycle, which is operational with 50°C driving heat source and 30°C cooling source is introduced and compared with a conventional single stage cycle. The cycles are evaluated in terms of cooling capacity, COP and the viability of operation with near-environmental temperature driving heat sources. The analysis is based on experimental and cycle simulation work. The results showed the advanced three stage cycle to be particularly suited for operation with low grade waste heat driving sources, since it worked with small regenerating temperature lifts (ΔTregen)of 10K to 30K. Another significant advantage of operation with small ΔTregen is the possibility to reduce irreversible heat losses from batched cycle operation. Experiments carried out on full-size machine suggested that, even with smallΔTregen, adsorber /desorber heat exchanger improvements such as higher thermal conductance and smaller heat capacitance can contribute to reduce heat losses while improving cycle performance in terms of cooling capacity and COP.

  12. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : FY10 development and integration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Sassani, David Carl; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Bouchard, Julie F.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-02-01

    This report describes the progress in fiscal year 2010 in developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. Waste IPSC activities in fiscal year 2010 focused on specifying a challenge problem to demonstrate proof of concept, developing a verification and validation plan, and performing an initial gap analyses to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. This year-end progress report documents the FY10 status of acquisition, development, and integration of thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) code capabilities, frameworks, and enabling tools and infrastructure.

  13. Vermicomposting as an advanced biological treatment for industrial waste from the leather industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ramom R; Bontempi, Rhaissa M; Mendonça, Giovane; Galetti, Gustavo; Rezende, Maria Olímpia O

    2016-01-01

    The leather industry (tanneries) generates high amounts of toxic wastes, including solid and liquid effluents that are rich in organic matter and mineral content. Vermicomposting was studied as an alternative method of treating the wastes from tanneries. Vermicompost was produced from the following tannery residues: tanned chips of wet-blue leather, sludge from a liquid residue treatment station, and a mixture of both. Five hundred earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were added to each barrel. During the following 135 days the following parameters were evaluated: pH, total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), C:N ratio, and chromium content as Cr (III) and Cr (VI). The results for pH, TOC and OM contents showed decreases in their values during the composting process, whereas values for CEC and total nitrogen rose, indicating that the vermicompost reached maturity. For chromium, at 135 days, all values of Cr (VI) were below the detectable level. Therefore, the Cr (VI) content had probably been biologically transformed into Cr (III), confirming the use of this technique as an advanced biological treatment. The study reinforces the idea that vermicomposting could be introduced as an effective technology for the treatment of industrial tannery waste and the production of agricultural inputs.

  14. Vermicomposting as an advanced biological treatment for industrial waste from the leather industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ramom R; Bontempi, Rhaissa M; Mendonça, Giovane; Galetti, Gustavo; Rezende, Maria Olímpia O

    2016-01-01

    The leather industry (tanneries) generates high amounts of toxic wastes, including solid and liquid effluents that are rich in organic matter and mineral content. Vermicomposting was studied as an alternative method of treating the wastes from tanneries. Vermicompost was produced from the following tannery residues: tanned chips of wet-blue leather, sludge from a liquid residue treatment station, and a mixture of both. Five hundred earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were added to each barrel. During the following 135 days the following parameters were evaluated: pH, total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), C:N ratio, and chromium content as Cr (III) and Cr (VI). The results for pH, TOC and OM contents showed decreases in their values during the composting process, whereas values for CEC and total nitrogen rose, indicating that the vermicompost reached maturity. For chromium, at 135 days, all values of Cr (VI) were below the detectable level. Therefore, the Cr (VI) content had probably been biologically transformed into Cr (III), confirming the use of this technique as an advanced biological treatment. The study reinforces the idea that vermicomposting could be introduced as an effective technology for the treatment of industrial tannery waste and the production of agricultural inputs. PMID:26828795

  15. Design and Testing of a Lyophilizer for Water Recovery from Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric; Fisher, John; Flynn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Mixed liquid/solid wastes, including feces, water processor effluents, and food waste, can be lyophilized (freeze-dried) to recover the water they contain and stabilize the solids remain. Previous research has demonstrated the potential benefits of using thermoelectric heat pumps to build a lyophilizer for processing waste in microgravity. These results were used to build a working prototype suitable for ground-based human testing. This paper describes the prototype design and presents the results of functional and performance tests. Equivalent system mass parameters are calculated, and practical issues such as sanitary waste handling in microgravity are addressed.

  16. A portable system for the treatment of water-reactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the wastes generated by the DOE complex are both hazardous and radioactive. Mixed wastes must be treated to remove the hazardous waste component before they are disposed as radioactive waste. This paper discusses the development of a treatment process for mixed wastes that exhibit the reactive hazardous characteristic. Specifically, these wastes react readily and violently with water. Wastes such as lithium hydride (LiH), sodium metal, and potassium metal are the primary wastes in this category. Besides their tendency to react with water, the wastes also produce alkaline hydroxides and hydrogen gas as products of the reactions. If in aqueous form and if the pH exceeds 12.5, the alkaline hydroxides must be further processed to lower the pH to the range of 2--12.5 to remove the corrosive hazardous characteristic. The hydrogen gas formed during treatment is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste, but the hydrogen poses a substantial safety hazard because it can form explosive mixtures with air. Tritium may also be substituted for hydrogen in the LiH. If tritium is present, special processing may be necessary to avoid exhausting tritium into the environment. Because of the requirement to control environmental exposure to radioactivity contained in the wastes, the process design requires a reaction within enclosed vessels. These vessels require inert gas purging with subsequent off-gas scrubbing and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration before discharge to the atmosphere. The process described involves directly immersing the water-reactive waste in a volume of water, controlling the reaction rate by the rate of addition of the waste to the reactor. The possibility of explosion is avoided by excluding oxygen

  17. Discharge and Treatment of Waste Water in Denmark:a case study about Esbjerg

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Torben

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the waste water treatment situation in the area of Esbjerg. This example was chosen because the situation in Esbjerg is typical of that of most towns in Denmark, and because Esbjerg is closest to the British situation with respect to the receiving water. Esbjerg has a population of 70.000 inhabitans, and waste water treatment takes place in two treatment plants. These plants are now being extended to perform tertiary treatment, to fulfil the new Danish requirements. From ...

  18. EU legislation on waste water treatment and mutual comparison of major dairies in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kocijančič, Urška

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with European and Slovenian legislation in the field of waste water in the dairy industry and achieving sustainable development objectives in terms of lower consumption of raw materials, energy, water and consequently pollution reduction. The theoretical part presents both Slovenian and European legislation, which was implemented in Slovenia's legislation and it pursues its recommendations. The problem for most dairy plants is untreated waste water containing high concentrati...

  19. New methods for recovery of inorganic salts from waste water in the petroleum industry / Lydia Oosthuizen

    OpenAIRE

    Oosthuizen, Lydianna Maria

    2005-01-01

    In this study three novel methods for the removal/recovery of inorganic salts from aqueous solution were explored to make a contribution to ongoing efforts by the petroleum industry to upgrade waste water for reuse by immobilising and removing inorganic substances from such contaminated water. These methods were targeted precipitation, supercritical treatment and eutectic freeze crystallisation. The feasibility of these methods for waste water treatment was investigated by u...

  20. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara M.; Steele, John W.; Makinen, Janice; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a second SWME water recirculation loop with no water quality maintenance. Results show the benefits of periodic water maintenance. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a UTAS military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  1. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance issues Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 permit year, approximately 183 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  2. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2009 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 permit year, approximately 164 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  3. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  4. 2014 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2013–October 31, 2014. The report contains the following information; Facility and system description; Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; Permit required groundwater monitoring data; Status of compliance activities; Noncompliance issues; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2014 permit year, approximately 238 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters are below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the downgradient monitoring wells.

  5. 2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2012–October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Noncompliance issues • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, approximately 238 million gallons of wastewater was discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters are below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  6. Advanced applications of water cooled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By August 2007, there were 438 nuclear power plants (NPPs) in operation worldwide, with a total capacity of 371.7 GW(e). Further, 31 units, totaling 24.1 GW(e), were under construction. During 2006 nuclear power produced 2659.7 billion kWh of electricity, which was 15.2% of the world's total. The vast majority of these plants use water-cooled reactors. Based on information provided by its Member States, the IAEA projects that nuclear power will grow significantly, producing between 2760 and 2810 billion kWh annually by 2010, between 3120 and 3840 billion kWh annually by 2020, and between 3325 and 5040 billion kWh annually by 2030. There are several reasons for these rising expectations for nuclear power: - Nuclear power's lengthening experience and good performance: The industry now has more than 12 000 reactor years of experience, and the global average nuclear plant availability during 2006 reached 83%; - Growing energy needs: All forecasts project increases in world energy demand, especially as population and economic productivity grow. The strategies are country dependent, but usually involve a mix of energy sources; - Interest in advanced applications of nuclear energy, such as seawater desalination, steam for heavy oil recovery and heat and electricity for hydrogen production; - Environmental concerns and constraints: The Kyoto Protocol has been in force since February 2005, and for many countries (most OECD countries, the Russian Federation, the Baltics and some countries of the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe) greenhouse gas emission limits are imposed; - Security of energy supply is a national priority in essentially every country; and - Nuclear power is economically competitive and provides stability of electricity price. In the near term most new nuclear plants will be evolutionary water cooled reactors (Light Water Reactors (LWRs) and Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs), often pursuing economies of scale. In the longer term, innovative designs that

  7. Advanced Water Recovery Technologies for Long Duration Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Scan X.

    2005-01-01

    Extended-duration space travel and habitation require recovering water from wastewater generated in spacecrafts and extraterrestrial outposts since the largest consumable for human life support is water. Many wastewater treatment technologies used for terrestrial applications are adoptable to extraterrestrial situations but challenges remain as constraints of space flights and habitation impose severe limitations of these technologies. Membrane-based technologies, particularly membrane filtration, have been widely studied by NASA and NASA-funded research groups for possible applications in space wastewater treatment. The advantages of membrane filtration are apparent: it is energy-efficient and compact, needs little consumable other than replacement membranes and cleaning agents, and doesn't involve multiphase flow, which is big plus for operations under microgravity environment. However, membrane lifespan and performance are affected by the phenomena of concentration polarization and membrane fouling. This article attempts to survey current status of membrane technologies related to wastewater treatment and desalination in the context of space exploration and quantify them in terms of readiness level for space exploration. This paper also makes specific recommendations and predictions on how scientist and engineers involving designing, testing, and developing space-certified membrane-based advanced water recovery technologies can improve the likelihood of successful development of an effective regenerative human life support system for long-duration space missions.

  8. Studying the processes of sulphates and chlorides extraction from water at low-waste water demineralization technology

    OpenAIRE

    Inna M. Тrus; Iryna M. Маkаrеnko; Тetyana O. Shabliy

    2014-01-01

    To solve the disposal problem of high-salinity liquid wastes resulting from the water demineralization, researched are the processes of chlorides’ and sulphates’ ion-exchange separation with further sulphates (in the form of calcium sulphate) removal from the technological cycle. It is shown that the desulphatized water can be effectively desalinated by reverse osmosis filters, including low-pressure membranes Filmtec TW30-1812-50. The liquid waste obtained in form of concentrates, does cont...

  9. Bioenergy, material, and nutrients recovery from household waste: Advanced material, substance, energy, and cost flow analysis of a waste refinery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We modeled material, substance, energy, and cost flows of a waste refinery process. • Ca. 56% of 1 Mg dry waste input can be recovered as bioliquid yielding 6.2 GJ biogas. • Nutrients and carbon recovery in the bioliquid was estimated to 81–89%. • The biogenic carbon in the input waste was 63% of total carbon based on 14C analyses. • The quality of the digestate may be critical with respect to use on land. - Abstract: Energy, materials, and resource recovery from mixed household waste may contribute to reductions in fossil fuel and resource consumption. For this purpose, legislation has been enforced to promote energy recovery and recycling. Potential solutions for separating biogenic and recyclable materials are offered by waste refineries where a bioliquid is produced from enzymatic treatment of mixed waste. In this study, potential flows of materials, energy, and substances within a waste refinery were investigated by combining sampling, analyses, and modeling. Existing material, substance, and energy flow analysis was further advanced by development of a mathematical optimization model for determination of the theoretical recovery potential. The results highlighted that the waste refinery may recover ca. 56% of the dry matter input as bioliquid, yielding 6.2 GJ biogas-energy. The potential for nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and biogenic carbon recovery was estimated to be between 81% and 89% of the input. Biogenic and fossil carbon in the mixed household waste input was determined to 63% and 37% of total carbon based on 14C analyses. Additional recovery of metals and plastic was possible based on further process optimization. A challenge for the process may be digestate quality, as digestate may represent an emission pathway when applied on land. Considering the potential variability of local revenues for energy outputs, the costs for the waste refinery solution appeared comparable with alternatives such as direct incineration

  10. Phyto-treatment of domestic waste water using artificial marshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaca, Rodrigo; Sanchez, Fabian [Oleoducto de Crudos Pesados (OCP), Quito (Ecuador)

    2009-12-19

    The phyto-treatment of domestic waste water by the use of artificial marshes system consists in beds of treatment working in series, this beds are constituted basically by inverse filters of inert granular material where the nutrients are cached from the residual water. Most of the treatment is carried in roots steams and leaves of defined species of plants. The rest of the treatment is performed by anaerobic and aerobic bacteria that grow within the beds. In the proximities of the roots and the area near the bed surface, aerobic processes take place and in deepest zones, anaerobic processes take place. It is desirable that the aerobic process will be the predominant one, mainly to avoid bad odors; this is obtained with the correct selection of plants which must have dense and deep roots. The economic factor is also important for the selection of this type of treatment system, the cost of operation and maintenance is minimum compared with other type of systems. The operation cost is practically zero because it is not required provision of electrical energy for its operation; energy used is the solar energy through the photosynthesis process. The maintenance is reduced to pruning and cleaning that can be performed twice a year. The goals of this paper is to show our experiences during the construction, stabilization and operation of these systems installed in 13 OCP locations with different types of weather and explain the conclusions arrived after construction and operation; present this kind of systems as an alternative of economic wastewater treatment in terms of construction, operation and maintenance and as environment friendly treatment. (author)

  11. Automatic deodorizing system for waste water from radioisotope facilities using an ozone generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We applied an ozone generator to sterilize and to deodorize the waste water from radioisotope facilities. A small tank connected to the generator is placed outside of the drainage facility founded previously, not to oxidize the other apparatus. The waste water is drained 1 m3 at a time from the tank of drainage facility, treated with ozone and discharged to sewer. All steps proceed automatically once the draining work is started remotely in the office. The waste water was examined after the ozone treatment for 0 (original), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 h. Regarding original waste water, the sum of coliform groups varied with every examination repeated - probably depend on the colibacilli used in experiments; hydrogen sulfide, biochemical oxygen demand and the offensive odor increased with increasing coliform groups. The ozone treatment remarkably decreased hydrogen sulfide and the offensive odor, decreased coliform groups when the original water had rich coliforms. (author)

  12. Solid olive waste in environmental cleanup: oil recovery and carbon production for water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hamouz, Amer; Hilal, Hikmat S; Nassar, Nashaat; Mardawi, Zahi

    2007-07-01

    A potentially-economic three-fold strategy, to use solid olive wastes in water purification, is presented. Firstly, oil remaining in solid waste (higher than 5% of waste) was recovered by the Soxhlet extraction technique, which can be useful for the soap industry. Secondly, the remaining solid was processed to yield relatively high-surface area active carbon (AC). Thirdly, the resulting carbon was employed to reversibly adsorb chromate ions from water, aiming to establish a water purification process with reusable AC. The technique used here enabled oil recovery together with the production of a clean solid, suitable for making AC. This process also has the advantage of low production cost.

  13. Anaerobic Digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste With Recirculation of Process Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, H.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    A new concept of a wet anaerobic digestion treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is investigated. Once the waste is diluted with water, the entire liquid fraction of the effluent is recirculated and used as process water for dilution of the waste. This enables a well......-mixed process without additional water supply. A methane yield of 400 and 445 ml/gVS from OFMSW was achieved in batch and reactor experiments, respectively. Reactor performance with 15 days retention time and an organic loading rate of 4.5 gVS/ld was stable with low VFA concentrations and a VS reduction of 70...

  14. Implementation of the cogeneration using biogas issued from urban waste water treatment plants in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the paper is to present the potential of using biogas issued from urban waste water treatment plants. First part presents the technology of waste water treatment, including the energy consumptions. Authors have used a soft, applied for waste water plant in Cluj-Napoca, and they have determined the potential of saving in electricity bill. Using a specific indicator, the results have been extended to the majority of big cities in Romania. In conclusion, for this project, annual reduction about USD 2 mil. could be obtained. (abstract)

  15. Removal of sulphur-nitrogen compounds from FGD waste water by ozone treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogh, F. [Elsam Engineering A/S, Skaerbaek (Denmark); Smitshuysen, E.F. [Elsam Engineering A/S, Esbjergvaerket (Denmark); Wolff, S. [ALTEC GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany); Koivisto, M. [Air Liquide A/S, Ballerup (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    For five years the Elsam power station situated in Esbjerg has used spray dry absorption product (SDAP) from the semi dry FGD units as an absorbent in the wet FGD unit. This has given considerable improvements. The use of SDAP in the wet FGD has, however, given some waste water problems. SN compounds are extracted from the SDAP into the waste water of the wet FGD unit and have to be removed from the waste water. Elsam together with Air Liquide A/S developed and operated successfully a pilot plant for the treatment of 1 m{sup 3}/h FGD wastewater with ozone. (orig.)

  16. Study of Pu consumption in Advanced Light Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timely disposal of the weapons plutonium is of paramount importance to permanently safeguarding this material. GE's 1300 MWe Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) has been designed to utilize fill] core loading of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel. Because of its large core size, a single ABWR reactor is capable of disposing 100 metric tons of plutonium within 15 years of project inception in the spiking mode. The same amount of material could be disposed of in 25 years after the start of the project as spent fuel, again using a single reactor, while operating at 75 percent capacity factor. In either case, the design permits reuse of the stored spent fuel assemblies for electrical energy generation for the remaining life of the plant for another 40 years. Up to 40 percent of the initial plutonium can also be completely destroyed using ABWRS, without reprocessing, either by utilizing six ABWRs over 25 years or by expanding the disposition time to 60 years, the design life of the plants and using two ABWRS. More complete destruction would require the development and testing of a plutonium-base fuel with a non-fertile matrix for an ABWR or use of an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR). The ABWR, in addition, is fully capable of meeting the tritium target production goals with already developed target technology

  17. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford retrievable storage from Westinghouse Advanced Reactors and Nuclear Fuels Divisions, Cheswick, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Sits in southeastern Washington State is to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Approximately 5.7 percent of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to WIPP was generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division (WARD) and the Westinghouse Nuclear Fuels Division (WNFD) in Cheswick, Pennsylvania and shipped to the Hanford Sits for storage. This report characterizes these radioactive solid wastes using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews

  18. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford retrievable storage from Westinghouse Advanced Reactors and Nuclear Fuels Divisions, Cheswick, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns, M.I.; Dicenso, K.D.; DeLorenzo, D.S. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Sits in southeastern Washington State is to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Approximately 5.7 percent of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to WIPP was generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division (WARD) and the Westinghouse Nuclear Fuels Division (WNFD) in Cheswick, Pennsylvania and shipped to the Hanford Sits for storage. This report characterizes these radioactive solid wastes using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews.

  19. Performance of photocatalyst based carbon nanodots from waste frying oil in water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, Mahardika Prasetya; Wiguna, Pradita Ajeng; Susanto, Rosita, Nita; Suciningtyas, Siti Aisyah; Sulhadi

    2016-04-01

    Carbon Nanodots (C-Dots) from waste frying oil could be used as a photocatalyst in water purification with solar light irradiation. Performance of C-Dots as a photocatalyst was tested in the process of water purification with a given synthetic sewage methylene blue. The tested was also conducted by comparing the performance C-Dots made from frying oil, waste fryng oil as a photocatalyst and solution of methylene blue without photocatalyst C-Dots. Performance of C-Dots from waste frying oil were estimated by the results of absorbance spectrum. The results of measurement absorbance spectrum from the process of water purification with photocatalyst C-Dots showed that the highest intensity at a wavelength 664 nm of methylene blue decreased. The test results showed that the performance of photocatalyst C-Dots from waste frying oil was better in water purification. This estimated that number of particles C-dots is more in waste frying oil because have experieced repeated the heating process so that the higher particles concentration make the photocatalyst process more effective. The observation of the performance C-Dots from waste frying oil as a photocatalyst in the water purification processes become important invention for solving the problems of waste and water purification.

  20. Using Magnetically Responsive Tea Waste to Remove Lead in Waters under Environmentally Relevant Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Yeo, Siang Yee

    2013-06-20

    We report the use of a simple yet highly effective magnetite-waste tea composite to remove lead(II) (Pb2+) ions from water. Magnetite-waste tea composites were dispersed in four different types of water–deionized (DI), artificial rainwater, artificial groundwater and artificial freshwater–that mimic actual environmental conditions. The water samples had varying initial concentrations (0.16–5.55 ppm) of Pb2+ ions and were mixed with the magnetite-waste tea composite for at least 24 hours to allow adsorption of the Pb2+ ions to reach equilibrium. The magnetite-waste tea composites were stable in all the water samples for at least 3 months and could be easily removed from the aqueous media via the use of permanent magnets. We detected no significant leaching of iron (Fe) ions into the water from the magnetite-waste tea composites. The percentage of Pb adsorbed onto the magnetite-waste tea composite ranged from ~70% to 100%; the composites were as effective as activated carbon (AC) in removing the Pb2+ ions from water, depending on the initial Pb concentration. Our prepared magnetite-waste tea composites show promise as a green, inexpensive and highly effective sorbent for removal of Pb in water under environmentally realistic conditions.

  1. Advancing Water and Water-Energy-Food Cluster Activities within Future Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, R. G.; Bhaduri, A.; Pahl-Wostl, C.

    2014-12-01

    In building its emerging program, Future Earth has encouraged former Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) projects to redefine their objectives, priorities and problem approaches so they are aligned with those of Future Earth. These new projects will be characterized by more integrated applications of natural and social sciences as well as dialogue and science integrated across disciplinary boundaries to address a wide range of environmental and social issues. The Global Water System Project (GWSP) has had a heritage of integrating natural and social sciences, and recently started to also look at issues within the Water-Energy-Food (WEF) cluster using similar integrated approaches. As part of the growth of the scientific elements of this cluster, GWSP has approached Future Earth opportunities by addressing the sustainability for Water, Energy, and Food through integrated water information and improved governance.In this presentation the approaches being considered for promoting integration in both water and the WEF cluster will be discussed. In particular, potential contributions of Future Earth to research related to the use and management of water and to issues and science underpinning the W-E-F nexus deliberations will be identified. In both cases the increasing ability to utilize Earth observations and big data will advance this research agenda. In addition, the better understanding of the implications of governance structures in addressing these issues and the options for harmonizing the use of scientific knowledge and technological advances will be explored. For example, insights gained from water management studies undertaken within the GWSP are helping to focus plans for a "sustainable water futures" project and a WEF cluster within Future Earth. The potential role of the Sustainable Development Goals in bringing together the monitoring and science capabilities, and understanding of governance approaches, will be discussed as a framework for facilitating

  2. [Hygienic, chemical and ecotoxicological aspects of the disinfection of biologically treated waste water by ozone and UV light].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iske, U; Nelle, T; Oberg, C; Rudolph, K U; Zander-Hauck, S

    1996-02-01

    Biologically treated waste water from two different municipal treatment plants with mainly domestic waste water on the one hand and industrial influenced waste water on the other hand was disinfected by UV-irradiation and ozonation. Hygienic, chemical and eco-toxic effects of the disinfection step were examined. It was found that by ozonation as well as by UV-irradiation the required guide and imperative values for fecal and total coliform bacteria were fulfilled. The UV-irradiation induces no changes concerning chemical waste water quality and toxic effects. In contrast to these results ozonation can lead to alterations in chemistry and toxicity depending on the waste water composition.

  3. Characterisation, dissemination and persistence of gentamicin resistant Escherichia coli from a Danish university hospital to the waste water environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Sandvang, Dorthe; Hansen, Lars H;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the potential spread of gentamicin resistant (GEN(R)) Escherichia coli isolates or GEN(R) determinants from a Danish university hospital to the waste water environment. Waste water samples were collected monthly from the outlets of the hospital bed wards...... in waste water from the residential area. PFGE profiling revealed no spread of specific patient isolates to the waste water. The aac(3)-II gene was detected both in patient and waste water isolates. Furthermore horizontal transfer of the aac(3)-II gene of patient origin to a recipient was shown in vitro...

  4. A Novel Ion Exchange System to Purify Mixed ISS Waste Water Brines for Chemical Production and Enhanced Water Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin; Spencer, LaShelle; Ruby, Anna-Maria; McCaskill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Current International Space Station water recovery regimes produce a sizable portion of waste water brine. This brine is highly toxic and water recovery is poor: a highly wasteful proposition. With new biological techniques that do not require waste water chemical pretreatment, the resulting brine would be chromium-free and nitrate rich which can allow possible fertilizer recovery for future plant systems. Using a system of ion exchange resins we can remove hardness, sulfate, phosphate and nitrate from these brines to leave only sodium and potassium chloride. At this point modern chlor-alkali cells can be utilized to produce a low salt stream as well as an acid and base stream. The first stream can be used to gain higher water recovery through recycle to the water separation stage while the last two streams can be used to regenerate the ion exchange beds used here, as well as other ion exchange beds in the ISS. Conveniently these waste products from ion exchange regeneration would be suitable as plant fertilizer. In this report we go over the performance of state of the art resins designed for high selectivity of target ions under brine conditions. Using ersatz ISS waste water we can evaluate the performance of specific resins and calculate mass balances to determine resin effectiveness and process viability. If this system is feasible then we will be one step closer to closed loop environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for current or future applications.

  5. Hydrogen production from water: Recent advances in photosynthesis research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1997-12-31

    The great potential of hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting is predicated on quantitative measurement of the algae`s hydrogen-producing capability, which is based on the following: (1) the photosynthetic unit size of hydrogen production; (2) the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production; (3) thermodynamic efficiencies of conversion of light energy into the Gibbs free energy of molecular hydrogen; (4) photosynthetic hydrogen production from sea water using marine algae; (5) the potential for research advances using modern methods of molecular biology and genetic engineering to maximize hydrogen production. ORNL has shown that sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen can be performed with mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that lack a detectable level of the Photosystem I light reaction. This result is surprising in view of the standard two-light reaction model of photosynthesis and has interesting scientific and technological implications. This ORNL discovery also has potentially important implications for maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency of light energy into chemical energy by green plant photosynthesis. Hydrogen production performed by a single light reaction, as opposed to two, implies a doubling of the theoretically maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency from {approx}10% to {approx}20%.

  6. Water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program for providing water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley is reviewed with respect to fabrication and metrology of the surfaces. Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from prototype mirrors and grating blanks will be presented, which show exceptionally low microroughness and mid-period error. We will briefly describe out improved version of the Long Trace Profiler, and its importance to out metrology program. We have completely redesigned the mechanical, optical and computational parts of the profiler system with the cooperation of Peter Takacs of Brookhaven, Continental Optical, and Baker Manufacturing. Most important is that one of our profilers is in use at the vendor to allow testing during fabrication. Metrology from the first water cooled mirror for an ALS beamline is presented as an example. The preplating processing and grinding and polishing were done by Tucson Optical. We will show significantly better surface microroughness on electroless nickel, over large areas, than has been reported previously

  7. Solid waste electron beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible applications of electron accelerators for solid waste treatment are discussed in the report. The elaborated technologies allow to recycle of materials (e.g. cellulosic materials in municipal waste), improve their hygienic standards (agricultural usage of sludge from municipal waste water treatment) and reduce harmful to environment chemical usage (cellulose degradation). These are environment friendly advanced technologies which meets demands waste recycling. (author)

  8. An Investigation into Water Chemistry in Primary Coolant Circuit of an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure operation safety, an optimization on the coolant chemistry in the primary coolant circuit of a nuclear reactor is essential no matter what type or generation the reactor belongs to. For a better understanding toward the water chemistry in an advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR), such as the one being constructed in the northern part of Taiwan, and for a safer operation of this ABWR, we conducted a proactive, thorough water chemistry analysis prior to the completion of this reactor in this study. A numerical simulation model for water chemistry analyses in ABWRs has been developed, based upon the core technology we established in the past. This core technology for water chemistry modeling is basically an integration of water radiolysis, thermal-hydraulics, and reactor physics. The model, by the name of DEMACE-ABWR, is an improved version of the original DEMACE model and was used for radiolysis and water chemistry prediction in the Longmen ABWR in Taiwan. Predicted results pertinent to the water chemistry variation and the corrosion behavior of structure materials in the primary coolant circuit of this ABWR under rated-power operation were reported in this paper. (authors)

  9. Study of Pu consumption in Advanced Light Water Reactors. Evaluation of GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-13

    Timely disposal of the weapons plutonium is of paramount importance to permanently safeguarding this material. GE`s 1300 MWe Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) has been designed to utilize fill] core loading of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel. Because of its large core size, a single ABWR reactor is capable of disposing 100 metric tons of plutonium within 15 years of project inception in the spiking mode. The same amount of material could be disposed of in 25 years after the start of the project as spent fuel, again using a single reactor, while operating at 75 percent capacity factor. In either case, the design permits reuse of the stored spent fuel assemblies for electrical energy generation for the remaining life of the plant for another 40 years. Up to 40 percent of the initial plutonium can also be completely destroyed using ABWRS, without reprocessing, either by utilizing six ABWRs over 25 years or by expanding the disposition time to 60 years, the design life of the plants and using two ABWRS. More complete destruction would require the development and testing of a plutonium-base fuel with a non-fertile matrix for an ABWR or use of an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR). The ABWR, in addition, is fully capable of meeting the tritium target production goals with already developed target technology.

  10. Development of technetium alloy waste forms for advanced nuclear energy cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program within the Office of Nuclear Energy of the U.S. Department of Energy is charged with developing nuclear fuel cycle options that improve use of actinide resources, responsibly manage wastes, improve and limit proliferation risk. Technetium is a fission product of particular concern for disposal in a repository because of its high fission yield, long half-life, and high solubility and mobility in groundwater as pertechnetate. For example, modeling studies for the former Yucca Mountain repository site indicated that technetium would be an important dose contributor after closure of the repository, in the first 10,000 years. The FCT Program is investigating a range of potential repository environments for ultimate disposal of fission products including technetium from advanced nuclear fuel recycling schemes

  11. Easetech Energy: Advanced Life Cycle Assessment of Energy from Biomass and Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Turconi, Roberto; Tonini, Davide;

    SUMMARY: Biomass and waste are expected to play a key role in future energy systems based on large shares of renewable energy resources. The LCA model EASETECH Energy was developed specifically for modelling large and complex energy systems including various technologies and several processing...... steps. The model allows simultaneous balancing of mass and energy flows of the system under assessment, and is equipped with advanced tools for sensitivity/uncertainty analysis. EASETECH Energy was used to assess the environmental footprint of the Danish energy system in 2050 (based on 100% renewables......) and compare it to the current situation. The results show that the future Danish energy systems will have a rather different environmental footprint than the current one....

  12. ANALYSIS ON EFFLUENT WATER QUALITY AND ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION AFTER INTRODUCING ADVANCED SEWAGE TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiojiri, Yasuo; Maekawa, Shunich

    We analyze effluent water quality and electricity consumption after in troducing advanced treatment in sewage treatment plant. We define 'advanced treatment ratio' as volume of treated water through advanced treatment processes divided by total volume of treated water in plant. Advanced treatment ratio represents degree of introducing advanced treatment. We build two types of equation. One represents relation between effluent water quality and advanced treatment ratio, the other between electricity consumption and advanced treatment ratio. Each equation is fitted by least squares on 808 samples: 8 fiscal years operation data of 101 plants working in Kanagawa, Tokyo, Saitama and Chiba areas, and coefficient of advanced treatment ratio is estimated. The result is as follows. (1) After introducing advanced treatment aimed at nitrogen removal, T-N in effluent water decreases by 51.3% and electricity consum ption increases by 52.2%. (2) After introducing advanced treatment aimed at phosphorus removal, T-P in effluent water decreases by 27.8%. Using the above result, we try prioritizing 71 plants in Tokyo Bay watershed about raising advanced treatment ratio, so that, in total, pollutant in effluent water decreases with minimized increase of electricity consumption.

  13. A Good Solution for Household Based on Fast Waste Water Blockage Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Omardin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The waste pipes from the wash basin are always flow in with several waste form kitchen preparation. Due to time consideration the pipe may comes through blockage and need blockage maintenance. Approach: This study presented an invention for early warning blockage detection for a kitchen waste water drain pipe. The waste water pipe some be connected through vertical pipe runs which are usually embedded in the wall. The Fast Waste Water Blockage Detection (FWABET is to create early detection of a blocked waste water level at kitchen appliances means for quick action knowing fluid flow passing through detector and indicates sign and alarm. Results: User society and country will be benefited from FWABET such as restaurants, slaughters house, hotels, hospitals, building developers and plumbing contractors. It is the first invention in Malaysia and can be adapt as a part of building services requirements. Conclusion: It is concluded that by apply the FWABETs, it may reduce the costs and time of blockage waste water blockage drainage maintenance operations.

  14. Recovery of Organic and Amino Acids from Sludge and Fish Waste in Sub Critical Water Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of organic and amino acid production from the treatment of sludge and fish waste using water at sub critical conditions was investigated. The results indicated that at sub-critical conditions, where the ion product of water went through a maximum, the formation of organic acids was favorable. The presence of oxidant favored formation of acetic and formic acid. Other organic acids of significant amount were propionic, succinic and lactic acids. Depending on the type of wastes, formation of other organic acids was also possible. Knowing the organic acids obtained by hydrolysis and oxidation in sub-critical water of various wastes are useful in designing of applicable waste treatment process, complete degradation of organic wastes into volatile carbon and water, and also on the viewpoint of resource recovery. The production of lactic acid was discussed as well. The results indicated that temperature of 573 K, with the absence of oxidant, yield of lactic acid from fish waste was higher than sewage sludge. The maximum yield of total amino acids (137 mg/g-dry fish from waste fish entrails was obtained at subcritical condition (T = 523 K, P = 4 MPa at reaction time of 60 min by using the batch reactor. The amino acids obtained in this study were mainly alanine and glycine. Keywords:  organic acids, amino acids, sub-critical water, hydrothermal, resources recovery

  15. WATER ACTIVITY DATA ASSESSMENT TO BE USED IN HANFORD WASTE SOLUBILITY CALCULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2011-01-06

    The purpose of this report is to present and assess water activity versus ionic strength for six solutes:sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Water activity is given versus molality (e.g., ionic strength) and temperature. Water activity is used to estimate Hanford crystal hydrate solubility present in the waste.

  16. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 2: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Water and sewage treatment systems are presented with concentration on the filtration of water. Equipment is described for organic removal, solids removal, nutrient removal, inorganic removal, and disinfection of the water. Such things as aseline hardware, additional piping connections, waste disposal, and costs involved are also reported.

  17. 77 FR 6548 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Implementation of Energy, Water, and Solid Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... enhance the energy and water security of Fort Bliss, Texas, which is operationally necessary, financially... waste reduction, and energy and water conservation policies and practices; (2) the construction of a new... Department of the Army Environmental Impact Statement for the Implementation of Energy, Water, and...

  18. 我国造纸工业废水深度处理的技术现状及其发展趋势%Current Status and Development Trend of Advanced Treatment Technologies for Waste Water of Paper Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟阳

    2011-01-01

    主要介绍了目前我国造纸工业废水深度处理的混凝、吸附、高级氧化、膜分离与膜生物反应器(MBR)工艺、磁混凝沉淀与磁化-仿酶催化缩合工艺、氧化塘、人工湿地等主要技术的现状,并分析了其发展趋势.%Various waster water advanced treatment technologies currently widely used in China' a paper industry including coagulation, Adsorption, advanced oxidation, membrane technology, magnelization-biomimetic enzyme condensation, oxidation pond and constructed wetland and some examples of their application. The development trend of these technologies were discussed.

  19. Waste Heat Recovery from the Advanced Test Reactor Secondary Coolant Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna Post Guillen

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using a waste heat recovery system (WHRS) to recover heat from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) secondary coolant system (SCS). This heat would be used to preheat air for space heating of the reactor building, thus reducing energy consumption, carbon footprint, and energy costs. Currently, the waste heat from the reactor is rejected to the atmosphere via a four-cell, induced-draft cooling tower. Potential energy and cost savings are 929 kW and $285K/yr. The WHRS would extract a tertiary coolant stream from the SCS loop and pump it to a new plate and frame heat exchanger, from which the heat would be transferred to a glycol loop for preheating outdoor air supplied to the heating and ventilation system. The use of glycol was proposed to avoid the freezing issues that plagued and ultimately caused the failure of a WHRS installed at the ATR in the 1980s. This study assessed the potential installation of a new WHRS for technical, logistical, and economic feasibility.

  20. Economies of density for on-site waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggimann, Sven; Truffer, Bernhard; Maurer, Max

    2016-09-15

    Decentralised wastewater treatment is increasingly gaining interest as a means of responding to sustainability challenges. Cost comparisons are a crucial element of any sustainability assessment. While the cost characteristics of centralised waste water management systems (WMS) have been studied extensively, the economics of decentralised WMS are less understood. A key motivation for studying the costs of decentralised WMS is to compare the cost of centralised and decentralised WMS in order to decide on cost-efficient sanitation solutions. This paper outlines a model designed to assess those costs which depend on the spatial density of decentralised wastewater treatment plants in a region. Density-related costs are mostly linked to operation and maintenance activities which depend on transportation, like sludge removal or the visits of professionals to the plants for control, servicing or repairs. We first specify a modelled cost-density relationship for a region in a geometric two-dimensional space by means of heuristic routing algorithms that consider time and load-capacity restrictions. The generic model is then applied to a Swiss case study for which we specify a broad range of modelling parameters. As a result, we identify a 'hockey-stick'-shaped cost curve that is characterised by strong cost reductions at high density values which level out at around 1 to 1.5 plants per km(2). Variations in the cost curves are mostly due to differences in management approaches (scheduled or unscheduled emptying). In addition to the well-known diseconomies of scale in the case of centralised sanitation, we find a similar generic cost behaviour for decentralised sanitation due to economies of density. Low densities in sparsely populated regions thus result in higher costs for both centralised and decentralised system. Policy implications are that efforts to introduce decentralised options in a region should consider the low-density/high-cost problem when comparing centralised

  1. Economies of density for on-site waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggimann, Sven; Truffer, Bernhard; Maurer, Max

    2016-09-15

    Decentralised wastewater treatment is increasingly gaining interest as a means of responding to sustainability challenges. Cost comparisons are a crucial element of any sustainability assessment. While the cost characteristics of centralised waste water management systems (WMS) have been studied extensively, the economics of decentralised WMS are less understood. A key motivation for studying the costs of decentralised WMS is to compare the cost of centralised and decentralised WMS in order to decide on cost-efficient sanitation solutions. This paper outlines a model designed to assess those costs which depend on the spatial density of decentralised wastewater treatment plants in a region. Density-related costs are mostly linked to operation and maintenance activities which depend on transportation, like sludge removal or the visits of professionals to the plants for control, servicing or repairs. We first specify a modelled cost-density relationship for a region in a geometric two-dimensional space by means of heuristic routing algorithms that consider time and load-capacity restrictions. The generic model is then applied to a Swiss case study for which we specify a broad range of modelling parameters. As a result, we identify a 'hockey-stick'-shaped cost curve that is characterised by strong cost reductions at high density values which level out at around 1 to 1.5 plants per km(2). Variations in the cost curves are mostly due to differences in management approaches (scheduled or unscheduled emptying). In addition to the well-known diseconomies of scale in the case of centralised sanitation, we find a similar generic cost behaviour for decentralised sanitation due to economies of density. Low densities in sparsely populated regions thus result in higher costs for both centralised and decentralised system. Policy implications are that efforts to introduce decentralised options in a region should consider the low-density/high-cost problem when comparing centralised

  2. Recovery of uranium from uranium refining waste water by using immobilized persimmon tannin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some attempts were made to examine the practical conditions for uranium recovery from uranium refining waste water. The adsorbent was highly effective in recovering uranium. The uranium adsorption was affected by pH, temperature, and uranium concentration of the uranium refining waste water. The adsorbent also recovered uranium effectively in column system. It aquires better mechanical properties and can be used repeatedly in the uranium adsorption-desorption cycles. (author)

  3. STS-55 crewmembers repair waste water tank under OV-102's middeck subfloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Pilot Terence T. Henricks uses a spotlight and pen to point out a possible problem area on a waste water tank in the bilge area below Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, middeck. Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross records the activity with a video camcorder. The crewmembers are participating in an inflight maintenance (IFM) exercise to counter problems experienced with the waste water tank.

  4. Solution of sewer system and waste water treatment plant for settlement Branik

    OpenAIRE

    Jereb, Metka

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis is presented a project of drainage of waste-water and rainwater regulation for the village Branik. There is described the method of planing a sewage system, basis for the project and factors which have to be considered. On the basis of characteristics of settlement, drainage and topography there have been made two solutions with a different position of a waste water treatment plant. Solutions are both hydraulic dimension with a software Sewer+ and value of the investment has al...

  5. Two Legionnaires' disease cases associated with industrial waste water treatment plants: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Putus Tuula; Mentula Silja; Uldum Søren A; Korpio Timo; Neuvonen Liisa-Kaarina; Kusnetsov Jaana; Tran Minh Nhu Nguyen; Martimo Kari-Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Finnish and Swedish waste water systems used by the forest industry were found to be exceptionally heavily contaminated with legionellae in 2005. Case presentation We report two cases of severe pneumonia in employees working at two separate mills in Finland in 2006. Legionella serological and urinary antigen tests were used to diagnose Legionnaires' disease in the symptomatic employees, who had worked at, or close to, waste water treatment plants. Since the findings indica...

  6. The effect of waste water treatment on river metal concentrations: removal or enrichment?

    OpenAIRE

    Teuchies, J.; Bervoets, L.; Cox, T.J.S.; P. Meire; de Deckere, E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Discharge of untreated domestic and industrial waste in many European rivers resulted in low oxygen concentrations and contamination with trace metals, often concentrated in sediments. Under these anoxic conditions, the formation of insoluble metal sulfides is known to reduce metal availability. Nowadays, implementation of waste water treatment plants results in increasing surface water oxygen concentrations. Under these conditions, sediments can be turned from a trace metal sink int...

  7. Bacterial Cellulose From Rice Waste Water With Addition Chitosan, Glycerol, And Silver Nanoparticle

    OpenAIRE

    Eli Rohaeti; Endang WLFX; Anna Rakhmawati

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to prepare silver nanoparticles chemically, deposite silver nanoparticles on bacterial cellulose-chitosan-glycerol composite based rice waste water, as well as test the antibacterial activity of bacterial cellulose and its composite. Preparation of silver nanoparticles was conducted by chemical reduction of silver nitrate solution, as well as trisodium citrate as the reductor. Bacterial cellulose from rice waste water is fermented by the bacteria Acetobacter xylinum for 7 day...

  8. Challenge problem and milestones for : Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Howard, Robert; McNeish, Jerry A.; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the specification of a challenge problem and associated challenge milestones for the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The NEAMS challenge problems are designed to demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards IPSC goals. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. To demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards these goals and requirements, a Waste IPSC challenge problem is specified that includes coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) processes that describe (1) the degradation of a borosilicate glass waste form and the corresponding mobilization of radionuclides (i.e., the processes that produce the radionuclide source term), (2) the associated near-field physical and chemical environment for waste emplacement within a salt formation, and (3) radionuclide transport in the near field (i.e., through the engineered components - waste form, waste package, and backfill - and the immediately adjacent salt). The initial details of a set of challenge milestones that collectively comprise the full challenge problem are also specified.

  9. Two Legionnaires' disease cases associated with industrial waste water treatment plants: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putus Tuula

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Finnish and Swedish waste water systems used by the forest industry were found to be exceptionally heavily contaminated with legionellae in 2005. Case presentation We report two cases of severe pneumonia in employees working at two separate mills in Finland in 2006. Legionella serological and urinary antigen tests were used to diagnose Legionnaires' disease in the symptomatic employees, who had worked at, or close to, waste water treatment plants. Since the findings indicated a Legionella infection, the waste water and home water systems were studied in more detail. The antibody response and Legionella urinary antigen finding of Case A indicated that the infection had been caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Case A had been exposed to legionellae while installing a pump into a post-clarification basin at the waste water treatment plant of mill A. Both the water and sludge in the basin contained high concentrations of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, in addition to serogroups 3 and 13. Case B was working 200 meters downwind from a waste water treatment plant, which had an active sludge basin and cooling towers. The antibody response indicated that his disease was due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2. The cooling tower was the only site at the waste water treatment plant yielding that serogroup, though water in the active sludge basin yielded abundant growth of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 5 and Legionella rubrilucens. Both workers recovered from the disease. Conclusion These are the first reported cases of Legionnaires' disease in Finland associated with industrial waste water systems.

  10. Two Legionnaires' disease cases associated with industrial waste water treatment plants: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Finnish and Swedish waste water systems used by the forest industry were found to be exceptionally heavily contaminated with legionellae in 2005. Case presentation We report two cases of severe pneumonia in employees working at two separate mills in Finland in 2006. Legionella serological and urinary antigen tests were used to diagnose Legionnaires' disease in the symptomatic employees, who had worked at, or close to, waste water treatment plants. Since the findings indicated a Legionella infection, the waste water and home water systems were studied in more detail. The antibody response and Legionella urinary antigen finding of Case A indicated that the infection had been caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Case A had been exposed to legionellae while installing a pump into a post-clarification basin at the waste water treatment plant of mill A. Both the water and sludge in the basin contained high concentrations of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, in addition to serogroups 3 and 13. Case B was working 200 meters downwind from a waste water treatment plant, which had an active sludge basin and cooling towers. The antibody response indicated that his disease was due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2. The cooling tower was the only site at the waste water treatment plant yielding that serogroup, though water in the active sludge basin yielded abundant growth of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 5 and Legionella rubrilucens. Both workers recovered from the disease. Conclusion These are the first reported cases of Legionnaires' disease in Finland associated with industrial waste water systems. PMID:21126333

  11. Wastes from the light water reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LWR fuel cycle is represented, in the minimum detail necessary to indicate the origin of the wastes, as a system of operations that is typical of those proposed for various commercial fuel cycle ventures. The primary wastes (before any treatment) are described in terms of form, volume, radioactivity, chemical composition, weight, and combustibility (in anticipation of volume reduction treatments). Properties of the wastes expected from the operation of reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, and mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants are expressed in terms of their amounts per unit of nuclear energy produced

  12. Reliability assurance programme guidebook for advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To facilitate the implementation of reliability assurance programmes (RAP) within future advanced reactor programmes and to ensure that the next generation of commercial nuclear reactors achieves the very high levels of safety, reliability and economy which are expected of them, in 1996, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established a task to develop a guidebook for reliability assurance programmes. The draft RAP guidebook was prepared by an expert consultant and was reviewed/modified at an Advisory Group meeting (7-10 April 1997) and at a consults meeting (7-10 October 1997). The programme for the RAP guidebook was reported to and guided by the Technical Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Light Water Reactors (TWG-LWR). This guidebook will demonstrate how the designers and operators of future commercial nuclear plants can exploit the risk, reliability and availability engineering methods and techniques developed over the past two decades to augment existing design and operational nuclear plant decision-making capabilities. This guidebook is intended to provide the necessary understanding, insights and examples of RAP management systems and processes from which a future user can derive his own plant specific reliability assurance programmes. The RAP guidebook is intended to augment, not replace, specific reliability assurance requirements defined by the utility requirements documents and by individual nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) designers. This guidebook draws from utility experience gained during implementation of reliability and availability improvement and risk based management programmes to provide both written and diagrammatic 'how to' guidance which can be followed to assure conformance with the specific requirements outlined by utility requirements documents and in the development of a practical and effective plant specific RAP in any IAEA Member State

  13. Supercritical water oxidation for the destruction of hazardous waste: better than incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Duri, Bushra; Alsoqyani, Faihan; Kings, Iain

    2015-12-28

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is an advanced process mainly employed for the treatment of hazardous stable wastes, otherwise treatable by incineration. It is based on the unique properties of water above its critical point (T(c)=675 K, P(c)=22.2 MPa), making it a superior reaction medium for the destruction of all organics in the presence of oxygen. This work presents preliminary laboratory scale studies on SCWO of nitrogen (N)-containing hazardous hydrocarbons, with a view to enhancing the process performance, using available reagents and non-complex reactor design. This article investigates the destruction of dimethylformamide (DMF), carried out in a continuous (plug flow) reactor system. SCWO of DMF was enhanced by (i) a split-oxidant system, where stoichiometric oxidant was divided between two inlet ports at various ratios and (ii) the addition of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) as a co-fuel, premixed with the feedstock. Testing a range of temperatures, initial DMF concentrations, oxidant ratios, IPA ratios and oxidant split ratios, selected results were presented in terms of % total organic carbon and % N removal. Reaction kinetics were studied and showed a dramatic decrease in the activation energy upon adding IPA. Split-oxidant-feeding enhancement depended on the split ratio and secondary feed position. PMID:26574530

  14. Zirconia-magnesia inert matrix fuel and waste form: Synthesis, characterization and chemical performance in an advanced fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Kiel Steven

    There is a significant buildup in plutonium stockpiles throughout the world, because of spent nuclear fuel and the dismantling of weapons. The radiotoxicity of this material and proliferation risk has led to a desire for destroying excess plutonium. To do this effectively, it must be fissioned in a reactor as part of a uranium free fuel to eliminate the generation of more plutonium. This requires an inert matrix to volumetrically dilute the fissile plutonium. Zirconia-magnesia dual phase ceramic has been demonstrated to be a favorable material for this task. It is neutron transparent, zirconia is chemically robust, magnesia has good thermal conductivity and the ceramic has been calculated to conform to current economic and safety standards. This dissertation contributes to the knowledge of zirconia-magnesia as an inert matrix fuel to establish behavior of the material containing a fissile component. First, the zirconia-magnesia inert matrix is synthesized in a dual phase ceramic containing a fissile component and a burnable poison. The chemical constitution of the ceramic is then determined. Next, the material performance is assessed under conditions relevant to an advanced fuel cycle. Reactor conditions were assessed with high temperature, high pressure water. Various acid solutions were used in an effort to dissolve the material for reprocessing. The ceramic was also tested as a waste form under environmental conditions, should it go directly to a repository as a spent fuel. The applicability of zirconia-magnesia as an inert matrix fuel and waste form was tested and found to be a promising material for such applications.

  15. Treatment Of Municipal Waste Water In Salem City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The treatment processes and quality of the final effluent produced by tertiary filtration for phosphorus removal typically meet state criteria for wastewater reclamation. Reuse of this high quality effluent can be an attractive alternative to direct discharge into surface waters in situations where restrictive NPDES permit limitations apply. In this report, EPA region 10 presents observations of advanced wastewater treatment installed in Salem city. These facilities employ chemical addition and a range of filtration technologies which have proven to be very effective at producing an effluent containing low levels of phosphorus. Tamil Nadu Government Made A Policy Announcement Of Providing Under Ground Sewerage Scheme In All Urban Local Bodies In A Phased Manner At District Head Quarter Towns. The Municipal Sewerage Collection Network Systems Are Implemented and the Household Sewage Are Collected and Moved to the Collection Chamber of STP. The STP consists of various unit operations and processes to treat the raw sewage into the final treated effluent quality as per the stipulated standards. The project will have construction phase and operation phase impacts which have been assessed and the Environment Impact Assessment has been prepared.

  16. Use of radionuclides at small water purification plants and in industrial waste water treatment by radiation adsorption method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brusentseva, S.A.; Egorov, G.F.; Shubin, V.N. [and others

    1993-12-31

    An irradiation technique for potable water treatment is described. Use of radionuclides as a source of radiation allows for the automation of the process. The treatment is considered to be effective in waste water treatment to remove phenols, pesticides, and other toxic compounds.

  17. Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water from source-separated domestic waste(water)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.; Kujawa, K.; Mes, de T.Z.D.; Graaff, de M.S.; Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Mels, A.R.; Meulman, B.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Lier, van J.B.; Lettinga, G.

    2008-01-01

    Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas product

  18. Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases

  19. The ISS Water Processor Catalytic Reactor as a Post Processor for Advanced Water Reclamation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalette, Tim; Snowdon, Doug; Pickering, Karen D.; Callahan, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Advanced water processors being developed for NASA s Exploration Initiative rely on phase change technologies and/or biological processes as the primary means of water reclamation. As a result of the phase change, volatile compounds will also be transported into the distillate product stream. The catalytic reactor assembly used in the International Space Station (ISS) water processor assembly, referred to as Volatile Removal Assembly (VRA), has demonstrated high efficiency oxidation of many of these volatile contaminants, such as low molecular weight alcohols and acetic acid, and is considered a viable post treatment system for all advanced water processors. To support this investigation, two ersatz solutions were defined to be used for further evaluation of the VRA. The first solution was developed as part of an internal research and development project at Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and is based primarily on ISS experience related to the development of the VRA. The second ersatz solution was defined by NASA in support of a study contract to Hamilton Sundstrand to evaluate the VRA as a potential post processor for the Cascade Distillation system being developed by Honeywell. This second ersatz solution contains several low molecular weight alcohols, organic acids, and several inorganic species. A range of residence times, oxygen concentrations and operating temperatures have been studied with both ersatz solutions to provide addition performance capability of the VRA catalyst.

  20. Utilization of red mud for the purification of waste waters from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luka, Mikelic; Visnja, Orescanin; Stipe, Lulic [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Lab. for radioecology, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    Sorption of the radionuclides and heavy metals from low level liquid radioactive waste on the coagulant produced from bauxite waste (red mud and waste base) was presented. Research was conducted on composite annual samples of waste water collected in the Waste Monitor Tank (W.M.T.) from Kro Nuclear Power Plant during each month. Activities of radionuclide in W.M.T. were measured before and after purification using high purity germanium detector. Also, elemental concentrations in W.M.T. before and after purification were measured by source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (E.D.X.R.F.). It has been showed that activated red mud is excellent purification agent for the removal of radionuclides present in low level liquid radioactive waste. Removal efficiency was 100% for the radionuclides {sup 58}Co and {sup 60}Co 100%, and over 60% for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs. (authors)

  1. Magnetic Water Treatment in Environmental Management: A Review of the Recent Advances and Future Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Yadollahpour Ali; Rashidi Samaneh; Rezaee Zohre; Jalilifar Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic water treatment (MWT) is a relatively new technique in environmental management. Magnetic field exposure alters physical and chemical properties of water molecules resulting in unique characteristics. Magnetized water has shown various properties with possible applications in different fields of environmental management. Scale prevention/elimination, soil enhancement, plant growth, crop yield, water saving, and waste water treatment are some of these applications. Magnetic treatment...

  2. Waste incineration models for operation optimization. Phase 1: Advanced measurement equipment for improved operation of waste fired plants; Affaldsforbraendingsmodeller til driftsoptimering. Fase 1: Avanceret maeleudstyr til forbedret drift af affaldsfyrede anlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-01

    This report describes results from the PSO projects ELTRA-5294 and ELTRA-5348: Waste incineration models for operation optimization. Phase 1, and Advanced measurement equipment for improved operation of waste fired plants. Phase 1. The two projects form the first step in a project course build on a long-term vision of a fully automatic system using a wide range of advanced measurement data, advanced dynamic models for prediction of operation and advanced regulation methods for optimization of the operation of waste incinerator plants. (BA)

  3. HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS IN WASTE WATER SAMPLES FROM VALEA ŞESEI TAILING POND

    OpenAIRE

    I. L. MELENTI; E. MAGYAR; T. RUSU

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal analysis in waste water samples from Valea Şesei tailing pond. The mining of ore deposits and the processing and smelting of copper at Roşia Poieni have resulted in an increase of the toxic elements concentration within all components of the environment in the area. Valea Şesei tailing pond is a waste deposit for the Roşia Poieni open-pit and is the biggest tailing pond in Romania. In October 2009, we determined 8 heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) in 10 waste water ...

  4. 76 FR 61118 - Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR... published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas...

  5. Water Vapor Permeability of the Advanced Crew Escape Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Kuzneth, Larry; Gillis, David; Jones, Jeffery; Daniel, Brian; Gernhardt, Michael; Hamilton, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) crewmembers are expected to return to earth wearing a suit similar to the current Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES). To ensure optimum cognitive performance, suited crewmembers must maintain their core body temperature within acceptable limits. There are currently several options for thermal maintenance in the post-landing phase. These include the current baseline, which uses an ammonia boiler, purge flow using oxygen in the suit, accessing sea water for liquid cooling garment (LCG) cooling and/or relying on the evaporative cooling capacity of the suit. These options vary significantly in mass, power, engineering and safety factors, with relying on the evaporative cooling capacity of the suit being the least difficult to implement. Data from previous studies indicates that the evaporative cooling capacity of the ACES was much higher than previously expected, but subsequent tests were performed for longer duration and higher metabolic rates to better define the water vapor permeability of the ACES. In these tests five subjects completed a series of tests performing low to moderate level exercise in order to control for a target metabolic rate while wearing the ACES in an environmentally controlled thermal chamber. Four different metabolic profiles at a constant temperature of 95 F and relative humidity of 50% were evaluated. These tests showed subjects were able to reject about twice as much heat in the permeable ACES as they were in an impermeable suit that had less thermal insulation. All of the heat rejection differential is attributed to the increased evaporation capability through the Gortex bladder of the suit.

  6. Growth and metal bioconcentration by conspecific freshwater macroalgae cultured in industrial waste water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Ellison

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The bioremediation of industrial waste water by macroalgae is a sustainable and renewable approach to the treatment of waste water produced by multiple industries. However, few studies have tested the bioremediation of complex multi-element waste streams from coal-fired power stations by live algae. This study compares the ability of three species of green freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium, isolated from different geographic regions, to grow in waste water for the bioremediation of metals. The experiments used Ash Dam water from Tarong power station in Queensland, which is contaminated by multiple metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn and metalloids (As and Se in excess of Australian water quality guidelines. All species had consistent growth rates in Ash Dam water, despite significant differences in their growth rates in “clean” water. A species isolated from the Ash Dam water itself was not better suited to the bioremediation of that waste water. While there were differences in the temporal pattern of the bioconcentration of metals by the three species, over the course of the experiment, all three species bioconcentrated the same elements preferentially and to a similar extent. All species bioconcentrated metals (Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd and Zn more rapidly than metalloids (As, Mo and Se. Therefore, bioremediation in situ will be most rapid and complete for metals. Overall, all three species of freshwater macroalgae had the ability to grow in waste water and bioconcentrate elements, with a consistent affinity for the key metals that are regulated by Australian and international water quality guidelines. Together, these characteristics make Oedogonium a clear target for scaled bioremediation programs across a range of geographic regions.

  7. Growth and metal bioconcentration by conspecific freshwater macroalgae cultured in industrial waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Michael B; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A; Roberts, David A

    2014-01-01

    The bioremediation of industrial waste water by macroalgae is a sustainable and renewable approach to the treatment of waste water produced by multiple industries. However, few studies have tested the bioremediation of complex multi-element waste streams from coal-fired power stations by live algae. This study compares the ability of three species of green freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium, isolated from different geographic regions, to grow in waste water for the bioremediation of metals. The experiments used Ash Dam water from Tarong power station in Queensland, which is contaminated by multiple metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) and metalloids (As and Se) in excess of Australian water quality guidelines. All species had consistent growth rates in Ash Dam water, despite significant differences in their growth rates in "clean" water. A species isolated from the Ash Dam water itself was not better suited to the bioremediation of that waste water. While there were differences in the temporal pattern of the bioconcentration of metals by the three species, over the course of the experiment, all three species bioconcentrated the same elements preferentially and to a similar extent. All species bioconcentrated metals (Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd and Zn) more rapidly than metalloids (As, Mo and Se). Therefore, bioremediation in situ will be most rapid and complete for metals. Overall, all three species of freshwater macroalgae had the ability to grow in waste water and bioconcentrate elements, with a consistent affinity for the key metals that are regulated by Australian and international water quality guidelines. Together, these characteristics make Oedogonium a clear target for scaled bioremediation programs across a range of geographic regions.

  8. Expected very-near-field thermal environments for advanced spent-fuel and defense high-level waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The very-near-field thermal environments expected in a nuclear waste repository in a salt formation have been evaluated for the Westinghouse Form I advanced waste package concepts. The repository descriptions used to supplement the waste package designs in these analyses are realistic and take into account design constraints to assure conservatism. As a result, areal loadings are well below the acceptable values established for salt repositories. Predicted temperatures are generally well below any temperature limits which have been discussed for waste packages in a salt formation. These low temperatures result from the conservative repository designs. Investigations are also made of the sensitivity of these temperatures to areal loading, canister separation, and other design features

  9. Askøy municipality. Environmental status and assessment of municipal waste water with regard to the requirement of secondary treatment in the EU Urban Waste Water Directive

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, T

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of nutrients available for phytoplankton, chlorophyll-a and secchidepth and control of macroalgae close to municipal waste water discharges gave classification “High” or “Good” environmental conditions in the upper part of the watermasses around Askøy. Investigations of the soft bottom fauna and visual inspection with ROV at the pipe lines ends showed natural environmental conditions except at one station where technical problems had caused a clogged discharge pipe. Good water ex...

  10. Destruction of estrogenic activity in water using UV advanced oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeldt, Erik J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Chen, P.J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and Integrated Toxicology Program, Nicolas School of Environment and Earth Science, Duke University (United States); Integrated Toxicology Program, Nicolas School of Environment and Earth Science, Duke University (United States); Kullman, Seth [Integrated Toxicology Program, Nicolas School of Environment and Earth Science, Duke University (United States); Linden, Karl G. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Box 90287, 121 Hudson Hall Engineering Building, Durham, NC 27708-0287 (United States)]. E-mail: kglinden@duke.edu

    2007-05-01

    The transformation of the steroidal Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs), 17-{beta}-estradiol (E2) and 17-{alpha}-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) by direct UV photolysis and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} advanced oxidation was studied from the perspective of the removal of estrogenic activity associated with the compounds. First, experiments were performed to link the oxidation of E2 and EE2 with subsequent reduction in estrogenic activity. No statistically significant difference between removal rates was observed, implying that the oxidation products of E2 and EE2 are not as estrogenic (measured by the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES)) as the parent compounds. Utilizing the YES, 90% removal of estrogenic activity of E2 and EE2 at environmentally relevant concentrations ({approx} 3 {mu}g L{sup -1}) was achieved using a combination of 5 mg L{sup -1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and a UV fluence of less than 350 mJ cm{sup -2}. Thus, these compounds, when considered at environmentally relevant levels, are significantly degraded at much lower UV fluences than previously thought. A steady state OH radical model was used to predict oxidation of EE2 in laboratory and natural waters.

  11. Immobilization biological activated carbon used in advanced drinking water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria separated from a mature filter bed of groundwater treatment plants were incubated in a culture media containing iron and manganese. A consortium of 5 strains of bacteria removing iron and manganese were obtained by repeated enrichment culturing. It was shown from the experiments of effect factors that ironmanganese removal bacteria in the culture media containing both Fe and Mn grew better than in that containing only Fe, however, they were unable to grow in the culture media containing only Mn. When comparing the bacteria biomass in the case ofρ (DO) =2.8 mg/L andρ (DO) =9.0 mg/L, no significant difference was found.The engineering bacteria removing the organic and the bacteria removing iron and manganese were simultaneously inoculated into activated carbon reactor to treat the effluent of distribution network. The experimental results showed that by using IBAC ( Immobilization Biological Activated Carbon) treatment, the removal efficiency of iron, manganese and permanganate index was more than 98% , 96% and 55% , respectively. After the influent with turbidity of 1.5 NTU, color of 25 degree and offensive odor was treated, the turbidity and color of effluence were less than 0.5 NTU and 15 degree, respectively, and it was odorless. It is determined that the cooperation function of engineering bacteria and activated carbon achieved advanced drinking water treatment.

  12. Utility Leadership in Defining Requirements for Advanced Light Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is appropriate, based on twenty five years of operating experience, that utilities take a position of leadership in developing the technical design and performance requirements for the next generations of nuclear electric generating plants. The U. S. utilities, through the Electric Power Research Institute, began an initiative in 1985 to develop such Utility requirements. Many international Utility organizations, including Korea Electric Power Corporation, have joined as full participants in this important Utility industry initiative. In light of the closer linkage among countries of the world due to rapid travel and telecommunications, it is also appropriate that there be international dialogue and agreement on the principal standards for nuclear power plant acceptability and performance. The Utility/EPRI Advanced Light Water Reactor Program guided by the ALRR Utility Steering Committee has been very successful in developing these Utility requirements. This paper will summarize the state of development of the ALRR Utility Requirements for Evolutionary Plants, recent developments in their review by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, resolution of open issues, and the extension of this effort to develop a companion set of ALRR Utility Requirements for plants employing passive safety features

  13. Economics of an advanced pressurized water reactor (APWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limited natural uranium resources together with their low utilization in current lightwater reactors (LWR) on the one hand and the high capital investments for a LWR and fast breeder reactor system resulting in a high fuel utilization are the most important reasons for research and development (R+D) work related to a high converting APWR system. It is the main task of this analysis to study the economic behaviour of an APWR combining its technical and physical parameters with an economic data base. After introductional remarks chapter II presents the potential improvements of the uranium utilization and their importance for a whole national economy. Chapter III shows the micro-economic aspects for an electricity producing utility using such an APWR plant. The chapter is restricted to the fuel cycle costs and their dependence on various parameters. The corresponding costs of other nuclear power plants are described in chapter IV and compared to those of the APWR in chapter V. Finally a cost comparison on the basis of the electricity generating costs will complete the economic picture of an advanced pressurized water reactor. (orig./UA)

  14. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Digby D. Macdonald; Brian M. Marx; Sejin Ahn; Julio de Ruiz; Balaji Soundararaja; Morgan Smith; and Wendy Coulson

    2008-01-15

    Various forms of general and localized corrosion represent principal threats to the integrity of DOE liquid waste storage tanks. These tanks, which are of a single wall or double wall design, depending upon their age, are fabricated from welded carbon steel and contain a complex waste-form comprised of NaOH and NaNO{sub 3}, along with trace amounts of phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, and chloride. Because waste leakage can have a profound environmental impact, considerable interest exists in predicting the accumulation of corrosion damage, so as to more effectively schedule maintenance and repair. The different tasks that are being carried out under the current program are as follows: (1) Theoretical and experimental assessment of general corrosion of iron/steel in borate buffer solutions by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and XPS techniques; (2) Development of a damage function analysis (DFA) which would help in predicting the accumulation of damage due to pitting corrosion in an environment prototypical of DOE liquid waste systems; (3) Experimental measurement of crack growth rate, acoustic emission signals and coupling currents for fracture in carbon and low alloy steels as functions of mechanical (stress intensity), chemical (conductivity), electrochemical (corrosion potential, ECP), and microstructural (grain size, precipitate size, etc) variables in a systematic manner, with particular attention being focused on the structure of the noise in the current and its correlation with the acoustic emissions; (4) Development of fracture mechanisms for carbon and low alloy steels that are consistent with the crack growth rate, coupling current data and acoustic emissions; (5) Inserting advanced crack growth rate models for SCC into existing deterministic codes for predicting the evolution of corrosion damage in DOE liquid waste storage tanks; (6) Computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity on the surface of the steel samples

  15. Waste load equilibrium allocation: a soft path for coping with deteriorating water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Liming; Xu, Jiuping; Zhang, Mengxiang; Lv, Chengwei; Li, Chaozhi

    2016-08-01

    Waste load allocation is always regarded as another efficient approach comparing with the technology-based approach to improve the water quality. This paper proposes a bi-level multi-objective optimization model for optimally allocating the waste load of a river basin incorporating some concerns (i) the allocation equity from the regional authority, (ii) maximal benefits from the subareas along the river, and (iii) the Stackelberg-Nash-Cournot equilibrium strategy between the upper and lower decision makers. Especially, a novel Gini coefficient for measuring the load allocation equity is defined by considering the economic level and waste water quantity. The applicability and effectiveness of the proposed model is demonstrated through a practical case based on the Tuojiang River, which is a typical basin with diversified industrial waste discharges in western China. Some operational suggestions are developed to assist the decision makers' cope with deteriorating water systems. PMID:27080404

  16. Direct oxidation of strong waste waters, simulating combined wastes in extended-mission space cabins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    The applications of modern technology to the resolution of the problem of solid wastes in space cabin environments was studied with emphasis on the exploration of operating conditions that would permit lowering of process temperatures in wet oxidation of combined human wastes. It was found that the ultimate degree of degradation is not enhanced by use of a catalyst. However, the rate of oxidation is increased, and the temperature of oxidation is reduced to 400 F.

  17. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of Hanford's underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford's organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes' future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as at sign ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures

  18. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.

  19. Fresh water production from municipal waste water with membrane technology and its application for agriculture in an arid area

    OpenAIRE

    横山, 文郎

    2014-01-01

    One of the biggest problems of the 21st century is a global water shortage. Therefore it is difficult to increase quantity of conventional water resources such as surface and well water for agricultural application in an arid area. Technical advancement in water treatment membrane technology including RO membrane have been remarkable especially in recent years. As the pore size of RO membrane is less than one nanometer, it is possible to produce the fresh water, which satisfies the drinking w...

  20. Upgrading and extended testing of the MSC integrated water and waste management hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.; Hurley, T. L.; Jasionowski, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of upgrading and testing an integrated water and waste management system, which uses the compression distillation, reverse osmosis, adsorption filtration and ion-exchange processes to recover potable water from urine, flush water and used wash water. Also included is the development of techniques for extending the useful biological life of biological filters, activated carbon filters and ion-exchange resins to at least 30 days, and presterilizing ion-exchange resins so that sterile water can be recovered from waste water. A wide variety of reverse osmosos materials, surfactants and germicides were experimentally evaluated to determine the best combination for a wash water subsystem. Full-scale module tests with real wash water demonstrated that surface fouling is a major problem.

  1. Study of plutonium disposition using the GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-30

    The end of the cold war and the resulting dismantlement of nuclear weapons has resulted in the need for the U.S. to disposition 50 to 100 metric tons of excess of plutonium in parallel with a similar program in Russia. A number of studies, including the recently released National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study, have recommended conversion of plutonium into spent nuclear fuel with its high radiation barrier as the best means of providing long-term diversion resistance to this material. The NAS study {open_quotes}Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium{close_quotes} identified light water reactor spent fuel as the most readily achievable and proven form for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. The study also stressed the need for a U.S. disposition program which would enhance the prospects for a timely reciprocal program agreement with Russia. This summary provides the key findings of a GE study where plutonium is converted into Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel and a 1350 MWe GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) is utilized to convert the plutonium to spent fuel. The ABWR represents the integration of over 30 years of experience gained worldwide in the design, construction and operation of BWRs. It incorporates advanced features to enhance reliability and safety, minimize waste and reduce worker exposure. For example, the core is never uncovered nor is any operator action required for 72 hours after any design basis accident. Phase 1 of this study was documented in a GE report dated May 13, 1993. DOE`s Phase 1 evaluations cited the ABWR as a proven technical approach for the disposition of plutonium. This Phase 2 study addresses specific areas which the DOE authorized as appropriate for more in-depth evaluations. A separate report addresses the findings relative to the use of existing BWRs to achieve the same goal.

  2. A modern control room for Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is a next generation nuclear power plant being developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. AHWR is a vertical, pressure tube type, heavy-water-moderated, boiling light-water-cooled, innovative reactor, relying on natural circulation for core cooling in all operating and accident conditions. In addition, it incorporates various passive systems for decay heat removal, containment cooling and isolation. In addition to the many passive safety features, AHWR has state of the art I and C architecture based on extensive use of computers and networking. In tune with the many advanced features of the reactor, a centralized modern control room has been conceived for operation and monitoring of the plant. The I and C architecture enables the implementation of a fully computerised operator friendly control room with soft Human Machine Interfaces (HMI). While doing so, safety has been given due consideration. The control and monitoring of AHWR systems are carried out from the fully computer-based operator interfaces, except safety systems, for which only monitoring is provided from soft HMI. The control of the safety systems is performed from dedicated hardwired safety system panels. Soft HMI reduces the number of individual control devices and improves their reliability. The paper briefly describes the I and C architecture adopted for the AHWR plant along with the interfaces to the main and backup control rooms. There are many issues involved while introducing soft HMI based operator interfaces for Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) compared to the conventional plants. Besides discussing the implementation issues, the paper elaborates the design considerations that have undergone in the design of various components in the main control room especially operator workstations, shift supervisor console, safety system panels and large display panels. Mainly task based displays have been adopted for the routine operator interactions of the plant

  3. Fjords in Aalesund and Sula municipalities. Environmental status and effects from discharges of municipal waste water, compared to the requirement of secondary treatment in the urban Waste Water Directive

    OpenAIRE

    Molvær, J.

    2005-01-01

    The nutrient load from land-based sources is dominated by municipal waste water. However, due to high water exchange the overall nutrient load originates from nearby water bodiesthrough water exchange into the area. Due to vertical stratification the plumes from the deep outfalls are usually trapped below the surface. However under weak stratification and weak current conditions, highly diluted waste water may reach the surface (especially RA2 and U1). Except for the deep water in some fjord ...

  4. An Overview of the Integration of Advanced Oxidation Technologies And Other Processes For Water And Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ein-Mozaffari

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Integration of advanced oxidation technologies and other traditional wastewater treatment processes has been proven to be more effective for treating polluted sources of drinking water and industrial wastewater economically. The way of selecting the methods depends on the characteristics of the waste stream, environmental regulations, and cost. Reviewing the experimental works on this area and discussing about their effectiveness as well as modeling of their works would be helpful for deciding whether the integrated process is effective to fulfill the annually restricted legislations with lower investment. Therefore, optimization of each process should be done based on different aspects such as operation time, operating cost, and energy consumption. In this review, recent achievements, developments and trends (2003-2009 on the integration of advanced oxidation technologies and other remediation methods have been studied.

  5. Potato peels as solid waste for the removal of heavy metal copper(II) from waste water/industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Tehseen; Kazi, Asrar Ahmad; Sabri, Muhammad Usman; Bano, Qudsia

    2008-05-01

    A new sorbent potato peels, which are normally discarded as solid waste for removing toxic metal ion Cu(II) from water/industrial waste water have been studied. Potato peels charcoal (PPC) was investigated as an adsorbent of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Kinetic and isotherm studies were carried out by studying the effects of various parameters such as temperature, pH and solid liquid ratios. The optimum pH value for Cu(II) adsorption onto potato peels charcoal (PPC) was found to be 6.0. The thermodynamic parameters such as standard Gibb's free energy (Delta G degrees ), standard enthalpy (Delta H degrees ) and standard entropy (DeltaS degrees ) were evaluated by applying the Van't Hoff equation. The thermodynamics of Cu(II) adsorption onto PPC indicates its spontaneous and exothermic nature. The equilibrium data at different temperatures were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. PMID:18215510

  6. Fast reactors and advanced light water reactors for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows: The importance of nuclear energy, as a realistic option to solve the issues of the depletion of energy resources and the global environment, has been re-acknowledged worldwide. In response to this international movement, the papers compiling the most recent findings in the fields of fast reactors (FR) and advanced light water reactors (LWR) were gathered and published in this special issue. This special issue compiles six articles, most of which are very meticulously performed studies of the multi year development of design and assessment methods for large sodium-cooled FRs (SFRs), and two are related to the fuel cycle options that are leading to a greater understanding on the efficient utilization of energy resources. The Japanese sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR) is addressed in two manuscripts. H. Yamano et al. reviewed the current design which adopts a number of innovative technologies in order to achieve economic competitiveness, enhanced reliability, and safety. Their safety assessments of both design basis accidents and severe accidents indicate that the devised JSFR satisfies well their risk target. T. Takeda et al. discussed the improvement of the modeling accuracy for the detailed calculation of JSFR's features in three areas: neutronics, fuel materials, and thermal hydraulics. The verification studies which partly use the measured data from the prototype FBR Monju are also described. Two of these manuscripts deal with those aspects of advanced design of SFR that have hitherto not been explored in great depth. The paper by G. Palmiotti et al. explored the possibility of using the sensitivity methodologies in the reactor physics field. A review of the methods used is provided, and several examples illustrate the success of the methodology in reactor physics. A new application as the improvement of nuclear basic parameters using integral experiments is also described. F. Baque et al. reviewed the evolution of the in

  7. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) verification and validation plan. version 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Urbina, Angel; Bouchard, Julie F.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Knupp, Patrick Michael; Wang, Yifeng; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Howard, Robert (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); McCornack, Marjorie Turner

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. To meet this objective, NEAMS Waste IPSC M&S capabilities will be applied to challenging spatial domains, temporal domains, multiphysics couplings, and multiscale couplings. A strategic verification and validation (V&V) goal is to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities. Because it is economically impractical to apply the maximum V&V rigor to each and every M&S capability, M&S capabilities will be ranked for their impact on the performance assessments of various components of the repository systems. Those M&S capabilities with greater impact will require a greater level of confidence and a correspondingly greater investment in V&V. This report includes five major components: (1) a background summary of the NEAMS Waste IPSC to emphasize M&S challenges; (2) the conceptual foundation for verification, validation, and confidence assessment of NEAMS Waste IPSC M&S capabilities; (3) specifications for the planned verification, validation, and confidence-assessment practices; (4) specifications for the planned evidence information management system; and (5) a path forward for the incremental implementation of this V&V plan.

  8. Gravimetric water distribution assessment from geoelectrical methods (ERT and EMI) in municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Gaël; Pilawski, Tamara; Dzaomuho-Lenieregue, Phidias; Hiligsmann, Serge; Delvigne, Frank; Thonart, Philippe; Robert, Tanguy; Nguyen, Frédéric; Hermans, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The gravimetric water content of the waste material is a key parameter in waste biodegradation. Previous studies suggest a correlation between changes in water content and modification of electrical resistivity. This study, based on field work in Mont-Saint-Guibert landfill (Belgium), aimed, on one hand, at characterizing the relationship between gravimetric water content and electrical resistivity and on the other hand, at assessing geoelectrical methods as tools to characterize the gravimetric water distribution in a landfill. Using excavated waste samples obtained after drilling, we investigated the influences of the temperature, the liquid phase conductivity, the compaction and the water content on the electrical resistivity. Our results demonstrate that Archie's law and Campbell's law accurately describe these relationships in municipal solid waste (MSW). Next, we conducted a geophysical survey in situ using two techniques: borehole electromagnetics (EM) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). First, in order to validate the use of EM, EM values obtained in situ were compared to electrical resistivity of excavated waste samples from corresponding depths. The petrophysical laws were used to account for the change of environmental parameters (temperature and compaction). A rather good correlation was obtained between direct measurement on waste samples and borehole electromagnetic data. Second, ERT and EM were used to acquire a spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity. Then, using the petrophysical laws, this information was used to estimate the water content distribution. In summary, our results demonstrate that geoelectrical methods represent a pertinent approach to characterize spatial distribution of water content in municipal landfills when properly interpreted using ground truth data. These methods might therefore prove to be valuable tools in waste biodegradation optimization projects. PMID:26926783

  9. Use of new sorption materials and technologies for nuclear power plant waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste water decontamination in the nuclear power plant was achieved using several methods, viz., condensed water treatment using the Ostsorb MV-6/5 activated bioadsorbent; waste water treatment using a two-stage filtration-sorption process with a combined sorption filter (activated Ostsorb MV and granulated activated charcoal in a ratio of 1:1) in the former stage and with a filter with an anion exchanger (Varion AT 660 or Wolfatit SBK) in the latter; waste water treatment using the above technique completed with an intermediate stage utilizing reverse osmosis. The results show that with respect to decontamination efficiency and operating sorption capacity the former process is suitable for the treatment of condensed waste water while the latter process is more suitable for the raw waste water treatment. The mean decontamination factor value is of the order of 103 in both cases. Reverse osmosis is a prospective and a suitable supplementary process for a reliable capture of multivalent ions and of nuclides bound in a chemically complex or colloidal form. (J.B.)

  10. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Digby Macdonald; Brian Marx; Balaji Soundararajan; Morgan Smith

    2005-07-28

    The different tasks that have been carried out under the current program are as follows: (1) Theoretical and experimental assessment of general corrosion of iron/steel in borate buffer solutions by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and XPS techniques; (2) Development of a damage function analysis (DFA), which would help in predicting the accumulation of damage due to pitting corrosion in an environment prototypical of DOE liquid waste systems; (3) Experimental measurement of crack growth rate, acoustic emission signals, and coupling currents for fracture in carbon and low alloy steels as functions of mechanical (stress intensity), chemical (conductivity), electrochemical (corrosion potential, ECP), and microstructural (grain size, precipitate size, etc) variables in a systematic manner, with particular attention being focused on the structure of the noise in the current and its correlation with the acoustic emissions; (4) Development of fracture mechanisms for carbon and low alloy steels that are consistent with the crack growth rate, coupling current data and acoustic emissions; (5) Inserting advanced crack growth rate models for SCC into existing deterministic codes for predicting the evolution of corrosion damage in DOE liquid waste storage tanks; (6) Computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity on the surface of the steel samples in order to exactly predict the corrosion mechanisms; (7) Wavelet analysis of EC noise data from steel samples undergoing corrosion in an environment similar to that of the high level waste storage containers, to extract data pertaining to general, pitting and stress corrosion processes, from the overall data. The work has yielded a number of important findings, including an unequivocal demonstration of the role of chloride ion in passivity breakdown on nickel in terms of cation vacancy generation within the passive film, the first detection and characterization of individual micro fracture

  11. Wastes from selected activities in two light-water reactor fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents projected volumes and radioactivities of wastes from the production of electrical energy using light-water reactors (LWR). The projections are based upon data developed for a recent environmental impact statement in which the transuranic wastes (i.e., those wastes containing certain long-lived alpha emitters at concentrations of at least 370 becquerels, or 10 nCi, per gram of waste) from fuel cycle activities were characterized. In addition, since the WG.7 assumed that all fuel cycle wastes except mill tailings are placed in a mined geologic repository, the nontransuranic wastes from several activities are included in the projections reported. The LWR fuel cycles considered are the LWR, once-through fuel cycle (Strategy 1), in which spent fuel is packaged in metal canisters and then isolated in geologic formations; and the LWR U/Pu recycle fuel cycle (Strategy 2), wherein spent fuel is reprocessed for recovery and recycle of uranium and plutonium in LWRs. The wastes projected for the two LWR fuel cycles are summarized. The reactor operations and decommissioning were found to dominate the rate of waste generation in each cycle. These activities account for at least 85% of the fuel cycle waste volume (not including head-end wastes) when normalized to per unit electrical energy generated. At 10 years out of reactor, however, spent fuel elements in Strategy 1 represent 98% of the fuel cycle activity but only 4% of the volume. Similarly, the packaged high-level waste, fuel hulls and hardware in Strategy 2 concentrate greater than 95% of the activity in 2% of the waste volume

  12. Advanced Oxidation Technology for Potable Water Disinfection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The availability of high-quality potable water is essential in crewed space missions. Closed loop water recycling systems as well as potable water holding tanks and...

  13. Recovery of Caprolactam from Waste Water in Caprolactam Production Using Pulsed—sieve—plate Extraction column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUJiangqing; XIEFangyou; 等

    2002-01-01

    Recovery of caprolactam from waste water of caprolactam production factory was investigated using benzence as solvent in a small-scale pulsed-sieve-plate column.First,liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) deta were measured,including water-caprolactam-benzene system at low caprolactam concentrations,and waste water-benzene system.Then,the operating regions and mass transfer of the pulsed-sieve-plate column were measured.Finally,the overall apparent heights of a transfer unit based on continuous phase are correlated in terms of the column operation variables.

  14. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggard, R.D.

    1996-08-12

    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  15. Study of Material Used in Nanotechnology for the Recycling of Industrial Waste Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi, L.; Fertikh, N.; Toubal, A.

    The objective of our study is to recycle the industrial waste water of a industrial Complex after treatment by the bioprocess MBR (membrane bioreactor). In order to apply this bioprocess, the water quality in question was first of all studied. To characterize this industrial waste water, a series of physicochemical analysis was carried out according to standardized directives and methods. Following-up the water quality to meet the regulatory requirements with rejection of this industrial waste water, a study was done thanks to the permanently monitoring of the following relevant parameters(P): the flow, the potential of hydrogen (pH), the total suspended solids(TSS), the turbidity (Turb), the chemical oxygen demand (COD),the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), the Kjeldahl total nitrogen (KTN) and ammonia (NH4+), the total phosphorus (Ptot), the fluorine (F), the oils (O), the fats (F) and the phenols (Ph). According to collected information, it was established the sampling rates to which the quality control was done, the selected analytical methods were validated by the control charts and the analysis test number was determined by the Cochran test. The results of the quality control show that some rejected water contents are not in the Algerian standards, but, in our case, the objective is the preoccupation for a standard setting of these industrial water parameters so as to recycle it. The process adopted by MBR for waste water treatment is being studied, first in the development of the experimental characterizing of the reactor and the selected membrane.

  16. Preparation of low water-sorption lightweight aggregates from harbor sediment added with waste glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Ling; Lin, Chang-Yuan; Ko, Kuan-Wei; Wang, H Paul

    2011-01-01

    A harbor sediment is successfully recycled at 1150 °C as low water-absorption lightweight aggregate via addition of waste glass powder. Sodium content in the waste glass is responsible for the formation of low-viscosity viscous phases during firing process to encapsulate the gases generated for bloating pellet samples. Water sorption capacity of the lightweight products can be considerably reduced from 5.6% to 1.5% with the addition of waste glass powder. Low water-absorption property of lightweight products is beneficial for preparing lightweight concrete because the water required for curing the cement would not be seized by lightweight aggregate filler, thus preventing the failure of long-term concrete strength. PMID:21367431

  17. Comparative Studies on Growth and Remediation of Waste Water by Two Cyanobacterial Biofertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Tartte

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria are ecologically significant inputs in improving the plant productivity in tropical countries like India. Large scale cultivation of these organisms using inorganic media is relatively expensive. In the present study utilization of kitchen waste water emerged from a pilgrim centre as a source of nutrients and its remediation was compared using two blue green algal cultures viz. Anabeana variabilis and Nostoc muscorum. A complete randomized design was created for the experiment that was performed on BG-11, 100% and 75% KW (Kitchen Water media. The physicochemical properties of waste water were analyzed before and after cultivation. It was found that the N. muscorum was more effective in removal of phosphorous and nitrogen contaminants from waste water to meet the standards of safe discharge besides producing more biomass compared to A. variabilis.

  18. Lost water and nitrogen resources due to EU consumer food waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D.; Bouraoui, F.; Leip, A.; Grizzetti, B.; Bidoglio, G.

    2015-08-01

    The European Parliament recently called for urgent measures to halve food waste in the EU, where consumers are responsible for a major part of total waste along the food supply chain. Due to a lack of data on national food waste statistics, uncertainty in (consumer) waste quantities (and the resulting associated quantities of natural resources) is very high, but has never been previously assessed in studies for the EU. Here we quantify: (1) EU consumer food waste, and (2) associated natural resources required for its production, in term of water and nitrogen, as well as estimating the uncertainty of these values. Total EU consumer food waste averages 123 (min 55-max 190) kg/capita annually (kg/cap/yr), i.e. 16% (min 7-max 24%) of all food reaching consumers. Almost 80%, i.e. 97 (min 45-max 153) kg/cap/yr is avoidable food waste, which is edible food not consumed. We have calculated the water and nitrogen (N) resources associated with avoidable food waste. The associated blue water footprint (WF) (the consumption of surface and groundwater resources) averages 27 litre per capita per day (min 13-max 40 l/cap/d), which slightly exceeds the total blue consumptive EU municipal water use. The associated green WF (consumptive rainwater use) is 294 (min 127-max 449) l/cap/d, equivalent to the total green consumptive water use for crop production in Spain. The nitrogen (N) contained in avoidable food waste averages 0.68 (min 0.29-max 1.08) kg/cap/yr. The food production N footprint (any remaining N used in the food production process) averages 2.74 (min 1.02-max 4.65) kg/cap/yr, equivalent to the use of mineral fertiliser by the UK and Germany combined. Among all the food product groups wasted, meat accounts for the highest amounts of water and N resources, followed by wasted cereals. The results of this study provide essential insights and information on sustainable consumption and resource efficiency for both EU policies and EU consumers.

  19. Preconcentration of low levels of americium and plutonium from waste waters by synthetic water-soluble metal-binding polymers with ultrafiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preconcentration approach to assist in the measurement of low levels of americium and plutonium in waste waters has been developed based on the concept of using water-soluble metal-binding polymers in combination with ultrafiltration. The method has been optimized to give over 90% recovery and accountability from actual waste water. (author)

  20. E-beam irradiation and activated sludge system for treatment of mixed textiles and food base industrial waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was chosen to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal from textiles effluent in the presence of food industry waste water. Two biological treatments, the first consisting a mix of non irradiated textile and food industry waste water and the second a mix of irradiated textiles waste water and food industry waste water were operated in parallel. Reduction percentage of COD in textiles waste water increased from 29.4 % after radiation to 62.4 % after further undergoing biological treatment. After irradiation, the BOD5 of textiles waste water was reduced by 22.1 % but reverted to the original value of 36 mg/ L after undergoing biological treatment. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and continued to decrease to 109.3 ADMI after passing through biological treatment. (author)

  1. 30 CFR 250.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? 250.217 Section 250.217 Mineral... What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? The following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water...

  2. 炼厂固废处理技术进展%Advances on Treating Technique for Solid Waste in Refinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一; 丛晓强; 姜毅; 王海燕

    2012-01-01

    石油炼制工业产生的固体废物主要来自于生产工艺本身以及污水处理设施,成分复杂,应对其进行无害化处理或综合利用。本文主要介绍了对于炼厂固废中废碱渣、废白土以及废催化剂处理技术的研究及应用进展,并提出了今后的发展方向和建议。%Solid waste from refinery, produced mostly in production process and sewage treatment facilities, was one of major wastes. They should be treated harmlessly or utilized comprehensively. The advanced treatment technology of solid wastes which included waste alkaline residue, waste clay and waste catalyst was summarized. In addition, the development trend and suggestion were put forward.

  3. Decontamination of water polluted with oil through the use of tanned solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammoun, A.; Azzi, M. [Hassan II Univ., Casablanca (Morocco). Faculty of Science

    2007-09-15

    The ability of chrome shavings (CS) and buffing dusts of crust leather (BDCL) to remove oily wastes from demineralized water and natural seawater was investigated. The aim of the study was to discover environmentally friendly alternatives for the disposal of solid tannery wastes. The specific surface area of the CS and the BDCL were examined to determine ash content; chromium oxide; fat; and the pH of soluble matter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was then used to examine the structure and morphology of the samples. Three types of oil were used in the experiment: diesel motor oil; premium motor oil; and used motor oil. Sorbent materials were added to a beaker containing 1000 ml of water and 5.5 g of oil. The amount of residual oil in the water was then extracted with petroleum ether. The amount of oil sorbed on the wastes was calculated by subtracting the amount of residual oil in water from the initial mass of oil added to the beakers. Results suggested that the tanned solid wastes efficiently removed the oil from the water. It was concluded that the waste materials were able to absorb many times their weight in oil. 21 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. Anaerobic biodegradation of a petrochemical waste-water using biomass support particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the anaerobic biodegradation of effluent from a dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) manufacturing plant, reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation and biogas formation was observed after the waste-water concentration exceeded 25% of added feed COD. This condition reverted back to normal after 25-30 days when the DMT waste-water concentration in the feed was brought down to a non-toxic level. However, the above effects were observed only after the concentration of DMT waste-water reached more than 75% of added feed COD when biomass support particles (BSP) were augmented to the system. In the BSP system, a biomass concentration of up to 7000 mg/l was retained and the sludge retention time increased to >200 days compared to 2200 mg/l and 8-10 days, respectively, in the system without BSP (control). Formaldehyde in the waste-water was found to be responsible for the observed toxicity. The BSP system was found to resist formaldehyde toxicity of up to 375 mg/l as against 125 mg/l in the control system. Moreover, the BSP system recovered from the toxicity much faster (15 days) than the control (25-30 days). The advantages of the BSP system in anaerobic treatment of DMT waste-water are discussed. (orig.)

  5. A novel recovery technology of trace precious metals from waste water by combining agglomeration and adsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel and efficient technology for separating and recovering precious metals from waste water containing traces of Pd and Ag was studied by the combination of agglomeration and adsorption. The recovery process and the impacts of operating conditions such as pH value of waste water, adsorption time, additive quantity of the flocculant and adsorbent on the recovery efficiency were studied experimentally. The results show that Freundlich isothermal equation is suitable for describing the behavior of the recovery process, and the apparent first-order adsorption rate constant k at 25 ℃ is about 0.233 4 h-1 The optimum technology conditions during the recovery process are that pH value is 8-9; the volume ratio of flocculant to waste water is about 1 :(2 000-4 000); the mass ratio of adsorbent to waste water is 1 :(30-40); and processing time is 2-4 h. Finally, the field tests were done at the optimum technology conditions, which show that the total concentration of Pd and Ag in the waste water below 11 mg/L can be reduced to be less than 1 mg/L.

  6. Decontamination of water polluted with oil through the use of tanned solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of chrome shavings (CS) and buffing dusts of crust leather (BDCL) to remove oily wastes from demineralized water and natural seawater was investigated. The aim of the study was to discover environmentally friendly alternatives for the disposal of solid tannery wastes. The specific surface area of the CS and the BDCL were examined to determine ash content; chromium oxide; fat; and the pH of soluble matter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was then used to examine the structure and morphology of the samples. Three types of oil were used in the experiment: diesel motor oil; premium motor oil; and used motor oil. Sorbent materials were added to a beaker containing 1000 ml of water and 5.5 g of oil. The amount of residual oil in the water was then extracted with petroleum ether. The amount of oil sorbed on the wastes was calculated by subtracting the amount of residual oil in water from the initial mass of oil added to the beakers. Results suggested that the tanned solid wastes efficiently removed the oil from the water. It was concluded that the waste materials were able to absorb many times their weight in oil. 21 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Recent advances in yeast cell-surface display technologies for waste biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuo; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Chang, Jo-Shu; Ren, Nan-Qi; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-09-01

    Waste biorefinery aims to maximize the output of value-added products from various artificial/agricultural wastes by using integrated bioprocesses. To make waste biorefinery economically feasible, it is thus necessary to develop a low-cost, environment-friendly technique to perform simultaneous biodegradation and bioconversion of waste materials. Cell-surface display engineering is a novel, cost-effective technique that can auto-immobilize proteins on the cell exterior of microorganisms, and has been applied for use with waste biofinery. Through tethering different enzymes (e.g., cellulase, lipase, and protease) or metal-binding peptides on cell surfaces, various yeast strains can effectively produce biofuels and biochemicals from sugar/protein-rich waste materials, catalyze waste oils into biodiesels, or retrieve heavy metals from wastewater. This review critically summarizes recent applications of yeast cell-surface display on various types of waste biorefineries, highlighting its potential and future challenges with regard to commercializing this technology. PMID:27039354

  8. The use of exergy analysis to benchmark the resource efficiency of municipal waste water treatment plants in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Horrigan, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    With ever increasing environmental standards and waste water loading rates, energy consumption for waste water treatment is predicted to rise by over 20% by 2020 in the United States. When considering the resource efficiency of waste water treatment plants factors such as effluent quality, carbon footprint and increasing electricity rates act as a driving force for sustainable design of these facilities. Exergy analysis has been identified in the literature as a powerful tool in the analysis ...

  9. Dynamics of the process of colour adsorption from waste waters after dyeing textile fibres on natural zeolites

    OpenAIRE

    Cibulić Violeta V.; Stamenković Lidija J.; Veljković Nebojša D.; Staletović Novica M.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the process of purifying waste waters from textile fibre dyeing by adsorption of colour on natural zeolites from “Nemetali” mine, Vranjska Banja, Serbia. The process has been analyzed in an adsorption column filled with natural zeolite as the adsorbent. Adsorbents are organic substances, i.e. colour residues from waste waters, left after textile fibres dyeing. The concentration change in waste waters is represented with the parameter of chemical oxygen demand (COD). ...

  10. Overview of the principal european and french regulations on air, water and solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piro, M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarises French and European regulation on discharges into the environment (excluding radio-active emissions), whether solid, liquid or gaseous, that is to say, covering solid wastes, aqueous effluents and atmospheric emissions. The report includes commentaries allowing a better understanding of the legislation. Three fields are examined: the air, solid wastes and water. For each sector, we have listed the European directives and their application in French law. The chronological order facilitates consultation. (author).

  11. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: reprocessing light-water reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from a model nuclear fuel reprocessing plant which processes light-water reactor (LWR) fuels, and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist in defining the term as low as reasonably achievable in relation to limiting the release of radioactive materials from nuclear facilities. The base case model plant is representative of current plant technology and has an annual capacity of 1500 metric tons of LWR fuel. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The cost for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose commitments are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, radiological dose is plotted vs the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases is in an early stage of development and is not suitable for immediate use. The methodology used in estimating the costs, and the radiological doses, detailed calculations, and tabulations are presented in Appendix A and ORNL-4992. This report is a revision of the original study

  12. Advances in the Coupled Soil Water and Groundwater Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉峥; 王志敏

    2014-01-01

    Models simulating the reciprocal transformation between the soil water and groundwater are of great practical importance to the development and utilization of water resources and prevention and remedy of water pollution. In this paper, popular coupled models of soil water and groundwater will be analyzed. Besides, advantages and disadvantages of different models will be summarized as a reference for the numerical model of soil water and groundwater.

  13. Impact of Animal Waste Application on Runoff Water Quality in Field Experimental Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of animal waste application on biological (fecal coliform, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli and physical/chemical (temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, copper, zinc, and sulfate characteristics of runoff water in experimental plots. The effects of the application of animal waste have been evaluated by utilizing experimental plots and simulated rainfall events. Samples of runoff water were collected and analyzed for fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. Chemical analysis was performed following standard test protocols. An analysis of temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, iron, copper, phosphate, potassium, sulfate, zinc and bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater [1]. In the experimental plots, less time was required in the tilled broiler litter plots for the measured chemicals to decrease below the initial pre-treatment levels. A decrease of over 50% was noted between the first and second rainfall events for sulfate levels. This decrease was seen after only four simulated rainfall events in tilled broiler litter plots whereas broiler litter plots required eight simulated rainfall events to show this same type of reduction. A reverse trend was seen in the broiler litter plots and the tilled broiler plots for potassium

  14. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nuclear waste contained in the shipment, as specified in the regulations of DOT in 49 CFR 172.202 and 172... fuel and nuclear waste. 71.97 Section 71.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a) As specified in paragraphs (b),...

  15. Food consumption and waste and the embedded carbon, water and ecological footprints of households in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guobao; Li, Mingjing; Semakula, Henry Musoke; Zhang, Shushen

    2015-10-01

    Strategies for reducing food waste and developing sustainable diets require information about the impacts of consumption behavior and waste generation on climatic, water, and land resources. We quantified the carbon, water, and ecological footprints of 17,110 family members of Chinese households, covering 1935 types of foods, by combining survey data with available life-cycle assessment data sets. We also summarized the patterns of both food consumption and waste generation and analyzed the factors influencing the observed trends. The average person wasted (consumed) 16 (415) kg of food at home annually, equivalent to 40 (1080) kg CO2e, 18 (673) m(3), and 173 (4956) gm(2) for the carbon, water and ecological footprints, respectively. The generation of food waste was highly correlated with consumption for various food groups. For example, vegetables, rice, and wheat were consumed the most and accounted for the most waste. In addition to the three plant-derived food groups, pork and aquatic products also contributed greatly to embedded footprints. The data obtained in this study could be used for assessing national food security or the carrying capacity of resources. PMID:26011615

  16. Removal of Chromium from Waste Water of Tanning Industry Using Bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanning industry is considered as one of the oldest industries in the world, which produces solid and liquid wastes, where the Chromium-containing liquid wastes are considered to be as the main liquid pollutant to the environment. In this research, a new method is applied to remove the chromium from the industrial water wastes, which are produced by tanning industry using the Aleppo Bentonite.The experiments on laboratory- prepared samples and collected samples from some tanning factories in Damascus have proved that chromium removal from tanning waste water is very effective for solution of 85-98 %. Moreover, the optimal conditions for the treatment process of tanning waste water by Aleppo Bentonite have determined and found to be (pH=4, Bentonite concentration = 20 g l-1 when chromium concentration is 0.8 g l-1 , solution temperature = 30 degree centigrade, and Bentonite particle size < 90 μm). However, the proposed method can be considered to be an environmental solution for the treatment of tanning industrial wastes in Syria. (author)

  17. Site remediation of three waste water surface impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EcoTek conducted an extensive remedial action feasibility study to determine the best way to treat 86,000 cubic feet of low-level radioactive waste sediment. This paper reports on the results of this study which showed the preferred method was to excavate with a floating dredge, dewater with a filter press, and package for burial at a licensed low-level radioactive waste site. A pilot-scale operation was designed, installed and operated for two months to verify the selected methodology. Additional testing was performed to optimize certain run times and to test various chemical additives. Detailed design of the production plant followed. Equipment procurement and construction are currently underway

  18. Description of station waste water treatment and study of reclaiming industry ceramic red

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So that the water meets potability standards required by the laws it passes through various treatment processes which generate waste called WTS (Water Treatment Sludge). This sludge is disposed of without any processing, however, environmental agencies and the public are demanding alternatives to this situation. Knowing this, this study aims to characterize the sludge from the Water Treatment Plant Botafogo and analyze its viability as a feedstock in the manufacture of red bricks. (author)

  19. Intended process water management concept for the mechanical biological treatment of municipal solid waste

    OpenAIRE

    D. Weichgrebe; S. Maerker; T. Böning; H. Stegemann

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating operational experience in both aerobic and anaerobic mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT) makes it increasingly obvious that controlled water management would substantially reduce the cost of MBT and also enhance resource recovery of the organic and inorganic fraction. The MBT plant at Gescher, Germany, is used as an example in order to determine the quantity and composition of process water and leachates from intensive and subsequent rotting, pressing water from anaerobic...

  20. Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao;

    2015-01-01

    resources optimal allocation model and④The hydrological ecosystem analysis in irrigation district. Our analysis showed that there are four major problems in domestic irrigation water resources allocation:Policies for rational water resources allocation and protection are not in place, unified management......The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area....... The progress of research on the rational allocation of water resources in irrigation districts both at home and abroad may be summarized in four key aspects of the policy regarding water re?sources management:① The mechanism of water resource cycle and ② Transformation in irrigation district, ③ The water...

  1. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems, prepared to support the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) systems analysis, provides a technology-oriented baseline system cost comparison between the open fuel cycle and closed fuel cycle systems. The intent is to understand their overall cost trends, cost sensitivities, and trade-offs. This analysis also improves the AFCI Program’s understanding of the cost drivers that will determine nuclear power’s cost competitiveness vis-a-vis other baseload generation systems. The common reactor-related costs consist of capital, operating, and decontamination and decommissioning costs. Fuel cycle costs include front-end (pre-irradiation) and back-end (post-iradiation) costs, as well as costs specifically associated with fuel recycling. This analysis reveals that there are large cost uncertainties associated with all the fuel cycle strategies, and that overall systems (reactor plus fuel cycle) using a closed fuel cycle are about 10% more expensive in terms of electricity generation cost than open cycle systems. The study concludes that further U.S. and joint international-based design studies are needed to reduce the cost uncertainties with respect to fast reactor, fuel separation and fabrication, and waste disposition. The results of this work can help provide insight to the cost-related factors and conditions needed to keep nuclear energy (including closed fuel cycles) economically competitive in the U.S. and worldwide. These results may be updated over time based on new cost information, revised assumptions, and feedback received from additional reviews.

  2. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Digby D. Macdonald; Brian M. Marx; Sejin Ahn; Julio de Ruiz; Balaji Soundararaja; Morgan Smith; and Wendy Coulson

    2008-01-15

    Various forms of general and localized corrosion represent principal threats to the integrity of DOE liquid waste storage tanks. These tanks, which are of a single wall or double wall design, depending upon their age, are fabricated from welded carbon steel and contain a complex waste-form comprised of NaOH and NaNO{sub 3}, along with trace amounts of phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, and chloride. Because waste leakage can have a profound environmental impact, considerable interest exists in predicting the accumulation of corrosion damage, so as to more effectively schedule maintenance and repair. The different tasks that are being carried out under the current program are as follows: (1) Theoretical and experimental assessment of general corrosion of iron/steel in borate buffer solutions by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and XPS techniques; (2) Development of a damage function analysis (DFA) which would help in predicting the accumulation of damage due to pitting corrosion in an environment prototypical of DOE liquid waste systems; (3) Experimental measurement of crack growth rate, acoustic emission signals and coupling currents for fracture in carbon and low alloy steels as functions of mechanical (stress intensity), chemical (conductivity), electrochemical (corrosion potential, ECP), and microstructural (grain size, precipitate size, etc) variables in a systematic manner, with particular attention being focused on the structure of the noise in the current and its correlation with the acoustic emissions; (4) Development of fracture mechanisms for carbon and low alloy steels that are consistent with the crack growth rate, coupling current data and acoustic emissions; (5) Inserting advanced crack growth rate models for SCC into existing deterministic codes for predicting the evolution of corrosion damage in DOE liquid waste storage tanks; (6) Computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity on the surface of the steel samples

  3. Advanced anaerobic bioconversion of lignocellulosic waste for the melissa life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissens, G.; Verstraete, W.; Albrecht, T.; Brunner, G.; Creuly, C.; Dussap, G.; Kube, J.; Maerkl, H.; Lasseur, C.

    The feasibility of nearly-complete conversion of lignocellulosic waste (70% food crops, 20% faecal matter and 10% green algae) into biogas was investigated in the context of the MELiSSA loop (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative). The treatment comprised a series of processes, i.e. a mesophilic laboratory scale CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor), an upflow biofilm reactor, a fiber liquefaction reactor employing the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes and a hydrothermolysis system in near-critical water. By the one-stage CSTR, a biogas yield of 75% with a specific biogas production of 0.37 l biogas g-1 VSS (volatile suspended solids) added at a RT (hydraulic retention time) of 20-25 d was obtained. Biogas yields could not be increased considerably at higher RT, indicating the depletion of readily available substrate after 25 d. The solids present in the CSTR-effluent were subsequently treated in two ways. Hydrothermal treatment (T ˜ 310-350C, p ˜ 240 bar) resulted in effective carbon liquefaction (50-60% without and 83% with carbon dioxide saturation) and complete sanitation of the residue. Application of the cellulolytic Fibrobacter succinogenes converted remaining cellulose contained in the CSTR-effluent into acetate and propionate mainly. Subsequent anaerobic digestion of the hydrothermolysis and the Fibrobacter hydrolysates allowed conversion of 48-60% and 30%, respectively. Thus, the total process yielded biogas corresponding with conversions up to 90% of the original organic matter. It appears that particularly mesophilic digestion in conjunction with hydrothermolysis offers interesting features for (nearly) the MELiSSA system. The described additional technologies show that complete and hygienic carbon and energy recovery from human waste within MELiSSA is technically feasible, provided that the extra energy needed for the thermal treatment is guaranteed.

  4. Water as a transport medium for waste out of towns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, P.

    1999-01-01

    The historical background for centralised water management in the cities of the developed world is outlined in order to give the rationale for the technical solutions we have inherited from the last century. The key element is maintaining the hygienic conditions in the cities. The success is illu...... water use, because water is not lost, but polluted, which can be abated. Water can be re-routed and recycled. There are many attractive local solutions for better handling of urban water. (C) 1999 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.-All rights reserved....... is illustrated by the absence of water-borne diseases in the modem developed city. A new paradigm is introduced based on added concern for the use of resources, pollution of the environment and the concern for the welfare of the coming generations. The water resource is not the unsustainable aspect of urban...

  5. Energy from domestic wast water and kitchen wast with Eureka-HD, An Energy Balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grond, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of wastewater is commonly done centralized, bringing high costs for collecting a big flow of low concentrated wastewater. A mixed input of black water, grey water, rainwater and groundwater has a low concentration of contamination making recover

  6. Potential for polyhydroxyalkanoate production on German or European municipal waste water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittmann, T; Steinmetz, H

    2016-08-01

    Biopolymers, which are made of renewable raw materials and/or biodegradable residual materials present a possible alternative to common plastic. A potential analysis, based on experimental results in laboratory scale and detailed data from German waste water treatment plants, showed that the theoretically possible production of biopolymers in Germany amounts to more than 20% of the 2015 worldwide biopolymer production. In addition a profound estimation regarding all European Union member states showed that theoretically about 115% of the actual worldwide biopolymer production could be produced on European waste water treatment plants. With an upgraded biopolymer production and a theoretically reachable biopolymer proportion of around 60% of the cell dry weight a total of 1,794,656tPHAa or approximately 236% of today's biopolymer production could be produced on waste water treatment plants in the European Union, using primary sludge as raw material only. PMID:27128189

  7. Advanced Design of Separated Household Waste Collection Systems on the Base of GIS Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ladanyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hungarian waste management sector is under transformation now. The new (2012/CLXXXV Law on the Waste applies requirements on the players of the waste market that will result in the reorganization of the whole waste management industrial sector. The aim of the system transformation is enhancing the proportion of separately treated waste in accordance with the EU directives. Emerging waste quantities to be separately treated means challenge for the existing logistic capacities (e.g., collector vehicles; thus evaluation of their actual efficiency and utilization seems to be useful in the course of the transformation. With this object in view, a new separated waste collection system planning approach and a software module were developed on the base of a geographic information system (GIS platform. The software module was designed to help choose and localize the appropriate collection methods and define the logistically effective collector vehicle routes according to the settlement structures of urban environments.

  8. 2015 Annual Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This report describes conditions and information, as required by the state of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality Reuse Permit I-161-02, for the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds located at Idaho National Laboratory from November 1, 2014–October 31, 2015. The effective date of Reuse Permit I-161-02 is November 20, 2014 with an expiration date of November 19, 2019.

  9. An Advanced Microturbine System with Water-Lubricated Bearings

    OpenAIRE

    Susumu Nakano; Tadaharu Kishibe; Tomoaki Inoue; Hiroyuki Shiraiwa

    2009-01-01

    A prototype of the next-generation, high-performance microturbine system was developed for laboratory evaluation. Its unique feature is its utilization of water. Water is the lubricant for the bearings in this first reported application of water-lubricated bearings in gas turbines. Bearing losses and limitations under usage conditions were found from component tests done on the bearings and load tests done on the prototype microturbine. The rotor system using the water-lubricated bearings ach...

  10. Advances in Biological Water-saving Research: Challenge and Perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lun Shan; Xiping Deng; Suiqi Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Increasing the efficiency of water use by crops continues to escalate as a topic of concern because drought is a restrictive environmental factor for crop productivity worldwide. Greater yield per unit rainfall is one of the most important challenges in water-saving agriculture. Besides water-saving by irrigation engineering and conservation tillage, a good understanding of factors limiting and/or regulating yield now provides us with an opportunity to identify and then precisely select for physiological and breeding traits that increase the efficiency of water use and drought tolerance under water-limited conditions, biological water-saving is one means of achieving this goat. A definition of biological water-saving measures is proposed which embraces improvements in water-use efficiency (WUE) and drought tolerance, by genetic improvement and physiological regulation. The preponderance of biological water-saving measures is discussed and strategies identified for working within natural resource constraints. The technology and future perspectives of biological water saving could provide not only new water-saving techniques but also a scientific base for application of water-saving irrigation and conservation tillage.

  11. Thermohydraulic relationships for advanced water cooled reactors, and the role of IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) a Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on Thermohydraulic Relationships for Advanced Water-Cooled Reactors was carried out from 1995-1999. It was included into the IAEA's Programme following endorsement in 1995 by the IAEA's International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors. The overall goal was to promote international information exchange and cooperation in establishing a consistent set of thermohydraulic relationships that are appropriate for use in analyzing the performance and safety of advanced water cooled reactors. (authors)

  12. The Challenges of Creating a Real-Time Data Management System for TRU-Mixed Waste at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the challenges associated with creating a data management system for waste tracking at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Plant (AMWTP) at the Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEEL). The waste tracking system combines data from plant automation systems and decision points. The primary purpose of the system is to provide information to enable the plant operators and engineers to assess the risks associated with each container and determine the best method of treating it. It is also used to track the transuranic (TRU) waste containers as they move throughout the various processes at the plant. And finally, the goal of the system is to support paperless shipments of the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper describes the approach, methodologies, the underlying design of the database, and the challenges of creating the Data Management System (DMS) prior to completion of design and construction of a major plant. The system was built utilizing an Oracle database platform, and Oracle Forms 6i in client-server mode. The underlying data architecture is container-centric, with separate tables and objects for each type of analysis used to characterize the waste, including real-time radiography (RTR), non-destructive assay (NDA), head-space gas sampling and analysis (HSGS), visual examination (VE) and coring. The use of separate tables facilitated the construction of automatic interfaces with the analysis instruments that enabled direct data capture. Movements are tracked using a location system describing each waste container's current location and a history table tracking the container's movement history. The movement system is designed to interface both with radio-frequency bar-code devices and the plant's integrated control system (ICS). Collections of containers or information, such as batches, were created across the various types of analyses, which enabled a single, cohesive approach to be developed for verification and

  13. The physico-chemical treatment of laundry waste water; Tratamiento fisicoquimica de aguas residuales de lavanderias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susial, P.; Jato, I. G.; Larranaga, I.

    2006-07-01

    Waste water from the washing of clot her is treated with aluminium sulphate + acrylamide to achieve coagulation/flocculation. The analytical data obtained in a jar-test using the FTU as the control parameter demonstrate the efficacy of the process, as reductions in the FTU approaching 100% and elimination rates of 80% in detergents and 85% in the COD were achieved. These results show that coagulation and flocculation are sufficient to treat laundry waste water, even though it contains a high pollutant load, since both organic and inorganic pollutants can be significantly reduced by such operations. (Author) 17 refs.

  14. Treatment of Zn-Containing Acidic Waste Water by Emulsion Liquid Membrane Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王士柱; 何培炯; 郝东萍; 朱永贝睿

    2002-01-01

    Zn-containing waste water from a viscose staple fiber plant has been treated using the emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) process since 1995. The flow sheet and operating parameters of the ELM process are introduced. After adjusting the membrane composition, changing the emulsion phase ratio, and adding a scrubbing step, the ELM process operated normally without trouble for emulsion splitting and mass transport throughput. The splitter voltage was decreased to 3.55 kV. The zinc concentration of treated waste water was lowered to less than 10 mgL-1. More than 95% of the zinc was recovered and reused.

  15. Natural radioactivity in drinking underground waters in Upper Silesia and solid wastes produced during treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Content of 226Ra, 228Ra and uranium isotopes in waters from subsurface aquifers was studied. The sampling points were chosen for having the elevated natural content of iron and manganese. Measurements of radium were made by LSC, while uranium was measured by alpha spectrometry. Waste sludge was measured by gamma spectrometry and three-stage BCR sequential extraction was performed. Radon activity concentration in the air at water treatment plants was determined and dose adsorbed by staff was calculated. - Highlights: • Analyses of water samples collected from underground wells usually show elevated natural radioactivity. • The most crucial radionuclides are 226Ra and 228Ra. • Attention should be focused on the fate of solid waste after water treatment. • Radon in the air at water treatment plants should be monitored and to ensure compliance

  16. Restoration of Wadi Aquifers by Artificial Recharge with Treated Waste Water

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2012-04-26

    Fresh water resources within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are a rare and precious commodity that must be managed within a context of integrated water management. Wadi aquifers contain a high percentage of the naturally occurring fresh groundwater in the Kingdom. This resource is currently overused and has become depleted or contaminated at many locations. One resource that could be used to restore or enhance the fresh water resources within wadi aquifers is treated municipal waste water (reclaimed water). Each year about 80 percent of the country\\'s treated municipal waste water is discharged to waste without any beneficial use. These discharges not only represent a lost water resource, but also create a number of adverse environmental impacts, such as damage to sensitive nearshore marine environments and creation of high-salinity interior surface water areas. An investigation of the hydrogeology of wadi aquifers in Saudi Arabia revealed that these aquifers can be used to develop aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) systems that will be able to treat the impaired-quality water, store it until needed, and allow recovery of the water for transmittal to areas in demand. Full-engineered ARR systems can be designed at high capacities within wadi aquifer systems that can operate in concert with the natural role of wadis, while providing the required functions of additional treatment, storage and recovery of reclaimed water, while reducing the need to develop additional, energy-intensive desalination to meet new water supply demands. © 2012, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  17. WASTE WATER TREATMENT IN VISCOUS CRUDE PROCESSING IN SHENGLI OILFIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Huaijie; Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ Apart from sewage pretreatment and stepped control, the Viscous Crude Processing Plant of Shengli Petrochemical General Works has established a new process of sewage treatment featuring with flexible and advanced technology and strong impact strength, with the crude sewage treatment yield reaching more than 95%.

  18. Assessing the full costs of water, liquid waste, energy and solid waste infrastructure in the Fraser Valley Regional District (FVRD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a newly drafted growth strategy developed by the Fraser Valley Regional District (FVRD) in British Columbia. It guides the sustainable growth, change and development of the region for the next 25 years and deals with air pollution, water quality, traffic congestion, affordable housing, employment, energy use, parks and green space. In particular, this case study develops a method to apply full cost accounting (FCA) to a growth strategy. FCA is the most appropriate way to approach a sustainable strategy because it considers economic, social and environmental issues. The study also includes the development of a software tool consisting of an ACCESS database and an ARCVIEW GIS file for compiling and analyzing detailed infrastructure profiles which can be used to assess the full costs of different growth scenarios. The following four issue categories of environmental and economic indicators of FVRD performance were addressed: solid waste, water and wastewater, energy, and infrastructure costs. Each issue category was then used to establish a set of 5 performance indicators that can be measured and assessed over time. These included solid waste, water consumption, wastewater, energy consumption and air emissions. The database and methodology developed for this project is suitable for other regions. The software can be viewed by contacting the Sheltair Group Resource Consultants Inc. in Vancouver

  19. Identification of improvements of advanced light water reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of this report is to identify the improvement of reactor developments with respect to reactor safety. This includes the collection of non-proprietary information on the description of the advanced design characteristics, especially summary design descriptions and general publications. This documentation is not intended to include a safety evaluation of the advanced concepts; however, it is structured in such a way that it can serve as a basis for a future safety evaluation. This is taken into account in the structure of the information regarding the distinction of the various concepts with respect to their 'advancement' and the classification of design characteristics according to some basic safety aspects. The overall description concentrates on those features which are relevant to safety. Other aspects, such as economy, operational features, maintenance, the construction period, etc...are not considered explicitly in this report

  20. Preparation of Metal Immobilized Orange Waste Gel for Arsenic(V Removal From Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biplob Kumar Biswas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The toxicity of arsenic is known to be a risk to aquatic flora and fauna and to human health even in relatively low concentration. In this research an adsorption gel was prepared from agricultural waste material (orange waste through simple chemical modification in the view to remove arsenic (V from water. Orange waste was crushed into small particles and saponified with Ca(OH2 to prepare saponified orange waste, which was further modified by immobilizing gadolinium(III to obtain desired adsorption material (Gd(III-immobilized SOW gel. The effective pH range for arsenic adsorption was found to be 7.5 – 8.5. Adsorption capacity of the gel was evaluated to be 0.45 mol-arsenic (V/kg. Dynamic adsorption of arsenic (V in column-mode was conducted and a dynamic capacity was found to be 0.39 mol/kg. Elution of arsenate was tested after complete saturation of the column packed with gadolinium-immobilized orange waste adsorption gel. A complete elution of arsenate was achieved with the help of 1 M HCl and 28 times pre-concentration factor was attained. This study showed that a cheap and abundant agro-industrial waste material could be successfully employed for the remediation of arsenic pollution in aquatic environment. Keywords: Arsenic; Orange waste; Gadolinium(III; Adsorption; Elution.