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Sample records for advanced thyroid cancer

  1. Locally advanced thyroid cancer: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Azizyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of treatment in a female patient with locally advanced thyroid cancer with a tumor thrombus in the internal jugular vein with laryngeal or tracheal involvement, and a giant metastasis into the bone of the vault of the skull.

  2. Management of advanced medullary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadoux, Julien; Pacini, Furio; Tuttle, R Michael; Schlumberger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer arises from calcitonin-producing C-cells and accounts for 3-5% of all thyroid cancers. The discovery of a locally advanced medullary thyroid cancer that is not amenable to surgery or of distant metastases needs careful work-up, including measurement of serum calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (and their doubling times), in addition to comprehensive imaging to determine the extent of the disease, its aggressiveness, and the need for any treatment. In the past, cytotoxic chemotherapy was used for treatment but produced little benefit. For the past 10 years, tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors and RET (rearranged during transfection) have been used when a systemic therapy is indicated for large tumour burden and documented disease progression. Vandetanib and cabozantinib have shown benefits on progression-free survival compared with placebo in this setting, but their toxic effect profiles need thorough clinical management in specialised centres. This Review describes the management and treatment of patients with advanced medullary thyroid cancer with emphasis on current targeted therapies and perspectives to improve patient care. Most treatment responses are transient, emphasising that mechanisms of resistance need to be better understood and that the efficacy of treatment approaches should be improved with combination therapies or other drugs that might be more potent or target other pathways, including immunotherapy. PMID:26608066

  3. Advanced medullary thyroid cancer: pathophysiology and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare malignant tumor originating from thyroid parafollicular C cells. This tumor accounts for 3%–4% of thyroid gland neoplasias. MTC may occur sporadically or be inherited. Hereditary MTC appears as part of the multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2A or 2B, or familial medullary thyroid cancer. Germ-line mutations of the RET proto-oncogene cause hereditary forms of cancer, whereas somatic mutations can be present in sporadic forms of the disease. The RET gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the activation of intracellular signaling pathways leading to proliferation, growth, differentiation, migration, and survival. Nowadays, early diagnosis of MTC followed by total thyroidectomy offers the only possibility of cure. Based on the knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms of MTC, new drugs have been developed in an attempt to control metastatic disease. Of these, small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors represent one of the most promising agents for MTC treatment, and clinical trials have shown encouraging results. Hopefully, the cumulative knowledge about the targets of action of these drugs and about the tyrosine kinase inhibitor-associated side effects will help in choosing the best therapeutic approach to enhance their benefits

  4. Treatment of advanced medullary thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Therapy decisions in advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma should be guided by a critical appraisal of the natural disease course (slowly progressive vs. aggressive) and benefits and side effects of therapy. Therapy goals should be distinguished between curative and palliative. Local treatments are mainly palliative and may add to quality of life. The advent of novel systemic therapies opens promising perspectives but its place in the therapeutic arsenal must be further determined.

  5. Treatment of advanced medullary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Johannes

    2013-03-14

    Therapy decisions in advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma should be guided by a critical appraisal of the natural disease course (slowly progressive vs. aggressive) and benefits and side effects of therapy. Therapy goals should be distinguished between curative and palliative. Local treatments are mainly palliative and may add to quality of life. The advent of novel systemic therapies opens promising perspectives but its place in the therapeutic arsenal must be further determined. PMID:23514632

  6. Beyond radioiodine: novel therapies in advanced thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Thyroid cancer is a relatively common endocrine malignancy. Fortunately, many patients do well with standard therapy including surgery and radioiodine. A minority of patients have poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma that is unresponsive to radioiodine therapy. Redifferentiation agents that 'reprogram ' these tumors to concentrate radioiodine would be of great value in treating patients with advanced thyroid cancer. The retinoid isotretinoin is the most extensively studied of these agents. It appears that 20-40% of patients respond to isotretinoin treatment by concentration of radioiodine in metastatic tumors, but the clinical utility of this redifferentiation is still unclear. In vitro studies suggest that the retinoid receptors RARβ and RXRγ are required for this effect. Abnormal DNA methylation may be an early event in thyroid tumorigenesis and methylation of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) may play a role in loss of iodine concentration in these tumors. Inhibitors of methylation (5-azacytidine, phenylacetate and sodium butyrate) have been shown to increase NIS expression and iodine uptake in cell culture models, but published trials in humans are not yet available. Histone acetylation is required for efficient transcription of genes necessary for differentiated function. Proteins that cause histone deacetylation inhibit gene transcription and differentiated function. Inhibitors of histone deacetylation (depsipeptide, trichostatin A) have been shown to increase NIS expression and iodine uptake in poorly differentiated and undifferentiated cell lines. Finally, commonly used agents such as thiazolidine diones (diabetes) and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (hypercholesterolemia) have shown promise in preliminary in vitro studies in advanced thyroid cancer cell lines. Our own work has focused on receptor-selective retinoids and thiazolidine diones as potential therapy in patients with advanced thyroid cancer based on nuclear hormone receptor

  7. [Thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Yuji

    2012-03-01

    The thyroid glands are a vulnerable organ to ionizing radiation. Indeed the epidemiological studies have revealed an increase in the incidences of thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and radiation casualties in Chernobyl. The carcinogenic risk for the thyroids is dependent on radiation dose, and higher in younger people. Recent advances in molecular biology contribute to clarify the mechanisms for thyroid carcinogenesis at genetic and molecular levels. Here radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis is reviewed from epidemiological data to basic research. PMID:22514922

  8. Evolving molecularly targeted therapies for advanced-stage thyroid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Keith C; Ryder, Mabel

    2016-07-01

    Increased understanding of disease-specific molecular targets of therapy has led to the regulatory approval of two drugs (vandetanib and cabozantinib) for the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), and two agents (sorafenib and lenvatinib) for the treatment of radioactive- iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in both the USA and in the EU. The effects of these and other therapies on overall survival and quality of life among patients with thyroid cancer, however, remain to be more-clearly defined. When applied early in the disease course, intensive multimodality therapy seems to improve the survival outcomes of patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), but salvage therapies for ATC are of uncertain benefit. Additional innovative, rationally designed therapeutic strategies are under active development both for patients with DTC and for patients with ATC, with multiple phase II and phase III randomized clinical trials currently ongoing. Continued effort is being made to identify further signalling pathways with potential therapeutic relevance in thyroid cancers, as well as to elaborate on the complex interactions between signalling pathways, with the intention of translating these discoveries into effective and personalized therapies. Herein, we summarize the progress made in molecular medicine for advanced-stage thyroid cancers of different histotypes, analyse how these developments have altered - and might further refine - patient care, and identify open questions for future research. PMID:26925962

  9. Recent advances in radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer

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    Bae, Sang Kyun [Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    Well-differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy with an increasing incidence. Most patients with well-differentiated thyroid caner have a favorable prognosis with high survival rate. While surgery and radioiodine therapy is sufficient treatment for the majority of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, a minority of these patients experiences progressive, life-threatening growth and metastatic spread of the disease. Because there is no prospective controlled study to evaluate the differences of management of thyroid cancer, it is hard to choose the best treatment option. And there are still lots of controversies about the management of this disease, such as surgical extent, proper use of radioiodine for remnant ablation and therapy, use of rhTSH instead of withdrawal of thyroid hormone, long-term follow-up strategy, thyroglobulin as a tumor marker, etc. In this review, recent data related to these conflicting issues and recent advances in diagnosis, radioiodine therapy and long-term monitoring of well-differentiated thyroid cancer are summarized.

  10. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  11. Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid in Treating Patients With Metastatic and/or Locally Advanced or Locally Recurrent Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-23

    Insular Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage II Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage II Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  12. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » Thyroid cancer risk factors What causes thyroid cancer? Can thyroid cancer be prevented? Previous Topic Thyroid cancer risk factors Next Topic Can thyroid cancer be prevented? What ...

  13. Vandetanib in locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leboulleux, Sophie; Bastholt, Lars; Krause, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    No effective standard treatment exists for patients with radioiodine-refractory, advanced differentiated thyroid carcinoma. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of vandetanib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of RET, VEGFR and EGFR signalling, in this setting.......No effective standard treatment exists for patients with radioiodine-refractory, advanced differentiated thyroid carcinoma. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of vandetanib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of RET, VEGFR and EGFR signalling, in this setting....

  14. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Advanced Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Stage IVB Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Stage IVC Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma

  15. ENDOCRINE TUMOURS: Advances in the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid cancer: lessons from the cancer genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesco-Eizaguirre, Garcilaso; Santisteban, Pilar

    2016-11-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy giving rise to one of the most indolent solid cancers, but also one of the most lethal. In recent years, systematic studies of the cancer genome, most importantly those derived from The Cancer Genome Altas (TCGA), have catalogued aberrations in the DNA, chromatin, and RNA of the genomes of thousands of tumors relative to matched normal cellular genomes and have analyzed their epigenetic and protein consequences. Cancer genomics is therefore providing new information on cancer development and behavior, as well as new insights into genetic alterations and molecular pathways. From this genomic perspective, we will review the main advances concerning some essential aspects of the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid cancer such as mutational mechanisms, new cancer genes implicated in tumor initiation and progression, the role of non-coding RNA, and the advent of new susceptibility genes in thyroid cancer predisposition. This look across these genomic and cellular alterations results in the reshaping of the multistep development of thyroid tumors and offers new tools and opportunities for further research and clinical development of novel treatment strategies. PMID:27666535

  16. GENERAL ASPECTS OF THE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF LOCALLY ADVANCED THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Yakovleva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with current trends in the diagnosis and treatment of locally advanced, recurrent and metastatic medullary and low-grade thyroid cancer. It highlights problems in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of this pathology on the basis of our clinic’s experience. Data on global trends in medical treatment for low-grade radioactive iodine therapy-refractory thyroid tumors, as well as disseminated and metastatic medullary cancer are given.

  17. Advances in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer with follicular cell strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Slimène, Faouzi; Mhiri, Aida; Ben Ali, Moez; Slimène, Hédia; Ben Raies, Nouzha; Karboua, Esma; Schlumberger, Martin

    2016-03-01

    The management of nodules and thyroid cancer is evolving. The aim is to individualize the treatment, decreasing aggression in the forms low risk and instead seeking new therapeutic options in advanced disease. This update shows the main recent advances in this field. PMID:27575497

  18. Sorafenib in radioactive iodine-refractory, locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brose, Marcia S; Nutting, Christopher M; Jarzab, Barbara;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with radioactive iodine ((131)I)-refractory locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer have a poor prognosis because of the absence of effective treatment options. In this study, we assessed the efficacy and safety of orally administered sorafenib...... in the treatment of patients with this type of cancer. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial (DECISION), we investigated sorafenib (400 mg orally twice daily) in patients with radioactive iodine-refractory locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid...... cancer. Adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of sorafenib. These results suggest that sorafenib is a new treatment option for patients with progressive radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer. FUNDING: Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals and Onyx Pharmaceuticals...

  19. Stages of Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enlarged thyroid). Having a family history of thyroid disease or thyroid cancer. Having certain genetic conditions such as familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

  20. [Advances in thyroglobulin assays and their impact on the management of differentiated thyroid cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Herbomez, Michèle; Lion, Georges; Béron, Amandine; Wémeau, Jean-Louis; DoCao, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a high molecular weight glycoprotein located mainly in thyroid follicles, where thyroid hormones are synthesized and stored. In patients with differentiated thyroid cancer of follicular origin, serum Tg levels become undetectable following total thyroidectomy and iodine-131 remnant ablation. It is a key biomarker to follow-up patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, in combination with neck ultrasound monitoring. The measurement of Tg in the wash-out of the needle used for fine needle aspiration biopsy is a valuable aid to the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis. The presence of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies affects reliability of Tg results measured in serum or plasma. Systematic investigation of such antibodies is required to validate any Tg assay. Elevated or rising levels of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies can in turn be used as a surrogate tumor marker of thyroid cancer. The development of second-generation Tg assay (automated, highly sensitive) has enabled significant advances in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer: early detection of persistent or recurrent disease and follow-up care simplified in low-risk patients. Testing of serum Tg can also be useful in evaluating other clinical situations such as congenital hypothyroidism, endemic goiter and thyrotoxicosis factitia. PMID:26711165

  1. Axitinib: The evidence of its potential in the treatment of advanced thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari A Deshpande, Scott Gettinger

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hari A Deshpande1, Scott Gettinger1, Julie Ann Sosa21Yale Cancer Center, Department of Medical Oncology, 2Division of Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USAIntroduction: Thyroid cancer is a rare disease with an incidence of around 37,000 cases per year. However, its incidence is rising faster than many other cancers and for men this disease ranks highest overall in the rate of increase (2.4% annual increase in cancer deaths. As the number of radioactive iodine-resistant thyroid cancers increases, the need for newer treatments has become more important. Axitinib is one of many new small molecule inhibitors of growth factor receptors that have shown promise in the treatment of many cancers. It targets the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2 and 3.Aims: The goal of this article is to review the published evidence for the use of axitinib in the treatment of thyroid cancer and define its therapeutic potential. Evidence review: The major evidence of axitinib activity has appeared in meeting report abstracts. One phase II study has been published. This included patients with any histological type of thyroid cancer that was not amenable to treatment with radioactive iodine. Clinical potential: To date, in phase II clinical studies axitinib has demonstrated antitumor activity in advanced refractory thyroid cancer. As a monotherapy it resulted in a 30% response rate with another 38% of patients having stable disease. Axitinib appears to have a good tolerability profile, with hypertension being the most common grade 3 or greater side effect. Keywords: axitinib, thyroid cancer, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor

  2. Vandetanib in advanced medullary thyroid cancer: review of adverse event management strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grande, Enrique; Kreissl, Michael C; Filetti, Sebastiano;

    2013-01-01

    Vandetanib has recently demonstrated clinically meaningful benefits in patients with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Given the potential for long-term vandetanib therapy in this setting, in addition to treatment for disease-related symptoms, effective...

  3. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. MTC is very rare. It can occur in children and adults. Unlike other types ...

  4. Thyroid stem cells: lessons from normal development and thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Dolly; Friedman, Susan; Lin, Reigh-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Ongoing advances in stem cell research have opened new avenues for therapy for many human disorders. Until recently, however, thyroid stem cells have been relatively understudied. Here, we review what is known about thyroid stem cells and explore their utility as models of normal and malignant biological development. We also discuss the cellular origin of thyroid cancer stem cells and explore the clinical implications of cancer stem cells in the thyroid gland. Since thyroid cancer is the most...

  5. Key Statistics for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? Next Topic Thyroid cancer risk factors Key statistics for thyroid cancer How common is thyroid cancer? ... remains very low compared with most other cancers. Statistics on survival rates for thyroid cancer are discussed ...

  6. Chemotherapy for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Next Topic Targeted therapy for thyroid cancer Chemotherapy for thyroid cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) uses anti-cancer drugs that are injected ... vein or muscle, or are taken by mouth. Chemotherapy is systemic therapy, which means that the drug ...

  7. Targeting the NF-κB Pathway as a Combination Therapy for Advanced Thyroid Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Pozdeyev

    Full Text Available NF-κB signaling plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation, cell survival, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis and drug/radiation resistance. Combination therapy involving NF-κB pathway inhibition is an attractive strategy for the treatment of advanced forms of thyroid cancer. This study was designed to test the efficacy of NF-κB pathway inhibition in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy, using docetaxel and ionizing radiation in in vitro models of thyroid cancer. We found that while both docetaxel and ionizing radiation activated NF-κB signaling in thyroid cancer cells, there was no synergistic effect on cell proliferation and/or programmed cell death with either genetic (transduction of a dominant negative mutant form of IκBα or pharmacologic (proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and IKKβ inhibitor GO-Y030 inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in thyroid cancer cell lines BCPAP, 8505C, THJ16T and SW1736. Docetaxel plus bortezomib synergistically decreased in vitro invasion of 8505C cells, but not in the other cell lines. Screening of a panel of clinically relevant targeted therapies for synergy with genetic NF-κB inhibition in a proliferation/cytotoxicity assay identified the histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA as a potential candidate. However, the synergistic effect was confirmed only in the BCPAP cells. These results indicate that NF-κB inhibitors are unlikely to be beneficial as combination therapy with taxane cytotoxic chemotherapy, external radiation therapy or radioiodine therapy. There may be unique circumstances where NF-κB inhibitors may be considered in combination with docetaxel to reduce tumor invasion or in combination with HDAC inhibitors to reduce tumor growth, but this does not appear to be a combination therapy that could be broadly applied to patients with advanced thyroid cancer. Further research may identify which subsets of patients/tumors may respond to this therapeutic

  8. What Is Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment is needed. Many types of growths and tumors can develop in the thyroid gland. Most of these are benign (non-cancerous) but ... are thyroid lymphoma, thyroid sarcoma or other rare tumors. Parathyroid cancer Behind, but attached to, the thyroid gland are 4 tiny glands called the parathyroids . The ...

  9. Cancer of the Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main types of thyroid cancer are papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. The four types are ... on statistics from SEER and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. ...

  10. General Information about Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enlarged thyroid). Having a family history of thyroid disease or thyroid cancer. Having certain genetic conditions such as familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Thyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enlarged thyroid). Having a family history of thyroid disease or thyroid cancer. Having certain genetic conditions such as familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

  12. [Differentiated thyroid cancer -- 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrády, András

    2011-01-30

    thyroperoxydase and thyroglobulin. Opportunities for this therapeutic effort are also mentioned. Restoration of iodine uptake enables radioisotope treatment. Until now there has been little interest in the development of new drugs for the treatment of thyroid cancer. However, advances in our understanding of tumor cell biology will lead to a paradigm shift in the therapy that is likely to benefit patients who have high risk disease and who do not almost have any therapeutic option. There are new drugs in clinical trials that appear to be more effective than earlier cytotoxic agents. Probably modern chemotherapy of advanced thyroid cancer will have significant results in the near future.

  13. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid ... About 80% of all thyroid cancers diagnosed in the United States are the papillary carcinoma type. It is more common in women than in men. It may occur in childhood, but is most often seen ...

  14. Clinical utility of vandetanib in the treatment of patients with advanced medullary thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hari Deshpande1,3, Vicky Marler3, Julie Ann Sosa2,31Department of Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, 3Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT, USAAbstract: Vandetanib (ZD6474 became the first systemic agent to be approved for the treatment of metastatic or locally advanced medullary thyroid cancer. It was a proof of principle, because it is an orally bioavailable medication that targets the growth factors felt to be important in the pathogenesis of this disease, ie, the rearranged during transfection proto-oncogene and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. It was tested initially in two Phase II studies at doses of 100 mg and 300 mg daily. Although activity was seen at both doses, the higher dose was chosen for a randomized, placebo-controlled Phase II study. This trial, which accrued more than 300 patients, showed a statistically significant benefit for the group taking vandetanib compared with those taking placebo medication. Progression-free survival for the vandetanib arm has not been reached, compared with 19 months for the placebo arm. The main toxicity appears to be diarrhea, although some patients experienced significant side effects, including torsades de pointes and sudden cardiac death. Therefore, it is now necessary for practitioners to enroll in a Risk Evaluation Mitigation Strategy before being allowed to prescribe this medication, to reduce the risk of serious side effects occurring.Keywords: ZD6474, medullary thyroid cancer, vandetanib

  15. Thyroid Nodules and Thyroid Cancer: Surgical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Orlo H.

    1980-01-01

    Patients with thyroid nodules must be treated selectively because these nodules develop far more frequently than does thyroid cancer. A thorough clinical history, family history and history of radiation, as well as an accurate physical examination, are very important in determining whether surgical treatment is indicated. Thyroid function tests, a radioactive isotope scan, a thyroid echogram and fine-needle biopsy are also useful.

  16. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to other parts of the body, making the disease more difficult to control. Medullary : This rare form of thyroid cancer develops in ... about 5-10 percent of all thyroid malignancies. Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) ... Symptoms: Symptoms of this disease vary. Your child may have a lump in ...

  17. Thyroid Growth and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dillwyn

    2015-09-01

    It is proposed that most papillary thyroid cancers originate in infancy and childhood, based on the early rise in sporadic thyroid carcinoma incidence, the pattern of radiation-induced risk (highest in those exposed as infants), and the high prevalence of sporadic papillary thyroid cancers in children and adolescents (ultrasound screening after the Fukushima accident). The early origin can be linked to the growth pattern of follicular cells, with a high mitotic rate in infancy falling to very low replacement levels in adult life. The cell of origin of thyroid cancers, the differentiated follicular cell, has a limited growth potential. Unlike cancers originating in stem cells, loss of the usually tight link between differentiation and replicative senescence is required for immortalisation. It is suggested that this loss distinguishes larger clinically significant papillary thyroid cancers from micro-papillary thyroid cancers of little clinical significance. Papillary carcinogenesis can then be divided into 3 stages: (1) initiation, the first mutation in the carcinogenic cascade, for radiation-induced papillary thyroid cancers usually a RET rearrangement, (2) progression, acquisition of the additional mutations needed for low-grade malignancy, and (3) escape, further mutations giving immortality and a higher net growth rate. Most papillary thyroid cancers will not have achieved full immortality by adulthood, and remain as so-called micro-carcinomas with a very low growth rate. The use of the term 'cancer' to describe micro-papillary thyroid cancers in older patients encourages overtreatment and alarms patients. Invasive papillary thyroid tumours show a spectrum of malignancy, which at its lowest poses no threat to life. The treatment protocols and nomenclature for small papillary carcinomas need to be reconsidered in the light of the new evidence available, the continuing discovery of smaller lesions, and the model of thyroid carcinogenesis proposed. PMID:26558233

  18. Radiation and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An International Workshop on Radiation and Thyroid Cancer took place on 21-23 February 2014 in Tokyo, Japan, to support the efforts of the Fukushima Prefecture and the Japanese government in enhancing public health measures following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. The workshop, which was designed to develop a state-of-the-art scientific understanding of thyroid cancer in children and of radiation-induced thyroid cancer (papillary carcinoma) in particular, was co-organised by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment (MOE), the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It brought together the world's top experts in the field, including medical doctors, epidemiologists and radiological risk assessment specialists from ten countries. Although rare, thyroid cancer occurs naturally, with the risk of developing a thyroid cancer increasing with age. Cases are usually identified when a thyroid carcinogenic nodule grows enough to be felt with a patient's fingers, at which point the patient visits a medical doctor to identify the nature of the growth. In many countries around the world, the incidence rate of naturally occurring thyroid cancer is on the order of less than 1 per year per 100 000 children (from ages 0 to 18). Statistically, this rate appears to be increasing in many countries, with young girls slightly more at risk than young boys. A second but very different means of detecting thyroid cancer cases is through thyroid ultrasound screening examinations on subjects who do not demonstrate any symptoms. Ultrasound screening is a more sensitive approach that can detect very small nodules (< 5 mm) and cysts (< 20 mm) which would not normally be perceived through simple palpitation. However, because thyroid ultrasound screening examinations are much more effective, the number of thyroid cancer cases per examination will normally be larger than the number per capita found through national cancer

  19. Decitabine in Treating Patients With Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Cancer or Follicular Thyroid Cancer Unresponsive to Iodine I 131

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-20

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer

  20. Molecular and Other Novel Advances in Treatment of Metastatic Epithelial and Medullary Thyroid Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    David Tai; Donald Poon

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the mutations of the proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that occur in thyroid cancers should eventually explain the diverse clinical characteristics of these tumors and also direct therapy. Some insights have already emerged in the last decade; some abnormalities in tumor genes are consistently associated with specific clinical and pathologic findings. These genetic abnormalities usually represent somatic mutations in tumors of follicular epithelial origin, as oppo...

  1. Post-laryngectomy voice rehabilitation with a voice prosthesis in a young girl with advanced thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Takahiro; Miyoshi, Masayuki; Fujii, Taihei; Miyake, Naritomo; Taira, Kenkichiro; Koyama, Satoshi; Taguchi, Daizo; Fujiwara, Kazunori; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Kitano, Hiroya; Takeuchi, Hiromi

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this report is to evaluate the effects of voice rehabilitation with a voice prosthesis in a young patient with thyroid cancer. A 17-year-old girl underwent voice restoration with a voice prosthesis after laryngectomy to treat thyroid cancer. She completed voice-related questionnaires (the Voice Handicap Index-10 and Voice-Related Quality Of Life Survey) at ages 17 and 21 and underwent phonetic functional evaluation. The sound spectrograms of her phonation using the voice prosthesis showed low frequency sounds without an obvious basic frequency. She was ashamed of her hoarse voice and did not use her voice prosthesis during high school. However, after beginning to work at age 20, she used her voice to communicate in the workplace. At age 21, her questionnaire scores, especially those related to the physical and functional domains, improved compared with those at age 17. Voice restoration with a voice prosthesis is recommended for young patients who undergo laryngectomy for advanced thyroid cancer. The advantages of voice restoration with a voice prosthesis may increase when the patient reaches working age, and it may improve post-laryngectomy quality of life considerably. PMID:26960746

  2. Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism and Thyroid Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junguee; Chang, Joon Young; Kang, Yea Eun; Yi, Shinae; Lee, Min Hee; Joung, Kyong Hye; Kim, Kun Soon; Shong, Minho

    2015-06-01

    Primary thyroid cancers including papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, and anaplastic carcinomas show substantial differences in biological and clinical behaviors. Even in the same pathological type, there is wide variability in the clinical course of disease progression. The molecular carcinogenesis of thyroid cancer has advanced tremendously in the last decade. However, specific inhibition of oncogenic pathways did not provide a significant survival benefit in advanced progressive thyroid cancer that is resistant to radioactive iodine therapy. Accumulating evidence clearly shows that cellular energy metabolism, which is controlled by oncogenes and other tumor-related factors, is a critical factor determining the clinical phenotypes of cancer. However, the role and nature of energy metabolism in thyroid cancer remain unclear. In this article, we discuss the role of cellular energy metabolism, particularly mitochondrial energy metabolism, in thyroid cancer. Determining the molecular nature of metabolic remodeling in thyroid cancer may provide new biomarkers and therapeutic targets that may be useful in the management of refractory thyroid cancers. PMID:26194071

  3. Treatment Options by Stage (Thyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enlarged thyroid). Having a family history of thyroid disease or thyroid cancer. Having certain genetic conditions such as familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

  4. [Thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: Brazilian consensus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Ana Luiza; Ward, Laura S; Carvalho, Gisah A; Graf, Hans; Maciel, Rui M B; Maciel, Léa M Zanini; Rosário, Pedro W; Vaisman, Mario

    2007-07-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common manifestation of thyroid diseases. It is estimated that approximately 10% of adults have palpable thyroid nodules with the frequency increasing throughout life. The major concern on nodule evaluation is the risk of malignancy (5-10%). Differentiated thyroid carcinoma accounts for 90% of all thyroid malignant neoplasias. Although most patients with cancer have a favorable outcome, some individuals present an aggressive form of the disease and poor prognostic despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. Here, a set of clinical guidelines for the evaluation and management of patients with thyroid nodules or differentiated thyroid cancer was developed through consensus by 8 member of the Department of Thyroid, Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia. The participants are from different reference medical centers within Brazil, to reflect different practice patterns. Each committee participant was initially assigned to write a section of the document and to submit it to the chairperson, who revised and assembled the sections into a complete draft document, which was then circulated among all committee members for further revision. All committee members further revised and refined the document. The guidelines were developed based on the expert opinion of the committee participants, as well as on previously published information.

  5. How Is Thyroid Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called metanephrines). Other tests Vocal cord exam (laryngoscopy) Thyroid tumors can sometimes affect the vocal cords. If you are going to have surgery to treat thyroid cancer, a procedure called a laryngoscopy will probably ...

  6. Sunitinib Malate in Treating Patients With Iodine-Refractory Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  7. Sorafenib in radioactive iodine-refractory, locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brose, M.S.; Nutting, C.M.; Jarzab, B.; Elisei, R.; Siena, S. Di; Bastholt, L.; Fouchardiere, C. de la; Pacini, F.; Paschke, R.; Shong, Y.K.; Sherman, S.I.; Smit, J.W.; Chung, J.; Kappeler, C.; Pena, C.; Molnar, I.; Schlumberger, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with radioactive iodine ((131)I)-refractory locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer have a poor prognosis because of the absence of effective treatment options. In this study, we assessed the efficacy and safety of orally administered sorafenib in the treatm

  8. Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Management of Patients with Radioiodine Nonresponsive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naifa Lamki Busaidy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (papillary and follicular has a favorable prognosis with an 85% 10-year survival. The patients that recur often require surgery and further radioactive iodine to render them disease-free. Five percent of thyroid cancer patients, however, will eventually succumb to their disease. Metastatic thyroid cancer is treated with radioactive iodine if the metastases are radioiodine avid. Cytotoxic chemotherapies for advanced or metastatic noniodine avid thyroid cancers show no prolonged responses and in general have fallen out of favor. Novel targeted therapies have recently been discovered that have given rise to clinical trials for thyroid cancer. Newer aberrations in molecular pathways and oncogenic mutations in thyroid cancer together with the role of angiogenesis in tumor growth have been central to these discoveries. This paper will focus on the management and treatment of metastatic differentiated thyroid cancers that do not take up radioactive iodine.

  9. The Clinicopathological Factors Associated with Multicentricity in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Kilic

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Multicentricity is a frequent feature of papillary thyroid cancer, and is generally associated with advanced stage, increased risk of regional and distant metastasis. In this study, we aimed to determine the associated clinicopathological factors on multicentricity in papillary thyroid cancer. Material and Method: One hundred and thirty patients with papillary thyroid cancer were included in this retrospective study. The affecting clinical and histopathological factors on multicentricity...

  10. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or MRI of the neck may show a tumor growing from the thyroid gland. A thyroid biopsy makes the diagnosis. An examination ... the thyroid Images ... Saunders; 2016:chap 226. Lai SY, Mandel SJ, Weber RS. Management of thyroid neoplasms. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et ...

  11. Thyroid cancer: Natural history, management strategies and outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To understand the natural history of thyroid cancer and high risk groups; To define the biological behavior of thyroid cancer and relate it to various prognostic factors and risk groups; To divide the management strategies into conservation, radical surgery and radioactive iodine treatment; To define the role of external radiation therapy and the management of complex and advanced thyroid cancer; To analyze the results of management of anaplastic thyroid cancer and make a plea for combined modality treatment; To define the current role of genetic studies in medullary thyroid cancer. At the end of this refresher course, the attendees will be able to understand the natural history, the prognostic factors and risk groups and surgical and combined modality treatment in thyroid cancer

  12. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... look for the gene mutations found in familial medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Because of this, most of the familial cases of MTC can be prevented or treated early by removing the thyroid gland. Once the disease is discovered in a family, the rest of ...

  13. Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eBianco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4 to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii could play a role in modulating cell proliferation - in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS-13 cells is 3-4 fold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a 5-fold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches.

  14. Thyroid Cancer Statistics | Did You Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid cancer represents the 8th most common cancer in the United States. Did you know that this cancer, located at the base of the throat in the thyroid gland, is highly treatable and usually curable?

  15. Technological Innovations in Surgical Approach for Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Hung-Hin Lang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, surgeons have witnessed dramatic changes in surgical practice as a result of the introduction of new technological advancement. Some of these changes include refinement of techniques in thyroid cancer surgery. The development of various endoscopic thyroidectomy techniques, the addition of the da Vinci robot, and the use of operative adjuncts in thyroid surgery, such as intraoperative neuromonitoring and quick intraoperative parathyroid hormone, have made thyroid cancer surgery not only safer and better accepted by patients with thyroid cancer but also offer them more surgical treatment options.

  16. Motesanib diphosphate in progressive differentiated thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherman, Steven I; Wirth, Lori J; Droz, Jean-Pierre;

    2008-01-01

    point was an objective response as assessed by an independent radiographic review. Additional end points included the duration of the response, progression-free survival, safety, and changes in serum thyroglobulin concentration. RESULTS: Of the 93 patients, 57 (61%) had papillary thyroid carcinoma......BACKGROUND: The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is characteristic of differentiated thyroid cancer and is associated with aggressive tumor behavior and a poor clinical outcome. Motesanib diphosphate (AMG 706) is a novel oral inhibitor of VEGF receptors, platelet......-derived growth-factor receptor, and KIT. METHODS: In an open-label, single-group, phase 2 study, we treated 93 patients who had progressive, locally advanced or metastatic, radioiodine-resistant differentiated thyroid cancer with 125 mg of motesanib diphosphate, administered orally once daily. The primary end...

  17. Pathophysiology of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main physiological function of the thyroid gland is to produce thyroid hormones. The primary physiological control over iodine transport, organification and hormone synthesis appears to be through thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Regulation of tumor cells, biochemical studies in experimental tumors, role of oxygen free radical and antioxidants, role of proteases in metastasis, influence of growth factors and influence of sex hormones and receptors are discussed

  18. Use of Ultrasound in the Management of Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, John I.; Solorzano, Carmen C

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the utility of ultrasound in evaluating thyroid nodules, staging thyroid cancer, determining the extent of surgery needed in thyroid cancer patients, and the surveillance of patients treated for thyroid cancer.

  19. The Treatment of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer in Children: Emphasis on Surgical Approach and Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Scott A. Rivkees; Mazzaferri, Ernest L.; Verburg, Frederik A; Reiners, Christoph; Luster, Markus; Breuer, Christopher K; Dinauer, Catherine A.; Udelsman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric thyroid cancer is a rare disease with an excellent prognosis. Compared with adults, epithelial-derived differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), which includes papillary and follicular thyroid cancer, presents at more advanced stages in children and is associated with higher rates of recurrence.

  20. Cancer Stem Cells in the Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Yuji; Shimamura, Mika; Mitsutake, Norisato

    2016-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model posits that CSCs are a small, biologically distinct subpopulation of cancer cells in each tumor that have self-renewal and multi-lineage potential, and are critical for cancer initiation, metastasis, recurrence, and therapy-resistance. Numerous studies have linked CSCs to thyroid biology, but the candidate markers and signal transduction pathways that drive thyroid CSC growth are controversial, the origin(s) of thyroid CSCs remain elusive, and it is unclear whether thyroid CSC biology is consistent with the original hierarchical CSC model or the more recent dynamic CSC model. Here, we critically review the thyroid CSC literature with an emphasis on research that confirmed the presence of thyroid CSCs by in vitro sphere formation or in vivo tumor formation assays with dispersed cells from thyroid cancer tissues or bona fide thyroid cancer cell lines. Future perspectives of thyroid CSC research are also discussed. PMID:26973599

  1. 分化型甲状腺癌相关基因的研究进展%Recent advances in genes related to differentiated thyroid cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李田军; 林岩松; 梁军; 李方

    2011-01-01

    目的:总结近年来国内外分化型甲状腺癌(DTC)相关基因的研究进展.方法:应用PubMed、Elsevier Sciencedirect、CNKI及万方期刊全文数据库检索系统,以“分化型甲状腺癌、RET、Ras、BRAF”等为关键词,检索是2005-2010年发表的相关文献,共检索到文献252条.纳入标准:1)相关基因与分化型甲状腺癌发生、发展.2)相关基因与分化型甲状腺癌诊断、治疗及预后.根据纳入标准,纳入分析文献36篇.结果:甲状腺癌是最常见的内分泌肿瘤,近年来其发病率逐年增高,研究显示甲状腺癌的发生、发展是在不同的时间和空间上以多个原癌基因激活和(或)抑癌基因的失活为基础的多步骤过程.不同的病理类型有其相对特异性的基因改变:RET/PTC重排、BRAF突变多见于乳头状腺癌(papillary thyroid cancer,PTC),而Ras基因突变、PAX8-PPARG融合基因主要见于滤泡状腺癌(follicular thyroid cancer,FTC).此外抑癌基因p53突变在甲状腺癌进展中起重要作用,PTEN则通过使PI3K/Akt的信号转导通路的持续激活促进了甲状腺癌的发生发展.相关的信号转导通路也参与其中.将有关基因用于分化型甲状腺癌的诊断、治疗、疗效预测及预后分析有着广阔的前景.结论:分化型甲状腺癌是个多因素多基因的疾病,其发生发展与基因的改变密切相关.%OBJECTIVE: To review the recent advances in genes related to differentiated thyroid cancer. METHODS: Using differentiated thyroid cancer, RET, Ras, BRAF etc as key words, the articles published from the databases such as Elsevier Sciencedirect, PubMed, Wanfang and CNKI, particularly from 2005 to 2010 were searched. Totally 252 articles were collected. Inclusion Criteria: 1) Association of related genes with development of differentiated thyroid cancer. 2) Association of related genes with diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of differentiated thyroid cancer. 36 articles were selected into analysis

  2. The role of PET in thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seok, Yeo Jeong [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-01

    The role of PET in the diagnosis and management of thyroid cancer is discussed. The major role of F-18 FDG PET is in patients with discordant negative I-131 scan and a positive serum thyroglobulin values. F-18 FDG PET scan localized metastatic sites in I-131 scan-negative thyroid carcinoma patients with high accuracy. F-18 PET is also valuable in medullary thyroid cancer with high calcitonin level. Focal thyroid uptake in patients with non-thyroidal disease has high likelihood of thyroid cancer.

  3. Gene therapy for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gene therapy for thyroid cancer include immunotherapy, suicide gene therapy, tumor suppressor replacement, 131I therapy by sodium/iodide symporter and antisense therapy and so on. Gene therapy has wide perspectives, but there are many problems need to be solved for clinical application

  4. Anaplastic thyroid cancer, tumorigenesis and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J P

    2010-03-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a fatal endocrine malignancy. Current therapy fails to significantly improve survival. Recent insights into thyroid tumorigenesis, post-malignant dedifferentiation and mode of metastatic activity offer new therapeutic strategies.

  5. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gene. These cases are known as familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). FMTC can occur alone, or it can be seen along with other tumors. The combination of FMTC and tumors of other endocrine glands is called multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN ...

  6. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on 49 patients younger than 18 years at diagnosis, of 776 patients with thyroid cancer, seen in our institution in the last 17 years. Female/male ratio was 2.2:1. Histologic type was papillary in 44, follicular in 4, and medullary in 1. Initial treatment was near-total thyroidectomy with or without neck dissection. Surgical complications (vocal cord palsy, permanent hypoparathyroidism, or both) were found in 25 patients and were usually associated with more advanced primary tumors. At surgery, node metastases were present in 73% of the patients and lung metastases, detected by chest x ray films, in 6%. Patients were treated with thyroid suppressive therapy and, except the one with medullary cancer, with radioiodine (131I) therapy. After a mean follow-up of 7.7 +/- 4.4 years (range, 1 to 17 years), one patient with lung metastases died of respiratory failure. Of 36 patients who have been followed up more than 4 years, 22 (61.1%) are now cured, and 14 have metastases (to lymph nodes, 2; to nodes and lung, 10; and to lung, 2). Since 1977 serum thyroglobulin (Tg) was used routinely as a tumor marker for differentiated thyroid cancer. After operation, Tg was elevated in all patients both not receiving (mean +/- SE, 902 +/- 380 ng/ml) and receiving (44 +/- 15 ng/ml) suppressive therapy; after 131I treatment, serum Tg dropped to 104 +/- 50 and 7.3 +/- 1.7 ng/ml, without and with suppressive therapy, respectively. Of 11 patients with lung metastases treated with 131I, respiratory function, as assessed by means of spirometry, was normal in three, mildly reduced in six, and severely impaired in two (including the one who died). In conclusion, our study indicates that thyroid cancer in young patients is rather advanced at initial examination and usually associated with node and, less frequently, lung metastases

  7. Risk factors of thyroid cancer in Babol, Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Moazezi, Zoleika; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Yahyahpour, Yousef; Alaleh, AliReza

    2011-01-01

    Background : Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Several risk factors were found to play a role in thyroid cancer. The purpose of the study was to determine the risk factors for thyroid cancer, in Babol, north of Iran.

  8. Overview of the 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines for managing thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Bashar; Cohen-Hallaleh, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    The last few years have witnessed numerous publications addressing the management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancers. The purpose of this review is to provide a simplified summary of the newly released guidelines by the American Thyroid Association. A systematic approach has been recommended to evaluate a thyroid nodule through clinical assessment, measurement of serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, neck ultrasonography and Fine Needle Aspiration where appropriate. This is followed by cytology analysis using the Bethesda scoring system to detect malignancy. Once diagnosed, thyroid cancers need to be staged and risk stratification needs to be applied to develop further treatment plans. Lastly, several recommendations have been presented to assure proper follow-up and support for thyroid cancer patients regardless of the treatment received. PMID:27607088

  9. Phase II study of safety and efficacy of motesanib in patients with progressive or symptomatic, advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlumberger, Martin J; Elisei, Rossella; Bastholt, Lars;

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: This phase II study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of motesanib, an investigational, highly selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3; platelet-derived growth factor receptor; and Kit in advanced medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). PATIENTS AND...... METHODS: Patients with locally advanced or metastatic, progressive or symptomatic MTC received motesanib 125 mg/d orally for up to 48 weeks or until unacceptable toxicity or disease progression. The primary end point was objective response by independent review. Other end points included duration of...... response, progression-free survival, safety, pharmacokinetics, and changes in tumor markers. RESULTS: Of 91 enrolled patients who received motesanib, two (2%) achieved objective response (95% CI, 0.3% to 7.7%); their duration of response was 32 weeks (censored) and 21 weeks (disease progressed). Eighty...

  10. Cancer risks in thyroid cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, P.; Holm, L E; Lundell, G.; Bjelkengren, G.; Larsson, L. G.; Lindberg, S.; Tennvall, J.; Wicklund, H.; Boice, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    Cancer risks were studied in 834 thyroid cancer patients given 131I (4,551 MBq, average) and in 1,121 patients treated by other means in Sweden between 1950 and 1975. Record-linkage with the Swedish Cancer Register identified 99 new cancers more than 2 years after 131I therapy [standardised incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-1.75] vs 122 (SIR = 1.19; 95% CI 0.88-1.42) in patients not receiving 131I. In females treated with 131I overall SIR was 1.45 (95% CI 1.14-1....

  11. Thyroglobulin in differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Carol; Tennant, Sarah; Perros, Petros

    2015-04-15

    Identification of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is becoming increasingly common. Patients usually have an excellent prognosis. Most undergo total thyroidectomy, radioiodine ablation and treatment with suppressive doses of levothyroxine. Patients require long term follow-up which includes measurement of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). Interpretation of serum Tg requires knowledge of the concurrent thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration, as secretion is TSH dependant, and an awareness of the limitations of the methods used to measure it. These limitations include the heterogeneity of Tg in serum, the ability of assays to recognise forms of Tg secreted by a tumour, assay biases and not least the potential for interference in immunoassays for Tg from endogenous thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAbs) in patient serum. This review considers what the clinician wants to know and how Tg results can be interpreted in light of an awareness of assay limitations. PMID:25444737

  12. Thyroid Cancer and Tumor Collaborative Registry (TCCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shats, Oleg; Goldner, Whitney; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Smith, Russell B; Sherman, Simon

    2016-01-01

    A multicenter, web-based Thyroid Cancer and Tumor Collaborative Registry (TCCR, http://tccr.unmc.edu) allows for the collection and management of various data on thyroid cancer (TC) and thyroid nodule (TN) patients. The TCCR is coupled with OpenSpecimen, an open-source biobank management system, to annotate biospecimens obtained from the TCCR subjects. The demographic, lifestyle, physical activity, dietary habits, family history, medical history, and quality of life data are provided and may be entered into the registry by subjects. Information on diagnosis, treatment, and outcome is entered by the clinical personnel. The TCCR uses advanced technical and organizational practices, such as (i) metadata-driven software architecture (design); (ii) modern standards and best practices for data sharing and interoperability (standardization); (iii) Agile methodology (project management); (iv) Software as a Service (SaaS) as a software distribution model (operation); and (v) the confederation principle as a business model (governance). This allowed us to create a secure, reliable, user-friendly, and self-sustainable system for TC and TN data collection and management that is compatible with various end-user devices and easily adaptable to a rapidly changing environment. Currently, the TCCR contains data on 2,261 subjects and data on more than 28,000 biospecimens. Data and biological samples collected by the TCCR are used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against TC. PMID:27168721

  13. Thyroid Cancer and Tumor Collaborative Registry (TCCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shats, Oleg; Goldner, Whitney; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Smith, Russell B; Sherman, Simon

    2016-01-01

    A multicenter, web-based Thyroid Cancer and Tumor Collaborative Registry (TCCR, http://tccr.unmc.edu) allows for the collection and management of various data on thyroid cancer (TC) and thyroid nodule (TN) patients. The TCCR is coupled with OpenSpecimen, an open-source biobank management system, to annotate biospecimens obtained from the TCCR subjects. The demographic, lifestyle, physical activity, dietary habits, family history, medical history, and quality of life data are provided and may be entered into the registry by subjects. Information on diagnosis, treatment, and outcome is entered by the clinical personnel. The TCCR uses advanced technical and organizational practices, such as (i) metadata-driven software architecture (design); (ii) modern standards and best practices for data sharing and interoperability (standardization); (iii) Agile methodology (project management); (iv) Software as a Service (SaaS) as a software distribution model (operation); and (v) the confederation principle as a business model (governance). This allowed us to create a secure, reliable, user-friendly, and self-sustainable system for TC and TN data collection and management that is compatible with various end-user devices and easily adaptable to a rapidly changing environment. Currently, the TCCR contains data on 2,261 subjects and data on more than 28,000 biospecimens. Data and biological samples collected by the TCCR are used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against TC.

  14. Robotic thyroidectomy and cervical neck dissection for thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Se Hyun

    2016-01-01

    A robotic approach for thyroid surgery was developed to overcome the limitations of endoscopic thyroidectomy and provide many technical advantages. This approach facilitates the surgeon’s control through a magnified three-dimensional view, decreased tremor, and freedom of motion with articulated instruments. Robotic thyroidectomy is safe and technically feasible in patients with well-differentiated, low-risk thyroid cancer. Furthermore, robotic thyroidectomy may become a good surgical alternative option for patients with more advanced thyroid cancer. Our modified bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) for central and lateral cervical neck lymph node (LN) dissection has yielded excellent surgical outcomes as an open procedure. The incorporation of robotics in thyroid cancer surgery will continue to evolve, and the surgical indications for robotic thyroidectomy will continue to expand. Further analyses that include long-term outcomes and randomized comparative trials remain important. PMID:27294043

  15. Imaging strategy in differentiated thyroid cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, Thi Thanh Ha

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on clinical dilemmas, which the clinician faces in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with a specific emphasis on the role of current and new diagnostic imaging. Thyroid cancer is a rare disease, but it is the most common endocrine malignancy of a

  16. Association between breast and thyroid cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehrer S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Steven Lehrer, Sheryl Green, John A Martignetti, Kenneth E Rosenzweig Departments of Radiation Oncology and Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background: The risk of thyroid cancer is known to be slightly increased in women after treatment for breast cancer. In the current study, we analyzed the incidence of thyroid cancer and breast cancer in 50 US states and in the District of Columbia to ascertain how often these two diseases are associated. Methods: Data on the incidence of thyroid cancer were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute and data on the incidence of breast cancer were from the American Cancer Society. Data on the average number of children per family with children and mean household income were sourced from the US Bureau of the Census and prevalence of obesity by state is determined from a paper published in 2010 on state-specific obesity prevalence among US adults by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: There was a significant association between breast and thyroid cancer (P=0.002. Since the incidence of breast cancer increases with increasing income and obesity, while decreasing with parity, multiple linear regression was performed. Breast cancer incidence was significantly related to thyroid cancer incidence (β=0.271, P=0.039, inversely related to average number of children per family with children (β=-0.271, P=0.039, unrelated to adult obesity (β=0.134, P=0.369, and significantly related to family income (β=0.642, P<0.001. Conclusion: This study identifies an association between breast and thyroid cancer. The association suggests that unexplored breast-thyroid cancer susceptibility loci exist and warrant further study. Keywords: breast cancer, thyroid cancer, genetics, association

  17. Partial response to sorafenib treatment associated with transient grade 3 thrombocytopenia in a patient with locally advanced thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitoia Fabian; Abelleira, Erika; Jerkovich, Fernando; Urciuoli, Carolina; Cross, Graciela, E-mail: fpitoia@intramed.net [Division de Endocrinologia, Hospital de Clinicas, Universidad de Buenos Aires Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-08-15

    Advanced radioactive refractory and progressive or symptomatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is a rare condition. Sorafenib was recently approved for the treatment of these patients. We present the case of a 67 year old woman diagnosed with DTC who underwent a total thyroidectomy with central, lateral-compartment neck dissection and shaving of the trachea and esophagus due to tumor infiltration. A local recurrence was detected 14 months later requiring, additionally, two tracheal rings resection. The patient received a cumulative {sup 131}I dose of 650 mCi and developed dysphagia and dyspnea 63 months after initial surgery. A {sup 18}FGD-PET/CT showed progression of the local mass associated to hypermetabolic pulmonary nodules. Sorafenib 800 mg/day was then prescribed. A dose reduction to 400 mg/day was necessary due to grade 3 thrombocytopenia that appeared four months after drug prescription. Platelet count went to normal after this dose reduction. Five months after initiation of sorafenib, a partial response of the local mass with significant intra-tumoral necrosis was observed. We conclude that sorafenib is a valid option for locally advanced DTC and that the platelet count should be evaluated regularly because it seems that thrombocytopenia might be more frequently observed in DTC than in other types of tumors. (author)

  18. MINIMALLY INVASIVE OPEN THYROIDECTOMY IN THYROID CANCER WITH COEXISTENT HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Nenkov

    2013-06-01

    harmonic scalpel in the surgical treatment of carefully selected patients with non-advanced thyroid cancer and coexistent Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  19. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients.

  20. Emerging role of multikinase inhibitors for refractory thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez CA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cesar A Perez,1 Belisario A Arango,1 Michel Velez,1 Luis E Raez,2 Edgardo S Santos11University of Miami Miller School of Medicine/Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, USA; 2Memorial Cancer Institute, Memorial Health Care System, Hollywood, FL, USAAbstract: Thyroid cancer incidence continues to increase, remaining the most common endocrine malignancy. The need for effective systemic therapies combined with high incidence of driver mutations and overexpression of molecular pathways make refractory thyroid cancer an ideal candidate for treatment with novel agents. Multikinase inhibitors have caused a paradigm shift in the treatment of patients with advanced iodine-refractory thyroid cancer. These agents have shown to be the most effective systemic therapy for this disease not only causing prolonged responses but also improving survival. The activity of these agents inhibiting several pathways simultaneously, such as rearranged during transfection protooncogene, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and angiogenesis, can probably explain the effectiveness in controlling the progression of this malignancy. Several of these agents are currently on clinical studies in patients with differentiated and medullary thyroid cancer and most of them are showing promising clinical activity. With the approval of vandetanib for the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer, a new era in the management of this disease has begun. The molecular rationale for the use of these drugs for thyroid cancer is discussed as well as their promising clinical results.Keywords: axitinib, cabozantinib, lenvatinib, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, motesanib, pazopanib, thyroid cancer, vandetanib, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2

  1. Regional approaches to the management of patients with advanced, radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brose, M.S.; Smit, J.W.; Capdevila, J.; Elisei, R.; Nutting, C.; Pitoia, F.; Robinson, B.; Schlumberger, M.; Shong, Y.K.; Takami, H.

    2012-01-01

    For patients with advanced, radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer, current treatment guidelines recommend clinical trial enrollment or small-molecule kinase inhibitor therapy. However, details of patient management vary between countries depending on trial availability and nati

  2. Rapid response of hypercortisolism to vandetanib treatment in a patient with advanced medullary thyroid cancer and ectopic Cushing syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) may rarely present with paraneoplastic syndromes. Among the most frequent ones are the appearance of diarrhea and ectopic Cushing syndrome (ECS). The ECS in the context of MTC is usually present in patients with distant metastatic disease. The use of drugs such as ketoconazole, metyrapone, somatostatin analogs and etomidate have been ineffective alternatives to control hypercortisolism in these patients. Bilateral adrenalectomy is often required to manage this situation. Recently, the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors has been shown to be a useful tool to achieve eucortisolism in patients with metastatic MTC and ECS. We present a patient with sporadic advanced persistent and progressive MTC with lymph node and liver metastases, which after 16 years of followup developed an ECS. After one month of 300 mg/day vandetanib treatment, a biochemical and clinical response of the ECS was achieved but it did not result in significant reduction of tumor burden. However the patient reached criteria for stable disease according to response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST 1.1) after 8 months of follow-up. (author)

  3. Rapid response of hypercortisolism to vandetanib treatment in a patient with advanced medullary thyroid cancer and ectopic Cushing syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitoia Fabian; Bueno, Fernanda; Schmidt, Angelica; Lucas, Sabrina; Cross, Graciela, E-mail: fpitoia@intramed.net [Division de Endocrinologia, Hospital de Clinicas, Universidad de Buenos Aires Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-08-15

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) may rarely present with paraneoplastic syndromes. Among the most frequent ones are the appearance of diarrhea and ectopic Cushing syndrome (ECS). The ECS in the context of MTC is usually present in patients with distant metastatic disease. The use of drugs such as ketoconazole, metyrapone, somatostatin analogs and etomidate have been ineffective alternatives to control hypercortisolism in these patients. Bilateral adrenalectomy is often required to manage this situation. Recently, the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors has been shown to be a useful tool to achieve eucortisolism in patients with metastatic MTC and ECS. We present a patient with sporadic advanced persistent and progressive MTC with lymph node and liver metastases, which after 16 years of followup developed an ECS. After one month of 300 mg/day vandetanib treatment, a biochemical and clinical response of the ECS was achieved but it did not result in significant reduction of tumor burden. However the patient reached criteria for stable disease according to response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST 1.1) after 8 months of follow-up. (author)

  4. Epigenetic modifications in human thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Faam, Bita; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Ghadiri, Ata; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy of the endocrine organs, and its incidence rate has steadily increased over the last decade. Over 95% of thyroid carcinoma is derived from follicular cells that have a spectrum of differentiation to the most invasive malignancy. The molecular pathogenesis of thyroid cancer remains to be clarified, although activating the RET, RAS and BRAF oncogenes have been well characterized. Increasing evidence from previous studies demonstrates tha...

  5. Diabetes and Thyroid Cancer Risk: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyang-Rong Shih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients have a higher risk of various types of cancer. However, whether diabetes may increase the risk of thyroid cancer has not been extensively studied. This paper reviews and summarizes the current literature studying the relationship between diabetes mellitus and thyroid cancer, and the possible mechanisms linking such an association. Epidemiologic studies showed significant or nonsignificant increases in thyroid cancer risk in diabetic women and nonsignificant increase or no change in thyroid cancer risk in diabetic men. A recent pooled analysis, including 5 prospective studies from the USA, showed that the summary hazard ratio (95% confidence interval for women was 1.19 (0.84–1.69 and was 0.96 (0.65–1.42 for men. Therefore, the results are controversial and the association between diabetes and thyroid cancer is probably weak. Further studies are necessary to confirm their relationship. Proposed mechanisms for such a possible link between diabetes and thyroid cancer include elevated levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, insulin, glucose and triglycerides, insulin resistance, obesity, vitamin D deficiency, and antidiabetic medications such as insulin or sulfonylureas.

  6. Parathyroid involvement in thyroid cancer: an unforeseen event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrisoulidou Alexandra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parathyroid metastatic disease from thyroid cancer has not been studied extensively, mainly due to the need for parathyroid preservation during thyroid surgery. Methods We reviewed files from 1,770 patients with thyroid cancer followed up in our department and 10 patients with parathyroid metastases (0.5% were identified. Patient and tumor characteristics were recorded. Results Six out of ten patients had metastases from papillary thyroid cancer, three from follicular thyroid cancer and one from anaplastic thyroid cancer. In nine patients parathyroid infiltration from thyroid cancer was found in direct contact with the thyroid cancer, and in one patient metastatic foci were observed not in continuity with the thyroid cancer. Conclusions Parathyroid involvement, although infrequent, may occur in thyroid cancer independently of patient age and tumor size. The clinical significance of such event is not clear. The influence on disease outcome remains to be elucidated.

  7. Stemness is derived from thyroid cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risheng eMa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: One hypothesis for thyroid cancer development is its derivation from thyroid cancer stem cells (CSCs. Such cells could arise via different paths including from mutated resident stem cells within the thyroid gland or via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT from malignant cells since EMT is known to confer stem-like characteristics. Methods: To examine the status of stemness in thyroid papillary cancer we employed a murine model of thyroid papillary carcinoma and examined the expression of stemness and EMT using qPCR and histochemistry in mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre. This construct is only activated at the time of thyroid peroxidase (TPO expression in differentiating thyroid cells and cannot be activated by undifferentiated stem cells which do not express TPO.Results: There was decreased expression of thyroid specific genes such as Tg and NIS and increased expression of stemness markers such as Oct4, Rex1, CD15 and Sox2 in the thyroid carcinoma tissue from 6 week old BRAFV600E mice. The decreased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased EMT regulators including Snail, Slug, and TGF-β1 and TGF-β3, and the mesenchymal marker vimentin demonstrated the simultaneous progression of EMT and the CSC-like phenotype. Stemness was also found in a derived cancer thyroid cell line in which overexpression of Snail caused up-regulation of vimentin expression and up regulation of stemness markers Oct4, Rex1, CD15 with enhanced migration ability of the cells. Conclusions: Our findings support our earlier hypothesis that stemness in thyroid cancer is derived via EMT rather than from resident thyroid stem cells. In mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre the neoplastic changes were dependent on thyroid cell differentiation and the onset of stemness must have been derived from differentiated thyroid epithelial cells.

  8. The WHO activities on thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WHO has been involved in activities related to thyroid disease in populations exposed to Chernobyl fallout since 1991. The International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident, based in Geneva, undertook a pilot project on screening for thyroid disease and the WHO European Centre for Environment and Health responded to claims from Belarus of an increase of childhood thyroid cancer. Since then the WHO has been developing the public health response in partnership with scientists and physicians in Belarus and a number of centres of excellence outside the CIS specializing in the disciplines relevant to the problem. In 1993 the International Thyroid Project was initiated in partnership with the International Agency for Cancer Research. The activities developed with scientists and physicians in Belarus to respond to the increase are described. The increase in thyroid cancer and its implications for future accidents have been addressed. Revised advice on stable iodine prophylaxis has been formulated

  9. Thyroid Cancer: Burden of Illness and Management of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Brown, Jonas A. de Souza, Ezra EW Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The incidence of thyroid cancer, the most common endocrine malignancy, has increased dramatically in the last fifty years. This article will review the standard approach to thyroid cancer treatment as well as novel therapies under investigation. We will also address potential cost considerations in the management of thyroid cancer.Study Design: A comprehensive literature search was performed.Methods: Review article.Results: The high prevalence of thyroid cancer and the availability of novel therapies for patients with metastatic disease have potential economic implications that have not been well-studied. Because many patients likely have very low morbidity from their cancers, better tools to identify the lowest risk patients are needed in order to prevent overtreatment. Improved risk stratification should include recognizing patients who are unlikely to benefit from radioactive iodine therapy after initial surgery and identifying those with indolent and asymptomatic metastatic disease that are unlikely to benefit from novel therapies. In patients with advanced incurable disease, randomized-controlled studies to assess the efficacy of novel agents are needed to determine if the costs associated with new agents are warranted.Conclusions: Health care costs associated with the increased diagnosis of thyroid cancer remain unknown but are worthy of further research.

  10. Hazard of the radiation induced thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level of thyroid cancer in Belarus before Chernobyl accident was low and made in different age and sex groups 0,03-2,5 (male) and 0,1-3,9 (female) per 100000 correspondingly. Different risk factors, which can influence the thyroid cancer development, are being taken into account. They are the factors of environment (strong external irradiation, long-time irradiation for medical purposes or in result of disaster), endo gen factors (hormonal, reproductive, genetic predisposition), some medicinal preparations and other. The protective effect of vegetable and fish consumption was found out. Among the factors of thyroid cancer development one of the most important is radiation. There is a point of view, which assumes that one of the reasons of thyroid cancer cases increase among the population of developed countries is increase of radiation induced thyroid cancer. The results of first research testify the influence of radiation factor on thyroid cancer development. During the period 1920 -1960 in the USA X-ray therapy was applied for the treatment of different good-quality diseases. Thyroid got in the zone of irradiation during the complex treatment with using of radiation. The results of the research of 1970 revealed that 70% of children with thyroid cancer were exposed to radiation in children's age. The subsequent researches of by-effects from the side of a thyroid at beam therapy of various diseases alongside with the results of the estimation of consequences of inhabitants of Hiroshima and Nagasaki irradiation owing to nuclear bombardment have shown the influence of irradiation of a thyroid on cancer development. High quantity of radio-epidemiological researches was directed to the studying of the consequences of thyroid external irradiation at young age. In all carried out researches the quantity of observed thyroid cancer cases among irradiated people has exceeded number of expected. The influence of thyroid internal irradiation by I-131 at young age was

  11. Thyroid scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PET scan Skin nodules Thyroid cancer Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma Toxic nodular goiter ... Topics Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Nuclear Scans Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Diseases Thyroid Tests Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  12. The thyroid, iodine and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A renewal of the search for a link between breast cancer and thyroid disease has once again demonstrated an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with breast cancer. This is the most recent of many studies showing an association between a variety of thyroid disorders and breast cancer. Such an association is not surprising as both diseases are female predominant with a similar postmenopausal peak incidence. The significance of the presence of thyroid autoantibodies, particularly thyroid peroxidase antibodies, in serum from patients with breast cancer is unknown, but it has been suggested that antibody positivity is associated with better prognosis. One area in which thyroid and breast functions overlap is in the uptake and utilization of dietary iodide. Experimental findings showing the ability of iodine or iodine-rich seaweed to inhibit breast tumour development is supported by the relatively low rate of breast cancer in Japanese women who consume a diet containing iodine-rich seaweed. However, there is as yet no direct evidence that iodine, iodinated compounds, or a combination of iodine and selenium is the antimammary carcinogenic element in the Japanese diet. It remains to be resolved whether the perceived breast cancer–thyroid disease relationship is thyroid or iodine related or, in the case of thyroid autoantibodies, is the consequence of an immune response to the carcinoma. Is this response breast specific and does it relate to iodine status? These and many other questions await resolution before a definitive role in the natural history of breast carcinoma can be assigned to the thyroid

  13. [Consensus statement for accreditation of multidisciplinary thyroid cancer units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan José; Galofré, Juan Carlos; Oleaga, Amelia; Grande, Enrique; Mitjavila, Mercedes; Moreno, Pablo

    2016-03-01

    Thyroid cancer is the leading endocrine system tumor. Great advances have recently been made in understanding of the origin of these tumors and the molecular biology that makes them grow and proliferate, which have been associated to improvements in diagnostic procedures and increased availability of effective local and systemic treatments. All of the above makes thyroid cancer a paradigm of how different specialties should work together to achieve the greatest benefit for the patients. Coordination of all the procedures and patient flows should continue throughout diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up, and is essential for further optimization of resources and time. This manuscript was prepared at the request of the Working Group on Thyroid Cancer of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition, and is aimed to provide a consensus document on the definition, composition, requirements, structure, and operation of a multidisciplinary team for the comprehensive care of patients with thyroid cancer. For this purpose, we have included contributions by several professionals from different specialties with experience in thyroid cancer treatment at centers where multidisciplinary teams have been working for years, with the aim of developing a practical consensus applicable in clinical practice.

  14. [Consensus statement for accreditation of multidisciplinary thyroid cancer units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan José; Galofré, Juan Carlos; Oleaga, Amelia; Grande, Enrique; Mitjavila, Mercedes; Moreno, Pablo

    2016-03-01

    Thyroid cancer is the leading endocrine system tumor. Great advances have recently been made in understanding of the origin of these tumors and the molecular biology that makes them grow and proliferate, which have been associated to improvements in diagnostic procedures and increased availability of effective local and systemic treatments. All of the above makes thyroid cancer a paradigm of how different specialties should work together to achieve the greatest benefit for the patients. Coordination of all the procedures and patient flows should continue throughout diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up, and is essential for further optimization of resources and time. This manuscript was prepared at the request of the Working Group on Thyroid Cancer of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition, and is aimed to provide a consensus document on the definition, composition, requirements, structure, and operation of a multidisciplinary team for the comprehensive care of patients with thyroid cancer. For this purpose, we have included contributions by several professionals from different specialties with experience in thyroid cancer treatment at centers where multidisciplinary teams have been working for years, with the aim of developing a practical consensus applicable in clinical practice. PMID:26456892

  15. Thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: update on the Brazilian consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Pedro Weslley; Ward, Laura S; Carvalho, Gisah A; Graf, Hans; Maciel, Rui M B; Maciel, Léa Maria Z; Maia, Ana Luiza; Vaisman, Mário

    2013-06-01

    Thyroid nodules are frequent findings, especially when sensitive imaging methods are used. Although thyroid cancer is relatively rare, its incidence is increasing, particularly in terms of small tumors, which have an uncertain clinical relevance. Most patients with differentiated thyroid cancer exhibit satisfactory clinical outcomes when treatment is appropriate, and their mortality rate is similar to that of the overall population. However, relapse occurs in a considerable fraction of these patients, and some patients stop responding to conventional treatment and eventually die from their disease. Therefore, the challenge is how to identify the individuals who require more aggressive disease management while sparing the majority of patients from unnecessary treatments and procedures. We have updated the Brazilian Consensus that was published in 2007, emphasizing the diagnostic and therapeutic advances that the participants, representing several Brazilian university centers, consider most relevant in clinical practice. The formulation of the present guidelines was based on the participants' experience and a review of the relevant literature.

  16. Medical Management of Metastatic Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Jessica E; Sherman, Scott K.; O’Dorisio, Thomas M.; Howe, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is an aggressive form of thyroid cancer, which occurs in both heritable and sporadic forms. Discovery that mutations in the RET protooncogene predispose to familial cases of this disease has allowed for presymptomatic identification of gene carriers and prophylactic surgery to improve the prognosis of these patients. A significant number of patients with the sporadic type of MTC and even with familial disease, still present with nodal or distant metastases, maki...

  17. Thyroid Adenomas After Solid Cancer in Childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Adjadj, Elisabeth [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Thomas-Teinturier, Cecile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Hopital Bicetre, Bicetre (France); Oberlin, Odile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Veres, Cristina [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Pacquement, Helene [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Jackson, Angela [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Munzer, Martine; N' Guyen, Tan Dat [Institut Jean Godinot, Reims (France); Bondiau, Pierre-Yves [Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne [Centre Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Bridier, Andre; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Schlumberger, Martin [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Vathaire, Florent de, E-mail: florent.devathaire@igr.fr [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Very few childhood cancer survivor studies have been devoted to thyroid adenomas. We assessed the role of chemotherapy and the radiation dose to the thyroid in the risk of thyroid adenoma after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 3254 2-year survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated in 5 French centers before 1986 was established. The dose received by the isthmus and the 2 lobes of the thyroid gland during each course of radiation therapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual radiation therapy conditions in which each child was treated as well as the dose received at other anatomical sites of interest. Results: After a median follow-up of 25 years, 71 patients had developed a thyroid adenoma. The risk strongly increased with the radiation dose to the thyroid up to a few Gray, plateaued, and declined for high doses. Chemotherapy slightly increased the risk when administered alone but also lowered the slope of the dose-response curve for the radiation dose to the thyroid. Overall, for doses up to a few Gray, the excess relative risk of thyroid adenoma per Gray was 2.8 (90% CI: 1.2-6.9), but it was 5.5 (90% CI: 1.9-25.9) in patients who had not received chemotherapy or who had received only 1 drug, and 1.1 (90% CI: 0.4-3.4) in the children who had received more than 1 drug (P=.06, for the difference). The excess relative risk per Gray was also higher for younger children at the time of radiation therapy than for their older counterparts and was higher before attaining 40 years of age than subsequently. Conclusions: The overall pattern of thyroid adenoma after radiation therapy for a childhood cancer appears to be similar to that observed for thyroid carcinoma.

  18. Thyroid Adenomas After Solid Cancer in Childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Very few childhood cancer survivor studies have been devoted to thyroid adenomas. We assessed the role of chemotherapy and the radiation dose to the thyroid in the risk of thyroid adenoma after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 3254 2-year survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated in 5 French centers before 1986 was established. The dose received by the isthmus and the 2 lobes of the thyroid gland during each course of radiation therapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual radiation therapy conditions in which each child was treated as well as the dose received at other anatomical sites of interest. Results: After a median follow-up of 25 years, 71 patients had developed a thyroid adenoma. The risk strongly increased with the radiation dose to the thyroid up to a few Gray, plateaued, and declined for high doses. Chemotherapy slightly increased the risk when administered alone but also lowered the slope of the dose-response curve for the radiation dose to the thyroid. Overall, for doses up to a few Gray, the excess relative risk of thyroid adenoma per Gray was 2.8 (90% CI: 1.2-6.9), but it was 5.5 (90% CI: 1.9-25.9) in patients who had not received chemotherapy or who had received only 1 drug, and 1.1 (90% CI: 0.4-3.4) in the children who had received more than 1 drug (P=.06, for the difference). The excess relative risk per Gray was also higher for younger children at the time of radiation therapy than for their older counterparts and was higher before attaining 40 years of age than subsequently. Conclusions: The overall pattern of thyroid adenoma after radiation therapy for a childhood cancer appears to be similar to that observed for thyroid carcinoma.

  19. Thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica. 1998 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, Corsica appears to be one of the most exposed regions to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Taking into account the scientific knowledge at that time, it was decided to focus studies on thyroid cancers. A study was carried out in order to estimate thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica for the periods 1998-2001 and 2002-2006. The study identified incident thyroid cancer cases between 1998 and 2006 among residents in Corsica. Data were collected using information from the hospitals (PMSI) and the local health insurance funds (ALD). Cases were validated through medical records before inclusion in the study. Over the period of study, 342 cases of thyroid cancer, rather women and relatively young patients, were identified in Corsica. Incidence rate of the thyroid cancer was high, but stable among men, and with a slight increase among women, particularly between 2002 and 2006. However, incidence rate and clinical characteristics of thyroid cancer in Corsica are not exceptional and are similar to those in other French districts. (authors)

  20. Stem cell biology in thyroid cancer: Insights for novel therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parisha; Bhatia; Koji; Tsumagari; Zakaria; Y; Abd; Elmageed; Paul; Friedlander; Joseph; F; Buell; Emad; Kandil

    2014-01-01

    Currently, thyroid cancer is one of the most common endocrine cancer in the United States. A recent involvement of sub-population of stem cells, cancer stem cells, has been proposed in different histological types of thyroid cancer. Because of their ability of self-renewal and differentiation into various specialized cells in the body, these putative cells drive tumor genesis, metastatic activity and are responsible to provide chemo- and radioresistant nature to the cancer cells in the thyroid gland. Our Review was conducted from previously published literature to provide latest apprises to investigate the role of embryonic, somatic and cancer stem cells, and discusses the hypothesis of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Different methods for their identification and isolation through stemness markers using various in vivo and in vitro methods such as flow cytometry, thyrosphere formation assay, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 efflux-pump mediated Hoechst 33342 dye exclusion have been discussed. The review also outlines various setbacks that still remain to target these tumor initiating cells. Future perspectives of therapeutic strategies and their potential to treat advanced stages of thyroid cancer are also disclosed in this review.

  1. Stem cell biology in thyroid cancer: Insights for novel therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Parisha; Tsumagari, Koji; Abd Elmageed, Zakaria Y; Friedlander, Paul; Buell, Joseph F; Kandil, Emad

    2014-01-01

    Currently, thyroid cancer is one of the most common endocrine cancer in the United States. A recent involvement of sub-population of stem cells, cancer stem cells, has been proposed in different histological types of thyroid cancer. Because of their ability of self-renewal and differentiation into various specialized cells in the body, these putative cells drive tumor genesis, metastatic activity and are responsible to provide chemo- and radioresistant nature to the cancer cells in the thyroid gland. Our Review was conducted from previously published literature to provide latest apprises to investigate the role of embryonic, somatic and cancer stem cells, and discusses the hypothesis of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Different methods for their identification and isolation through stemness markers using various in vivo and in vitro methods such as flow cytometry, thyrosphere formation assay, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 efflux-pump mediated Hoechst 33342 dye exclusion have been discussed. The review also outlines various setbacks that still remain to target these tumor initiating cells. Future perspectives of therapeutic strategies and their potential to treat advanced stages of thyroid cancer are also disclosed in this review. PMID:25426258

  2. Thyroid cancer treatment : Long-term effects and new developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is increasingly common. This is especially the case for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), which has a favorable prognosis. Treatment consists of surgical removal of the thyroid gland, radioiodine treatment, and life-long administration of relatively high doses of thyroid hormone. T

  3. Application of Metabolomics in Thyroid Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wojakowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy with four major types distinguished on the basis of histopathological features: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic. Classification of thyroid cancer is the primary step in the assessment of prognosis and selection of the treatment. However, in some cases, cytological and histological patterns are inconclusive; hence, classification based on histopathology could be supported by molecular biomarkers, including markers identified with the use of high-throughput “omics” techniques. Beside genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, metabolomic approach emerges as the most downstream attitude reflecting phenotypic changes and alterations in pathophysiological states of biological systems. Metabolomics using mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques allows qualitative and quantitative profiling of small molecules present in biological systems. This approach can be applied to reveal metabolic differences between different types of thyroid cancer and to identify new potential candidates for molecular biomarkers. In this review, we consider current results concerning application of metabolomics in the field of thyroid cancer research. Recent studies show that metabolomics can provide significant information about the discrimination between different types of thyroid lesions. In the near future, one could expect a further progress in thyroid cancer metabolomics leading to development of molecular markers and improvement of the tumor types classification and diagnosis.

  4. Epigenetics modifications and therapeutic prospects in human thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Graziella eCatalano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available At present no successful treatment is available for advanced thyroid cancer, which comprises poorly differentiated, anaplastic, and metastatic or recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer not responding to radioiodine. In the last few years, biologically targeted therapies for advanced thyroid carcinomas have been proposed on the basis of the recognition of key oncogenic mutations. Although the results of several phase II trials look promising, none of the patients treated had a complete response, and only a minority of them had a partial response, suggesting that the treatment is, at best, effective in stabilizing patients with progressive disease. Epigenetic refers to the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without any alteration in the primary DNA sequence. The epigenetic processes establish and maintain the global and local chroma¬tin states that determine gene expression. Epigenetic abnormalities are present in almost all cancers and, together with genetic changes, drive tumour progression. Various genes involved in the control of cell proliferation and invasion (p16INK4A, RASSF1A,PTEN, Rap1GAP, TIMP3, DAPK, RARβ2, E-cadherin, and CITED1 as well as genes specific of thyroid differentiation (Na+/I- symport, TSH receptor, pendrin, SL5A8, and TTF-1 present aberrant methylation in thyroid cancer.This review deals with the most frequent epigenetic alterations in thyroid cancer and focuses on epigenetic therapy, whose goal is to target the chromatin in rapidly dividing tumour cells and potentially restore normal cell functions. Experimental data and clinical trials, especially using deacetylase inhibitors and demethylating agents, are discussed.

  5. Neoadjuvant Therapy in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Valerie H.; Camille, Nadia; Miles, Brett A.; Teng, Marita S.; Genden, Eric M.; Misiukiewicz, Krzysztof J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Invasion of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) into surrounding structures can lead to morbid procedures such as laryngectomy and tracheal resection. In these patients, there is a potential role for neoadjuvant therapy. Methods. We identified three studies involving the treatment of DTC with neoadjuvant chemotherapy: two from Slovenia and one from Japan. Results. These studies demonstrate that in selected situations, neoadjuvant chemotherapy can have a good response and allow for a more complete surgical resection, the treatment of DTC. Additionally, the SELECT trial shows that the targeted therapy lenvatinib is effective in the treatment of DTC and could be useful as neoadjuvant therapy for this disease due to its short time to response. Pazopanib has also demonstrated promise in phase II data. Conclusions. Thus, chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting could possibly be useful for managing advanced DTC. Additionally, some of the new tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) hold promise for use in the neoadjuvant setting in DTC.

  6. Neoadjuvant Therapy in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan P. Dang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Invasion of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC into surrounding structures can lead to morbid procedures such as laryngectomy and tracheal resection. In these patients, there is a potential role for neoadjuvant therapy. Methods. We identified three studies involving the treatment of DTC with neoadjuvant chemotherapy: two from Slovenia and one from Japan. Results. These studies demonstrate that in selected situations, neoadjuvant chemotherapy can have a good response and allow for a more complete surgical resection, the treatment of DTC. Additionally, the SELECT trial shows that the targeted therapy lenvatinib is effective in the treatment of DTC and could be useful as neoadjuvant therapy for this disease due to its short time to response. Pazopanib has also demonstrated promise in phase II data. Conclusions. Thus, chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting could possibly be useful for managing advanced DTC. Additionally, some of the new tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs hold promise for use in the neoadjuvant setting in DTC.

  7. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiravova, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, Faculty Hospital Motol, Uk, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: The thyroid gland in children is among the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, and very young children are at especially high risk. Due to extreme sensitivity of the thyroid gland in children, there is a risk of radiation - induced thyroid cancer even when the thyroid gland is outside the irradiated field. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been noted following radiotherapy not only for childhood Hodgkin disease (majority of observed patients), but also for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system also. Radiation-induced tumors begin to appear 5-10 years after irradiation and excess risk persists for decades, perhaps for the remainder of life. The incidence of thyroid cancer is two- to threefold higher among females than males. Most of the thyroid cancers that occur in association with irradiation are of the papillary type, for which the cure rate is high if tumors are detected early. Our Department in co-operation with Department of Children Hematology and Oncology Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital Motol monitors patients after therapy for cancer in childhood for the long term period. The monitoring is focused on detection of thyroid disorders that occur as last consequences of oncology therapy, especially early detection of nodular changes in thyroid gland and thyroid carcinogenesis. The survey presents two patients observed in our department that were diagnosed with the papillary thyroid carcinoma which occurred 15 and more years after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. After total thyroidectomy they underwent therapy with radioiodine. After radiotherapy it is necessary to pursue a long-term following and assure interdisciplinary co-operation which enables early detection of last consequences of radiotherapy, especially the most serious ones as secondary carcinogenesis

  8. GENETIC OF THYROID CANCER FAMILIAL NON MEDULLARY THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cantara

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Differentiated non-medullary thyroid cancer (NMTC is mostly sporadic, but the recurrence of familial form of the disease has been reported. Short or dysfunctional telomeres have been associated with familial benign diseases and familial breast cancer. We aimed to study the telomere-telomerase complex in familial NMTC (FNMTC. The genetic analysis included the measurement in the peripheral blood of relative telomere length (RTL, telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT gene amplification, hTERT mRNA expression, telomerase protein activity and search of hTERT or TERC (telomerase RNA component gene mutations. We, also, studied telomeric fusions and associations as well as other chromosomal fragility features by conventional and molecular cytogenetic analyses, in phytohemagglutinin stimulated T-lymphocytes from familial patients, unaffected family members, sporadic PTC patients and healthy subjects. We found that, telomere lenght was significantly shorter in the blood of familial patients compared to sporadic PTCs, healthy subjects, nodular goiter and unaffected siblings. hTERT gene amplification was significantly higher in FNMTC patients compared to the other groups and, in particular, it was significantly greater in offspring with respect to parents. hTERT mRNA expression as well as telomerase activity were significantly higher in FNMTC patients compared to sporadic In addition, we demonstrated that familial patients have a significant increase in spontaneous telomeric associations and telomeric fusions compared to healthy subjects and sporadic cases. Q-FISH analysis demonstrated that familial cases display a significant decrease in the telomeric PNA-FISH signal intensity in metaphase chromsome. Our study demonstrates that patients with FNMTC display an imbalance of the telomeretelomerase complex in the peripheral blood.

  9. The Next Generation of Orthotopic Thyroid Cancer Models: Immunocompetent Orthotopic Mouse Models of BRAFV600E-Positive Papillary and Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Borre, Pierre; McFadden, David G.; Gunda, Viswanath; Sadow, Peter M.; Varmeh, Shohreh; Bernasconi, Maria; Jacks, Tyler; Parangi, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Background: While the development of new treatments for aggressive thyroid cancer has advanced in the last 10 years, progress has trailed headways made with other malignancies. A lack of reliable authenticated human cell lines and reproducible animal models is one major roadblock to preclinical testing of novel therapeutics. Existing xenograft and orthotopic mouse models of aggressive thyroid cancer rely on the implantation of highly passaged human thyroid carcinoma lines in immunodeficient m...

  10. Propranolol sensitizes thyroid cancer cells to cytotoxic effect of vemurafenib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei-Jun; Shen, Chen-Tian; Song, Hong-Jun; Qiu, Zhong-Ling; Luo, Quan-Yong

    2016-09-01

    Treatment options for advanced metastatic or progressive thyroid cancers are limited. Although targeted therapy specifically inhibiting intracellular kinase signaling pathways has markedly changed the therapeutic landscape, side-effects and resistance of single agent targeted therapy often leads to termination of the treatment. The objective of the present study was to identify the antitumor property of the non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol for thyroid cancers. Human thyroid cancer cell lines 8505C, K1, BCPAP and BHP27 were used in the present study. Broad β-blocker propranolol and β2-specific antagonist ICI118551, but not β1-specific antagonist atenolol, inhibited the growth of 8505C and K1 cells. Propranolol treatment inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of 8505C cells in vitro and in vivo, which are closely associated with decreased expressions of cyclin D1 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Expression of hexokinase 2 (HK2) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) also decreased following propranolol intervention. 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging of the 8505C xenografts validated shrinkage of the tumors in the propranolol-treated group when compared to the phosphate‑buffered saline treated group. Finally, we found that propranolol can amplify the cytotoxicity of vemurafenib and sensitize thyroid cancer cells to cytotoxic effect of vemurafenib. Our present results suggest that propranolol has potential activity against thyroid cancers and investigation of the combination with targeted molecular therapy for progressive thyroid cancers could be beneficial. PMID:27432558

  11. Biotinidase is a novel marker for papillary thyroid cancer aggressiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony K-C So

    Full Text Available Biotinidase was identified in secretome analysis of thyroid cancer cell lines using proteomics. The goal of the current study was to analyze the expression of biotinidase in thyroid cancer tissues and fine needle aspiration (FNA samples to evaluate its diagnostic and prognostic potential in thyroid cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of biotinidase was carried out in 129 papillary thyroid cancer (PTC, 34 benign thyroid tissues and 43 FNA samples and correlated with patients' prognosis. Overall biotinidase expression was decreased in PTC compared to benign nodules (p = 0.001. Comparison of aggressive and non-aggressive PTC showed decrease in overall biotinidase expression in the former (p = 0.001. Loss of overall biotinidase expression was associated with poor disease free survival (p = 0.019, Hazards ratio (HR = 3.1. We examined the effect of subcellular compartmentalization of nuclear and cytoplasmic biotinidase on patient survival. Decreased nuclear expression of biotinidase was observed in PTC as compared to benign tissues (p<0.001. Upon stratification within PTC, nuclear expression was reduced in aggressive as compared to non-aggressive tumors (p<0.001. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed significant association of loss of nuclear biotinidase expression with reduced disease free survival (p = 0.014, HR = 5.4. Cytoplasmic biotinidase expression was reduced in aggressive thyroid cancers in comparison with non-aggressive tumors (p = 0.002, Odds ratio (OR = 0.29 which was evident by its significant association with advanced T stage (p = 0.003, OR = 0.28, nodal metastasis (p<0.001, OR = 0.16, advanced TNM stage (p<0.001, OR = 0.21 and extrathyroidal extension (p = 0.001, OR = 0.23. However, in multivariate analysis extrathyroidal extension emerged as the most significant prognostic marker for aggressive thyroid carcinomas (p = 0.015, HR = 12.8. In conclusion, loss of overall

  12. Upregulation of long noncoding RNA LOC100507661 promotes tumor aggressiveness in thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daham; Lee, Woo Kyung; Jeong, Seonhyang; Seol, Mi-Youn; Kim, Hyunji; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Lee, Eun Jig; Lee, Jandee; Jo, Young Suk

    2016-08-15

    Recent advances in next-generation sequencing have revealed a variety of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). However, studies of lncRNAs are at a very early stage, our knowledge of the biological functions and clinical implications remains limited. To investigate the roles of lncRNAs in thyroid cancers, we verified 56 lncRNAs identified as potential cancer-promoting genes in a previous study that analyzed 2394 tumor SNP arrays from 12 types of cancer. Based on verified sequence information in NCBI and Ensembl, we ultimately selected three candidate lncRNAs for detailed analysis. One of the candidates, LOC100507661, was strongly upregulated in thyroid cancer tissues relative to paired contralateral normal tissue. LOC100507661 was easily detectable in papillary and anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines such as TPC1, BCPAP, C643, and 8505C, but not in the follicular thyroid cancer cell line FTC133. Stable overexpression of LOC100507661 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of thyroid cancer cells. Lymph node metastasis and BRAF V600E mutations were more frequent in papillary thyroid cancers with high LOC100507661 expression. Our data demonstrate that LOC100507661 expression is elevated in human thyroid cancer and may play a critical role in thyroid carcinogenesis. PMID:27151833

  13. Involvement of Aberrant Glycosylation in Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Miyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation is one of the most common posttranslational modification reactions and nearly half of all known proteins in eukaryotes are glycosylated. In fact, changes in oligosaccharides structures are associated with many physiological and pathological events, including cell growth, migration and differentiation, and tumor invasion. Therefore, functional glycomics, which is a comprehensive study of the structures and functions of glycans, is attracting the increasing attention of scientists in various fields of life science. In cases of thyroid cancer, the biological characters and prognosis are completely different in each type of histopathology, and their oligosaccharide structures as well as the expression of glycosyltransferases are also different. In this review, we summarized our previous papers on oligosaccharides and thyroid cancers and discussed a possible function of oligosaccharides in the carcinogenesis in thyroid cancer.

  14. Risk of second primary cancer following differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerns remain over the risk of cancer following differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its causes. Iodine-131 (131I) and external irradiation are known to have potential carcinogenic effects. Thyroid carcinoma is a polygenic disease which may be associated with other malignancies. We investigated the incidence of second cancer and its aetiology in a cohort of 875 patients (146 men, 729 women) with differentiated thyroid carcinoma originating from Basse-Normandie, France. Cancer incidence was compared with that of the general population of the Departement du Calvados matched for age, gender and period. The cumulative proportion of second cancer was estimated using the life-table method. Factors that correlated with the risk of second cancer were studied using the Cox model. After a median follow-up of 8 years, 58 second cancers had been observed. Compared with general population incidence rates, there was an overall increased risk of second cancer in women [standardised incidence ratio (SIR)=1.52; P0.20). Increased risk related to cancers of the genitourinary tract (SIR=3.31; P131I was related to the risk. These data confirm that women with differentiated thyroid carcinoma are at risk of developing a second cancer of the genitourinary tract and kidney. Only age and medical history of primary cancer before thyroid carcinoma are risk factors for second cancer. Common environmental or genetic factors as well as long-term carcinogenic effects of primary cancer therapy should be considered. (orig.)

  15. New approaches to image thyroid cancer cells and microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (PDTC) and undifferentiated thyroid cancer (UDTC) are still life-threatening pathologies, because of the lack of well-established diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In the past, many attempts have been made to develop radiopharmaceutical to diagnose or treat radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory metastases or recurrences, with limited results. Indeed, it was not possible to find a specific and over expressed marker to be used as target of radiopharmaceuticals or targeted therapies. Nowadays, with novel advances in the field of tumor microenvironment, many new markers are available to be used as suitable targets for targeted therapies interfering with signalling pathways of cells involved in the mechanisms that favour tumor growth and metastatization. This opened new perspective in the use of radiopharmaceuticals targeting components of tumor microenvironment for early diagnosis, pre-operative staging or therapy planning and follow up with targeted drugs. In the present review we present the state of novel approaches to image thyroid cancer and its microenvironment, focusing on RAI-refractory thyroid cancer as a real clinical problem to be solved.

  16. Differentiated thyroid cancer in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome. A novel case and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, João; Borges, Fátima; Costa, António; Alvelos, Maria Inês; Mazeto, Glaúcia; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) represents a syndrome in which patients present elevated circulating thyroid hormones in the presence of non-suppressed TSH. We report a novel case where a patient with RTH presented a differentiated thyroid cancer. A19 year-old female had been referred due to thyroid disease that disclosed features characteristic of a RTH. During the follow up it was detected a follicular tumor that led to the recommendation for thyroid surgical ablation, where an incidental papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (mPTC) was found. The increase of thyroglobulin (TG) levels following thyroid removal referred the patient for radioiodine treatment. Post-treatment, it was detected jugular adenopathies and the patient was subjected to cervical lymph node drainage where metastases of the mPTC were found. RTH syndrome was confirmed by the detection of a THRB germline mutation. A BRAF mutation was also found in the mPTC but not detected in the follicular adenoma or normal adjacent tissue. The young age of the patient, the rarity of BRAF mutations in childhood and the high dissemination of the malignancy, lead us to the speculation that increased TSH stimulation in a RTH background and oncogenic activation of BRAF could have served as (co) drivers and might have triggered an advanced stage of the neoplastic disease. These findings together with a review of published cases add novel information to the management of RTH patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. PMID:25988151

  17. Current Status and Future Perspectives in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae Yong; Kim, Won Gu; Kim, Won Bae; Shong, Young Kee

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is increasing all over the world. The exact cause of this increase is still debated and there are conflicting reports. Sophisticated molecular studies suggest that environmental chemicals may have effects of thyroid carcinogenesis. The development of powerful molecular biology techniques has enabled targeted next-generation sequencing for detection of mutations in thyroid cancer, and this technique can make a specific diagnosis of thyroid cancer in cytologically indeterminate c...

  18. Differentiated thyroid cancer in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, D; Scollo, C; Pellegriti, G; Lavenia, G; Iurato, M P; Pezzin, V; Belfiore, A

    2002-01-01

    In this retrospective study we analyzed cancer characteristics and outcome in a consecutive series of 48 young patients (PTC) occurred in 83% and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) in 17% of cases. All patients underwent total or near total thyroidectomy plus pre- and/or paratracheal lymphnode dissection. Surgery complication rate was low (4% permanent hypoparathyroidism; no permanent lesion of recurrent laryngeal nerve). Extrathyroid disease was present in 52% of patients with PTC and in 50% of patients with FTC, while nodal metastases were present in 62.5% of patients with PTC and in 12.5% of patients with FTC. Lung metastases occurred in 10 patients with PTC (25%) and in none with FTC. Twenty-one patients required radioiodine treatment for metastatic disease: 11 patients for relapsing lymph-node metastases, 4 patients for lung metastases, 6 patients for both lymph-node and lung metastases. After a mean follow-up of 85+/-12 months all patients followed regularly (no.=47) were alive; 37 patients (79%) were free of disease and 10 (21%) had residual disease. Our results indicate that non-radiation-related DTC occurring in young patients often presents at an advanced stage. For this reason, although the prognosis is usually good in these patients, we believe that total or near total thyroidectomy with lymphadenectomy is always the required initial surgical treatment. PMID:11883862

  19. Risk of thyroid cancer among Chernobyl liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: While the increased risk of thyroid cancer is well demonstrated in people exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated areas around the Chernobyl power plant, following the accident which took place on 26 April 1986, the effect of exposure on adults remains unclear. A collaborative case-control study of thyroid cancer was set-up, nested within cohorts of Belarus, Russian and Baltic countries liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, to evaluate the radiation-induced risk of this disease among liquidators, and to assess the roles of screening and of radiation exposures in the observed increased thyroid cancer incidence among liquidators. The study population consisted of the cohorts of approximately 66,000 Belarus, 65,000 Russian and 15,000 Baltic countries liquidators who took part in the clean-up activities on the reactor site and in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 1987. The liquidators were mainly exposed to external radiation, although substantial dose to the thyroid from iodine isotopes may have been received by liquidators who worked in May-June 1986 and by those who resided in the most contaminated territories of Belarus. Information was collected on study subjects by use of a standardized questionnaire that was administrated during a face-to-face interview with the study subject and/or a proxy (a relative or a colleague). The interview included questions on demographic factors, time, place and conditions of work as a liquidator and on potential risk and confounding factors for thyroid cancer. A method of analytical dose reconstruction, entitled RADRUE (Realistic Analytical Dose Reconstruction with Uncertainty Estimation) was developed within the study and applied to estimate individual doses to the thyroid from external radiation and related uncertainties for each subject. Approaches to derive individual thyroid dose estimates from inhaled and

  20. Multikinase inhibitors in the treatment of thyroid cancer: specific role of lenvatinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepanovic N

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neda Stjepanovic, Jaume CapdevilaDepartment of Medical Oncology, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Thyroid cancers are the most frequent neoplasms of the endocrine system and in the initial stages their prognosis is excellent. However, few therapeutic options are available for advanced or metastatic disease. In the last decade, a better understanding of the molecular events involved in the tumorigenesis of thyroid cancers has led to development of new targeted agents for the management of advanced and refractory disease. Multikinase inhibitors that are able to block pathways involved in the proliferation, invasion, and neoangiogenesis of thyroid cancer have been the most widely studied. After an international effort to identify and recruit sufficient patients, four placebo-controlled studies of multikinase inhibitors have been completed. These trials have led to the approval of the first agents with activity in advanced medullary thyroid cancers, which will probably change the landscape of treatment for iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer in the near future. The purpose of this paper is to review the development of targeted agents for thyroid malignancy, with a special focus on lenvatinib, a multikinase inhibitor.Keywords: thyroid cancer, lenvatinib, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, multikinase inhibitors, targeted therapies

  1. Management of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer in Children: Focus on the American Thyroid Association Pediatric Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Marguerite T; Eslamy, Hedieh; Mankoff, David

    2016-03-01

    First introduced in 1946, radioactive iodine (I-131) produces short-range beta radiation with a half-life of 8 days. The physical properties of I-131 combined with the high degree of uptake in the differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) led to the use of I-131 as a therapeutic agent for DTC in adults. There are two indications for the potential use of I-131 therapy in pediatric thyroid disorders: nonsurgical treatment of hyperthyroidism owing to Graves' disease and the treatment of children with intermediate- and high-risk DTC. However, children are not just miniature adults. Not only are children and the pediatric thyroid gland more sensitive to radiation than adults but also the biologic behavior of DTC differs between children and adults as well. As opposed to adults, children with DTC typically present with advanced disease at diagnosis; yet, they respond rapidly to therapy and have an excellent prognosis that is significantly better than that in adult counterparts with advanced disease. Unfortunately, there are also higher rates of local and distant disease recurrence in children with DTC compared with adults, mandating lifelong surveillance. Further, children have a longer life expectancy during which the adverse effects of I-131 therapy may become manifest. Recognizing the differences between adults and children with DTC, the American Thyroid Association commissioned a task force of experts who developed and recently published a guideline to address the unique issues related to the management of thyroid nodules and DTC in children. This article reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, treatment, therapy-related effects, and suggestions for surveillance in children with DTC, focusing not only on the differences between adults and children with this disease but also on the latest recommendations from the inaugural pediatric management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association.

  2. Diagnosis and Management of Hereditary Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Gul; Hodgson, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancers are largely divided into medullary (MTC) and non-medullary (NMTC) cancers , depending on the cell type of origin. Familial non-medullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC) comprises about 5-15% of NMTC and is a heterogeneous group of diseases, including both non-syndromic and syndromic forms. Non-syndromic FNMTC tends to manifest papillary thyroid carcinoma , usually multifocal and bilateral . Several high-penetrance genes for FNMTC have been identified, but they are often confined to a few or single families, and other susceptibility loci appear to play a small part, conferring only small increments in risk. Familial susceptibility is likely to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental influences. The current focus of research in FNMTC is to characterise the susceptibility genes and their role in carcinogenesis. FNMTC can also occur as a part of multitumour genetic syndromes such as familial adenomatous polyposis , Cowden's disease , Werner's syndrome and Carney complex . These tend to present at an early age and are multicentric and bilateral with distinct pathology. The clinical evaluation of these patients is similar to that for most patients with a thyroid nodule. Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) arises from the parafollicular cells of the thyroid which release calcitonin. The familial form of MTC accounts for 20-25% of cases and presents as a part of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) syndromes or as a pure familial MTC (FMTC). They are caused by germline point mutations in the RET oncogene on chromosome 10q11.2. There is a clear genotype-phenotype correlation, and the aggressiveness of FMTC depends on the specific genetic mutation, which should determine the timing of surgery. PMID:27075347

  3. Effects and Role of Multikinase Inhibitors in Thyroid Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rasmus; Wehland, Markus; Kopp, Sascha;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is the most common type of endocrine neoplasia. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) represents 94% of all thyroid cancer types. Approximately 20% experience local recurrence and 10% distant metastasis. The recurrent DTC often becomes less differentiated, loses the io...

  4. NADPH oxidases: new actors in thyroid cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameziane-El-Hassani, Rabii; Schlumberger, Martin; Dupuy, Corinne

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a crucial substrate for thyroid peroxidase, a key enzyme involved in thyroid hormone synthesis. However, as a potent oxidant, H2O2 might also be responsible for the high level of oxidative DNA damage observed in thyroid tissues, such as DNA base lesions and strand breakages, which promote chromosomal instability and contribute to the development of tumours. Although the role of H2O2 in thyroid hormone synthesis is well established, its precise mechanisms of action in pathological processes are still under investigation. The NADPH oxidase/dual oxidase family are the only oxidoreductases whose primary function is to produce reactive oxygen species. As such, the function and expression of these enzymes are tightly regulated. Thyrocytes express dual oxidase 2, which produces most of the H2O2 for thyroid hormone synthesis. Thyrocytes also express dual oxidase 1 and NADPH oxidase 4, but the roles of these enzymes are still unknown. Here, we review the structure, expression, localization and function of these enzymes. We focus on their potential role in thyroid cancer, which is characterized by increased expression of these enzymes. PMID:27174022

  5. Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Younger Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms Tumor, Liver Cancer, or Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-14

    Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Liver Cancer; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors

  6. Radioiodine in the treatment of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nostrand, Douglas; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2007-09-01

    This article presents an overview of the use of radioactive iodine (131-I) in the treatment of patients who have well differentiated thyroid cancer. We review definitions; staging; the two-principal methods for selection of a dosage of 131-I for ablation and treatment; the objectives of ablation and treatment; the indications for ablation and treatment; the recommendations for the use of 131-I for ablation and treatment contained in the Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association, the European Consensus, the Society of Nuclear Medicine, and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine; the dosage recommendations and selection of dosage for 131-I by the these organizations; and the Washington Hospital Center approach.

  7. Cabozantinib-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction: A Review of Two Ongoing Trials for Metastatic Bladder Cancer and Sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz, Sahzene; Apolo, Andrea B.; Kummar, Shivaani; del Rivero, Jaydira; Madan, Ravi A.; Shawker, Thomas; Reynolds, James; Celi, Francesco S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thyroid dysfunction is a common adverse event associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), but its underlying pathophysiology is unclear. Cabozantinib is a novel TKI currently Food and Drug Administration approved for advanced medullary thyroid cancer and tested in clinical trials on solid tumors including prostate, liver, bladder, breast, and ovarian cancer.

  8. Risk of second primary cancer following differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthe, Emmanuelle; Berthet, Pascaline; Bardet, Stephane [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, CLCC Francois Baclesse, Avenue General Harris, 14076, Caen Cedex 05 (France); Henry-Amar, Michel [Service de Recherche Clinique, CLCC Francois Baclesse, Caen (France); Michels, Jean-Jacques [Service d' Anatomie Pathologique, CLCC Francois Baclesse, Caen (France); Rame, Jean-Pierre [Service de Chirurgie ORL, CLCC Francois Baclesse, Caen (France); Babin, Emmanuel [Service de Chirurgie ORL, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Caen (France); Icard, Philippe [Service de Chirurgie Thoracique, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Caen (France); Samama, Guy [Service de Chirurgie Generale, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Caen (France); Galateau-Salle, Francoise [Service d' Anatomie Pathologique, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Caen (France); Mahoudeau, Jacques [Service d' Endocrinologie, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Caen (France)

    2004-05-01

    Concerns remain over the risk of cancer following differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its causes. Iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) and external irradiation are known to have potential carcinogenic effects. Thyroid carcinoma is a polygenic disease which may be associated with other malignancies. We investigated the incidence of second cancer and its aetiology in a cohort of 875 patients (146 men, 729 women) with differentiated thyroid carcinoma originating from Basse-Normandie, France. Cancer incidence was compared with that of the general population of the Departement du Calvados matched for age, gender and period. The cumulative proportion of second cancer was estimated using the life-table method. Factors that correlated with the risk of second cancer were studied using the Cox model. After a median follow-up of 8 years, 58 second cancers had been observed. Compared with general population incidence rates, there was an overall increased risk of second cancer in women [standardised incidence ratio (SIR)=1.52; P<0.01], but not in men (SIR=1.27; P>0.20). Increased risk related to cancers of the genitourinary tract (SIR=3.31; P<0.001), and particularly to cancer of the kidney (SIR=7.02; P<0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that age above 40 years (P<0.01) and a history of previous primary cancer (P<0.001) correlated with risk. In contrast, neither cervical irradiation nor cumulative activity of {sup 131}I was related to the risk. These data confirm that women with differentiated thyroid carcinoma are at risk of developing a second cancer of the genitourinary tract and kidney. Only age and medical history of primary cancer before thyroid carcinoma are risk factors for second cancer. Common environmental or genetic factors as well as long-term carcinogenic effects of primary cancer therapy should be considered. (orig.)

  9. Targeted Treatment of Differentiated and Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon R. Bales

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing, with a concomitant increase in the number of patients with advanced and metastatic disease. Discoveries regarding the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer have led to the recent development of new therapeutic agents that are beginning to appear on the market. Many of these new agents are targeted kinase inhibitors primarily affecting oncogenic kinases (BRAF V600E, RET/PTC or signaling kinases (VEGFR, PDGFR. Some of these agents report significant partial response rates, while others attain stabilization of disease as their best response. Their impact on survival is unclear. While these agents target similar pathways, a wide variety of differences exist regarding efficacy and side effect profile. Current expert opinion advises that these agents be used only in a specific subset of patients.

  10. Update on epidemiology classification, and management of thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitham Gheriani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer represents approximately 0.5–1% of all human malignancy1. In the UK the incidence of thyroid cancer is 2-3 per 100,000 populations 2. In geographical areas of low iodine intake and in areas exposed to nuclear disasters the incidence of thyroid cancer is higher. Benign thyroid conditions are much more common. In the UK approximately 8 % of the population have nodular thyroid disease2. Nodular thyroid disease increases with age and is also more common in females and in geographical areas of low iodine intake. Primary thyroid malignancy can be broadly divided into 2 groups. The first group, which generally have much better prognosis, are the well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which includes papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma and Hürthle cell tumours. The second group includes the poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma like medullary thyroid carcinoma and the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Other rare tumours such as sarcomas, lymphomas and the extremely rare primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid should be included in the second group. Secondary or metastatic thyroid cancer can be from breast, lung, colon and kidney malignancies.

  11. Molecular markers for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more accessible and potentially usable from a methodological viewpoint for diagnosis of the thyroid nodule before surgery. The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more

  12. Rationale and design of decision: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic radioactive iodine (RAI-refractory, differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brose Marcia S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of thyroid cancer and the number of patients who die from this disease are increasing globally. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC is the histologic subtype present in most patients and is primarily responsible for the increased overall incidence of thyroid cancer. Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor that targets several molecular signals believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer, including those implicated in DTC. In phase II studies of patients with DTC, sorafenib treatment has yielded a median progression-free survival (PFS of 58 to 84 weeks and disease control rates of 59% to 100%. The DECISION trial was designed to assess the ability of sorafenib to improve PFS in patients with locally advanced or metastatic, radioactive iodine (RAI-refractory DTC. Methods/design DECISION is a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study in patients with locally advanced/metastatic RAI-refractory DTC. Study treatment will continue until radiographically documented disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, noncompliance, or withdrawal of consent. Efficacy will be evaluated every 56 days (2 cycles, whereas safety will be evaluated every 28 days (1 cycle for the first 8 months and every 56 days thereafter. Following disease progression, patients may continue or start sorafenib, depending on whether they were randomized to receive sorafenib or placebo, at investigator discretion. Patients originally randomized to receive sorafenib will be followed up every 3 months for overall survival (OS; patients originally randomized to receive placebo will be followed up every month for 8 months after cross-over to sorafenib. The duration of the trial is expected to be 30 months from the time the first patient is randomized until the planned number of PFS events is attained. The primary endpoint is PFS; secondary endpoints include OS, time to disease progression, disease control rate

  13. Hyperfunction thyroid nodules: Their risk for becoming or being associated with thyroid cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Ji Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki Hyun [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study. Thyroid nodules depicted on ultrasonography were classified based on size and categorized as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious malignant nodules according to ultrasonographic findings. The thyroid nodules were determined as either hyperfunctioning or coexisting nodules and were then correlated with pathologic results. In 32 patients, 42 hyperfunctioning nodules (mean number per patient, 1.31; range, 1-6) were observed on thyroid scans and 68 coexisting nodules (mean, 2.13; range, 0-7) were observed on ultrasonography. Twenty-five patients (78.1%) had at least one hyperfunctioning (n = 17, 53.1%) or coexisting (n = 16, 50.0%) nodule that showed a suspicious malignant feature larger than 5 mm (n = 8, 25.0%), or an indeterminate feature 1 cm or greater (n = 20, 62.5%) in diameter, which could have been indicated by using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seven patients were proven to have 11 thyroid cancers in 3 hyperfunctioning and 8 coexisting nodules. All of these had at least one thyroid cancer, which could have been indicated by using FNA. The estimated minimal risk of thyroid cancer was 6.5% (7/107). Patients with hyperfunctioning nodules may not be safe from thyroid cancer because hyperfunctioning nodules can coexist with thyroid cancer nodules. To screen out these cancers, ultrasonography should be performed.

  14. The Role of the PAX8/PPARγ Fusion Oncogene in Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Placzkowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is uncommon and exhibits relatively low mortality rates. However, a subset of patients experience inexorable growth, metastatic spread, and mortality. Unfortunately, for these patients, there have been few significant advances in treatment during the last 50 years. While substantial advances have been made in recent years about the molecular genetic events underlying papillary thyroid cancer, the more aggressive follicular thyroid cancer remains poorly understood. The recent discovery of the PAX8/PPARγ translocation in follicular thyroid carcinoma has promoted progress in the role of PPARγ as a tumor suppressor and potential therapeutic target. The PAX8/PPARγ fusion gene appears to be an oncogene. It is most often expressed in follicular carcinomas and exerts a dominant-negative effect on wild-type PPARγ, and stimulates transcription of PAX8-responsive promoters. PPARγ agonists have shown promising results in vitro, although very few studies have been conducted to assess the clinical impact of these agents.

  15. The Revised 2016 Korean Thyroid Association Guidelines for Thyroid Nodules and Cancers: Differences from the 2015 American Thyroid Association Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Increased detection of thyroid nodules using high-resolution ultrasonography has resulted in a world-wide increase in the incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Despite the steep increase in its incidence, the age-standardized mortality rate of thyroid cancer has remained stable, which leads toward a trend of more conservative treatment. The latest American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines for thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer revised in 2015 suggested that fine needle aspiration biopsy should be performed for thyroid nodules larger than 1 cm and lobectomy might be sufficient for 1 to 4 cm intrathyroidal DTC. In addition, active surveillance instead of immediate surgical treatment was also recommended as a treatment option for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma based on the results of a few observational studies from Japan. The Korean Thyroid Association (KTA) has organized a task force team to develop revised guidelines for thyroid nodules and DTC after an extensive review of articles and intense discussion on whether we should accept the changes in the 2015 ATA guidelines. This paper introduces and discusses the updated major issues and differences in the ATA and the KTA guidelines. PMID:27704738

  16. THYROID HORMONE PROFILE IN EARLY BREAST CANCER PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renija Valiya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumour in women worldwide. The relationship between breast cancer and thyroid disease is a controversy. Many of the studies showed hypothyroidism as the commonly found thyroid abnormality in breast cancer. [1] There is considerable evidence for an increased risk of thyroid and breast cancer in patients with iodine deficiency. This ability of iodine to reduce the risk of breast cancer is attributed to the ability of iodine and its compounds to induce apoptosis so that appropriate cell death occurs. Instead, in the absence of optimum level of iodine in the body the transformed cells continue to grow and divide resulting in cancer. AIMS 1. To find out the association of thyroid hormones and breast cancer in early breast cancer patients. 2. To find out the association of thyroid peroxidase antibodies in early breast cancer patients. Settings Cases: 82 breast cancer patients in early stage who attended the breast clinic. Controls: 82 age matched controls (Between 25-80 years. Design: Case control study. MATERIALS AND METHOD In this study, investigated for thyroid function test (T3, T4, TSH and thyroid peroxide antibody level in 82 early breast cancer patients. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS SPSS 16. RESULTS Statistically significant low T4 and high TSH in breast cancer patients, along with elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody. CONCLUSION Compared to hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism was found to be clinically significant in breast cancer patients

  17. Thyroid nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016:chap 14. Read More Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease) Laryngeal nerve damage Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II Thyroid cancer Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma Thyroid gland removal Patient Instructions Thyroid gland ...

  18. Thyroid cancer : studies on etiology and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hallquist, Arne

    1994-01-01

    Thyroid cancer constitutes about 1% of all malignant tumours and the incidence is increasing in Sweden. It is rare in children before the age of 10. During puberty the female to male ratio increases to be two to three times more common in females. The ratio remains constant until menopause and thereafter declines. The etiology of this gender-dependent incidence difference is unclear. Ionizing radiation is the only well-established risk factor for the disease, while the impact of other etiolog...

  19. Thyroid cancer in child (about 9 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children thyroid cancer is a very uncommon affection. Its incidence has sharply risen among the patients who underwent therapeutic irradiation and after the Chernobylsk accident in the contaminated regions. Our study consists of emphasizing the distinctive features of children thyroid cancer on the epidemiological, clinical and para clinical aspects, in order to discuss diagnostic difficulties, prognostic elements as well as a therapeutic approach. Through a study conducted in the nuclear medical department of Rabat, we brought together 9 cases of thyroid cancer in children aged between 11 and 15 years old. In our series, the average age is 13 years, with a feminine prevalence. A family notion of goitre is reported in one case, without notion of irradiation, the revealing mode is mainly an euthyroid goitre and the cervical adenopathies, with good general health conditions being maintained. The scintigraphy showed a cold nodule, witch anatomo-pathological examination is papillary carcinoma. Extensive surgery, ira therapy and substitute hormonal treatment combined allowed a high recovery rate among our patients, with no side effects. The medium-term evolution was positive even in metastases cases. The prognostic is generally good, especially in the differentiated forms. (authors)

  20. [Lymph node and distant metastases of thyroid gland cancer. Metastases in the thyroid glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The different biological features of the various major entities of thyroid cancer, e.g. papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, anaplastic and medullary, depend to a large extent on their different metastatic spread. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a propensity for cervical lymphatic spread that occurs in 20-50 % of patients whereas distant metastasis occurs in thyroid cancer (FTC) has a marked propensity for vascular but not lymphatic invasion and 10-20 % of FTC develop distant metastases. At the time of diagnosis approximately one third of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show lymph node metastases, in 10-15 % distant metastases and 25 % develop metastases during the course of the disease. Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) spread via both lymphatic and vascular invasion. Thus distant metastases are relatively uncommon in DTC and when they occur, long-term stable disease is the typical clinical course. The major sites of distant metastases are the lungs and bone. Metastases to the brain, breasts, liver, kidneys, muscle and skin are relatively rare or even rare. The thyroid gland itself can be a site of metastases from a variety of other tumors. In autopsy series of patients with disseminated cancer disease, metastases to the thyroid gland were found in up to 10 % of cases. Metastases from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4-3 % of patients who have surgery for suspected cancer of the thyroid gland. The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the thyroid gland are renal cell (48.1 %), colorectal (10.4 %), lung (8.3 %) and breast cancer (7.8 %) and surprisingly often sarcomas (4.0 %).

  1. A review on thyroid cancer during pregnancy: Multitasking is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Hussein; Al Lahloubi, Nasr; Rashad, Noha

    2016-07-01

    Thyroid cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed during pregnancy after breast cancer. The goal of management is to control malignancy and prevent maternal and fetal complications as a result of maternal hypothyroidism. The role of female sex hormones as an etiologic factor was investigated, with no clear association. Pregnancy can cause an increase in size of a previously existed thyroid nodule through the structural similarity between TSH and BHCG, and the normally expressed estrogen receptors on thyroid gland cells. Effect of pregnancy on development and prognosis of differentiated thyroid malignancies (papillary and follicular) has also been studied. The prognosis of thyroid cancer is not worse in patients diagnosed during pregnancy or those who got pregnant after curative treatment. Termination of pregnancy is not indicated at all, surgery can be delayed till after delivery except in rapidly growing aggressive tumors. While radioactive iodine ablation is absolutely contra-indicated, the new systemic therapies are not well studied during pregnancy. However, almost all these new agents are classified as FDA category C or D and are better to be avoided. The effect of pregnancy on other types of thyroid cancer (medullary and anaplastic thyroid tumors) is not well studied because of very low incidence with pregnancy. The endocrinological management of thyroid cancer during pregnancy is of utmost importance. The hypothyroidism after total thyroidectomy can cause fetal hypothyroidism. Therefore, the management of thyroid cancer related to pregnancy needs a multidisciplinary team. PMID:27408758

  2. New approaches to image thyroid cancer cells and microenvironment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galli, F.; Iodice, V.; Lauri, C.; Signore, A.

    2015-01-01

    Poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (PDTC) and undifferentiated thyroid cancer (UDTC) are still life-threatening pathologies, because of the lack of well-established diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In the past, many attempts have been made to develop radiopharmaceutical to diagnose or treat

  3. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribova, O. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Choynzonov, E. L.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  4. Trends of Thyroid Cancer in Israel: 1980–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lital Keinan-Boker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Thyroid cancer incidence is increasing worldwide, while mortality from thyroid cancer is stable or decreasing. Consequently, survival rates are rising. We describe time trends in the incidence, mortality, and 5-year survival of thyroid cancer in Israel in 1980–2012, in light of the global trends. Methods: Israel National Cancer Registry database provided information regarding thyroid cancer incidence and vital status, which enabled computation of survival rates. The Central Bureau of Statistics database provided information on thyroid cancer mortality. Incidence and mortality rates were age-adjusted and presented by population group (Jews/Arabs and gender. Relative 5-year survival rates which account for the general population survival in the corresponding time period were presented by population group and gender. Joinpoint analyses were used to assess incidence trends over time. Results: In 1980–2012 significant increases in the incidence of thyroid cancer were observed, with an annual percent change (APC range of 3.98–6.93, driven almost entirely by papillary carcinoma (APCs 5.75–8.86, while rates of other types of thyroid cancer remained stable or decreased. Furthermore, higher rates of early detection were noted. In 1980–2012, a modest reduction in thyroid cancer mortality was observed in Jewish women (APC −1.07 with no substantial change in Jewish men. The 5-year relative survival after thyroid cancer diagnosis has increased to ≥90% in both population groups and both genders. Conclusions: The Israeli secular trends of thyroid cancer incidence (increasing, mortality (mostly stable, and survival (modestly increasing closely follow reported global trends.

  5. Trends of Thyroid Cancer in Israel: 1980–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Silverman, Barbara G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Thyroid cancer incidence is increasing worldwide, while mortality from thyroid cancer is stable or decreasing. Consequently, survival rates are rising. We describe time trends in the incidence, mortality, and 5-year survival of thyroid cancer in Israel in 1980–2012, in light of the global trends. Methods: Israel National Cancer Registry database provided information regarding thyroid cancer incidence and vital status, which enabled computation of survival rates. The Central Bureau of Statistics database provided information on thyroid cancer mortality. Incidence and mortality rates were age-adjusted and presented by population group (Jews/Arabs) and gender. Relative 5-year survival rates which account for the general population survival in the corresponding time period were presented by population group and gender. Joinpoint analyses were used to assess incidence trends over time. Results: In 1980–2012 significant increases in the incidence of thyroid cancer were observed, with an annual percent change (APC) range of 3.98–6.93, driven almost entirely by papillary carcinoma (APCs 5.75–8.86), while rates of other types of thyroid cancer remained stable or decreased. Furthermore, higher rates of early detection were noted. In 1980–2012, a modest reduction in thyroid cancer mortality was observed in Jewish women (APC −1.07) with no substantial change in Jewish men. The 5-year relative survival after thyroid cancer diagnosis has increased to ≥90% in both population groups and both genders. Conclusions: The Israeli secular trends of thyroid cancer incidence (increasing), mortality (mostly stable), and survival (modestly increasing) closely follow reported global trends. PMID:26886958

  6. Kinase inhibitors for advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schlumberger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent availability of molecular targeted therapies leads to a reconsideration of the treatment strategy for patients with distant metastases from medullary thyroid carcinoma. In patients with progressive disease, treatment with kinase inhibitors should be offered.

  7. Role of vandetanib in the management of medullary thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondeau G

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Maryse Brassard1*, Geneviève Rondeau2* 1Endocrinology Service, Department of Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Affilié (CHA, Laval University, Quebec, Canada; 2Endocrinology Service, Department of Medicine, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada*Both authors contributed equally to this articleAbstract: Traditionally available treatments, like cytotoxic chemotherapy and external-beam radiation therapy, are limited and essentially ineffective for metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC. In the last decade, small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI have been introduced in the field of thyroid cancer, after having been shown effective in a wide variety of other tumors. This review focuses on vandetanib (ZD6474, ZactimaTM; AstraZeneca and its role in the treatment of MTC. Vandetanib is an oral TKI that targets VEGF receptors 2 and 3, RET, and at higher concentrations, the epidermal growth factor (EGF receptor. This drug has been tested in two important phase II studies which demonstrated that both the 100 and 300 mg/day dosage of vandetanib have antitumor activity on advanced MTC. A phase III trial (ZETA trial evaluating vandetanib in 331 patients with locally advanced or metastatic MTC showed a significant prolongation of PFS for patients receiving vandetanib compared with placebo. Toxicity surveillance in all studies reported high rates of adverse effects with diarrhea, rash, fatigue and nausea being the most commonly experienced by patients. Vandetanib is currently approved in the United States for unresectable locally advanced or metastatic MTC and has become a new standard of care in this rare and indolent pathology.Keywords: vandetanib, medullary thyroid cancer, RET mutation, VEFGR

  8. Thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy and thyroid cancer diagnosis: a nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ying Huang

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine gland malignancy and fine-needle aspiration biopsy is widely used for thyroid nodule evaluation. Repeated aspiration biopsies are needed due to plausible false-negative results. This study aimed to investigate the overall relationship between aspiration biopsy and thyroid cancer diagnosis, and to explore factors related to shorter diagnostic time.This nationwide retrospective cohort study retrieved data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database in Taiwan. Subjects without known thyroid malignancies and who received the first thyroid aspiration biopsy after 2004 were followed-up from 2004 to 2009 (n = 7700. Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and Cox proportional hazards model were used for data analysis.Of 7700 newly-aspirated patients, 276 eventually developed thyroid cancer (malignancy rate 3.6%. Among the 276 patients with thyroid cancer, 61.6% underwent only one aspiration biopsy and 81.2% were found within the first year after the initial aspiration. Cox proportional hazards model revealed that aspiration frequency (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.06-1.08, ultrasound frequency (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03, older age, male sex, and aspiration biopsies arranged by surgery, endocrinology or otolaryngology subspecialties were all associated with shorter time to thyroid cancer diagnosis.About 17.4% of thyroid cancer cases received more than two aspiration biopsies and 18.8% were diagnosed one year after the first biopsy. Regular follow-up with repeated aspiration or ultrasound may be required for patients with clinically significant thyroid nodules.

  9. Temporary ovarian failure in thyroid cancer patients after thyroid remnant ablation with radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, J.P.; Izembart, M.; Marliac, V.; Dagousset, F.; Merceron, R.E.; Vulpillat, M.; Vallee, G.

    1989-07-01

    We studied ovarian function retrospectively in 66 women who had regular menstrual cycles before undergoing complete thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer and subsequent thyroid remnant ablation with /sup 131/I. Eighteen women developed temporary amenorrhea accompanied by increased serum gonadotropin concentrations during the first year after /sup 131/I therapy. No correlation was found between the radioactive iodine dose absorbed, thyroid uptake before treatment, oral contraceptive use, or thyroid autoimmunity. Only age was a determining factor, with the older women being the most affected. We conclude that radioiodine ablation therapy is followed by transient ovarian failure, especially in older women.

  10. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Radiation and Thyroid Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this workshop was to develop a state-of-the-art scientific understanding of radiation-induced thyroid cancer, and to share knowledge and experience in this area in order to support the efforts of the Japanese government and the Fukushima Prefecture to enhance public health. Experience in holding effective social dialogues, in order to best understand and appropriately address social concerns, was also a workshop focus. The workshop began with a half-day tutorial session, followed by two days of plenary presentations and discussion, including panel sessions summarising the results of each session. A closing panel provided overall results and conclusions from the workshop. A Rapporteur provided a workshop summary report and assisted the session co-chairs in summarising key points. This document brings together the available presentations (slides), dealing with: 1.1 - Overview of Radiation-induced Thyroid Cancer (C. Reiners); 1.2 - Overview of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (S. Yasumura); 1.3 - Overview of Epidemiology of Thyroid Cancer in the Context of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident (J. Schuez); 1.4 - Overview of the Clinical Features of Thyroid Cancer (Miyauchi); 1.5 - Dialogue with Stakeholders in Complex Radiological Circumstances (G. Gamhewage); 1.6 - Session 1 (tutorial session): Radiation and Thyroid Cancer - Summary Discussion and Questions. 2.1 - WHO Thyroid Dose Estimation (E. van Deventer); 2.2 - Basic Survey External Dose Estimation (T. Ishikawa); 2.3 - NIRS Estimation of Internal Dose to the Thyroid (O. Kurihara); 2.4 - Estimation of Internal Dose to the Thyroid (S. Tokonami); 3.1 - FMU Thyroid Ultrasound Surveys in the Fukushima Prefecture (S. Suzuki); 3.2 - FMU Thyroid Ultrasound Surveys in the Yamanashi Prefecture and Review of Latent Thyroid (H. Shimura); 3.3 - Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Korea: Results of Recent Surveys (J. H. Chung); 4.1 - Ultrasonography Surveys and Thyroid Cancer in the Fukushima Prefecture (P

  11. Autoimmunity in differentiated thyroid cancer: significance and related clinical problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Coexistence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and thyroid autoimmune diseases could represent a mere coincidence due to the frequent occurrence of autoimmunity, but there may also be a pathological and causative link between the two conditions. The coincidence of DTC with Hashimoto's disease...... has been variably reported at between 0.5 and 22.5% and of DTC with Graves' disease between 0 and 9.8%. In this review available evidence for thyroid autoimmunity in DTC is summarized and it is concluded that thyroid cancer does coexist with thyroid autoimmunity, implying that patients treated...... for autoimmune thyroid diseases should have a careful follow-up. Furthermore, the presence of thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) in patients with DTC may limit the use of serum thyroglobulin as a tumor marker due to methodological problems in the determination of serum thyroglobulin. However, in such cases serial...

  12. Autoimmunity in differentiated thyroid cancer: significance and related clinical problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2010-01-01

    Coexistence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and thyroid autoimmune diseases could represent a mere coincidence due to the frequent occurrence of autoimmunity, but there may also be a pathological and causative link between the two conditions. The coincidence of DTC with Hashimoto's disease...... has been variably reported at between 0.5 and 22.5% and of DTC with Graves' disease between 0 and 9.8%. In this review available evidence for thyroid autoimmunity in DTC is summarized and it is concluded that thyroid cancer does coexist with thyroid autoimmunity, implying that patients treated...... for autoimmune thyroid diseases should have a careful follow-up. Furthermore, the presence of thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) in patients with DTC may limit the use of serum thyroglobulin as a tumor marker due to methodological problems in the determination of serum thyroglobulin. However, in such cases serial...

  13. The incidence of thyroid cancer at thyroidectomy materials in Malatya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Şahin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Thyroid cancers are the most common malignancyof the endocrine organs. It accounts for 1% of allcancer. Environmental, genetic and hormonal factors playan important role in its etiology. The aim of this study is toinvestigate the incidence of thyroid cancer and types atthyroidectomy materials in the city of Malatya.Methods: The pathology reports of thyroid surgical materials,which were sent to Inonu University Medical FacultyPathology Department retrospectively from the archivesbetween the years January 2007 and May 2013. Postoperativehistopathologic examinations of 543 cases wereevaluated for 6 years period.Results: 128 (23.5% of 543 cases male and 415 (76.5%were female. The youngest patient was 10, the oldest patientwas 89 years-old, and the average age is 48.1±15.2.Histopathological examination of 346 (64% cases of nodularhyperplasia, 20 (4% cases of diffuse hyperplasia, 13(2.4% cases of lymphocytic thyroiditis, 164 (30.2% patienthad thyroid tumors. The 164 tumors on the 57 (35%cases benign, 107 (65% cases were malign. As a typeof cancer 88 (53.6% cases papillary carcinoma, 10 (6%cases follicular carcinoma, 1 (0.6% case medullary carcinoma,3 (1.8% cases were anaplastic carcinoma.Conclusion: Thyroid cancer incidence is 19.7% at thyroidectomymaterials in the city of Malatya and most cancersis seen as a type of thyroid papillary carcinoma.Key words: Goitre, thyroid cancer, papillary carcinoma

  14. Thyroid gland metastasis arising from breast cancer: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Mei; WANG, WEI; ZHANG, CHENFANG

    2013-01-01

    The thyroid gland is an uncommon site for metastasis to develop and thus metastases arising from breast cancer are rarely observed. In the present study, we describe a case of a 45-year-old female with a three-year history of breast cancer who presented with a thyroid mass that was diagnosed as metastatic breast carcinoma by histopathological analysis of the subtotal thyroidectomy specimen. To ascertain the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer, we evaluated two types of markers; those that p...

  15. Sorafenib in Thyroid Cancer Patients: Learning From Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Huillard, Olivier; Blanchet, Benoit; Boudou-Rouquette, Pascaline; Thomas-Schoemann, Audrey; Wassermann, Johanna; Goldwasser, François

    2014-01-01

    A recent review showed frequent reductions of sorafenib dose in the treatment of metastatic thyroid cancer because of toxicity consistent with the findings of the phase III DECISION trial and contrasting with the safety of sorafenib in other cancer populations. The unexpected excess of toxicity observed in thyroid cancer patients may be linked to a high prevalence of sarcopenia in this population, resulting in frequent overexposure to sorafenib.

  16. Radionuclide therapy for thyroid cancer with nervous system metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    showed improvement in moter symptoms. In 21 patients without spinal cord compression, 12 showed I-131 uptake after high dose radioiodine therapy, and 72.9% survived 3 years, but in 9 patients without I-131 uptake 27.8% survived 3 years. With conventional irradiation therapy, dose to the metastatic lesion near spinal cord or in brain is much less than sufficient amount, and intensity modulation radiation therapy (IMRT), gamma knife or cyberknife will give more radiation dose to the tumor, and may give better prognosis if it is combined with surgery, radioiodine and chemotherapy. Follow-up with 18FDG-PET after these treatments is important in radiation treatment planning, and will give more accurate information about the responses after therapy. Dedifferentiation after initial management is often found, especially in the metastatic lesions, and is difficult to manage. Clinical trials with 13-cis retinoic acid to redifferentiate dedifferentiated metastatic thyroid cancer showed some positive results either in tumor regression or I-131 uptake. Doxorubicin alone or in combination with cisplatin showed low response rate but can be used as a radiosensitizer in combination with radioiodine therapy or external irradiation. In conclusion, multimodality therapy with surgery, radioiodine, external irradiation and chemotherapy could give better prognosis in advanced metastatic thyroid cancer. Full text

  17. The Role of STAT3 in Thyroid Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosonkina, Nadiya; Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In, E-mail: jipark@mcw.edu [Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226 (United States)

    2014-03-06

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and its global incidence rates are rapidly increasing. Although the mortality of thyroid cancer is relatively low, its rate of recurrence or persistence is relatively high, contributing to incurability and morbidity of the disease. Thyroid cancer is mainly treated by surgery and radioiodine remnant ablation, which is effective only for non-metastasized primary tumors. Therefore, better understanding of the molecular targets available in this tumor is necessary. Similarly to many other tumor types, oncogenic molecular alterations in thyroid epithelium include aberrant signal transduction of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (also known as protein kinase B), NF-κB, and WNT/β-catenin pathways. However, the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) pathway, a well-known mediator of tumorigenesis in different tumor types, is relatively less understood in thyroid cancer. Intriguingly, recent studies have demonstrated that, in thyroid cancer, the JAK/STAT3 pathway may function in the context of tumor suppression rather than promoting tumorigenesis. In this review, we provide an update of STAT3 function in thyroid cancer and discuss some of the evidences that support this hypothesis.

  18. The Role of STAT3 in Thyroid Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and its global incidence rates are rapidly increasing. Although the mortality of thyroid cancer is relatively low, its rate of recurrence or persistence is relatively high, contributing to incurability and morbidity of the disease. Thyroid cancer is mainly treated by surgery and radioiodine remnant ablation, which is effective only for non-metastasized primary tumors. Therefore, better understanding of the molecular targets available in this tumor is necessary. Similarly to many other tumor types, oncogenic molecular alterations in thyroid epithelium include aberrant signal transduction of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (also known as protein kinase B), NF-κB, and WNT/β-catenin pathways. However, the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) pathway, a well-known mediator of tumorigenesis in different tumor types, is relatively less understood in thyroid cancer. Intriguingly, recent studies have demonstrated that, in thyroid cancer, the JAK/STAT3 pathway may function in the context of tumor suppression rather than promoting tumorigenesis. In this review, we provide an update of STAT3 function in thyroid cancer and discuss some of the evidences that support this hypothesis

  19. Thyroid Hormones, Autoantibodies, Ultrasonography, and Clinical Parameters for Predicting Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin-zheng; Zeng, Tian-shu; Pu, Lin; Pan, Shi-xiu; Xia, Wen-fang; Chen, Lu-lu

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate thyroid nodule malignancy prediction using thyroid function tests, autoantibodies, ultrasonographic imaging, and clinical data. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in 1400 patients with nodular thyroid disease (NTD). The thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration was significantly higher in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) versus benign thyroid nodular disease (BTND) (p = 0.004). The receiver operating characteristic curve of TSH showed an AUC of 0.58 (95% CI 0.53–0.62, p = 0.001), sensitivity of 74%, and specificity of 57% at a cut-off of 1.59 mIU/L. There was an incremental increase in TSH concentration along with the increasing tumor size (p < 0.001). Thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) concentration was associated with an increased risk of malignancy (p = 0.029), but this association was lost when the effect of TSH was taken into account (p = 0.11). Thyroid ultrasonographic characteristics, including fewer than three nodules, hypoechoic appearance, solid component, poorly defined margin, intranodular or peripheral-intranodular flow, and punctate calcification, can be used to predict the risk of thyroid cancer. In conclusion, our study suggests that preoperative serum TSH concentration, age, and ultrasonographic features can be used to predict the risk of malignancy in patients with NTD. PMID:27313612

  20. Advances in study of mechanism of dedifferentiation of thyroid cancer%甲状腺癌失分化机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯方

    2008-01-01

    分化型甲状腺癌(differentiated thyroid carcinoma,DTC)包括甲状腺乳头状癌(papillary thyroid carcinoma.PTC)和甲状腺滤泡状癌(follicular thyroid carcinoma.FTC),通过手术切除,并结合放射性核素治疗加甲状腺激素替代抑制疗法后,部分患者可治愈,且预后较好。

  1. New-generation mutitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Mudunov

    2015-01-01

    Background. Thyroid cancer (TC) is one of the common oncological disease of the head and neck. However, its treatment is sharply restricted in a locally advanced and metastatic cancer process. In the past decade, there have been fundamental changes in the understanding of the molecular bases of thyroid carcinogenesis, resulting in the design of novel targeted drugs aimed at disseminated and refractory TC control. Multikinase inhibitors that are able to block the processes of proliferation, in...

  2. Uptodate view on diagnostics and treatment of medullary thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D O Gazizova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During last 4 years leading endocrine societies of the world published clinical recommendations on diag nostics and treatment of medullary thyroid cancer. The article covers most aspects of following patients with this pathology.

  3. Global tyrosine kinome profiling of human thyroid tumors identifies Src as a promising target for invasive cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nancy L., E-mail: nlcho@partners.org [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Lin, Chi-Iou [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Du, Jinyan [Broad Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142 (United States); Whang, Edward E. [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Ito, Hiromichi [Department of Surgery, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI 48912 (United States); Moore, Francis D.; Ruan, Daniel T. [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2012-05-11

    . Conclusion: Global kinome analysis enables the discovery of novel targets for thyroid cancer therapy. Further investigation of Src targeted therapy for advanced thyroid cancer is warranted.

  4. Anaplastic thyroid cancer Irish epidemiology and novel chemotherapeutic strategies

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, James Paul

    2009-01-01

    This body of work was conducted over a four year period. Within this timeframe we have conducted a National Epidemiology project, established a National Head and Neck Cancer database and completed Oncology laboratory investigations. Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is the most aggressive endocrine disease in nature. Within the thyroid gland a heterogeneous group of neoplasms may develop. These can range from well differentiated tumours with an excellent prognosis, to ATC tumours which prese...

  5. First International Seminar on Radiation and Thyroid Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seminar was held July 20-23, 1998, at St. John's College, Cambridge, England. A total of 155 delegates from 23 countries attended the conference. The principal aims of the meeting were to describe the link between radiation and thyroid cancer, and to explore the many factors influencing the interaction between radiation and the thyroid cell, which together determine the likelihood that a cancer may result

  6. Immunohistochemical analysis of amylase isoenzymes in thyroid cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Higashiyama, M; Doi, S; Tomita, N; Monden, T.; Murotani, M.; Kawasaki, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Shimano, T; Ogawa, M; Takai, S

    1991-01-01

    The expression of amylase in various histological types of thyroid cancer was studied by an immunohistochemical technique, using a polyclonal antiamylase antiserum and two monoclonal antibodies specific for salivary and pancreatic-type amylases, respectively. Amylase was expressed in 21 of 24 (88%) thyroid cancers by polyclonal antiserum analysis. Analysis by monoclonal antibodies, however, showed that only 13 (54%) cases and three (13%) cases contained salivary-type and pancreatic-type amyla...

  7. Genetic aspects of etiology and development of thyroid gland cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko Yu.V.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on thyroid gland cancer development and progression have identified new classes of tumor markers, proto-oncogenes, tumor-suppressing genes, cell receptor genes, identified genetic tumor-predisposing polymorphism and some other significantly important segments of genome. The identification has been based mainly on revealing of DNA abnormal consequences, specific for occurrence of thyroid gland cancer and its progression.

  8. Summary of proceedings of the second World Congress on Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwonka, Lukasz; Freeman, Jeremy; McIver, Bryan; Randolph, Gregory W; Shah, Jatin P; Shaha, Ashok R; Sherman, Steven I; Tuttle, R Michael; Witterick, Ian J

    2014-07-01

    The second World Congress on Thyroid Cancer was held from July 10 to July 14, 2013, in Toronto, Canada. Its purpose was to provide a platform for the multidisciplinary discussion on research, education, and patient management of thyroid malignancy. Herein, we summarize the latest major trends and controversies within the field of thyroid oncology as discussed in the Congress including the use of ultrasound, standardization of cytology, role of molecular testing, treatment options for small recurrence including ablation and observation, management of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, importance of identification of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, role of minimally invasive thyroid surgery, trends in radioactive iodine treatment, advancements in targeted agents, and the importance of personalizing treatment to individual patients.

  9. Is Very High Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Level Required in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer for Ablation Success?

    OpenAIRE

    Zekiye Hasbek; Bülent Turgut

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Remnant ablation with radioactive iodine (I-131) is a successful form of treatment that aims to destroy the remaining residual tissue and/or metastatic tissue after total thyroidectomy in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients. High level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (≥30 mIU/L) is recommended for success of ablation treatment. In this retrospective study, our aim was to investigate whether the TSH levels at the time of ablation effect the success of radioact...

  10. Update on Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Morphological, Molecular, and Genetic Features of the Most Aggressive Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Ragazzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is the most aggressive form of thyroid cancer. It shows a wide spectrum of morphological presentations and the diagnosis could be challenging due to its high degree of dedifferentiation. Molecular and genetic features of ATC are widely heterogeneous as well and many efforts have been made to find a common profile in order to clarify its cancerogenetic process. A comprehensive review of the current literature is here performed, focusing on histopathological and genetic features.

  11. New drugs for medullary thyroid cancer: new promises?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzweg, Christine; Morris, John C; Bible, Keith C

    2016-06-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare tumor arising from the calcitonin-producing parafollicular C cells of the thyroid gland, occurring either sporadically or alternatively in a hereditary form based on germline RET mutations in approximately one-third of cases. Historically, patients with advanced, metastasized MTC have had a poor prognosis, partly due to limited response to conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In the past decade, however, considerable progress has been made in identifying key genetic alterations and dysregulated signaling pathways paving the way for the evaluation of a series of multitargeted kinase inhibitors that have started to meaningfully impact clinical practice. Two drugs, vandetanib and cabozantinib, are now approved in the US and EU for use in advanced, progressive MTC, with additional targeted agents also showing promise or awaiting results from clinical trials. However, the potential for toxicities with significant reduction in quality of life and lack of curative outcomes has to be carefully weighed against potential for benefit. Despite significant PFS prolongation observed in randomized clinical trials, most patients even with metastatic disease enjoy indolent courses with slow progression observed over years, wherein watchful waiting is still the preferred strategy. As advanced, progressive MTC is a rare and complex disease, a multidisciplinary approach centered in specialized centers providing interdisciplinary expertise in the individualization of available therapeutic options is preferred. In this review, we summarize current concepts of the molecular pathogenesis of advanced MTC and discuss results from clinical trials of targeted agents and also cytotoxic chemotherapy in the context of clinical implications and future perspectives. PMID:27185870

  12. Chromosomal rearrangements and the pathogenesis of differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan K.G. Grebe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of thyroid cancers arise from the follicular cells of the thyroid gland, which yield a wide variety of distinct morphotypes, ranging from relatively indolent lesions to the most malignant forms of cancer known. The remaining primary thyroid cancers arise from C cells within the gland and result primarily from mutations of the RET protooncogene, germ line mutations of which give rise to the various forms of multiple endocrine neoplasia. The most common of the follicular cell-derived cancers are papillary carcinomas, (PTC, followed by follicular carcinomas (FTC and its Hurthle cell variant (HCC and finally anaplastic carcinomas (ATC. The pathogenesis of many thyroid cancers, of both PTC and FTC morphotype, involves chromosomal translocations. Rearrangements of the RET protoconcogene are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of ca. 50% of PTC. A similar proportion of FTC have been associated with a t(2;3(q13;p25 translocation, fusing the thyroid-specific transcription factor PAX8 with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ nuclear receptor, a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor. These rearrangements have analogy with translocations in erythropoetic cells, which form the only other known group of human malignancies that are largely the result of chromosomal translocation events. In this review we compare and contrast the oncogenic properties of thyroid and erythroid chromosomal transformations and speculate on mechanisms leading to their formation.

  13. Use of ultrasound in the management of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, John I; Solorzano, Carmen C

    2010-01-01

    The use of ultrasound for thyroid cancer has evolved dramatically over the last few decades. Since the late 1960s, ultrasound has become essential in the examination of the thyroid gland with the increased availability of high-frequency linear array transducers and computer-enhanced imaging capabilities of modern day portable ultrasound equipment in a clinic- or office-based setting. As a noninvasive, rapid, and easily reproducible imaging study, ultrasound has been demonstrated to have a broadened utility beyond the simple confirmation of thyroid nodules and their sizes. Recently, office-based ultrasound has become an integral part of clinical practice, where it has demonstrated overwhelming benefits to patients being evaluated and treated for thyroid cancer. Ultrasound has become useful in the qualitative characterization of thyroid nodules based on benign or malignant features. On the basis of such classifications and the relative risk for thyroid malignancy, the need for ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration, preoperative and intraoperative staging, lymph node mapping, and the extent of surgery can subsequently be determined. Furthermore, ultrasound has additional value in the surveillance of patients treated for thyroid cancer. PMID:20215358

  14. Thyroid cancer in Belarus: the epidemiological situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting in 1990, an increasing number of children were diagnosed as suffering from thyroid cancer in regions close to the Chernobyl nuclear accident site, and this increase is continuing. But still today, doubts about the significance of this increase are being voiced. Using data from the Belarus epidemiological cancer registration system up to 1994, the geographic distribution, time and cohort trends, age distribution and other characteristics of this epidemic are reviewed. Results show that the geographic distribution is similar to that of iodine-131 following the accident; that when looking at cohorts of children born in the same years incidence has steadily increased since 1990; and that deviations from this pattern might be explained by active case finding.The most likely interpretation of these results is that of a causal association with radiation exposure related to the Chernobyl accident, but possible modifying factors should be examined closely. The most likely future course of the epidemic is an increasing number of cases among those exposed in childhood, and public health measures should take this into account

  15. ANALYSIS OF RELAPSE RATE AND METASTASES OF HIGH DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Savenok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available  Analysis of rate of relapses and metastases with well-differentiated thyroid cancer was performed for patients in 2009 to 2013. The study involved 189 patients with thyroid cancer including 98 (51.9 % patients suffering from papillary thyroid cancer, 77 (40.7 % patients suffering from follicular thyroid cancer, and 14 (7.4 % patients suffering from medullary thyroid cancer. 2.04 % of the 98 patients suffering from papillary thyroid cancer manifested a relapse, and lymphogenic metastases of cancer were revealed with 1.0 % of patients. With follicular thyroid cancer (n = 77, lymphogenic metastases were registered in 7.8 % of cases, relapses were revealed in 1.3 % of cases. This analysis demonstrated that observation of patients for 5 years revealed a higher percentage of metastases with patients that suffered from follicular thyroid cancer.

  16. The effect of low level laser on anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Yun-Hee; Moon, Jeon-Hwan; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2015-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a non-thermal phototherapy used in several medical applications, including wound healing, reduction of pain and amelioration of oral mucositis. Nevertheless, the effects of LLLT upon cancer or dysplastic cells have been so far poorly studied. Here we report that the effects of laser irradiation on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells leads to hyperplasia. 650nm of laser diode was performed with a different time interval (0, 15, 30, 60J/cm2 , 25mW) on anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line FRO in vivo. FRO was orthotopically injected into the thyroid gland of nude mice and the irradiation was performed with the same method described previously. After irradiation, the xenograft evaluation was followed for one month. The thyroid tissues from sacrificed mice were undergone to H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining with HIF-1α, Akt, TGF-β1. We found the aggressive proliferation of FRO on thyroid gland with dose dependent. In case of 60 J/ cm2 of energy density, the necrotic bodies were found in a center of the thyroid. The phosphorylation of HIF-1α and Akt was detected in the thyroid gland, which explained the survival signaling of anaplastic cancer cell was turned on the thyroid gland. Furthermore, TGF-β1 expression was decreased after irradiation. In this study, we demonstrated that insufficient energy density irradiation occurred the decreasing of TGF-β1 which corresponding to the phosphorylation of Akt/ HIF-1α. This aggressive proliferation resulted to the hypoxic condition of tissue for angiogenesis. We suggest that LLLT may influence to cancer aggressiveness associated with a decrease in TGF-β1 and increase in Akt/HIF-1α.

  17. Role of the Wnt pathway in thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eSastre-Perona

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant activation of Wnt signaling is involved in the development of several epithelial tumors. Wnt signaling includes two major pathways (i the canonical or Wnt/βcatenin pathway and (ii the non-canonicals pathways, which do not involve βcatenin stabilization. Among these pathways, the Wnt/βcatenin pathway has received most attention during the past years for its critical role in cancer. A number of publications emphasize its role in thyroid cancer. Wnt signaling plays a crucial role in development and epithelial renewal, and components such as βcatenin and Axin are often mutated in thyroid cancer. Although it is accepted that alteration of Wnt signaling is a late event in thyroid cell transformation that affects anaplastic thyroid tumors, recent data also suggest its alteration in papillary thyroid carcinoma with RET/PTC mutations. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to summarize the main relevant data of Wnt/βcatenin signaling in thyroid cancer.

  18. [CME: Radioactive iodine therapy in thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Hans C; Aberle, Susanne

    2015-11-11

    Differentiated thyroid carcinomas represent about 90% of all thyroid tumors and are divided in papillary and follicular carcinomas. Their prognosis is good, however, recurrences are not rare. Their ability to accumulate iodine is used for the radioactive iodine treatment. The aim of the postoperative radioactive iodine ablation therapy is the complete elimination of remnant thyroid cells and sensitive staging (Fig. 1). The recurrence rate decreases after a complete thyroid ablation. Furthermore, thyroglobulin can be used as a sensitive tumor marker. Radioactive iodine treatment by itself describes the therapy of metastases. An exception is the papillary microcarcinoma, which in general is treated by a lobectomy alone. PMID:26558927

  19. Relationship between Negative Mental Adjustment to Cancer and Distress in Thyroid Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Seok, Jeong-Ho; Choi, Won-Jung; Lee, Yong Sang; Park, Cheong Soo; Oh, Young-Ja; Kim, Jong-Sun; Chang, Hang-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have reported that over a third of cancer patients experience significant psychological distress with diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Mental adjustment to cancer as well as other biologic and demographic factors may be associated with their distress. We investigated the relationship between mental adjustment and distress in patients with thyroid cancer prior to thyroidectomy. Materials and Methods One hundred and fifty-two thyroid cancer patients were included in t...

  20. Tumour suppressive function of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WEIYUAN MA; PENGXIN ZHAO; LEILEI ZANG; KAILI ZHANG; HAIYING LIAO; ZHIGANG HU

    2016-09-01

    HUWE1 (the HECT, UBA, and WWE domain-containing protein 1) is an ubiquitin E3 ligase which plays animportant role in coordinating diverse cellular processes. It has been found to be dysregulated in various cancer typeand its functions in tumorigenesis remain controversial. The potential tumour suppressive role of HUWE1 in thyroidcancer development was investigated by knocking down HUWE1 in three authentic thyroid cancer cell lines, WRO,FTC133 and BCPAP, followed by various functional assays, including cell proliferation, scratch wound healing andinvasion assays. Xenograft experiment was performed to examine in vivo tumour suppressive properties of HUWE1.Small-interfering RNA mediated knockdown of HUWE1 promoted cell proliferation, cell migration and invasion inthyroid cancer cells. Overexpression of HUWE1 conferred partial sensitivity to chemo drugs interfering with DNAreplication in these cells. Moreover, HUWE1 was found to be down-regulated in human thyroid cancer tissuescompared with matched normal thyroid tissues. In addition, overexpression of HUWE1 significantly inhibited tumourgrowth in vivo using xenograft mouse models. Mechanistic investigation revealed that HUWE1 can regulate p53protein level through its stabilization. HUWE1 functions as a tumour suppressor in thyroid cancer progression, whichmay represent a novel therapeutic target for prevention or intervention of thyroid cancer.

  1. Novel Approaches to Thyroid Cancer Treatment and Response Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Ravinder K; Ho, Alan; Schöder, Heiko

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing. After total thyroidectomy of well-differentiated thyroid tumors with intermediate- or high-risk features on pathology, radioiodine remains one of the mainstays of therapy for both thyroid remnant ablation as well as for treatment of metastatic disease. SPECT/CT, a relatively new modality, has been shown to play a pivotal role predominantly in the post-therapy setting by changing the risk stratification of patients with thyroid cancer. In the case of radioiodine treatment failure, FDG-PET/CT may provide prognostic information based on extent and intensity of metabolically active metastatic sites as well as serve as an important imaging test for response assessment in patients treated with chemotherapy, targeted therapies, or radiotherapy, thereby affecting patient management in multiple ways. The role of newer redifferentiation drugs has been evaluated with the use of I-124 PET/CT. PMID:26897715

  2. Anaplastic carcinoma following well-differentiated thyroid cancer: etiological considerations.

    OpenAIRE

    Kapp, D S; LiVolsi, V. A.; Sanders, M M

    1982-01-01

    Most cases of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma can be pathologically and often historically associated with the presence of low-grade (differentiated) cancer in the thyroid. That radiation therapy to the differentiated tumor plays an etiologic role in the transformation of a differentiated to an undifferentiated tumor has been suggested. If such therapy can be implicated, is there a difference in risk between external radiotherapy or radioactive iodine? Review of the literature discloses that mor...

  3. Robotic thyroidectomy and cervical neck dissection for thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Paek, Se Hyun; Kang, Kyung Ho

    2016-01-01

    A robotic approach for thyroid surgery was developed to overcome the limitations of endoscopic thyroidectomy and provide many technical advantages. This approach facilitates the surgeon’s control through a magnified three-dimensional view, decreased tremor, and freedom of motion with articulated instruments. Robotic thyroidectomy is safe and technically feasible in patients with well-differentiated, low-risk thyroid cancer. Furthermore, robotic thyroidectomy may become a good surgical alterna...

  4. Efficacy analysis of first radioiodine ablation of residual thyroid tissue in postoperative patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the influence of age, sex, type of surgery, pathologic type of the tumor, postoperative time to the administration and the dose of radioiodine, TSH level and the existence of radioiodine uptake beyond thyroid to first radioiodine ablation of residual thyroid tissue (RTT) in well-differentiated thyroid cancer after surgery. Methods: Eighty-five well-differentiated thyroid cancer patients after surgery were ablated of RTT with radioiodine from 1975 to 1998 and were followed up for 3 - 6 months after ablation. Using the absence of visible uptake compared with background as the criterion for successful ablation. Results: Fifty-eight of 85 patients (68.2%) had successful ablation of RTT after the first administration of radioiodine. The results were statistically related to the type of surgery, the time after surgery to the ablation and the dosage of radioiodine, TSH level and the simultaneous existence of radioiodine uptake in metastatic site in the patients gained successfully ablation (P < 0.05), there were no statistically significant relation with age, sex and pathologic type of tumor. Conclusions: In well-differentiated thyroid cancer, there would be better effect of first ablation of RTT with suitable dosage of radioiodine, total thyroidectomy, above 50 mU/L TSH level,ablation conducted within 3 months after surgery and radioiodine uptake found only in RTT. The effectiveness of first ablation of RTT possesses no relationship with the age, sex and the pathologic type of the tumor

  5. BMI, Diet and Female Reproductive Factors as Risks for Thyroid Cancer: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Peterson; De, Prithwish; Robert Nuttall

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence rates have been increasing worldwide but the reason behind this is unclear. Both the increasing use of diagnostic technologies allowing the detection of thyroid cancer and a true increase in thyroid cancer incidence have been proposed. This review assesses the role of body mass index (BMI), diet, and reproductive factors on the thyroid cancer trend. METHODS: Epidemiologic studies of the selected risk factors up to June 2010 were reviewed and critically ass...

  6. Epidemiology of Thyroid Cancer in Jordan from 1996 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Fayez Nimri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of thyroid cancer has varied from 2 per 100,000 in Europe to 21 per 100,000 in the Hawaiian Chinese population and is 2-3 fold more common in females. Middle East Cancer Consortium figures from 1996-2001 have recorded different age standardized incidence rates that ranged from 2 per 100,000 inEgypt to 7.5 per 100,000 among Israeli Jews. In Jordan the age standardized incidence rate of thyroid cancer was 3 per 100,000 during that period. This study aimed to define the incidence of thyroid cancer in Jordan and to explore the epidemiological char-acteristics of patients and tumors. Methods: This was a descriptive epidemiological study that utilized data reported to the Jordan Cancer Registry during 1996-2008. Results: The incidence rate in Jordan varied during the period from 1996 to 2008; however the recorded rate (2.6 per 100,000 in 1996 and 2008 was similar. The incidence rate was higher among Jordanian females. Age specific incidence rate and age standardized incidence rate were parallel during the study period with no peaks. The most common morphological type of thyroid cancer in Jordan was papillarycarcinoma (76%. The average annual incidence during the study period was highest (3.3 per 100,000 in Amman and (2.2 per 100,000 in Jarash governorates. Conclusion: The results of our study are consistent with international studies. The incidence of thyroid cancer in Jordan is not high when compared with other countries. The high incidence of thyroid cancer in Amman and Jarash governorates in comparisonto the incidence in other governorates needs further assessment.

  7. Glucose-deprivation increases thyroid cancer cells sensitivity to metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikas, Athanasios; Jensen, Kirk; Patel, Aneeta; Costello, John; McDaniel, Dennis; Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Joanna; Larin, Olexander; Hoperia, Victoria; Burman, Kenneth D; Boyle, Lisa; Wartofsky, Leonard; Vasko, Vasyl

    2015-12-01

    Metformin inhibits thyroid cancer cell growth. We sought to determine if variable glucose concentrations in medium alter the anti-cancer efficacy of metformin. Thyroid cancer cells (FTC133 and BCPAP) were cultured in high-glucose (20 mM) and low-glucose (5 mM) medium before treatment with metformin. Cell viability and apoptosis assays were performed. Expression of glycolytic genes was examined by real-time PCR, western blot, and immunostaining. Metformin inhibited cellular proliferation in high-glucose medium and induced cell death in low-glucose medium. In low-, but not in high-glucose medium, metformin induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, and oncosis. At micromolar concentrations, metformin induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and blocked p-pS6 in low-glucose medium. Metformin increased the rate of glucose consumption from the medium and prompted medium acidification. Medium supplementation with glucose reversed metformin-inducible morphological changes. Treatment with an inhibitor of glycolysis (2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG)) increased thyroid cancer cell sensitivity to metformin. The combination of 2-DG with metformin led to cell death. Thyroid cancer cell lines were characterized by over-expression of glycolytic genes, and metformin decreased the protein level of pyruvate kinase muscle 2 (PKM2). PKM2 expression was detected in recurrent thyroid cancer tissue samples. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the glucose concentration in the cellular milieu is a factor modulating metformin's anti-cancer activity. These data suggest that the combination of metformin with inhibitors of glycolysis could represent a new strategy for the treatment of thyroid cancer.

  8. Radioiodine therapy for pediatric patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1986 to 1998, 753 patients under the age of 16 were operated on for thyroid cancer. A metastatic disease was diagnosed in 110 (14.6%) cases. In 108 patients (14.3%), there were lung metastases, and in 2 lung and bone metastatic lesions. In 22 of 110 patients (20%), metastases were detected by routine X-ray before therapy. Two patients died without treatment and 108 were selected for radioiodine therapy. Tumor histology was as follows: papillary carcinomas - 104, follicular - 3 and medullary - 1. Sex ratio was 1.2f/1m. Most of the patients had an extended disease. Neck lymph nodes were positive in 103 (95.4%) of cases and in 76 (70.4%) neck metastases were bilateral (pN1b). In 86 patients tumour involved the thyroid capsule and surrounding extrathyroid tissues (pT4). All the patients underwent thyroidectomy with either unilateral or bilateral radical neck dissection. Diffuse lung metastases were diagnosed in 88 cases. A single dose activity of sodium-iodine-131 varied from 3 to 5 GBq. In several advanced cases, the activity of radioiodine in following courses was enhanced up to 7 GBq. The total delivered activity for patients varied from 1.25 up to 43.7 GBq. Response was noted in 107 patients. There were 79 complete responders and in 28 patients partial response was reached. Cancer progression was seen only in one patient with medullary carcinoma, after three courses of radioiodine therapy. All the patients were alive from 6 to 56 months after surgery. (author)

  9. Risk of thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma after adult leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Birgens, Henrik S;

    2011-01-01

    Patients with childhood leukemia surviving into adulthood have elevated risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); these risks cannot automatically be extrapolated to patients surviving adult leukemia. We tested whether survivors of adult leukemia...

  10. Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraiva P.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine the profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22 were analyzed for free triiodothyronine (T3F, free thyroxine (T4F, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, antiperoxidase antibody (TPO, and estradiol (E2. Estrogen receptor ß (ERß was determined in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry. Thyroid disease incidence was higher in patients than in controls (58 vs 18%, P < 0.05. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was the most frequent disorder in patients (31%; hypothyroidism (8% and positive anti-TPO antibodies (19% were also found. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the only dysfunction (18% found in controls. Hyperthyroidism was associated with postmenopausal patients, as shown by significantly higher mean T3 and T4 values and lower TSH levels in this group of breast cancer patients than in controls. The majority of positive ERß tumors were clustered in the postmenopausal patients and all cases presenting subclinical hyperthyroidism in this subgroup concomitantly exhibited Erß-positive tumors. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was present in only one of 6 premenopausal patients. We show here that postmenopausal breast cancer patients have a significantly increased thyroid hormone/E2 ratio (P < 0.05, suggesting a possible tumor growth-promoting effect caused by this misbalance.

  11. Evolution of thyroid cancer occurrence in metropolitan France. Assessment over 25 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of the epidemiological context of thyroid cancer in France, this report, based on cancer record data, analyzes the occurrence of thyroid cancers between 1982 and 2006. It discusses the contribution and limits of medical-administrative data for the epidemiological monitoring of thyroid cancer occurrence between 1997 and 2009. It proposes a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancers in two districts (Marne and Ardennes) between 1975 and 2008, and a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancer for children under 14 between 2000 and 2008. It proposes an estimation of thyroid cancer occurrence in Corsica between 1998 and 2006. It reports and discusses a pilot study performed in two regions (Ile de France and Nord Pas-de-Calais), based on a multi-source system of cancer monitoring (SMSC), and comments studies on risk factors for differentiated thyroid cancers in France

  12. FAP Associated Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Peculiar Subtype of Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cetta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Carcinoma (FNMTC makes up to 5–10% of all thyroid cancers, also including those FNMTC occurring as a minor component of familial cancer syndromes, such as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP. We give evidence that this extracolonic manifestation of FAP is determined by the same germline mutation of the APC gene responsible for colonic polyps and cancer but also shows some unusual features (F : M ratio = 80 : 1, absence of LOH for APC in the thyroid tumoral tissue, and indolent biological behaviour, despite frequent multicentricity and lymph nodal involvement, suggesting that the APC gene confers only a generic susceptibility to thyroid cancer, but perhaps other factors, namely, modifier genes, sex-related factors, or environmental factors, are also required for its phenotypic expression. This great variability is against the possibility of classifying all FNMTC as a single entity, not only with a unique or prevalent causative genetic factor, but also with a unique or common biological behavior and a commonly dismal prognosis. A new paradigm is also suggested that could be useful (1 for a proper classification of FAP associated PTC within the larger group of FNMTC and (2 for making inferences to sporadic carcinogenesis, based on the lesson from FAP.

  13. Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: A Review of Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govardhanan Nagaiah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is an uncommon malignancy of the thyroid. Only 1-2% of thyroid cancers are anaplastic, but the disease contributes to 14–50% of the mortality with a median survival of 3 to 5 months. Most patients diagnosed with this disease are 65 years of age or older. The incidence of anaplastic thyroid cancer is decreasing worldwide. Most patients present with a rapidly growing neck mass, dysphagia, or voice change. We performed a comprehensive literature search using PubMed focusing on the treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancer including historical review of treatment and outcomes and investigations of new agents and approaches. A total of sixteen chart review and retrospective studies and eleven prospective studies and/or clinical trials were reviewed. The current standard therapeutic approach is to consider the disease as systemic at time of diagnosis and pursue combined modality therapy incorporating cytoreductive surgical resection where feasible and/or chemoradiation either concurrently or sequentially. Doxorubicin is the most commonly used agent, with a response rate of 22%. Several new agents are currently under investigation. Referral of patients for participation in clinical trials is needed.

  14. Resveratrol Sensitizes Selectively Thyroid Cancer Cell to 131-Iodine Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In this study, the radiosensitizing effect of resveratrol as a natural product was investigated on cell toxicity induced by 131I in thyroid cancer cell. Methods. Human thyroid cancer cell and human nonmalignant fibroblast cell (HFFF2 were treated with 131I and/or resveratrol at different concentrations for 48 h. The cell proliferation was measured by determination of the percent of the survival cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results. Findings of this study show that resveratrol enhanced the cell death induced by 131I on thyroid cancer cell. Also, resveratrol exhibited a protective effect on normal cells against 131I toxicity. Conclusion. This result indicates a promising effect of resveratrol on improvement of cellular toxicity during iodine therapy.

  15. Simultaneous medullary and papillary thyroid cancer: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionigi Gianlorenzo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC have always been considered different from each other; in their incidence, their cell origin and their histopathological features. Case presentation This paper describes two rare cases of the simultaneous occurrence of MTC and PTC in the thyroid gland. Case 1 is unique for different reasons: (a the patient was affected by both multicentric MTC and PTC; (b a "composite thyroid carcinoma" with mixed feautures of MTC and PTC carcinomas was found in the istmus of the gland; and (c these tumors were associated with diffuse lymphocytic-type thyroiditis (LT. Case 2 is notable for the long follow up: 16 years disease free. Conclusion There are only 16 reports in the English medical literature describing a total of 20 cases of concurrent occurrence of both PTC and MTC in the same thyroid gland. We discuss whether the finding of another cancer in these patients was coincidental or from possible activation of a common tumorigenic pathway for both follicular and parafollicular thyroid cells.

  16. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction following radioactive iodine 131 therapy in differentiated thyroid cancers: review of 19 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Qahtani KH; Al Asiri M; Tunio MA; Aljohani NJ; Bayoumi Y; Munir I; AlAyoubi A

    2014-01-01

    Khalid Hussain Al-Qahtani,1 Mushabbab Al Asiri,2 Mutahir A Tunio,2 Naji J Aljohani,3 Yasser Bayoumi,4 Iqbal Munir,5 Ayman AlAyoubi6 1Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Advanced Head and Neck Oncology, King Saud University, 2Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, King Fahad Medical City, 3Endocrinology and Thyroid Oncology, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Radiation Oncology, NCI, Cairo University, Cairo, Egyp...

  17. Overview and Management of Dermatologic Events Associated with Targeted Therapies for Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lacouture, Mario E.; Ciccolini, Kathryn; Kloos, Richard T; Agulnik, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment options for patients with advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) have, in recent years, expanded with the approval of two tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs): vandetanib and cabozantinib. Other agents, including TKIs, are under clinical investigation for MTC. Although patients treated with TKIs are at risk of developing dermatologic adverse events (AE), these untoward events may be mitigated through AE-driven algorithms.

  18. BRAFV600E基因突变在甲状腺癌中的临床应用研究进展%Advances in clinical utility of BRAFV600E mutation in thyroid cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚小芹; 王辉

    2012-01-01

    Valine (V) being substituted for by glutamate (E)at codon 600 in B type RAF gene (BRAFV600E mutation)is the most common genetic mutation in papillary thyroid cancer.There have been many researches shown a strong association between BRAFV600E multation and the occurrence,progression and metastasis of papillary thyroid cancer.This article illustrates its clinical utility on the preoperative diagnosis,prognosis evaluation and inhibitor treatment of papillary thyroid cancer,so as to instruct the clinical management better.%B型RAF基因(BRAF)编码蛋白质的第600位密码子对应的缬氨酸被谷氨酸替代(BRAFV600E突变)是甲状腺乳头状癌中最常见的基因突变.很多研究表明,该突变与甲状腺乳头状癌的发生、发展和转移密切相关.该文综合阐明BRAFV600E突变在甲状腺乳头状癌中的术前诊断、预后判断和抑制剂治疗等方面的临床应用,以便更好地指导临床决策.

  19. Circulating Thyroxine, Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, and Hypothyroid Status and the Risk of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, Alison M.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Tracey Bosworth; Remaley, Alan T.; Jarmo Virtamo; Demetrius Albanes

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones may influence risk of cancer through their role in cell differentiation, growth, and metabolism. One study of circulating thyroid hormones supports this hypothesis with respect to prostate cancer. We undertook a prospective analysis of thyroid hormones and prostate cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. METHODS: Within the ATBC Study, a randomized controlled trial of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplements and cancer inc...

  20. Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2030: The Unexpected Burden of Thyroid, Liver, and Pancreas Cancers in the United States . Cancer Research; 74(11): ... 2030: The Unexpected Burden of Thyroid, Liver, and Pancreas Cancers in the United States . Cancer Research; 74(11): ...

  1. Nuclear medicine in thyroid cancer management: A practical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid cancers are now being diagnosed at an earlier stage and treatments together with follow-up strategies are more effective. However this is not consistent throughout the world. The practice does differ considerably from country to country and region to region. Many International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Members States can benefit from the lessons learned and improve overall patient management of thyroid cancers. The IAEA has significantly enhanced the capabilities of many Member States in the field of nuclear medicine. Functional imaging using nuclear medicine procedures has become an indispensable tool for the diagnosis, treatment planning and management of patients. In terms of treatment, the use of radioiodine (131I) has been central to thyroid cancer and has been successfully used for over six decades. Over the years the IAEA has also assisted many Member States to develop indigenous manufacturing of radioiodine therefore reducing the barriers for the care of patients. This publication is a culmination of efforts by more than twenty international experts in the field to produce a global perspective on the subject. Views expressed are those of individual experts involved and are intended to assist national or regional authorities in decisions regarding the frameworks for effective treatment of thyroid cancer

  2. Sarcoidosis mimicking metastatic thyroid cancer following radioactive iodine therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Myint, Zin W.; Chow, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease characterized by non-caseating granulomas that can be present in diverse organ systems. Sarcoidosis can be associated with malignancy, presenting either preceding, during, or after chemotherapy. We herewith report a case of sarcoidosis mimicking cancer recurrence that developed after radioactive iodine therapy for papillary thyroid cancer.Background: A 68-year-old Caucasian woman was found to have an incidental mediastinal lymph node. She u...

  3. USE OF PREDICTORS TO CHOOSE TREATMENT POLICY FOR THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zh. Brzhezovsky,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the results of treatment in patients with papillary thyroid cancer, by applying a great deal of clinical material. Different prognostic factors have been studied for their influence on the survival of the patients after surgical treatment. The most optimal treatment policy is proposed to be defined for patients with this form of cancer on the basis of the association between the above factors.

  4. Clinicopathological characteristics of thyroid cancer misdiagnosed by fine needle aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hideki; Kutomi, Goro; Satomi, Fukino; Shima, Hiroaki; Mori, Mitsuru; Hirata, Koichi; Takemasa, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is commonly used as a preoperative assessment to diagnose thyroid cancer. However, misdiagnosis of malignancy by FNA is not rare, even if image examination suggests the possibility of thyroid cancer. In the present study, the clinicopathological factors of patients whose preoperative FNA examination had not led to a diagnosis of thyroid cancer were examined. In total, 125 patients with thyroid cancer who underwent FNA and surgery (total thyroidectomy, subtotal thyroidectomy or hemithyroidectomy) at the Department of Surgery, Surgical Oncology and Science of the Sapporo Medical University Hospital between 2006 and 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A, malignancy determined by FNA, and group B, no malignancy. The groups were then compared by gender, age, tumor size, stage, tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, histology, surgical procedure methods, presence or absence of calcification and thyroglobulin levels. The mean age of the patients in group A (5 males and 59 females) was 53.0 years. The mean age in group B (11 males and 49 females) was 54.2 years. The mean tumor size in both groups was 1.6 cm. The mean thyroglobulin levels were 82.7 ng/ml in Group A and 525.5 ng/ml in group B. There were also significant differences between the groups for tumor stage (P=0.046), histological type (P=0.024) and thyroglobulin levels (P=0.035). The results of the present study suggested that it may be difficult to diagnose thyroid cancer by FNA in cases with non-papillary carcinoma and higher thyroglobulin levels. PMID:27698782

  5. Thyroid Hormone Receptor-β (TRβ) Mediates Runt-Related Transcription Factor 2 (Runx2) Expression in Thyroid Cancer Cells: A Novel Signaling Pathway in Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Frances E; Tai, Phillip W L; Barnum, Michael S; Gillis, Noelle E; Evans, Katherine G; Taber, Thomas H; White, Jeffrey H; Tomczak, Jennifer A; Jaworski, Diane M; Zaidi, Sayyed K; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Janet L; Stein, Gary S

    2016-08-01

    Dysregulation of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR)β is common in human cancers. Restoration of functional TRβ delays tumor progression in models of thyroid and breast cancers implicating TRβ as a tumor suppressor. Conversely, aberrant expression of the runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) is established in the progression and metastasis of thyroid, breast, and other cancers. Silencing of Runx2 diminishes tumor invasive characteristics. With TRβ as a tumor suppressor and Runx2 as a tumor promoter, a compelling question is whether there is a functional relationship between these regulatory factors in thyroid tumorigenesis. Here, we demonstrated that these proteins are reciprocally expressed in normal and malignant thyroid cells; TRβ is high in normal cells, and Runx2 is high in malignant cells. T3 induced a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in Runx2 expression. Silencing of TRβ by small interfering RNA knockdown resulted in a corresponding increase in Runx2 and Runx2-regulated genes, indicating that TRβ levels directly impact Runx2 expression and associated epithelial to mesenchymal transition molecules. TRβ specifically bound to 3 putative thyroid hormone-response element motifs within the Runx2-P1 promoter ((-)105/(+)133) as detected by EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation. TRβ suppressed Runx2 transcriptional activities, thus confirming TRβ regulation of Runx2 at functional thyroid hormone-response elements. Significantly, these findings indicate that a ratio of the tumor-suppressor TRβ and tumor-promoting Runx2 may reflect tumor aggression and serve as biomarkers in biopsy tissues. The discovery of this TRβ-Runx2 signaling supports the emerging role of TRβ as a tumor suppressor and reveals a novel pathway for intervention. PMID:27253998

  6. Thyroid metastasis from breast cancer presenting with diffuse microcalcifications on sonography: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Pei; Tiu, Chui-Mei; Chou, Yi-Hong; Hsu, Chih-Yi; King, Kuang-Liang; Lai, Yi-Chen; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Chiou, Hong-Jen; Chang, Cheng-Yen

    2014-09-01

    Microcalcifications are frequently associated with papillary thyroid cancers. Metastatic nodules from extrathyroid malignancies may mimic primary thyroid neoplasm on sonography, but do not present with microcalcifications. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman with a history of invasive ductal carcinomas of bilateral breasts, status post surgery and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Four years after surgery, thyroid sonography revealed diffuse microcalcifications without nodular component. Core needle biopsy confirmed thyroid metastasis from primary breast cancer. PMID:24752943

  7. POSTOPERATIVE TREATMENT OF THYROID CANCER WITH RADIOACTIVE IODINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blahd, William H.; Koplowitz, Jerry M.

    1963-06-15

    Experiences in the postoperative treatment of thyroid cancer with radioactive iodine since 1949 are reviewed. Forty-five patients received therapeutic amounts of I/sup 131/ and were followed for more than one year. Cancer metastases were localized by means of the mechanical scintiscanner after patients had received large tracer doses of I/sup 131/ preceded by injections of thyrotropic hormone. A consistent therapeutic regimen was followed involving four basic modalities of therapy: surgical thyroidectomy, thyrotropic hormone stimulation, cancerocidal doses of I/sup 131/ and thyroid extract administration. Twenty-nine patients in the series had proved metastatic lesions; 11 died, 18 are living, and 41% have lived 5 or more years. All patients who were free of metastases after initial thyroid surgery are alive. No complications from I/sup 131/ therapy were observed. This is attributed to the conservative dosage regimen employed. The results of the use of I/sup 131/ in the postoperative treatment of thyroid cancer in other reported series are also reviewed. (P.C.H.)

  8. Nuclear detonation, thyroid cancer and potassium iodide prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent nuclear disaster at Japan has raised global concerns about effects of radioactive leakage in the environment, associated hazards, and how they can be prevented. In this article, we have tried to explain about the guidelines laid down by World Health Organization for a potassium iodide prophylaxis following a nuclear disaster, and its mechanism of action in preventing thyroid cancer. Data was collected mainly from the studies carried out during the Chernobyl disaster of Russia in 1986 and the hazardous effects especially on the thyroid gland were studied. It was seen that radioactive iodine leakage from the nuclear plants mainly affected the thyroid gland, and especially children were at a higher risk at developing the cancers. Potassium Iodide prophylaxis can be administered in order to prevent an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancers in the population of an area affected by a nuclear disaster. However, one has to be cautious while giving it, as using it without indication has its own risks.

  9. Thyroid gland removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... small thyroid growth ( nodule or cyst) A thyroid gland that is so overactive it is dangerous ( thyrotoxicosis ) Cancer of the thyroid Noncancerous (benign) tumors of the thyroid that are causing symptoms Thyroid ...

  10. Radiotherapy and subsequent thyroid cancer in German childhood cancer survivors: a nested case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is associated with a risk of subsequent neoplasms (SN) in childhood cancer survivors. It has been shown that children’s thyroid glands are especially susceptible. The aim is to quantify the risk of a second neck neoplasm after primary cancer radiotherapy with emphasis on thyroid cancer. We performed a nested case–control study: 29 individuals, diagnosed with a solid SN in the neck region, including 17 with thyroid cancer, in 1980–2002 and 57 matched controls with single neoplasms were selected from the database of the German Childhood Cancer Registry. We investigated the risk associated with radiotherapy exposure given per body region, adjusted for chemotherapy. 16/17 (94.1 %) thyroid SN cases, 9/12 (75 %) other neck SN cases and 34/57 (59.6 %) controls received radiotherapy, with median doses of 27.8, 25 and 24 Gy, respectively. Radiotherapy exposure to the neck region increased the risk of the other neck SNs by 4.2 % (OR = 1.042/Gy (95 %-CI 0.980-1.109)) and of thyroid SN by 5.1 % (OR = 1.051/Gy (95 %-CI 0.984-1.123)), and radiotherapy to the neck or spine region increased the thyroid risk by 6.6 % (OR = 1.066/Gy (95 %-CI 1.010-1.125)). Chemotherapy was not a confounder. Exposure to other body regions was not associated with increased risk. Radiotherapy in the neck or spine region increases the risk of thyroid cancer, while neck exposure increases the risk of any other solid SN to a similar extent. Other studies showed a decreasing risk of subsequent thyroid cancer for very high doses; we cannot confirm this

  11. Thyroid ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that may or may not be cancerous (a tumor ). Sometimes the thyroid is enlarged without any nodules. ... to: Cysts Enlargement of the thyroid gland ( goiter ) Thyroid nodules Your doctor can use these ...

  12. Engineering Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Therapeutic Bionanofluids to Selectively Target Papillary Thyroid Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idit Dotan

    Full Text Available The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC has risen steadily over the past few decades as well as the recurrence rates. It has been proposed that targeted ablative physical therapy could be a therapeutic modality in thyroid cancer. Targeted bio-affinity functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (BioNanofluid act locally, to efficiently convert external light energy to heat thereby specifically killing cancer cells. This may represent a promising new cancer therapeutic modality, advancing beyond conventional laser ablation and other nanoparticle approaches.Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor (TSHR was selected as a target for PTC cells, due to its wide expression. Either TSHR antibodies or Thyrogen or purified TSH (Thyrotropin were chemically conjugated to our functionalized Bionanofluid. A diode laser system (532 nm was used to illuminate a PTC cell line for set exposure times. Cell death was assessed using Trypan Blue staining.TSHR-targeted BioNanofluids were capable of selectively ablating BCPAP, a TSHR-positive PTC cell line, while not TSHR-null NSC-34 cells. We determined that a 2:1 BCPAP cell:α-TSHR-BioNanofluid conjugate ratio and a 30 second laser exposure killed approximately 60% of the BCPAP cells, while 65% and >70% of cells were ablated using Thyrotropin- and Thyrogen-BioNanofluid conjugates, respectively. Furthermore, minimal non-targeted killing was observed using selective controls.A BioNanofluid platform offering a potential therapeutic path for papillary thyroid cancer has been investigated, with our in vitro results suggesting the development of a potent and rapid method of selective cancer cell killing. Therefore, BioNanofluid treatment emphasizes the need for new technology to treat patients with local recurrence and metastatic disease who are currently undergoing either re-operative neck explorations, repeated administration of radioactive iodine and as a last resort external beam radiation or chemotherapy, with

  13. Engineering Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Therapeutic Bionanofluids to Selectively Target Papillary Thyroid Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliouras, Miltiadis; Mitmaker, Elliot J.; Trifiro, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has risen steadily over the past few decades as well as the recurrence rates. It has been proposed that targeted ablative physical therapy could be a therapeutic modality in thyroid cancer. Targeted bio-affinity functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (BioNanofluid) act locally, to efficiently convert external light energy to heat thereby specifically killing cancer cells. This may represent a promising new cancer therapeutic modality, advancing beyond conventional laser ablation and other nanoparticle approaches. Methods Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor (TSHR) was selected as a target for PTC cells, due to its wide expression. Either TSHR antibodies or Thyrogen or purified TSH (Thyrotropin) were chemically conjugated to our functionalized Bionanofluid. A diode laser system (532 nm) was used to illuminate a PTC cell line for set exposure times. Cell death was assessed using Trypan Blue staining. Results TSHR-targeted BioNanofluids were capable of selectively ablating BCPAP, a TSHR-positive PTC cell line, while not TSHR-null NSC-34 cells. We determined that a 2:1 BCPAP cell:α-TSHR-BioNanofluid conjugate ratio and a 30 second laser exposure killed approximately 60% of the BCPAP cells, while 65% and >70% of cells were ablated using Thyrotropin- and Thyrogen-BioNanofluid conjugates, respectively. Furthermore, minimal non-targeted killing was observed using selective controls. Conclusion A BioNanofluid platform offering a potential therapeutic path for papillary thyroid cancer has been investigated, with our in vitro results suggesting the development of a potent and rapid method of selective cancer cell killing. Therefore, BioNanofluid treatment emphasizes the need for new technology to treat patients with local recurrence and metastatic disease who are currently undergoing either re-operative neck explorations, repeated administration of radioactive iodine and as a last resort external beam

  14. Emerging therapies for thyroid carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S

    2012-02-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed endocrine malignancy. Its incidence is currently rising worldwide. The discovery of genetic mutations associated with the development of thyroid cancer, such as BRAF and RET, has lead to the development of new drugs which target the pathways which they influence. Despite recent advances, the prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is still unfavourable. In this review we look at emerging novel therapies for the treatment of well-differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma, and advances and future directions in the management of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  15. X-ray features of pulmonary metastases of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutsenko, I.V. (Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Onkologicheskij Inst., Moscow (USSR))

    Metastases of thyroid cancer to the chest cavity organs were detected in 19.4%. They were found most frequently in the pulmonary tissue (75.8%), in the mediastinal lymph nodes (57.9%), less frequently in the lymph nodes of the roots of the lungs (30.4%) and very rarely in the pleura (2.6%). X-ray signs of metastases are identical for all histological structures of thyroid cancer. The most typical are multiple lesions (91.8%). The nodular form is found in 74.5%, the nodal form in 17.2.%. Solitary metastases and cancerous lymphangitis are rarely noted (7.2 and 0.9% respectively. The regression of metastases, spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumonia are rarely observed as well (1.8, 0.9 and 1.8%) respectively). The doubling time of the size of metastatic tumors of thyroid cancer ranges from 52 to 379 days. The use of radioactive iodine and hormones inhibits their growth rates.

  16. X-ray features of pulmonary metastases of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastases of thyroid cancer to the chest cavity organs were detected in 19.4%. They were found most frequently in the pulmonary tissue (75.8%), in the mediastinal lymph nodes (57.9%), less frequently in the lymph nodes of the roots of the lungs (30.4%) and very rarely in the pleura (2.6%). X-ray signs of metastases are identical for all histological structures of thyroid cancer. The most typical are multiple lesions (91.8%). The nodular form is found in 74.5%, the nodal form in 17.2.%. Solitary metastases and cancerous lymphangitis are rarely noted (7.2 and 0.9% respectively. The regression of metastases, spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumonia are rarely observed as well (1.8, 0.9 and 1.8%) respectively). The doubling time of the size of metastatic tumors of thyroid cancer ranges from 52 to 379 days. The use of radioactive iodine and hormones inhibits their growth rates

  17. Thyroid cancer mortality and incidence: a global overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vecchia, Carlo; Malvezzi, Matteo; Bosetti, Cristina; Garavello, Werner; Bertuccio, Paola; Levi, Fabio; Negri, Eva

    2015-05-01

    In most areas of the world, thyroid cancer incidence has been appreciably increasing over the last few decades, whereas mortality has steadily declined. We updated global trends in thyroid cancer mortality and incidence using official mortality data from the World Health Organization (1970-2012) and incidence data from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (1960-2007). Male mortality declined in all the major countries considered, with annual percent changes around -2/-3% over the last decades. Only in the United States mortality declined up to the mid 1980s and increased thereafter. Similarly, in women mortality declined in most countries considered, with APCs around -2/-5% over the last decades, with the exception of the UK, the United States and Australia, where mortality has been declining up to the late 1980s/late 1990s to level off (or increase) thereafter. In 2008-2012, most countries had mortality rates (age-standardized, world population) between 0.20 and 0.40/100,000 men and 0.20 and 0.60/100,000 women, the highest rates being in Latvia, Hungary, the Republic of Moldova and Israel (over 0.40/100,000) for men and in Ecuador, Colombia and Israel (over 0.60/100,000) for women. In most countries, a steady increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer (mainly papillary carcinomas) was observed in both sexes. The declines in thyroid cancer mortality reflect both variations in risk factor exposure and changes in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease, while the increases in the incidence are likely due to the increase in the detection of this neoplasm over the last few decades.

  18. Radiation risk assessment of the thyroid cancer in Ukrainian children exposed due to Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The children's thyroid exposure to radioiodine is one of the most serious consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The collective dose to children aged 0-18 in the entire Ukraine was estimated to be 400000 person-Gy. The dose estimates were calculated on the basis of measurements of thyroid content of 131I for about 108000 people in Ukraine aged 0-18 years in May-June 1986. Up to the end of 1994, 542 thyroid cancers throughout the Ukraine have been reported in children and young adults who were aged 0-18 at the time of the accident. Rates of thyroid cancer have climbed, from about 0.7 per million children aged 0-14 in 1986 to more 7 per million in 1994. Rates increased most in region closest to Pripyat'. Between 1990 and 1994, 9 of the 14,580 people who had been children at the time of the accident in Pripyat' developed thyroid cancer. This corresponds to an annual incidence of 123 cases per million persons. The estimated average thyroid dose in Ukrainian children varies by several orders of magnitude. There is a more than 30-fold gradient in thyroid cancer incidence rates corresponding to the gradient in thyroid doses from 131I. A preliminary investigation shows an excess in the annual incidence rate of thyroid cancer, throughout the northern territory of Ukraine, corresponding to the average doses to thyroid from 131I. Coefficients of regression of excess cancers versus thyroid dose have been calculated

  19. Carcinogenic risk after radioiodine ablation for early papillary thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Long-term survival curves after thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation (RIA B) for the treatment of early papillary thyroid cancer (EPTC) are comparable to those for healthy population. However, potential harms of RAIB are still in question considering carcinogenesis as most significant late stochastic effect of radiation. Uncertainties exist with regard to the organ radio-sensitivity, age, sex, race, civilization differences, dose-rate, radiation quality etc. We accepted ICRP simplified pessimistic model to predict radiogenic cancer probability (RCP) after RIAB. 183 patients of cancer thyroid treated with iodine-131 to destroy remnant thyroid after nearly total thyroidectomy have been evaluated. The doses in nine organ and tissue at risk have been estimated by the dosimetric model of T. Smith and E. Edmonds for patients treated once with average activity of 3.1 GBq and twice with an average dose of 6.2 GBq. Incidence of major RCP following RIAB is 1.7-3.4 % for fatal stomach cancer, 0.5-0.9 % for fatal bladder cancer and 0.1-0.2 % for malignancies of salivary glands. RCP significantly goes down for secondary breast and ovarian cancer (0.05-0.03%). The number of predicted fatal and non-fatal cancer in the whole treated group of 183 patients is 6.6 cases with prediction of 4 gastric and 1 bladder cancer but none was observed during the follow-up period of 7 to 28 years. The overall risk for all other organs is below one case (0.8). One patient developed multiple myeloma and two salivary glands tumours observed 9-13 years after RIAB. Five synchronous and metachronous secondary breast cancer were also registered, but they could be non-radiogenic (collective RCP = 0.08 cases). Giving maximum radical treatment, we achieved 98% 20-years survival for patients of EPTC. Such a prognosis appears exaggerated, may be due to the use of very pessimistic ICRP model. We also evaluated the magnitude of the predicted lethality from radiogenic cancer and compared it with

  20. Ultrasonographic Findings of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with or without Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Young; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    This study was designed to compare the ultrasonographic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma with and without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This retrospective study included 190 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma which was proven by neck surgery. The difference in the ultrasonographic findings between papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 61 of 190 patients following neck surgery. The incidence of coexisting papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly higher in women (p=0.0026). In addition, the frequency of macrocalcification in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also significantly higher (p=0.0009). Conversely,other ultrasonographic findings including the shape, margin, echogenicity and calcifications, for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis, were not statistically significant. We also found that patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis who showed no calcification on ultrasonography tended not to detect the papillary carcinoma at a higher frequency. On ultrasonography, macrocalcifications occurred more frequently in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than those without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Malignant thyroid nodules without calcifications in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis more often could not be detected. Therefore, it is important carefully examine patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  1. Quadruple Cancers of Non-producing Multiple Myeloma, Cholangiocellular Carcinoma, and Two Different Thyroid Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Shinsuke; Kuroda, Junya; Sasaki, Nana; Kiyota, Miki; Tatekawa, Shotaro; Tsukamoto, Taku; Maegawa, Saori; Chinen, Yoshiaki; Shimura, Yuji; Nagoshi, Hisao; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Horiike, Shigeo; Tando, So; Fushiki, Shinji; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 72-year-old man who presented with non-producing multiple myeloma (MM) with three additional concomitant solid tumors that were identified by postmortem autopsy. The disease was refractory to anti-MM therapy including bortezomib and lenalidomide, and he finally died of bacterial pneumonia with diffuse alveolar damage 8 months after the diagnosis. An autopsy revealed that he was also affected by three other solid cancers, cholangiocellular carcinoma, medullary thyroid cancer and papillary thyroid cancer that were clinically asymptomatic and remained undiagnosed before death. A review of the literature suggests that primary quadruple cancers including MM are extremely rare. PMID:27150876

  2. External beam radiotherapy for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The indications for and techniques of external beam radiotherapy for thyroid tumours can be clearly defined in relation to the histological type of tumour and stage of disease. Localized treatment for carcinoma can easily be accomplished as can wide field irradiation for lymphoma. However, when either extensive lateral neck disease is present or tumour extends into the superior mediastinum, it becomes difficult to adequately encompass the required volume without including the spinal cord. Several techniques are described which overcome this problem and thus allow a radical dose to be given without significant risk of transverse myelitis

  3. Thyroid cancer in toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerci C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Many authors have claimed that hyperthyroidism protects against thyroid cancer and believed that the incidence of malignancy is lower in patients with toxic multinodular goiter (TMG than in those with non-toxic multinodular goiter. But in recent studies, it was reported that the incidence of malignancy with TMG is not as low as previously thought. Aim : To compare the thyroid cancer incidence in patients with toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. Settings and Design : Histology reports of patients treated surgically with a preoperative diagnosis of toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter were reviewed to identify the thyroid cancer incidence. Patients having a history of neck irradiation or radioactive iodine therapy were excluded from the study. Materials and Methods : We reviewed 294 patients operated between 2001-2005 from toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. One hundred and twenty-four of them were toxic and 170 were non-toxic. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed by elevated tri-iodothyroinine / thyroxine ratios and low thyroid-stimulating hormone with clinical signs and symptoms. All patients were evaluated with ultrasonography and scintigraphy and fine needle aspiration biopsy. Statistical Analysis Used : Significance of the various parameters was calculated by using ANOVA test. Results : The incidence of malignancy was 9% in the toxic and 10.58% in the non-toxic multinodular goiter group. Any significant difference in the incidence of cancer and tumor size between the two groups could not be detected. Conclusions : The incidence of malignancy in toxic multinodular goiter is not very low as thought earlier and is nearly the same in non-toxic multinodular goiter.

  4. Expression, clinical significance and mechanism of Slit2 in papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rong-Liang; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wang, Yu-Long; Wang, Yu; Sun, Guo-Hua; Ji, Qing-Hai

    2016-05-01

    Thyroid cancer is a common endocrine malignancy. The last decade has seen exciting progress in understanding thyroid cancer molecular pathogenesis. Several major signaling pathways and related molecular derangements have been elucidated, which represent novel diagnostic and prognostic molecular markers for thyroid cancer. Based on the molecular biology of thyroid cancer, a series of therapeutic targets have been developed, which provide unprecedented opportunities. Thus, histological characterization of subgroups of patients and the correct molecular characterization of patients are thought to be key aspects for future clinical management of these patients. In the present study, we identified Slit2 as a prognostic marker for thyroid cancer oncogenesis and recurrence. Mechanistically, Slit2 regulated Warburg effect in thyroid cancer cells through regulation of HIF1α and HIF1α transcriptional activity. Taken together, our present data uncovered Slit2 as a novel predictive marker for thyroid cancer. The mechanism study indicated that Slit2 regulated the Warburg effect. Additional study on the function of Slit2 in thyroid cancer is required to provide new insights into the potential mechanisms of oncogenesis and recurrence potential of thyroid cancer.

  5. Thyroid exposure in Ukrainian and White Russian children following the Chernobyl disaster and the resultant risk of acquiring thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of the main strong and weak points of various studies on the risk of acquiring thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl disaster this study summarises the results of a recent ecological study. 175,800 measurements of 131I activity in the human thyroid gland performed in the contaminated regions of the Ukraine and White Russia during the first weeks after the Chernobyl disaster served as a starting point for this study on thyroid exposure in Ukrainian and White Russian children following the Chernobyl disaster and the resultant risk of acquiring thyroid cancer. More than 10 measurements were performed in each of altogether 1,114 locations. Age and sex-specific doses were calculated for each of these locations within the 1968-85 birth cohort. 95% of all dose values were within the range of 0.017 to 0.69 Gy. Since 1990 the incidence of thyroid cancer within the study area has increased at a markedly higher rate than one would expect on the basis of the cohort members' growing age. In the period from 1990 to 2001 1,091 cases of surgery for thyroid cancer were reported. The additional absolute risk per 104 PY Gy was calculated as 2.5 (95% CI: 2.3;2.9). The additional relative risk per dose was calculated as 10 (95% CI: 8;12) Gy-1. These results are consistent with risk values found for thyroid cancer after external exposure during childhood. Assuming that the calculated risk values also apply for the intervention level of 0.05 Gy at which iodine tablets are distributed in the event of a major release of radioiodide this means that within the period of 4 to 15 years following the exposure 3 additional cases of thyroid cancer are expected to occur within a collective of 20,000 children and adolescents. This is equivalent to a 50% increase in the spontaneous incidence of the disease

  6. CD133-expressing thyroid cancer cells are undifferentiated, radioresistant and survive radioiodide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Chien-Chih [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); Liu, Ren-Shyan [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); NRPGM, Molecular and Genetic Imaging Core, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National PET/Cyclotron Center, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Yang, An-Hang [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Liu, Ching-Sheng [National Yang-Ming University Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Chi, Chin-Wen [National Yang-Ming University, Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei (China); Tseng, Ling-Ming [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Tsai, Yi-Fan [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Ho, Jennifer H. [Taipei Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Medical Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Taipei (China); Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Medical Center, Center for Stem Cell Research, Taipei (China); Lee, Chen-Hsen [NRPGM, Molecular and Genetic Imaging Core, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Lee, Oscar K. [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Stem Cell Research Center, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei (China)

    2013-01-15

    {sup 131}I therapy is regularly used following surgery as a part of thyroid cancer management. Despite an overall relatively good prognosis, recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer is not rare. CD133-expressing cells have been shown to mark thyroid cancer stem cells that possess the characteristics of stem cells and have the ability to initiate tumours. However, no studies have addressed the influence of CD133-expressing cells on radioiodide therapy of the thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CD133{sup +} cells contribute to the radioresistance of thyroid cancer and thus potentiate future recurrence and metastasis. Thyroid cancer cell lines were analysed for CD133 expression, radiosensitivity and gene expression. The anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line ARO showed a higher percentage of CD133{sup +} cells and higher radioresistance. After {gamma}-irradiation of the cells, the CD133{sup +} population was enriched due to the higher apoptotic rate of CD133{sup -} cells. In vivo {sup 131}I treatment of ARO tumour resulted in an elevated expression of CD133, Oct4, Nanog, Lin28 and Glut1 genes. After isolation, CD133{sup +} cells exhibited higher radioresistance and higher expression of Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Lin28 and Glut1 in the cell line or primarily cultured papillary thyroid cancer cells, and lower expression of various thyroid-specific genes, namely NIS, Tg, TPO, TSHR, TTF1 and Pax8. This study demonstrates the existence of CD133-expressing thyroid cancer cells which show a higher radioresistance and are in an undifferentiated status. These cells possess a greater potential to survive radiotherapy and may contribute to the recurrence of thyroid cancer. A future therapeutic approach for radioresistant thyroid cancer may focus on the selective eradication of CD133{sup +} cells. (orig.)

  7. CD133-expressing thyroid cancer cells are undifferentiated, radioresistant and survive radioiodide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    131I therapy is regularly used following surgery as a part of thyroid cancer management. Despite an overall relatively good prognosis, recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer is not rare. CD133-expressing cells have been shown to mark thyroid cancer stem cells that possess the characteristics of stem cells and have the ability to initiate tumours. However, no studies have addressed the influence of CD133-expressing cells on radioiodide therapy of the thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CD133+ cells contribute to the radioresistance of thyroid cancer and thus potentiate future recurrence and metastasis. Thyroid cancer cell lines were analysed for CD133 expression, radiosensitivity and gene expression. The anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line ARO showed a higher percentage of CD133+ cells and higher radioresistance. After γ-irradiation of the cells, the CD133+ population was enriched due to the higher apoptotic rate of CD133- cells. In vivo 131I treatment of ARO tumour resulted in an elevated expression of CD133, Oct4, Nanog, Lin28 and Glut1 genes. After isolation, CD133+ cells exhibited higher radioresistance and higher expression of Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Lin28 and Glut1 in the cell line or primarily cultured papillary thyroid cancer cells, and lower expression of various thyroid-specific genes, namely NIS, Tg, TPO, TSHR, TTF1 and Pax8. This study demonstrates the existence of CD133-expressing thyroid cancer cells which show a higher radioresistance and are in an undifferentiated status. These cells possess a greater potential to survive radiotherapy and may contribute to the recurrence of thyroid cancer. A future therapeutic approach for radioresistant thyroid cancer may focus on the selective eradication of CD133+ cells. (orig.)

  8. High-throughput drug library screening identifies colchicine as a thyroid cancer inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Yang, Zhaoying; Granieri, Letizia; Pasculescu, Adrian; Datti, Alessandro; Asa, Sylvia L.; Xu, Zheli; Ezzat, Shereen

    2016-01-01

    We employed a high-throughput drug library screening platform to identify novel agents affecting thyroid cancer cells. We used human thyroid cancer cell lines to screen a collection of approximately 5200 small molecules with biological and/or pharmacologial properties. Parallel primary screens yielded a number of hits differentially active between thyroid and melanoma cells. Amongst compounds specifically targeting thyroid cancer cells, colchicine emerged as an effective candidate. Colchicine inhibited cell growth which correlated with G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These effects were hampered through inhibition of MEK1/2 and JNK. In contrast, inhibition of p38-MAPK had little effect, and AKT had no impact on colchicine action. Systemic colchicine inhibited thyroid cancer progression in xenografted mice. These findings demonstrate that our screening platform is an effective vehicle for drug reposition and show that colchicine warrants further attention in well-defined clinical niches such as thyroid cancer. PMID:26942566

  9. Putative BRAF activating fusion in a medullary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaian, Katayoon; Wiseman, Sam M; Walker, Blair A; Schein, Jacqueline E; Hirst, Martin; Moore, Richard A; Mungall, Andrew J; Marra, Marco A; Jones, Steven J M

    2016-03-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a malignancy of the calcitonin-producing parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland. Surgery is the only curative treatment for this cancer. External beam radiation therapy is reserved for adjuvant treatment of MTC with aggressive features. Targeted therapeutics vandetanib and cabozantinib are approved for the treatment of aggressive and metastatic tumors that are not amenable to surgery. The use of these multikinase inhibitors are supported by the observed overactivation of the RET oncoprotein in a large subpopulation of MTCs. However, not all patients carry oncogenic alterations of this kinase. Hence, there is still a need for comprehensive molecular characterization of MTC utilizing whole-genome and transcriptome-sequencing methodologies with the aim of identifying targetable mutations. Here, we describe the genomic profiles of two medullary thyroid cancers and report the presence of a putative oncogenic BRAF fusion in one. Such alterations, previously observed in other malignancies and known targets of available drugs, can benefit patients who currently have no treatment options. PMID:27148585

  10. Thyroid cancer incidence due to technogenic exposure in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshurnikova, Nina Alexandrovna; Kaigorodova, Larissa Y; Rabinovich, Evgenya I; Martinenko, Irina I; Okatenko, Pavel A; Khokhryakov, Victor V; Mosharova, Elena P; Mokrov, Juri; Fomin, Evgeny; Alekseyev, Valery S; Panteleyev, Nikolay T; Sannikova, Lubov A; Ryzhykh, Tatyana V

    2012-07-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence was studied in the cohort of residents of Ozyorsk and Kyshtym, the nearest upwind cities to the Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA), Russia's first plutonium production facility, which has been in operation since 1948. Radioactive contamination of areas around the Mayak PA were from unmonitored releases of inert gases produced by industrial reactors and also from the release of uranium fission products from a radiochemical plant stack where irradiated uranium blocks were refined. Iodine-131 (131I) was the main contributor to the technogenic dose from atmospheric releases. Routine monitoring of gaseous releases began in the mid-1960s, when a gas purification system was perfected. Children were a critical group due to their higher radiosensitivity and specific diet (dairy products and vegetables). Both cities maintain Registries containing over 100,000 individuals born from 1934-2006. Among this group, more than 100 cases of thyroid cancer were registered during 1948-2009. The relative risk of thyroid cancer incidence is 1.5 times higher than in the Chelyabinsk. PMID:22647908

  11. Regional Distributions of Distant Metastases Detected in Differentiated Thyroid Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebuzer Kalender

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of our multicenter study is to determine retrospectively the regional distributions of distant metastases which are detected in differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC. Material and Method: Thirty-two of 960 patients with distant metastases who were given radioiodine (RAI treatment in Gaziantep University School of Medicine and Mustafa Kemal University School of Medicine were included to study. Six of patients were male, 26 of them were female. Mean age was 52±15.4. Hystopathological diagnoses were reported as papillary thyroid cancer in 23 patients and folliculary thyroid cancer in 9 patients. The distant metastasis ratio, metastasis regions and distributions were determined. Results: It was observed only lung metastasis in 18 (56.25 %, only bone metastasis in 6 (18.75 %, combination of lung and bone metastases in 3 (9.4 %, other organ metastases accompanying to bone and lung metastases in 3 (9.4 % (liver, soft tissue, mediastinum and multipl organ involvoment in 2 (6.2 % of patients. It was determined single metastasis region in 24 (75 %, 2 metastasis regions in 6 (18.75 % and multipl metastasis regions in 2 (6.25 % of patients. Discussion: Distant metastases are the biggest problem in treatment and follow-up of DTCs. It is very important to diagnosis of metastases and determine the regions of involvoment in these patients.

  12. The incidence of thyroid papillary cancer in contralateral lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedabdolhosein Masoumi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC is usually associated an excellent prognosis and greater than 90% survival rate at 10 years. Papillary thyroid cancer may be diagnosed with histological examination in patients who underwent lobectomy. The necessity of performing a completion thyroidectomy (CT is still a controversial issue. This study investigated the rate of contrary PTC in patients, who had completion thyroidectomy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical and pathologic data of 82 patients with PTC. These patients underwent thyroid lobectomy, followed by completion thyroidectomy during 1997-2007. Results:  Thirty tree patients (40% had PTC in the contrary lobe. There were no significant differences between patients with or without contrary disease with sex, age, primary tumor size or time to completion thyroidectomy. The presence of lymph node metastases and multifocality of cancer in the ipsilateral lobe increased risk of residual disease in contrary lobe. The postoperative complication were infrequent and included: 6 (3.7% patients with transient recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, 2 (2.5% patients with permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy palsy, 9 (11% patients with transient hypocalcemia and 1 (1.2% patient with permanent hypoparathyroidism also there were hematoma in 5 (6% patients that in 2 patients required re-exploration. Conclusion: The prevalence of residual disease in the contra lateral lobe of patients with PTC is significant. We believe that a completion thyroidectomy should be considered for PTC treatment. Completion thyroidectomy can be done safely with acceptable morbidity.    

  13. Chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma: metabolic and morphologic changes on PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Ukihide [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Gamez, Cristina; Yeung, Henry W.D.; Macapinlac, Homer A. [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Dawood, Shaheenah; Cristofanilli, Massimo [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Breast Medical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    To investigate clinical implications of FDG uptake in the thyroid glands in patients with advanced breast carcinoma by comparing metabolic and morphologic patterns on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). The institutional review board waived the requirement for informed consent. A retrospective analysis was performed in 146 women (mean age 54 years) with advanced breast carcinoma who received systemic treatment. All patients underwent PET-CT before and after treatment. All PET-CT studies were reviewed in consensus by two reviewers. Morphologic changes including volume and mean parenchymal density of the thyroid glands were evaluated. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were determined to evaluate metabolic changes. These parameters were compared between patients with chronic thyroiditis who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy and those who did not. Of the 146 patients, 29 (20%) showed bilaterally diffuse uptake in the thyroid glands on the baseline PET-CT scan. The SUVmax showed a linear relationship with volume (r = 0.428, p = 0.021) and the mean parenchymal density (r = -0.385, p = 0.039) of the thyroid glands. In 21 of the 29 patients (72%) with hypothyroidism who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy, the volume, mean parenchymal density, SUVmax, and TLG of the thyroid glands showed no significant changes. In contrast, 8 of the 29 patients (28%) who did not receive thyroid hormone replacement therapy showed marked decreases in SUVmax and TLG. Diffuse thyroid uptake on PET-CT represents active inflammation caused by chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma. Diffuse thyroid uptake may also address the concern about subclinical hypothyroidism which develops into overt disease during follow-up. (orig.)

  14. Thyroid dysfunction associated with immunotherapy for patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzentruber, D J; White, D E; Zweig, M H; Weintraub, B D; Rosenberg, S A

    1991-12-01

    The authors performed a prospective study to evaluate thyroid dysfunction in 130 patients with cancer who were receiving interleukin-2 (IL-2)-based immunotherapy. Primary hypothyroidism was the most common abnormality, occurring in 12% of patients before, 38% during, and 23% after immunotherapy. Hyperthyroidism occurred in 1%, 4%, and 7% of patients at those time intervals. Among patients initially euthyroid (n = 111), primary hypothyroidism developed in 32% during and 14% after immunotherapy, persisting a median of 54 days. Three patients required levothyroxine. Hyperthyroidism developed in 2% of patients during immunotherapy and 6% after. Thyroid dysfunction was not a function of sex, diagnosis, type of treatment, or response to immunotherapy. Elevated titers of antithyroglobulin and antithyroid microsomal antibodies were detected after treatment in 9% and 7%, respectively, of all patients without prior antibody abnormalities and did not correlate with response to therapy. The high incidence of therapy-induced thyroid dysfunction suggests that thyroid function should be carefully monitored in all patients receiving IL-2-based immunotherapy. PMID:1933775

  15. Thyroid Cancer in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    24 cases were revised, of patient with thyroid tumors in the period understood between 1983 and 1995. Of these tumors 14 were papillars, 3 medullar, 3 children with high levels of thyro calcitonine, 2 with follicular adenomas, a boy with hyperplasia and a doubtful cytology to the one who two years later it was made a total thyroidectomy. Most of the patients were bigger than the 10 years, globally there was not great difference in the distribution for sex, being lightly bigger the number of patient of feminine sex; in the medullar, the relationship was of 2:1 feminine: Masculine, similar to that reported in the literature. To the date, they are alive and without illness 12 patients; 3 evolve with lung metastasis, 2 (with lung metastasis) they abandoned the controls, 3 died with illness and 1 present metastasis and cardiac illness. Iodine131 was used in eleven patients

  16. Randomization to screening for prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large cancer screening trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J O'Grady

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer incidence has increased significantly over the past three decades due, in part, to incidental detection. We examined the association between randomization to screening for lung, prostate, colorectal and/or ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large prospective randomized screening trials.We assessed the association between randomization to low-dose helical CT scan versus chest x-ray for lung cancer screening and risk of thyroid cancer in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST. In the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO, we assessed the association between randomization to regular screening for said cancers versus usual medical care and thyroid cancer risk. Over a median 6 and 11 years of follow-up in NLST and PLCO, respectively, we identified 60 incident and 234 incident thyroid cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the cause specific hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for thyroid cancer.In NLST, randomization to lung CT scan was associated with a non-significant increase in thyroid cancer risk (HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 0.96-2.71. This association was stronger during the first 3 years of follow-up, during which participants were actively screened (HR = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.07-4.47, but not subsequently (HR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.49-2.37. In PLCO, randomization to cancer screening compared with usual care was associated with a significant decrease in thyroid cancer risk for men (HR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49-0.95 but not women (HR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.66-1.26. Similar results were observed when restricting to papillary thyroid cancer in both NLST and PLCO.Our study suggests that certain medical encounters, such as those using low-dose helical CT scan for lung cancer screening, may increase the detection of incidental thyroid cancer.

  17. Randomization to Screening for Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancers and Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Two Large Cancer Screening Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Thomas J.; Kitahara, Cari M.; DiRienzo, A. Gregory; Boscoe, Francis P.; Gates, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer incidence has increased significantly over the past three decades due, in part, to incidental detection. We examined the association between randomization to screening for lung, prostate, colorectal and/or ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large prospective randomized screening trials. Methods We assessed the association between randomization to low-dose helical CT scan versus chest x-ray for lung cancer screening and risk of thyroid cancer in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). In the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), we assessed the association between randomization to regular screening for said cancers versus usual medical care and thyroid cancer risk. Over a median 6 and 11 years of follow-up in NLST and PLCO, respectively, we identified 60 incident and 234 incident thyroid cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the cause specific hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for thyroid cancer. Results In NLST, randomization to lung CT scan was associated with a non-significant increase in thyroid cancer risk (HR  = 1.61; 95% CI: 0.96–2.71). This association was stronger during the first 3 years of follow-up, during which participants were actively screened (HR  = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.07–4.47), but not subsequently (HR  = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.49–2.37). In PLCO, randomization to cancer screening compared with usual care was associated with a significant decrease in thyroid cancer risk for men (HR  = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49–0.95) but not women (HR  = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.66–1.26). Similar results were observed when restricting to papillary thyroid cancer in both NLST and PLCO. Conclusion Our study suggests that certain medical encounters, such as those using low-dose helical CT scan for lung cancer screening, may increase the detection of incidental thyroid cancer. PMID:25192282

  18. Sarcoidosis mimicking metastatic thyroid cancer following radioactive iodine therapy

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    Zin W. Myint

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease characterized by non-caseating granulomas that can be present in diverse organ systems. Sarcoidosis can be associated with malignancy, presenting either preceding, during, or after chemotherapy. We herewith report a case of sarcoidosis mimicking cancer recurrence that developed after radioactive iodine therapy for papillary thyroid cancer. Background: A 68-year-old Caucasian woman was found to have an incidental mediastinal lymph node. She underwent biopsy, which revealed sarcoidosis. There was no further treatment or evidence of recurrence over the ensuing 9 years. She was then diagnosed with low-grade papillary thyroid cancer in the right posterior lobe and treated with total thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine therapy. Six months later, she was found to have elevated serum thyroglobulin. Post–remnant ablation scan showed increased tracer uptake in the bed of the thyroid. Though two thyroid ultrasound scans were negative, she was treated with I-131 for possible recurrence. She then developed right hip pain, prompting further investigation. Though a skeletal survey was negative, an 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET scan study revealed multiple hypermetabolic skeletal lesions in both humeri and the proximal left femur. In addition, hypermetabolic hilar and mediastinal nodes were noted. As widespread cancer metastasis was suspected, bone biopsy was performed, which showed non-caseating granulomas, consistent with recurrence of sarcoidosis. Conclusion: Sarcoid lesions may mimic metastatic disease or recurrence in oncologic patients. Biopsy and histopathology examination should be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Recurrence or reactivation of sarcoidosis has been proposed to result from altered immunologic milieu because of the presence of either active cancer or its therapy. Teodorovic and colleagues postulated that the radioactive I-131 therapy leads to

  19. Risk Stratification in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: An Ongoing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omry-Orbach, Gal

    2016-01-28

    Thyroid cancer is an increasingly common malignancy, with a rapidly rising prevalence worldwide. The social and economic ramifications of the increase in thyroid cancer are multiple. Though mortality from thyroid cancer is low, and most patients will do well, the risk of recurrence is not insignificant, up to 30%. Therefore, it is important to accurately identify those patients who are more or less likely to be burdened by their disease over years and tailor their treatment plan accordingly. The goal of risk stratification is to do just that. The risk stratification process generally starts postoperatively with histopathologic staging, based on the AJCC/UICC staging system as well as others designed to predict mortality. These do not, however, accurately assess the risk of recurrence/persistence. Patients initially considered to be at high risk may ultimately do very well yet be burdened by frequent unnecessary monitoring. Conversely, patients initially thought to be low risk, may not respond to their initial treatment as expected and, if left unmonitored, may have higher morbidity. The concept of risk-adaptive management has been adopted, with an understanding that risk stratification for differentiated thyroid cancer is dynamic and ongoing. A multitude of variables not included in AJCC/UICC staging are used initially to classify patients as low, intermediate, or high risk for recurrence. Over the course of time, a response-to-therapy variable is incorporated, and patients essentially undergo continuous risk stratification. Additional tools such as biochemical markers, genetic mutations, and molecular markers have been added to this complex risk stratification process such that this is essentially a continuum of risk. In recent years, additional considerations have been discussed with a suggestion of pre-operative risk stratification based on certain clinical and/or biologic characteristics. With the increasing prevalence of thyroid cancer but stable mortality

  20. Risk Stratification in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: An Ongoing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omry-Orbach, Gal

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is an increasingly common malignancy, with a rapidly rising prevalence worldwide. The social and economic ramifications of the increase in thyroid cancer are multiple. Though mortality from thyroid cancer is low, and most patients will do well, the risk of recurrence is not insignificant, up to 30%. Therefore, it is important to accurately identify those patients who are more or less likely to be burdened by their disease over years and tailor their treatment plan accordingly. The goal of risk stratification is to do just that. The risk stratification process generally starts postoperatively with histopathologic staging, based on the AJCC/UICC staging system as well as others designed to predict mortality. These do not, however, accurately assess the risk of recurrence/persistence. Patients initially considered to be at high risk may ultimately do very well yet be burdened by frequent unnecessary monitoring. Conversely, patients initially thought to be low risk, may not respond to their initial treatment as expected and, if left unmonitored, may have higher morbidity. The concept of risk-adaptive management has been adopted, with an understanding that risk stratification for differentiated thyroid cancer is dynamic and ongoing. A multitude of variables not included in AJCC/UICC staging are used initially to classify patients as low, intermediate, or high risk for recurrence. Over the course of time, a response-to-therapy variable is incorporated, and patients essentially undergo continuous risk stratification. Additional tools such as biochemical markers, genetic mutations, and molecular markers have been added to this complex risk stratification process such that this is essentially a continuum of risk. In recent years, additional considerations have been discussed with a suggestion of pre-operative risk stratification based on certain clinical and/or biologic characteristics. With the increasing prevalence of thyroid cancer but stable mortality

  1. Clinical value of cancer cells joint detection in peripheral blood plasma of thyroid cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaqiong Ni; Qinjiang Liu ; Youxin Tian

    2014-01-01

    Objective:We aimed to detect cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and polymorphic epithelial mucin 1 (MUC1) expression in peripheral blood of thyroid cancer patients, and investigate the clinical value of it as a diagnostic marker for circulating blood micrometastases. Methods:The flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect and analyze CK19 and MUC1-expressing cel s in peripheral blood of 491 thyroid cancer patients. Results:CK19 and MUC1 expression showed no statistical y significant dif-ference with gender and age in thyroid cancer patients (P>0.05), while had statistical y significant dif erence with tumor size, lymph node stage and distant metastasis (P<0.01). The expression of CK19 and MUC1 were positively correlated (r=0.628, P=0.00). Conclusion:CK19 is closely related to MUC1 expression, tumor size, extent of invasion and distant metastasis in peripheral blood of thyroid cancer patients. The circulating blood CK19 and MUC1 tests can help predict thyroid cancer micrometastases and prognosis.

  2. Risk of Thyroid Nodular Disease and Thyroid Cancer in Patients with Acromegaly – Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kosma Wolinski; Agata Czarnywojtek; Marek Ruchala

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acromegaly is a quite rare chronic disease caused by the increased secretion of growth hormone (GH) and subsequently insulin - like growth factor 1. Although cardiovascular diseases remains the most common cause of mortality among acromegalic patients, increased prevalence of malignant and benign neoplasms remains a matter of debate. The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of thyroid nodular disease (TND) and thyroid cancer in patients with acromegaly. MATERIALS AND METHOD...

  3. Tumorigenesis of Papillary Thyroid Cancer Is Not BRAF-Dependent in Patients with Acromegaly

    OpenAIRE

    Hee Kyung Kim; Ji Shin Lee; Min Ho Park; Jin Seong Cho; Jee Hee Yoon; Soo Jeong Kim; Ho-Cheol Kang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have reported a high frequency of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in patients with acromegaly. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of thyroid cancer in patients with acromegaly and to investigate the frequency of the BRAF V600E mutation in PTC patients with and without acromegaly. Materials and Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 60 patients with acromegaly. Thyroid ultrasonography (US) and US-guided fine needle aspiration...

  4. Evolution of thyroid cancer occurrence in metropolitan France. Assessment over 25 years; evolution de l'incidence du cancer de la thyroide en France metropolitaine. Bilan sur 25 ans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogel, Agnes; Caserio-Schonemann, Celine; Cherie-Challine, Laurence; Rudant, Jeremie; Bloch, Juliette; Thuret, Anne [Unite cancer, Departement des maladies chroniques et traumatismes - DMCT, Institut de veille sanitaire - InVS (France); Colonna, Marc [Registre des cancers de l' Isere, Reseau francais des registres de cancer (Francim) (France); Uhry, Zoe; Kudjawu, Yao; Danzon, Arlette [Unite cancer, DMCT, InVS (France); Lacour, Brigitte [Registre national des tumeurs solides de l' enfant, Francim (France); Schvartz, Claire [Registre des cancers de la thyroide Marne-Ardennes, Francim (France); Pascal, Laurence; Lasalle, Jean-Luc [Cellule interregionale d' epidemiologie - Cire Sud (France); Borson-Chazot, Francoise; Sassolas, Genevieve; Hafdi-Nejjari, Zakia [Registre des cancers thyroidiens de la region Rhone-Alpes (France); Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Guenel, Pascal; Vathaire, Florent de; Guillas, Gwenaelle; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Clero, Enora; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Bedouche, Lallia [Institut national de la sante et de la recherche medicale (Inserm) U1018 (France); Belot, Aurelien [Unite Cancer, DMCT, InVS (France); Hospices civils de Lyon - HCL (France); Fieffe, Sandrine; Dalac, Audrey; Goncalves, Katia; Kaplan, Martine; Pochart, Jean-Marie [Registre des cancers de la thyroide Marne-Ardennes, Francim, Centre de luttre contre le cancer de Reims (France); Desenclos, Jean-Claude [Direction scientifique, InVS (France)

    2011-04-15

    After a presentation of the epidemiological context of thyroid cancer in France, this report, based on cancer record data, analyzes the occurrence of thyroid cancers between 1982 and 2006. It discusses the contribution and limits of medical-administrative data for the epidemiological monitoring of thyroid cancer occurrence between 1997 and 2009. It proposes a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancers in two districts (Marne and Ardennes) between 1975 and 2008, and a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancer for children under 14 between 2000 and 2008. It proposes an estimation of thyroid cancer occurrence in Corsica between 1998 and 2006. It reports and discusses a pilot study performed in two regions (Ile de France and Nord Pas-de-Calais), based on a multi-source system of cancer monitoring (SMSC), and comments studies on risk factors for differentiated thyroid cancers in France

  5. SENTINEL LYMPH NODE CONCEPT IN DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC account up to 90% of all thyroid malignacies, and represents the most common malignant tumors of endocrine system. The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, especially small tumors is rapidly increasing during past three decades. At the time of diagnosis, the incidence of lymph node metastases (LNM ranges from 80 to 90%. During the last 15 years, LNM were recognized as bad prognostic factor for both local-regional relapse (LRR and cancer specific survival. There is general agreement that neck dissections are indicated in cases of clinically apparent LNM. The subject of the current controversy is the surgical treatment of occult LNM that remain unrecognized on preoperative diagnosis (cN0. The extent of operations of the lymph nodes ranges from “wait and see” so-called “Western school” principle substantiated the role of applying ablative I131therapy and frequency peroperative complications (recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and hypoparathyroidism, especially for less experienced teams to mutual prophylactic dissection of the central and lateral compartments so-called “Japanese school” due to the limited use of radioactive iodine therapy and significantly lower operating morbidity if dissetion was done during primary operation. Despite high prevalence of occult LNM, existing controversies regarding diagnosis, longterm prognostic impact and extent of lymph node surgery, motivated some authors to apply consept of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNb in DTC, taking into account excellent results of SLN concept in breast cancer and skin melanoma. This review presents the summarized results of relevant studies and three meta-analysis of accuracy and applicability of SLN concept in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

  6. Investigation of excess thyroid cancer incidence in Los Alamos County

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos County (LAC) is home to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear research and design facility. In 1991, the DOE funded the New Mexico Department of Health to conduct a review of cancer incidence rates in LAC in response to citizen concerns over what was perceived as a large excess of brain tumors and a possible relationship to radiological contaminants from the Laboratory. The study found no unusual or alarming pattern in the incidence of brain cancer, however, a fourfold excess of thyroid cancer was observed during the late-1980's. A rapid review of the medical records for cases diagnosed between 1986 and 1990 failed to demonstrate that the thyroid cancer excess had resulted from enhanced detection. Surveillance activities subsequently undertaken to monitor the trend revealed that the excess persisted into 1993. A feasibility assessment of further studies was made, and ultimately, an investigation was conducted to document the epidemiologic characteristics of the excess in detail and to explore possible causes through a case-series records review. Findings from the investigation are the subject of this report

  7. Investigation of excess thyroid cancer incidence in Los Alamos County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athas, W.F.

    1996-04-01

    Los Alamos County (LAC) is home to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear research and design facility. In 1991, the DOE funded the New Mexico Department of Health to conduct a review of cancer incidence rates in LAC in response to citizen concerns over what was perceived as a large excess of brain tumors and a possible relationship to radiological contaminants from the Laboratory. The study found no unusual or alarming pattern in the incidence of brain cancer, however, a fourfold excess of thyroid cancer was observed during the late-1980`s. A rapid review of the medical records for cases diagnosed between 1986 and 1990 failed to demonstrate that the thyroid cancer excess had resulted from enhanced detection. Surveillance activities subsequently undertaken to monitor the trend revealed that the excess persisted into 1993. A feasibility assessment of further studies was made, and ultimately, an investigation was conducted to document the epidemiologic characteristics of the excess in detail and to explore possible causes through a case-series records review. Findings from the investigation are the subject of this report.

  8. The expression of translocator protein in human thyroid cancer and its role in the response of thyroid cancer cells to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Joanna; Jensen, Kirk; Bauer, Andrew; Patel, Aneeta; Costello, John; Burman, Kenneth D; Wartofsky, Leonard; Hardwick, Matthew J; Vasko, Vasyl V

    2012-08-01

    The translocator protein (TSPO), formerly known as a peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, exerts pro-apoptotic function via regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential. We examined TSPO expression in human thyroid tumors (25 follicular adenomas (FA), 15 follicular cancers (FC), and 70 papillary cancers (PC)). The role of TSPO in the regulation of cell growth, migration, and apoptosis was examined in thyroid cancer cell lines after TSPO knockdown with siRNA and after treatment with TSPO antagonist (PK11195). Compared with normal thyroid, the level of TSPO expression was increased in FA, FC, and PC in 24, 26.6, and 55.7% of cases respectively. Thyroid cancer cell lines demonstrated variable levels of TSPO expression, without specific association with thyroid oncogene mutations. Treatment with inhibitors of PI3K/AKT or MEK/ERK signaling was not associated with changes in TSPO expression. Treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitor (valproic acid) increased TSPO expression in TSPO-deficient cell lines (FTC236 cells). TSPO gene silencing or treatment with PK11195 did not affect thyroid cancer cell growth and migration but prevented depolarization of mitochondrial membranes induced by oxidative stress. Induction of TSPO expression by valproic acid was associated with increased sensitivity of FTC236 to oxidative stress-inducible apoptosis. Overall, we showed that TSPO expression is frequently increased in PC. In vitro data suggested the role of epigenetic mechanism(s) in the regulation of TSPO in thyroid cells. Implication of TSPO in the thyroid cancer cell response to oxidative stress suggested its potential role in the regulation of thyroid cancer cell response to treatment with radioiodine and warrants further investigation.

  9. Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Focus on Emerging Treatments for Radioactive Iodine-Refractory Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Joshua J.; Colevas, A. Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitors have activity in differentiated thyroid cancer refractory to radioactive iodine (RAI). Selection of a targeted agent should depend on disease trajectory, side effect profile, and goals of therapy. Clinical guidance on the use of these agents in RAI-refractory thyroid cancer is warranted.

  10. Tc-99m-Labeled-rhTSH Analogue (TR1401) for Imaging Poorly Differentiated Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galli, Filippo; Manni, Isabella; Piaggio, Giulia; Balogh, Lajos; Weintraub, Bruce D.; Szkudlinski, Mariusz W.; Fremont, Valerie; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Signore, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background: Differentiated thyroid carcinomas originating from thyroid follicular cells are frequent tumors of the thyroid with relatively good prognosis due to improved surgical techniques and follow-up procedures. Poorly differentiated thyroid cancers, which lose iodine uptake ability, in most cas

  11. A loss-of-function genetic screening identifies novel mediators of thyroid cancer cell viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantisani, Maria Carmela; Parascandolo, Alessia; Perälä, Merja; Allocca, Chiara; Fey, Vidal; Sahlberg, Niko; Merolla, Francesco; Basolo, Fulvio; Laukkanen, Mikko O.; Kallioniemi, Olli Pekka; Santoro, Massimo; Castellone, Maria Domenica

    2016-01-01

    RET, BRAF and other protein kinases have been identified as major molecular players in thyroid cancer. To identify novel kinases required for the viability of thyroid carcinoma cells, we performed a RNA interference screening in the RET/PTC1(CCDC6-RET)-positive papillary thyroid cancer cell line TPC1 using a library of synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the human kinome and related proteins. We identified 14 hits whose silencing was able to significantly reduce the viability and the proliferation of TPC1 cells; most of them were active also in BRAF-mutant BCPAP (papillary thyroid cancer) and 8505C (anaplastic thyroid cancer) and in RAS-mutant CAL62 (anaplastic thyroid cancer) cells. These included members of EPH receptor tyrosine kinase family as well as SRC and MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinases) families. Importantly, silencing of the identified hits did not affect significantly the viability of Nthy-ori 3-1 (hereafter referred to as NTHY) cells derived from normal thyroid tissue, suggesting cancer cell specificity. The identified proteins are worth exploring as potential novel druggable thyroid cancer targets. PMID:27058903

  12. Thyroid cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, 1958-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and twelve cases of thyroid cancer diagnosed during the period 1958-79 among the extended Life Span Study cohort in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were studied. There was a statistically significant association between thyroid cancer incidence and exposure to atomic bomb radiation. The adjusted excess relative risk (ERR) per gray was 1.1 (95% confidence interval=0.3-2.5) and the adjusted absolute risk per 104 PYGy was 0.59 (95% confidence interval=0.2-1.7). Based on a comparison of the deviances obtained from relative and absolute risk models, a simple linear relative risk model appeared to fit the data better than an absolute risk model; however, it would not be appropriate to conclude that the data conform strictly to a relative risk pattern. The incidence of thyroid cancer among the members of the Adult Health Study (AHS) population, who have received biennial medical examinations at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, since 1958, was 70% higher than that among the rest of the extended LSS cohort after adjustments for city, sex, log age, calendar year, and Dosimetry System 1986 dose. There was no significant difference between the slope of the dose-response curve for AHS and non-AHS participants, although the estimated ERRs at 1 Gy for the AHS and non-AHS population were 1.6 and 0.3, respectively. The elevated risk appeared to be confined to women, and there was an increasing risk with decreasing attained age and age at exposure. (J.P.N.)

  13. The Role of Cdk5 in Neuroendocrine Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pozo, Karine; Castro-Rivera, Emely; Tan, Chunfeng; Plattner, Florian; SCHWACH, GERT; Siegl, Veronika; Meyer, Douglas; Guo, Ailan; Gundara, Justin; Mettlach, Gabriel; RICHER, Edmond; Guevara, Jonathan A.; Ning, Li; Tsai, Li-Huei; Sun, Xiankai

    2013-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine cancer that originates from calcitonin-secreting parafollicular cells, or C cells. We found that Cdk5 and its cofactors p35 and p25 are highly expressed in human MTC and that Cdk5 activity promotes MTC proliferation. A conditional MTC mouse model was generated and corroborated the role of aberrant Cdk5 activation in MTC. C cell-specific overexpression of p25 caused rapid C cell hyperplasia leading to lethal MTC, which was arrested by repre...

  14. Completeness and validity in a national clinical thyroid cancer database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Sloth Mathiesen, Jes; Krogdahl, Annelise;

    2014-01-01

    was around or above 90% in most instances. Perfect agreement on the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma was found, both inter- and intra-observer, and κ values of selected variables showed overall good to excellent agreement. CONCLUSION: In a setup with public health insurance, personal identity numbers...... cancer database: DATHYRCA. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: National prospective cohort. Denmark; population 5.5 million. Completeness of case ascertainment was estimated by the independent case ascertainment method using three governmental registries as a reference. The reabstracted record method was used...

  15. Thyroid dysfunction and neoplasia in children receiving neck irradiation for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, I.D.; Black, T.L.; Thompson, E.I.; Pratt, C.; Rao, B.; Hustu, O.

    1985-03-15

    The reported relationship of radiation exposure and thyroid carcinoma stimulated this retrospective study of 298 patients treated at St. Jude Children's Hospital with radiation therapy to the neck for childhood cancer to identify patients who developed subsequent thyroid abnormalities. This series includes 153 patients with Hodgkin's disease, 95 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, 28 with lymphoepithelioma, and 22 with miscellaneous tumors. Inclusion in the study required 5 years of disease-free survival following therapy for their original tumor, which included thyroid irradiation. Follow-up has been 100%. Most patients also received chemotherapy. Seventeen patients were found to have decreased thyroid reserve with normal levels of free triiodothyroxine (T3) or free thyroxin, (T4) and an elevated level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In nine patients hypothyroidism developed, with decreased T3 or T4 levels and an elevated level of TSH. One hyperthyroid patient was identified. Two patients had thyroiditis, and seven had thyroid neoplasms: (carcinoma in two, adenoma in two, colloid nodule in one, and undiagnosed nodules in two). This survey has demonstrated an increased incidence of thyroid dysfunction and thyroid neoplasia when compared to the general population. The importance of long-term follow-up for thyroid disease is emphasized in patients who have received thyroid irradiation. The possible role of subclinical hypothyroidism with TSH elevation coupled with radiation damage to the thyroid gland as a model for the development of neoplastic disease is discussed.

  16. 自噬与甲状腺癌的研究进展%Autophagy and its research progress in thyroid cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张思林; 罗庆; 余杰情

    2016-01-01

    To summarize the autophagy and its research progress in thyroid cancer.In combination with available literatures published in recent years involving the relationship between autophagy and thyroid cancer,the characteristics of autophagy,the role in thyroid cancer were reviewed.The changes of autophagy level will directly or indirectly participate in the pathogenesis and progression of thyroid cancer.Reagents regulating autophagy will have broad prospect of application in thyroid cancer therapy.The autophagy in the thyroid cancer is still poorly understood,and to clarify the molecular mechanism of autophagy and kill thyroid cancer cells by reasonable regulation of autophagy still needs more further studies.

  17. Diabetes mellitus and risk of thyroid cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohwan Yeo

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is an important risk factor for endocrine cancers; however, the association with thyroid cancer is not clear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the association between thyroid cancer and DM.We searched MEDLINE, PUBMED and EMBASE databases through July 2012, using search terms related to diabetes mellitus, cancer, and thyroid cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis of the risk of incidence of thyroid cancer from pre-existing diabetes. Of 2,123 titles initially identified, sixteen articles met our inclusion criteria. An additional article was identified from a bibliography. Totally, 14 cohort and 3 case-control studies were selected for the meta-analysis. The risks were estimated using random-effects model and sensitivity test for the studies which reported risk estimates and used different definition of DM.Compared with individuals without DM, the patients with DM were at 1.34-fold higher risk for thyroid cancer (95% CI 1.11-1.63. However, there was heterogeneity in the results (p<0.0001. Sensitivity tests and studies judged to be high quality did not show heterogeneity and DM was associated with higher risk for thyroid cancer in these sub-analyses (both of RRs = 1.18, 95% CIs 1.08-1.28. DM was associated with a 1.38-fold increased risk of thyroid cancer in women (95% CI 1.13-1.67 after sensitivity test. Risk of thyroid cancer in men did not remain significant (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.80-1.53.Compared with their non-diabetic counterparts, women with pre-existing DM have an increased risk of thyroid cancer.

  18. Pathophysiological aspects of recent advances in current thyroid function testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper first discusses thyroid function and thyroid ''status'', which is determined by thyroid gland function in secreting T4, and peripheral bio-transformation of T4. The accuracy of a current in-vitro diagnostic strategy ensures high reliability in clinical routine. More recent test procedures for iodothyronines and immunological phenomena need further evaluation. Later, the bio-transformation of T4 to bioactive and regulatory iodothyronines is discussed with respect to its possible clinical implications. Finally, the significance of TBG in the interpretation of T4 and T3 concentrations is determined and more attention is directed to its functional heterogeneity. (author)

  19. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving Workplace Giving Other Ways to Donate Thyroid Hormone Treatment Thyroid hormone is used in two situations: ... prevent recurrence or progression of their cancer. THYROID HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY Many people have a thyroid gland ...

  20. The pathology of thyroid cancer in Ukraine post Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have analyzed data on the sex and age distribution of 122 cases which have been operated at the Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism in Kiev, Ukraine during the period January 1990 to December 1994 and compared these to information on 154 cases recorded by the UK Childhood Cancer Registry in England and Wales over the period 1963-1992. The histology has also been reviewed in 114 cases from Ukraine and in 81 cases in England and Wales. In addition immunocytochemistry for calcitonin, thyroglobulin, ret, met, IGF1 receptor and p53 and in situ hybridisation for thyroglobulin, calcitonin, and IGF1 mRNAs has been performed on a sample of cases from each of the two series. Our results show that there are clear differences between the sex and age distributions of the two series. In England and Wales there is a smooth rise with increasing age, but in Ukraine there was a peak incidence at eight years of age. The sex distribution was closer to equivalence in Ukraine then in England and Wales. The majority of thyroid carcinomas were papillary in type in both series, but Ukraine showed a higher frequency (96% compared with 68%). In addition, there was a particularly high incidence of the solid/follicular subtype of papillary carcinoma in children from Ukraine. There is a clear change in the age threshold for development of thyroid carcinoma over time, consistent with a causative agent at the time of the Chernobyl accident, and suggesting that the causative agent does not persist in the environment. These findings provide strong evidence for exposure to radioisotopes of iodine as the cause of the considerable increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer in the Ukraine

  1. Aberrantly methylated genes in human papillary thyroid cancer and their association with BRAF/RAS mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko eKikuchi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer arises through accumulation of epigenetic and genetic alteration. Aberrant promoter methylation is a common epigenetic mechanism of gene silencing in cancer cells. We here performed genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation of promoter regions by Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip, using 14 clinical papillary thyroid cancer samples and 10 normal thyroid samples. Among the 14 papillary cancer cases, 11 showed frequent aberrant methylation, but the other three cases showed no aberrant methylation at all. Distribution of the hypermethylation among cancer samples was non-random, which implied existence of a subset of preferentially methylated papillary thyroid cancer. Among 25 frequently methylated genes, methylation status of six genes (HIST1H3J, POU4F2, SHOX2, PHKG2, TLX3, HOXA7 was validated quantitatively by pyrosequencing. Epigenetic silencing of these genes in methylated papillary thyroid cancer cell lines was confirmed by gene re-expression following treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A, and detected by real-time RT-PCR. Methylation of these six genes was validated by analysis of additional 20 papillary thyroid cancer and 10 normal samples. Among the 34 cancer samples in total, 26 cancer samples with preferential methylation were significantly associated with mutation of BRAF/RAS oncogene (P=0.04, Fisher’s exact test. Thus we identified new genes with frequent epigenetic hypermethylation in papillary thyroid cancer, two subsets of either preferentially methylated or hardly methylated papillary thyroid cancer, with a concomitant occurrence of oncogene mutation and gene methylation. These hypermethylated genes may constitute potential biomarkers for papillary thyroid cancer.

  2. Serum thyroglobulin in the management of patients with thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsano, C.P.; Skosey, C.; DeGroot, L.J.; Refetoff, S.

    1982-04-01

    We have reviewed our experience with the management of patients with thyroid cancer to assess the potential benefits of employing the serum thyroglobulin assay in patient management programs and to determine the optimal conditions for this application. Serum thyroglobulin levels were found to be more reliable when obtained from hypothyroid patients. Levels of thyroglobulin greater than 10 ng/mL appeared to be abnormally elevated in both thyroidectomized patients prior to radioactive iodine therapy (group 1) and in thyroidectomized patients after radioactive iodine therapy (group 2). Elevated thyroglobulin levels were found to be useful indicators of the presence of metastatic disease, whereas normal thyroglobulin levels were reliable indicators of the absence of metastases. In group 1 patients, elevated thyroglobulin levels reliably predicted the presence of important total body scan uptake. In group 2 patients, normal thyroglobulin levels reliably predicted the absence of total body scan uptake. The serum thyroglobulin assay can substantially reduce the need for repetitive total body scanning in the follow-up of group 2 patients with thyroid cancer.

  3. Municipal mortality due to thyroid cancer in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Barroso Diana

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid cancer is a tumor with a low but growing incidence in Spain. This study sought to depict its spatial municipal mortality pattern, using the classic model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. Methods It was possible to compile and ascertain the posterior distribution of relative risk on the basis of a single Bayesian spatial model covering all of Spain's 8077 municipal areas. Maps were plotted depicting standardized mortality ratios, smoothed relative risk (RR estimates, and the posterior probability that RR > 1. Results From 1989 to 1998 a total of 2,538 thyroid cancer deaths were registered in 1,041 municipalities. The highest relative risks were mostly situated in the Canary Islands, the province of Lugo, the east of La Coruña (Corunna and western areas of Asturias and Orense. Conclusion The observed mortality pattern coincides with areas in Spain where goiter has been declared endemic. The higher frequency in these same areas of undifferentiated, more aggressive carcinomas could be reflected in the mortality figures. Other unknown genetic or environmental factors could also play a role in the etiology of this tumor.

  4. New Targeted Molecular Therapies for Dedifferentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Antonelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dedifferentiated thyroid cancer (DeTC derived from follicular epithelium is often incurable because it does not respond to radioiodine, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy. In cases, RET/PTC rearrangements are found in 30%–40%, RAS mutations in about 10%, and BRAF mutations in around 40%–50%, with no overlap between these mutations results in papillary thyroid cancer, while a higher prevalence of BRAF mutations (up to 70% has been observed in DeTC. The identification of these activating mutations in DeTC makes this malignancy an excellent model to examine the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs. Clinical trials with several TKIs targeting RET, and to a lesser extent BRAF, and other TKRs have shown positive results, with about one-third of DeTC showing a reduction in tumor size up to 50%, with the longest treatment duration of approximately three-four years. Angiogenesis inhibitors have also shown promising activity in DeTC. Progress is being made toward effective targeted DeTC therapy. The possibility of testing the sensitivity of primary DeTC cells from each subject to different TKIs could increase the effectiveness of the treatment.

  5. Predictive factors of cytotoxic damage in radioactive iodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Monzen, Satoru; MARIYA, YASUSHI; WOJCIK, ANDRZEJ; KAWAMURA, CHIKA; Nakamura, Ayumi; CHIBA, MITSURU; Hosoda, Masahiro; Takai, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (131I) therapy in patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is a targeted treatment commonly used for thyroid ablation and locoregional and distant metastatic spread management. Despite a significant proportion of the 131I dose entering the circulation, there is currently no detailed information regarding its effect on the blood cell system. In order to assess the cytotoxic effects of 131I therapy on the circulatory system, blood cell levels, thyroid-relat...

  6. Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo thyroid function testing is conducted with isotopes of iodine, the rate-limiting substrate for thyroid hormonogenesis, or with pertechnetate, an anion which the thyroidal follicular cells will concentrate or trap similarly to iodide, but will not organify. The physical characteristics of these isotopes, their advantages or indications, their disadvantages, and the average radiation dose to the thyroid in the infant, child, and adult are reviewed. The latter is expressed as estimated dose in rads per microcurie administered assuming an uptake of 27 percent and a biological half-life of 68 days. For many years the standard isotope for thyroid studies has been 131I. This isotope, however, has the disadvantage of a high radiation dose to the gland, especially in infants and children. Furthermore the high-energy gamma ray (364 keV) requires low-efficiency, thick septal collimators for scanning. More recently 125I, 123I, and 99/sup m/Tc-pertechnetate have been used. (auth)

  7. Follow-up of patients treated with retinoic acid for the control of radioiodine non-responsive advanced thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Coelho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During thyroid tumor progression, cellular de-differentiation may occur and it is commonly accompanied by metastatic spread and loss of iodine uptake. Retinoic acid (RA administration might increase iodine uptake in about 40% of patients, suggesting that RA could be a promising therapeutic option for radioiodine non-responsive thyroid carcinoma, although a prospective study with a long-term follow-up has not been reported. This was a clinical prospective study assessing the value of 13-cis-RA in patients with advanced thyroid carcinoma and its impact on major outcomes such as tumor regression and cancer-related death with a long-term follow-up of patients submitted to radioiodine (131I therapy after RA administration. Sixteen patients with inoperable disease and no significant radioiodine uptake on post-therapy scan were selected. Patients were treated orally with 13-cis-RA at a dose of 1.0 to 1.5 mg·kg-1·day-1 for 5 weeks and then submitted to radioiodine therapy (150 mCi after thyroxine withdrawal. A whole body scan was obtained 5 to 7 days after the radioactive iodine therapy. RECIST criteria were used to evaluate the response. An objective partial response rate was observed in 18.8%, a stable disease rate in 25% and a progression disease rate in 56.2%. Five patients died (62.5% in the group classified as progression of disease. Progression-free survival rate (PFS ranged from 72 to 12 months, with a median PFS of 26.5 months. RA may be an option for advanced de-differentiated thyroid cancer, due to the low rate of side effects.

  8. Recombinant Human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone versus Thyroid Hormone Withdrawal for Radioactive Iodine Treatment of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer with Nodal Metastatic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Wolfson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH is approved for preparation of thyroid remnant ablation with radioactive iodine (RAI in low risk patients with well differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC. We studied the safety and efficacy of rhTSH preparation for RAI treatment of thyroid cancer patients with nodal metastatic disease. Methods. A retrospective analysis was performed on 108 patients with histopathologically confirmed nodal metastatic DTC, treated with initial RAI between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2007. Within this selected group, 31 and 42 patients were prepared for initial and all subsequent RAI treatments by either thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW or rhTSH protocols and were followed up for at least 3 years. Results. The response to initial treatment, classified as excellent, acceptable, or incomplete, was not different between the rhTSH group (57%, 21%, and 21%, resp. and the THW group (39%, 13%, and 48%, resp.; P=0.052. There was no significant difference in the final clinical outcome between the groups. The rhTSH group received significantly fewer additional doses of RAI than the THW group (P=0.03. Conclusion. In patients with nodal-positive DTC, preparation for RAI with rhTSH is a safe and efficacious alternative to THW protocol.

  9. The clinical significance evaluation of serum β2-microglobulin for thyroid cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shihong Ma; Qinjiang Liu; Kesheng Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical value and relevance on the serum β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) of patients with thyroid cancer. Methods: One thousand and two normal cases, 95 thyroid cancer patients and 243 nodular goiter patients were selected to measure serum β2-MG levels using double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immu-nosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The positive rate of 7.78% in normal population (78/1002) and 31.57% in thyroid cancer patients (30/95). There were significant differences between the normal population and thyroid cancer patients (χ2 = 55.352; P = 0.000). The positive rate of 7.81% in nodular goiter patients (19/243) and there were no significant differences between the normal population and nodular goiter patients (χ2 = 0.0004; P = 0.986), but significant differences between nodular goiter patients and thyroid cancer patients (χ2 = 31.106; P = 0.000). Meanwhile, the significant difference of the positive rate existed in between the various pathological types of thyroid cancer (χ2 = 10.015; P = 0.007), anaplastic thyroid cancer patients with the highest positive rate and The significant difference was found between the positive lymph node metastasis groups and negative lymph node metastasis groups (χ2 = 4.441; P = 0.035), the presence of distant metastasis group and absence of distant metastasis group (χ2 = 9.795; P = 0.002). Conclusion: Serum β2-MG levels and prognosis of thyroid cancer patients was negatively correlated. It showed important clinical value to detect the level of β2-MG in the early diagnosis, prognosis and the clinical observation for thyroid cancer patients.

  10. Metabolic irradiation of differentiated thyroid cancers and periodic hemodialysis; Irradiation metabolique des cancers differencies de la thyroide et hemodialyse periodique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courbon, F.; Hoff, M. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire CHU TOULOUSE RANGUEIL (France); Caselles, O. [Unite de Physique, CENTRE CLAUDIUS REGAUD TOULOUSE (France); Duthil, P.; Zerdoud, S.; Berry, I.; Regis, H. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire CHU TOULOUSE RANGUEIL (France)

    1997-12-31

    The association of a terminal renal insufficiency with a thyroid well-differentiated cancer is a rare contingency which complicates the {sup 131}I therapy in these patients. A women 56 years old has been treated by administration of 3700 MBq (100 mCi) of {sup 131}I for a thyroid well-differentiated cancer after a complete thyroidectomy (with a {sup 131}I fixation rate on 24 h < 1%). Due to a terminal renal insufficiency 3 weekly hemodialysis sessions were necessary. The hemo-dialyses were achieved at the 3. and 5. day after the iodine administration. The dose rate at 1 meter during the first three days remained constant at 90 {mu}Gy/h. The circulatory activity amounted up to 1.8% of the injected activity. The post-dosage whole-body scintigraphy evidenced an iodo-fixation cervical relic with a iodine biological half-time of 77.66 h, while the delivered dose amounted up to 250 mGy. The first dialysis at the 3D has reduced the dose rate at 1 meter to 60% and the circulatory activity to 73%. The cumulative activity over 5 days at the level of tumoral residue is only slightly modified by the dialyses. The dose rate at 1 meter of the dialysis appliance after washing was lower than 10 {mu}Gy/h. No significant radioactivity was detected in the disposable material used in dialysis. In conclusion, the administration of {sup 131}I does not result in any contamination of the materials of dialysis. The biological half-time of iodine at the level of thyroid tumor parenchyma is short. Consequently, this treatment should be reserved for the cases of detectable masses with `tracing` doses of {sup 131}I, but higher `therapeutic` activities of {sup 131}I are necessary. To reduce the dose delivered in critical organs the hemodialysis could be carried out after the 24. hour

  11. BRMS1 and Cx43 expression in fine needle aspiration thyroid cancer tissue and their correlation with tumor malignancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Guo Sheng; Bin Wang; Zong-Ping Diao; Kun-Kun Cao; Sai Zhang; Zheng-Guo Pu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the BRMS1 and Cx43 expression in fine needle aspiration thyroid cancer tissue and their correlation with tumor malignancy.Methods:Patients undergoing thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy in our hospital from April 2012 to October 2015 were selected for study, 60 patients with thyroid cancer and 60 patients with benign thyroid tumor were screened after pathological diagnosis, biopsy tissue was collected to determine the expression of BRMS1 and Cx43, and serum specimens were collected to determin Gal-3, CEACAM1, MMP2 and MMP9 content.Results: mRNA levels and positive expression rate of BRMS1 andCx43in thyroid cancer tissue were significantly lower than those in benign thyroid tumor tissue; mRNA levels ofBRMS1andCx43in thyroid cancer tissue with different pathological types and tumor diameters were not different, mRNA level ofCx43in thyroid cancer tissue with TNM III-IV stage was significantly lower than that in thyroid cancer tissue with TNM I-II stage, mRNA levels ofBRMS1 in thyroid cancer tissue with different TNM stages were not different, and mRNA levels ofBRMS1andCx43in thyroid carcinoma tissue with lymph node metastasis were significantly lower than those in thyroid carcinoma tissue without lymph node metastasis; serum Gal-3, CEACAM1, MMP2 and MMP9 levels in patients with positive BRMS1 and Cx43 expression in thyroid cancer tissue were significantly lower than those in patients with negative BRMS1 and Cx43 expression in thyroid cancer tissue.Conclusions:Lower expression of BRMS1 and Cx43 in fine needle aspiration thyroid cancer tissue is associated with the distant metastasis and malignant degree of tumor, and lower expression of Cx43 is also associated with the growth of tumor and cancer cell proliferation.

  12. Patterns of relapse following radiotherapy for differentiated thyroid cancer: Implication for target volume delineation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    coronal plane radiotherapy technique. Furthermore, mediastinal recurrences did not occur in isolation. The 5-years loco-regional control rate was 89.1% for those with clear or microscopic positive margins and 69.2% for those with macroscopic residual or inoperable disease. Five-year cause specific survival was 58.3% for patients with macroscopic residual or inoperable disease and 91.4% for those with clear or microscopic positive margins. Conclusion: The status of postoperative margin relating to bulk of disease influences local control and cause specific survival. Surgical resection in locally advanced thyroid cancer should be performed by an experienced surgeon to achieve macroscopic clearance where possible. The majority of recurrences were loco-regional. The few superior mediastinal recurrences did not occur in isolation. All the mediastinal recurrences occurred in the superior mediastinum (level VII). We recommend the target volume should encompass the thyroid bed and regional neck nodes and the superior mediastinum level VII excluding the lymph nodes on both sides of the trachea within the anterior and posterior mediastinum extending from the brachiocephalic veins to the carina (compartment 4). Thus, this should facilitate dose escalation to improve loco-regional control and avoiding radiation induced mediastinal toxicity

  13. Clinical guidelines for management of thyroid nodule and cancer during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofré, Juan Carlos; Riesco-Eizaguirre, Garcilaso; Alvarez-Escolá, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Special considerations are warranted in management of thyroid nodule and thyroid cancer during pregnancy. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach of thyroid nodules follows the standard practice in non-pregnant women. On the other hand, differentiated thyroid cancer management during pregnancy poses a number of challenges for the mother and fetus. The available data show that pregnancy is not a risk factor for thyroid cancer development or recurrence, although flare-ups cannot be completely ruled out in women with active disease. If surgery is needed, it should be performed during the second term or, preferably, after delivery. A majority of pregnant patients with low-risk disease only need adjustment in levothyroxine therapy. However, women with increased serum thyroglobulin levels before pregnancy or structural disease require regular thyroglobulin measurements and neck ultrasound throughout pregnancy. Pregnancy is an absolute contraindication for radioactive iodine administration.

  14. Charting a course through the CEAs: diagnosis and management of medullary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Christopher W; Bendinelli, Cino; McGrath, Shaun

    2016-09-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is an uncommon thyroid cancer that requires a high index of suspicion to facilitate diagnosis of early-stage disease amenable to surgical cure. The challenges of diagnosis, as well as management in the setting of persistent disease, are explored in the context of a case presenting with the incidental finding of elevated carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and an (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18) F-FDG-PET)-positive thyroid incidentaloma detected following treatment of colorectal cancer. Strategies to individualize prognosis, and emerging PET-based imaging modalities, particularly the potential role of (18) F-DOPA-PET in staging, are reviewed. PMID:27230389

  15. Challenges Associated with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy for Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Cabanillas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs which target angiogenesis are promising treatments for patients with metastatic medullary and differentiated thyroid cancers. Sorafenib, sunitinib, and pazopanib are commercially available drugs which have been studied in these diseases. Vandetanib is the first drug approved in the United States for treatment of medullary thyroid cancer. These TKIs are used as chronic therapies, and therefore it is imperative to understand the adverse event profile in order to avoid excessive toxicity and maintain patients on therapy as long as it proves beneficial. Here we review common toxicities, management of these, and other challenging situations that arise when using TKIs in patients with thyroid cancer.

  16. Irradiation doses on thyroid gland during the postoperative irradiation for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akın

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: In majority of the node-positive breast cancer patients treated with 3D CRT, the thyroid gland was exposed to considerable doses. On the other hand, for 44% of the patients are at risk for developing thyroid function abnormalities which should be considered during the routine follow-up.

  17. Dyspnea during Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated. Laser therapy for tumors inside large airways: Use of a ... cases, treatment will begin before a diagnosis of cancer is made. The following ... therapy is usually used to treat a tumor that is blocking the vein. After ...

  18. Is Very High Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Level Required in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer for Ablation Success?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekiye Hasbek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Remnant ablation with radioactive iodine (I-131 is a successful form of treatment that aims to destroy the remaining residual tissue and/or metastatic tissue after total thyroidectomy in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC patients. High level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH (≥30 mIU/L is recommended for success of ablation treatment. In this retrospective study, our aim was to investigate whether the TSH levels at the time of ablation effect the success of radioactive iodine remnant ablation. Methods: Patients who were diagnosed with DTC, treated with bilateral total/near total thyroidectomy and who were referred for I-131 remnant ablation were included in this study. Patients with undetectable TSH-stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Tg level, normal physical examination, negative results on whole body scan with I-131, and no evidence of neck lymph node metastasis on ultrasound were defined as disease-free. The correlation between TSH level at the time of ablation and ablation success was assessed. Results: Two hundred sixty one consecutive patients were included in the present study. Mean TSH level was 19.47±6 mIU/L in the 34 patients with TSH <30 mIU/L, while mean TSH level was 73.65±27 mIU/L in the 227 patients with TSH ≥30 mIU/L during I-131 remnant ablation. Ablation was unsuccessful in only one patient with TSH <30 mIU/L who had lung metastasis. Ablation was unsuccessful in 5.1% of patients with TSH ≥30 mIU/L. The effect of TSH level was not significant on ablation success (p=0.472. Conclusion: In conclusion, we think that a high TSH serum level alone is not a factor for the success of ablation. Age, presence of metastasis, extent of residual thyroid mass should also be considered. Especially, in the presence of metastatic tissue, obtaining adequate increase in TSH level is not always possible. The success of ablation at lower levels of TSH elevations may be sufficient for patients, and long-term hypothyroidism may not

  19. Interaction of pathology and molecular characterization of thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of joint studies of thyroid cancer in children under 15 years of age between departments in Cambridge, Brussels, Naples and Munich in the European Union, and departments in Minsk, Kiev and Obninsk in the newly independent states of Eastern Europe. The pathology of 264 cases of childhood thyroid cancer out of 430 that have occurred since 1990 in the 3 countries in which high levels of fallout from the Chernobyl accident occurred has been restudied by NIS and EU pathologists. The overall level of agreement reached was about 97%. The diagnosis was supported by immunocytochemistry and ISH for the differentiation markers, thyroglobulin and calcitonin, and the tumors were classified according to the WHO, with papillary carcinomas being further subclassified. 99% of the 134 Belarussian cases were papillary carcinomas, as were 94% of the 114 Ukrainian tumors. All 9 of the Russian cases available for study were papillary in type. 76 of 154 cases of childhood thyroid cancer reviewed over a 30 year period in England and Wales and were also studied, 68% of these were papillary carcinoma. Histological study showed that a subtype of papillary carcinoma, rarely found in adults, with a solid/follicular architecture occurred in children. It was found in 72% of the Belarussian papillary carcinomas, 76% of the Ukrainian cases, but only 40% of the England and Wales cases. Molecular biological studies showed that the proportion of cases of papillary carcinoma expressing the ret gene was not significantly different in the exposed and the unexposed tumors, studies of the type of translocation leading to ret gene expression are not yet conclusive. Ras gene mutations were found as expected in follicular carcinoma, but were absent from any papillary carcinoma, whether from exposed or unexposed cases. TSH receptor mutations, normally found in follicular tumors were not found in any papillary carcinomas, nor were any p53 mutations identified. All these results

  20. Management of Advanced Laryngeal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Sheahan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx continues to be the commonest head and neck cancer in many Western countries. The larynx plays a key role for many essential functions, including breathing, voice production, airway protection, and swallowing. The goals of laryngeal cancer treatment are thus to provide best possible oncologic control, while optimizing functional outcomes. In recent decades, the treatment paradigm for advanced laryngeal cancer has shifted from one of primary surgery (total laryngectomy as gold standard, toward non-surgical organ-preserving treatment using radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. However, concerns have emerged regarding functional outcomes after chemoradiotherapy, as well as possible decreased overall survival in patients with laryngeal cancer. The purpose of the present review is to review surgical and non-surgical options for treatment of advanced laryngeal cancer, as well as the evidence supporting each of these.

  1. Thyroid cancer from occupational exposures to iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of external irradiation, primarily of children, suggest that the thyroid gland is one of the most radiosensitive sites for carcinogenesis. However, it has generally been thought that 131I confers much less risk (per rad) than external radiation because of its low dose-rate. A review of the epidemiologic literature indicates that age at irradiation is also an important variable in defining thyroid cancer risk, with a lesser risk at older ages. The available human studies are reasonably consistent in affirming that risks following 131I are small. However, the data on 131I exposure are too sparse, particularly for childhood exposure, to determine how much of the observed diminution in risk is due to older ages at exposure and how much is attributable to the characteristics of 131I exposure per se, such as low dose-rate. Since most of the existing studies have inadequacies in design, dose levels, dosimetry or number of subjects, additional studies are needed before the risk assessment of 131I at lower dose levels in adult workers can be regarded as definitive

  2. Update on the diagnosis and treatment of differential thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the years 1990, with the general tendency to develop minimally invasive operations, an endoscopic approach has been applied to neck surgery for both para thyroidectomy and thyroidectomy. The most widely spread minimally invasive technique for thyroidectomy is minimally invasive video assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT), described and developed for the first time at our institution in 1998. Ideal candidates for MIVAT are patients with a thyroid volume lower than 25 ml with nodules smaller than 35 mm. Consequently, MIVAT will present restricted indications, being suitable only for the treatment of about 10-15% of the whole standard surgical case load. Thus, together with small follicular lesions, low risk papillary carcinoma will result the main indication for MIVAT, being this small cancer usually harboured in normal glands of young females. On the other hand, in case of locally invasive carcinomas and/or lymph node metastasis the procedure must be immediately converted to the conventional technique. MIVAT also is not indicated for the treatment of medullary and anaplastic carcinomas. Recent prospective randomized studies clearly demonstrate that MIVAT allows achieving same clearance at the thyroid bed level and same outcome as conventional technique, when dealing with low risk papillary carcinoma. At the same time, patients can benefit from the main advantages of this minimally invasive technique: lower postoperative pain, faster postoperative recovery and excellent cosmetic outcome.

  3. DNA damage among thyroid cancer and multiple cancer cases, controls, and long-lived individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigurdson, A J; Hauptmann, M; Alexander, B J; Doody, M M; Thomas, C B; Struewing, J P; Jones, I M

    2004-08-24

    Variation in the detection, signaling, and repair of DNA damage contributes to human cancer risk. To assess capacity to modulate endogenous DNA damage among radiologic technologists who had been diagnosed with breast cancer and another malignancy (breast-other; n=42), early-onset breast cancer (early-onset, age {<=} 35; n=38), thyroid cancer (n=68), long-lived cancer-free individuals (hyper-normals; n=20) and cancer-free controls (n=49) we quantified DNA damage (single strand breaks and abasic sites) in untreated lymphoblastoid cell lines using the alkaline comet assay. Komet{trademark} software provided comet tail length, % DNA in tail (tail DNA), comet distributed moment (CDM), and Olive tail moment (OTM) summarized as the geometric mean of 100 cells. Category cut-points (median and 75th percentile) were determined from the distribution among controls. Tail length (for {>=} 75% vs. below the median, age adjusted) was most consistently associated with the highest odds ratios in the breast-other, early-onset, and thyroid cancer groups (with risk increased 10-, 5- or 19-fold, respectively, with wide confidence intervals) and decreased risk among the hyper-normal group. For the other three Comet measures, risk of breast-other was elevated approximately three-fold. Risk of early-onset breast cancer was mixed and risk of thyroid cancer ranged from null to a two-fold increase. The hyper-normal group showed decreased odds ratios for tail DNA and OTM, but not CDM. DNA damage, as estimated by all Comet measures, was relatively unaffected by survival time, reproductive factors, and prior radiation treatment. We detected a continuum of endogenous DNA damage that was highest among cancer cases, less in controls, and suggestively lowest in hyper-normal individuals. Measuring this DNA damage phenotype may contribute to the identification of susceptible sub-groups. Our observations require replication in a prospective study with a large number of pre-diagnostic samples.

  4. Evidence of increased chromosomal abnormalities in French Polynesian thyroid cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violot, D.; M' kacher, R.; Dossou, J. [UPRES, Laboratory of Radiosensitivity and Radiocarcinogenesis (France); Adjadj, E.; Vathaire, F. de [INSERM, Laboratory of Cancer Epidemiology (France); Parmentier, C. [UPRES, Laboratory of Radiosensitivity and Radiocarcinogenesis (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Villejuif (France)

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in thyroid cancer patients before and after radioactive iodine administration in order to assess cytogenetic particularity in Polynesian thyroid cancer patients. Chromosomal abnormalities were studied in 30 Polynesian patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, prior to and 4 days after{sup 131}I administration. Unstable chromosomal abnormalities were counted in peripheral blood lymphocytes using a conventional cytogenetic method. Peripheral blood was irradiated in vitro at different doses (0.5, 1 and 2 Gy) in order to establish the dose-response of the lymphocytes. Control groups were composed of 50 European thyroid cancer patients before and after first administration of{sup 131}I, and of ten European healthy donors. In addition, in vitro irradiation assays were performed at different doses (0.5, 1 and 2 Gy). The relative risk of spontaneous dicentrics before any radiation treatment was 2.9 (95% CI 1.7-5.1) times higher among Polynesian thyroid patients than among European thyroid cancer patients. After in vitro irradiation, the rise in frequency of dicentrics was similar in the Polynesian thyroid cancer group and the European thyroid patients and healthy donors. Four days after administration of 3.7 GBq{sup 131}I, the relative risk for a dicentric per cell was 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.5) times higher in Polynesian than in European patients. This can be explained by higher{sup 131}I retention in Polynesian compared with European patients. The results obtained revealed an increased frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities in Polynesian thyroid cancer patients compared with European control patients. These preliminary findings are compatible with possible previous environmental aggression and therefore imply a need for further investigations on larger series including, in particular, French Polynesian healthy donors. In addition to French Polynesians, Maori and Hawaiian control groups could be

  5. A population-based case-control study of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, E; Kleinerman, R A; Boice, J D; LiVolsi, V A; Flannery, J T; Fraumeni, J F

    1987-07-01

    A population-based case-control interview study of thyroid cancer (159 cases and 285 controls) was conducted in Connecticut. Prior radiotherapy to the head or neck was reported by 12% of the cases and 4% of the controls [odds ratio (OR) = 2.8; 95% confidence interval = 1.2-6.9]. Risk was inversely related to age at irradiation and was highest among children exposed under age 10. Few persons born after 1945 received prior radiotherapy, consistent with the declining use of radiation to treat benign conditions in the 1950's. Among females the radiogenic risk appeared to be potentiated by the number of subsequent live-births. Other significant risk factors included a history of benign thyroid nodules (OR = 33) or goiter (OR = 5.6). Miscarriage and multiparity increased risk but only among women who developed thyroid cancer before age 35 years. Consumption of shellfish (a rich source of iodine) seemed to increase the risk of follicular thyroid cancer, whereas consumption of goitrogen-containing vegetables appeared to reduce risk of total thyroid cancer, possibly because of their cruciferous nature. A significantly low risk was observed among persons of English descent, whereas Italian ancestry appeared to increase risk. No significant associations were found with a number of suspected risk factors: diagnostic x-rays, radioactive isotope scans, occupational radiation exposure, tonsillectomy, Jewish ethnicity, alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, oral contraceptives, lactation suppressants, menopausal estrogens, most other common medications, and water source. New associations were suggested for obesity among females (OR = 1.5), surgically treated benign breast disease (OR = 1.6), use of spironolactone (OR = 4.3) or vitamin D supplements (OR = 1.8), and a family history of thyroid cancer (OR = 5.2). About 9% of the incident thyroid cancers could be attributed to prior head and neck irradiation, 4% to goiter, and 17% to thyroid nodular disease, leaving the etiology of most

  6. Guidelines for a national epidemiological surveillance system of thyroid cancer in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the French Department of Health, a multidisciplinary Thyroid Cancer Committee, coordinated by the French Public Health Agency analysed the observed increase of thyroid cancer incidence in France and outlined the limits of the present case registration system. This Committee set up guidelines to improve the national surveillance system of thyroid cancer. The Committee analysed 4 models for the incidence survey, 3 of which have been excluded: a poor cost-benefit ratio precludes the constitution of a national registry dedicated to thyroid cancer; however, the Committee has recommended this model that still exists for thyroid cancer of the youth(under 19 years old), a national system base exclusively on pathological data would only be relevant after significant improvement of data collection, obligatory of all cases of thyroid cancer is inappropriate considering the fit prognosis of this cancer. A two level system is proposed with continuous registration of incident caes through the National Hospital Discharge survey, specific focused analysis of clinical and pathological data in case of a cluster alert in any given area. Whatever the system, it seems necessary to in general: propose a unique health registration number per patient, improve access to medical data, organize a national standardised collection of pathological findings, follow up the diagnosis practices related to thyroid cancer that have an impact on incidence rates. In conclusion, a reliable incidence survey and a follow up of diagnostic practices and of risk factors may provide a relevant model of epidemiological survey of thyroid cancers in France but such a system requires a long lasting strategic and financial involvement. (author)

  7. Evaluation of 118 Thyroid Cancer Patients Who Underwent a Re-operation after Local Resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Hang; Dong Meng; Liqi Li

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the incidence of residual thyroid cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis following a previous local resection for thyroid cancer, and to discuss methods of a reoperation.METHODS From 1994~2005, 118 patients with thyroid cancer who had previously been treated with a nodule-resection or subtotal Iobectomy in other hospitals underwent a surgical re-operation.RESULTS The incidence of residual cancer at the primary site was 38.1%. The lymph node metastasis rate at the central area was 39.8%.The rate of lymph node metastasis in patients with enlarged lymph nodes in the ipsilateral internal jugular chain was 37.5%. The rate of laryngeal recurrent nerve injury was 15.2% in other hospitals while that of the second operation in our hospital was 1.6%.CONCLUSION Nodule-resection or subtotal Iobectomy alone is not indicated for patients with thyroid cancer because of the high rate of local residual cancer. It is important to be familiar with the anatomy of the laryngeal recurrent nerve for thyroid surgery. Exploration to the central area is necessary for differentiated thyroid cancer.

  8. The role of Cdk5 in neuroendocrine thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Karine; Castro-Rivera, Emely; Tan, Chunfeng; Plattner, Florian; Schwach, Gert; Siegl, Veronika; Meyer, Douglas; Guo, Ailan; Gundara, Justin; Mettlach, Gabriel; Richer, Edmond; Guevara, Jonathan A; Ning, Li; Gupta, Anjali; Hao, Guiyang; Tsai, Li-Huei; Sun, Xiankai; Antich, Pietro; Sidhu, Stanley; Robinson, Bruce G; Chen, Herbert; Nwariaku, Fiemu E; Pfragner, Roswitha; Richardson, James A; Bibb, James A

    2013-10-14

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine cancer that originates from calcitonin-secreting parafollicular cells, or C cells. We found that Cdk5 and its cofactors p35 and p25 are highly expressed in human MTC and that Cdk5 activity promotes MTC proliferation. A conditional MTC mouse model was generated and corroborated the role of aberrant Cdk5 activation in MTC. C cell-specific overexpression of p25 caused rapid C cell hyperplasia leading to lethal MTC, which was arrested by repressing p25 overexpression. A comparative phosphoproteomic screen between proliferating and arrested MTC identified the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) as a crucial Cdk5 downstream target. Prevention of Rb phosphorylation at Ser807/Ser811 attenuated MTC proliferation. These findings implicate Cdk5 signaling via Rb as critical to MTC tumorigenesis and progression. PMID:24135281

  9. CHIP promotes thyroid cancer proliferation via activation of the MAPK and AKT pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Lianyong; He, Xiaohua; Shen, Yunling; Liu, Xuerong; Wei, Jing; Yu, Fang; Tian, Jianqing

    2016-08-26

    The carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) is a U box-type ubiquitin ligase that plays crucial roles in various biological processes, including tumor progression. To date, the functional mechanism of CHIP in thyroid cancer remains unknown. Here, we obtained evidence of upregulation of CHIP in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. CHIP overexpression markedly enhanced thyroid cancer cell viability and colony formation in vitro and accelerated tumor growth in vivo. Conversely, CHIP knockdown impaired cell proliferation and tumor growth. Notably, CHIP promoted cell growth through activation of MAPK and AKT pathways, subsequently decreasing p27 and increasing cyclin D1 and p-FOXO3a expression. Our findings collectively indicate that CHIP functions as an oncogene in thyroid cancer, and is therefore a potential therapeutic target for this disease. PMID:27342662

  10. Procalcitonin Levels Predict Clinical Course and Progression-Free Survival in Patients With Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, Martin A.; Meier, Christian; Radimerski, Tanja; Iten, Fabienne; Kraenzlin, Marius; Mueller-Brand, Jan; de Groot, Jan Willem B.; Kema, Ido P.; Links, Thera P.; Mueller, Beat

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Procalcitonin has been well established as an important marker of sepsis and systemic infection. The authors evaluated the diagnostic and predictive value of calcitonin and its prohormone procalcitonin in medullary thyroid cancer. METHODS: The authors systematically explored the ability

  11. The Efficacy of Thyrotropin Suppression Therapy in Treatment of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer after Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abo-Touk Niveen A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this prospective study was to assess the effect of the TSH suppression on both disease-free and overall survivals in patients with nonmetastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC after total thyroidectomy.

  12. CHIP promotes thyroid cancer proliferation via activation of the MAPK and AKT pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Lianyong; He, Xiaohua; Shen, Yunling; Liu, Xuerong; Wei, Jing; Yu, Fang; Tian, Jianqing

    2016-08-26

    The carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) is a U box-type ubiquitin ligase that plays crucial roles in various biological processes, including tumor progression. To date, the functional mechanism of CHIP in thyroid cancer remains unknown. Here, we obtained evidence of upregulation of CHIP in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. CHIP overexpression markedly enhanced thyroid cancer cell viability and colony formation in vitro and accelerated tumor growth in vivo. Conversely, CHIP knockdown impaired cell proliferation and tumor growth. Notably, CHIP promoted cell growth through activation of MAPK and AKT pathways, subsequently decreasing p27 and increasing cyclin D1 and p-FOXO3a expression. Our findings collectively indicate that CHIP functions as an oncogene in thyroid cancer, and is therefore a potential therapeutic target for this disease.

  13. The impact of marital status at diagnosis on cancer survival in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rong-Liang; Qu, Ning; Lu, Zhong-Wu; Liao, Tian; Gao, Yi; Ji, Qing-Hai

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have revealed that marital status influences the prognosis of patients with various types of cancer. We evaluated the influence of marriage on the survival outcomes in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database between 2002 and 2012 was used to compare cancer-specific mortality in different marital status, and in each sex, age, and stage stratification by multivariate Cox regression model. In total, 61,077 eligible patients were identified. The widowed group had the highest proportion of women, elderly patients (≥45 years), and advanced stage III/IV tumor (P = 0.001), but the total thyroidectomy (TT) performed and radioisotopes therapy rates were lower than those in the married group. Married patients had a better cancer-specific survival (CSS) than the unmarried (P < 0.05). Further analysis showed that widowed patients always presented the lowest CSS compared with other groups. Widowed patients had a significant increased risk for CSS compared with married patients in males [hazard ratio (HR) 2.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.59-4.65, P = 0.001], females (HR 2.02, 95% CI: 2.24-4.06, P = 0.001), young patients (<45, HR 28.12, 95% CI: 3.48-227.25, P = 0.002), elderly patients (≥45, HR 28.12, 95% CI: 2.97, 95% CI: 2.30-3.83, P = 0.001), stage I (HR 8.44, 95% CI: 4.05-17.59, P = 0.001), stage II (HR 3.64, 95% CI: 1.30-10.20, P = 0.014), stage III (HR 2.27, 95% CI: 1.08-4.78, P = 0.031), and stage IV (HR 2.63, 95% CI: 1.94-3.57, P = 0.001). These results showed that unmarried status, especially for widowhood, increased the risk of cancer mortality in DTC patients. PMID:27264532

  14. A study on the incidence of thyroid cancer in gender ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Eun Suk; Lim, Cheong Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Oh Nam [Dept. of Radiology, Mokpo Science University, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Thyroid nodules are an endocrine disease often found in clinical practice, and patients with thyroid nodules found by chance have rapidly increased alongside development of thyroid ultrasound techniques for health examination purposes. This study analyzes the subjects’ general characteristics, thyroid ultrasounds, and fine needle aspiration cytology in order to find out the relationship between male and female thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer frequency. An ultrasound examination of the thyroid was performed for 32,973 individuals who visited the K Hospital of Health Examination. Subjects have no history of thyroid disease and are 20 years old or over. Data of general characteristics, diabetes) was collected by a written survey completed by the subject, and the ultrasound of the thyroid (thyroid nodules existence, size, number) and FNAC was used to find out the malignancy rate. Frequency of patients with thyroid nodule was 4,611 (26.1%) in men and 5,341 (34.9%) in women between 32,973 individuals. Women’s prevalence rate is significantly higher than men, and the prevalence rate significantly increased with age in men and women (p<0.05). The prevalence of multiple nodules was significantly higher in women (43.5%) than in men (35.6%), and significantly increased with age in men and women (p<0.05). The fine needle aspiration cytology was performed in 692 (men 342, women 350) subjects who showed signs of malignancy through ultrasound. Prevalence of malignancy of the nodules was higher in men (33.3%) than in women (29.4%) although it is not statistically significant. It is known that thyroid nodule prevalence in women is much higher than in men. But this study shows the men’s prevalence rate was not too low compared with women, and the men showed a rather higher malignancy rate in nodules than women. It is considered that the role of thyroid ultrasound is both important in men and women.

  15. BMI, diet and female reproductive factors as risks for thyroid cancer: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Peterson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence rates have been increasing worldwide but the reason behind this is unclear. Both the increasing use of diagnostic technologies allowing the detection of thyroid cancer and a true increase in thyroid cancer incidence have been proposed. This review assesses the role of body mass index (BMI, diet, and reproductive factors on the thyroid cancer trend. METHODS: Epidemiologic studies of the selected risk factors up to June 2010 were reviewed and critically assessed. RESULTS: Among the thirty-seven studies reviewed and despite variation in the risk estimates, most papers supported a small but positive association for BMI (risk estimate range: 1.1-2.3 in males and 1.0-7.4 in females.. Among specific dietary components, there was no consistent association of thyroid cancer risk with iodine intake through fortification (risk estimate range: 0.49-1.6 or fish consumption (risk estimate range 0.6-2.2, nor with diets high in cruciferous vegetables (risk estimate range 0.6-1.9. A small number of studies showed a consistent protective effect of diets high in non-cruciferous vegetable (risk estimate range: 0.71-0.92. Among reproductive factors (pregnancy, parity, number of live births, use of prescription hormones, menstrual cycle regularity, and menopausal status, none were consistently associated with higher thyroid cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: BMI had the strongest link to thyroid cancer risk among those examined. Detailed examinations of population-level risk factors can help identify and support prevention efforts to reduce the burden of thyroid cancer.

  16. THE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF MEDULLARY THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zh. Brzhezovsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents many years’ international experience in treating medullary thyroid cancer (TC. Two hundred and forty-two patients with different stages of the disease were followed up. The morphological and genetic features of this tumor are given. The results of used treatment options for medullary cancer, such as surgical, radiation, multimodality, and drug therapies, are analyzed. Surgery is a leading treatment option for this disease. The volume of surgery on a primary tumor focus depends on both the shape of a (sporadic or hereditary tumor and its sizes. Removal of pre- and paratracheal fat is indicated for any volume of surgery for TC due to the high risk of its metastases to lymph nodes at this site. For radiotherapy there are three main indications: 1 the dubious, macroscopically and microscopically evaluated efficiency of an operation; 2 inoperable cancer; 3 distant bone metastases for palliative and symptomatic care. The now chemicals available at an oncologist’s disposal exert no significant effect on increased survival in a patient with medullary TC.

  17. Thyroid cancer detected by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokozawa, T; Fukata, S; Kuma, K; Matsuzuka, F; Kobayashi, A; Hirai, K; Miyauchi, A; Sugawara, M

    1996-09-01

    A greater percentage of thyroid cancers can be detected by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (UG-FNAB) than by ordinary FNAB. A group of 678 patients were selected sequentially as having been diagnosed with benign nodules by the conventional FNAB method. We reexamined these patients by UG-FNAB and investigated the types of thyroid cancer that were missed by the conventional FNAB. Of the 678 patients diagnosed with benign nodules (using conventional FNAB), 571 (84.2%) demonstrated the same diagnosis when UG-FNAB was used. The remaining 107 patients (15.8%) studied were suspected of having a malignancy after UG-FNAB had been performed. Surgical specimen histology proved thyroid cancer in 99 of the 107 patients: 93 had papillary carcinoma, 4 had follicular carcinoma, 1 had medullary carcinoma and 1 had anaplastic carcinoma. Two drawbacks were noted when conventional FNAB was used: (1) cancer lesions difficult to palpate (n = 55) (e.g., small cancers with or without benign lesions or cancers associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis or Graves' disease); and (2) palpable cancers with insufficient cell material for analysis (n = 44) (e.g., cystic carcinoma and cancers with calcified lesions. UG-FNAB is a powerful technique for detecting microcancers, cystic carcinomas, cancers associated with benign nodules, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, or coarse calcifications. PMID:8678961

  18. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents of Bryansk and Kaluga Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed 62 cases of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents of Bryansk and Kaluga regions, the most contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The data on specified radiation situation as well as probable radiation doses to the thyroid are given. It is noted that the development of thyroid cancer depends on the age of children at the time of accident (0-3, 7-9, 12-15 years). They are the most critical periods for the formation and functioning of the thyroid, in particular, in girls. It is suggested that thyroid cancer develops in children and teenagers residing in areas with higher Cs137 contamination level at younger age than in those residing in less contaminated regions. It is shown that the minimal latent period in the development of thyroid cancer makes up to 5 years. The results of ESR method on tooth enamel specimen indicate that over post-accident period the sufficient share of children has collected such individual radiation dose which are able to affect on their health state and development of thyroid pathology

  19. Dental x-rays and the risk of thyroid cancer: A case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memon, Anjum (Div. of Primary Care and Public Health, Brighton and Sussex Medical School (United Kingdom)), E-mail: a.memon@bsms.ac.uk; Godward, Sara (Dept. of Public Health and Primary Care, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Williams, Dillwyn (Thyroid Carcinogenesis Research Group, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Siddique, Iqbal (Dept. of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait)); Al-Saleh, Khalid (Kuwait Cancer Control Centre, Ministry of Health (Kuwait))

    2010-05-15

    The thyroid gland is highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis and exposure to high-dose ionising radiation is the only established cause of thyroid cancer. Dental radiography, a common source of low-dose diagnostic radiation exposure in the general population, is often overlooked as a radiation hazard to the gland and may be associated with the risk of thyroid cancer. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has been reported in dentists, dental assistants, and x-ray workers; and exposure to dental x-rays has been associated with an increased risk of meningiomas and salivary tumours. Methods. To examine whether exposure to dental x-rays was associated with the risk of thyroid cancer, we conducted a population-based case-control interview study among 313 patients with thyroid cancer and a similar number of individually matched (year of birth +- three years, gender, nationality, district of residence) control subjects in Kuwait. Results. Conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for other upper-body x-rays, showed that exposure to dental x-rays was significantly associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.1) (p=0.001) with a dose-response pattern (p for trend <0.0001). The association did not vary appreciably by age, gender, nationality, level of education, or parity. Discussion. These findings, based on self-report by cases/controls, provide some support to the hypothesis that exposure to dental x-rays, particularly multiple exposures, may be associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer; and warrant further study in settings where historical dental x-ray records may be available.

  20. microRNA-141 inhibits thyroid cancer cell growth and metastasis by targeting insulin receptor substrate 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Su; Meng, Xianying; Xue, Shuai; Yan, Zewen; Ren, Peiyou; Liu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    microRNA-141 (miR-141), a member of the miR-200 family, and has been reported to involve in tumor initiation and development in many types of cancers. However, the function and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-141 in thyroid cancer remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify its expression, function, and molecular mechanism in thyroid cancer. In this study, we found that miR-141 expression levels were downregulated in human thyroid cancer specimens compared to the adjacent normal tissues, and its expression were strongly correlated with clinical stages and lymph node metastases. Function assays showed that overexpression of miR-141 inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis, and decreased migration, invasion in thyroid cancer cells, as well as tumor growth in nude mice. Moreover, insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), a known oncogene, was confirmed as a direct target of miR-141, and IRS2 expression levels were upregulated in thyroid cancer, and its expression were inversely correlated with miR-141 expression levels in human thyroid cancer specimens. Forced expression of IRS2 reversed the inhibition effect induced by miR-141 overexpression in thyroid cancer cells. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence that miR-141 suppressed thyroid cancer cell growth and metastasis through inhibition of IRS2. Thus, miR-141 might serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for thyroid cancer treatment.

  1. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents of Belarus irradiated as a result of Chernobyl accident: status and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid cancer incidence in the human population of Belarus irradiated in childhood for the period passed after the Chernobyl accident is analysed and potential perspectives for development of disease incidence in exposed population during life span. Thyroid cancer cases in children and adolescents of Belarus irradiated due to the Chernobyl accident are predicted using the additive model with modified parameters. Predicted values are shown to be in good agreement with the actual data on thyroid cancer cases in children aged 0-6

  2. Rising thyroid cancer incidence in the United States by demographic and tumor characteristics, 1980–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enewold, Lindsey; Zhu, Kangmin; Ron, Elaine; Marrogi, Aizen J.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Peoples, George E.; Devesa, Susan S.

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence has been rising in the United States, and this trend has often been attributed to heightened medical surveillance and use of improved diagnostics. Thyroid cancer incidence varies by sex and race/ethnicity, and these factors also influence access to and utilization of healthcare. We therefore examined thyroid cancer incidence rates by demographic and tumor characteristics, based on 48,403 thyroid cancer patients diagnosed during 1980–2005 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program of the National Cancer Institute. Rates varied by histologic type, sex, and race/ethnicity. Papillary carcinoma was the only histologic type for which incidence rates rose consistently among all racial/ethnic groups. Subsequent analyses focused on the 39,706 papillary thyroid cancers diagnosed during this period. Papillary carcinoma rates increased most rapidly among females. Between 1992–1995 and 2003–2005, they rose nearly 100% among White Non-Hispanics and Black females, but only 20–50% among White Hispanics, Asian/Pacific Islanders and Black males. Increases were most rapid for localized stage and small tumors; however, rates also rose for large tumors and tumors of regional and distant stage. Since 1992–1995, half the overall increase in papillary carcinoma rates was due to rising rates of very small (≤1.0 cm) cancers, 30% to cancers 1.1–2 cm, and 20% to cancers >2 cm. Among White females, the rate of increase for cancers >5 cm almost equaled that for the smallest cancers. Medical surveillance and more sensitive diagnostic procedures cannot completely explain the observed rises in papillary thyroid cancer rates. Thus, other possible explanations should be explored. PMID:19240234

  3. Advances in Cancer Immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Snook, Adam E.; Waldman, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Our immune system is characterized by remarkable specificity, potency and memory – the ability of a single vaccine treatment to provide life-long protection. No pharmacologic treatment for any indication can provide the same level of safety, efficacy and long-lasting effect that a vaccine can. Thus, researchers and clinicians alike have sought to apply these characteristics to the treatment of cancer. Yet, for the last 125 years, the field has failed to realize this potential. Here, we will r...

  4. Papillary thyroid cancer in a struma ovarii: a report of a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Eleonora; Mortara, Lorenzo; Zupo, Simonetta; Dono, Mariella; Minuto, Francesco; Truini, Mauro; Naseri, Mehrdad; Giusti, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    After removal of an ovarian mass in a 43-year-old woman, a struma ovarii was diagnosed. Within this teratoma, a papillary thyroid cancer was found. The tumor was negative for BRAF, NRAS, KRAS, PIK3CA and c-KIT mutations on molecular analysis. Thyroid function and morphology were normal. Thyroidectomy, L-T4 TSH-suppressive therapy and rhTSH-induced radioiodine ablation were performed. So far, the follow-up has been favorable. This is the first case of thyroid cancer in a struma ovarii in which mutations of PIK3CA exons 9 and 20, and c-KIT exons 9, 11 and 13 have been evaluated and the third in which ablation has been performed under rhTSH. The prognosis of patients with thyroid cancer in a struma ovarii is generally poor. In our patient, as in those who undergo ablative radioactive iodine therapy, this was not the case. PMID:25402391

  5. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  6. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R.; Ulanovski, A.; Schotola, C.; Proehl, G. [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Kenigsberg, J.; Buglova, E.; Kruk, J. [Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Likhtarev, I.; Kovgan, L.; Vavilov, S.; Chepurniy, M. [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Inst., Kyiv (Ukraine); Tronko, M.; Bogdanova, T. [Institute of Endocrinolgoy and Metabolism of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Shinkarev, S.; Gavrilin, Y. [All-Russian Public Organization of Invalids ' Chernobylets' , Scientific Center ' FENIX' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Demidchik, Y. [Thyroid Cancer Center, Minsk (Belarus)

    2005-07-01

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  7. Expansion of microsatellite in the thyroid hormone receptor-alpha1 gene linked to increased receptor expression and less aggressive thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onda, Masamitsu; Li, Daisy; Suzuki, Shinichi;

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the length of the THRA1 microsatellite, which resides in a noncoding portion of the thyroid hormone receptor-alpha1 gene, affects receptor expression and is linked to clinicopathological parameters in thyroid cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:...

  8. Evaluation of clinical hypothyroidism risk due to irradiation of thyroid and pituitary glands in radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) has been reported. This study investigated the radiation effects of the thyroid and pituitary glands on thyroid function after radiotherapy for NPC. Sixty-five NPC patients treated with radiotherapy were recruited. Baseline thyroid hormone levels comprising free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were taken before treatment and at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. A seven-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan was generated for each patient. Thyroid and pituitary gland dose volume histograms were generated, dividing the patients into four groups: high (>50Gy) thyroid and pituitary doses (HTHP group); high thyroid and low pituitary doses (HTLP group); low thyroid and high pituitary doses; and low thyroid and pituitary doses. Incidence of hypothyroidism was analysed. Twenty-two (34%) and 17 patients (26%) received high mean thyroid and pituitary doses, respectively. At 18 months, 23.1% of patients manifested various types of hypothyroidism. The HTHP group showed the highest incidence (83.3%) of hypothyroidism, followed by the HTLP group (50%). NPC patients with high thyroid and pituitary gland doses carried the highest risk of abnormal thyroid physiology. The dose to the thyroid was more influential than the pituitary dose at 18 months after radiotherapy, and therefore more attention should be given to the thyroid gland in radiotherapy planning.

  9. Multiple primary cancers of the colon, rectum, and the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubaidi Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The major concern in the case of cancer, whether one or in worse case more than one, is the extent of treatment required and the prognosis. This article reports three cases with two cancers: colorectal cancer and thyroid cancer, in the same patient at the same time. It also discusses the related clinical presentation and management of the cancers, and a review of literature has been presented.

  10. Novel analogs targeting histone deacetylase suppress aggressive thyroid cancer cell growth and induce re-differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, S; Yu, X-M; Odorico, S; Clark, M; Jaskula-Sztul, R; Schienebeck, C M; Kupcho, K R; Harrison, A D; Winston-McPherson, G N; Tang, W; Chen, H

    2015-08-01

    To develop novel therapies for aggressive thyroid cancers, we have synthesized a collection of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor analogs named AB1 to AB13, which have different linkers between a metal chelating group and a hydrophobic cap. The purpose of this study was to screen out the most effective compounds and evaluate the therapeutic efficacy. AB2, AB3 and AB10 demonstrated the lowest half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values in one metastatic follicular and two anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines. Treatment with each of the three ABs resulted in an increase in apoptosis markers, including cleaved poly adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase (PARP) and cleaved caspase 3. Additionally, the expression of cell-cycle regulatory proteins p21(WAF1) and p27(Kip1) increased with the treatment of ABs while cyclin D1 decreased. Furthermore, AB2, AB3 and AB10 were able to induce thyrocyte-specific genes in the three thyroid cancer cell lines indicated by increased expression levels of sodium iodide symporter, paired box gene 8, thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1), TTF2 and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors. AB2, AB3 and AB10 suppress thyroid cancer cell growth via cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. They also induce cell re-differentiation, which could make aggressive cancer cells more susceptible to radioactive iodine therapy. PMID:26251030

  11. Cancer type-specific modulation of mitochondrial haplogroups in breast, colorectal and thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Hezhi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups and single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNP have been shown to play a role in various human conditions including aging and some neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic diseases and cancer. Methods To investigate whether mtDNA haplogroups contribute to the occurrence of cancer in a specific Chinese population, we have carried out a comprehensive case-control study of mtDNA from large cohorts of patients with three common cancer types, namely, colorectal cancer (n = 108, thyroid cancer (n = 100 and breast cancer (n = 104, in Wenzhou, a southern Chinese city in the Zhejiang Province. Results We found that patients with mtDNA haplogroup M exhibited an increased risk of breast cancer occurrence [OR = 1.77; 95% CI (1.03-3.07; P = 0.040], and that this risk was even more pronounced in a sub-haplogroup of M, D5 [OR = 3.11; 95%CI (1.07-9.06; p = 0.030]. In spite of this, in patients with breast cancer, haplogroup M was decreased in the metastatic group. On the other hand, our results also showed that haplogroup D4a was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer [OR = 3.00; 95%CI (1.09-8.29; p = 0.028]. However, no significant correlation has been detected between any mtDNA haplogroups and colorectal cancer occurrence. Conclusion Our investigation indicates that mitochondrial haplogroups could have a tissue-specific, population-specific and stage-specific role in modulating cancer development.

  12. Long-term trend of thyroid cancer risk among Japanese atomic-bomb survivors: 60 years after exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Ito, Masahiro; Tokuoka, Shoji; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Soda, Midori; Ozasa, Kotaro; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2013-03-01

    Thyroid cancer risk following exposure to ionizing radiation in childhood and adolescence is a topic of public concern. To characterize the long-term temporal trend and age-at-exposure variation in the radiation-induced risk of thyroid cancer, we analyzed thyroid cancer incidence data for the period from 1958 through 2005 among 105,401 members of the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. During the follow-up period, 371 thyroid cancer cases (excluding those with microcarcinoma with a diameter 50 years after exposure. PMID:22847218

  13. Serum thyroglobulin in the monitoring of differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Carol; Tennant, Sarah; Perros, Petros

    2016-01-01

    Patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) usually have an excellent prognosis. Following surgical and radioiodine treatment to remove the cancer cells and suppressive doses of levothyroxine, long-term follow-up, including measurement of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) using a sensitive assay is required to detect recurrence. To interpret Tg results clinicians need to know the corresponding serum TSH concentration, have an appreciation of the clearance of Tg from patient serum following various interventions and the limitations of its measurement. The limitations of Tg immunoassay are well described and include potential interference from TgAb. For the majority of patients with DTC who are TgAb-negative, Tg measurement remains the most useful method of follow-up. For the TgAb-positive minority, interference and the possibility of producing erroneous results is a concern. Some assays are less badly affected than others and laboratories are advised to choose their assays carefully. Laboratories have sought to identify interferences using measurement of TgAb, lack of concordance between RIAs and immunometric assays and recovery of added Tg. More recently LC-MSMS assays to quantify Tg have been developed. They are not currently as sensitive as Tg immunoassays and it is likely these assays will, like immunoassays, be limited by Tg heterogeneity and standardization issues, although initial evaluations indicate that they may have value in the clinical setting as a second line test in antibody-positive DTC patients in whom Tg is unmeasurable by immunoassay. PMID:27542000

  14. Circulating thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and hypothyroid status and the risk of prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Mondul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones may influence risk of cancer through their role in cell differentiation, growth, and metabolism. One study of circulating thyroid hormones supports this hypothesis with respect to prostate cancer. We undertook a prospective analysis of thyroid hormones and prostate cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study. METHODS: Within the ATBC Study, a randomized controlled trial of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplements and cancer incidence in male smokers, 402 prostate cancer cases were sampled. Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on age and date of blood collection. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of prostate cancer were estimated for quintiles of serum total and free thyroxine (T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyroid-binding globulin (TBG, and by categories of thyroid status. RESULTS: Men with serum higher TSH had a decreased risk of prostate cancer compared to men with lower TSH (Q5 vs. Q1-4: OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.51-0.97, p = 0.03. When the T4 and TSH measurements were combined to define men as hypothyroid, euthyroid or hyperthyroid, hypothyroid men had a lower risk of prostate cancer compared to euthyroid men (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.28-0.81, p = 0.006. We observed no association between hyperthyroid status and risk, although the number of hyperthyroid men with prostate cancer was small (n = 9. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study of smokers, men with elevated TSH and those classified as being in a hypothyroid state were at decreased risk of prostate cancer. Future studies should examine the association in other populations, particularly non-smokers and other racial/ethnic groups.

  15. Reduced expression of N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 in human thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jianjun

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NDRG2 (N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 was initially cloned in our laboratory. Previous results have shown that NDRG2 expressed differentially in normal and cancer tissues. Specifically, NDRG2 mRNA was down-regulated or undetectable in several human cancers, and over-expression of NDRG2 inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells. NDRG2 also exerts important functions in cell differentiation and tumor suppression. However, it remains unclear whether NDRG2 participates in carcinogenesis of the thyroid. Methods In this study, we investigated the expression profile of human NDRG2 in thyroid adenomas and carcinomas, by examining tissues from individuals with thyroid adenomas (n = 40 and carcinomas (n = 35, along with corresponding normal tissues. Immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR and western blot methods were utilized to determine both the protein and mRNA expression status of Ndrg2 and c-Myc. Results The immunostaining analysis revealed a decrease of Ndrg2 expression in thyroid carcinomas. When comparing adenomas or carcinomas with adjacent normal tissue from the same individual, the mRNA expression level of NDRG2 was significantly decreased in thyroid carcinoma tissues, while there was little difference in adenoma tissues. This differential expression was confirmed at the protein level by western blotting. However, there were no significant correlations of NDRG2 expression with gender, age, different histotypes of thyroid cancers or distant metastases. Conclusion Our data indicates that NDRG2 may participate in thyroid carcinogenesis. This finding provides novel insight into the important role of NDRG2 in the development of thyroid carcinomas. Future studies are needed to address whether the down-regulation of NDRG2 is a cause or a consequence of the progression from a normal thyroid to a carcinoma.

  16. AZD6244 in Treating Patients With Papillary Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-02

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  17. Childhood thyroid cancers and radioactive iodine therapy. Necessity of precautious radiation health risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the lessons from Chernobyl's legacy on health impact beyond 20 years is not only how to detect and treat the patients with radiation-associated thyroid cancers but how to follow up those who received radioactive iodine treatment repetitively after surgery in order to monitor any recurrence/worsening and also how to predict the risk of secondary primary cancers for their lifetime period. To evaluate the possibility of second primary tumors after radioactive iodine treatment, we reviewed the reports on risks from both external and internal radiation exposure, especially at high doses during childhood through an internet service of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, PubMed by the end of June, 2007, together with our own experience of Chernobyl childhood thyroid cancers. Children who were internally exposed after Chernobyl accident have a long-term risk of well differentiated thyroid cancers. Once they have disease, ironically radioactive iodine ablation is one of the useful therapies after surgical treatment. Elevated risks of solid cancers and leukemia have been found in radioiodine-treated patients, however, so far precious few reports from Chernobyl thyroid cancer patient were published. To reduce the adverse effects of radioactive iodine therapy on non-target tissues, recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) has been applied and proved effective. Period of latency of second primary cancers may be very long. Therefore patients treated with high activities of radioactive iodine, especially children cases, should be carefully followed up during their whole lifespan. (author)

  18. Postoperative Nomogram for Predicting Cancer-Specific Mortality in Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Allen S.; Wang, Lu; Palmer, Frank L.; Yu, Changhong; Toset, Arnbjorn; Patel, Snehal; Kattan, Michael W.; Tuttle, R. Michael; Ganly, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare thyroid cancer accounting for 5 % of all thyroid malignancies. The purpose of our study was to design a predictive nomogram for cancer-specific mortality (CSM) utilizing clinical, pathological, and biochemical variables in patients with MTC. Methods MTC patients managed entirely at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1986 and 2010 were identified. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were recorded, and variables predictive of CSM were identified by univariable analyses. A multivariable competing risk model was then built to predict the 10-year cancer specific mortality of MTC. All predictors of interest were added in the starting full model before selection, including age, gender, pre- and postoperative serum calcitonin, pre- and postoperative CEA, RET mutation status, perivascular invasion, margin status, pathologic T status, pathologic N status, and M status. Stepdown method was used in model selection to choose predictive variables. Results Of 249 MTC patients, 22.5 % (56/249) died from MTC, whereas 6.4 % (16/249) died secondary to other causes. Mean follow-up period was 87 ± 67 months. The seven variables with the highest predictive accuracy for cancer specific mortality included age, gender, postoperative calcitonin, perivascular invasion, pathologic T status, pathologic N status, and M status. These variables were used to create the final nomogram. Discrimination from the final nomogram was measured at 0.77 with appropriate calibration. Conclusions We describe the first nomogram that estimates cause-specific mortality in individual patients with MTC. This predictive nomogram will facilitate patient counseling in terms of prognosis and subsequent clinical follow up. PMID:25366585

  19. Pulmonary fibrosis in youth treated with radioiodine for juvenile thyroid cancer and lung metastases after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebestreit, Helge; Burkhardt, Antje [University Children' s Hospital, Wuerzburg (Germany); Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Drozd, Valentina [International Belarussian-German Foundation, Minsk (Belarus); Demidchik, Yuri [Thyroid Cancer Centre, Minsk (Belarus); Trusen, Andreas [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Johanniter-Krankenhaus, Genthin-Stendal gGmbH, Stendal (Germany); Beer, Meinrad [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    The objective of this project was to systematically determine the prevalence and consequences of pulmonary fibrosis in youth with thyroid carcinoma and lung metastases from Belarus who were treated with radioiodine ({sup 131}I). A total of 69 patients treated for juvenile thyroid carcinoma and lung metastasis with {sup 131}I were assessed. A group of 29 patients without lung metastases and prior {sup 131}I treatment served as controls. The assessments included a CT scan of the lungs, extensive pulmonary function testing and an incremental cycle test to volitional fatigue with measurements of oxygen uptake (V. O{sub 2}), oxygen saturation and alveolar-arterial difference in oxygen partial pressure ({delta}aaO{sub 2}). Five patients with lung metastases showed advanced pulmonary fibrosis on CT scans and also had poorer lung functions compared with the 62 patients with none or minor signs of fibrosis and the 29 controls. Furthermore, these five patients showed lower peak V.O{sub 2}, lower oxygen saturation at peak exercise and higher exercise {delta}aaO{sub 2}. They were younger at the time of cancer diagnosis and had received chemotherapy more frequently than youth with pulmonary metastases who did not develop fibrosis. One of the five patients subsequently died from pulmonary fibrosis. Following the Chernobyl catastrophe, about 7% of children treated with radioiodine for thyroid carcinoma and lung metastases displayed pulmonary fibrosis which was associated with functional impairments. Based on the characteristics of affected individuals, the number of radioiodine courses may have to be limited, especially in young children, and chemotherapy should be avoided. (orig.)

  20. Role of adjuvant postoperative external beam radiotherapy for well differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jeanny; Wu, Hong Gyun; Youn, Yeo Kyu; Lee, Kyu Eun; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Park, Do Joon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    To analyze the outcome of adjuvant postoperative external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC). We identified 84 patients treated with EBRT for WDTC from February 1981 to December 2010. Among them, we analyzed 39 patients who received EBRT after initial radical surgery. Twenty-four females and 15 males were included. The median age was 49 years (range, 16 to 72 years). There were 34 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 5 follicular thyroid carcinomas. Most patients showed pathologic T3/T4 stage (54%/26%). Ten patients (25.6%) had gross residual tumors. Five patients (12.8%) had tumor cells at the margin. The median EBRT dose and fraction size were 62.6 Gy and 1.8 to 2.0 Gy, respectively. The median follow-up was 73 months (range, 21 to 372 months). The five-year overall survival (OS) and locoregional recurrence free survival (LRFS) were 97.4% and 86.9%, respectively. Locoregional failures occurred in 5 and all failure sites were the neck node area. In univariate analysis, OS was significantly influenced by invasion of the trachea (p = 0.016) or esophagus (p = 0.006). LRFS was significantly decreased by male (p = 0.020), gross residuum after resection (p = 0.002), close or positive tumor at surgical margin involvement (p = 0.044), and tracheal invasion (p = 0.040). No significant prognostic factor was identified in the multivariate analysis. No patient experienced the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 3 or more toxicity. Our locoregional control rate of 87.2% is comparable to historical controls with surgery alone, even though our study had a large proportion of advanced stage. Adjuvant EBRT may an effective and safe treatment option in patients with WDTC.

  1. Immunoexpression of TTF-1 and Ki-67 in a coexistent anaplastic and follicular thyroid cancer with rare long-life surviving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Sowinski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the immunohistochemical diagnosis, including TTF-1 (thyroid transcription factor 1 and Ki-67, of a rare mixed thyroid neoplasm composed of minimally invasive well differentiated follicular areas and highly aggressive undifferentiated anaplastic areas. A 75 old female presented to our clinic with a rapidly growing neck mass. Considering the dynamics of the disease and the multiple challenges presented by the patient: advanced age, tumor size, history of a longstanding goiter we decided to transfer her to the department of surgery. The intraoperative findings were an enlarged right lobe with tracheal and surrounding tissues infiltration. Total thyroidectomy, radical neck lymph nodes dissection and tracheostomy were performed. The histopathological and immunohistochemical examination revealed a coexistent anaplastic and follicular thyroid carcinoma. The proliferation index Ki-67, a cell proliferation marker, was found to be significantly higher in the anaplastic areas (30 +/- 5% in the comparison with the follicular areas (2 +/- 1%. The evaluation of the thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1 expression revealed a correlation with the tumor cells aggressiveness accordingly to the cancer areas. After a radical surgery an external adjuvant radiation was applied. The patient is alive and more than five years after diagnosis she presented an increase of the serum thyroglobulin level suggesting, probably, a recurrence of the follicular form of the cancer. According to our survey we suggest that in thyroid cancers TTF-1 and Ki-67 could provides useful information on the differentiation activities of thyroid tumor cells and may be helpful to distinguish well differentiated and undifferentiated areas in a mixed thyroid cancer.

  2. Correlation of thyroid cancer Doppler hemodynamic indexes with tumor proliferation and angiogenesis indexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei; Jin Zhang; Jian-Jun Zhang; Hui Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the correlation of thyroid cancer Doppler hemodynamic indexes with tumor proliferation and angiogenesis indexes.Methods:A total of 108 cases of thyroid cancer were diagnosed by B-ultrasound and pathology and then included in the observation group of the research, 107 cases of non-cancer patients who received excision of thyroid adenoma in our hospital during the same period were selected as healthy control group, thyroid hemodynamic indexes, tumor proliferation-related indexes and serum angiogenesis-related indexes of two groups were detected, and the correlation of thyroid cancer hemodynamic indexes with tumor proliferation and angiogenesis indexes was further analyzed.Results:S and D values of observation group were higher than those of control group (P0.05); p53, PCNA and Ki-67 expression levels in thyroid tumor of observation group were higher than those of control group while TIPE2 protein expression level was lower than that of control group (P<0.05); serum VEGF, Ang-2, HIF-1α, IGF-Ⅱ and endostatin values of observation group were higher than those of control group while MBP value was lower than that of control group (P<0.05); thyroid artery peak systolic velocity (S) and end diastolic velocity (D) were directly proportional to p53, PCNA, Ki-67, VEGF, Ang-2, HIF-1α, IGF-Ⅱ and endostatin values, and inversely proportional to TIPE2 and MBP values (P<0.05).Conclusions:Artery blood flow velocity in patients with thyroid cancer is directly correlated with tumor proliferation and angiogenesis, and can be used as the reliable index to judge tumor condition and curative effect.

  3. Imaging and Clinical Features of Thyroid Cancer in Children and Adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Young; Hong, HyunSook; Lee, Eun Hye; Yi, Beom Ha; Lee, Hae Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheonl (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Hwa [Dept. of Labortory Medicine and Genetics, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheonl (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Eun Suk [Dept. of Pathology, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheonl (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    To evaluate clinical and imaging features of pediatric thyroid cancer, including BRAF'V{sup 600E} mutation status in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We evaluated clinical findings including BRAF''6{sup 00E} status, ultrasound (US), and CT features of 13 pediatric patients with thyroid cancer. US findings were retrospectively analyzed for location, presence of a nodule, echotexture, echogenicity, calcifications, margin, shape, intranodular vascularity and abnormal lymph nodes. CT characteristics of the lesions, including attenuation, calcification, and measured degree of enhancement, were assessed. The patients included three boys and ten girls with a mean age of 15.5 years (range 6-18 years). No patient was exposed to radiation. Palpable neck mass was the most common presentation. Eleven of 13 patients (84.6%) were diagnosed with PTC, and two (15.4%) had follicular thyroid cancer (FTC). Nine of 13 (69.2%) had high T-staging. BRAF{sup V600E} mutations were detected in 30.0% of PTC patients. A diffusely enlarged thyroid with calcifications (n = 2) or nodules (n = 7) was detected on US. All PTC nodules showed malignant US findings and one FTC displayed on indeterminate nodule. Nodules generally showed low attenuation on enhanced CT (n = 11/12). US demonstrated enlarged glands with calcifications or nodules. Diffusely enlarged thyroids with microcalcifications should be evaluated using fine-needle aspiration. A low attenuation nodule was a common finding on enhanced CT.

  4. Thyroglobulin measurement using highly sensitive assays in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovanella, Luca; Clark, Penelope M; Chiovato, Luca;

    2014-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is the most common endocrine cancer and its incidence has increased in recent decades. Initial treatment usually consists of total thyroidectomy followed by ablation of thyroid remnants by iodine-131. As thyroid cells are assumed to be the only source of thyrog......Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is the most common endocrine cancer and its incidence has increased in recent decades. Initial treatment usually consists of total thyroidectomy followed by ablation of thyroid remnants by iodine-131. As thyroid cells are assumed to be the only source...... of thyroglobulin (Tg) in the human body, circulating Tg serves as a biochemical marker of persistent or recurrent disease in DTC follow-up. Currently, standard follow-up for DTC comprises Tg measurement and neck ultrasound combined, when indicated, with an additional radioiodine scan. Measurement of Tg after...... caring for patients with DTC. The aim of this clinical position paper is, therefore, to offer advice on the various aspects and implications of using these highly sensitive Tg assays in the clinical care of patients with DTC....

  5. Thyroid cancer in Egypt: histopathological criteria, correlation with survival and oestrogen receptor protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rehab Allah; Aboelnaga, Engy M

    2015-07-01

    Thyroid cancer represents approximately 1% of new cancer and oestrogen may play a role in the pathogenesis of thyroid neoplasm. We aimed to study the clinicopathological criteria and ER expression of thyroid cancer in Mansoura University (Egypt), and to correlate the survival to these clinicopathological data and ER expression. This retrospective study reviewed 644 patients with histologically proven thyroid carcinoma during the period from 2003 to 2011. 152 cases during the period between 2008 and 2011 were retrieved from the archive and examined by immunohistochemistry for oestrogen receptor-α (ER) expression. ER-α expression is significantly associated with the female sex, lymph node metastasis, TNM stage, extrathyroid extension, multifocality disease and recurrence and in the whole series (p gender of the patient. Tumour type, extrathyroid extension and ER expression were the independent prognostic factors of DFS, while in PTC, only ER expression was the independent one. The histological type was the only independent prognostic factor for OAS in the series were studied for ER expression, while extrathyroid extension was the only one that affected OAS of PTC. There was significant positive correlation with lymph node metastasis and ER expression in whole patient and PTC cases. No difference in survival between the low and high ranges of positive oestrogen expression. The prognosis of thyroid carcinoma in Egypt is similar to that occurs worldwide. ER-α expression was a significant prognostic marker for DFS in thyroid cancer and can be used as a predictive factor of lymph node metastasis.

  6. The clinical features of papillary thyroid cancer in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis patients from an area with a high prevalence of Hashimoto’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Ling; Li Hui; Ji Qing-hai; Zhu Yong-xue; Wang Zhuo-ying; Wang Yu; Huang Cai-ping; Shen Qiang; Li Duan-shu; Wu Yi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The goal of this study was to identify the clinicopathological factors of co-existing papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in patients with Hashimoto���s thyroiditis (HT) and provide information to aid in the diagnosis of such patients. Methods This study included 6109 patients treated in a university-based tertiary care cancer hospital over a 3-year period. All of the patients were categorised based on their final diagnosis. Several clinicopathological factors, such as age, gen...

  7. Methylation of DACT2 promotes papillary thyroid cancer metastasis by activating Wnt signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyan Zhao

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignant disease and the incidence is increasing. DACT2 was found frequently methylated in human lung cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. To explore the epigenetic change and the role of DACT2 in thyroid cancer, 7 thyroid cancer cell lines, 10 cases of non-cancerous thyroid tissue samples and 99 cases of primary thyroid cancer samples were involved in this study. DACT2 was expressed and unmethylated in K1, SW579, FTC-133, TT, W3 and 8505C cell lines. Loss of expression and complete methylation was found in TPC-1 cells. Restoration of DACT2 expression was induced by 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine treatment. It demonstrates that the expression of DACT2 was regulated by promoter region methylation. In human primary papillary thyroid cancer, 64.6% (64/99 was methylated and methylation of DACT2 was related to lymph node metastasis (p<0.01. Re-expression of DACT2 suppresses cell proliferation, invasion and migration in TPC-1 cells. The activity of TCF/LEF was inhibited by DACT2 in wild-type or mutant β-catenin cells. The activity of TCF/LEF was increased by co-transfecting DACT2 and Dvl2 in wild-type or mutant β-catenin cells. Overexpression of wild-type β-catenin promotes cell migration and invasion in DACT2 stably expressed cells. The expression of β-catenin, c-myc, cyclinD1 and MMP-9 were decreased and the level of phosphorylated β-catenin (p-β-catenin was increased after restoration of DACT2 expression in TPC-1 cells. The expression of β-catenin, c-myc, cyclinD1 and MMP-9 were increased and the level of p-β-catenin was reduced after knockdown of DACT2 in W3 and SW579 cells. These results suggest that DACT2 suppresses human papillary thyroid cancer growth and metastasis by inhibiting Wnt signaling. In conclusion, DACT2 is frequently methylated in papillary thyroid cancer. DACT2 expression was regulated by promoter region methylation. DACT2 suppresses papillary thyroid cancer proliferation and metastasis

  8. False positive diagnosis on (131)iodine whole-body scintigraphy of differentiated thyroid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triggiani, Vincenzo; Giagulli, Vito Angelo; Iovino, Michele; De Pergola, Giovanni; Licchelli, Brunella; Varraso, Antonio; Dicembrino, Franca; Valle, Guido; Guastamacchia, Edoardo

    2016-09-01

    (131)Iodine is used both to ablate any residual thyroid tissue or metastatic disease and to obtain whole-body diagnostic images after total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Even though whole-body scan is highly accurate in showing thyroid residues as well as metastases of DTC, false positive results can be found, possibly leading to diagnostic errors and unnecessary treatments. This paper reviews the physiological and pathological processes involved as well as the strategy to recognize and rule out false positive radioiodine images.

  9. Thyroid cancer. Reevaluation of an experimental model for radiogenic endocrine carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of experimental studies of radiogenic thyroid cancer is appraised, and some older data are reinterpreted in the light of more recent findings. Problems of thyroid dosimetry, particularly the dosimetry of internal radioiodides, are discussed. The steps in radiation carcinogenesis during the acute phase, the latent phase, and the phase of tumor growth are discussed in terms of thyroid epithelial cell population changes. The roles of three cell populations (undamaged or completely repaired epithelial cells, oncogenically initiated cells, and terminally damaged but functionally competent cells) in neoplasia are described. Finally, the implications for man of these experimental results and conclusions are discussed. 89 refs., 4 figs

  10. Axillary node metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma with hürthle and signet ring cell differentiation. A case of disseminated thyroid cancer with peculiar histologic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiofalo Maria

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiated thyroid cancer is usually associated with an excellent prognosis and indolent course. Distant metastases are rare events at the onset of thyroid cancer. Among these presentations, metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes is even more unusual: only few cases were previously reported in the literature; there has been no report of axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. Axillary lymph node metastasis generally arises in the context of disseminated disease and carries an ominous prognosis. Case presentation Here we present a case of axillary lymph node metastasis in the context of disseminated differentiated thyroid cancer. The patient underwent near total thyroidectomy and neck and axillary lymph node dissection. A histopathological diagnosis of poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma with "signet ring cells" and Hürthle cell features was established. The patient received radioactive iodine therapy and TSH suppression therapy. Subsequently his serum thyroglobulin level decreased to 44.000 ng/ml from over 100.000 ng/ml. Discussion and Conclusion Currently there are only few reported cases of axillary node metastases from thyroid cancer, and to our knowledge, this is the first report on axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. "Signet ring cell" is a morphologic feature shared by both benign and, more rarely, malignant follicular thyroid neoplasm, and it generally correlates with an arrest in folliculogenesis. Our case is one of the rare "signet ring cells" carcinomas so far described.

  11. Axillary node metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma with hürthle and signet ring cell differentiation. A case of disseminated thyroid cancer with peculiar histologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is usually associated with an excellent prognosis and indolent course. Distant metastases are rare events at the onset of thyroid cancer. Among these presentations, metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes is even more unusual: only few cases were previously reported in the literature; there has been no report of axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. Axillary lymph node metastasis generally arises in the context of disseminated disease and carries an ominous prognosis. Here we present a case of axillary lymph node metastasis in the context of disseminated differentiated thyroid cancer. The patient underwent near total thyroidectomy and neck and axillary lymph node dissection. A histopathological diagnosis of poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma with 'signet ring cells' and Hürthle cell features was established. The patient received radioactive iodine therapy and TSH suppression therapy. Subsequently his serum thyroglobulin level decreased to 44.000 ng/ml from over 100.000 ng/ml. Currently there are only few reported cases of axillary node metastases from thyroid cancer, and to our knowledge, this is the first report on axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. 'Signet ring cell' is a morphologic feature shared by both benign and, more rarely, malignant follicular thyroid neoplasm, and it generally correlates with an arrest in folliculogenesis. Our case is one of the rare 'signet ring cells' carcinomas so far described

  12. Risk Factors for Developing Hyponatremia in Thyroid Cancer Patients Undergoing Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Seung Kyu; Han, Kyung Hwa; Cho, Mi Ok; Yun, Gi Young; Kim, Ki Hyun; Choi, Hoon Young; Ryu, Young Hoon; Ha, Sung Kyu; Park, Hyeong Cheon

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the alarming increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer worldwide, more patients are receiving postoperative radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy and these patients are given a low-iodine diet along with levothyroxine withdrawal to induce a hypothyroid state to maximize the uptake of RAI by thyroid tissues. Recently, the reported cases of patients suffering from life-threatening severe hyponatremia following postoperative RAI therapy have increased. This study aimed to systemat...

  13. Radiologic and pathologic findings of a follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer with extensive stromal fat: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jn Woo; Kim, Tae Hyung; Roh, Hong Gee; Moon, Won Jin; Lee, Sang Hwa; Hwang, Tae Sook; Park, Kyoung Sik [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Thyroid cancer may have small adipose structures detected by microscopy. However, there are no reports of thyroid cancer with gross fat evaluated by radiological methods. We reported a case of a 58-year-old woman with a fat containing thyroid mass. The mass was hyperechoic and ovoid in shape with a smooth margin on ultrasonography. On computed tomography, the mass had markedly low attenuation suggestive of fat, and fine reticular and thick septa-like structures. The patient underwent a right lobectomy. The mass was finally diagnosed as a follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer with massive stromal fat.

  14. Incidence of thyroid cancer among children of the Ukraine in 1996 as compared to previous post-Chernobyl years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996 a high incidence rate of thyroid cancer has persisted in Ukraine among children aged under 15 years, which averaged, according to preliminary data, 0.44 case per 100 thousand children's population. The geographical distribution of thyroid cancer cases in children of Ukraine is mainly related, as in previous years, with the most affected regions following the Chernobyl accident. The highest incidence of thyroid cancer (over 80%) was observed in those patients who were aged under 5 years at the moment of the accident, being the most radiosensitive age group. Among thyroid tumors removed in 1996, as in previous years, papillary carcinomas prevail, which are characterized by marked invasive properties. (author)

  15. Carfilzomib potentiates CUDC-101-induced apoptosis in anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lisa; Boufraqech, Myriem; Lake, Ross; Kebebew, Electron

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies, with no effective treatment currently available. Previously, we identified agents active against ATC cells, both in vitro and in vivo, using quantitative high-throughput screening of 3282 clinically approved drugs and small molecules. Here, we report that combining two of these active agents, carfilzomib, a second-generation proteasome inhibitor, and CUDC-101, a histone deacetylase and multi-kinase inhibitor, results in increased, synergistic activity in ATC cells. The combination of carfilzomib and CUDC-101 synergistically inhibited cellular proliferation and caused cell death in multiple ATC cell lines harboring various driver mutations observed in human ATC tumors. This increased anti-ATC effect was associated with a synergistically enhanced G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased caspase 3/7 activity induced by the drug combination. Mechanistically, treatment with carfilzomib and CUDC-101 increased p21 expression and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein cleavage. Our results suggest that combining carfilzomib and CUDC-101 would offer an effective therapeutic strategy to treat ATC. PMID:26934320

  16. Current status of PET imaging of differentiated thyroid cancer with second generation radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the prognosis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is favorable, some histotypes show worst clinical outcome and higher risk of recurrence. Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels and 131I-whole-body-scan (WBS), together with neck ultrasound (US), represent the golden standard for DTC follow-up. Nevertheless, the relatively high frequency of patients with high Tg levels and negative WBS requires further investigations by using new imaging modalities. The availability of whole body positron emission tomography (PET) methods, in parallel with the advances in radiochemistry, offer a wide substrate for many solutions. To this day 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT still represents the imaging of choice in follow-up of patients with high serum Tg and negative 131I-WBS but in the last decades the research has focused on finding “second generation” radiopharmaceuticals for PET imaging, with both diagnostic and prognostic purposes, aiming to change the way to image thyroid cancer. Moreover, the use of various PET radiopharmaceuticals, that offer the possibility to explore different pathways involved in thyroid cancer, could find important applications in the near future for clinical decision making in order to program tailored treatments and follow-up. It would be desirable to use the same radiopharmaceutical for both imaging and dosimetric purpose to achieve a tailored therapy. Many efforts are focused in this direction and 124I-PET/CT is now emerging as a valid tool in restaging and therapy management of DTC with promising results. Although the preliminary data available in literature require a confirmation in larger studies with longer follow-up, we think that in next future 124-PET/CT could gain an important role for management of DTC. The aim of this review was to perform a systematic analysis of literature describing the state of art of “second generation” PET-radiopharmaceuticals for imaging DTC. Discussion is focused on the utility of 124I

  17. Cribiform variant of papillary thyroid cancer and familial adenomatous polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Perea del Pozo

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The diagnosis of CMV of PTC is very strongly related to the FAP syndrome and must be suspected when a thyroid node appears in FAP patients. Likewise, any patient without known FAP who presents this histology in a surgically biopsied or resected thyroid node should undergo total colonoscopy for screening of colonic polyposis and genetic study of the APC gene sequence.

  18. Vaccine Therapy With or Without Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Adenocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Male Breast Cancer; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Paget Disease of the Breast With Intraductal Carcinoma; Paget Disease of the Breast With Invasive Ductal Carcinoma; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage III Gastric Cancer; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  19. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  20. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, A.; Salomaa, S. [eds.] [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.; Tekkel, M. [eds.] [Inst. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Tallinn (Estonia); Hakulinen, T. [ed.] [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Boice, J.D. Jr. [ed.] [Int. Epidemiology Inst., MD (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  1. Cediranib Maleate With or Without Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-20

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  2. Risk of thyroid nodular disease and thyroid cancer in patients with acromegaly--meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosma Wolinski

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acromegaly is a quite rare chronic disease caused by the increased secretion of growth hormone (GH and subsequently insulin - like growth factor 1. Although cardiovascular diseases remains the most common cause of mortality among acromegalic patients, increased prevalence of malignant and benign neoplasms remains a matter of debate. The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of thyroid nodular disease (TND and thyroid cancer in patients with acromegaly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Cinahl, Academic Search Complete, Web of Knowledge, PubMed Central, PubMed Central Canada and Clinical Key databases were searched to identify studies containing. Random-effects model was used to calculate pooled odds ratios and risk ratios of TND in acromegaly. Studies which not included control groups were systematically reviewed. RESULTS: TND was more frequent in acromegaly than in control groups (OR = 6.9, RR = 2.1. The pooled prevalence of TND was 59.2%. Also thyroid cancer (TC proved to be more common in acromegalic patients (OR = 7.5, RR = 7.2, prevalence was 4.3%. The pooled rate of malignancy (calculated per patient was equal to 8.7%. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that both TND and TC occur significantly more often in acromegalic patients than in general population. These results indicate that periodic thyroid ultrasound examination and careful evaluation of eventual lesions should be an important part of follow-up of patients with acromegaly.

  3. Targeted therapy for genetic cancer syndromes: Fanconi anemia, medullary thyroid cancer, tuberous sclerosis, and RASopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rishi; Liebe, Sarah; Turski, Michelle L; Vidwans, Smruti J; Janku, Filip; Garrido-Laguna, Ignacio; Munoz, Javier; Schwab, Richard; Rodon, Jordi; Kurzrock, Razelle; Subbiah, Vivek

    2015-02-01

    With the advent of genomics-based treatment in recent years, the use of targeted therapies in the treatment of various malignancies has increased exponentially. Though much data is available regarding the efficacy of targeted therapies for common malignancies, genetic cancer syndromes remain a somewhat unexplored topic with comparatively less published literature. This review seeks to characterize targeted therapy options for the following genetic cancer syndromes: Fanconi anemia, inherited medullary thyroid cancer, tuberous sclerosis, and RASopathies. By understanding the pathophysiology of these conditions as well as available molecularly targeted therapies, oncologists, in collaboration with geneticists and genetic counsellors, can begin to develop effective clinical management options and therapy regimens for the patients with these genetic syndromes that they may encounter in their practice. PMID:25725224

  4. A Review on the Association between Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists and Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yih Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a concern on the risk of thyroid cancer associated with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 analogs including liraglutide and exenatide. In this article, we review related experimental studies, clinical trials and observational human studies currently available. In rodents, liraglutide activated the GLP-1 receptors on C-cells, causing an increased incidence of C-cell neoplasia. Animal experiments with monkeys demonstrated no increase in calcitonin release and no C-cell proliferation after long-term liraglutide administration. Longitudinal 2-year data from clinical trials do not support any significant risk for the activation or growth of C-cell cancer in humans in response to liraglutide. However, an analysis of the FDA adverse event reporting system database suggested an increased risk for thyroid cancer associated with exenatide after its marketing. Noticeably, a recent study discovered that GLP-1 receptor could also be expressed in human papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC, but the impact of GLP-1 analogs on PTC is not known. Therefore, GLP-1 analogs might increase the risk of thyroid C-cell pathology in rodents, but its risk in humans awaits confirmation. Since GLP-1 receptor is also expressed in PTC besides C-cells, it is important to investigate the actions of GLP-1 on different subtypes of thyroid cancer in the future.

  5. Papillary Thyroid Cancer in a Child with Progressive Transformation of Germinal Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Suresh; DeNardo, Bradley; Stachurski, Dariusz; Greene Welch, Jennifer; Groblewski, Jan C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To describe the presentation and management of a child with Progressive Transformation of Germinal Centers (PTGC), an uncommon condition characterized by significant persistent lymphadenopathy, who developed papillary thyroid carcinoma and to explore and review potential links between PTGC and neoplastic processes in the head and neck. Methods. Case presentation and literature review are used. Results. A 10-year-old female presented with a right parotid mass and cervical lymphadenopathy. Multiple biopsies revealed PTGC without malignancy. Two years later, she developed fatigue and weight gain, and a thyroid nodule was found. Fine needle aspiration was strongly suggestive of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy and central neck dissection without surgical management of the longstanding right lateral neck lymphadenopathy. Final pathology confirmed papillary thyroid carcinoma. She was treated with radioactive iodine therapy postoperatively and remains free of disease at three years of follow-up. Conclusions. PTGC is considered a benign condition but has previously been associated with Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma (NLPHL). This is the first reported case of papillary thyroid cancer in a child with preexisting cervical PTGC and no defined risk factors for thyroid malignancy. No link has been established with thyroid carcinoma, but patients with PTGC may have a defect in immune surveillance that predisposes them to malignancy. PMID:27069706

  6. Papillary Thyroid Cancer in a Child with Progressive Transformation of Germinal Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe the presentation and management of a child with Progressive Transformation of Germinal Centers (PTGC, an uncommon condition characterized by significant persistent lymphadenopathy, who developed papillary thyroid carcinoma and to explore and review potential links between PTGC and neoplastic processes in the head and neck. Methods. Case presentation and literature review are used. Results. A 10-year-old female presented with a right parotid mass and cervical lymphadenopathy. Multiple biopsies revealed PTGC without malignancy. Two years later, she developed fatigue and weight gain, and a thyroid nodule was found. Fine needle aspiration was strongly suggestive of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy and central neck dissection without surgical management of the longstanding right lateral neck lymphadenopathy. Final pathology confirmed papillary thyroid carcinoma. She was treated with radioactive iodine therapy postoperatively and remains free of disease at three years of follow-up. Conclusions. PTGC is considered a benign condition but has previously been associated with Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma (NLPHL. This is the first reported case of papillary thyroid cancer in a child with preexisting cervical PTGC and no defined risk factors for thyroid malignancy. No link has been established with thyroid carcinoma, but patients with PTGC may have a defect in immune surveillance that predisposes them to malignancy.

  7. MRI findings of lumbosacral metastasis from occult follicular thyroid cancer: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoban, Gökçen; Yildirim, Erkan; Gemici, Kazim; Erinanç, Hilal

    2014-03-01

    A 63-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with bowel and bladder incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a 13 × 12 × 12 cm mass invading the posterior regions of the L4, L5, S1 and S2 vertebrae with broad paravertebral soft tissue invasion. A Tru-cut biopsy of the mass was performed. The histopathological examination revealed metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid functional tests were within the normal limits. Thyroid sonography revealed a heterogeneous, ill-defined, 14 × 9 mm hypoechoic solid nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid gland. On thyroid scintigraphy, an area of focal hyperactivity was detected in the right lobe at the nodule localization. Total thyroidectomy was performed, and the primary tumor pathology was determined to be follicular thyroid cancer. To our knowledge, only a few cases of lumbosacral cord compression as the initial manifestation of follicular thyroid carcinoma have been reported in the literature. We aimed to discuss the MRI findings of tumors in this age group with lumbosacral localization. PMID:23129029

  8. Living near nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyoung; Bang, Yejin; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-02-01

    There has been public concern regarding the safety of residing near nuclear power plants, and the extent of risk for thyroid cancer among adults living near nuclear power plants has not been fully explored. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the association between living near nuclear power plants and the risk of thyroid cancer. A comprehensive literature search was performed on studies published up to March 2015 on the association between nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk. The summary standardized incidence ratio (SIR), standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effect model of meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed by study quality. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis, covering 36 nuclear power stations in 10 countries. Overall, summary estimates showed no significant increased thyroid cancer incidence or mortality among residents living near nuclear power plants (summary SIR=0.98; 95% CI 0.87-1.11, summary SMR=0.80; 95% CI 0.62-1.04). The pooled estimates did not reveal different patterns of risk by gender, exposure definition, or reference population. However, sensitivity analysis by exposure definition showed that living less than 20 km from nuclear power plants was associated with a significant increase in the risk of thyroid cancer in well-designed studies (summary OR=1.75; 95% CI 1.17-2.64). Our study does not support an association between living near nuclear power plants and risk of thyroid cancer but does support a need for well-designed future studies.

  9. The Diffuse Sclerosing Variant of Papillary Thyroid Cancer Presenting as Innumerable Diffuse Microcalcifications in Underlying Adolescent Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Kwak, Jeong Ja

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common diffuse thyroid disease and is characterized by diffuse lymphocytic infiltration. However, the ultrasonographic findings of papillary thyroid carcinomas that arise from Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the pediatric and adolescent population are not well known. We report a rare ultrasonographic finding in a 22-year-old woman diagnosed with the diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma that arose from underlying Hashimoto's thyroiditis: innumerable diffuse microcalcifications instead of a typical malignant-appearing nodule. PMID:27015194

  10. Gene signature of the post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the nuclear accidents in Chernobyl and later in Fukushima, the nuclear community has been faced with important issues concerning how to search for and diagnose biological consequences of low-dose internal radiation contamination. Although after the Chernobyl accident an increase in childhood papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was observed, it is still not clear whether the molecular biology of PTCs associated with low-dose radiation exposure differs from that of sporadic PTC. We investigated tissue samples from 65 children/young adults with PTC using DNA microarray (Affymetrix, Human Genome U133 2.0 Plus) with the aim of identifying molecular differences between radiation-induced (exposed to Chernobyl radiation, ECR) and sporadic PTC. All participants were resident in the same region so that confounding factors related to genetics or environment were minimized. There were small but significant differences in the gene expression profiles between ECR and non-ECR PTC (global test, p < 0.01), with 300 differently expressed probe sets (p < 0.001) corresponding to 239 genes. Multifactorial analysis of variance showed that besides radiation exposure history, the BRAF mutation exhibited independent effects on the PTC expression profile; the histological subset and patient age at diagnosis had negligible effects. Ten genes (PPME1, HDAC11, SOCS7, CIC, THRA, ERBB2, PPP1R9A, HDGF, RAD51AP1, and CDK1) from the 19 investigated with quantitative RT-PCR were confirmed as being associated with radiation exposure in an independent, validation set of samples. Significant, but subtle, differences in gene expression in the post-Chernobyl PTC are associated with previous low-dose radiation exposure. (orig.)

  11. Gene signature of the post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Rusinek, Dagmara; Oczko-Wojciechowska, Malgorzata; Kowalska, Malgorzata; Jarzab, Barbara [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Swierniak, Michal [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Medical University of Warsaw, Genomic Medicine, Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery, Warsaw (Poland); Dom, Genevieve; Maenhaut, Carine; Detours, Vincent [Universite libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Institute of Interdisciplinary Research, Bruxelles (Belgium); Unger, Kristian [Imperial College London Hammersmith Hospital, Human Cancer Studies Group, Division of Surgery and Cancer, London (United Kingdom); Helmholtz-Zentrum, Research Unit Radiation Cytogenetics, Munich (Germany); Bogdanova, Tetiana [Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kiev (Ukraine); Thomas, Geraldine [Imperial College London Hammersmith Hospital, Human Cancer Studies Group, Division of Surgery and Cancer, London (United Kingdom); Likhtarov, Ilya [Academy of Technological Sciences of Ukraine, Radiation Protection Institute, Kiev (Ukraine); Jaksik, Roman [Silesian University of Technology, Systems Engineering Group, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Informatics, Gliwice (Poland); Chmielik, Ewa [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Tumour Pathology, Gliwice (Poland); Jarzab, Michal [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, IIIrd Department of Radiation Therapy, Gliwice (Poland); Swierniak, Andrzej [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Automatic Control, Gliwice (Poland)

    2016-07-15

    Following the nuclear accidents in Chernobyl and later in Fukushima, the nuclear community has been faced with important issues concerning how to search for and diagnose biological consequences of low-dose internal radiation contamination. Although after the Chernobyl accident an increase in childhood papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was observed, it is still not clear whether the molecular biology of PTCs associated with low-dose radiation exposure differs from that of sporadic PTC. We investigated tissue samples from 65 children/young adults with PTC using DNA microarray (Affymetrix, Human Genome U133 2.0 Plus) with the aim of identifying molecular differences between radiation-induced (exposed to Chernobyl radiation, ECR) and sporadic PTC. All participants were resident in the same region so that confounding factors related to genetics or environment were minimized. There were small but significant differences in the gene expression profiles between ECR and non-ECR PTC (global test, p < 0.01), with 300 differently expressed probe sets (p < 0.001) corresponding to 239 genes. Multifactorial analysis of variance showed that besides radiation exposure history, the BRAF mutation exhibited independent effects on the PTC expression profile; the histological subset and patient age at diagnosis had negligible effects. Ten genes (PPME1, HDAC11, SOCS7, CIC, THRA, ERBB2, PPP1R9A, HDGF, RAD51AP1, and CDK1) from the 19 investigated with quantitative RT-PCR were confirmed as being associated with radiation exposure in an independent, validation set of samples. Significant, but subtle, differences in gene expression in the post-Chernobyl PTC are associated with previous low-dose radiation exposure. (orig.)

  12. The thyroid cancer epidemic: Is it the dark side of the CT revolution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid increase in CT use since 1990 and especially in the past 10 years has been accompanied by a coterminous worldwide increase in incidence of thyroid cancer especially in women. Are the two trends independent or related? Specific information from many countries and seven American states suggest that the relationship is real as no other cause can account fully for the temporal change in the frequency of this malignancy. Moreover, newer techniques of CT performance with or without the administration of iodinated contrast material favor the likelihood of a contingent association of image test utilization and thyroid cancer induction

  13. Thyroid cancer in Belarus after Chernobyl: International thyroid project. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated what was always known but perhaps has not been as fully acknowledged as it might, namely that national or other geographical boundaries are no defence against radioactive fallout. Much (some 2.2 millions) of the approximately 10 million population of Belarus have been, and are still being, exposed to the radiation resulting from the accident. The most obvious adverse effect of the radiation is on the condition of the thyroid system in children. Now, only just over eight years after the accident, we are experiencing an increase in childhood thyroid cancer which is particularly marked in those closest to the site of the accident. In young children thyroid cancer is an extremely rare condition and thus although at present the numbers of cases (more than 250 since the accident) is not large in absolute terms it is a sufficiently important development to capture the interest of the international medical and scientific community and to give rise to considerable apprehension as to the future development of the outbreak. Although this increase in thyroid cancer has not been definitively attributed to the Chernobyl accident, and indeed a major aim of this project is to elucidate the cause of the cancer, the fact of the exposure of the population of Belarus to the isotopes of iodine at the time of accident, and what we have learned from the experience in the Marshall Islands following the testing of the first hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll lead us to consider the accident as the most likely cause of the increase. Belarus is a relatively small and newly independent country. By any standards the Chernobyl accident was a technological disaster of enormous proportions causing damage to the environment over vast land areas. Necessarily it must be a major concern for us and an issue to be considered in the planning of our future. Its impact on the future health of our nation must be assessed as objectively and dispassionately as possible and

  14. SIALOLITHIASIS IN PATIENTS WITH THYROID CANCER: TREATMENT, REHABILITATION AND PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doklaeva Malika Nurdynovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of the salivary glands is one of the most frequent pathologies among dental patients. Salivolithiasis is most common among the diseases of the salivary glands. Half of the patients after the surgery relapse stone formation. One of the etiological causes salivolithiasis is a violation of mineral metabolism. Known effects of thyroid hormones on the balance of bone remodeling. The aim of our study was to improve treatment of patients with salivolithiasis in thyroid pathology. Materials and methods. To determine thyroid function in patients were studied: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxine (free T4.. State of mineral metabolism was assessed by content in the blood calcium-regulating hormones parathyrin (PTH (pg / ml and calcitonin (CAT (pg / ml, a marker of bone resorption-Cross laps (ng / ml and bone formation - osteocalcin (ng / ml. Postoperatively, the patients were divided into two groups: the first consisted of patients with preoperative correction of thyroid status at the doctor, endocrinologist, the second (control - without preoperative correction of thyroid status doctor endocrinologist. Results. In the control group of patients compared with the group that received the necessary correction, much heavier passed the postoperative period. Output. Reasonable pharmacological correction in violation of mineral metabolism in patients with calculous sialadenitis is the best procedure that can reduce the number of complications such as acute exacerbations of chronic sialadenitis.

  15. Cabozantinib-S-Malate in Treating Patients With Refractory Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-04

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Tall Cell Variant Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Oncocytic Follicular Carcinoma

  16. Antioxidant defence-related genetic variants are not associated with higher risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodusek Ana Lina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is one of the most common secondary cancers after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. Thyroid gland is very sensitive to the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation, especially in children. Imbalance between pro- and anti-oxidant factors may play a role in thyroid carcinogenesis. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between genetic variability of antioxidant defence-related genes and the risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence.

  17. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: similar and dissimilar characteristics in neighboring areas. Possible implications for the epidemiology of thyroid cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Latina

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Medical centers worldwide report an increased frequency of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and thyroid cancer (TC, two environmentally influenced diseases. In Sicily, data on HT are available for the province of Messina (1975-2005; data on TC are available for the whole island (2002-2004, with the volcanic province of Catania having the highest incidence. OBJECTIVE: To replicate in Catania, on comparable years, the HT data of Messina. DESIGN METHODS SETTING: Review of the clinical records of patients in years 1995-2005 to compare presentation and yearly changes of HT. During 1995-2005, records were computer stored in the Endocrine Divisions of the University Hospitals of Catania and Messina, two tertiary referral centers. RESULTS: Catania is outnumbered by Messina (742 vs. 3,409 HT patients. Similar were the linear increase in the yearly number of HT patients, rates of thyroid dysfunctions though with different proportions of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism, and rates of positiveness for TgAb or TPOAb. Different were age and its yearly trend; gender distribution and rates of the sonography variants, though yearly trends were similar. CONCLUSION: The HT epidemics is smaller in Catania, with changes in presentation overlapping partially those in Messina. Whatever environmental factors might be involved, they (and/or their intensity were not necessarily the same in these provinces. Intriguingly, the expected number of TC in HT patients with thyroid nodules in Catania is congruent with that of the general population of this province, but it is far less than in the Messina province. Thus, TC and HT incidences could be influenced by distinct environmental factors.

  18. Dose distribution in the thyroid gland following radiation therapy of breast cancer-a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To relate the development of post-treatment hypothyroidism with the dose distribution within the thyroid gland in breast cancer (BC) patients treated with loco-regional radiotherapy (RT). In two groups of BC patients postoperatively irradiated by computer tomography (CT)-based RT, the individual dose distributions in the thyroid gland were compared with each other; Cases developed post-treatment hypothyroidism after multimodal treatment including 4-field RT technique. Matched patients in Controls remained free for hypothyroidism. Based on each patient's dose volume histogram (DVH) the volume percentages of the thyroid absorbing respectively 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy were then estimated (V20, V30, V40 and V50) together with the individual mean thyroid dose over the whole gland (MeanTotGy). The mean and median thyroid dose for the included patients was about 30 Gy, subsequently the total volume of the thyroid gland (VolTotGy) and the absolute volumes (cm3) receiving respectively < 30 Gy and ≥ 30 Gy were calculated (Vol < 30 and Vol ≥ 30) and analyzed. No statistically significant inter-group differences were found between V20, V30, V40 and V50Gy or the median of MeanTotGy. The median VolTotGy in Controls was 2.3 times above VolTotGy in Cases (ρ = 0.003), with large inter-individual variations in both groups. The volume of the thyroid gland receiving < 30 Gy in Controls was almost 2.5 times greater than the comparable figure in Cases. We concluded that in patients with small thyroid glands after loco-radiotherapy of BC, the risk of post-treatment hypothyroidism depends on the volume of the thyroid gland

  19. On the cells of origin of radiogenic thyroid cancer: New studies based on an old idea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, K.H.; Domann, F.E.; Groch, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    We have presented evidence that the functional thyroid follicles (follicular units, FU) which are formed in grafts of monodispersed rat thyroid cells, and hence the thyroid tumors which later develop in such grafts, are clonal in origin. Recent studies have been designed to investigate: whether cell number-dependent inhibition of promotion-progression is mediated by remote hormonal feed-back, local cell-cell interactions, or both; the cell population kinetics of the clonogen subpopulation during goitrogenesis and goiter involution; and the effect of prolonged exposure to high levels of TSH (thyrotropin) on the capacity of the clonogens to give rise to functional FU. The results indicate that local cell-cell interactions play an important role in the cell number-dependent suppression of neoplastic promotion-progression. They also show that if sufficient thyroid cells are grafted, the thyroid-pituitary axis can be reestablished in thyroidectomized rats fed normal diets. In such animals given iodine deficient diets, the FU that develop in the thyroid grafts shift their secretory pattern to increase the ratio of T3 (triiodothyronine) to T4 (thyroxine), and thus conserve the available iodine. Finally, the clonogenic subpopulation is conserved during both goitrogenesis and goiter involution. When they are transplanted to thyroidectomized recipients, clonogens from two types of goiters form FU that are morphologically indistinguishable from those that develop in grafts of normal thyroid clonogens. Furthermore, the secretion of T3 and T4 by such grafts is dependent on the grafted clonogen number, and hence FU formation, and not on the total number of thyroid cells transplanted. We conclude that the thyroid clonogens, the presumptive cancer progenitor cells, have many of the characteristics of stem cells.

  20. Dose distribution in the thyroid gland following radiation therapy of breast cancer-a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knutstad K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To relate the development of post-treatment hypothyroidism with the dose distribution within the thyroid gland in breast cancer (BC patients treated with loco-regional radiotherapy (RT. Methods and materials In two groups of BC patients postoperatively irradiated by computer tomography (CT-based RT, the individual dose distributions in the thyroid gland were compared with each other; Cases developed post-treatment hypothyroidism after multimodal treatment including 4-field RT technique. Matched patients in Controls remained free for hypothyroidism. Based on each patient's dose volume histogram (DVH the volume percentages of the thyroid absorbing respectively 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy were then estimated (V20, V30, V40 and V50 together with the individual mean thyroid dose over the whole gland (MeanTotGy. The mean and median thyroid dose for the included patients was about 30 Gy, subsequently the total volume of the thyroid gland (VolTotGy and the absolute volumes (cm3 receiving respectively Results No statistically significant inter-group differences were found between V20, V30, V40 and V50Gy or the median of MeanTotGy. The median VolTotGy in Controls was 2.3 times above VolTotGy in Cases (ρ = 0.003, with large inter-individual variations in both groups. The volume of the thyroid gland receiving Conclusions We concluded that in patients with small thyroid glands after loco-radiotherapy of BC, the risk of post-treatment hypothyroidism depends on the volume of the thyroid gland.

  1. Diagnostic features of lung metastases differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Geliashvili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The worldwide increasing incidence of thyroid cancer (TC is mainly due to a rise in its major form of differentiated TC (DTC: papillary. Most patients with DTC have a good prognosis; 10-year survival overall rates are as high as 85 %, but not greater than 40 % in a group of patients with distant metastases. At the same time, the lung is the most frequent target for distant metastases, accounting for 70 % of all sites.Objective: to estimate and compare the capabilities of different diagnostic techniques to detect lung metastases of DTC. Materials and methods. The results of diagnosing lung metastases were retrospectively analyzed in 36 patients (33 women and 3 men; mean age 53 years with DTC (29 patients with papillary TC and 7 with follicular TC treated at the department of radiotherapy with systemic therapy, Chelyabinsk Regional Clinical Oncology Center from 2011 to 2014.Results. Chest X-ray could reveal pulmonary metastases in 13 (36 % patients; lung pathology foci were absent in 23 (64 % patients. 131I whole-body scintigraphy (WBS proved to be of informative value in 24 (66.7 % patients, it displayed no increased accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in the lung of 12 (33.3 % cases. Multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT of the chest was carried out in 22 (61 % patients; out of them 21 (95.5 % were found to have 1.4-to-20-mm lung cancer foci. 18Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET / CT was performed in 18 (50 % patients, which showed 3–26-mm lung pathology foci in all the patents; out of them 16 (88.9 % were detected to have metastases owing to the CT component of this method. Thus, the highest sensitivity was exhibited by MSCT (95.5 %, 18FDG PET / CT (100 % due to its CT component, and 131I WBS (66.7 %.Conclusion. When lung metastases of DTC are suspected, 1 chest X-ray should be used as a screening test; 2 131I WBS should be performed in all patients; 3 MSCT of the chest is

  2. Thyroid cancer imaging in vivo by targeting the anti-apoptotic molecule galectin-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Bartolazzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of thyroid nodules increases with age, average 4-7% for the U.S.A. adult population, but it is much higher (19-67% when sub-clinical nodules are considered. About 90% of these lesions are benign and a reliable approach to their preoperative characterization is necessary. Unfortunately conventional thyroid scintigraphy does not allow the distinction among benign and malignant thyroid proliferations but it provides only functional information (cold or hot nodules. The expression of the anti-apoptotic molecule galectin-3 is restricted to cancer cells and this feature has potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications. We show here the possibility to obtain thyroid cancer imaging in vivo by targeting galectin-3. METHODS: The galectin-3 based thyroid immuno-scintigraphy uses as radiotracer a specific (99mTc-radiolabeled mAb. A position-sensitive high-resolution mini-gamma camera was used as imaging capture device. Human galectin-3 positive thyroid cancer xenografts (ARO and galectin-3 knockout tumors were used as targets in different experiments in vivo. 38 mice with tumor mass of about 1 gm were injected in the tail vein with 100 microCi of (99mTc-labeled mAb to galectin-3 (30 microg protein/in 100 microl saline solution. Tumor images were acquired at 1 hr, 3 hrs, 6 hrs, 9 hrs and 24 hrs post injection by using the mini-gamma camera. FINDINGS: Results from different consecutive experiments show an optimal visualization of thyroid cancer xenografts between 6 and 9 hours from injection of the radiotracer. Galectin-3 negative tumors were not detected at all. At 6 hrs post-injection galectin-3 expressing tumors were correctly visualized, while the whole-body activity had essentially cleared. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the possibility to distinguish preoperatively benign from malignant thyroid nodules by using a specific galectin-3 radio-immunotargeting. In vivo imaging of thyroid cancer may allow a better

  3. Genetically Engineered Immunotherapy for Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this trial, doctors will collect T lymphocytes from patients with advanced mesothelin-expressing cancer and genetically engineer them to recognize mesothelin. The gene-engineered cells will be multiplied and infused into the patient to fight the cancer

  4. The discovery and development of sorafenib for the treatment of thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peter T; Cohen, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction While the prognosis for most differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) remains excellent, recurrence and in-sensitivity to radioactive iodine (RAI) lead to therapeutic challenges and poorer outcomes. In defining the pathogenesis of DTC, multiple genetic alterations have been identified in key pathways focused around receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and the MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade. Sorafenib was specifically developed to target RAF kinase in the MAPK pathway. It has been shown however to have potent inhibition of several key RTKs, RAF kinase, and the V600E BRAF mutation, gaining FDA approval in November 2013 for advanced RAI-refractory DTC. Areas covered The authors provide a review of the targeted RAF kinase discovery strategy as well as the preclinical and clinical development of sorafenib, leading to FDA approval for DTC. The authors also provide some insight into the clinical use of sorafenib and look at important considerations for treatment. Expert opinion Sorafenib significantly improves progression free survival in metastatic DTC patients who are RAI-refractory. However, the overall survival benefit is still unproven and requires additional follow-up. Despite its cost and significant side effect profile, which results in dose reductions in the majority of DTC patients, sorafenib should be considered for the treatment of RAI-refractory advanced DTC patients following evaluation of their individual risk/benefit stratification. PMID:25662396

  5. Comparison of therapeutic efficacy and clinical parameters between recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid hormone withdrawal in high-dose radioiodine treatment with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Se Hun; Na, Chang Ju; Kim, Jeong Hun; Han, Yeon Hee; KIm, Hee Kwon; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee; Lim, Seok Tae [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    High-dose radioiodine treatment (HD-RIT) after injection of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rh-TSH) has become widely used. This study compared the therapeutic efficacy of HD-RIT and clinical parameters between rh-TSH supplement and thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) after total thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 266 patients (47 male and 219 female; age, 49.0 ± 10.9 years) with differentiated thyroid cancer detected from September 2011 to September 2012. Patients comprised THW (217, 81.6 %) and rh-TSH (49, 18.4 %). Inclusion criteria were: first HD-RIT; any TN stage; absence of distant metastasis. To evaluate the complete ablation of the remnant thyroid tissue or metastasis, we reviewed stimulated serum thyroglobulin (sTg), I-123 whole-body scan (RxWBS) on T4 off-state, and thyroid ultrasonography (US) or [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) 6–8 months after HD-RIT. We defined a complete ablation state when all three of the follow-up conditions were satisfied; <2.0 ng/ml of the sTg, I-123 RxWBS (−), and thyroid US or F-18 FDG PET/CT (−). If one of the three was positive, ablation was considered incomplete. We also compared various clinical biomarkers (body weight, body mass index, liver and kidney function) between THW and rh-TSH groups. The rates of complete ablation were 73.7 % (160/217) for the THW group and 73.5 % (36/49) for the rh-TSH group. There was no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.970). The follow-up aspartate transaminase (p = 0.001) and alanine transaminase (p = 0.001) were significantly higher in the THW group. The renal function parameters of blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.001) and creatinine (p = 0.005) tended to increase in the THW group. The change of body weight was + Δ0.96 (±1.9) kg for the THW group and was decreased by -Δ1.39 (±1.5) kg for the rh-TSH group. The change

  6. Comparison of therapeutic efficacy and clinical parameters between recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid hormone withdrawal in high-dose radioiodine treatment with differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-dose radioiodine treatment (HD-RIT) after injection of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rh-TSH) has become widely used. This study compared the therapeutic efficacy of HD-RIT and clinical parameters between rh-TSH supplement and thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) after total thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 266 patients (47 male and 219 female; age, 49.0 ± 10.9 years) with differentiated thyroid cancer detected from September 2011 to September 2012. Patients comprised THW (217, 81.6 %) and rh-TSH (49, 18.4 %). Inclusion criteria were: first HD-RIT; any TN stage; absence of distant metastasis. To evaluate the complete ablation of the remnant thyroid tissue or metastasis, we reviewed stimulated serum thyroglobulin (sTg), I-123 whole-body scan (RxWBS) on T4 off-state, and thyroid ultrasonography (US) or [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) 6–8 months after HD-RIT. We defined a complete ablation state when all three of the follow-up conditions were satisfied; <2.0 ng/ml of the sTg, I-123 RxWBS (−), and thyroid US or F-18 FDG PET/CT (−). If one of the three was positive, ablation was considered incomplete. We also compared various clinical biomarkers (body weight, body mass index, liver and kidney function) between THW and rh-TSH groups. The rates of complete ablation were 73.7 % (160/217) for the THW group and 73.5 % (36/49) for the rh-TSH group. There was no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.970). The follow-up aspartate transaminase (p = 0.001) and alanine transaminase (p = 0.001) were significantly higher in the THW group. The renal function parameters of blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.001) and creatinine (p = 0.005) tended to increase in the THW group. The change of body weight was + Δ0.96 (±1.9) kg for the THW group and was decreased by -Δ1.39 (±1.5) kg for the rh-TSH group. The change

  7. Hypothyroidism after Radiotherapy of Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the incidence of hypothyroidism in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients who received radiotherapy (RT) either with or without neck dissection. From January 2000 to December 2005, 115 patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer and who received definitive RT or postoperative RT including standard anterior low-neck field were recruited to be part of this study. Nineteen patients had undergone ipsilateral neck dissection, whereas, 18 patients underwent bilateral neck dissection, and 78 patients were received RT alone. Patients' ages ranged from 28 to 85 years (median, 59 years) and there were a total of 73 male and 42 female patients. The primary tumor sites were the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, and other sites in 18, 40, 28, 22 and 7 patients, respectively. Radiation dose to the thyroid gland ranged from 44 Gy to 66 Gy with a median dose of 50 Gy. Follow-up time ranged from 2 to 91 months, with a median of 29 months. The 1- and 3- year incidence of hypothyroidism was 28.7% (33 patients) and 33.0% (38 patients), respectively. The median time to detection of hypothyroidism was 8.5 months (range, 0 to 36 months). A univariate analysis revealed that neck node dissection was a risk factor for hypothyroidism (p=0.037). However, no factor was statistically significant from the results of a multivariate analysis. Patients treated for advanced head and neck cancer with radiotherapy with or without neck dissection will develop hypothyroidism. It is important to check the thyroid function periodically in these patients especially with the risk factor of neck node dissection.

  8. Hypothyroidism after Radiotherapy of Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Eun; Eun; Kim, Jae Chul; Park, In Kyu [Kyungpook National Yonsei University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Yea, Ji Woon [Dongguk University Gyeongju Hospital, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    The aim of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the incidence of hypothyroidism in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients who received radiotherapy (RT) either with or without neck dissection. From January 2000 to December 2005, 115 patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer and who received definitive RT or postoperative RT including standard anterior low-neck field were recruited to be part of this study. Nineteen patients had undergone ipsilateral neck dissection, whereas, 18 patients underwent bilateral neck dissection, and 78 patients were received RT alone. Patients' ages ranged from 28 to 85 years (median, 59 years) and there were a total of 73 male and 42 female patients. The primary tumor sites were the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, and other sites in 18, 40, 28, 22 and 7 patients, respectively. Radiation dose to the thyroid gland ranged from 44 Gy to 66 Gy with a median dose of 50 Gy. Follow-up time ranged from 2 to 91 months, with a median of 29 months. The 1- and 3- year incidence of hypothyroidism was 28.7% (33 patients) and 33.0% (38 patients), respectively. The median time to detection of hypothyroidism was 8.5 months (range, 0 to 36 months). A univariate analysis revealed that neck node dissection was a risk factor for hypothyroidism (p=0.037). However, no factor was statistically significant from the results of a multivariate analysis. Patients treated for advanced head and neck cancer with radiotherapy with or without neck dissection will develop hypothyroidism. It is important to check the thyroid function periodically in these patients especially with the risk factor of neck node dissection.

  9. Thyroid cancer patients in the Hospital Nacional de Ninos during the period from 1992 to 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive study was conducted on the presentation, management and monitoring of the patients with thyroid cancer in the pediatric population under 12 years, at once of diagnosis, in the Hospital Nacional de Ninos of Costa Rica. It covers the period from 1992 to 2002. The clinical records were revised in retrospect. Information was collected of the patient, risk factors, laboratory tests, initial surgical therapy, treatment with radioiodine and the illness evolution. There were no family histories of thyroid cancer or radiation history of head and neck radiation in any patient. Thyroid ultrasound was performed in all patients. Also it was made a biopsy by fine needle aspiration in 11 (78.5%) patients, 2 patients the diagnosis was made by puncture of adenopia, 5 (45.4.7%) patients were obtained diagnosis of malignancy. Follicular nodule in 2 patients (18.1%) suspected in a patient and benign in 3 (27.2%) patients

  10. Thyroid cancer in child (about 9 cases); Le cancer de la thyroide chez l'enfant (a propos de 9 cas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ech-Charraq, I.; Ben Rais, N. [CHU Ibn Sina Rabat-Sale, Service de Medecine Nucleaire (Morocco)

    2009-12-15

    Children thyroid cancer is a very uncommon affection. Its incidence has sharply risen among the patients who underwent therapeutic irradiation and after the Chernobylsk accident in the contaminated regions. Our study consists of emphasizing the distinctive features of children thyroid cancer on the epidemiological, clinical and para clinical aspects, in order to discuss diagnostic difficulties, prognostic elements as well as a therapeutic approach. Through a study conducted in the nuclear medical department of Rabat, we brought together 9 cases of thyroid cancer in children aged between 11 and 15 years old. In our series, the average age is 13 years, with a feminine prevalence. A family notion of goitre is reported in one case, without notion of irradiation, the revealing mode is mainly an euthyroid goitre and the cervical adenopathies, with good general health conditions being maintained. The scintigraphy showed a cold nodule, witch anatomo-pathological examination is papillary carcinoma. Extensive surgery, ira therapy and substitute hormonal treatment combined allowed a high recovery rate among our patients, with no side effects. The medium-term evolution was positive even in metastases cases. The prognostic is generally good, especially in the differentiated forms. (authors)

  11. The prevalence of thyroid tissue along the thyroglossal tract on SPECT/CT following I131 ablation therapy after total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: the aims of this study are first to determine the prevalence of thyroid tissue along the thyroglossal tract on SPECT/CT and secondly to assess the contribution of this tissue to total neck I-131 activity in patients treated with I-131 ablation therapy after total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer. Materials and methods: a total of 63 consecutive patients with well differentiated thyroid cancer treated with total thyroidectomy underwent whole body planar imaging and SPECT/CT of the neck 48 hours following ablative I-131 therapy. On SPECT/CT, thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue was defined as radioiodine activity in the anterior neck, superior to the thyroid bed in close proximity to the midline without evidence of localisation to lymph nodes. On planar imaging, thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue was defined as linear radioiodine activity in the midline of the neck superior to the thyroid bed. SPECT/CT and planar images were classified by two independent reviewers as positive, negative or equivocal with interobserver agreement quantified using a Kappa score. Disagreement was resolved using a third reviewer. Quantitation of thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue and total neck I-131 activity was performed using region of interest analysis on planar imaging following localisation on SPECT/CT. Results: thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue was present in 31/63 (49%; 95% CI: 37-61%) patients on SPECT/CT. In these 31 patients, thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue contributed to an average of 49% of total neck activity. Interobserver agreement was substantial on SPECT/CT (Kappa = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.61-0.91) and fair on planar imaging (Kappa = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.15-0.47). Conclusion: thyroid tissue along the thyroglossal tract was present in one half of patients in our study population and can contribute to a significant amount of total neck I-131 activity. Given the high prevalence of thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue, our results suggest that total neck

  12. Is there any association between Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and thyroid cancer? A retrospective data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daysi Maria de Alcântara-Jones

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. Materials and Methods: The patients were evaluated by ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology. Typical cytopathological aspects and/or classical histopathological findings were taken into consideration in the diagnosis of HT, and only histopathological results were considered in the diagnosis of PTC. Results: Among 1,049 patients with multi- or uninodular goiter (903 women and 146 men, 173 (16.5% had cytopathological features of thyroiditis. Thirty-three (67.4% out of the 49 operated patients had PTC, 9 (27.3% of them with histopathological features of HT. Five (31.3% out of the 16 patients with non-malignant disease also had HT. In the groups with HT, PTC, and PCT+HT, the female prevalence rate was 100%, 91.6%, and 77.8%, respectively. Mean age was 41.5, 43.3, and 48.5 years, respectively. No association was observed between the two diseases in the present study where HT occurred in 31.1% of the benign cases and in 27.3% of malignant cases (p = 0.8. Conclusion: In spite of the absence of association between HT and PCT, the possibility of malignancy in HT should always be considered because of the coexistence of the two diseases already reported in the literature.

  13. Iodine deficiency and thyroid nodular pathology - epidemiological and cancer characteristics in different populations: Portugal and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, José Eduardo Carvalho; Kalk, William John; Freitas, Miguel; Marques Carreira, Isabel; Castelo Branco, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence and pathology pattern of iodine deficiency (ID) related disorders are influenced by the dietary iodine intake: low iodine leads to thyroid nodular enlargement, to an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer, an increase in anaplastic carcinomas and to an alteration in the papillary to follicular neoplasia ratio. This study aims at highlighting the effects of ID by comparatively evaluating the pattern of thyroid nodular pathology in different populations that, alth...

  14. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy of thyroid cancer metastasis: case report and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochetti, Giovanni; Puxeddu, Efisio; Zingaro, Michele Del; D’Amico, Francesco; Cottini, Emanuele; Barillaro, Francesco; Mearini, Ettore

    2013-01-01

    Background Follicular cell thyroid carcinoma is a quite aggressive form of thyroid cancer. About 10% of follicular thyroid carcinoma shows multiple metastases: lung and bone are the most common sites of metastasis. Renal involvement from thyroid primary cancer is very rare with incidence of 4.5%–5.9%. Purpose We report the first laparoscopic conservative treatment of renal metastasis from thyroid cancer. This is a new and useful approach in order to delay malignant disease progression and to reduce the surgical discomfort of the patient. Patients and methods We present the case of a 67-year-old woman, undergoing total thyroidectomy for follicular thyroid cancer with bone and lung metastasis. During adjuvant radiometabolic treatment, renal metastasis was diagnosed. Renal metastasis showed high metabolic activity, reducing the effectiveness of radioiodine therapy for secondary lesions. For this reason, we performed a laparoscopic simple enucleation of the single renal metastasis using extraperitoneal access and a clampless procedure. Results The excision of the renal lesion improved the effectiveness of adjuvant radioiodine therapy: two months after surgery, the patient underwent adjuvant radiometabolic treatment with iodine-131 (150 mCi) and the following whole body scan showed only a small uptaking area at the level of the vertebral metastasis. The lung micrometastases were not detectable. At 36 months follow-up, malignant disease was clinically stable and well controlled. Conclusion Minimally invasive renal surgery with preservation of renal function and rapid recovery contributed to the success of radioiodine therapy and delayed the progression of the disease. PMID:23596352

  15. Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene found for the first time in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamatani, K.; Mukai, M.; Takahashi, K.; Nakachi, K.; Kusunoki, Y. [Radiobiology/Molecular Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Hayashi, Y. [Geriatric Health Service Facility Hidamari, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: Thyroid cancer is one of the malignancies most strongly associated with ionizing radiation in humans. Epidemiology studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have indicated that excess relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer per Gy was remarkably high in the survivors. We therefore aim to clarify mechanisms linking A-bomb radiation exposure and development of papillary thyroid cancer. Toward this end, we intend to clarify characteristics of gene alterations occurring in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of A-bomb survivors. We have thus far found that with increased radiation dose, papillary thyroid cancer cases with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC rearrangements) significantly increased and papillary thyroid cancer cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF-V600E) significantly decreased. Papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations that carried no mutations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF or RAS genes tended to increase with increased radiation dose. In addition, we found that relative frequency of these papillary thyroid cancer cases significantly decreased with time elapsed since exposure. Through analysis of papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations, we recently discovered a new type of rearrangement for the first time in papillary thyroid cancer, i.e., rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, although identification of any partner gene(s) is needed. Specifically, rearrangement of ALK was found in 10 of 19 exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations but not in any of the six non-exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases. Furthermore, papillary thyroid cancer with ALK rearrangement was frequently found in the cases with high radiation dose or with short time elapsed since A-bomb exposure. These results suggest that chromosomal rearrangement, typically of RET and ALK, may play an important

  16. Reproductive Factors but Not Hormonal Factors Associated with Thyroid Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijuan Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated the association between hormonal and reproductive factors and thyroid cancer risk but provided contradictory and inconclusive findings. This review was aimed at precisely estimating this association by pooling all available epidemiological studies. 25 independent studies were retrieved after a comprehensive literature search in databases of PubMed and Embase. Overall, common hormonal factors including oral contraceptive and hormone replacement therapy did not alter the risk of thyroid cancer. Older age at menopause was associated with weakly increased risk of thyroid cancer in overall analysis (RR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.00–1.53, P=0.049; however, longer duration of breast feeding was related to moderately reduced risk of thyroid cancer, suggested by pooled analysis in all cohort studies (RR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.51–0.95, P=0.021. The pooled RR in hospital-based case-control studies implicated that parous women were more susceptible to thyroid cancer than nulliparous women (RR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.31–4.04, P=0.004. The present meta-analysis suggests that older age at menopause and parity are risk factors for thyroid cancer, while longer duration of breast feeding plays a protective role against this cancer. Nevertheless, more relevant epidemiological studies are warranted to investigate roles of hormonal and reproductive factors in thyroid carcinogenesis.

  17. Perspectivas de novos tratamentos para o carcinoma tireoidiano avançado Perspectives for new treatments in advanced thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluízio Rodrigues

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of thyroid cancer, the greatest problem existis in tumors that continue to grow or express recurrences, despite surgical, radioidine or t4 supressive therapies. Improved knowledge of the molecular biology of tumors showed that elevated expression of oncogeneses, uncontrolled ativation of tyrosine cinase receptors and their signaling pathways, and inibition of programmed apoptosis are all important factors in the origin and evolution of tumors and their metastasis. The development of therapies targeted against especific molecular deregulation envolved in tumor progression is now been evaluated, with sucess, in various types of cancer. In thyroid cancer, target therapies using drugs, antibodies, genes, and small molecules are in development in preclinical studies and show a potential role in the managment of thyroid cancer, in the future. In this review, some of these studies are discussed.

  18. Changes in the Pulmonary Function Test after Radioactive Iodine Treatment in Patients with Pulmonary Metastases of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Eun Kyung; Kim, Won Gu; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Huh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Hyemi; Choi, Yun Mi; Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Kim, Won Bae

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pulmonary function test (PFT) is a useful tool for an objective assessment of respiratory function. Impaired pulmonary function is critical for the survival and quality of life in patients with pulmonary metastases of solid cancers including thyroid cancer. This study aimed to evaluate clinical factors associated with severely impaired pulmonary function by serial assessment with PFT in patients with pulmonary metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) who received radioactiv...

  19. [Innovation in Surgery for Advanced Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tomoyuki; Yasunori, Sohara; Endo, Shunsuke

    2016-07-01

    Thoracoscopic surgery can be one of less invasive surgical interventions for early stage lung cancer. Locally advanced lung cancer, however, cannot avoid aggressive procedures including pneumonectomy and/or extended combined resection of chest wall, aorta, esophagus, etc. for complete resection. Surgical approach even for advanced lung cancer can be less invasive by benefit from new anti-cancer treatment, innovated manipulations of bronchoplasty and angioplasty, and bench surgery( lung autotransplantation technique). We herein reviewed the strategy to minimize invasive interventions for locally advanced lung cancer, introducing 2 successful cases with advanced lung cancer. The 1st patient is a 62-year old man with centrally advanced lung cancer invading to mediastinum. Right upper sleeve lobectomy with one-stoma carinoplasty following induction chemoradiation therapy was successful. The operation time was 241 minutes. The performance status is good with no recurrence for 60 months after surgery. The 2nd is a 79-year old man with advanced lung cancer invading to the distal aortic arch. Left upper segmentectomy following thoracic endovascular aortic repair with stentgraft was successful with no extracorporeal circulation. The operation time was 170 minutes. The performance status is good with no recurrence for 30 months after surgery. The invasiveness of surgical interventions for local advanced lung cancer can be minimized by innovated device and new anti-cancer drugs. PMID:27440037

  20. Sorafenib in radioactive iodine-refractory well-differentiated metastatic thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Daniel C McFarland,1 Krzysztof J Misiukiewicz2,31Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 2Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, 3Department of Otolaryngology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Ruttenberg Treatment Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Recent Phase III data presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO 2013 annual conference by Brose et al led to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval of sorafenib for the treatment of well-differentiated radioactive iodine-resistant metastatic thyroid cancer. This is the second drug in 40 years to be FDA approved for this indication. Recent reviews and a meta-analysis reveal a modest ability to induce a partial remission but substantial ability to halt disease progression. Given the significant activating mutations present in thyroid cancer, many of which are inhibited by sorafenib, the next logical approach may be to combine targeted rational therapies if permitted by collective toxicity profiles. This systematic review aims to summarize the recent Phase II/III data leading to the FDA approval of sorafenib for radioactive iodine therapy differentiated thyroid cancer and highlights recent novel combination therapy trials.Keywords: tyrosine kinase inhibitors, targeted therapy, RAI DTC, novel thyroid cancer treatment

  1. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer - I. Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negri, E; Ron, E; Franceschi, S; Dal Maso, L; Mark, SD; Preston-Martin, S; McTiernan, A; Kolonel, L; Kleinerman, R; Land, C; Jin, F; Wingren, G; Galanti, MR; Hallquist, A; Glattre, E; Lund, E; Levi, F; Linos, D; Braga, C; La Vecchia, C

    1999-01-01

    Objective. Because the etiology of thyroid cancer is not well described, we conducted a pooled analysis of all published case-control studies, as well as two identified unpublished studies. This paper describes the major characteristics of the 14 studies included in the analysis, as well as the stat

  2. A CASE OF SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT OF PRIMARY MULTIPLE CANCER OF THE OROPHARYNX AND THYROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Madzhidov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the author’s practice case of successful radiotherapy (gamma-teletherapy using the radio modifier 5-fluorouracil for squamous cell carcinoma of the palatine tonsils and surgery for metachronous papillary thyroid cancer occurring 15 years later.

  3. Thyroid cancer in Denmark 1943-2008, before and after iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, M; Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Andersen, K K;

    2012-01-01

    in both sexes; in men from 0.41 to 1.57 per 100,000 and from 0.90 to 4.11 per 100,000 in women, corresponding to a significant average annual percentage change of 1.7 and 1.8%, respectively. The incidence increased with younger birth cohorts. The rise was almost exclusively caused by papillary carcinomas......Thyroid cancer incidence has increased worldwide during the previous decades. In this nationwide study, we aimed to identify the overall incidence of thyroid cancer in Denmark during 66 years (1943-2008) and incidences of the four main histological types of thyroid cancer from 1978 to 2008. Data......-period-cohort models were fitted to describe trends in incidence. To quantify trends in incidence over time, log-linear Poisson models were used to estimate annual percentage change. From 1943 to 2008, 1,947 men (29%) and 4,682 women (71%) were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. The age-standardized incidence increased...

  4. Detection of bone metastases in thyroid cancer patients : Bone scintigraphy or F-18-DG PET?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, Ha T. T.; Jager, Pieter L.; Plukker, John T. M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Links, Thera P.

    2007-01-01

    Background Similar to the situation in other tumour types, it is currently unclear whether fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is adequate in the detection of bone metastases of thyroid cancer. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the performance of bone sc

  5. The value of detectable thyroglobulin in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer after initial I-131 therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, D.; Plukker, J. T. M.; van der Horst-Schrivers, A. N. A.; Jansen, L.; Brouwers, A. H.; Muller-Kobold, A.; Sluiter, W. J.; Links, T. P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the prognostic value of detectable thyroglobulin (Tg) after initial surgery and radioactive iodine (I-131) therapy by comparing patients with a negative post-therapeutic whole body scan (WBS) with either detectable or undetectable Tg. Background Differentiated thyroid cancer has

  6. Implications of thyroglobulin antibody positivity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: a clinical position statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, F.A.; Luster, M.; Cupini, C.; Chiovato, L.; Duntas, L.; Elisei, R.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.; Rimmele, H.; Seregni, E.; Smit, J.W.A.; Theimer, C.; Giovanella, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Even though the presence of antithyroglobulin antibodies (TgAbs) represents a significant problem in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), the current guidelines on the management of DTC that have been published in recent years contain no text concerning the

  7. Radiofrequency induction on sodium/iodide symporter expression of thyroid cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youxin Tian; Qinjiang Liu; Yaqiong Ni

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the ef ects of radiofrequency treatment on sodium/iodide symporter expression of thyroid cancer cells. Methods:In 29 thyroid cancer patients with low or no expression of soda\\iodide symporter, the radio frequency combined 131I therapy was used, the whole-body scintigraphy and serum Ig were detected before and after the radiofrequency treatment. Results:The whole-body scintigraphy showed that 4 cases (4/29) before radiofrequency treatment had positive iodine uptake, 19 cases (19/29) two weeks after radiofrequency treatment had the positive iodine uptake, 12 cases (12/29) four weeks after radiofrequency treatment had the positive iodine uptake. Four weeks after radiofrequency treatment, 5 cases had increased serum Ig levels, 17 cases had decreased serum Ig levels, 7 cases showed no change. 25 cases (25/29) were ef ective, 15 cases (15/29) were cured. Conclusion:The radiofrequency induced the non-expressed the sodium/iodide symporter of thyroid cancer cells regain the iodine intake ability, it improved the clinical ef icacy of 131I therapy in dedif erentiated thyroid cancer.

  8. Diagnosis of medullary thyroid cancer and prognostic factors of disease aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D O Gazizova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study were enrolled 137 patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC. Low 35%-sensitivity of FNAC and high accuracy of basal calcitonin in MTC diagnostics were found. Mutation analysis of the RET pro- tooncogene in familial and sporadic MTC, RAS -gene in sporadic MTC were done. The correlation between type of the mutation and disease aggressiveness was found.

  9. Diagnosis, surgical treatment and follow-up of thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the activities and the results of the research carried out by the Centers participating to the JSP4 project, within the framework of the EU program on the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. The project was aimed to develop and to control the application of basic principles for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of thyroid carcinoma, with special attention to the peculiar requirement of children and adolescents. To this purpose, training in Western European Centers was offered to a number of scientists from Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. Several official meetings were organized to share views and to discuss the progress of the project. A basic protocol for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of thyroid carcinoma has been developed and approved by all participating Centers. Hopefully, it will be applied to the new cases and to those already under monitoring. A large part of the protocol is dedicated to the post-surgical treatment with thyroid hormones for the suppression of TSH and with calcitriol for the management of surgical hypoparathyroidism. A detailed protocol to asses iodine deficiency and, eventually, to introduce a program of iodine supplementation has been proposed. The collection of control cases of childhood thyroid carcinoma in non-radiation exposed European countries has been initiated in Italy, France and Germany. This data will be used as control for the post-Chernobyl childhood thyroid carcinomas. Here is reported a preliminary comparison of the clinical and epidemiological features of almost all (n=368) radiation-exposed Belarus children who developed thyroid carcinoma (age at diagnosis < 16 years), with respect to 90 children of the same age group, who, in the past 20 years, have received treatment for thyroid carcinoma in two centers in Italy (Pisa and Rome). Finally, by molecular biology, genetic mutations of the RET proto-oncogene have been found in several samples of thyroid carcinomas provided by the Belarus

  10. Radiation exposure and familial aggregation of cancers as risk factors for colorectal cancer after radioiodine treatment for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In thyroid cancer patients, radioiodine treatment has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of colon carcinoma. The aim of this study in thyroid cancer patients was to evaluate the role of familial factors in the risk of colorectal cancer and their potential interaction with radioiodine exposure. Methods and Materials: We performed a case-control study on 15 colorectal cancer patients and 76 matched control subjects, nested in a cohort of 3708 thyroid cancer patients treated between 1933 and 1998. For each patient, the radiation dose delivered to the colon by radioiodine was estimated by use of standard tables. In those who received external radiation therapy, the average radiation doses delivered to the colon and rectum were estimated by use of DOSEg software. A complete familial history was obtained by face-to-face interviews, and a familial index was defined to evaluate the degree of familial aggregation. Results: The risk of colorectal cancer increased with familial aggregation of colorectal cancer (p = 0.02). After adjustment for the radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum, the risk of colorectal cancer was 2.8-fold higher (95% CI, 1.0-8.0) for patients with at least one relative affected by colorectal cancer than for patients without such a family history (p = 0.05). The radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum by 131I and external radiation therapy was associated with an increase of risk near the significance threshold (p = 0.1). No significant interaction was found between radiation dose and having an affected relative (p = 0.9). Conclusions: The role of familial background in the risk of colorectal cancer following a differentiated thyroid carcinoma appears to increase with the radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum. However, the study population was small and no interaction was found between these two factors

  11. Iodine I-131 With or Without Selumetinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-13

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  12. Trametinib in Increasing Tumoral Iodine Incorporation in Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-05

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  13. High rate of persistent/recurrent disease among patients with differentiated thyroid cancer in Saudi Arabia: factors affecting non-remission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fairly high number of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in our center had locally advanced disease at presentation and/or persistent disease after standard treatment. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study to find the rate of successful ablation and remission and the factors affecting these outcomes. The study included 100 consecutively treated patients (20 males, 80 females; median age 36 years) diagnosed with DTC. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of risk factors on the persistence or recurrence of thyroid cancer. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy and had cervical lymph node dissection when indicated. All patients received sodium iodide 1131 ablation once or twice post surgery. Patients were followed clinically by neck ultrasound. Whole body scans and by thyroglobulin measurements and other diagnostic tests as needed. Over a median follow-up of 7.6 years (range 7-10 years), ablation occurred in 93%, remission in 50% disease persisted without remission in 41% and 9% had recurrence after at least 1 year of remission. Papillary thyroid cancers was found in 76%, the follicular thyroid cancer in 4%. Compared with patients in remission, patients with persistent/recurrent disease was older (mean 41 versus 31 years, P=.003) had higher postoperative thyroglobuin (193 versus 29 ng/mL, P=.04) and more advanced TNM staging (P=.005). Risk factors significant for non-remission were age > 40 years (odds ratio 4.1, 95% CI 1.5-109 years, P+0.003) and TNM stage other than 1 (odds ratio 5.95, 95% CI 1.9-16.3, P=0.001). Only TNM Stage was significant for remission in the multivariate analysis. The low remission rate in our DTC patients is probably due to more advanced disease at time of presentation. Early detection may, therefore, be essential in improving outcome. (author)

  14. Sleep Disturbance and Incidence of Thyroid Cancer in Postmenopausal Women The Women's Health Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Juhua; Sands, Megan; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Song, Yiqing; Margolis, Karen L

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disturbance has been found to be associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, including cancers. However, no epidemiologic study has examined the relation between sleep disturbance and thyroid cancer risk. A total of 142,933 postmenopausal women who were 50–79 years of age and enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative between September 1, 1993, and December 31, 1998, were followed up for a mean of 11 years. Cox proportional-hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard rati...

  15. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rong-liang Shi; Ning Qu; Tian Liao; Wen-jun Wei; Yu-Long Wang; Qing-hai Ji

    2016-01-01

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox mod...

  16. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer in children and adult population, living in contaminated territories after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the analysis of own and literature data on the occurrence and development of radiation-induced thyroid cancer are presented. Analysis involved distribution of the thyroid cancer incidence among 1 million children and 3 millions adults, living in the radioactively contaminated territories of Russia by age and sex. The main attention was paid to the understanding of latency period of spontaneous and radiation-induced cancer, comparison of oncological pathology features in children and adults, and the role of screening in the increase of incidence rate parameters. Analysis permitted to offer new interpretation of several previously known facts and to make new statements on the induction and development of radiogenic thyroid cancer, in particularly, on far more significant increase of the thyroid cancer incidence in adults, living in the contaminated territories, than it was considered earlier

  17. [Value of scintigraphic explorations by radiomarkers others than iodine radioisotope in differentiated thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassolas, G; Houzard, C; Sigartau, C; Borson-Chazot, F

    1997-01-01

    Radioiodine scintigraphy is the gold standard exploration for imaging metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer and enables the decision of therapy with 131 radioactive iodine to be made. However, other approaches may be of use for diagnosis when there is no visible uptake after the administration of 131I, while elevated thyroblobulin levels suggest the presence of metastatic tissue in one third of metastatic patients. In order to detect recurrences or metastases, in conjunction with conventional imaging techniques (cervical and hepatic ultrasonography, lung CT scan..), other scintigraphic explorations with various radiopharmaceutics may be used, although none of them has any specificity towards thyroid cancer. Tl201 and MIBI which are used as perfusion tracers for myocardial explorations, are also used for detection of various tumors and for metastatic thyroid cancer. The performances of both radiopharmaceutics in imaging metastases are differently evaluated between investigators with a sensitivity ranging from 45 to 94% while the specificity varies less (82-97%). 18-Fluoro-deoxyglucose is retained in malignant tissue depending on the grade of malignancy. It has been shown to accumulate in thyroid cancer and metastases. Its detection by whole body PETscan represents a limitation for use which will be modified by new techniques. 111In-octreotide which binds to somatostatin receptors located on tumor cell membranes is able to show thyroid cancer metastases in some instances. We report on the very preliminary results of these combined scintigraphic approaches, performed in a limited number of patients who had no radioiodine uptake and elevated Tg levels, in order to determine the most appropriate exploration in terms of performance and cost. PMID:9207967

  18. Quantification of the increase in thyroid cancer prevalence in Fukushima after the nuclear disaster in 2011--a potential overdiagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katanoda, Kota; Kamo, Ken-Ichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-03-01

    A thyroid ultrasound examination programme has been conducted in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, after the nuclear disaster in 2011. Although remarkably high prevalence of thyroid cancer was observed, no relevant quantitative evaluation was conducted. We calculated the observed/expected (O/E) ratio of thyroid cancer prevalence for the residents aged ≤20 years. Observed prevalence was the number of thyroid cancer cases detected by the programme through the end of April 2015. Expected prevalence was calculated as cumulative incidence by a life-table method using the national estimates of thyroid cancer incidence rate in 2001-10 (prior to the disaster) and the population of Fukushima Prefecture. The underlying assumption was that there was neither nuclear accident nor screening intervention. The observed and estimated prevalence of thyroid cancer among residents aged ≤20 years was 160.1 and 5.2, respectively, giving an O/E ratio of 30.8 [95% confidence interval (CI): 26.2, 35.9]. When the recent increasing trend in thyroid cancer was considered, the overall O/E ratio was 22.2 (95% CI: 18.9, 25.9). The cumulative number of thyroid cancer deaths in Fukushima Prefecture, estimated with the same method (annual average in 2009-13), was 0.6 under age 40. Combined with the existing knowledge about radiation effect on thyroid cancer, our descriptive analysis suggests the possibility of overdiagnosis. Evaluation including individual-level analysis is required to further clarify the contribution of underlying factors. PMID:26755830

  19. Estrogen induced metastatic modulators MMP-2 and MMP-9 are targets of 3,3'-diindolylmethane in thyroid cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Rajoria

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine related cancer with increasing incidences during the past five years. Current treatments for thyroid cancer, such as surgery or radioactive iodine therapy, often require patients to be on lifelong thyroid hormone replacement therapy and given the significant recurrence rates of thyroid cancer, new preventive modalities are needed. The present study investigates the property of a natural dietary compound found in cruciferous vegetables, 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM, to target the metastatic phenotype of thyroid cancer cells through a functional estrogen receptor. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thyroid cancer cell lines were treated with estrogen and/or DIM and subjected to in vitro adhesion, migration and invasion assays to investigate the anti-metastatic and anti-estrogenic effects of DIM. We observed that DIM inhibits estrogen mediated increase in thyroid cell migration, adhesion and invasion, which is also supported by ER-α downregulation (siRNA studies. Western blot and zymography analyses provided direct evidence for this DIM mediated inhibition of E(2 enhanced metastasis associated events by virtue of targeting essential proteolytic enzymes, namely MMP-2 and MMP-9. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data reports for the first time that DIM displays anti-estrogenic like activity by inhibiting estradiol enhanced thyroid cancer cell proliferation and in vitro metastasis associated events, namely adhesion, migration and invasion. Most significantly, MMP-2 and MMP-9, which are known to promote and enhance metastasis, were determined to be targets of DIM. This anti-estrogen like property of DIM may lead to the development of a novel preventive and/or therapeutic dietary supplement for thyroid cancer patients by targeting progression of the disease.

  20. Tumour markers in germ cell tumours and thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, K.

    1988-02-01

    In patients with germ cell tumours of gonadal and extragonadal origin both markers, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and alphafetoprotein (AFP) are madatory for diagnosis and control of treatment. In seminoma, we found preoperatively elevated levels of hCG(+hCG-..beta..) in 42/349 patients (12%) up to 1200 mlU/ml using a polyclonal radioimmunoassay (1. IRP hCG standard 75/537). Lactatedehydrogenase can be useful in marker negative patients. Serum levels reflect tumour burden even if not highly specific. Presently, placental alkaline phosphatase is under discussion for seminoma. However, commercial kits are not available. As a relatively high secretion of hCG/..beta../hCG was found in gestational trophoblastic diseases, this parameters may be useful for differential diagnosis in pregnancy. In the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma the determination of thyroglobulin (Tg) in combination with ultrasound of the thyroid and X-ray of the chest is sufficient. For Tg-determination thyroid hormone replacement therapy must be discontinued only in rare single cases with borderline levels, which need radioiodtesting additionally. Calcitonin is the most important marker in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Pentagastrin stimulated calcitonin as screening test is necessary, if multiple endocrine adenomatosis or the familial forms are suspected. In single cases benefit came from new scintigraphic methods such as /sup 131/I-metaiodo-benzylguanidine or /sup 201/thallium-chloride.

  1. Treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, RA; Nieuwenhuijzen, GAP; Martijn, H; Rutten, HJT; Hospers, GAP; Wiggers, T

    2004-01-01

    Historically, locally advanced rectal cancer is known for its dismal prognosis. The treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer is subject to continuous change due to development of new and better diagnostic tools, radiotherapeutic techniques, chemotherapeutic agents and understanding of the subject

  2. Thyroid, Renal, and Breast Carcinomas, Chondrosarcoma, Colon Adenomas, and Ganglioneuroma: A New Cancer Syndrome, FAP, or Just Coincidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihab Shafek Atta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a case associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, invasive mammary carcinoma, chondrosarcoma, benign ganglioneuroma, and numerous colon adenomas. The patient had a family history of colon cancer, kidney and bladder cancers, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, leukemia, and throat and mouth cancers. She was diagnosed with colonic villous adenoma at the age of 41 followed by thyroid, renal, and breast cancers and chondrosarcoma at the ages of 48, 64, 71, and 74, respectively. Additionally, we included a table with the most common familial cancer syndromes with one or more benign or malignant tumors diagnosed in our case, namely, FAP, HNPCC, Cowden, Peutz-Jeghers, renal cancer, tuberous sclerosis, VHL, breast/other, breast/ovarian, Carney, Werner’s, Bloom, Li-Fraumeni, xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia-telangiectasia, osteochondromatosis, retinoblastoma, and MEN2A.

  3. Thyroid, Renal, and Breast Carcinomas, Chondrosarcoma, Colon Adenomas, and Ganglioneuroma: A New Cancer Syndrome, FAP, or Just Coincidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Ihab Shafek; AlQahtani, Fahd Nasser

    2016-01-01

    We are presenting a case associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, invasive mammary carcinoma, chondrosarcoma, benign ganglioneuroma, and numerous colon adenomas. The patient had a family history of colon cancer, kidney and bladder cancers, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, leukemia, and throat and mouth cancers. She was diagnosed with colonic villous adenoma at the age of 41 followed by thyroid, renal, and breast cancers and chondrosarcoma at the ages of 48, 64, 71, and 74, respectively. Additionally, we included a table with the most common familial cancer syndromes with one or more benign or malignant tumors diagnosed in our case, namely, FAP, HNPCC, Cowden, Peutz-Jeghers, renal cancer, tuberous sclerosis, VHL, breast/other, breast/ovarian, Carney, Werner's, Bloom, Li-Fraumeni, xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia-telangiectasia, osteochondromatosis, retinoblastoma, and MEN2A. PMID:27087812

  4. Extended resection for locally advanced colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-ping; SONG Xin-ming

    2006-01-01

    @@ Colorectal cancer is a common cause of cancer-related mortality.1 In China, it is one of eight cancers in the cancer control blueprint, which are suggested to have comprehensive treatment.Some patients with colorectal cancer presented no symptoms when they were diagnosed, yet the tumor had already penetrated the intestinal wall and involved adjacent organs. If the tumor is localized at time of diagnosis without distant metastases, it is termed locally advanced colorectal cancer (LACC)regardless of whether there is lymph node metastasis. LACC commonly encountered in clinical practice accounts for 5%-10% of all colorectal cancers.2

  5. Electroporation: a novel approach to enhance the radioiodine uptake in a human thyroid cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioiodine has been the best choice of treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer. Loss of the ability to concentrate iodide makes thyroid cancer cells refractory to radioiodine therapy. Therefore, the methods that enhance the uptake of radioiodine may have significant therapeutic effect. Electroporation involves the application of short high-voltage electric pulses which transiently permeabilize the plasma membrane, allowing entry of the otherwise impermeable molecules. The aim of our study was to use electroporation for incorporating radioiodine into a non-iodine concentrating thyroid cell line. Cultured WRO thyroid cancer cells that do not incorporate iodine due to the lack of the specific transporter protein incorporated significant amounts of radioiodine after electroporation. The uptake of radioiodine by electroporation showed dependence on the electric field, external concentration of the iodine, time and the temperature of incubation. The incorporated radioiodine was retained over a period of 24 h. The retainability of the incorporated iodine may have a significant effect on the tumoricidal properties if validated in vivo

  6. A Rare Presentation of Autonomously Functioning Papillary Thyroid Cancer: Malignancy in Marine-Lenhart Syndrome Nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludag, Mehmet; Aygun, Nurcihan; Ozel, Alper; Yener Ozturk, Feyza; Karasu, Rabia; Ozguven, Banu Yilmaz; Citgez, Bulent; Mihmanli, Mehmet; Isgor, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Marine-Lenhart Syndrome (MLS) is defined as concomitant occurrence of autonomously functioning thyroid nodule (AFTN) with Graves' disease (GD). Malignancy in a functional nodule is rare. We aimed to present an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid cancer in a MLS nodule with lateral lymph node metastases. Case. A 43-year-old male presented with hyperthyroidism and Graves' ophthalmopathy. On Tc99m pertechnetate scintigraphy, a hyperactive nodule in the left upper thyroid pole was detected and the remaining tissue showed a mildly increased uptake. The ultrasonography demonstrated 15.5 × 13.5 × 12 mm sized hypoechoic nodule in the left upper pole of the thyroid and round lymph nodes on the left side of the neck. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the nodule and lymph node revealed cytological findings consistent with papillary cancer. Total thyroidectomy with central and left modified radical neck dissection was performed. On pathologic examination, two foci of micropapillary cancer were detected. The skip metastases were present in three lymph nodes on the neck. Conclusion. AFTN can be seen rarely in association with GD. It is not possible to exclude malignancy due to the clinical and imaging findings. In the presence of suspicious clinical and sonographic features, FNAB should be performed. PMID:27110424

  7. A Rare Presentation of Autonomously Functioning Papillary Thyroid Cancer: Malignancy in Marine-Lenhart Syndrome Nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Uludag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Marine-Lenhart Syndrome (MLS is defined as concomitant occurrence of autonomously functioning thyroid nodule (AFTN with Graves’ disease (GD. Malignancy in a functional nodule is rare. We aimed to present an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid cancer in a MLS nodule with lateral lymph node metastases. Case. A 43-year-old male presented with hyperthyroidism and Graves’ ophthalmopathy. On Tc99m pertechnetate scintigraphy, a hyperactive nodule in the left upper thyroid pole was detected and the remaining tissue showed a mildly increased uptake. The ultrasonography demonstrated 15.5 × 13.5 × 12 mm sized hypoechoic nodule in the left upper pole of the thyroid and round lymph nodes on the left side of the neck. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB of the nodule and lymph node revealed cytological findings consistent with papillary cancer. Total thyroidectomy with central and left modified radical neck dissection was performed. On pathologic examination, two foci of micropapillary cancer were detected. The skip metastases were present in three lymph nodes on the neck. Conclusion. AFTN can be seen rarely in association with GD. It is not possible to exclude malignancy due to the clinical and imaging findings. In the presence of suspicious clinical and sonographic features, FNAB should be performed.

  8. Predictors of Regional Lymph Node Recurrence after Initial Thyroidectomy in Patients with Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirsina Sharifi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regional lymph node recurrence (RLNR is common in patients with thyroid cancer but clinicopathological predictors are unclear. We aimed to clarify these predictors and identify patients who would benefit from prophylactic lymph node dissection the most. Method. 343 patients with different types of thyroid cancer were analyzed retrospectively. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy between 2007 and 2013. Results. The median ± interquartile range of patients’ age was 40 ± 25 years. 245 (71.4% patients were female. Regarding the risk of regional lymph node recurrence, we found that male gender, age ≥45 years, non-PTC (i.e., medullary, follicular, and anaplastic types histopathology, T3 (i.e., tumor size >4 cm in the greatest dimension limited to the thyroid or any tumor with minimal extrathyroid extension, stage IVa, and isolated cervical lymphadenopathy as initial manifestation (ICL are significant risk factors. T3 (p < 0.001; odds ratio = 156.41, 95% CI [55.72–439.1] and ICL (p < 0.001; odds ratio = 77.79, 95% CI [31.55–191.81] were the strongest predictors of regional lymph node recurrence. Conclusion. We found easily achievable risk factors for RLNR in thyroid cancers patients. We suggested that patients with specific clinicopathological features like male gender, age ≥45 years, larger tumor size, and extrathyroidal extension be considered as prophylactic lymphadenectomy candidates.

  9. Clinical and Genetic Aspects of Sporadic Non-Medullar Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Rumjanzeva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of somatic mutations in sporadic thyroid cancer is unclear today. Probably they coming out as aetiological factors in carcinogenesis as well as, respectfully to many authors, can to participate in TC pathogenesis and to determine the clinical course and prognosis of the disease. For today as main oncogenes taking part in initiation of thyroid malignant tumors are considered: RET/PTC, TRK, PTEN, P53, RAS, MET, PPARγ. By means of genetic investigations scientists are trying to solve problems with thyroid cancer differentiated diagnostics (cytokeratin-19, cytokeratin-20, mesothelial cells antigen (Hector Battifora MEsotelial (cell or HBME-1, loss of heterozigitoty (LOH in short arm of 3 chromosome (gene VHL -von Hippel Lindau, 3р26. Recently in foreign literature appeared reports of activated mutations in gene BRAF which most frequently are occurred in melanoma and papillary TC. Prognosis of thyroid cancer may reflected by the LOH as a biological breakage as well as changes of tumor suppressive gene P53 which fraught with decrease of disease prognosis. Thus, both researchers and clinicians have many questions concerning the role of genome, particularly in order to precise of genetic abnormality influence on tumor growth and therefore for assessment of clinical prognosis and with aim to chose adequate treatment tactic in each case.

  10. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS OF THE THYROID GLAND IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF LARYNGEAL CANCER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Vorozhtsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ, which has a significant influence on human organism from the perinatal period and throughout the whole life, participating in the regulation of metabolism. The most common variant of thyroid dysfunction is hypothyroidism, which causes different disorders in various organs and systems, including psycho-emotional sphere. This can burden comorbidities and particularly malignant processes.Laryngeal cancer is the most common type of head and neck cancer. Despite the visual availability of this localization for diagnosis, more than 50% of cases stay timely unrecognized. Many cases are found out at stages III and IV, which requires expanded operations and causes traumatization because of disruption or loss of such important functions as breathing, swallowing, speech, causing long-term or permanent disability. This makes laryngeal cancer significant medical and social and economic problem.One of the leading treatments for cancer of the larynx is external beam radiotherapy. Thyroid gland gets into the radiation area and may take more than 50% of the total focal dose. The most common outcome of post-radiation inflammation is fibrosis of thyroid tissue due to lesions of the blood vessels and destruction of thyrocytes. It causes the development of hypothyroidism, which exacerbate stress caused by cancer and by aggressive antitumor therapy. Also, hypothyroidism adversely affects the patients’ condition during the postoperative period.Despite the fact that the diagnosis of hypothyroidism is pretty simple, and replacement therapy with L-thyroxine is cheap and available, many doctors don’t monitorthyroid function in cancer patients at all or don’t make all necessary tests.Thus, timely detection of hypothyroidism is extremely important during and after the treatment of laryngeal cancer. Early prescribing adequate treatment helps to reduce the incidence of complications.

  11. The association between selenium and other micronutrients and thyroid cancer incidence in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J O'Grady

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is an essential trace element that is important for thyroid hormone metabolism and has antioxidant properties which protect the thyroid gland from oxidative stress. The association of selenium, as well as intake of other micronutrients, with thyroid cancer is unclear. METHODS: We evaluated associations of dietary selenium, beta-carotene, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin C, vitamin E, folate, magnesium, and zinc intake with thyroid cancer risk in the National Institutes of Health - American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study, a large prospective cohort of 566,398 men and women aged 50-71 years in 1995-1996. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine associations between dietary intake of micronutrients, assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and thyroid cancer cases, ascertained by linkage to state cancer registries and the National Death Index. RESULTS: With the exception of vitamin C, which was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (HR(Q5 vs Q1, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.02-1.76; P(trend, <0.01, we observed no evidence of an association between quintile of selenium (HR(Q5 vs Q1, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.92-1.65; P(trend, 0.26 or other micronutrient intake and thyroid cancer. CONCLUSION: Our study does not suggest strong evidence for an association between dietary intake of selenium or other micronutrients and thyroid cancer risk. More studies are needed to clarify the role of selenium and other micronutrients in thyroid carcinogenesis.

  12. The Association between Selenium and Other Micronutrients and Thyroid Cancer Incidence in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Grady, Thomas J.; Kitahara, Cari M.; DiRienzo, A. Gregory; Gates, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Selenium is an essential trace element that is important for thyroid hormone metabolism and has antioxidant properties which protect the thyroid gland from oxidative stress. The association of selenium, as well as intake of other micronutrients, with thyroid cancer is unclear. Methods We evaluated associations of dietary selenium, beta-carotene, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin C, vitamin E, folate, magnesium, and zinc intake with thyroid cancer risk in the National Institutes of Health – American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study, a large prospective cohort of 566,398 men and women aged 50–71 years in 1995–1996. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine associations between dietary intake of micronutrients, assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and thyroid cancer cases, ascertained by linkage to state cancer registries and the National Death Index. Results With the exception of vitamin C, which was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (HRQ5 vs Q1, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.02–1.76; Ptrend, <0.01), we observed no evidence of an association between quintile of selenium (HRQ5 vs Q1, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.92–1.65; Ptrend, 0.26) or other micronutrient intake and thyroid cancer. Conclusion Our study does not suggest strong evidence for an association between dietary intake of selenium or other micronutrients and thyroid cancer risk. More studies are needed to clarify the role of selenium and other micronutrients in thyroid carcinogenesis. PMID:25329812

  13. Lack of germline A339V mutation in thyroid transcription factor-1 (TITF-1/NKX2.1 gene in familial papillary thyroid cancer

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    Cantara Silvia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thyroid cancer may have a familial predisposition but a specific germline alteration responsible for the disease has not been discovered yet. We have shown that familial papillary thyroid cancer (FPTC patients have an imbalance in telomere-telomerase complex with short telomeres and increased telomerase activity. A germline mutation (A339V in thyroid transcription factor-1 has been described in patients with multinodular goiter and papillary thyroid cancer. In this report, the presence of the A339V mutation and the telomere length has been studied in FPTC patients and unaffected family members. All samples analyzed displayed a pattern typical of the homozygous wild type revealing the absence of the A339V mutation. Shortening of telomeres was confirmed in all patients. We concluded that the A339V mutation in thyroid transcription factor-1 (TITF-1/NKX2.1 is not correlated with the familial form of PTC, even when the tumor was in the context of multinodular goiter.

  14. Radioiodine therapy in skeletal metastases from well-differentiated thyroid cancer: a Johannesburg experience

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    Nalini Sindy Perumal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim.The purpose of this study was to examine the outcome of patients with skeletal metastases from well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma and analyse the effect of variables that influence the prognosis of this disease. Method. We retrospectively reviewed 352 patients treated and followed-up at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital’s thyroid cancer clinic from 1982 - 1999. Findings. Skeletal metastases were diagnosed in 24 (6.8%, 17 at presentation to the thyroid clinic, and 7 at follow-up. Patients’ ages ranged from 30 - 77 years (mean 53.9 years and the female:male ratio was 3.8:1. Based on the original pathology reports from resected tumours, 9 were papillary and 15 were follicular cancers. Twenty-three of the 24 patients underwent thyroid surgery as the initial management – total thyroidectomy in 18, subtotal thyroidectomy in 3, and lobectomy plus neck dissection in one. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer was based on lobectomy in a single subject. Radioactive iodine (RAI was used as part of the original treatment; external radiation therapy (XRT was mainly used to alleviate severe symptoms. Twenty-one patients (87.5% were treated with RAI; 11 (45.8% received radiotherapy. Seven patients died – 4 from neurological disease directly associated with bone metastases. Of the 17 surviving patients, 2 appeared to be disease-free, 8 were asymptomatic despite overt bony disease, and 7 had persistent symptoms which much improved in 5. Bone metastases were uncommon, and follicular cancer predominated in this survey. Conclusion. RAI therapy improves quality of life in most patients. There is a place for XRT.

  15. Role of MTHFR C677T and MTR A2756G polymorphisms in thyroid and breast cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara-Lopes, T; Gimenez-Martins, A P A; Nascimento-Filho, C H V; Castanhole-Nunes, M M U; Galbiatti-Dias, A L S; Padovani-Júnior, J A; Maniglia, J V; Francisco, J L E; Pavarino, E C; Goloni-Bertollo, E M

    2016-01-01

    Folate metabolism is essential for DNA synthesis and repair. Alterations in genes that participate in folate metabolism can be associated with several types of malignant neoplasms, including thyroid and breast cancer. In the present case-control study, we examined the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T, rs1801133) and methionine synthase (MTR A2756G, rs1805087) polymorphisms and risk for thyroid and breast cancer. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length technique was used to determine the specific genotypes in the genes of interest. Statistical analysis was performed by multiple logistic regression test. We found an association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and risks to both thyroid (OR = 2.50; 95%CI = 1.15-5.46; P = 0.02) and breast cancer (OR = 2.53; 95%CI = 1.08-5.93; P = 0.03). Tobacco consumption and high body mass index were also associated with thyroid cancer. In addition, increased age (≥50 years) and alcohol consumption were found to be associated with breast cancer. Our results indicated that MTHFR C677T is significantly associated with thyroid and breast cancer risks. Thus, these factors may be used as potential prognostic markers for thyroid and breast cancers. PMID:27173331

  16. Fibronectin-1 expression is increased in aggressive thyroid cancer and favors the migration and invasion of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponziello, Marialuisa; Rosignolo, Francesca; Celano, Marilena; Maggisano, Valentina; Pecce, Valeria; De Rose, Roberta Francesca; Lombardo, Giovanni Enrico; Durante, Cosimo; Filetti, Sebastiano; Damante, Giuseppe; Russo, Diego; Bulotta, Stefania

    2016-08-15

    In this study we analyzed the expression levels of markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in several papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) and the relation with tumor genotypes and clinicopathological characteristics. The role of fibronectin-1 (FN1) was investigated by analyzing the effects of FN1 silencing in two human thyroid cancer cell lines. Most of EMT markers were significantly over-expressed in a group of 36 PTCs. In particular, FN1 mRNA levels were higher in tumor vs non-tumor tissue (117.3, p < 0.001) and also in aggressive and BRAF(V600E) samples. Similar results were observed (and confirmed at the protein level) when FN1 expression was analyzed in a validation group of 50 PTCs and six lymph node (LN) metastases. Silencing of FN1 in TPC-1 and BCPAP thyroid cancer cells significantly reduced proliferation, adhesion, migration, and invasion in both cell lines. Collectively, our data indicate that FN1 overexpression is an important determinant of thyroid cancer aggressiveness. PMID:27173027

  17. Optimizing therapy for radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer: Current state of the art and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Dadu, R.; Cabanillas, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer are cured with standard primary treatments including surgery, radioactive iodine and TSH suppression. A small proportion of patients who develop radioactive iodine-refractory metastatic disease have few treatment options. Recent discovery of the molecular mechanisms that contribute to thyroid cancer tumorigenesis and its progression have revealed key targets that are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. In the last decade se...

  18. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy of thyroid cancer metastasis: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochetti G, Puxeddu E, Del Zingaro M, D’Amico F, Cottini E, Barillaro F, Mearini E

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Cochetti,1 Efisio Puxeddu,2 Michele Del Zingaro,3 Francesco D’Amico,1 Emanuele Cottini,1 Francesco Barillaro,1 Ettore Mearini11Department of General Surgery and Surgical Specialties, Urological Andrological Surgery and Minimally Invasive Techniques, University of Perugia, Terni, Italy; 2Departmentof Internal Medicine, 3Departmentof Surgical Specialties and PublicHealth, Urological Clinic, Universityof Perugia, Perugia, ItalyBackground: Follicular cell thyroid carcinoma is a quite aggressive form of thyroid cancer. About 10% of follicular thyroid carcinoma shows multiple metastases: lung and bone are the most common sites of metastasis. Renal involvement from thyroid primary cancer is very rare with incidence of 4.5%–5.9%.Purpose: We report the first laparoscopic conservative treatment of renal metastasis from thyroid cancer. This is a new and useful approach in order to delay malignant disease progression and to reduce the surgical discomfort of the patient.Patients and methods: We present the case of a 67-year-old woman, undergoing total thyroidectomy for follicular thyroid cancer with bone and lung metastasis. During adjuvant radiometabolic treatment, renal metastasis was diagnosed. Renal metastasis showed high metabolic activity, reducing the effectiveness of radioiodine therapy for secondary lesions. For this reason, we performed a laparoscopic simple enucleation of the single renal metastasis using extraperitoneal access and a clampless procedure.Results: The excision of the renal lesion improved the effectiveness of adjuvant radioiodine therapy: two months after surgery, the patient underwent adjuvant radiometabolic treatment with iodine-131 (150 mCi and the following whole body scan showed only a small uptaking area at the level of the vertebral metastasis. The lung micrometastases were not detectable. At 36 months follow-up, malignant disease was clinically stable and well controlled.Conclusion: Minimally invasive renal

  19. Procedure guidelines for radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer (version 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure guideline for radioiodine therapy (RIT) of differentiated thyroid cancer (version 3) is the counterpart to the procedure guideline for 131I whole-body scintigraphy (version 3) and specify the interdisciplinary guideline for thyroid cancer of the Deutsche Krebsgesellschaft concerning the nuclear medicine part. Recommendation for ablative 131I therapy is given for all differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) >1 cm. Regarding DTC ≤1 cm 131I ablation may be helpful in an individual constellation. Preparation for 131I ablation requires low iodine diet for two weeks and TSH stimulation by withdrawal of thyroid hormone medication or by use of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH). The advantages of rhTSH (no symptoms of hypothyroidism, lowerblood activity) and the advantages of endogenous TSH stimulation (necessary for 131I-therapy in patients with metastases, higher sensitivity of 131I whole-body scan) are discussed. In most centers standard activities are used for 131I ablation. If pretherapeutic dosimetry is planned, the diagnostic administration of 131I should not exceed 1-10MBq, alternative tracers are 123I or 124I. The recommendations for contraception and family planning are harmonized with the recommendation of ATA and ETA. Regarding the best possible protection of salivary glands the evidence is insufficient to recommend a specific setting. To minimize the risk of dental caries due to xerostomia patients should use preventive strategies for dental hygiene. (orig.)

  20. Thyroid cancer risk in Ukrainian and Belarusian areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: The purpose of the present study is to analyze the thyroid cancer incidence risk after the Chernobyl accident and its degree of dependence on time and age. Data are analyzed for 1034 settlements in Ukraine and Belarus, in which more than 10 measurements of the 131I content in human thyroids had been performed in May/June 1986. Thyroid doses due to the Chernobyl accident were assessed for the birth years 1968-85 and related to thyroid cancers that were surgically removed during the period 1990-2001. The central estimate for the linear coefficient of the EAR dose response is 2.66 (95% CI: 2.19; 3.13) cases per 104 PY-Gy, for the quadratic coefficient it is -0.145 (95% CI: -0.171; -0.119) cases per 104 PY-Gy2. The EAR is assessed to be higher for females than for males by a factor of 1.4. It decreases with age at exposure and increases with age attained. The central estimate for the linear coefficient of the ERR dose response is 18.9 (95% CI: 11.1; 26.7) Gy-1, for the quadratic coefficient it is -1.03 (95% CI: -1.46; -0.60) Gy-2. The ERR is assessed to be smaller for females than for males by a factor of 3.8 and decreases strongly with age at exposure. Both, EAR and ERR, are higher in the Belarusian settlements than in the Ukrainian settlements. In contrast to ERR, EAR increases with time after exposure. At the end of the observation period, excess risk estimates were found to be close to those observed in a major pooled analysis of seven studies of childhood thyroid cancer after external exposures. (authors)

  1. Multikinase inhibitors use in differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sina Jasim,1,* Levent Ozsari,2,* Mouhammed Amir Habra2 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism, and Nutrition, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Department of Endocrine Neoplasia and Hormonal Disorders, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA *These authors contributed equally in this work Abstract: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, and its incidence is increasing. Standard therapy for most patients with localized differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC includes surgery, radioactive iodine, and thyroid hormone replacement. A minority of thyroid cancer patients requires systemic therapy for metastatic disease. Patients with metastatic DTC do not usually benefit from traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy. In this review, we describe newly developed small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs that are being actively tested and used in the management of advanced thyroid cancer. The use of TKIs as a form of molecular targeted therapy is evolving based on understanding of the pathways involved in DTC. Disrupting tumor vascular supply by targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling is the most commonly used approach to treat advanced/metastatic DTC. Other mechanisms include targeting BRAF, MAPK/ERK kinase, or mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. Although TKIs appear to have superior efficacy compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy, they can cause substantial adverse effects; symptomatic management of adverse effects, dose adjustment, or cessation of therapy may be required. Keywords: differentiated thyroid cancer, progression-free survival, adverse effects, targeted therapy, sorafenib, lenvatinib

  2. Global controversies and advances in skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Louise; Dunn, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Advances and controversies of skin cancer prevention in the Asian-Pacific region are to be examined the world's first Global Controversies and Advances in Skin Cancer Conference to be held in Brisbane, Australia this November. APOCP Members are cordially invited to register early for the opportunity to contribute to the debate on a cancer which continues to be a prominent issue in the Asia Pacific and indeed worldwide. We need answers to the questions of why a cancer that is so preventable and easily detectable is still shrouded in controversy. Primary focuses will be on issues like viral involvement, vaccines and novel clinical approaches. PMID:23725105

  3. EpCAM nuclear localization identifies aggressive Thyroid Cancer and is a marker for poor prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacMillan Christina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain (EpEx of Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM and nuclear signaling by its intracellular oncogenic domain Ep-ICD has recently been implicated in increased proliferation of cancer cells. The clinical significance of Ep-ICD in human tumors remains an enigma. Methods EpEx, Ep-ICD and β-catenin immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies was conducted on 58 archived thyroid cancer (TC tissue blocks from 34 patients and correlated with survival analysis of these patients for up to 17 years. Results The anaplastic (ATC and aggressive thyroid cancers showed loss of EpEx and increased nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of Ep-ICD. In contrast, the low grade papillary thyroid cancers (PTC showed membranous EpEx and no detectable nuclear Ep-ICD. The ATC also showed concomitant nuclear expression of Ep-ICD and β-catenin. Kaplan-Meier Survival analysis revealed reduced overall survival (OS for TC patients showing nuclear Ep-ICD expression or loss of membranous EpEx (p Conclusion We report reciprocal loss of membrane EpEx but increased nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of Ep-ICD in aggressive TC; nuclear Ep-ICD correlated with poor OS of TC patients. Thus nuclear Ep-ICD localization may serve as a useful biomarker for aggressive TC and may represent a novel diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic target for aggressive TC.

  4. Features of radionuclide research after thyroidectomy at the thyroid gland cancer

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    David В Dolidze

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AimTo clarify the possibility of postoperative radioisotope studies in determining the remnants of thyroid tissue in patients with thyroid carcinoma.Materials and methodsThe work is based on the study results of surgical treatment and postoperative examination of 120 patients with thyroid cancer, at the Botkin hospital during the period from 2007 to 2013. All patients were performed extrafascial intervention. 118 (98.3% patients were provided thyroidectomy (including lymph node dissection. For all patients in the postoperative period after 2–4 weeks were performed thyroid and whole-body scan with iodine and technetium, as well as ultrasound and computed tomography of the neck and the chest cavity.ResultsDuring the research, 16 (13.3% patients after scanning with 123I (7 (5.8% patients, 131I (3 (2.5% patients, 99mTs-Pertechnetate (6 (5% patients and applying them consistently (6 (5% patients received the accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in the operation area, as in the midline in the area of the isthmus, and the locations of the right, left and pyramidal thyroid share. These facts were interpreted as an accumulation of the isotope in the remnants of thyroid tissue after surgery. With additional research methods were revealed swelling and infiltration of tissues in 10 (8.3% cases in the sterno-hyoid and sterno-thyroid muscles, and in 6 (5% cases – in the paratracheal and paralaryngeal areas. After fine-needle aspiration biopsy from infiltrative zone was received cytology of nonspecific inflammation. All patients received antiinflammatory and antibiotic therapy with a positive effect. Control ultrasound noted a gradual reduction of the inflammatory infiltrate. After 6 months of thyroid scan was recorded decrease area of uptake, and a year later its complete disappearance.ConclusionsThus, postoperative radionuclide scanning in patients with thyroid gland carcinoma in some cases gives false-positive results, regardless of the type

  5. Diversity of mutations in the RET proto-oncogene and its oncogenic mechanism in medullary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Mehdi; Zarif Yeganeh, Marjan; Sheikholeslami, Sara; Afsari, Farinaz

    2016-08-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for nearly 1% of all of human cancer. Thyroid cancer has four main histological types: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic. Papillary, follicular, and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas are derived from follicular thyroid cells, whereas medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) originates from the neural crest parafollicular cells or C-cells of the thyroid gland. MTC represents a neuroendocrine tumor and differs considerably from differentiated thyroid carcinoma. MTC is one of the aggressive types of thyroid cancer, which represents 3-10% of all thyroid cancers. It occurs in hereditary (25%) and sporadic (75%) forms. The hereditary form of MTC has an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. According to the present classification, hereditary MTC is classified as a multiple endocrine neoplasi type 2 A & B (MEN2A & MEN2B) and familial MTC (FMTC). The RET proto-oncogene is located on chromosome 10q11.21. It is composed of 21 exons and encodes a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase. RET regulates a complex network of signal transduction pathways during development, survival, proliferation, differentiation, and migration of the enteric nervous system progenitor cells. Gain of function mutations in RET have been well demonstrated in MTC development. Variants of MTC result from different RET mutations, and they have a good genotype-phenotype correlation. Various MTC related mutations have been reported in different exons of the RET gene. We proposed that RET genetic mutations may be different in distinct populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find a geographical pattern of RET mutations in different populations. PMID:26678667

  6. The prevalence of thyroid cancers in surgically treated patients with nodular goiter in Şırnak city

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    Sevda Sert Bektaş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Iodine deficiency is still considered to be the major etiological factor for endemic goiter. The pathogenesis of the goiter in iodine deficient area caries different characteristics. The aim of this study investigate the prevalence of thyroid cancers and type of thyroid cancers in surgically treated patients with nodular goiter in Şırnak city where is iodine deficiency region.Materials and methods: Thyroid surgical materials which were sent to our department were screened retrospectively from the archives between the years 2009-2010. Thyroid resection was performed on 241 patients with nodular goiter in one year. We evaluated patients who received the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma with histhopatological examination.Results: 222 of our patients (92.1% female and 19 (7.9% were male. The youngest patient 16 and the oldest patient was 80 years old and the average age is 40.9 ± 12.8. Histopathological examination of 197 (81.7% cases of nodular goiter, 31 (12.9% cases lymphocytic thyroiditis, 13 (5.4% patients had thyroid tumors. The three tumors on the 2 cases (0.8% benign, 11 (4.6% were malignant. As a type of cancer 1 (0.4% patients, follicular carcinoma-oncocytic variant, 10 (4.2% cases were papillary carcinoma.Conclusions: Iodine deficiency area in the province of Şırnak in patients with nodular goiter who underwent surgery for thyroid cancer rate of 4.6%, and most cancers is seen as a type of thyroid papillary carcinoma.

  7. Unusual Presentation of Cystic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Vijayraj S.; Abhishek Vijayakumar; Neelamma Natikar

    2012-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common thyroid malignancy, accounting for 80% of all thyroid cancers. The most common presentation of thyroid cancer is an asymptomatic thyroid mass or a nodule. Usually as thyroid enlarges, it extends in to mediastinum. Papillary thyroid carcinoma presentation as multiple true cystic swelling extending from neck to anterior chest wall in subcutaneous plane is not present in the literature. We present a rare case of cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma wh...

  8. Hypertensive crisis in a patient with thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, H S; Seshadri, M S; Rajaratnam, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Phaeochromocytomas may be discovered incidentally when patients present with hypertensive crisis during general anaesthesia. A 49-year-old man underwent thyroidectomy 25 years ago and was diagnosed to have spindle cell carcinoma of the thyroid. He presented with recent onset of hoarseness of voice and was found to have a vocal cord nodule. He developed a hypertensive crisis during surgery. He was subsequently evaluated and found to have bilateral phaeochromocytoma. Further evaluation revealed a RET proto-oncogene mutation at codon 634 consistent with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)-2A.

  9. Medullary thyroid cancer: RET testing of an archival material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, Christian; Jørgensen, Gita; Gerdes, Anne-Marie Axø;

    2010-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) might be sporadic (75%) or hereditary (25%). Until the mid nineties the diagnosis of hereditary MTC was based on family history, clinical evaluation, histological detection of C-cell hyperplasia and tumor multifocality. Patients and families with hereditary MTC...... be a possible method to identify not previously known cases of hereditary MTC. In 23 cases, tissue analysis was performed, and in 2 patients (9%) a mutation was identified, but in both cases the most likely explanation was contamination with tumor tissue. The ability to detect RET mutations was confirmed...

  10. Medullary thyroid cancer: RET testing of an archival material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, Christian; Jørgensen, Gita; Gerdes, Anne-Marie;

    2009-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) might be sporadic (75%) or hereditary (25%). Until the mid nineties the diagnosis of hereditary MTC was based on family history, clinical evaluation, histological detection of C-cell hyperplasia and tumor multifocality. Patients and families with hereditary MTC...... be a possible method to identify not previously known cases of hereditary MTC. In 23 cases, tissue analysis was performed, and in 2 patients (9%) a mutation was identified, but in both cases the most likely explanation was contamination with tumor tissue. The ability to detect RET mutations was confirmed...

  11. Scintigraphic study of salivary gland dysfunction in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to determine the degree of scintigraphic salivary gland dysfunction in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with radioiodine. Patients were divided in two groups: null or mild dysfunction (grade I-II), moderate-severe dysfunction (grade III-IV) and statistical Mann-Whitney U test was applied. The radioiodine dose ranged between 80 and 200 mCi. Nineteen patients were found to be less affected (group 1), corresponding to grades I and II, and 11 patients were more affected (group 2), with grade III involvement. The severity of involvement of the salivary glands was not related with the dose of radioiodine used in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer and the sex of the patients had no clear influence either. Other factors are possibly related to the severity of salivary gland involvement

  12. Utility of Surgeon-Performed Ultrasound Assessment of the Lateral Neck for Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortney Y. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound is the recommended staging modality for papillary thyroid cancer. Surgeons proficient in US assessment of the neck and experienced in the management of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC appear uniquely qualified to assess the lateral cervical lymph nodes for metastatic disease. Of 310 patients treated for PTC between 2000 and 2008, 109 underwent surgeon-performed ultrasound (SUS of the lateral neck preoperatively. Fine needle aspiration was performed on suspicious lateral lymph nodes. SUS findings were compared with FNA cytology and results of postoperative imaging studies. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of SUS were 88% and 97%, respectively. Four patients were found to have missed metastatic disease within 6 months. No patient underwent a nontherapeutic neck dissection. SUS combined with US-guided FNA of suspicious lymph nodes can accurately stage PTC to reliably direct surgical management.

  13. Thyroid cancer in a long-term nonprogressor HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday A Phatak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term non-progressor HIV infection (LTNP-HIV is seen in <1 percent of HIV-afflicted population. There are definite criteria for the diagnosis of LTNP-HIV. Malignancies either solid tumors or haematological cancers have not been reported in such population. We report here a rare case of follicular thyroid carcinoma in LTNP-HIV infection. She never had any opportunistic infections. She did not receive anti-retroviral therapy in the entire course of illness and continued to have good quality of life. Treatment of follicular thyroid cancer was similar to other patients without HIV infection. This could be the first case study from India.

  14. Soft tissue metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosed by {sup 18}F FDG PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Califano, Ines; Quildrian, Sergio; Otero, Jose; Coduti, Martin; Califano, Leonardo; Rojas Bilbao, Erica, E-mail: ines.m.califano@gmail.com [Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-06-15

    Distant metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer are unusual; lung and bones are the most frequently affected sites. Soft tissue metastases (STM) are extremely rare. We describe two cases of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer metastasizing to soft tissues. Both patients had widespread metastatic disease; clinically asymptomatic soft tissue metastases were found by 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F FDG PET-CT), and confirmed by cytological and/or histopathological studies. These findings underscore the ability of {sup 18}F FDG PET-CT in accurately assessing the extent of the disease, as well as the utility of the method to evaluate regions of the body that are not routinely explored. (author)

  15. RET oncogene in MEN2, MEN2B, MTC and other forms of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2008-04-01

    Hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is caused by specific autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. MTC represents a promising model for targeted cancer therapy, as the oncogenic event responsible for initiating malignancy has been well characterized. The RET proto-oncogene has become the target for molecularly designed drug therapy. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting activated RET are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of patients with MTC. This review will provide a brief overview of MTC and the associated RET oncogenic mutations, and will summarize the therapies designed to strategically interfere with the pathologic activation of the RET oncogene.

  16. Familial pancreatic cancer: genetic advances

    OpenAIRE

    Rustgi, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    This review by Rustgi elaborates on the known genetic syndromes that underlie familial pancreatic cancer. It aims to delineate the subtypes of syndromic hereditary pancreatic cancer in which germline genetic mutations have been identified and nonsyndromic familial pancreatic cancer in which genetic information is emerging.

  17. Protective effect of application of carbon nanoparticles in thyroid cancer surgery and evaluation of inflammatory stress reaction degree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Sheng Zheng; Jun-Zheng Li; Wei-Xiong Hong; Jiao-Yuan Xu; Si-Yi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the protective effect of application of carbon nanoparticles in thyroid cancer surgery and its influence on inflammatory stress reaction degree.Methods:Patients who received thyroid cancer surgery in our hospital from June 2013 to June 2014 were chosen for study and randomly divided into conventional group and nano-carbon group. Then contents of thyroid cancer related malignant molecules, pro-inflammation cytokines and inflammation inhibiting factors in serum were detected.Results:(1) Malignant molecules: compared with conventional group, mRNA levels of Wip1, gal-3, SATB1, LSD1, GDF-15 and TBX2 in serum of nano-carbon group were lower; (2) Inflammation inhibiting factors: compared with conventional group, serum MFG-E8 and Omentin-1 levels of nano-carbon group were higher; (3) Pro-inflammation cytokines: compared with conventional group, serum MIP-1, SGK-1 and β-EP levels of nano-carbon group were lower.Conclusion: Application of carbon nanoparticles in thyroid cancer surgery is helpful to reduce operative damage to thyroid tissue, prevent release of malignant biological molecules into bloodstream and relieve inflammatory response; it’s an ideal surgical method for thyroid cancer.

  18. Integrated Molecular Profiling in Advanced Cancers Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    Breast Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Genitourinary Cancer; Pancreatobiliary Gastrointestinal Cancer; Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer; Gynecological Cancers; Melanoma Cancers; Rare Cancers; Unknown Primary Cancers

  19. Recombinant human thyrotropin versus thyroid hormone withdrawal in radioiodine remnant ablation for differentiated thyroid cancer: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aim to assess the effects of recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) versus thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW), and rhTSH-aided low doses (1.11 GBq and 1.85 GBq) versus high dose (3.7 GBq) of radioiodine in the residual ablation for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Studies were obtained from computerized searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library (all until September 2012). Randomized controlled trials were included. Altogether 1325 patients with DTC participated in seven trials for residual ablation. Overall, studies had a low risk of bias. We found no statistically significant differences between rhTSH and THW treatment in terms of successful ablation rate (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.37, P=0.56) but significant benefits in health-related quality of life (mean difference 3.59, 95% CI 2.81 to 4.37, P<0.00001), adverse events during and after ablation (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.73, P<0.00001), radiation exposure to blood and bone marrow (mean difference -0.01, 95% CI -0.02 to -0.01, P<0.00001). In addition, no significant difference was found in the successful ablation rate between the low dose (1.11 GBq and 1.85 GBq) and high dose (3.7 GBq) of radioiodine aided by rhTSH (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.47, P=0.56). There were no deaths and no serious adverse effects in DTC patients treated with either rhTSH or THW, maximum follow-up was 12 months. None of the included trials investigated secondary malignancies or economic outcomes. In conclusion, rhTSH is as effective as THW on radioiodine thyroid remnant ablation with significant benefits on health-related quality of life, adverse effects during and after ablation, decreased whole body radiation exposure. The lower radioiodine doses are as effective as high doses for remnant ablation under rhTSH stimulation.

  20. Advances in bronchoscopy for lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samjot Singh Dhillon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchoscopic techniques have seen significant advances in the last decade. The development and refinement of different types of endobronchial ultrasound and navigation systems have led to improved diagnostic yield and lung cancer staging capabilities. The complication rate of these minimally invasive procedures is extremely low as compared to traditional transthoracic needle biopsy and surgical sampling. These advances augment the safe array of methods utilized in the work up and management algorithms of lung cancer.

  1. Advances in bronchoscopy for lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Samjot Singh; Dexter, Elisabeth U.

    2012-01-01

    Bronchoscopic techniques have seen significant advances in the last decade. The development and refinement of different types of endobronchial ultrasound and navigation systems have led to improved diagnostic yield and lung cancer staging capabilities. The complication rate of these minimally invasive procedures is extremely low as compared to traditional transthoracic needle biopsy and surgical sampling. These advances augment the safe array of methods utilized in the work up and management algorithms of lung cancer. PMID:23346012

  2. Clinical experience in using lenvatinib in patients with progressive, radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    P. A. Isaev; D. Yu. Semin; P O Rumyantsev; A. A. Il’in; V. V. Pol’kin; T. A. Agababyan; S. V. Vasil’kov; V.S. Medvedev; N. V. Zhelonkina

    2016-01-01

    None of the variants of therapy currently available for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTС) refracted to therapy with radioactive iodine 131I (RAI) is not radical and does not allow to obtain full complete recovery including this is related to traditional chemotherapy regimens increasing toxicity of treatment contribute to improvement of the clinical effect. With the introduction of multicinase inhibitors into clinical practice made it possible to increase improve therapeutic ou...

  3. I-131 remnant ablation after thyroidectomy induced hepatotoxicity in a case of thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Rong; Banafea, Omar; Ye, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Radioactive iodine (I-131) is routinely used for the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer following surgery. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a leading cause of acute liver failure. Here we reported a rare case of diffuse hepatic uptake (DHU) of radioactive iodine (I-131) induced hepatotoxicity in patient with I-131 ablation therapy after thyroidectomy. Case presentation A 57-year-old woman was admitted due to jaundice, itching and dark urine with abnormally elevated liver...

  4. The changes in complete blood count in thyroid cancer patients treated with radioactive iodine ablation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bircan Sönmez; İsmail Doğan; Canan Yavruoğlu; Gamze Can; Mehmet Sönmez

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation therapy on the complete blood count (CBC) in thyroid cancer patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred sixty four patients undergoing RAI ablation therapy after total thyroidectomy were included. CBC results were available from the patients’ medical records at the time of ablation and at the 1st, 6th, and 12th months after RAI therapy.Results: Hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC) and platelet...

  5. Prophylactic central lymph nodes dissection (VI level in papillary thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Olegovich Rumiantsev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic involvement of central lymph nodes in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC is very common. However, prophylactic central lymph nodes dissection additionally to thyroidectomy does not significantly affect disease-free and overall survival of PTC patients. Meanwhile its routine conduction is tangibly increase postsurgical complications. From efficacy/safety point of view prophylactic central lymph nodes dissection couldn't be recommended as substantiated in all PTC patients.

  6. A feasibility study of thyroid cancer among patients treated with I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the feasibility of conducting a Canada-wide follow-up study of persons receiving I-131 before 1970, to see if current estimates of induction of thyroid cancer are well founded. It is concluded that such a study is not feasible due to the widespread destruction of old records, and the limited quantity of personal identifying information on those records that do still exist

  7. 131I treatment for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism: a cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the association between 131I therapy for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism. This was a nationwide population-based cohort study of patients with thyroid cancer diagnosed during the period 1997-2008. The data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset. The cumulative 131I dose in each patient was calculated. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a proportional hazards model to estimate the effect of 131I therapy on the risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism in the cohort. A total of 8,946 patients with thyroid cancer were eligible for the final analysis. Among these patients, 8 developed primary hyperparathyroidism during the follow-up period that represented 38,248 person-years giving an incidence rate of 20.9 per 105 person-years. 131I was used in the treatment of 6,153 patients (68.8 %) with a median cumulative dose of 3.7 GBq. The adjusted HRs were 0.21 (95% CI 0.02-1.86) and 0.46 (95% CI 0.10-2.10) for those receiving a cumulative 131I dose of 0.1-3.6 GBq and ≥3.7 GBq, respectively, compared to no therapy. The risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism did not increase with increasing 131I dose (test for trend p = 0.51). No interaction was found between 131I dose and age (p = 0.94) or 131I dose and sex (p = 0.99). 131I treatment for thyroid cancer did not increase risk of primary hyperparathyroidism during a 10-year follow-up in this study population. Further research with a longer follow-up period is needed to assess late adverse effects beyond 10 years. (orig.)

  8. Thoracic Duct Fistula after Thyroid Cancer Surgery: Towards a New Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Rodier

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of somatostatin analogs is a new conservative therapeutic approach for the treatment of chyle fistulas developing after thyroid cancer surgery. The combination therapy with a total parenteral nutrition should avoid the high morbidity of are-intervention with an uncertain outcome. This promising trend is supported by the present case report of a chyle leak occurring after total thyroidectomy with central and lateral neck dissection for a papillary carcinoma, which was treated successfully without immediate or distant sequelae.

  9. Thoracic Duct Fistula after Thyroid Cancer Surgery: Towards a New Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, Jean-François; Volkmar, Pierre-Philippe; Bodin, Frédéric; Frigo, Séverine; Ciftci, Sait; Dahlet, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The use of somatostatin analogs is a new conservative therapeutic approach for the treatment of chyle fistulas developing after thyroid cancer surgery. The combination therapy with a total parenteral nutrition should avoid the high morbidity of a re-intervention with an uncertain outcome. This promising trend is supported by the present case report of a chyle leak occurring after total thyroidectomy with central and lateral neck dissection for a papillary carcinoma, which was treated successfully without immediate or distant sequelae. PMID:21734879

  10. {sup 131}I treatment for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism: a cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chien-Mu [Taipei Medical University - Shuang Ho Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Medical University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Taipei (China); Doyle, Pat [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London (United Kingdom); Tsan, Yu-Tse [National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, Taipei (China); Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Taichung (China); Chung Shan Medical University, School of Medicine, Taichung (China); Lee, Chang-Hsing [Ton Yen General Hospital, Department of Occupational Medicine, Hsinchu County (China); Wang, Jung-Der [National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, Taipei (China); National Cheng Kung University College of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Tainan (China); Chen, Pau-Chung [National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Department of Public Health, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine and Hospital, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Taipei (China); Collaboration: Health Data Analysis in Taiwan (hDATa) Research Group

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the association between {sup 131}I therapy for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism. This was a nationwide population-based cohort study of patients with thyroid cancer diagnosed during the period 1997-2008. The data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset. The cumulative {sup 131}I dose in each patient was calculated. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a proportional hazards model to estimate the effect of {sup 131}I therapy on the risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism in the cohort. A total of 8,946 patients with thyroid cancer were eligible for the final analysis. Among these patients, 8 developed primary hyperparathyroidism during the follow-up period that represented 38,248 person-years giving an incidence rate of 20.9 per 10{sup 5} person-years. {sup 131}I was used in the treatment of 6,153 patients (68.8 %) with a median cumulative dose of 3.7 GBq. The adjusted HRs were 0.21 (95% CI 0.02-1.86) and 0.46 (95% CI 0.10-2.10) for those receiving a cumulative {sup 131}I dose of 0.1-3.6 GBq and ≥3.7 GBq, respectively, compared to no therapy. The risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism did not increase with increasing {sup 131}I dose (test for trend p = 0.51). No interaction was found between {sup 131}I dose and age (p = 0.94) or {sup 131}I dose and sex (p = 0.99). {sup 131}I treatment for thyroid cancer did not increase risk of primary hyperparathyroidism during a 10-year follow-up in this study population. Further research with a longer follow-up period is needed to assess late adverse effects beyond 10 years. (orig.)

  11. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Dagmara; Król, Wojciech; Szliszka, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease.

  12. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Jaworska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease.

  13. Recombinant human TSH in differentiated thyroid cancer: a nuclear medicine perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanotti-Fregonara, P. [CEA, DSV, I2BM, SHFJ, LMNRB, Orsay (France); Rubello, D. [Osped S Maria Misericordia, IRCCS, IOV, Dept Nucl Med, PET Ctr, I-45100 Rovigo (Italy); Hindie, E. [Hop St Louis, Dept Nucl Med, Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    The use of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is widely discussed in the literature with regard to the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the management of DTC patients. However, some controversy about the appropriate indications, advantages and potential disadvantages of the use of rhTSH may still exist within the community of nuclear medicine physicians. In our opinion, the clinical benefits of rhTSH in avoiding hypothyroidism outweigh its somewhat lesser diagnostic accuracy. However, we disagree on designating rhTSH as the 'golden standard' to obtain TSH stimulation, as suggested by some authors. Thus, the first follow-up examination after ablation, which is determinant for patients' prognostic classification, can be either done under rhTSH stimulation or after hormone withdrawal. In our practice, and for higher risk patients, we still favour performing the initial follow-up after thyroid hormone withdrawal. rhTSH also shows the ability to enhance radioiodine concentration into thyroid cells. This characteristic is obviously of great interest among the nuclear medicine community. In clinical practice, it seems preferable to perform {sup 131}I treatment for metastatic disease during hypothyroidism. rhTSH may find its utility for the treatment of specific populations of patients, i.e. those in whom hormone withdrawal is medically contraindicated or in whom adequate endogenous TSH levels cannot be obtained due to reduced pituitary reserve or continued thyroxine production by metastatic tissue. In conclusion, rhTSH has demonstrated to be a reliable alternative to hypothyroidism for the stimulation of Tg in the follow-up of thyroid cancer patients. However, its use must be more carefully chosen in the therapeutic setting. Our feeling is that rhTSH should no tbe used for remnant ablation in high-risk patients and for the treatment of metastatic disease, except for specific populations of

  14. Thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl. Expert panel report on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1992, the Radiation Protection Research Action formed a panel of thyroid experts in order to evaluate the current situation concerning reported increased rates of thyroid cancer in children living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl, where the reactor accident occurred on April 26 1986 and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination over large areas of Belarus, Russia, Ukraine. Studies of the Atom Bomb survivors in Japan have revealed that the incidence of leukemia starts to increase some five years after exposure. For Chernobyl accident health consequences are now becoming evident. Thyroid cancer has already been observed in children. Iodine 131 was seen to pose a specific hazard because it is taken up by the body and concentrated in the thyroid gland. At a dose of 5 Gy to the childhood thyroid about 4000 thyroid cancers per 100000 children exposed can be anticipated. An essential component of the verification of this observation is the study of the pathology of the lesions, which derived from four cell types: follicular cells, C cells, lymphoid cells and connective tumor cells. All distant metastases are lung metastases. Measures to be considered for the prevention of the development of thyroid cancer in a radiation-exposed population include correction of iodine deficiency by iodine prophylaxis and suppression of TSH. There are three methods of diagnosis: ultrasound imaging, thyroid scanning, fine needle aspiration performed by skilled personnel. For the therapy total or near-total thyroidectomy is regarded as the treatment of choice. Radioactive iodine can be used to treat lymph node and distant metastases which take up iodine after a total thyroidectomy. Thyroid hormone replacement should be carried out with TSH suppressive doses of L-Thyroxine. 45 refs., 1 annexe

  15. Aflibercept in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  16. Thyroid Lobectomy Is Associated with Excellent Clinical Outcomes in Properly Selected Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Patients with Primary Tumors Greater Than 1 cm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vaisman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. An individualized risk-based approach to the treatment of thyroid cancer is being extensively discussed in the recent literature. However, controversies about the ideal surgical approach remain an important issue with regard to the impact on prognosis and follow-up strategies. This study was designed to describe clinical outcomes in a cohort of low and intermediate risk thyroid cancer patients treated with thyroid lobectomy. Methods. Retrospective review of 70 patients who underwent lobectomy. Results. After a median follow-up of 11 years, 5 patients (5/70, 7.1% recurred and 5 had a completion for benign lesions, while 60 patients (86% continued to be observed without evidence for disease recurrence. Suspicious ultrasound findings were significantly more common in patients that had structural disease recurrence (100% versus 4.3%, P<0.001. Furthermore, a rising suppressed Tg value over time was also associated with structural disease recurrence (80% versus 21.5%, P=0.01. After additional therapy, 99% of the patients had no evidence of disease. Conclusions. Properly selected thyroid cancer patients can be treated with lobectomy with excellent clinical outcomes.

  17. The clinical features of papillary thyroid cancer in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis patients from an area with a high prevalence of Hashimoto’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ling

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was to identify the clinicopathological factors of co-existing papillary thyroid cancer (PTC in patients with Hashimoto���s thyroiditis (HT and provide information to aid in the diagnosis of such patients. Methods This study included 6109 patients treated in a university-based tertiary care cancer hospital over a 3-year period. All of the patients were categorised based on their final diagnosis. Several clinicopathological factors, such as age, gender, nodular size, invasive status, central compartment lymph node metastasis (CLNM and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level, were compared between the various groups of patients. Results There were 653 patients with a final diagnosis of HT. More PTC was found in those with HT (58.3%; 381 of 653 than those without HT (2416 of 5456; 44.3%; p Conclusion PTC and HT have a close relationship in this region of highly prevalent HT disease. Based on the results of our study, we hypothesise that long-term HT leads to elevated serum TSH, which is the real risk factor for thyroid cancer.

  18. Prediagnostic serum selenium in a case-control study of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glattre, E; Thomassen, Y; Thoresen, S O; Haldorsen, T; Lund-Larsen, P G; Theodorsen, L; Aaseth, J

    1989-03-01

    Sera from 43 persons who developed thyroid cancer on an average 4.8 years after blood sampling were compared with sera from controls. Three controls per case matched for sex, age, place of residence and year of blood sampling, with regard to serum selenium and serum copper. Cases were significantly lower in serum selenium than controls, and the estimated odds ratio of thyroid cancer increased from 1 for levels greater than or equal to 1.65 mumol/l, to 6.1 for levels 1.26-1.64 mumol/l, to 7.7 for levels less than or equal to 1.25 mumol/l. When time from blood sampling to diagnosis of the case was considered, it could be shown that the protective effect of high serum selenium concentrations was restricted to the last (less than 7) years prior to the diagnosis of thyroid cancer. The serum selenium concentration of cases tended to decrease relative to controls the shorter time was from blood sampling to the diagnosis. There was no difference between cases and controls with regard to serum copper.

  19. Emerging integrated nanoclay-facilitated drug delivery system for papillary thyroid cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Long, Mei; Huang, Peng; Yang, Huaming; Chang, Shi; Hu, Yuehua; Tang, Aidong; Mao, Linfeng

    2016-09-01

    Nanoclay can be incorporated into emerging dual functional drug delivery systems (DDSs) to promote efficiency in drug delivery and reduce the toxicity of doxorubicin (DOX) used for thyroid cancer treatment. This paper reports the expansion of the basal spacing of kaolinite nanoclay was expanded from 0.72 nm to 0.85 nm, which could provide sufficiently spacious site for hosting doxorubicin molecules and controlling the diffusion rate. A targeted design for papillary thyroid cancer cells was achieved by introducing KI, which is consumed by the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS). As indicated by MTT assays, confocal laser scanning microscopy and bio-TEM observations, methoxy-intercalated kaolinite (KaolinMeOH) exhibited negligible cytotoxicity against papillary thyroid cancer cells. By contrast, DOX-KaolinMeOH showed dose-dependent therapeutic effects in vitro, and KI@DOX-KaolinMeOH was found to act as a powerful targeted therapeutic drug. Furthermore, active and passive targeting strategies played a role in the accumulation of the drug molecules, as verified by an in vivo bio-distribution analysis.

  20. Alpha-lipoic acid induces sodium iodide symporter expression in TPC-1 thyroid cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Patients with metastatic thyroid cancers that do not uptake iodine need effective therapeutic option. Differentiation-inducing agents have been tried to restore functional expression of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) without success. Our objective was to assess the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), known as potential antioxidant, on expression of sodium iodide symporter in thyroid cancer cells. Methods: Human thyroid cancer-derived cell lines, TPC-1, were treated with ALA, and changes in NIS mRNA and protein expression were measured. ALA's effect on NIS gene promoter was evaluated, and functional NIS expression was assessed by iodide uptake assay. Results: Treatment with ALA increased NIS mRNA expression up to ten folds of control dose-dependently after 24 h of exposure. ALA increased NIS promoter activity, and increased iodide uptake by 1.6 fold. ALA induced expression of NIS protein, but had no significant effect on the plasma membrane trafficking. ALA increased phosphorylation of CREB and nuclear translocation of pCREB, and co-treatment of ALA and trichostatin A increased iodide uptake by three folds in TPC-1 cells. Conclusions: ALA is a potential agent to increase NIS transcription in TPC-1. It could be used as an adjunctive agent to increase efficacy of radioiodine therapy if combined with a strategy to increase NIS protein trafficking to cell membrane.

  1. Nulliparity enhances the risk of second primary malignancy of the breast in a cohort of women treated for thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milazzo Francesca

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have reported an increased risk of developing a second primary malignancy (SPM of the breast in women treated for thyroid cancer. In this study, we investigated several potential risk factors for this association. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to identify a subgroup of women surgically treated for papillary thyroid cancer that may benefit from more careful breast cancer screening. Methods A total of 101 women surgically treated for papillary thyroid cancer from 1996 to 2009 with subsequent follow-up were interviewed by phone regarding personal risk factors and lifestyle habits. Only 75 questionnaires could be evaluated due to a 25.7% rate of patients not retrieved or refusing the interview. Data analysis was performed using a multivariate logistic model. Results The standardised incidence ratio (SIR for breast cancer was 3.58 (95% IC 1.14 - 8.37. Our data suggest a protective effect of multiparity on the development of a SPM of the breast (O.R. 0.15; 95% IC 0.25 - 0.86. Significant associations were not found with other known risk factors including Body Mass Index (BMI, age at first tumour, concurrent metabolic diseases, smoking, physical activity and familiarity. Conclusions This study confirms that a higher incidence of SPM of the breast is observed in women treated for papillary thyroid cancer. Additionally, this risk is increased by nulliparity, thus a strict breast screening program for nulliparous women treated for thyroid cancer may be advisable.

  2. 甲状腺肿瘤干细胞与甲状腺肿瘤治疗:理论与应用%Thyroid cancer stem cells and thyroid cancer treatment:theory and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赛恒; 毕力夫; 吴岩

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Thyroid cancer stem cells are one of the reasons for tumor resistance that promotes tumor development. The research of thyroid cancer stem cells has provides a new clinic means for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer. OBJECTIVE:To overview the discovery, identification, and correlation of thyroid cancer stem cells with thyroid cancer. METHODS:A computer-based online search of PubMed database and Wan Fang database between 1995-01/2014-01 was performed to search related articles with the key words of“thyroid cancer, cancer stem cell, stem cell, cancer suppressor gene”in English and Chinese, respectively. Literatures related to thyroid cancer stem cells were selected;in the same field, the articles published lately in authoritative journals were preferred. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:A total of 561 literatures were primarily selected, and 57 documents were involved for result analysis according to inclusion criteria. Cancer stem cells have become a focus in the study of carcinogenesis. Stem cells also exist in the thyroid gland and its tumor. At present, there are several ways to isolate and identify thyroid cancer stem cells. The tumor thyroid stem cells are closely related to the occurrence, transfer and treatment of tumors. But whether we can cure thyroid cancer through restraining or eliminating thyroid cancer stem cells is stil unknown that needs further studies.%背景:研究发现甲状腺肿瘤干细胞促进肿瘤的发生发展,是肿瘤耐药的原因之一。对甲状腺肿瘤干细胞的认识与研究,可以为甲状腺肿瘤的诊断与治疗提供一些新的思路。目的:对甲状腺肿瘤干细胞的发现、鉴定识别、与肿瘤的关系及其临床应用进行综述。方法:由作者应用计算机检索PubMed、万方数据库中1995年1月至2014年1月相关文献。在标题、、关键词中以“thyroid cancer,cancer stem cel ,stem cel ,cancer suppressor gene”或“甲状腺肿瘤、肿瘤干细

  3. Somatic mutation profiling of follicular thyroid cancer by next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierniak, Michal; Pfeifer, Aleksandra; Stokowy, Tomasz; Rusinek, Dagmara; Chekan, Mykola; Lange, Dariusz; Krajewska, Jolanta; Oczko-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Czarniecka, Agnieszka; Jarzab, Michal; Jarzab, Barbara; Wojtas, Bartosz

    2016-09-15

    The molecular etiology of follicular thyroid tumors is largely unknown, rendering the diagnostics of these tumors challenging. The somatic alterations present in these tumors apart from RAS gene mutations and PAX8/PPARG translocations are not well described. To evaluate the profile of somatic alteration in follicular thyroid tumors, a total of 82 thyroid tissue samples derived from 48 patients were subjected to targeted Illumina HiSeq next generation sequencing of 372 cancer-related genes. New somatic alterations were identified in oncogenes (MDM2, FLI1), transcription factors and repressors (MITF, FLI1, ZNF331), epigenetic enzymes (KMT2A, NSD1, NCOA1, NCOA2), and protein kinases (JAK3, CHEK2, ALK). Single nucleotide and large structural variants were most and least frequently identified, respectively. A novel translocation in DERL/COX6C was detected. Many somatic alterations in non-coding gene regions with high penetrance were observed. Thus, follicular thyroid tumor somatic alterations exhibit complex patterns. Most tumors contained distinct somatic alterations, suggesting previously unreported heterogeneity. PMID:27283500

  4. Somatic mutation profiling of follicular thyroid cancer by next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierniak, Michal; Pfeifer, Aleksandra; Stokowy, Tomasz; Rusinek, Dagmara; Chekan, Mykola; Lange, Dariusz; Krajewska, Jolanta; Oczko-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Czarniecka, Agnieszka; Jarzab, Michal; Jarzab, Barbara; Wojtas, Bartosz

    2016-09-15

    The molecular etiology of follicular thyroid tumors is largely unknown, rendering the diagnostics of these tumors challenging. The somatic alterations present in these tumors apart from RAS gene mutations and PAX8/PPARG translocations are not well described. To evaluate the profile of somatic alteration in follicular thyroid tumors, a total of 82 thyroid tissue samples derived from 48 patients were subjected to targeted Illumina HiSeq next generation sequencing of 372 cancer-related genes. New somatic alterations were identified in oncogenes (MDM2, FLI1), transcription factors and repressors (MITF, FLI1, ZNF331), epigenetic enzymes (KMT2A, NSD1, NCOA1, NCOA2), and protein kinases (JAK3, CHEK2, ALK). Single nucleotide and large structural variants were most and least frequently identified, respectively. A novel translocation in DERL/COX6C was detected. Many somatic alterations in non-coding gene regions with high penetrance were observed. Thus, follicular thyroid tumor somatic alterations exhibit complex patterns. Most tumors contained distinct somatic alterations, suggesting previously unreported heterogeneity.

  5. On the Origin of Cells and Derivation of Thyroid Cancer: C Cell Story Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Mikael; Williams, Dillwyn

    2016-07-01

    We will highlight and put into perspective new lineage tracing data from genetic studies in mice indicating that the genuine progenitors to C cells arise in the endoderm germ layer. This overturns the current concept of a neural crest origin of thyroid C cells referred to in every textbook and dedicated paper to this very day. As will become apparent, except for a single experiment, the neural crest theory has little or no support when the evolution and development of calcitonin-producing cells in the entire chordate family are considered. Instead, a unifying origin of all cells of the ultimobranchial bodies reopens questions on the histogenesis of certain thyroid pathologies previously difficult to explain. On this aspect, medullary thyroid cancer shows a stronger connection to gut neuroendocrine tumours than previously recognized. It is envisaged that novel factors implicated in C cell-derived tumour growth and progression will be discovered as the mechanisms that regulate lineage expansion of embryonic C cell precursors from pharyngeal endoderm are uncovered. We will not discuss why C cells go to the bother of burying themselves in the thyroid - this remains a mystery. PMID:27493881

  6. Nausea and vomiting in advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Pamela; LeGrand, Susan B; Walsh, Declan

    2014-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are very common symptoms in cancer both treatment and non-treatment related. Many complications of advanced cancer such as gastroparesis, bowel and outlet obstructions, and brain tumors may have nausea and vomiting or either symptom alone. In a non-obstructed situation, nausea may be more difficult to manage and is more objectionable to patients. There is little research on management of these symptoms except the literature on chemotherapy induced nausea where guidelines exist. This article will review the etiologies of nausea and vomiting in advanced cancer and the medications which have been used to treat them. An etiology based protocol to approach the symptom is outlined.

  7. Childhood thyroid cancer increased in areas around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The population in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia who was exposed to the fallout from Chernobyl has suffered from many physical and mental health problems, which are not directly related to radiation. Instead, many health problems are linked to radiation protection countermeasures such as evacuation, food restrictions and other limitations of daily life. Fear for health consequences for people themselves or for their children has influenced mental well-being even in relatively clean areas. In comparison to these effects the direct health effects from radiation are not great. Of the rescue people who worked in the reactor on the night of the catastrophe, 30 died from acute radiation injury. Later on there has appeared around 600 cases of thyroid carcinoma in children. Other health effects which relate directly to radiation have not thus far been observed. (orig.) (1 fig.)

  8. Are there disparities in the presentation, treatment and outcomes of patients diagnosed with medullary thyroid cancer?—An analysis of 634 patients from the California Cancer Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christine; Chen, Yingjia; Cress, Rosemary; Semrad, Alison M.; Semrad, Thomas; Gosnell, Jessica E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Race, gender and socioeconomic disparities have been suggested to adversely influence stage at presentation, treatment options and outcomes in patients with cancer. Underserved minorities and those with a low socioeconomic status (SES) present with more advanced disease and have worse outcomes for differentiated thyroid cancer, but this relationship has never been evaluated for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Methods We used the California Cancer Registry (CCR) to evaluate disparities in the presentation, treatment and outcomes of patients diagnosed with MTC. Results We identified 634 patients with MTC diagnosed between 1988 and 2011. Almost everyone (85%) underwent thyroidectomy with 50% having a central lymph node dissection (CLND). There were no statistically significant differences by age, race or SES in mean tumor size or the proportion of patients diagnosed with localized disease, but men were diagnosed with larger tumors than women and were less likely to be diagnosed at a localized stage. Younger patients and women were more likely to be treated with a thyroidectomy. There were no statistically significant differences in surgical treatment by race or SES. Patients in the highest SES category had a better overall survival, but not disease specific survival, than those in the lowest SES (HR =0.3, CI =0.1–0.7). Patients treated with thyroidectomy had a better overall and cause specific survival, but the effect of CLND was not statistically significant after adjustment for other factors. Conclusions In MTC, we did not find that race, gender or SES influenced the presentation, treatment or outcomes of patients with MTC. Men with MTC present with larger tumors and are less likely to have localized disease. Half of the MTC patients in California do not undergo a CLND at the time of thyroidectomy, which may suggest a lack appropriate care across a range of healthcare systems. PMID:27563561

  9. A novel BAP1 mutation is associated with melanocytic neoplasms and thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Kevin J; Gallanis, Gregory T; Heller, Kathleen A; Melas, Marilena; Idos, Gregory E; Culver, Julie O; Martin, Sue-Ellen; Peng, David H; Gruber, Stephen B

    2016-03-01

    Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene, BRCA-1 associated protein (BAP1), underlie a tumor predisposition syndrome characterized by increased risk for numerous cancers including uveal melanoma, melanocytic tumors and mesothelioma, among others. In the present study we report the identification of a novel germline BAP1 mutation, c.1777C>T, which produces a truncated BAP1 protein product and segregates with cancer. Family members with this mutation demonstrated a primary clinical phenotype of autosomal dominant, early-onset melanocytic neoplasms with immunohistochemistry (IHC) of these tumors demonstrating lack of BAP1 protein expression. In addition, family members harboring the BAP1 c.1777C>T germline mutation developed other neoplastic disease including thyroid cancer. IHC analysis of the thyroid cancer, as well, demonstrated loss of BAP1 protein expression. Our investigation identifies a new BAP1 mutation, further highlights the relevance of BAP1 as a clinically important tumor suppressor gene, and broadens the range of cancers associated with BAP1 inactivation. Further study will be required to understand the full scope of BAP1-associated neoplastic disease.

  10. Can the Serum Level of Myostatin be Considered as an Informative Factor for Cachexia Prevention in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Mehdi; Nozhat, Zahra; Hannani, Masoomeh

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer, the most common endocrine neoplasia, consists of four main types of carcinomas: papillary, follicular, and anaplastic, all with thyroid follicular origin, and medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) related to para-follicular cells. Cronic diseases such as diverse cancers may be associated with cachexia, especially at advanced stage. Cancer-induced cachexia is associated with diminished quality of life, functional performance, reduced response to antitumor therapy, and increased morbidity and mortality. Myostatin (Mst) is one of the outstanding molecules in the skeletal muscle loss process in cancer and it may be released by both skeletal muscle and cachexia-inducing tumors. Recently changes in serum levels of Mst have been identified as an important factor of cancer-induced cachexia. The goal of this study was to assessserum Mst levels in MTC patients. In this descriptive and case-control study, 90 participants were selected, comprising 45 MTC patients (20 males, 29±13.9 years, 25 females, 29±14.5 years) and 45 control individuals (25 males, 23.1±11.6 years, 20 females, 31.5±14.4 years). Serum Mst was determined using an ELISA kit and body mass index (BMI) was calculated by weight and height measurements. The Kolmogorov Simonov test showed a normal distribution for log transformed Mst serum levels in both case and control groups. Geometric means were 5.9 and 8.2 ng/ml respectively, and a significant difference was found according to the independent t-test results (P<0.01) . There was also a significant difference mean of Mst between females in control and MTC groups, but not for the males. Pearson correlation test showed no correlation between age and BMI with Mst serum levels. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that Mst serum levels may have a potential ability for early diagnosis of cachexia in MTC patients, especially in females. PMID:27165248

  11. The Contributions of Gamma Probe to Lesion Detectability and Surgical Safety in Recurrent Thyroid Cancer at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Sinan Gültekin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In patients, who underwent thyroid surgery or treated with I-131 radioiodine previously for differentiated thyroid cancer, a second surgical intervention carries higher risks due to distortion of the natural anatomy and development of fibrotic/cicatricial tissue. In addition, accurate assessment of current status about extent of the disease is important in terms of success of the surgery. In this case report, we present the positive contribution of intraoperative gamma probe used for lesion detectability and for surgical safety in a patient operated for several times and administered high cumulative dose of radioiodine therapy for diffentiated thyroid carcinoma previously.

  12. Deregulated Expression of Aurora Kinases Is Not a Prognostic Biomarker in Papillary Thyroid Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzi, Natalie; Sorrenti, Salvatore; Falvo, Laura; De Vito, Corrado; Catania, Antonio; Tartaglia, Francesco; Mocini, Renzo; Coccaro, Carmela; Alessandrini, Stefania; Barollo, Susi; Mian, Caterina; Antonelli, Alessandro; De Antoni, Enrico; D’Armiento, Massimino; Ulisse, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    A number of reports indicated that Aurora-A or Aurora-B overexpression represented a negative prognostic factor in several human malignancies. In thyroid cancer tissues a deregulated expression of Aurora kinases has been also demonstrated, butno information regarding its possible prognostic role in differentiated thyroid cancer is available. Here, weevaluated Aurora-A and Aurora-B mRNA expression and its prognostic relevance in a series of 87 papillary thyroid cancers (PTC), with a median follow-up of 63 months. The analysis of Aurora-A and Aurora-B mRNA levels in PTC tissues, compared to normal matched tissues, revealed that their expression was either up- or down-regulatedin the majority of cancer tissues. In particular, Aurora-A and Aurora-B mRNA levels were altered, respectively, in 55 (63.2%) and 79 (90.8%) out of the 87 PTC analyzed.A significant positive correlation between Aurora-A and Aurora-B mRNAswas observed (p=0.001). The expression of both Aurora genes was not affected by the BRAFV600E mutation. Univariate, multivariate and Kaplan-Mayer analyses documented the lack of association between Aurora-A or Aurora-B expression and clinicopathological parameterssuch as gender, age, tumor size, histology, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis and BRAF status as well asdisease recurrences or disease-free interval. Only Aurora-B mRNA was significantly higher in T(3-4) tissues, with respect to T(1-2) PTC tissues. The data reported here demonstrate that the expression of Aurora kinases is deregulated in the majority of PTC tissues, likely contributing to PTC progression. However, differently from other human solid cancers, detection of Aurora-A or Aurora-B mRNAs is not a prognostic biomarker inPTC patients. PMID:25807528

  13. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Valentina M.; Saenko, Vladimir A.; Brenner, Alina V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I.; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V.; Demidchik, Yuri E.; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I.; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer. PMID:26397978

  14. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Valentina M; Saenko, Vladimir A; Brenner, Alina V; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V; Demidchik, Yuri E; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer.

  15. Management of hypothyroidism after radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) has been in use for over 40 years to treat hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. There is common knowledge that the aim in hyperthyroidism is to produce normal thyroid functions or render the patient euthyroid. It is the choice in properly selected patients as it is safe, convenient and there is rapid elimination of goiter and symptoms. In thyroid cancer, namely - papillary and follicular or well-differentiated ones, it ablates residual thyroid tissues not removed totally by surgery. This has, in all studies, improved life expectancy. The most important aspect in the use of I-131 for hyperthyroidism is to stress to the patient the need for constant follow-up and the recognition of the signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism which is inevitible. Recurrent hyperthyroidism and iatrogenic hypothyroidism are two problems which interact in such a way that trying to solve one leads to exacerbation of the other. Cure follows a logarithmic relationship to activity or absorbed dose, while the hypothyroidism follows a linear relationship. Even though we calculate point for point the administered dose (fixed or preferred dose) hypothyroidism still occurs. Dose calculation schemes have been discussed and it follows that the higher the dose is, the higher the percentage of cure is but the higher the chance is for eventual hypothyroidism. Diagnosis of hypothyroidism is based on clinical history that the patient received RAI for toxicosis, plus signs and symptoms of weight gain, hoarseness, sleepy, sluggish, muscle cramps, fatigue, poor memory and concentration, dry skin, constipation, depression, menstrual irregularities as menorrhagia or amenorrhea and infertility. Physical examination would reveal bradycardia, non-palpable thyroid gland, slow speech, cool dry skin and delayed relaxation of deep tendon reflexes. Biochemical parameters would show as elevated TSH, low T4 and low T3. Management of thyroid hormone replacement involves using levothyroxine sodium

  16. Increased thyroid cancer incidence in a basaltic volcanic area is associated with non-anthropogenic pollution and biocontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandrino, Pasqualino; Russo, Marco; Ronchi, Anna; Minoia, Claudio; Cataldo, Daniela; Regalbuto, Concetto; Giordano, Carla; Attard, Marco; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Trimarchi, Francesco; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2016-08-01

    The increased thyroid cancer incidence in volcanic areas suggests an environmental effect of volcanic-originated carcinogens. To address this problem, we evaluated environmental pollution and biocontamination in a volcanic area of Sicily with increased thyroid cancer incidence. Thyroid cancer epidemiology was obtained from the Sicilian Regional Registry for Thyroid Cancer. Twenty-seven trace elements were measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry in the drinking water and lichens (to characterize environmental pollution) and in the urine of residents (to identify biocontamination) in the Mt. Etna volcanic area and in adjacent control areas. Thyroid cancer incidence was 18.5 and 9.6/10(5) inhabitants in the volcanic and the control areas, respectively. The increase was exclusively due to the papillary histotype. Compared with control areas, in the volcanic area many trace elements were increased in both drinking water and lichens, indicating both water and atmospheric pollution. Differences were greater for water. Additionally, in the urine of the residents of the volcanic area, the average levels of many trace elements were significantly increased, with values higher two-fold or more than in residents of the control area: cadmium (×2.1), mercury (×2.6), manganese (×3.0), palladium (×9.0), thallium (×2.0), uranium (×2.0), vanadium (×8.0), and tungsten (×2.4). Urine concentrations were significantly correlated with values in water but not in lichens. Our findings reveal a complex non-anthropogenic biocontamination with many trace elements in residents of an active volcanic area where thyroid cancer incidence is increased. The possible carcinogenic effect of these chemicals on the thyroid and other tissues cannot be excluded and should be investigated. PMID:26438396

  17. Increased thyroid cancer incidence in a basaltic volcanic area is associated with non-anthropogenic pollution and biocontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandrino, Pasqualino; Russo, Marco; Ronchi, Anna; Minoia, Claudio; Cataldo, Daniela; Regalbuto, Concetto; Giordano, Carla; Attard, Marco; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Trimarchi, Francesco; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2016-08-01

    The increased thyroid cancer incidence in volcanic areas suggests an environmental effect of volcanic-originated carcinogens. To address this problem, we evaluated environmental pollution and biocontamination in a volcanic area of Sicily with increased thyroid cancer incidence. Thyroid cancer epidemiology was obtained from the Sicilian Regional Registry for Thyroid Cancer. Twenty-seven trace elements were measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry in the drinking water and lichens (to characterize environmental pollution) and in the urine of residents (to identify biocontamination) in the Mt. Etna volcanic area and in adjacent control areas. Thyroid cancer incidence was 18.5 and 9.6/10(5) inhabitants in the volcanic and the control areas, respectively. The increase was exclusively due to the papillary histotype. Compared with control areas, in the volcanic area many trace elements were increased in both drinking water and lichens, indicating both water and atmospheric pollution. Differences were greater for water. Additionally, in the urine of the residents of the volcanic area, the average levels of many trace elements were significantly increased, with values higher two-fold or more than in residents of the control area: cadmium (×2.1), mercury (×2.6), manganese (×3.0), palladium (×9.0), thallium (×2.0), uranium (×2.0), vanadium (×8.0), and tungsten (×2.4). Urine concentrations were significantly correlated with values in water but not in lichens. Our findings reveal a complex non-anthropogenic biocontamination with many trace elements in residents of an active volcanic area where thyroid cancer incidence is increased. The possible carcinogenic effect of these chemicals on the thyroid and other tissues cannot be excluded and should be investigated.

  18. Childhood Height and Body Mass Index Were Associated with Risk of Adult Thyroid Cancer in a Large Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Berrington de González, Amy;

    2014-01-01

    Taller stature and obesity in adulthood have been consistently associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, but few studies have investigated the role of childhood body size. Using data from a large prospective cohort, we examined associations for height and body mass index (BMI) at ages 7...... to 13 years with risk of thyroid cancer in later life. The study population included 321,085 children from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born between 1930 and 1989 in Copenhagen, Denmark, with measurements of height and weight from 7 to 13 years of age. These data were linked...... with the Danish Cancer Registry to identify incident thyroid cancer cases (1968-2010). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for age- and sex-specific height and BMI SD scores (SDS) using proportional hazards models stratified by birth cohort and sex. During follow-up (median = 38...

  19. Additive value of pinhole imaging in well differentiated thyroid cancer after surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soon A.; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    It is well known that the image by pinhole collimator (PH) has more good resolution than that by high resolution parallel-hole collimator (HRPH). We performed this study to compare PH and HRPH for the detection of metastatic cervical lymphadenopathy (MCL) from remnant thyroid tissue (RT). One hundred forty three studies in 71 patients (M :F=12: 59, age 43.3{+-}13.9 yrs) were included in our investigation. In 111 of 143 studies which were received 1110 MBq of I-131, HRPH and PH were performed 3 days after intake. PH were obtained with 6 mm aperture in size and for 10 minutes. Markers were placed to the submental and sternal notch region. We compared two image modality for the detection of MCL and RT in cervcal region. All of the patients were revealed well differentiated thyroid cancer (papillary: follicular=68: 3). Sixty five of 111 studies (58.6%) showed concordant results and 46 of 111 (41.4%) showed discordant results. In the group of discordant result, PH study was more useful for the detection of lesions with RT and MCL 25/46 (54.3%) and 29/46 (63%), respectively. In well differentiated thyroid cancer after surgery, we conclude that PH has more useful value in monitoring of therapeutic response in RT, and provides additive information for the necessity of high dose radioactive iodine therapy in patient with MCL.

  20. The Evaluation of Microcarcinoma in Differentiated Thyroid Cancers According to Old and New TNM Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekiye Hasbek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the tumor size for proximal and distant metastases when the new and old TNM clas¬sification is taken into account in differentiated thyroid cancers. Material and Methods: Two hundred sixty eight patients diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma, undergoing bilateral total or subto¬tal thyroidectomy treated with high doses of I-131 were examined retrospectively. The data of these patients were compared after classification, according to tumor size 1 cm. In the same group, according to the revised TNM classification, in 149 of 207 patients (72% the tumor size was 2 cm. Of 187 patients with negative lymph nodes, 15 (8% showed abnormal activity accumulation in the first post I-131 treatment whole-body scan and 10 (40% of 25 patients positive lymph node (p<0.05 involvement. Conclusion: Since the treatment of patients with microcarcinoma is controversial, tumor size should not be the only factor consid¬ered in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer Tissue tumor invasion, age, gender and multifocality should also be taken into account. (MIRT2011;20:94-99

  1. Local Anesthetics Induce Apoptosis in Human Thyroid Cancer Cells through the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-Ching Chang; Yi-Chiung Hsu; Chien-Liang Liu; Shih-Yuan Huang; Meng-Chun Hu; Shih-Ping Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Local anesthetics are frequently used in fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions and locoregional control of persistent or recurrent thyroid cancer. Recent evidence suggests that local anesthetics have a broad spectrum of effects including inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in neuronal and other types of cells. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment with lidocaine and bupivacaine resulted in decreased cell viability and colony formation of both 8505C and K1 c...

  2. Management of low-risk well-differentiated thyroid cancer based only on thyroglobulin measurement after recombinant human thyrotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartofsky, Leonard

    2002-07-01

    A multicenter study was undertaken to ascertain prevalence and significance of recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH)-stimulated increases in thyroglobulin (Tg) levels in thyroid cancer patients classified to be at low risk for recurrence. Patients were eligible for enrollment if they had undergone near-total or total thyroidectomy and remnant ablation between 1-10 years prior to enrollment and had received thyroxine suppression therapy (THST) with a TSH level of < 0.5 mU/L and Tg level less than or equal to 5 ng/mL within the prior year. Patients with anti-Tg antibodies, distant metastases, or other evidence of residual disease were excluded. Four hundred eighty-six patients were entered into the study, and 300 were considered eligible and comprise the study population. TSH, Tg, and anti-Tg antibody levels were obtained at baseline, followed by intramuscular injection of 0.9 mg of rhTSH on days 1 and 2 and measurement of Tg on day 5. After rhTSH, 53 patients (18%) had elevations in Tg of at least 2 ng/mL, including 33 patients (11%) with increases from baseline of equal to or greater than 5 ng/mL. Patients with an initial advanced stage of disease were more likely to display elevations in Tg after rhTSH. One third of those with stage III disease displayed elevations in Tg of 2 ng/mL or more. Patients within 5 years of thyroidectomy were as likely to display elevations in rhTSH-stimulated Tg as those 5-10 years from surgery. In conclusion, these data suggest rhTSH-stimulated Tg testing without scan may be a useful tool in the follow-up of patients with low-risk thyroid cancer, and may serve to identify patients previously thought free of disease on the basis of undetectable Tg levels while undergoing THST. A strategy is presented for incorporation of this approach into the management of patients with low-risk well-differentiated thyroid cancer.

  3. Cytological accuracy and radiological staging in patients with thyroid cancer in Glasgow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jenny; Hendry, Jane; Van der Horst, Cynthia; Hunter, Mark A; MacKenzie, Kenneth; Hilmi, Omar

    2016-09-01

    To assess the accuracy of initial combined cytological accuracy and radiological staging of patients suspected of having thyroid malignancy with their final histopathology. Retrospective case series in a tertiary referral centre for head and neck malignancy. All patients with malignant thyroid cytology and cytology suspicious for malignancy, between the dates of June 2010 and July 2014, were included. The pre-operative staging was compared against the final histological staging. Demographics and outcomes for each patient were recorded. Sixty-five patients were recorded in this group. 20 (30.7 %) were male. The mean age at presentation was 51 years (SD 16.8 years). 39 (60 %) patients were aged over 45 years. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed in all patients and was Thy 4 in 40 (62 %) and Thy 5 in 25 (38 %). Following surgery or subsequent biopsy, FNAC was found to be accurate in 38/40 (Thy 4) and 25/25 (Thy 5) cases in diagnosing malignancy, with Thy 4 yielding 95 % malignancy and Thy 5 % 100 %. Fifty-eight patients underwent a surgical procedure for thyroid cancer. Two further patients had a diagnostic hemi-thyroidectomy for later proven benign disease. Five patients due to medical co morbidities, inoperable disease or refusal of surgery were managed non-surgically. In the surgical group 16 patients underwent a diagnostic hemi-thyroidectomy and 11 of these required a completion thyroidectomy. Forty-six patients underwent total thyroidectomy. Forty-six patients underwent a neck dissection: 27 prophylactic central compartment neck dissections and 19 planned therapeutic neck dissections were performed. Radiological staging correctly predicted final pathological TNM staging in 25 (43 %) patients. 27 (47 %) patients had radiological staging which under staged their final histological staging and 6 (10 %) patients had scans that over staged their cancer. Of those that were under staged, 15 (56 %) had their nodal disease under staged

  4. Modulatory role of 17β-estradiol in the tumor microenvironment of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hima, Sithul; Sreeja, Sreeharshan

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid cancer (TC) is an endocrine related cancer and is well coupled with the female reproductive hormone, 17β-estradiol (estrogen). Plenty of articles have discussed the role of tumor microenvironment (TME) with different types of tumors in a broad-spectrum but the role of female reproductive hormone, that is, involvement of estrogen in TME of TC have not been reviewed elsewhere. The aim of this review is to analyze how 17β-estradiol affects the TME of TC and also that subsequently leads to progression of cancer. This review is given a new insight on: 1) the estrogen's involvement in TME of TC; 2) how it interferes with the complex cross talk of signaling pathways established between cancer cells, host cells, and their surrounding extracellular matrix; and 3) the important factors of microenvironment comprising inflammation, hypoxia, angiogenesis, metastasis, various growth factors and fibroblasts in stromal cells. PMID:26707588

  5. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of treatment-refractory metastatic thyroid cancer using 90Yttrium and 177Lutetium labeled somatostatin analogs: toxicity, response and survival analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Budiawan, Hendra; Salavati, Ali; Kulkarni, Harshad R.; Baum, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    The overall survival rate of non-radioiodine avid differentiated (follicular, papillary, medullary) thyroid carcinoma is significantly lower than for patients with iodine-avid lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate toxicity and efficacy (response and survival) of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in non-radioiodine-avid or radioiodine therapy refractory thyroid cancer patients. Sixteen non-radioiodine-avid and/or radioiodine therapy refractory thyroid cancer patients, i...

  6. Increased expression of phosphatidylcholine (16:0/18:1 and (16:0/18:2 in thyroid papillary cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Ishikawa

    Full Text Available A good prognosis can be expected for most, but not all, cases of thyroid papillary cancer. Numerous molecular studies have demonstrated beneficial treatment and prognostic factors in various molecular markers. Whereas most previous reports have focused on genomics and proteomics, few have focused on lipidomics. With the advent of mass spectrometry (MS, it has become possible to identify many types of molecules, and this analytical tool has become critical in the field of omics. Recently, imaging mass spectrometry (IMS was developed. After a simple pretreatment process, IMS can be used to examine tissue sections on glass slides with location information.Here, we conducted an IMS analysis of seven cases of thyroid papillary cancer by comparison of cancerous with normal tissues, focusing on the distribution of phospholipids. We identified that phosphatidylcholine (16:0/18:1 and (16:0/18:2 and sphingomyelin (d18:0/16:1 are significantly higher in thyroid papillary cancer than in normal thyroid tissue as determined by tandem mass (MS/MS analysis. These distributional differences may be associated with the biological behavior of thyroid papillary cancer.

  7. Optimization of the application of BNCT to undifferentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible increase in BNCT efficacy for undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) using BPA plus BOPP and nicotinamide (NA) as a radiosensitizer on the BNCT reaction was analyzed. In these studies nude mice were transplanted with the ARO cells and after 14 days they were treated as follows: 1) Control; 2) NCT (neutrons alone); 3) NCT plus NA (100 mg/kg bw/day for 3 days); 4) BPA (350 mg/kg bw) + neutrons; 5) BPA+ NA+ neutrons; 6) BPA+BOPP (60 mg/kg bw) + neutrons. The flux of hyperthermal neutrons was 2.8 108 during 85 min. Neutrons alone or with NA caused some tumor growth delay, while in the BPA, BPA+NA and BPA+BOPP groups a 100% halt of tumor growth was observed. When the initial tumor volume was 50 mm3 or less a complete cure was found in BPA+NA (2/2); BPA (1/4); BPA+BOPP (7/7). After 90 days of complete regression, recurrence of tumor was observed in 2/2 BPA/NA (2/2) and BPA+BOPP (1/7). Caspase 3 activity was increased in BPA+NA (p<0.05 vs controls). BPA plus NA increased tumor apoptosis but only the combination of BPA+BOPP increased significantly BNCT efficiency. (author)

  8. Risk factors for developing hyponatremia in thyroid cancer patients undergoing radioactive iodine therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Eun Lee

    Full Text Available Due to the alarming increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer worldwide, more patients are receiving postoperative radioactive iodine (RAI therapy and these patients are given a low-iodine diet along with levothyroxine withdrawal to induce a hypothyroid state to maximize the uptake of RAI by thyroid tissues. Recently, the reported cases of patients suffering from life-threatening severe hyponatremia following postoperative RAI therapy have increased. This study aimed to systematically assess risk factors for developing hyponatremia following RAI therapy in post-thyroidectomy patients.We reviewed the medical records of all thyroid cancer patients who underwent thyroidectomy and postoperative RAI therapy from July 2009 to February 2012. Demographic and biochemical parameters including serum sodium and thyroid function tests were assessed along with medication history.A total of 2229 patients (47.0±11.0 years, female 76.3% were enrolled in the analysis. Three hundred seven patients (13.8% of all patients developed hyponatremia; 44 patients (2.0% developed moderate to severe hyponatremia (serum Na+≤130 mEq/L and another 263 (11.8% patients showed mild hyponatremia (130 mEq/L

  9. Risk stratification of patients with locally aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer. Results of the MSDS trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemann, B.; Kraemer, J.A.; Schober, O. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Muenster (Germany); Schmid, K.W. [Inst. of Pathology and Neuropathology, Univ. Hospital of Essen, Univ. of Duisburg-Essen (Germany); Dralle, H. [Dept. of General Surgery, Univ. Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Cologne (Germany); Sauerland, C. [Dept. of Medical Informatics and Biomathematics, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Frankewitsch, T. [IT-Center - Research and Education, Univ. Muenster (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The Multicentre Study Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (MSDS) collective represents a well defined group of patients with locally aggressive thyroid carcinomas (pT4; AJCC/UICC 1997). The aim of the present study was to compare the survival of patients with minimum and extensive extrathyroidal growth according to the new AJCC/UICC TNM staging system 2009. Patients, methods: The follow-up data of 347 patients were analysed. Patients were reclassified according to the current AJCC/UICC 2009 classification. The event-free and overall survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. In addition, postoperative complications and status of disease were documented. Results: 327 patients were assigned to stage pT3 and 20 patients to stage pT4a, respectively. Median follow-up was 6.1 years (range 0.04-9.8 years). 92.5% of patients reached complete remission. There were 7.8% recurrences in the thyroid bed, in locoregional lymph nodes and/or in distant sites. The overall survival was >98% both in pT3 and pT4a patients (p = n. s.). In contrast, the event-free survival was significantly less favourable in pT4a patients (p < 0.001). Using multivariate analysis the following parameters were significant predictors of event-free survival: histological tumour type, degree of extrathyroidal extension and nodal metastasis (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The MSDS patients with locally aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer showed an excellent overall survival during a median follow-up of 6.1 years. According to the current AJCC/UICC 2009 classification, pT3 patients with minimal extrathyroidal extension revealed a significantly better event-free survival than pT4a patients with extensive extrathyroidal growth. (orig.)

  10. Targeted therapy: a new hope for thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Francesco; Pezzullo, Luciano; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Lastoria, Secondo; Di Gennaro, Francesca; Scarpati, Giuseppina Della Vittoria; Caponigro, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Thyroid carcinomas are rare and heterogeneous diseases representing less than 1% of all malignancies. The majority of thyroid carcinomas are differentiated entities (papillary and folliculary carcinomas) and are characterized by good prognosis and good response to surgery and radioiodine therapy. Nevertheless, about 10% of differentiated carcinomas recur and become resistant to all therapies. Anaplastic and medullary cancers are rare subtypes of thyroid cancer not suitable for radioiodine therapy. A small percentage of differentiated and all the anaplastic and medullary thyroid carcinomas often recur after primary treatments and are no longer suitable for other therapies. In the last years, several advances have been made in the field of molecular biology and tumorigenesis mechanisms of thyroid carcinomas. Starting from these issues, the targeted therapy may be employed as a new option. The MAP-Kinase pathway has been found often dysregulated in thyroid carcinomas and several upstream signals have been recognized as responsible for this feature. RET/PTC mutations are often discovered both in papillary and in medullary carcinomas, while B-RAF mutation is typical of papillary and anaplastic histologies. Also mTOR disruptions and VEGFR pathway disruption are common features in all advanced thyroid cancers. Some angiogenesis inhibitors and a number of RET/PTC pathway blocking agents are yet present in the clinical armamentarium. Vandetanib, cabozatinib and sorafenib have reached clinical use. A number of other biological compounds have been tested in phase II and III trials. Understanding the biology of thyroid cancers may help us to design a well shaped targeted therapy.

  11. EpCAM nuclear localization identifies aggressive Thyroid Cancer and is a marker for poor prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain (EpEx) of Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and nuclear signaling by its intracellular oncogenic domain Ep-ICD has recently been implicated in increased proliferation of cancer cells. The clinical significance of Ep-ICD in human tumors remains an enigma. EpEx, Ep-ICD and β-catenin immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies was conducted on 58 archived thyroid cancer (TC) tissue blocks from 34 patients and correlated with survival analysis of these patients for up to 17 years. The anaplastic (ATC) and aggressive thyroid cancers showed loss of EpEx and increased nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of Ep-ICD. In contrast, the low grade papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) showed membranous EpEx and no detectable nuclear Ep-ICD. The ATC also showed concomitant nuclear expression of Ep-ICD and β-catenin. Kaplan-Meier Survival analysis revealed reduced overall survival (OS) for TC patients showing nuclear Ep-ICD expression or loss of membranous EpEx (p < 0.0004), median OS = 5 months as compared to 198 months for patients who did not show nuclear Ep-ICD or demonstrated only membranous EpE. We report reciprocal loss of membrane EpEx but increased nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of Ep-ICD in aggressive TC; nuclear Ep-ICD correlated with poor OS of TC patients. Thus nuclear Ep-ICD localization may serve as a useful biomarker for aggressive TC and may represent a novel diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic target for aggressive TC

  12. Application of a medium-energy collimator for I-131 imaging after ablation treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-energy (HE) collimators are usually applied for I-131 imaging after ablation treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, purchase of HE collimators has been avoided in many nuclear medicine departments because the HE collimators are more expensive than other collimators. In this study, we compared the I-131 imaging using HE- and medium-energy (ME) collimators, which is more versatile than HE collimators. To simulate DTC patients with extra-thyroid beds, a phantom of acrylic containers containing I-131 was used. To simulate patients with thyroid beds, four phantoms representing extra-thyroid beds were arranged around the phantom representing normal thyroid tissues. Patients administered 1.11 or 3.70 GBq NaI-131 were also evaluated. Whole-body imaging and SPECT imaging of the phantoms and patients performed using HE-general-purpose (HEGP) and ME-low-penetration (MELP) collimators, and full-width at half maximum (FWHM) and percent coefficient of variation (%CV) were measured. In the extra-thyroid beds, FWHM and %CV with MELP were negligibly different from those with HEGP in whole-body imaging. Although FWHM with MELP was a little different from that with HEGP in SPECT imaging, %CV with MELP was significantly higher than that with HEGP. In the thyroid beds, only an extra-thyroid bed including higher radioactivity was identified in whole-body imaging with both collimators. Although SPECT images with MELP could not clarify extra-thyroid beds with low radioactivity, HEGP could identify them. In patients, although some whole-body images with MELP could not detect extra-thyroid beds, whole-body imaging with HEGP and SPECT imaging with both collimators could detect them. Although HEGP is the best collimator for I-131 imaging, MELP is applicable for not only whole-body imaging but also SPECT imaging. (author)

  13. Photodynamic Cancer Therapy - Recent Advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principle of the photodynamic effect was discovered over a hundred years ago leading to the pioneering work on PDT in Europe. It was only during the 1980s, however, when 'photoradiation therapy' was investigated as a possible treatment modality for cancer. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a photochemotherapeutic process which requires the use of a photosensitizer (PS) that, upon entry into a cancer cell is targeted by laser irradiation to initiate a series of events that contribute to cell death. PSs are light-sensitive dyes activated by a light source at a specific wavelength and can be classified as first or second generation PSs based on its origin and synthetic pathway. The principle of PS activation lies in a photochemical reaction resulting from excitation of the PS producing singlet oxygen which in turn reacts and damages cell organelles and biomolecules required for cell function and ultimately leading to cell destruction. Several first and second generation PSs have been studied in several different cancer types in the quest to optimize treatment. PSs including haematoporphyrin derivative (HpD), aminolevulinic acid (ALA), chlorins, bacteriochlorins, phthalocyanines, naphthalocyanines, pheophorbiedes and purpurins all require selective uptake and retention by cancer cells prior to activation by a light source and subsequent cell death induction. Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is based on the fluorescence effect exhibited by PSs upon irradiation and is often used concurrently with PDT to detect and locate tumours. Both laser and light emitting diodes (LED) have been used for PDT depending on the location of the tumour. Internal cancers more often require the use of laser light delivery using fibre optics as delivery system while external PDT often make use of LEDs. Normal cells have a lower uptake of the PS in comparison to tumour cells, however the acute cytotoxic effect of the compound on the recovery rate of normal cells is not known. Subcellular

  14. Employment and insurance outcomes and factors associated with employment among long-term thyroid cancer survivors : a population-based study from the PROFILES registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S. J.; Bultmann, U.; Husson, O.; Kuijpens, J. L. P.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.

    2016-01-01

    To obtain insight into employment and insurance outcomes of thyroid cancer survivors and to examine the association between not having employment and other factors including quality of life. In this cross-sectional population-based study, long-term thyroid cancer survivors from the Netherlands parti

  15. Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of short-lived internal emitters and external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. We determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentially exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individual more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. We computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. 14 refs., 8 tabs

  16. 儿童和青少年甲状腺癌的治疗进展%Treatment progress of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嘉莹; 张凌; 嵇庆海

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is uncommon in children and adolescents. This article analyzed the current data and stated the treatment progress of the thyroid cancer in children and adolescents. Even though in the advanced stage at diagnosis, the prognosis is good for pediatric patients. Surgery is the treatment for pediatric thyroid cancer. Although there is no optimal surgery recommendation, most surgeons preferred total and (or) subtotal thyroidectomy. Hemi-thyroidectomy could also be considered in the low-risk patients with small unifocal tumors. We recommend routine central compartment clearance in pediatric thyroid cancers to reduce the local recurrence. Radioactive iodine therapy is also recommended in particular pediatric patients. Recurrences after treatment in childhood thyroid cancer may take place over a long period of time. Therefore, a life-long follow-up is mandatory.%儿童和青少年甲状腺癌较为罕见。本文通过分析现有数据资料,阐述儿童和青少年甲状腺癌的治疗进展。尽管发现时分期较晚,但该病总体预后较好。手术治疗是最主要的治疗方式,目前无标准的手术处理方式。大部分外科医生赞成甲状腺全切和(或)次全切。对于单侧的低危患者,也可考虑单侧腺叶切除。预防性中央区淋巴结清扫术能够降低局部复发。在特定的患者中行放射性131I治疗能降低复发风险。由于生存期较长,在长期无瘤生存后仍可能再次复发,因此患者需要长期随访。

  17. Tumorigenesis of papillary thyroid cancer is not BRAF-dependent in patients with acromegaly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Kyung Kim

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several studies have reported a high frequency of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC in patients with acromegaly. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of thyroid cancer in patients with acromegaly and to investigate the frequency of the BRAFV600E mutation in PTC patients with and without acromegaly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 60 patients with acromegaly. Thyroid ultrasonography (US and US-guided fine needle aspiration were performed on nodules with sonographic features of malignancy. We selected 16 patients with non-acromegalic PTC as a control group. The BRAFV600E mutation was analyzed in paraffin-embedded surgical specimens of PTC by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and tumor specimens from patients with PTC were stained immunohistochemically with an antibody against insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor β (IGF-1Rβ. RESULTS: Thyroid cancer was found in 15 (25.0% patients. No differences in age, sex, initial growth hormone (GH and IGF-1 percentage of the upper limit of normal values or treatment modalities were observed between patients with and without PTC. Acromegaly was active in 12 of 15 patients at the time of PTC diagnosis; uncontrolled acromegaly had a significantly higher frequency in the PTC group (60% than in the non-PTC group (28.9% (p = 0.030. The BRAFV600E mutation was present in only 9.1% (1/11 of PTC patients with acromegaly, although 62.5% (10/16 of control patients with PTC had the mutation (p = 0.007. IGF-1Rβ immunostaining showed moderate-to-strong staining in all malignant PTC cells in patients with and without acromegaly. Significantly less staining for IGF-1Rβ was observed in normal adjacent thyroid tissues of PTC patients with acromegaly compared with those without (p = 0.014. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PTC in acromegalic patients was high (25%. An uncontrolled hyperactive GH-IGF-1 axis may play a dominant role in the

  18. Radiation dose to family members of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer patients treated with 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) was used for measuring radiation dose to family members of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid cancer patients treated with 131I using CaSO4:Dy discs. There were 45 family members of thyrotoxicosis patients, who were divided into two groups with 22 in the first and 23 in the second group. Radiation safety instructions were the same for both the groups except in the second group where the patients were advised to use a separate bed at home for the first 3 d of dose administration. An activity ranging from 185 to 500 MBq was administered to these patients. The whole-body dose to family members ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 mSv (mean 1.1 mSv) in the first group and 0-1.9 mSv (mean 0.6 mSv) in the second group. A total of 297 family members of thyroid cancer patients were studied for whole-body dose estimation. An activity ranging from 0.925 to 7.4 GBq was administered to the thyroid cancer patients. The family members were divided into three groups depending upon the mode of transport and facilities available at home to avoid close proximity with the patient. Group A with 25 family members received a dose ranging from 0 to 0.9 mSv (mean 0.4 mSv), group B with 96 family members received a dose ranging from 0 to 8.5 mSv (mean 0.8 mSv) and group C with 176 family members received a dose ranging from 0 to 5.0 mSv (mean 0.8 mSv). The thyroid monitoring was also done in 103 family members who attended the patients in isolation wards for >2 d. Thyroid dose in them ranged from 0 to 2.5 mGy (mean 0.1 mGy). (authors)

  19. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident (1986-1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in the incidence of thyroid cancers in children and adolescents in Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident made it necessary to compile a clinical morphological register of respective cancers. In 1986-1994 there were 339 cases registered in children and adolescents, of them 211 children (who were operated at the age under 15 years) and 128 adolescents (who were operated at the age of 15-18 years). Before the