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Sample records for advanced thyroid cancer

  1. New treatment modalities in advanced thyroid cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapiteijn, E.; Schneider, T.C.; Morreau, H.; Gelderblom, H.; Nortier, J.W.; Smit, J.W.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is a heterogeneous disease that is classified into differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), undifferentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) and medullary thyroid carcinoma. Results of conventional treatment modalities in advanced thyroid cancer have been disappointing a

  2. Evolving molecularly targeted therapies for advanced-stage thyroid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Keith C; Ryder, Mabel

    2016-07-01

    Increased understanding of disease-specific molecular targets of therapy has led to the regulatory approval of two drugs (vandetanib and cabozantinib) for the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), and two agents (sorafenib and lenvatinib) for the treatment of radioactive- iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in both the USA and in the EU. The effects of these and other therapies on overall survival and quality of life among patients with thyroid cancer, however, remain to be more-clearly defined. When applied early in the disease course, intensive multimodality therapy seems to improve the survival outcomes of patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), but salvage therapies for ATC are of uncertain benefit. Additional innovative, rationally designed therapeutic strategies are under active development both for patients with DTC and for patients with ATC, with multiple phase II and phase III randomized clinical trials currently ongoing. Continued effort is being made to identify further signalling pathways with potential therapeutic relevance in thyroid cancers, as well as to elaborate on the complex interactions between signalling pathways, with the intention of translating these discoveries into effective and personalized therapies. Herein, we summarize the progress made in molecular medicine for advanced-stage thyroid cancers of different histotypes, analyse how these developments have altered - and might further refine - patient care, and identify open questions for future research.

  3. Recent advances in radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sang Kyun [Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    Well-differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy with an increasing incidence. Most patients with well-differentiated thyroid caner have a favorable prognosis with high survival rate. While surgery and radioiodine therapy is sufficient treatment for the majority of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, a minority of these patients experiences progressive, life-threatening growth and metastatic spread of the disease. Because there is no prospective controlled study to evaluate the differences of management of thyroid cancer, it is hard to choose the best treatment option. And there are still lots of controversies about the management of this disease, such as surgical extent, proper use of radioiodine for remnant ablation and therapy, use of rhTSH instead of withdrawal of thyroid hormone, long-term follow-up strategy, thyroglobulin as a tumor marker, etc. In this review, recent data related to these conflicting issues and recent advances in diagnosis, radioiodine therapy and long-term monitoring of well-differentiated thyroid cancer are summarized.

  4. Cabozantinib (thyroid cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to treat a certain type of thyroid cancer that is getting worse and that has spread ... only gives information about cabozantinib capsules (Cometriq) for thyroid cancer. If you are using this medication for advanced ...

  5. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  6. What Is Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment? Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer What Is Thyroid Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... cell) Medullary Anaplastic (an aggressive undifferentiated tumor) Differentiated thyroid cancers Most thyroid cancers are differentiated cancers. The cells ...

  7. Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid in Treating Patients With Metastatic and/or Locally Advanced or Locally Recurrent Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-23

    Insular Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage II Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage II Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  8. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevented? Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors A risk factor is anything that ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  9. Vandetanib in locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leboulleux, Sophie; Bastholt, Lars; Krause, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    No effective standard treatment exists for patients with radioiodine-refractory, advanced differentiated thyroid carcinoma. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of vandetanib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of RET, VEGFR and EGFR signalling, in this setting.......No effective standard treatment exists for patients with radioiodine-refractory, advanced differentiated thyroid carcinoma. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of vandetanib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of RET, VEGFR and EGFR signalling, in this setting....

  10. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Advanced Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Stage IVB Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Stage IVC Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma

  11. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? Most people with thyroid cancer have ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  12. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Patient Health Information News media ... and neck issues, should be consulted. Types of thyroid cancer in children: Papillary : This form of thyroid cancer ...

  13. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000352.htm Anaplastic thyroid cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... of cancer of the thyroid gland. Causes Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an invasive type of thyroid cancer that ...

  14. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you may be eligible to receive a medication (potassium iodide) that blocks the effects of radiation on the ... occur, you and your family could take the potassium iodide tablets to help prevent thyroid cancer. Contact your ...

  15. Sorafenib in radioactive iodine-refractory, locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brose, Marcia S; Nutting, Christopher M; Jarzab, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with radioactive iodine ((131)I)-refractory locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer have a poor prognosis because of the absence of effective treatment options. In this study, we assessed the efficacy and safety of orally administered sorafenib...... in the treatment of patients with this type of cancer. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial (DECISION), we investigated sorafenib (400 mg orally twice daily) in patients with radioactive iodine-refractory locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid...... cancer. Adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of sorafenib. These results suggest that sorafenib is a new treatment option for patients with progressive radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer. FUNDING: Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals and Onyx Pharmaceuticals...

  16. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... in children and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by ...

  17. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention What Causes Thyroid Cancer? Thyroid cancer is linked with a number of ... inside a cell, without an outside cause. Papillary thyroid cancer Several DNA mutations (changes) have been found in ...

  18. Chemotherapy for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Type and Stage Thyroid Cancer Treating Thyroid Cancer Chemotherapy for Thyroid Cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) uses anti-cancer drugs that are injected ... vein or muscle, or are taken by mouth. Chemotherapy is systemic therapy, which means that the drug ...

  19. How Is Thyroid Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Tests for Thyroid Cancer Thyroid cancer may be diagnosed after a person ... Health Care Team About Thyroid Cancer? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  20. Key Statistics for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Treatment? Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Key Statistics for Thyroid Cancer How common is thyroid cancer? ... remains very low compared with most other cancers. Statistics on survival rates for thyroid cancer are discussed ...

  1. Axitinib: The evidence of its potential in the treatment of advanced thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari A Deshpande, Scott Gettinger

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hari A Deshpande1, Scott Gettinger1, Julie Ann Sosa21Yale Cancer Center, Department of Medical Oncology, 2Division of Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USAIntroduction: Thyroid cancer is a rare disease with an incidence of around 37,000 cases per year. However, its incidence is rising faster than many other cancers and for men this disease ranks highest overall in the rate of increase (2.4% annual increase in cancer deaths. As the number of radioactive iodine-resistant thyroid cancers increases, the need for newer treatments has become more important. Axitinib is one of many new small molecule inhibitors of growth factor receptors that have shown promise in the treatment of many cancers. It targets the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2 and 3.Aims: The goal of this article is to review the published evidence for the use of axitinib in the treatment of thyroid cancer and define its therapeutic potential. Evidence review: The major evidence of axitinib activity has appeared in meeting report abstracts. One phase II study has been published. This included patients with any histological type of thyroid cancer that was not amenable to treatment with radioactive iodine. Clinical potential: To date, in phase II clinical studies axitinib has demonstrated antitumor activity in advanced refractory thyroid cancer. As a monotherapy it resulted in a 30% response rate with another 38% of patients having stable disease. Axitinib appears to have a good tolerability profile, with hypertension being the most common grade 3 or greater side effect. Keywords: axitinib, thyroid cancer, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor

  2. Vandetanib in advanced medullary thyroid cancer: review of adverse event management strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grande, Enrique; Kreissl, Michael C; Filetti, Sebastiano

    2013-01-01

    Vandetanib has recently demonstrated clinically meaningful benefits in patients with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Given the potential for long-term vandetanib therapy in this setting, in addition to treatment for disease-related symptoms, effective ...... management of related adverse events (AEs) is vital to ensure patient compliance and maximize clinical benefit with vandetanib therapy....

  3. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Thyroid Cancer Be Found Early? Many cases of thyroid cancer ... Health Care Team About Thyroid Cancer? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  4. Sorafenib for Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of results from an international phase III trial that compared sorafenib (Nexavar®) and a placebo for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer that is no longer responding to treatment with radioactive iodine

  5. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000331.htm Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma To use the sharing features on ... the lower neck. Causes About 80% of all thyroid cancers diagnosed in the United States are the papillary ...

  6. Clinical utility of vandetanib in the treatment of patients with advanced medullary thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hari Deshpande1,3, Vicky Marler3, Julie Ann Sosa2,31Department of Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, 3Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT, USAAbstract: Vandetanib (ZD6474 became the first systemic agent to be approved for the treatment of metastatic or locally advanced medullary thyroid cancer. It was a proof of principle, because it is an orally bioavailable medication that targets the growth factors felt to be important in the pathogenesis of this disease, ie, the rearranged during transfection proto-oncogene and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. It was tested initially in two Phase II studies at doses of 100 mg and 300 mg daily. Although activity was seen at both doses, the higher dose was chosen for a randomized, placebo-controlled Phase II study. This trial, which accrued more than 300 patients, showed a statistically significant benefit for the group taking vandetanib compared with those taking placebo medication. Progression-free survival for the vandetanib arm has not been reached, compared with 19 months for the placebo arm. The main toxicity appears to be diarrhea, although some patients experienced significant side effects, including torsades de pointes and sudden cardiac death. Therefore, it is now necessary for practitioners to enroll in a Risk Evaluation Mitigation Strategy before being allowed to prescribe this medication, to reduce the risk of serious side effects occurring.Keywords: ZD6474, medullary thyroid cancer, vandetanib

  7. Living as a Thyroid Cancer Survivor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Working Thyroid Cancer After Treatment Living as a Thyroid Cancer Survivor For many people with thyroid cancer, treatment ... Cancer Treatments Are No Longer Working More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  8. Thyroid cancer in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorlin, J.B.; Sallan, S.E. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The incidence, clinical presentation, and types of thyroid cancers presenting in childhood are reviewed. The role of antecedent radiation in papillary and follicular thyroid cancers and genetics of medullary thyroid carcinoma are discussed. Unique aspects of therapy and prognosis for the pediatric patient with thyroid carcinoma are addressed as well as a diagnostic approach to the child who presents with a neck mass.59 references.

  9. To treat or not to treat : Developments in the field of advanced differentiated thyroid cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, T. C.; Kapiteijn, E.; Corssmit, E. P.; Oosting, S. F.; van der Horst-Schrivers, A. N. A.; Links, T. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thyroid cancer is the most prevalent endocrine malignancy. Based on the increased understanding of thyroid tumourigenesis, novel therapeutic agents have been identified. However, given the low incidence, the good prognosis of the majority of these tumours and the limited evidence of diff

  10. Signs and Symptoms of Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Signs and Symptoms of Thyroid Cancer Thyroid cancer can cause any of the following ... Health Care Team About Thyroid Cancer? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  11. Thyroid Cancer Staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ja Young; Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The current prevalence of thyroid cancer in women is high. Likewise, other cancers and thyroid cancer have been based on the TNM classification system. Staging of thyroid cancer has an important role in determining the extent of surgical excision and lymph node dissection, planning the adjuvant therapy after surgery and predicting the recurrence rate and the prognosis of patients. Ultrasonography is the basic imaging modality to identify the tumor size and the extent of lymph node metastasis. More recently, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography provide additional help for the staging of thyroid cancer. So, this article describes the 7th edition of the TNM staging of thyroid cancer, as proposed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, and the details of radiologic evaluation of the T, N and M stages

  12. What's New in Thyroid Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer What’s New in Thyroid Cancer Research and Treatment? Important research into thyroid cancer ... in Thyroid Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  13. Decitabine in Treating Patients With Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Cancer or Follicular Thyroid Cancer Unresponsive to Iodine I 131

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-20

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer

  14. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer Cabozantinib-S-Malate Caprelsa (Vandetanib) Cometriq (Cabozantinib-S-Malate) Doxorubicin ...

  15. Phase II study of safety and efficacy of motesanib in patients with progressive or symptomatic, advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlumberger, Martin J; Elisei, Rossella; Bastholt, Lars

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: This phase II study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of motesanib, an investigational, highly selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3; platelet-derived growth factor receptor; and Kit in advanced medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). PATIENTS......%), hypertension (27%), and anorexia (27%). In pharmacokinetic analyses, motesanib trough concentrations were lower compared with differentiated thyroid cancer patients from the same study. CONCLUSION: Although the objective response rate was low, a significant proportion of MTC patients (81%) achieved stable...

  16. [A successful treatment of percutaneous radio frequency ablation for advanced thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyabayashi, Chiharu; Ooiwa, Ako; Katakura, Masafumi; Ando, Takayuki; Hasumoto, Yuushi; Terao, Yumiko; Tsukada, Kenichirou; Kubota, Yoshiki; Nagai, Minoru; Neishi, Masao; Hara, Masahiro; Hashizume, Kiyoshi

    2005-10-01

    The patient was a 69-year-old woman. She received chemotherapy and radiation for thyroid tumor (undifferentiated cancer) following an operation in 1998. The chemotherapy was regularly repeated for relapse. The tumor increased gradually and came to cause dysphagia. She initially rejected nutritional management that depends on intravenous hyper alimentation or gastrostomy. After receiving an informed consent, we performed percutaneous radio frequency ablation (RFA) for the tumor using a Cool-tip needle on April 2, 2003. The algorithm of RFA was 9 min: 30 --> 120 W, 12 min: 50 --> 110 W, 9 min: 50 --> 100 W. After 2 days, the covered stent was implanted in the esophagus and an oral intake was started. Although the operation for undifferentiated thyroid cancer is controversial, we performed RFA and esophageal stenting for improving of QOL. This is the first case report in Japan.

  17. Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism and Thyroid Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junguee Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary thyroid cancers including papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, and anaplastic carcinomas show substantial differences in biological and clinical behaviors. Even in the same pathological type, there is wide variability in the clinical course of disease progression. The molecular carcinogenesis of thyroid cancer has advanced tremendously in the last decade. However, specific inhibition of oncogenic pathways did not provide a significant survival benefit in advanced progressive thyroid cancer that is resistant to radioactive iodine therapy. Accumulating evidence clearly shows that cellular energy metabolism, which is controlled by oncogenes and other tumor-related factors, is a critical factor determining the clinical phenotypes of cancer. However, the role and nature of energy metabolism in thyroid cancer remain unclear. In this article, we discuss the role of cellular energy metabolism, particularly mitochondrial energy metabolism, in thyroid cancer. Determining the molecular nature of metabolic remodeling in thyroid cancer may provide new biomarkers and therapeutic targets that may be useful in the management of refractory thyroid cancers.

  18. [Thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: Brazilian consensus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Ana Luiza; Ward, Laura S; Carvalho, Gisah A; Graf, Hans; Maciel, Rui M B; Maciel, Léa M Zanini; Rosário, Pedro W; Vaisman, Mario

    2007-07-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common manifestation of thyroid diseases. It is estimated that approximately 10% of adults have palpable thyroid nodules with the frequency increasing throughout life. The major concern on nodule evaluation is the risk of malignancy (5-10%). Differentiated thyroid carcinoma accounts for 90% of all thyroid malignant neoplasias. Although most patients with cancer have a favorable outcome, some individuals present an aggressive form of the disease and poor prognostic despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. Here, a set of clinical guidelines for the evaluation and management of patients with thyroid nodules or differentiated thyroid cancer was developed through consensus by 8 member of the Department of Thyroid, Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia. The participants are from different reference medical centers within Brazil, to reflect different practice patterns. Each committee participant was initially assigned to write a section of the document and to submit it to the chairperson, who revised and assembled the sections into a complete draft document, which was then circulated among all committee members for further revision. All committee members further revised and refined the document. The guidelines were developed based on the expert opinion of the committee participants, as well as on previously published information.

  19. Motesanib diphosphate in progressive differentiated thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherman, Steven I; Wirth, Lori J; Droz, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is characteristic of differentiated thyroid cancer and is associated with aggressive tumor behavior and a poor clinical outcome. Motesanib diphosphate (AMG 706) is a novel oral inhibitor of VEGF receptors, platelet......-derived growth-factor receptor, and KIT. METHODS: In an open-label, single-group, phase 2 study, we treated 93 patients who had progressive, locally advanced or metastatic, radioiodine-resistant differentiated thyroid cancer with 125 mg of motesanib diphosphate, administered orally once daily. The primary end...... or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer that is progressive. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00121628.)...

  20. Sunitinib Malate in Treating Patients With Iodine-Refractory Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  1. Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eBianco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4 to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii could play a role in modulating cell proliferation - in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS-13 cells is 3-4 fold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a 5-fold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches.

  2. Thyroid Cancer Statistics | Did You Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid cancer represents the 8th most common cancer in the United States. Did you know that this cancer, located at the base of the throat in the thyroid gland, is highly treatable and usually curable?

  3. Technological Innovations in Surgical Approach for Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Hung-Hin Lang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, surgeons have witnessed dramatic changes in surgical practice as a result of the introduction of new technological advancement. Some of these changes include refinement of techniques in thyroid cancer surgery. The development of various endoscopic thyroidectomy techniques, the addition of the da Vinci robot, and the use of operative adjuncts in thyroid surgery, such as intraoperative neuromonitoring and quick intraoperative parathyroid hormone, have made thyroid cancer surgery not only safer and better accepted by patients with thyroid cancer but also offer them more surgical treatment options.

  4. Stages of Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled. When a thyroid nodule is found, an ultrasound of the thyroid and a fine-needle aspiration biopsy are often ... This procedure can show the size of a thyroid nodule and whether it is solid or a fluid-filled cyst . Ultrasound may be used to guide a fine-needle ...

  5. 分化型甲状腺癌治疗进展%Advancement on the treatment of differenciated thyroid cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武正炎

    2006-01-01

    分化型甲状腺癌(differentiated thyroid cancer,DTC)包括乳头状癌(papillary thyroid cancer,PTC)和滤泡状癌(follicularthyroid cancer,FTC),其病程发展缓慢,手术后大多数患者能长期存活,难以组织多中心、前瞻性随机临床试验,医师往往从各自的临床实践回顾性分析中得出各自的结论,因而对甲状腺切除范围、是否常规行颈淋巴清扫一直有争论.

  6. Use of Ultrasound in the Management of Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, John I.; Solorzano, Carmen C.

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the utility of ultrasound in evaluating thyroid nodules, staging thyroid cancer, determining the extent of surgery needed in thyroid cancer patients, and the surveillance of patients treated for thyroid cancer.

  7. 分化型甲状腺癌相关基因的研究进展%Recent advances in genes related to differentiated thyroid cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李田军; 林岩松; 梁军; 李方

    2011-01-01

    目的:总结近年来国内外分化型甲状腺癌(DTC)相关基因的研究进展.方法:应用PubMed、Elsevier Sciencedirect、CNKI及万方期刊全文数据库检索系统,以“分化型甲状腺癌、RET、Ras、BRAF”等为关键词,检索是2005-2010年发表的相关文献,共检索到文献252条.纳入标准:1)相关基因与分化型甲状腺癌发生、发展.2)相关基因与分化型甲状腺癌诊断、治疗及预后.根据纳入标准,纳入分析文献36篇.结果:甲状腺癌是最常见的内分泌肿瘤,近年来其发病率逐年增高,研究显示甲状腺癌的发生、发展是在不同的时间和空间上以多个原癌基因激活和(或)抑癌基因的失活为基础的多步骤过程.不同的病理类型有其相对特异性的基因改变:RET/PTC重排、BRAF突变多见于乳头状腺癌(papillary thyroid cancer,PTC),而Ras基因突变、PAX8-PPARG融合基因主要见于滤泡状腺癌(follicular thyroid cancer,FTC).此外抑癌基因p53突变在甲状腺癌进展中起重要作用,PTEN则通过使PI3K/Akt的信号转导通路的持续激活促进了甲状腺癌的发生发展.相关的信号转导通路也参与其中.将有关基因用于分化型甲状腺癌的诊断、治疗、疗效预测及预后分析有着广阔的前景.结论:分化型甲状腺癌是个多因素多基因的疾病,其发生发展与基因的改变密切相关.%OBJECTIVE: To review the recent advances in genes related to differentiated thyroid cancer. METHODS: Using differentiated thyroid cancer, RET, Ras, BRAF etc as key words, the articles published from the databases such as Elsevier Sciencedirect, PubMed, Wanfang and CNKI, particularly from 2005 to 2010 were searched. Totally 252 articles were collected. Inclusion Criteria: 1) Association of related genes with development of differentiated thyroid cancer. 2) Association of related genes with diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of differentiated thyroid cancer. 36 articles were selected into analysis

  8. Immunotherapy and gene therapy of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, M; Scherbaum, W A

    2004-12-01

    Most forms of thyroid cancer have a good prognosis. Some tumours, however, dedifferentiate and may finally develop into highly malignant anaplastic thyroid carcinomas with a low survival time. Due to their dedifferentiation these tumours are inaccessible to classical therapeutic options as radioiodide treatment or thyrotropin-suppression. Radical surgical revision of the tumour masses is the therapy of choice of patients with limited disease stages including patients with medullary thyroid carcinomas. Despite progress in radiation and chemotherapy regimes, many metastatic forms remain, however, incurable by conventional therapies. During the past few years new developments in immunology have revealed increasing information about the molecular basis of tumour-host interactions. The multitude of information resulting from basic science in cellular immunology, together with the availability of biologic reagents in pharmacological amounts, has opened new venues for the development of immunotherapy approaches for patients with different kind of cancers including thyroid malignancies. This review describes some most important developments in cellular immunotherapies e.g. dendritic cells-based protocols and gene therapy. It also provides a brief overview on the role of cytokines and antibodies in the treatment of advanced thyroid malignancies.

  9. Anaplastic thyroid cancer, tumorigenesis and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J P

    2010-03-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a fatal endocrine malignancy. Current therapy fails to significantly improve survival. Recent insights into thyroid tumorigenesis, post-malignant dedifferentiation and mode of metastatic activity offer new therapeutic strategies.

  10. TERT promoter mutations in thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rengyun; Xing, Mingzhao

    2016-03-01

    The 2013 discovery of Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations chr5, 1,295,228 C>T (C228T) and 1,295,250 C>T (C250T) in thyroid cancer represents an important event in the thyroid cancer field and much progress has occurred since then. This article provides a comprehensive review of this exciting new thyroid cancer field. The oncogenic role of TERT promoter mutations involves their creation of consensus binding sites for E-twenty-six transcriptional factors. TERT C228T is far more common than TERT C250T and their collective prevalence is, on average, 0, 11.3, 17.1, 43.2 and 40.1% in benign thyroid tumors, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), follicular thyroid cancer, poorly differentiated thyroid cancer and anaplastic thyroid cancer, respectively, displaying an association with aggressive types of thyroid cancer. TERT promoter mutations are associated with aggressive thyroid tumor characteristics, tumor recurrence and patient mortality as well as BRAF V600E mutation. Coexisting BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations have a robust synergistic impact on the aggressiveness of PTC, including a sharply increased tumor recurrence and patient mortality, while either mutation alone has a modest impact. Thus, TERT with promoter mutations represents a prominent new oncogene in thyroid cancer and the mutations are promising new diagnostic and prognostic genetic markers for thyroid cancer, which, in combination with BRAF V600E mutation or other genetic markers (e.g. RAS mutations), are proving to be clinically useful for the management of thyroid cancer. Future studies will specifically define such clinical utilities, elucidate the biological mechanisms and explore the potential as therapeutic targets of TERT promoter mutations in thyroid cancer.

  11. Identifying thyroid stem/progenitor cells: advances and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierabracci, Alessandra

    2012-04-01

    Continuing advances in stem cell science have prompted researchers to envisage the potential application of stem cells for the management of several debilitating disorders, thus raising the expectations of transplant clinicians. In particular, in order to find a source of adult stem cells alternative to embryonic stem cells (ESCs) for the exploration of novel strategies in regenerative medicine, researchers have attempted to identify and characterise adult stem/progenitor cells resident in compact organs, since these populations appear to be responsible for physiological tissue renewal and regeneration after injury. In particular, recent studies have also reported evidence for the existence of adult stem/progenitor cell populations in both mouse and human thyroids. Here, I provide a review of published findings about ESC lines capable of generating thyroid follicular cells, thyroid somatic stem cells and cancer stem cells within the thyroid. The three subjects are analysed by also considering the criticism recently raised against their existence and potential utility. I comment specifically on the significance of resident thyroid stem cells in the developmental biology of the gland and their putative role in the pathogenesis of thyroid disorders and on the protocols employed for their identification. I finally provide my opinion on whether from basic science results obtained to date it is possible to extrapolate any convincing basic for future treatment of thyroid disorders.

  12. Radiofrequency Ablation of Benign Thyroid Nodules and Recurrent Thyroid Cancers: Consensus Statement and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Dong Gyu [Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, So Lyung [Seoul St. Marys Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Radiofrequency ablation is a new non-surgical treatment modality for patients with benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers. The Task Force Committee of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology has developed recommendations for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers using radiofrequency ablation. These recommendations are based on evidence from the current literature and expert consensus

  13. Robotic thyroidectomy and cervical neck dissection for thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Se Hyun; Kang, Kyung Ho

    2016-06-01

    A robotic approach for thyroid surgery was developed to overcome the limitations of endoscopic thyroidectomy and provide many technical advantages. This approach facilitates the surgeon's control through a magnified three-dimensional view, decreased tremor, and freedom of motion with articulated instruments. Robotic thyroidectomy is safe and technically feasible in patients with well-differentiated, low-risk thyroid cancer. Furthermore, robotic thyroidectomy may become a good surgical alternative option for patients with more advanced thyroid cancer. Our modified bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) for central and lateral cervical neck lymph node (LN) dissection has yielded excellent surgical outcomes as an open procedure. The incorporation of robotics in thyroid cancer surgery will continue to evolve, and the surgical indications for robotic thyroidectomy will continue to expand. Further analyses that include long-term outcomes and randomized comparative trials remain important.

  14. Thyroid Cancer and Tumor Collaborative Registry (TCCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shats, Oleg; Goldner, Whitney; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Smith, Russell B; Sherman, Simon

    2016-01-01

    A multicenter, web-based Thyroid Cancer and Tumor Collaborative Registry (TCCR, http://tccr.unmc.edu) allows for the collection and management of various data on thyroid cancer (TC) and thyroid nodule (TN) patients. The TCCR is coupled with OpenSpecimen, an open-source biobank management system, to annotate biospecimens obtained from the TCCR subjects. The demographic, lifestyle, physical activity, dietary habits, family history, medical history, and quality of life data are provided and may be entered into the registry by subjects. Information on diagnosis, treatment, and outcome is entered by the clinical personnel. The TCCR uses advanced technical and organizational practices, such as (i) metadata-driven software architecture (design); (ii) modern standards and best practices for data sharing and interoperability (standardization); (iii) Agile methodology (project management); (iv) Software as a Service (SaaS) as a software distribution model (operation); and (v) the confederation principle as a business model (governance). This allowed us to create a secure, reliable, user-friendly, and self-sustainable system for TC and TN data collection and management that is compatible with various end-user devices and easily adaptable to a rapidly changing environment. Currently, the TCCR contains data on 2,261 subjects and data on more than 28,000 biospecimens. Data and biological samples collected by the TCCR are used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against TC.

  15. Partial response to sorafenib treatment associated with transient grade 3 thrombocytopenia in a patient with locally advanced thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitoia Fabian; Abelleira, Erika; Jerkovich, Fernando; Urciuoli, Carolina; Cross, Graciela, E-mail: fpitoia@intramed.net [Division de Endocrinologia, Hospital de Clinicas, Universidad de Buenos Aires Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-08-15

    Advanced radioactive refractory and progressive or symptomatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is a rare condition. Sorafenib was recently approved for the treatment of these patients. We present the case of a 67 year old woman diagnosed with DTC who underwent a total thyroidectomy with central, lateral-compartment neck dissection and shaving of the trachea and esophagus due to tumor infiltration. A local recurrence was detected 14 months later requiring, additionally, two tracheal rings resection. The patient received a cumulative {sup 131}I dose of 650 mCi and developed dysphagia and dyspnea 63 months after initial surgery. A {sup 18}FGD-PET/CT showed progression of the local mass associated to hypermetabolic pulmonary nodules. Sorafenib 800 mg/day was then prescribed. A dose reduction to 400 mg/day was necessary due to grade 3 thrombocytopenia that appeared four months after drug prescription. Platelet count went to normal after this dose reduction. Five months after initiation of sorafenib, a partial response of the local mass with significant intra-tumoral necrosis was observed. We conclude that sorafenib is a valid option for locally advanced DTC and that the platelet count should be evaluated regularly because it seems that thrombocytopenia might be more frequently observed in DTC than in other types of tumors. (author)

  16. Thyroglobulin in differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Carol; Tennant, Sarah; Perros, Petros

    2015-04-15

    Identification of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is becoming increasingly common. Patients usually have an excellent prognosis. Most undergo total thyroidectomy, radioiodine ablation and treatment with suppressive doses of levothyroxine. Patients require long term follow-up which includes measurement of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). Interpretation of serum Tg requires knowledge of the concurrent thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration, as secretion is TSH dependant, and an awareness of the limitations of the methods used to measure it. These limitations include the heterogeneity of Tg in serum, the ability of assays to recognise forms of Tg secreted by a tumour, assay biases and not least the potential for interference in immunoassays for Tg from endogenous thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAbs) in patient serum. This review considers what the clinician wants to know and how Tg results can be interpreted in light of an awareness of assay limitations.

  17. Increased Prevalence of Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis in Korean Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Mo Oh; Sohee Park; Joo Young Lee; Young-Joo Won; Aesun Shin; Hyun-Joo Kong; Kui-Sun Choi; You Jin Lee; Ki-Wook Chung; Kyu-Won Jung

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, some reports have suggested that papillary thyroid cancers are more frequently associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This study investigated a potential increase in the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients. Materials and Methods We used national epidemiological survey data on thyroid cancer patients diagnosed in 1999, 2005, and 2008. A retrospective medical record survey was conducted by...

  18. Association between breast and thyroid cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehrer S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Steven Lehrer, Sheryl Green, John A Martignetti, Kenneth E Rosenzweig Departments of Radiation Oncology and Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background: The risk of thyroid cancer is known to be slightly increased in women after treatment for breast cancer. In the current study, we analyzed the incidence of thyroid cancer and breast cancer in 50 US states and in the District of Columbia to ascertain how often these two diseases are associated. Methods: Data on the incidence of thyroid cancer were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute and data on the incidence of breast cancer were from the American Cancer Society. Data on the average number of children per family with children and mean household income were sourced from the US Bureau of the Census and prevalence of obesity by state is determined from a paper published in 2010 on state-specific obesity prevalence among US adults by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: There was a significant association between breast and thyroid cancer (P=0.002. Since the incidence of breast cancer increases with increasing income and obesity, while decreasing with parity, multiple linear regression was performed. Breast cancer incidence was significantly related to thyroid cancer incidence (β=0.271, P=0.039, inversely related to average number of children per family with children (β=-0.271, P=0.039, unrelated to adult obesity (β=0.134, P=0.369, and significantly related to family income (β=0.642, P<0.001. Conclusion: This study identifies an association between breast and thyroid cancer. The association suggests that unexplored breast-thyroid cancer susceptibility loci exist and warrant further study. Keywords: breast cancer, thyroid cancer, genetics, association

  19. Thyroid Cancer Presenting with Concomitant Metastatic Breast Cancer in the Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Chen Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid is an unusual site to find cancer metastasis. When it does occur, such cancer spread is often manifested in multiple metastases and generally suggests a poor prognosis. We presented here a 49-year-old woman recently diagnosed with thyroid cancer, who had been treated for stage IIA breast cancer 8 years ago. After radical right thyroidectomy and left subtotal thyroidectomy, her pathological report showed papillary thyroid carcinoma, right thyroid, with concomitant metastatic breast carcinoma. This is the first case of which we are aware involving coexisting thyroid cancer and metastatic breast cancer in the ipsilateral lobe. Moreover, the circumstances of this case show a very unique clinical course compared with previous studies. Given the unusual circumstances of our case, we further discuss the relationship between thyroid cancer and breast cancer.

  20. MINIMALLY INVASIVE OPEN THYROIDECTOMY IN THYROID CANCER WITH COEXISTENT HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Nenkov

    2013-06-01

    harmonic scalpel in the surgical treatment of carefully selected patients with non-advanced thyroid cancer and coexistent Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  1. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients.

  2. Rapid response of hypercortisolism to vandetanib treatment in a patient with advanced medullary thyroid cancer and ectopic Cushing syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitoia Fabian; Bueno, Fernanda; Schmidt, Angelica; Lucas, Sabrina; Cross, Graciela, E-mail: fpitoia@intramed.net [Division de Endocrinologia, Hospital de Clinicas, Universidad de Buenos Aires Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-08-15

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) may rarely present with paraneoplastic syndromes. Among the most frequent ones are the appearance of diarrhea and ectopic Cushing syndrome (ECS). The ECS in the context of MTC is usually present in patients with distant metastatic disease. The use of drugs such as ketoconazole, metyrapone, somatostatin analogs and etomidate have been ineffective alternatives to control hypercortisolism in these patients. Bilateral adrenalectomy is often required to manage this situation. Recently, the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors has been shown to be a useful tool to achieve eucortisolism in patients with metastatic MTC and ECS. We present a patient with sporadic advanced persistent and progressive MTC with lymph node and liver metastases, which after 16 years of followup developed an ECS. After one month of 300 mg/day vandetanib treatment, a biochemical and clinical response of the ECS was achieved but it did not result in significant reduction of tumor burden. However the patient reached criteria for stable disease according to response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST 1.1) after 8 months of follow-up. (author)

  3. Emerging role of multikinase inhibitors for refractory thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez CA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cesar A Perez,1 Belisario A Arango,1 Michel Velez,1 Luis E Raez,2 Edgardo S Santos11University of Miami Miller School of Medicine/Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, USA; 2Memorial Cancer Institute, Memorial Health Care System, Hollywood, FL, USAAbstract: Thyroid cancer incidence continues to increase, remaining the most common endocrine malignancy. The need for effective systemic therapies combined with high incidence of driver mutations and overexpression of molecular pathways make refractory thyroid cancer an ideal candidate for treatment with novel agents. Multikinase inhibitors have caused a paradigm shift in the treatment of patients with advanced iodine-refractory thyroid cancer. These agents have shown to be the most effective systemic therapy for this disease not only causing prolonged responses but also improving survival. The activity of these agents inhibiting several pathways simultaneously, such as rearranged during transfection protooncogene, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and angiogenesis, can probably explain the effectiveness in controlling the progression of this malignancy. Several of these agents are currently on clinical studies in patients with differentiated and medullary thyroid cancer and most of them are showing promising clinical activity. With the approval of vandetanib for the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer, a new era in the management of this disease has begun. The molecular rationale for the use of these drugs for thyroid cancer is discussed as well as their promising clinical results.Keywords: axitinib, cabozantinib, lenvatinib, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, motesanib, pazopanib, thyroid cancer, vandetanib, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2

  4. Increased prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in Korean patients with papillary thyroid cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Mo Oh

    Full Text Available In recent years, some reports have suggested that papillary thyroid cancers are more frequently associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This study investigated a potential increase in the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients.We used national epidemiological survey data on thyroid cancer patients diagnosed in 1999, 2005, and 2008. A retrospective medical record survey was conducted by representative sampling of a national cancer incidence database. The analysis included 5,378 papillary thyroid cancer patients aged 20-79 years. We calculated the age-standardized prevalence and age-adjusted prevalence ratios using a binomial regression model with a log link for the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients by sex for each year.The prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients was 4.0% and 12.8% for men and women in 1999, 6.5% and 24.6% in 2005, and 10.7% and 27.6% in 2008, respectively. Between 1999 and 2008, the age-standardized prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis increased 4.1-fold in male patients and 2.0-fold in female patients with papillary thyroid cancer. The prevalence of other thyroid diseases, however, did not increase in either gender.Among Korean papillary thyroid cancer patients, the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis increased between 1999 and 2008, whereas the prevalence of other thyroid disorders did not change.

  5. Diabetes and Thyroid Cancer Risk: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyang-Rong Shih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients have a higher risk of various types of cancer. However, whether diabetes may increase the risk of thyroid cancer has not been extensively studied. This paper reviews and summarizes the current literature studying the relationship between diabetes mellitus and thyroid cancer, and the possible mechanisms linking such an association. Epidemiologic studies showed significant or nonsignificant increases in thyroid cancer risk in diabetic women and nonsignificant increase or no change in thyroid cancer risk in diabetic men. A recent pooled analysis, including 5 prospective studies from the USA, showed that the summary hazard ratio (95% confidence interval for women was 1.19 (0.84–1.69 and was 0.96 (0.65–1.42 for men. Therefore, the results are controversial and the association between diabetes and thyroid cancer is probably weak. Further studies are necessary to confirm their relationship. Proposed mechanisms for such a possible link between diabetes and thyroid cancer include elevated levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, insulin, glucose and triglycerides, insulin resistance, obesity, vitamin D deficiency, and antidiabetic medications such as insulin or sulfonylureas.

  6. Stemness is derived from thyroid cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risheng eMa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: One hypothesis for thyroid cancer development is its derivation from thyroid cancer stem cells (CSCs. Such cells could arise via different paths including from mutated resident stem cells within the thyroid gland or via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT from malignant cells since EMT is known to confer stem-like characteristics. Methods: To examine the status of stemness in thyroid papillary cancer we employed a murine model of thyroid papillary carcinoma and examined the expression of stemness and EMT using qPCR and histochemistry in mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre. This construct is only activated at the time of thyroid peroxidase (TPO expression in differentiating thyroid cells and cannot be activated by undifferentiated stem cells which do not express TPO.Results: There was decreased expression of thyroid specific genes such as Tg and NIS and increased expression of stemness markers such as Oct4, Rex1, CD15 and Sox2 in the thyroid carcinoma tissue from 6 week old BRAFV600E mice. The decreased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased EMT regulators including Snail, Slug, and TGF-β1 and TGF-β3, and the mesenchymal marker vimentin demonstrated the simultaneous progression of EMT and the CSC-like phenotype. Stemness was also found in a derived cancer thyroid cell line in which overexpression of Snail caused up-regulation of vimentin expression and up regulation of stemness markers Oct4, Rex1, CD15 with enhanced migration ability of the cells. Conclusions: Our findings support our earlier hypothesis that stemness in thyroid cancer is derived via EMT rather than from resident thyroid stem cells. In mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre the neoplastic changes were dependent on thyroid cell differentiation and the onset of stemness must have been derived from differentiated thyroid epithelial cells.

  7. Germline HABP2 Mutation Causing Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gara, Sudheer Kumar; Jia, Li; Merino, Maria J.; Agarwal, Sunita K.; Zhang, Lisa; Cam, Maggie; Patel, Dhaval; Kebebew, Electron

    2015-01-01

    Familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer accounts for 3 to 9% of all cases of thyroid cancer, but the susceptibility genes are not known. Here, we report a germline variant of HABP2 in seven affected members of a kindred with familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer and in 4.7% of 423 patients with thyroid cancer. This variant was associated with increased HABP2 protein expression in tumor samples from affected family members, as compared with normal adjacent thyroid tissue and samples from sporadic ...

  8. [Consensus statement for accreditation of multidisciplinary thyroid cancer units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan José; Galofré, Juan Carlos; Oleaga, Amelia; Grande, Enrique; Mitjavila, Mercedes; Moreno, Pablo

    2016-03-01

    Thyroid cancer is the leading endocrine system tumor. Great advances have recently been made in understanding of the origin of these tumors and the molecular biology that makes them grow and proliferate, which have been associated to improvements in diagnostic procedures and increased availability of effective local and systemic treatments. All of the above makes thyroid cancer a paradigm of how different specialties should work together to achieve the greatest benefit for the patients. Coordination of all the procedures and patient flows should continue throughout diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up, and is essential for further optimization of resources and time. This manuscript was prepared at the request of the Working Group on Thyroid Cancer of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition, and is aimed to provide a consensus document on the definition, composition, requirements, structure, and operation of a multidisciplinary team for the comprehensive care of patients with thyroid cancer. For this purpose, we have included contributions by several professionals from different specialties with experience in thyroid cancer treatment at centers where multidisciplinary teams have been working for years, with the aim of developing a practical consensus applicable in clinical practice.

  9. What Should You Ask Your Health Care Team About Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Should You Ask Your Health Care Team About Thyroid Cancer? As you deal with thyroid cancer and the ... ask are: When you’re told you have thyroid cancer What kind of thyroid cancer do I have? ...

  10. Thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: update on the Brazilian consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Pedro Weslley; Ward, Laura S; Carvalho, Gisah A; Graf, Hans; Maciel, Rui M B; Maciel, Léa Maria Z; Maia, Ana Luiza; Vaisman, Mário

    2013-06-01

    Thyroid nodules are frequent findings, especially when sensitive imaging methods are used. Although thyroid cancer is relatively rare, its incidence is increasing, particularly in terms of small tumors, which have an uncertain clinical relevance. Most patients with differentiated thyroid cancer exhibit satisfactory clinical outcomes when treatment is appropriate, and their mortality rate is similar to that of the overall population. However, relapse occurs in a considerable fraction of these patients, and some patients stop responding to conventional treatment and eventually die from their disease. Therefore, the challenge is how to identify the individuals who require more aggressive disease management while sparing the majority of patients from unnecessary treatments and procedures. We have updated the Brazilian Consensus that was published in 2007, emphasizing the diagnostic and therapeutic advances that the participants, representing several Brazilian university centers, consider most relevant in clinical practice. The formulation of the present guidelines was based on the participants' experience and a review of the relevant literature.

  11. Thyroid Adenomas After Solid Cancer in Childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Adjadj, Elisabeth [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Thomas-Teinturier, Cecile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Hopital Bicetre, Bicetre (France); Oberlin, Odile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Veres, Cristina [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Pacquement, Helene [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Jackson, Angela [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Munzer, Martine; N' Guyen, Tan Dat [Institut Jean Godinot, Reims (France); Bondiau, Pierre-Yves [Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne [Centre Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Bridier, Andre; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Schlumberger, Martin [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Vathaire, Florent de, E-mail: florent.devathaire@igr.fr [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Very few childhood cancer survivor studies have been devoted to thyroid adenomas. We assessed the role of chemotherapy and the radiation dose to the thyroid in the risk of thyroid adenoma after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 3254 2-year survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated in 5 French centers before 1986 was established. The dose received by the isthmus and the 2 lobes of the thyroid gland during each course of radiation therapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual radiation therapy conditions in which each child was treated as well as the dose received at other anatomical sites of interest. Results: After a median follow-up of 25 years, 71 patients had developed a thyroid adenoma. The risk strongly increased with the radiation dose to the thyroid up to a few Gray, plateaued, and declined for high doses. Chemotherapy slightly increased the risk when administered alone but also lowered the slope of the dose-response curve for the radiation dose to the thyroid. Overall, for doses up to a few Gray, the excess relative risk of thyroid adenoma per Gray was 2.8 (90% CI: 1.2-6.9), but it was 5.5 (90% CI: 1.9-25.9) in patients who had not received chemotherapy or who had received only 1 drug, and 1.1 (90% CI: 0.4-3.4) in the children who had received more than 1 drug (P=.06, for the difference). The excess relative risk per Gray was also higher for younger children at the time of radiation therapy than for their older counterparts and was higher before attaining 40 years of age than subsequently. Conclusions: The overall pattern of thyroid adenoma after radiation therapy for a childhood cancer appears to be similar to that observed for thyroid carcinoma.

  12. Stem cell biology in thyroid cancer: Insights for novel therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parisha; Bhatia; Koji; Tsumagari; Zakaria; Y; Abd; Elmageed; Paul; Friedlander; Joseph; F; Buell; Emad; Kandil

    2014-01-01

    Currently, thyroid cancer is one of the most common endocrine cancer in the United States. A recent involvement of sub-population of stem cells, cancer stem cells, has been proposed in different histological types of thyroid cancer. Because of their ability of self-renewal and differentiation into various specialized cells in the body, these putative cells drive tumor genesis, metastatic activity and are responsible to provide chemo- and radioresistant nature to the cancer cells in the thyroid gland. Our Review was conducted from previously published literature to provide latest apprises to investigate the role of embryonic, somatic and cancer stem cells, and discusses the hypothesis of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Different methods for their identification and isolation through stemness markers using various in vivo and in vitro methods such as flow cytometry, thyrosphere formation assay, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 efflux-pump mediated Hoechst 33342 dye exclusion have been discussed. The review also outlines various setbacks that still remain to target these tumor initiating cells. Future perspectives of therapeutic strategies and their potential to treat advanced stages of thyroid cancer are also disclosed in this review.

  13. Stem cell biology in thyroid cancer: Insights for novel therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Parisha; Tsumagari, Koji; Abd Elmageed, Zakaria Y; Friedlander, Paul; Buell, Joseph F; Kandil, Emad

    2014-01-01

    Currently, thyroid cancer is one of the most common endocrine cancer in the United States. A recent involvement of sub-population of stem cells, cancer stem cells, has been proposed in different histological types of thyroid cancer. Because of their ability of self-renewal and differentiation into various specialized cells in the body, these putative cells drive tumor genesis, metastatic activity and are responsible to provide chemo- and radioresistant nature to the cancer cells in the thyroid gland. Our Review was conducted from previously published literature to provide latest apprises to investigate the role of embryonic, somatic and cancer stem cells, and discusses the hypothesis of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Different methods for their identification and isolation through stemness markers using various in vivo and in vitro methods such as flow cytometry, thyrosphere formation assay, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 efflux-pump mediated Hoechst 33342 dye exclusion have been discussed. The review also outlines various setbacks that still remain to target these tumor initiating cells. Future perspectives of therapeutic strategies and their potential to treat advanced stages of thyroid cancer are also disclosed in this review. PMID:25426258

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Thyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled. When a thyroid nodule is found, an ultrasound of the thyroid and a fine-needle aspiration biopsy are often ... This procedure can show the size of a thyroid nodule and whether it is solid or a fluid-filled cyst . Ultrasound may be used to guide a fine-needle ...

  15. General Information about Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled. When a thyroid nodule is found, an ultrasound of the thyroid and a fine-needle aspiration biopsy are often ... This procedure can show the size of a thyroid nodule and whether it is solid or a fluid-filled cyst . Ultrasound may be used to guide a fine-needle ...

  16. Recent Advances in Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Sang Yoo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD includes hyperthyroid Graves disease, hypothyroid autoimmune thyroiditis, and subtle subclinical thyroid dysfunctions. AITD is caused by interactions between genetic and environmental predisposing factors and results in autoimmune deterioration. Data on polymorphisms in the AITD susceptibility genes, related environmental factors, and dysregulation of autoimmune processes have accumulated over time. Over the last decade, there has been progress in the clinical field of AITD with respect to the available diagnostic and therapeutic methods as well as clinical consensus. The updated clinical guidelines allow practitioners to identify the most reasonable and current approaches for proper management. In this review, we focus on recent advances in understanding the genetic and environmental pathogenic mechanisms underlying AITD and introduce the updated set of clinical guidelines for AITD management. We also discuss other aspects of the disease such as management of subclinical thyroid dysfunction, use of levothyroxine plus levotriiodothyronine in the treatment of autoimmune hypothyroidism, risk assessment of long-standing antithyroid drug therapy in recurrent Graves' hyperthyroidism, and future research needs.

  17. Recent Advances in Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won Sang

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) includes hyperthyroid Graves disease, hypothyroid autoimmune thyroiditis, and subtle subclinical thyroid dysfunctions. AITD is caused by interactions between genetic and environmental predisposing factors and results in autoimmune deterioration. Data on polymorphisms in the AITD susceptibility genes, related environmental factors, and dysregulation of autoimmune processes have accumulated over time. Over the last decade, there has been progress in the clinical field of AITD with respect to the available diagnostic and therapeutic methods as well as clinical consensus. The updated clinical guidelines allow practitioners to identify the most reasonable and current approaches for proper management. In this review, we focus on recent advances in understanding the genetic and environmental pathogenic mechanisms underlying AITD and introduce the updated set of clinical guidelines for AITD management. We also discuss other aspects of the disease such as management of subclinical thyroid dysfunction, use of levothyroxine plus levotriiodothyronine in the treatment of autoimmune hypothyroidism, risk assessment of long-standing antithyroid drug therapy in recurrent Graves' hyperthyroidism, and future research needs. PMID:27586448

  18. Thyroid cancer treatment : Long-term effects and new developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is increasingly common. This is especially the case for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), which has a favorable prognosis. Treatment consists of surgical removal of the thyroid gland, radioiodine treatment, and life-long administration of relatively high doses of thyroid hormone. T

  19. Introduction to European comments on "Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarzab, Barbara; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Guest Editors of Thyroid Research supplement devoted to medullary thyroid cancer present the history on how the discussion about "Medullary Thyroid Cancer: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association" was initiated and subsequently widely commented before and during European Thyroid...... Association - Cancer Research Network Meeting in Lisbon. It is explained why it has been decided to publish the manuscripts within the supplement - to document voices from the discussion and popularize them....

  20. Epigenetics modifications and therapeutic prospects in human thyroid cancer

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    Maria Graziella eCatalano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available At present no successful treatment is available for advanced thyroid cancer, which comprises poorly differentiated, anaplastic, and metastatic or recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer not responding to radioiodine. In the last few years, biologically targeted therapies for advanced thyroid carcinomas have been proposed on the basis of the recognition of key oncogenic mutations. Although the results of several phase II trials look promising, none of the patients treated had a complete response, and only a minority of them had a partial response, suggesting that the treatment is, at best, effective in stabilizing patients with progressive disease. Epigenetic refers to the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without any alteration in the primary DNA sequence. The epigenetic processes establish and maintain the global and local chroma¬tin states that determine gene expression. Epigenetic abnormalities are present in almost all cancers and, together with genetic changes, drive tumour progression. Various genes involved in the control of cell proliferation and invasion (p16INK4A, RASSF1A,PTEN, Rap1GAP, TIMP3, DAPK, RARβ2, E-cadherin, and CITED1 as well as genes specific of thyroid differentiation (Na+/I- symport, TSH receptor, pendrin, SL5A8, and TTF-1 present aberrant methylation in thyroid cancer.This review deals with the most frequent epigenetic alterations in thyroid cancer and focuses on epigenetic therapy, whose goal is to target the chromatin in rapidly dividing tumour cells and potentially restore normal cell functions. Experimental data and clinical trials, especially using deacetylase inhibitors and demethylating agents, are discussed.

  1. Neoadjuvant Therapy in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Valerie H.; Camille, Nadia; Miles, Brett A.; Teng, Marita S.; Genden, Eric M.; Misiukiewicz, Krzysztof J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Invasion of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) into surrounding structures can lead to morbid procedures such as laryngectomy and tracheal resection. In these patients, there is a potential role for neoadjuvant therapy. Methods. We identified three studies involving the treatment of DTC with neoadjuvant chemotherapy: two from Slovenia and one from Japan. Results. These studies demonstrate that in selected situations, neoadjuvant chemotherapy can have a good response and allow for a more complete surgical resection, the treatment of DTC. Additionally, the SELECT trial shows that the targeted therapy lenvatinib is effective in the treatment of DTC and could be useful as neoadjuvant therapy for this disease due to its short time to response. Pazopanib has also demonstrated promise in phase II data. Conclusions. Thus, chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting could possibly be useful for managing advanced DTC. Additionally, some of the new tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) hold promise for use in the neoadjuvant setting in DTC.

  2. Neoadjuvant Therapy in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

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    Rajan P. Dang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Invasion of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC into surrounding structures can lead to morbid procedures such as laryngectomy and tracheal resection. In these patients, there is a potential role for neoadjuvant therapy. Methods. We identified three studies involving the treatment of DTC with neoadjuvant chemotherapy: two from Slovenia and one from Japan. Results. These studies demonstrate that in selected situations, neoadjuvant chemotherapy can have a good response and allow for a more complete surgical resection, the treatment of DTC. Additionally, the SELECT trial shows that the targeted therapy lenvatinib is effective in the treatment of DTC and could be useful as neoadjuvant therapy for this disease due to its short time to response. Pazopanib has also demonstrated promise in phase II data. Conclusions. Thus, chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting could possibly be useful for managing advanced DTC. Additionally, some of the new tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs hold promise for use in the neoadjuvant setting in DTC.

  3. Propranolol sensitizes thyroid cancer cells to cytotoxic effect of vemurafenib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei-Jun; Shen, Chen-Tian; Song, Hong-Jun; Qiu, Zhong-Ling; Luo, Quan-Yong

    2016-09-01

    Treatment options for advanced metastatic or progressive thyroid cancers are limited. Although targeted therapy specifically inhibiting intracellular kinase signaling pathways has markedly changed the therapeutic landscape, side-effects and resistance of single agent targeted therapy often leads to termination of the treatment. The objective of the present study was to identify the antitumor property of the non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol for thyroid cancers. Human thyroid cancer cell lines 8505C, K1, BCPAP and BHP27 were used in the present study. Broad β-blocker propranolol and β2-specific antagonist ICI118551, but not β1-specific antagonist atenolol, inhibited the growth of 8505C and K1 cells. Propranolol treatment inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of 8505C cells in vitro and in vivo, which are closely associated with decreased expressions of cyclin D1 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Expression of hexokinase 2 (HK2) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) also decreased following propranolol intervention. 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging of the 8505C xenografts validated shrinkage of the tumors in the propranolol-treated group when compared to the phosphate‑buffered saline treated group. Finally, we found that propranolol can amplify the cytotoxicity of vemurafenib and sensitize thyroid cancer cells to cytotoxic effect of vemurafenib. Our present results suggest that propranolol has potential activity against thyroid cancers and investigation of the combination with targeted molecular therapy for progressive thyroid cancers could be beneficial.

  4. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiravova, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, Faculty Hospital Motol, Uk, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: The thyroid gland in children is among the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, and very young children are at especially high risk. Due to extreme sensitivity of the thyroid gland in children, there is a risk of radiation - induced thyroid cancer even when the thyroid gland is outside the irradiated field. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been noted following radiotherapy not only for childhood Hodgkin disease (majority of observed patients), but also for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system also. Radiation-induced tumors begin to appear 5-10 years after irradiation and excess risk persists for decades, perhaps for the remainder of life. The incidence of thyroid cancer is two- to threefold higher among females than males. Most of the thyroid cancers that occur in association with irradiation are of the papillary type, for which the cure rate is high if tumors are detected early. Our Department in co-operation with Department of Children Hematology and Oncology Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital Motol monitors patients after therapy for cancer in childhood for the long term period. The monitoring is focused on detection of thyroid disorders that occur as last consequences of oncology therapy, especially early detection of nodular changes in thyroid gland and thyroid carcinogenesis. The survey presents two patients observed in our department that were diagnosed with the papillary thyroid carcinoma which occurred 15 and more years after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. After total thyroidectomy they underwent therapy with radioiodine. After radiotherapy it is necessary to pursue a long-term following and assure interdisciplinary co-operation which enables early detection of last consequences of radiotherapy, especially the most serious ones as secondary carcinogenesis

  5. Risk factors for thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, Y E; Fagin, J A

    1997-01-01

    The potential risk factors for thyroid carcinoma development include genetic predisposition, exposure to therapeutic or environmental ionizing radiation, residence in areas of iodine deficiency or excess, history of preexisting benign thyroid disease, as well as hormonal and reproductive factors. In this review, we analyze some of the epidemiological data, as well as the possible molecular mechanisms by which certain environmental and genetic factors might predispose to thyroid tumorigenesis. (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997; 8:20-25).

  6. Biotinidase is a novel marker for papillary thyroid cancer aggressiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony K-C So

    Full Text Available Biotinidase was identified in secretome analysis of thyroid cancer cell lines using proteomics. The goal of the current study was to analyze the expression of biotinidase in thyroid cancer tissues and fine needle aspiration (FNA samples to evaluate its diagnostic and prognostic potential in thyroid cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of biotinidase was carried out in 129 papillary thyroid cancer (PTC, 34 benign thyroid tissues and 43 FNA samples and correlated with patients' prognosis. Overall biotinidase expression was decreased in PTC compared to benign nodules (p = 0.001. Comparison of aggressive and non-aggressive PTC showed decrease in overall biotinidase expression in the former (p = 0.001. Loss of overall biotinidase expression was associated with poor disease free survival (p = 0.019, Hazards ratio (HR = 3.1. We examined the effect of subcellular compartmentalization of nuclear and cytoplasmic biotinidase on patient survival. Decreased nuclear expression of biotinidase was observed in PTC as compared to benign tissues (p<0.001. Upon stratification within PTC, nuclear expression was reduced in aggressive as compared to non-aggressive tumors (p<0.001. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed significant association of loss of nuclear biotinidase expression with reduced disease free survival (p = 0.014, HR = 5.4. Cytoplasmic biotinidase expression was reduced in aggressive thyroid cancers in comparison with non-aggressive tumors (p = 0.002, Odds ratio (OR = 0.29 which was evident by its significant association with advanced T stage (p = 0.003, OR = 0.28, nodal metastasis (p<0.001, OR = 0.16, advanced TNM stage (p<0.001, OR = 0.21 and extrathyroidal extension (p = 0.001, OR = 0.23. However, in multivariate analysis extrathyroidal extension emerged as the most significant prognostic marker for aggressive thyroid carcinomas (p = 0.015, HR = 12.8. In conclusion, loss of overall

  7. Differentiated thyroid cancer in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome. A novel case and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, João; Borges, Fátima; Costa, António; Alvelos, Maria Inês; Mazeto, Glaúcia; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) represents a syndrome in which patients present elevated circulating thyroid hormones in the presence of non-suppressed TSH. We report a novel case where a patient with RTH presented a differentiated thyroid cancer. A19 year-old female had been referred due to thyroid disease that disclosed features characteristic of a RTH. During the follow up it was detected a follicular tumor that led to the recommendation for thyroid surgical ablation, where an incidental papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (mPTC) was found. The increase of thyroglobulin (TG) levels following thyroid removal referred the patient for radioiodine treatment. Post-treatment, it was detected jugular adenopathies and the patient was subjected to cervical lymph node drainage where metastases of the mPTC were found. RTH syndrome was confirmed by the detection of a THRB germline mutation. A BRAF mutation was also found in the mPTC but not detected in the follicular adenoma or normal adjacent tissue. The young age of the patient, the rarity of BRAF mutations in childhood and the high dissemination of the malignancy, lead us to the speculation that increased TSH stimulation in a RTH background and oncogenic activation of BRAF could have served as (co) drivers and might have triggered an advanced stage of the neoplastic disease. These findings together with a review of published cases add novel information to the management of RTH patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

  8. Involvement of Aberrant Glycosylation in Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Miyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation is one of the most common posttranslational modification reactions and nearly half of all known proteins in eukaryotes are glycosylated. In fact, changes in oligosaccharides structures are associated with many physiological and pathological events, including cell growth, migration and differentiation, and tumor invasion. Therefore, functional glycomics, which is a comprehensive study of the structures and functions of glycans, is attracting the increasing attention of scientists in various fields of life science. In cases of thyroid cancer, the biological characters and prognosis are completely different in each type of histopathology, and their oligosaccharide structures as well as the expression of glycosyltransferases are also different. In this review, we summarized our previous papers on oligosaccharides and thyroid cancers and discussed a possible function of oligosaccharides in the carcinogenesis in thyroid cancer.

  9. Multikinase inhibitors in the treatment of thyroid cancer: specific role of lenvatinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepanovic N

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neda Stjepanovic, Jaume CapdevilaDepartment of Medical Oncology, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Thyroid cancers are the most frequent neoplasms of the endocrine system and in the initial stages their prognosis is excellent. However, few therapeutic options are available for advanced or metastatic disease. In the last decade, a better understanding of the molecular events involved in the tumorigenesis of thyroid cancers has led to development of new targeted agents for the management of advanced and refractory disease. Multikinase inhibitors that are able to block pathways involved in the proliferation, invasion, and neoangiogenesis of thyroid cancer have been the most widely studied. After an international effort to identify and recruit sufficient patients, four placebo-controlled studies of multikinase inhibitors have been completed. These trials have led to the approval of the first agents with activity in advanced medullary thyroid cancers, which will probably change the landscape of treatment for iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer in the near future. The purpose of this paper is to review the development of targeted agents for thyroid malignancy, with a special focus on lenvatinib, a multikinase inhibitor.Keywords: thyroid cancer, lenvatinib, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, multikinase inhibitors, targeted therapies

  10. Germline HABP2 Mutation Causing Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Sudheer Kumar; Jia, Li; Merino, Maria J; Agarwal, Sunita K; Zhang, Lisa; Cam, Maggie; Patel, Dhaval; Kebebew, Electron

    2015-07-30

    Familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer accounts for 3 to 9% of all cases of thyroid cancer, but the susceptibility genes are not known. Here, we report a germline variant of HABP2 in seven affected members of a kindred with familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer and in 4.7% of 423 patients with thyroid cancer. This variant was associated with increased HABP2 protein expression in tumor samples from affected family members, as compared with normal adjacent thyroid tissue and samples from sporadic cancers. Functional studies showed that HABP2 has a tumor-suppressive effect, whereas the G534E variant results in loss of function.

  11. Management of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer in Children: Focus on the American Thyroid Association Pediatric Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Marguerite T; Eslamy, Hedieh; Mankoff, David

    2016-03-01

    First introduced in 1946, radioactive iodine (I-131) produces short-range beta radiation with a half-life of 8 days. The physical properties of I-131 combined with the high degree of uptake in the differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) led to the use of I-131 as a therapeutic agent for DTC in adults. There are two indications for the potential use of I-131 therapy in pediatric thyroid disorders: nonsurgical treatment of hyperthyroidism owing to Graves' disease and the treatment of children with intermediate- and high-risk DTC. However, children are not just miniature adults. Not only are children and the pediatric thyroid gland more sensitive to radiation than adults but also the biologic behavior of DTC differs between children and adults as well. As opposed to adults, children with DTC typically present with advanced disease at diagnosis; yet, they respond rapidly to therapy and have an excellent prognosis that is significantly better than that in adult counterparts with advanced disease. Unfortunately, there are also higher rates of local and distant disease recurrence in children with DTC compared with adults, mandating lifelong surveillance. Further, children have a longer life expectancy during which the adverse effects of I-131 therapy may become manifest. Recognizing the differences between adults and children with DTC, the American Thyroid Association commissioned a task force of experts who developed and recently published a guideline to address the unique issues related to the management of thyroid nodules and DTC in children. This article reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, treatment, therapy-related effects, and suggestions for surveillance in children with DTC, focusing not only on the differences between adults and children with this disease but also on the latest recommendations from the inaugural pediatric management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association.

  12. Clinical and Pathological Implications of Concurrent Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders and Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Cunha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooccurrences of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT and thyroid cancer (DTC have been repeatedly reported. Both CLT and DTC, mainly papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, share some epidemiological and molecular features. In fact, thyroid lymphocytic inflammatory reaction has been observed in association with PTC at variable frequency, although the precise relationship between the two diseases is still debated. It also remains a matter of debate whether the association with a CLT or even an autoimmune disorder could influence the prognosis of PTC. A better understanding about clinical implications of autoimmunity in concurrent thyroid cancer could raise new insights of thyroid cancer immunotherapy. In addition, elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in autoimmune disease and concurrent cancer allowed us to identify new therapeutic strategies against thyroid cancer. The objective of this article was to review recent literature on the association of these disorders and its potential significance.

  13. Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Younger Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms Tumor, Liver Cancer, or Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-14

    Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Liver Cancer; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors

  14. Associations between body mass index and lymph node metastases of patients with papillary thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changhua; Wang, Liang; Chen, Wanjun; Zou, Shujuan; Yang, Aiju

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Epidemiological studies suggest that obesity is a risk of thyroid cancer, especially papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). However, the associations of obesity and clinic–pathological features, especially the association of body mass index (BMI) and lymph node metastasis of thyroid cancer are unclear. Seven hundred ninety-six primary patients with PTC were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. The relationships between BMI and clinic-pathological features of PTC were evaluated by logistic regression models based on the 5-point increase in BMI and BMI quartiles (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity). The 5-point increase in BMI was strongly associated with extra-thyroidal invasion [odds ratio (OR) 2.201, P thyroidal invasion, advanced TNM staging, and multifocality. Further studies with long-term follow-up are needed to confirm this finding. PMID:28248875

  15. Radioiodine in the treatment of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nostrand, Douglas; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2007-09-01

    This article presents an overview of the use of radioactive iodine (131-I) in the treatment of patients who have well differentiated thyroid cancer. We review definitions; staging; the two-principal methods for selection of a dosage of 131-I for ablation and treatment; the objectives of ablation and treatment; the indications for ablation and treatment; the recommendations for the use of 131-I for ablation and treatment contained in the Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association, the European Consensus, the Society of Nuclear Medicine, and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine; the dosage recommendations and selection of dosage for 131-I by the these organizations; and the Washington Hospital Center approach.

  16. Rationale and design of decision: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic radioactive iodine (RAI-refractory, differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brose Marcia S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of thyroid cancer and the number of patients who die from this disease are increasing globally. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC is the histologic subtype present in most patients and is primarily responsible for the increased overall incidence of thyroid cancer. Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor that targets several molecular signals believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer, including those implicated in DTC. In phase II studies of patients with DTC, sorafenib treatment has yielded a median progression-free survival (PFS of 58 to 84 weeks and disease control rates of 59% to 100%. The DECISION trial was designed to assess the ability of sorafenib to improve PFS in patients with locally advanced or metastatic, radioactive iodine (RAI-refractory DTC. Methods/design DECISION is a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study in patients with locally advanced/metastatic RAI-refractory DTC. Study treatment will continue until radiographically documented disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, noncompliance, or withdrawal of consent. Efficacy will be evaluated every 56 days (2 cycles, whereas safety will be evaluated every 28 days (1 cycle for the first 8 months and every 56 days thereafter. Following disease progression, patients may continue or start sorafenib, depending on whether they were randomized to receive sorafenib or placebo, at investigator discretion. Patients originally randomized to receive sorafenib will be followed up every 3 months for overall survival (OS; patients originally randomized to receive placebo will be followed up every month for 8 months after cross-over to sorafenib. The duration of the trial is expected to be 30 months from the time the first patient is randomized until the planned number of PFS events is attained. The primary endpoint is PFS; secondary endpoints include OS, time to disease progression, disease control rate

  17. Update on epidemiology classification, and management of thyroid cancer

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    Heitham Gheriani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer represents approximately 0.5–1% of all human malignancy1. In the UK the incidence of thyroid cancer is 2-3 per 100,000 populations 2. In geographical areas of low iodine intake and in areas exposed to nuclear disasters the incidence of thyroid cancer is higher. Benign thyroid conditions are much more common. In the UK approximately 8 % of the population have nodular thyroid disease2. Nodular thyroid disease increases with age and is also more common in females and in geographical areas of low iodine intake. Primary thyroid malignancy can be broadly divided into 2 groups. The first group, which generally have much better prognosis, are the well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which includes papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma and Hürthle cell tumours. The second group includes the poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma like medullary thyroid carcinoma and the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Other rare tumours such as sarcomas, lymphomas and the extremely rare primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid should be included in the second group. Secondary or metastatic thyroid cancer can be from breast, lung, colon and kidney malignancies.

  18. The Revised 2016 Korean Thyroid Association Guidelines for Thyroid Nodules and Cancers: Differences from the 2015 American Thyroid Association Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Increased detection of thyroid nodules using high-resolution ultrasonography has resulted in a world-wide increase in the incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Despite the steep increase in its incidence, the age-standardized mortality rate of thyroid cancer has remained stable, which leads toward a trend of more conservative treatment. The latest American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines for thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer revised in 2015 suggested that fine needle aspiration biopsy should be performed for thyroid nodules larger than 1 cm and lobectomy might be sufficient for 1 to 4 cm intrathyroidal DTC. In addition, active surveillance instead of immediate surgical treatment was also recommended as a treatment option for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma based on the results of a few observational studies from Japan. The Korean Thyroid Association (KTA) has organized a task force team to develop revised guidelines for thyroid nodules and DTC after an extensive review of articles and intense discussion on whether we should accept the changes in the 2015 ATA guidelines. This paper introduces and discusses the updated major issues and differences in the ATA and the KTA guidelines. PMID:27704738

  19. THYROID HORMONE PROFILE IN EARLY BREAST CANCER PATIENTS

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    Renija Valiya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumour in women worldwide. The relationship between breast cancer and thyroid disease is a controversy. Many of the studies showed hypothyroidism as the commonly found thyroid abnormality in breast cancer. [1] There is considerable evidence for an increased risk of thyroid and breast cancer in patients with iodine deficiency. This ability of iodine to reduce the risk of breast cancer is attributed to the ability of iodine and its compounds to induce apoptosis so that appropriate cell death occurs. Instead, in the absence of optimum level of iodine in the body the transformed cells continue to grow and divide resulting in cancer. AIMS 1. To find out the association of thyroid hormones and breast cancer in early breast cancer patients. 2. To find out the association of thyroid peroxidase antibodies in early breast cancer patients. Settings Cases: 82 breast cancer patients in early stage who attended the breast clinic. Controls: 82 age matched controls (Between 25-80 years. Design: Case control study. MATERIALS AND METHOD In this study, investigated for thyroid function test (T3, T4, TSH and thyroid peroxide antibody level in 82 early breast cancer patients. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS SPSS 16. RESULTS Statistically significant low T4 and high TSH in breast cancer patients, along with elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody. CONCLUSION Compared to hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism was found to be clinically significant in breast cancer patients

  20. Metastin receptor is overexpressed in papillary thyroid cancer and activates MAP kinase in thyroid cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel, Matthew D; Hardy, Elena; Bernet, Victor J; Burch, Henry B; Schuppert, Frank; Burman, Kenneth D; Saji, Motoyasu

    2002-05-01

    The development of distant metastasis is the most important predictor of death from thyroid cancer. KiSS-1 is a recently cloned human metastasis suppressor gene whose product, metastin, was recently identified as the endogenous agonist for a novel Gq/11 coupled receptor (metastin receptor). The expression and functional consequences of metastin and the metastin receptor have not been evaluated in thyroid cancer. We measured metastin and metastin receptor mRNA levels in 10 FCs and 13 papillary carcinomas (PCs), 2 benign non-functioning follicular adenomas (FAs), and 11 normal thyroid samples, and evaluated the signaling pathways activated by metastin in ARO thyroid cancer cells that express the metastin receptor endogenously. Paired normal and tumor samples were available for 4 PC and 3 PFC samples. Metastin mRNA was detected in 6/11 normal samples, and 0/2 FA, 2/10 FC, and 9/13 PC samples (p Metastin receptor was not expressed in any normal thyroid or benign FA samples, and was expressed in only a minority (2/10) of FC samples. However, the receptor was expressed in the majority (10/13) of PCs (p = 0.002 for PC vs. normal tissue). Increased levels of metastin receptor were detected in all four PCs compared to adjacent normal tissue. Incubation levels of metastin receptor were detected in all four PCs compared to adjacent normal tissue. Incubation of metastin receptor expressing ARO thyroid cancer cells with metastin resulted in activation of ERK, but not Akt. Taken together, these data suggest a potential role for metastin and/or metastin receptors in modulating the biological behavior of thyroid cancers.

  1. Targeted Therapy Shows Benefit in Rare Type of Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment with the multitargeted agent vandetanib (Caprelsa) improved progression-free survival in patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), according to findings from a randomized clinical trial.

  2. Molecular markers for thyroid cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Linwah

    2015-01-01

    Molecular markers including gene expression profiles, somatic gene alterations, and circulating peripheral markers have augmented diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic options for thyroid cancer patients.

  3. [Current Advances and Future Development of Thyroid Ultrasound Examination--Steps toward State-of-the-Art Laboratory Medicine in Fukushima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Hiroki

    2015-03-01

    Since the accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, large quantities of radionuclides have leaked into the surrounding environment. Fukushima Prefecture started the Fukushima Health Management Survey Project including Thyroid Ultrasound Examination to screen for thyroid cancer in all residents aged 0 to 18 years at the time of the nuclear accident. This accident also led to increased interest in thyroid ultrasound examination in Japan. This article reviews the studies to establish ultrasound diagnostic criteria for thyroid nodules and the clinical guidelines of thyroid nodule management, both of which are fundamental to Thyroid Ultrasound Examination in Fukushima. This article also reviews a study designed to clarify the actual frequency of sonographically detected thyroid nodular lesions among Japanese children, which will become appropriate reference data to interpret the results from Thyroid Ultrasound Examination. Further advances in the screening and management of thyroid diseases are important responsibilities of clinicians and researchers in Fukushima.

  4. [Lymph node and distant metastases of thyroid gland cancer. Metastases in the thyroid glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The different biological features of the various major entities of thyroid cancer, e.g. papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, anaplastic and medullary, depend to a large extent on their different metastatic spread. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a propensity for cervical lymphatic spread that occurs in 20-50 % of patients whereas distant metastasis occurs in thyroid cancer (FTC) has a marked propensity for vascular but not lymphatic invasion and 10-20 % of FTC develop distant metastases. At the time of diagnosis approximately one third of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show lymph node metastases, in 10-15 % distant metastases and 25 % develop metastases during the course of the disease. Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) spread via both lymphatic and vascular invasion. Thus distant metastases are relatively uncommon in DTC and when they occur, long-term stable disease is the typical clinical course. The major sites of distant metastases are the lungs and bone. Metastases to the brain, breasts, liver, kidneys, muscle and skin are relatively rare or even rare. The thyroid gland itself can be a site of metastases from a variety of other tumors. In autopsy series of patients with disseminated cancer disease, metastases to the thyroid gland were found in up to 10 % of cases. Metastases from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4-3 % of patients who have surgery for suspected cancer of the thyroid gland. The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the thyroid gland are renal cell (48.1 %), colorectal (10.4 %), lung (8.3 %) and breast cancer (7.8 %) and surprisingly often sarcomas (4.0 %).

  5. Effects of war on morbidity of thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslanagić Rusmir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine how wartime events affected the occurrence of cancer of the thyroid gland. This is a retrospective trial, which included a ten-year period of research. A five-year period included a period after the war, the period from 1st January 1998th to 31st December 2002th and the second period of the prewar period, the period from 1st January 1987th until 31st December 1991 st year. The study used data archived histopathological analysis of tissue samples of the thyroid gland of the Institute of Pathological Anatomy, Medical Faculty in Sarajevo. This study showed that in the postwar period there was an increase in morbidity from cancer of the thyroid gland in relation to the pre-war period. After the war there was a change in morbidity compared to the histopathologic type of thyroid cancer. In the prewar period, the most common histopathologic type of cancer is follicular thyroid carcinoma, while in the postwar period papillary carcinoma of the most common. Thyroid cancers in the postwar period more often verified in the older age groups compared to pre-war period. Women are more often suffered from thyroid cancer compared to men in both periods analyzed, but there is an evident increase in men suffering from thyroid cancer in post-war period compared to pre-war period. Survey results indicate a possible role of war to change the morbidity of the thyroid gland carcinoma.

  6. Thyroid cancer after external or internal ionizing irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Foteini; Efthimiou, Elias

    2009-01-01

    It has been known for 50 years that thyroid exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation in childhood and adolescence induces an appreciable cancer risk. Epidemiological studies in children treated with external radiotherapy for benign or malignant lesions in the head and neck have also shown the induction of thyroid cancer. The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported that the risk for developing thyroid cancer due to the Chernobyl accident is greatest in newborns and children below the age of 5, less in adolescents and negligible in adults. As reported, during the first 15 years after the accident, the increase in thyroid cancer cases in Belarus was 87.8 fold in children, 12.7 fold in adolescents and 4.5 fold in adults more than expected. Papillary thyroid cancer with a relative risk incidence of approximately 80% per se is typical in childhood and adolescence. We refer to the differences between adult and childhood papillary thyroid cancers. Gene mutations in thyroid tumors induced after Chernobyl accident have been studied extensively. The treatment comprises thyroid surgery, suppressive doses of thyroxine and radioiodine. It is noteworthy that the thyroid gland can be protected from the intake of radioactive iodine by oral administration of potassium iodide.

  7. U.S. Thyroid Cancer Cases Continue to Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164394.html U.S. Thyroid Cancer Cases Continue to Rise New study suggests a ... HealthDay News) -- The rate of Americans diagnosed with thyroid cancer has more than tripled over the past four ...

  8. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribova, O. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Choynzonov, E. L.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  9. Autoimmunity in differentiated thyroid cancer: significance and related clinical problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2010-01-01

    Coexistence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and thyroid autoimmune diseases could represent a mere coincidence due to the frequent occurrence of autoimmunity, but there may also be a pathological and causative link between the two conditions. The coincidence of DTC with Hashimoto's disease...... has been variably reported at between 0.5 and 22.5% and of DTC with Graves' disease between 0 and 9.8%. In this review available evidence for thyroid autoimmunity in DTC is summarized and it is concluded that thyroid cancer does coexist with thyroid autoimmunity, implying that patients treated...... TgAb measurements may be used as a surrogate marker for recurrence of thyroid cancer during the long-term monitoring of DTC patients....

  10. Autoimmunity in differentiated thyroid cancer: significance and related clinical problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Coexistence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and thyroid autoimmune diseases could represent a mere coincidence due to the frequent occurrence of autoimmunity, but there may also be a pathological and causative link between the two conditions. The coincidence of DTC with Hashimoto's disease...... has been variably reported at between 0.5 and 22.5% and of DTC with Graves' disease between 0 and 9.8%. In this review available evidence for thyroid autoimmunity in DTC is summarized and it is concluded that thyroid cancer does coexist with thyroid autoimmunity, implying that patients treated...... TgAb measurements may be used as a surrogate marker for recurrence of thyroid cancer during the long-term monitoring of DTC patients....

  11. Thyroid gland irradiations and thyroid cancers; Critical bibliographic journal; Irradiations de la thyroide et cancers thyroidiens. Revue bibliographique critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitauxa, F. [CHI Le Raincy-Montfermeil, Faculte X. Bichat, Lab. de Biophysique, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 93 - Le Raincy-Montfermeil (France)

    2007-07-15

    The large increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were mainly less than five years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident is still a major concern for endocrinologists and nuclear medicine physicians. Epidemiological studies have focused solely on iodine-131. However, past knowledge on thyroid irradiation (medical use of iodine-131, radioactive fallout on Marshall islands and the Nevada and Hanford site releases) as well as number of recent works (about low-dose irradiation) raise question on the role of other factors. It is here shown that post-Chernobyl thyroid irradiation is complex and that all factors (iodine-131, but also short lived isotopes of iodine and external irradiation) should be considered. Finally, one needs to think about some of the present medical uses of iodine-131 and especially to the treatment of hyperthyroidism in young subjects. (author)

  12. Epidemiological studies on postpartum thyroid dysfunction and thyroid cancer in Southeastern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.P. Kuijpens (Hans)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe studies described in this thesis concentrate OIl epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) and related topics, and on epidemiological and treatment aspects of thyroid cancer. The studies were petfonned in the southeastern part of the Netherland

  13. Thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy and thyroid cancer diagnosis: a nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ying Huang

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine gland malignancy and fine-needle aspiration biopsy is widely used for thyroid nodule evaluation. Repeated aspiration biopsies are needed due to plausible false-negative results. This study aimed to investigate the overall relationship between aspiration biopsy and thyroid cancer diagnosis, and to explore factors related to shorter diagnostic time.This nationwide retrospective cohort study retrieved data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database in Taiwan. Subjects without known thyroid malignancies and who received the first thyroid aspiration biopsy after 2004 were followed-up from 2004 to 2009 (n = 7700. Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and Cox proportional hazards model were used for data analysis.Of 7700 newly-aspirated patients, 276 eventually developed thyroid cancer (malignancy rate 3.6%. Among the 276 patients with thyroid cancer, 61.6% underwent only one aspiration biopsy and 81.2% were found within the first year after the initial aspiration. Cox proportional hazards model revealed that aspiration frequency (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.06-1.08, ultrasound frequency (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03, older age, male sex, and aspiration biopsies arranged by surgery, endocrinology or otolaryngology subspecialties were all associated with shorter time to thyroid cancer diagnosis.About 17.4% of thyroid cancer cases received more than two aspiration biopsies and 18.8% were diagnosed one year after the first biopsy. Regular follow-up with repeated aspiration or ultrasound may be required for patients with clinically significant thyroid nodules.

  14. Ultrasound elastography for thyroid nodules: recent advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Jin Young; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Ultrasonography (US)-based elastography has been introduced as a noninvasive technique for evaluating thyroid nodules that encompasses a variety of approaches such as supersonic shear imaging and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging as well as real-time tissue elastography. However, the diagnostic performances for differentiating malignant thyroid nodules from benign ones with elastography as an adjunctive tool of gray-scale US is still under debate. In this review article, diagnostic performances of conventional US and a combination of conventional US and elastography are compared according to the type of elastography. Further, the interobserver variability of elastography is presented according to the type of elastography.

  15. Temporary ovarian failure in thyroid cancer patients after thyroid remnant ablation with radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, J.P.; Izembart, M.; Marliac, V.; Dagousset, F.; Merceron, R.E.; Vulpillat, M.; Vallee, G.

    1989-07-01

    We studied ovarian function retrospectively in 66 women who had regular menstrual cycles before undergoing complete thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer and subsequent thyroid remnant ablation with /sup 131/I. Eighteen women developed temporary amenorrhea accompanied by increased serum gonadotropin concentrations during the first year after /sup 131/I therapy. No correlation was found between the radioactive iodine dose absorbed, thyroid uptake before treatment, oral contraceptive use, or thyroid autoimmunity. Only age was a determining factor, with the older women being the most affected. We conclude that radioiodine ablation therapy is followed by transient ovarian failure, especially in older women.

  16. The incidence of thyroid cancer at thyroidectomy materials in Malatya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Şahin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Thyroid cancers are the most common malignancyof the endocrine organs. It accounts for 1% of allcancer. Environmental, genetic and hormonal factors playan important role in its etiology. The aim of this study is toinvestigate the incidence of thyroid cancer and types atthyroidectomy materials in the city of Malatya.Methods: The pathology reports of thyroid surgical materials,which were sent to Inonu University Medical FacultyPathology Department retrospectively from the archivesbetween the years January 2007 and May 2013. Postoperativehistopathologic examinations of 543 cases wereevaluated for 6 years period.Results: 128 (23.5% of 543 cases male and 415 (76.5%were female. The youngest patient was 10, the oldest patientwas 89 years-old, and the average age is 48.1±15.2.Histopathological examination of 346 (64% cases of nodularhyperplasia, 20 (4% cases of diffuse hyperplasia, 13(2.4% cases of lymphocytic thyroiditis, 164 (30.2% patienthad thyroid tumors. The 164 tumors on the 57 (35%cases benign, 107 (65% cases were malign. As a typeof cancer 88 (53.6% cases papillary carcinoma, 10 (6%cases follicular carcinoma, 1 (0.6% case medullary carcinoma,3 (1.8% cases were anaplastic carcinoma.Conclusion: Thyroid cancer incidence is 19.7% at thyroidectomymaterials in the city of Malatya and most cancersis seen as a type of thyroid papillary carcinoma.Key words: Goitre, thyroid cancer, papillary carcinoma

  17. Determinants of papillary cancer of the thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingren, G.; Hatschek, T.; Axelson, O. (University Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden))

    1993-10-01

    Determinants of papillary thyroid cancer were evaluated in a questionnaire-based case-control study from southeastern Sweden. A total of 104 cases, diagnosed from 1977 to 1987, and 387 randomly selected controls were included in the analyses. Female subjects with papillary cancer reported a work history as dentists/dental assistants, telephone operators, teachers, and day nursery personnel, and an occupational contact with chemicals and video display terminals more often than did controls. The 11 male cases more often reported working as mechanics and metal workers and having occupational contact with solvents. Other factors associated with increased risk for female papillary cancer were having private well water at the birth address; leisure time exposure to combustion smoke; low intake of cruciferous vegetables and seafood; and a family history of goiter, heart disease, biliary disorder, or female genital cancer. Diagnostic radiographic examinations, especially to the head, neck, or upper back/chest area, or repeated dental examinations, were also found to be associated with this form of cancer. With regard to the possible influence from hormonal factors among women less than age 50 years at time of diagnosis, an increased risk was found for a pregnancy soon after puberty. Tendencies toward a decreasing risk with increasing age at first pregnancy as well as an increasing risk with increasing number of pregnancies were found as well. Multiparity seemed to potentiate the effect from prior radiographic examinations.

  18. Advances in study of mechanism of dedifferentiation of thyroid cancer%甲状腺癌失分化机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯方

    2008-01-01

    分化型甲状腺癌(differentiated thyroid carcinoma,DTC)包括甲状腺乳头状癌(papillary thyroid carcinoma.PTC)和甲状腺滤泡状癌(follicular thyroid carcinoma.FTC),通过手术切除,并结合放射性核素治疗加甲状腺激素替代抑制疗法后,部分患者可治愈,且预后较好。

  19. Effect of an Outreach Programme on Vandetanib Safety in Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastholt, Lars; Kreissl, Michael C; Führer, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    III study, patients with locally advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer were randomized to a patient outreach programme (outreach) or a standard AE monitoring schedule (vandetanib control) for 52 weeks. In addition to standard AE monitoring, patients in the outreach arm were contacted every 2...

  20. The Role of STAT3 in Thyroid Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosonkina, Nadiya; Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In, E-mail: jipark@mcw.edu [Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226 (United States)

    2014-03-06

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and its global incidence rates are rapidly increasing. Although the mortality of thyroid cancer is relatively low, its rate of recurrence or persistence is relatively high, contributing to incurability and morbidity of the disease. Thyroid cancer is mainly treated by surgery and radioiodine remnant ablation, which is effective only for non-metastasized primary tumors. Therefore, better understanding of the molecular targets available in this tumor is necessary. Similarly to many other tumor types, oncogenic molecular alterations in thyroid epithelium include aberrant signal transduction of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (also known as protein kinase B), NF-κB, and WNT/β-catenin pathways. However, the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) pathway, a well-known mediator of tumorigenesis in different tumor types, is relatively less understood in thyroid cancer. Intriguingly, recent studies have demonstrated that, in thyroid cancer, the JAK/STAT3 pathway may function in the context of tumor suppression rather than promoting tumorigenesis. In this review, we provide an update of STAT3 function in thyroid cancer and discuss some of the evidences that support this hypothesis.

  1. Advances in Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan BF, Sonveaux P

    2011-01-01

    The book "Advances in Cancer Therapy" is a new addition to the Intech collection of books and aims at providing scientists and clinicians with a comprehensive overview of the state of current knowledge and latest research findings in the area of cancer therapy. For this purpose research articles, clinical investigations and review papers that are thought to improve the readers' understanding of cancer therapy developments and/or to keep them up to date with the most recent advances in this fi...

  2. Thyroid Hormones, Autoantibodies, Ultrasonography, and Clinical Parameters for Predicting Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin-zheng; Zeng, Tian-shu; Pu, Lin; Pan, Shi-xiu; Xia, Wen-fang; Chen, Lu-lu

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate thyroid nodule malignancy prediction using thyroid function tests, autoantibodies, ultrasonographic imaging, and clinical data. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in 1400 patients with nodular thyroid disease (NTD). The thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration was significantly higher in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) versus benign thyroid nodular disease (BTND) (p = 0.004). The receiver operating characteristic curve of TSH showed an AUC of 0.58 (95% CI 0.53–0.62, p = 0.001), sensitivity of 74%, and specificity of 57% at a cut-off of 1.59 mIU/L. There was an incremental increase in TSH concentration along with the increasing tumor size (p < 0.001). Thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) concentration was associated with an increased risk of malignancy (p = 0.029), but this association was lost when the effect of TSH was taken into account (p = 0.11). Thyroid ultrasonographic characteristics, including fewer than three nodules, hypoechoic appearance, solid component, poorly defined margin, intranodular or peripheral-intranodular flow, and punctate calcification, can be used to predict the risk of thyroid cancer. In conclusion, our study suggests that preoperative serum TSH concentration, age, and ultrasonographic features can be used to predict the risk of malignancy in patients with NTD. PMID:27313612

  3. Global tyrosine kinome profiling of human thyroid tumors identifies Src as a promising target for invasive cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nancy L., E-mail: nlcho@partners.org [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Lin, Chi-Iou [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Du, Jinyan [Broad Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142 (United States); Whang, Edward E. [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Ito, Hiromichi [Department of Surgery, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI 48912 (United States); Moore, Francis D.; Ruan, Daniel T. [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2012-05-11

    . Conclusion: Global kinome analysis enables the discovery of novel targets for thyroid cancer therapy. Further investigation of Src targeted therapy for advanced thyroid cancer is warranted.

  4. Thyroid gland metastasis arising from breast cancer: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Chenfang

    2013-06-01

    The thyroid gland is an uncommon site for metastasis to develop and thus metastases arising from breast cancer are rarely observed. In the present study, we describe a case of a 45-year-old female with a three-year history of breast cancer who presented with a thyroid mass that was diagnosed as metastatic breast carcinoma by histopathological analysis of the subtotal thyroidectomy specimen. To ascertain the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer, we evaluated two types of markers; those that possessed a similar expression status in the original and metastatic lesions [ER, PR and CerbB-2 (HER2/neu)], and those that are capable of differentiating between metastatic lesions and the surrounding thyroid components (TG and TTF-1). The results showed that ER, PR and CerbB-2 demonstrated a similar expression pattern in primary breast carcinoma and thyroid lesions. Meanwhile, in the thyroid lesions, the malignant cells showed negative staining for TG and TTF-1, which confirmed that lesions were not thyroid in origin. This case may prompt clinicians that although thyroid gland are uncommon metastatic site, a diagnosis of metastatic disease should be considered when new aggregates are identified in the thyroid glands and histopathological analysis may aid the diagnosis.

  5. Uptodate view on diagnostics and treatment of medullary thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D O Gazizova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During last 4 years leading endocrine societies of the world published clinical recommendations on diag nostics and treatment of medullary thyroid cancer. The article covers most aspects of following patients with this pathology.

  6. Incidental thyroid lesions detected by FDG-PET/CT: prevalence and risk of thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sung

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incidentally found thyroid lesions are frequently detected in patients undergoing FDG-PET/CT. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of incidentally found thyroid lesions in patients undergoing FDG-PET/CT and determine the risk for thyroid cancer. Methods FDG-PET/CT was performed on 3,379 patients for evaluation of suspected or known cancer or cancer screening without any history of thyroid cancer between November 2003 and December 2005. Medical records related to the FDG-PET/CT findings including maximum SUV(SUVmax and pattern of FDG uptake, US findings, FNA, histopathology received by operation were reviewed retrospectively. Results Two hundred eighty five patients (8.4% were identified to have FDG uptake on FDG-PET/CT. 99 patients with focal or diffuse FDG uptake underwent further evaluation. The cancer risk of incidentally found thyroid lesions on FDG-PET/CT was 23.2% (22/99 and the cancer risks associated with focal and diffuse FDG uptake were 30.9% and 6.4%. There was a significant difference in the SUVmax between the benign and malignant nodules (3.35 ± 1.69 vs. 6.64 ± 4.12; P max and the size of the cancer. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that incidentally found thyroid lesions by FDG-PET/CT, especially a focal FDG uptake and a high SUV, have a high risk of thyroid malignancy. Further diagnostic work-up is needed in these cases.

  7. Genetic aspects of etiology and development of thyroid gland cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko Yu.V.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on thyroid gland cancer development and progression have identified new classes of tumor markers, proto-oncogenes, tumor-suppressing genes, cell receptor genes, identified genetic tumor-predisposing polymorphism and some other significantly important segments of genome. The identification has been based mainly on revealing of DNA abnormal consequences, specific for occurrence of thyroid gland cancer and its progression.

  8. Molecular target based combinational therapeutic approaches in thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajoria Shilpi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid cancer, as with other types of cancer, is dependent on angiogenesis for its continued growth and development. Interestingly, estrogen has been shown to contribute to thyroid cancer aggressiveness in vitro, which is in full support of the observed increased incidence of thyroid cancer in women over men. Provided that estrogen has been observed to contribute to increased angiogenesis of estrogen responsive breast cancer, it is conceivable to speculate that estrogen also contributes to angiogenesis of estrogen responsive thyroid cancer. Methods In this study, three human thyroid cancer cells (B-CPAP, CGTH-W-1, ML-1 were treated with estrogen alone or estrogen and anti-estrogens (fulvestrant and 3,3′-diindolylmethane, a natural dietary compound for 24 hours. The cell culture media was then added to human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs and assayed for angiogenesis associated events. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF levels were also quantified in the conditioned media so as to evaluate if it is a key player involved in these observations. Results Conditioned medium from estrogen treated thyroid cancer cells enhanced phenotypical changes (proliferation, migration and tubulogenesis of endothelial cells typically observed during angiogenesis. These phenotypic changes observed in HUVECs were determined to be modulated by estrogen induced secretion of VEGF by the cancer cells. Lastly, we show that VEGF secretion was inhibited by the anti-estrogens, fulvestrant and 3,3′-diindolylmethane, which resulted in diminished angiogenesis associated events in HUVECs. Conclusion Our data establishes estrogen as being a key regulator of VEGF secretion/expression in thyroid cells which enhances the process of angiogenesis in thyroid cancer. These findings also suggest the clinical utility of anti-estrogens as anti-angiogenic compounds to be used as a therapeutic means to treat thyroid cancer. We also observed that 3,3

  9. Update on Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Morphological, Molecular, and Genetic Features of the Most Aggressive Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Ragazzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is the most aggressive form of thyroid cancer. It shows a wide spectrum of morphological presentations and the diagnosis could be challenging due to its high degree of dedifferentiation. Molecular and genetic features of ATC are widely heterogeneous as well and many efforts have been made to find a common profile in order to clarify its cancerogenetic process. A comprehensive review of the current literature is here performed, focusing on histopathological and genetic features.

  10. New drugs for medullary thyroid cancer: new promises?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzweg, Christine; Morris, John C; Bible, Keith C

    2016-06-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare tumor arising from the calcitonin-producing parafollicular C cells of the thyroid gland, occurring either sporadically or alternatively in a hereditary form based on germline RET mutations in approximately one-third of cases. Historically, patients with advanced, metastasized MTC have had a poor prognosis, partly due to limited response to conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In the past decade, however, considerable progress has been made in identifying key genetic alterations and dysregulated signaling pathways paving the way for the evaluation of a series of multitargeted kinase inhibitors that have started to meaningfully impact clinical practice. Two drugs, vandetanib and cabozantinib, are now approved in the US and EU for use in advanced, progressive MTC, with additional targeted agents also showing promise or awaiting results from clinical trials. However, the potential for toxicities with significant reduction in quality of life and lack of curative outcomes has to be carefully weighed against potential for benefit. Despite significant PFS prolongation observed in randomized clinical trials, most patients even with metastatic disease enjoy indolent courses with slow progression observed over years, wherein watchful waiting is still the preferred strategy. As advanced, progressive MTC is a rare and complex disease, a multidisciplinary approach centered in specialized centers providing interdisciplinary expertise in the individualization of available therapeutic options is preferred. In this review, we summarize current concepts of the molecular pathogenesis of advanced MTC and discuss results from clinical trials of targeted agents and also cytotoxic chemotherapy in the context of clinical implications and future perspectives.

  11. Activation of integrin-ERBB2 signaling in undifferentiated thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma is one of the most aggressive human cancers. Although genetic changes underlying this aggressive cancer remain to be elucidated, RAS mutations have been frequently identified in it. Mice harboring a mutant thyroid hormone receptor ThrbPV (ThrbPV/PV) spontaneously develop differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma similar to human thyroid cancer. We recently demonstrated that targeting a RAS mutation (KrasG12D) to the thyroid of ThrbPV/PV mice (ThrbPV/PV ...

  12. Chromosomal rearrangements and the pathogenesis of differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan K.G. Grebe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of thyroid cancers arise from the follicular cells of the thyroid gland, which yield a wide variety of distinct morphotypes, ranging from relatively indolent lesions to the most malignant forms of cancer known. The remaining primary thyroid cancers arise from C cells within the gland and result primarily from mutations of the RET protooncogene, germ line mutations of which give rise to the various forms of multiple endocrine neoplasia. The most common of the follicular cell-derived cancers are papillary carcinomas, (PTC, followed by follicular carcinomas (FTC and its Hurthle cell variant (HCC and finally anaplastic carcinomas (ATC. The pathogenesis of many thyroid cancers, of both PTC and FTC morphotype, involves chromosomal translocations. Rearrangements of the RET protoconcogene are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of ca. 50% of PTC. A similar proportion of FTC have been associated with a t(2;3(q13;p25 translocation, fusing the thyroid-specific transcription factor PAX8 with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ nuclear receptor, a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor. These rearrangements have analogy with translocations in erythropoetic cells, which form the only other known group of human malignancies that are largely the result of chromosomal translocation events. In this review we compare and contrast the oncogenic properties of thyroid and erythroid chromosomal transformations and speculate on mechanisms leading to their formation.

  13. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate and Cancer: Lessons from Thyroid Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kid Törnquist

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sphingomyelin is found in the cell membrane of all eukaryotic cells, and was for a long time considered merely as a structural component. However, during the last two decades, metabolites of sphingomyelin, especially sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P, have proven to be physiologically significant regulators of cell function. Through its five different G protein-coupled receptors, S1P regulates a wide array of cellular processes, ranging from stimulating cellular proliferation and migration, to the inhibition of apoptosis and induction of angiogenesis and modulation of cellular calcium homeostasis. Many of the processes regulated by S1P are important for normal cell physiology, but may also induce severe pathological conditions, especially in malignancies like cancer. Thus, understanding S1P signaling mechanisms has been the aim of a multitude of investigations. Great interest has also been shown in understanding the action of sphingosine kinase (SphK, i.e., the kinase phosphorylating sphingosine to S1P, and the interactions between S1P and growth factor signaling. In the present review, we will discuss recent findings regarding the possible importance of S1P and SphK in the etiology of thyroid cancer. Although clinical data is still scarce, our in vitro findings suggest that S1P may function as a “double-edged sword”, as the receptor profile of thyroid cancer cells largely determines whether S1P stimulates or blocks cellular migration. We will also discuss the interactions between S1P- and VEGF-evoked signaling, and the importance of a S1P1-VEGF receptor 2 complex in thyroid cancer cells.

  14. Diffuse thyroid metastases and bilateral internal jugular vein tumor thrombus from renal cell cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Priyanka; Shekhar, Mallika; Wan, Jennifer; Mari-Aparici, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell cancer rarely metastasizes to the thyroid gland, and it has been reported to present as a solitary mass. We present a case of diffuse thyroid cancer metastases from renal cell cancer. Bilateral internal jugular vein tumor thrombi were also present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of diffuse thyroid metastases from renal cell cancer in the English literature. Renal cell cancer metastases should be considered in the differential of thyroid imaging abnormal...

  15. Graves' Disease that Developed Shortly after Surgery for Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hea Min Yu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder that may present with various clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism. Patients with Graves' disease have a greater number of thyroid nodules and a higher incidence of thyroid cancer compared with patients with normal thyroid activity. However, cases in which patients are diagnosed with recurrence of Graves' disease shortly after partial thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer are very rare. Here we report a case of hyperthyroid Graves' disease that occurred after partial thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer. In this case, the patient developed hyperthyroidism 9 months after right hemithyroidectomy, and antithyroglobulin autoantibody and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor stimulating autoantibody were positive. Therefore, we diagnosed Graves' disease on the basis of the laboratory test results and thyroid ultrasonography findings. The patient was treated with and maintained on antithyroid drugs. The mechanism of the recurrence of Graves' disease in this patient is still unclear. The mechanism may have been the improper response of the immune system after partial thyroidectomy. To precisely determine the mechanisms in Graves' disease after partial thyroidectomy, further studies based on a greater number of cases are needed.

  16. Is there loss or qualitative changes in the expression of thyroid peroxidase protein in thyroid epithelial cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Czarnocka, B.; Pastuszko, D; Janota-Bzowski, M; Weetman, A P; Watson, P F; Kemp, E H; McIntosh, R S; Asghar, M S; Jarzab, B.; Gubala, E; J. Wloch; Lange, D.

    2001-01-01

    There is disagreement concerning the expression of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in thyroid cancer, some studies finding qualitative as well as quantitative differences compared to normal tissue. To investigate TPO protein expression and its antigenic properties, TPO was captured from a solubilizate of thyroid microsomes by a panel of murine anti-TPO monoclonal antibodies and detected with a panel of anti-human TPO IgGκ Fab. TPO protein expression in 30 samples of malignant thyroid tissue was comp...

  17. Cross-talk between NO and HMGB1 in lymphocytic thyroiditis and papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardente, Stefania; Zicari, Alessandra; Consorti, Fabrizio; Mari, Emanuela; Di Vito, Maura; Leopizzi, Martina; Della Rocca, Carlo; Antonaci, Alfredo

    2010-12-01

    The controversy on whether or not inflammatory infiltrates in chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis predispose to cancer, has now merged into a debate over the role of the inflammatory infiltrates. The question is how and why some cells become transformed and what factors allow them to spread and in some cases become invasive. Here, we show that the amount of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and high mobility group Box 1 protein (HMGB1) produced in thyroiditis microenvironment increases in tumors and could be involved in the cellular transformation process. NO and HMGB1 are known to attract macrophages that would promote angiogenesis, matrix remodelling and suppression of an efficient immune response. Inflammatory infiltrates could increase the risk of papillary cancer in patients with autoimmune lymphocytic thyroiditis. Cytokines and soluble inflammatory mediators involved in cancer-related inflammation are not only a target for innovative diagnostic and therapeutic strategies but they also represent a future challenge for oncologists.

  18. The association between serum thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid cancer%血清促甲状腺激素与甲状腺癌的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫慧娴; 谷伟军; 吕朝晖

    2013-01-01

    More and more evidence showed that serum thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) was an independent predictor for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer in patients with thyroid nodular goiter.In patients with thyroid nodular goiter,the risk of thyroid cancer increases with serum TSH level,and even TSH level within normal ranges,higher TSH level is associated with a higher frequency and more advanced stage of thyroid cancer.TSH suppression therapy can reduce thyroid carcinoma-related mortality and recurrence rate in high risk patients.TSH plays a key role in the development of thyroid cancer.%越来越多的证据显示,血清促甲状腺激素(TSH)是预测结节性甲状腺肿患者发生甲状腺癌的独立危险因素.即使血清TSH水平在正常范围内,结节性甲状腺肿患者发生甲状腺癌的风险也随着血清TSH水平的升高而逐渐增加.高水平的TSH与甲状腺癌的高发生率以及晚期甲状腺癌关系密切.血清TSH抑制治疗能降低肿瘤进展高危患者的复发率和死亡率.血清TSH在甲状腺癌的发展过程中起着非常重要的作用.

  19. The effect of low level laser on anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Yun-Hee; Moon, Jeon-Hwan; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2015-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a non-thermal phototherapy used in several medical applications, including wound healing, reduction of pain and amelioration of oral mucositis. Nevertheless, the effects of LLLT upon cancer or dysplastic cells have been so far poorly studied. Here we report that the effects of laser irradiation on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells leads to hyperplasia. 650nm of laser diode was performed with a different time interval (0, 15, 30, 60J/cm2 , 25mW) on anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line FRO in vivo. FRO was orthotopically injected into the thyroid gland of nude mice and the irradiation was performed with the same method described previously. After irradiation, the xenograft evaluation was followed for one month. The thyroid tissues from sacrificed mice were undergone to H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining with HIF-1α, Akt, TGF-β1. We found the aggressive proliferation of FRO on thyroid gland with dose dependent. In case of 60 J/ cm2 of energy density, the necrotic bodies were found in a center of the thyroid. The phosphorylation of HIF-1α and Akt was detected in the thyroid gland, which explained the survival signaling of anaplastic cancer cell was turned on the thyroid gland. Furthermore, TGF-β1 expression was decreased after irradiation. In this study, we demonstrated that insufficient energy density irradiation occurred the decreasing of TGF-β1 which corresponding to the phosphorylation of Akt/ HIF-1α. This aggressive proliferation resulted to the hypoxic condition of tissue for angiogenesis. We suggest that LLLT may influence to cancer aggressiveness associated with a decrease in TGF-β1 and increase in Akt/HIF-1α.

  20. Role of the Wnt pathway in thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eSastre-Perona

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant activation of Wnt signaling is involved in the development of several epithelial tumors. Wnt signaling includes two major pathways (i the canonical or Wnt/βcatenin pathway and (ii the non-canonicals pathways, which do not involve βcatenin stabilization. Among these pathways, the Wnt/βcatenin pathway has received most attention during the past years for its critical role in cancer. A number of publications emphasize its role in thyroid cancer. Wnt signaling plays a crucial role in development and epithelial renewal, and components such as βcatenin and Axin are often mutated in thyroid cancer. Although it is accepted that alteration of Wnt signaling is a late event in thyroid cell transformation that affects anaplastic thyroid tumors, recent data also suggest its alteration in papillary thyroid carcinoma with RET/PTC mutations. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to summarize the main relevant data of Wnt/βcatenin signaling in thyroid cancer.

  1. Tumour suppressive function of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WEIYUAN MA; PENGXIN ZHAO; LEILEI ZANG; KAILI ZHANG; HAIYING LIAO; ZHIGANG HU

    2016-09-01

    HUWE1 (the HECT, UBA, and WWE domain-containing protein 1) is an ubiquitin E3 ligase which plays animportant role in coordinating diverse cellular processes. It has been found to be dysregulated in various cancer typeand its functions in tumorigenesis remain controversial. The potential tumour suppressive role of HUWE1 in thyroidcancer development was investigated by knocking down HUWE1 in three authentic thyroid cancer cell lines, WRO,FTC133 and BCPAP, followed by various functional assays, including cell proliferation, scratch wound healing andinvasion assays. Xenograft experiment was performed to examine in vivo tumour suppressive properties of HUWE1.Small-interfering RNA mediated knockdown of HUWE1 promoted cell proliferation, cell migration and invasion inthyroid cancer cells. Overexpression of HUWE1 conferred partial sensitivity to chemo drugs interfering with DNAreplication in these cells. Moreover, HUWE1 was found to be down-regulated in human thyroid cancer tissuescompared with matched normal thyroid tissues. In addition, overexpression of HUWE1 significantly inhibited tumourgrowth in vivo using xenograft mouse models. Mechanistic investigation revealed that HUWE1 can regulate p53protein level through its stabilization. HUWE1 functions as a tumour suppressor in thyroid cancer progression, whichmay represent a novel therapeutic target for prevention or intervention of thyroid cancer.

  2. Glucose-deprivation increases thyroid cancer cells sensitivity to metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikas, Athanasios; Jensen, Kirk; Patel, Aneeta; Costello, John; McDaniel, Dennis; Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Joanna; Larin, Olexander; Hoperia, Victoria; Burman, Kenneth D; Boyle, Lisa; Wartofsky, Leonard; Vasko, Vasyl

    2015-12-01

    Metformin inhibits thyroid cancer cell growth. We sought to determine if variable glucose concentrations in medium alter the anti-cancer efficacy of metformin. Thyroid cancer cells (FTC133 and BCPAP) were cultured in high-glucose (20 mM) and low-glucose (5 mM) medium before treatment with metformin. Cell viability and apoptosis assays were performed. Expression of glycolytic genes was examined by real-time PCR, western blot, and immunostaining. Metformin inhibited cellular proliferation in high-glucose medium and induced cell death in low-glucose medium. In low-, but not in high-glucose medium, metformin induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, and oncosis. At micromolar concentrations, metformin induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and blocked p-pS6 in low-glucose medium. Metformin increased the rate of glucose consumption from the medium and prompted medium acidification. Medium supplementation with glucose reversed metformin-inducible morphological changes. Treatment with an inhibitor of glycolysis (2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG)) increased thyroid cancer cell sensitivity to metformin. The combination of 2-DG with metformin led to cell death. Thyroid cancer cell lines were characterized by over-expression of glycolytic genes, and metformin decreased the protein level of pyruvate kinase muscle 2 (PKM2). PKM2 expression was detected in recurrent thyroid cancer tissue samples. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the glucose concentration in the cellular milieu is a factor modulating metformin's anti-cancer activity. These data suggest that the combination of metformin with inhibitors of glycolysis could represent a new strategy for the treatment of thyroid cancer.

  3. Epidemiology of Thyroid Cancer in Jordan from 1996 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Fayez Nimri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of thyroid cancer has varied from 2 per 100,000 in Europe to 21 per 100,000 in the Hawaiian Chinese population and is 2-3 fold more common in females. Middle East Cancer Consortium figures from 1996-2001 have recorded different age standardized incidence rates that ranged from 2 per 100,000 inEgypt to 7.5 per 100,000 among Israeli Jews. In Jordan the age standardized incidence rate of thyroid cancer was 3 per 100,000 during that period. This study aimed to define the incidence of thyroid cancer in Jordan and to explore the epidemiological char-acteristics of patients and tumors. Methods: This was a descriptive epidemiological study that utilized data reported to the Jordan Cancer Registry during 1996-2008. Results: The incidence rate in Jordan varied during the period from 1996 to 2008; however the recorded rate (2.6 per 100,000 in 1996 and 2008 was similar. The incidence rate was higher among Jordanian females. Age specific incidence rate and age standardized incidence rate were parallel during the study period with no peaks. The most common morphological type of thyroid cancer in Jordan was papillarycarcinoma (76%. The average annual incidence during the study period was highest (3.3 per 100,000 in Amman and (2.2 per 100,000 in Jarash governorates. Conclusion: The results of our study are consistent with international studies. The incidence of thyroid cancer in Jordan is not high when compared with other countries. The high incidence of thyroid cancer in Amman and Jarash governorates in comparisonto the incidence in other governorates needs further assessment.

  4. [Thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Camille; Groussin, Lionel

    2013-02-01

    The diagnosis of thyroiditis encompasses a broad spectrum of thyroid disorders. Analysis of signs and symptoms, biochemical changes, neck ultrasound characteristics and radioactive iodine uptake values allows an accurate diagnosis. Recent studies of the whole genome have helped to identify many susceptibility genes for autoimmune thyroiditis. However, none of these genes contribute to a significant increase in risk of developing this thyroiditis. Clinical awareness of the characteristic presentations of exceptional thyroiditis (acute suppurative thyroiditis, Riedel's thyroiditis) is an important issue. Selenium administration seems to be beneficial for reducing the incidence of thyroiditis. Finally, certain drug-induced thyroiditis remains a therapeutic challenge for the physician.

  5. Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Saraiva

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine the profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22 were analyzed for free triiodothyronine (T3F, free thyroxine (T4F, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, antiperoxidase antibody (TPO, and estradiol (E2. Estrogen receptor ß (ERß was determined in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry. Thyroid disease incidence was higher in patients than in controls (58 vs 18%, P < 0.05. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was the most frequent disorder in patients (31%; hypothyroidism (8% and positive anti-TPO antibodies (19% were also found. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the only dysfunction (18% found in controls. Hyperthyroidism was associated with postmenopausal patients, as shown by significantly higher mean T3 and T4 values and lower TSH levels in this group of breast cancer patients than in controls. The majority of positive ERß tumors were clustered in the postmenopausal patients and all cases presenting subclinical hyperthyroidism in this subgroup concomitantly exhibited Erß-positive tumors. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was present in only one of 6 premenopausal patients. We show here that postmenopausal breast cancer patients have a significantly increased thyroid hormone/E2 ratio (P < 0.05, suggesting a possible tumor growth-promoting effect caused by this misbalance.

  6. FAP Associated Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Peculiar Subtype of Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cetta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Carcinoma (FNMTC makes up to 5–10% of all thyroid cancers, also including those FNMTC occurring as a minor component of familial cancer syndromes, such as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP. We give evidence that this extracolonic manifestation of FAP is determined by the same germline mutation of the APC gene responsible for colonic polyps and cancer but also shows some unusual features (F : M ratio = 80 : 1, absence of LOH for APC in the thyroid tumoral tissue, and indolent biological behaviour, despite frequent multicentricity and lymph nodal involvement, suggesting that the APC gene confers only a generic susceptibility to thyroid cancer, but perhaps other factors, namely, modifier genes, sex-related factors, or environmental factors, are also required for its phenotypic expression. This great variability is against the possibility of classifying all FNMTC as a single entity, not only with a unique or prevalent causative genetic factor, but also with a unique or common biological behavior and a commonly dismal prognosis. A new paradigm is also suggested that could be useful (1 for a proper classification of FAP associated PTC within the larger group of FNMTC and (2 for making inferences to sporadic carcinogenesis, based on the lesson from FAP.

  7. Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: A Review of Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govardhanan Nagaiah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is an uncommon malignancy of the thyroid. Only 1-2% of thyroid cancers are anaplastic, but the disease contributes to 14–50% of the mortality with a median survival of 3 to 5 months. Most patients diagnosed with this disease are 65 years of age or older. The incidence of anaplastic thyroid cancer is decreasing worldwide. Most patients present with a rapidly growing neck mass, dysphagia, or voice change. We performed a comprehensive literature search using PubMed focusing on the treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancer including historical review of treatment and outcomes and investigations of new agents and approaches. A total of sixteen chart review and retrospective studies and eleven prospective studies and/or clinical trials were reviewed. The current standard therapeutic approach is to consider the disease as systemic at time of diagnosis and pursue combined modality therapy incorporating cytoreductive surgical resection where feasible and/or chemoradiation either concurrently or sequentially. Doxorubicin is the most commonly used agent, with a response rate of 22%. Several new agents are currently under investigation. Referral of patients for participation in clinical trials is needed.

  8. Thyroid gland removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total thyroidectomy; Partial thyroidectomy; Thyroidectomy; Subtotal thyroidectomy; Thyroid cancer - thyroidectomy; Papillary cancer - thyroidectomy; Goiter - thyroidectomy; Thyroid nodules - thyroidectomy

  9. Completeness and validity in a national clinical thyroid cancer database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Mathiesen, Jes Sloth; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although a prospective national clinical thyroid cancer database (DATHYRCA) has been active in Denmark since January 1, 1996, no assessment of data quality has been performed. The purpose of the study was to evaluate completeness and data validity in the Danish national clinical thyroid...... and extended governmental databases, it is possible to establish national clinical cancer databases with a satisfactory completeness and validity. The DATHYRCA database is considered reliable in terms of describing thyroid carcinoma at a national level....... cancer database: DATHYRCA. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: National prospective cohort. Denmark; population 5.5 million. Completeness of case ascertainment was estimated by the independent case ascertainment method using three governmental registries as a reference. The reabstracted record method was used...

  10. Resveratrol Sensitizes Selectively Thyroid Cancer Cell to 131-Iodine Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In this study, the radiosensitizing effect of resveratrol as a natural product was investigated on cell toxicity induced by 131I in thyroid cancer cell. Methods. Human thyroid cancer cell and human nonmalignant fibroblast cell (HFFF2 were treated with 131I and/or resveratrol at different concentrations for 48 h. The cell proliferation was measured by determination of the percent of the survival cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results. Findings of this study show that resveratrol enhanced the cell death induced by 131I on thyroid cancer cell. Also, resveratrol exhibited a protective effect on normal cells against 131I toxicity. Conclusion. This result indicates a promising effect of resveratrol on improvement of cellular toxicity during iodine therapy.

  11. Simultaneous medullary and papillary thyroid cancer: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionigi Gianlorenzo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC have always been considered different from each other; in their incidence, their cell origin and their histopathological features. Case presentation This paper describes two rare cases of the simultaneous occurrence of MTC and PTC in the thyroid gland. Case 1 is unique for different reasons: (a the patient was affected by both multicentric MTC and PTC; (b a "composite thyroid carcinoma" with mixed feautures of MTC and PTC carcinomas was found in the istmus of the gland; and (c these tumors were associated with diffuse lymphocytic-type thyroiditis (LT. Case 2 is notable for the long follow up: 16 years disease free. Conclusion There are only 16 reports in the English medical literature describing a total of 20 cases of concurrent occurrence of both PTC and MTC in the same thyroid gland. We discuss whether the finding of another cancer in these patients was coincidental or from possible activation of a common tumorigenic pathway for both follicular and parafollicular thyroid cells.

  12. Risk of thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma after adult leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Birgens, Henrik S

    2011-01-01

    Patients with childhood leukemia surviving into adulthood have elevated risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); these risks cannot automatically be extrapolated to patients surviving adult leukemia. We tested whether survivors of adult leukemia...... are at increased risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and NHL. We included the entire adult Danish population (14 years of age or older), in a 28-year follow-up period from 1980 through 2007, composed of 6 542 639 persons; during this period, 18 834 developed adult leukemia, 4561 developed thyroid...... cancer, 13 362 developed brain cancer, and 15 967 developed NHL. In nested studies using Cox regression models on individual participant data, we found that, after adult leukemia, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratios were 4.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-8.5) for thyroid cancer, 1.9 (95% CI, 1...

  13. BRAFV600E基因突变在甲状腺癌中的临床应用研究进展%Advances in clinical utility of BRAFV600E mutation in thyroid cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚小芹; 王辉

    2012-01-01

    Valine (V) being substituted for by glutamate (E)at codon 600 in B type RAF gene (BRAFV600E mutation)is the most common genetic mutation in papillary thyroid cancer.There have been many researches shown a strong association between BRAFV600E multation and the occurrence,progression and metastasis of papillary thyroid cancer.This article illustrates its clinical utility on the preoperative diagnosis,prognosis evaluation and inhibitor treatment of papillary thyroid cancer,so as to instruct the clinical management better.%B型RAF基因(BRAF)编码蛋白质的第600位密码子对应的缬氨酸被谷氨酸替代(BRAFV600E突变)是甲状腺乳头状癌中最常见的基因突变.很多研究表明,该突变与甲状腺乳头状癌的发生、发展和转移密切相关.该文综合阐明BRAFV600E突变在甲状腺乳头状癌中的术前诊断、预后判断和抑制剂治疗等方面的临床应用,以便更好地指导临床决策.

  14. Lymphocytic profiling in thyroid cancer provides clues for failure of tumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Shahnawaz; Paparodis, Rodis; Sharma, Deepak; Jaume, Juan Carlos

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid cancers are usually surrounded by a significant number of immune-reactive cells. Tumor-associated lymphocytes as well as background lymphocytic thyroiditis are frequently mentioned in pathology reports of patients who have undergone surgery for thyroid cancer. The nature of this lymphocytic reaction is not well understood. The fact that cancer can survive in this adverse microenvironment is indicative of immune regulation. We characterized the lymphocytic infiltration that accompanies thyroid cancer and compared it with that present in thyroid autoimmunity. We found that double-negative (DN) T cells were significantly more abundant in thyroid cancer than in thyroid autoimmunity. Although FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells were also present, DN T cells were the dominant cell type, associated with thyroid cancer. Furthermore, upon stimulation, the DN T cells associated with cancer remained unchanged, while the few (20%). CD25 expression on DN T cells remained unchanged after stimulation, which indicates that the increase in the absolute number of DN T cells in thyroid autoimmunity was at the expense of inactivation of single-positive T cells. We concluded that in the setting of thyroid cancer, DN T cells appear to suppress tumor immunity. In contrast, in thyroid autoimmunity, DN T cells were barely present and only increased at the expense of inactivated, single-positive T cells upon induction. Together, these findings indicate that thyroid cancer-associated DN T cells might regulate proliferation and effector function of T cells and thereby contribute to tumor tolerance and active avoidance of tumor immunity.

  15. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer Symptoms Symptoms of cancer ... tumor Obesity Pancreatic cancer Prostate cancer Stomach cancer Testicular cancer Throat or larynx cancer Thyroid cancer Patient Instructions ...

  16. Obesity and Risk of Thyroid Cancer: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis of 21 Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Huang, Min; Wang, Li; Ye, Wei; Tong, Yan; Wang, Hanmin

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have evaluated the association between obesity and thyroid cancer risk. However, the results remain uncertain. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between obesity and thyroid cancer risk. Material/Methods Published literature from PubMed, EMBASE, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM) were retrieved before 10 August 2014. We included all studies that reported adjusted risk ratios (RRs), hazard ratios (HRs) or odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of thyroid cancer risk. Results Thirty-two studies (n=12 620 676) were included in this meta-analysis. Obesity was associated with a significantly increased risk of thyroid cancer (adjusted RR=1.33; 95% CI, 1.24–1.42; I2=25%). In the subgroup analysis by study type, increased risk of thyroid cancer was found in cohort studies and case-control studies. In subgroup analysis by sex, both obese men and women were at significantly greater risk of thyroid cancer than non-obese subjects. When stratified by ethnicity, significantly elevated risk was observed in Caucasians and in Asians. In the age subgroup analysis, both young and old populations showed increased thyroid cancer risk. Subgroup analysis on smoking status showed that increased thyroid cancer risks were found in smokers and in non-smokers. In the histology subgroup analyses, increased risks of papillary thyroid cancer, follicular thyroid cancer, and anaplastic thyroid cancer were observed. However, obesity was associated with decreased risk of medullary thyroid cancer. Conclusions Our results indicate that obesity is associated with an increased thyroid cancer risk, except medullary thyroid cancer. PMID:25612155

  17. Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The Philippine General Hospital Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Edward N. Lo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWell-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC is the most common form of thyroid malignancy. While it is typically associated with good prognosis, it may exhibit higher recurrence and mortality rates in selected groups, particularly Filipinos. This paper aims to describe the experience of a Philippine Hospital in managing patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.MethodsWe performed a retrospective cohort study of 723 patients with WDTC (649 papillary and 79 follicular, evaluating the clinicopathologic profiles, ultrasound features, management received, tumor recurrence, and eventual outcome over a mean follow-up period of 5 years.ResultsThe mean age at diagnosis was 44±13 years (range, 18 to 82, with a majority of cases occurring in the younger age group (<45 years. Most tumors were between 2 and 4 cm in size. The majority of papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs, 63.2% and follicular thyroid cancers (FTCs, 54.4% initially presented as stage 1, with a greater proportion of FTC cases (12.7% vs. 3.7% presenting with distant metastases. Nodal metastases at presentation were more frequent among patients with PTC (29.9% vs. 7.6%. A majority of cases were treated by complete thyroidectomy, followed by radioactive iodine therapy and thyroid stimulating hormone suppression, resulting in a disease-free state. Excluding patients with distant metastases at presentation, the recurrence rates for papillary and FTC were 30.1% and 18.8%, respectively.ConclusionOverall, PTC among Filipinos was associated with a more aggressive and recurrent behavior. FTC among Filipinos appeared to behave similarly with other racial groups.

  18. Thyroid metastases from colorectal cancer: the Institut Gustave Roussy experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lièvre, Astrid; Leboulleux, Sophie; Boige, Valérie; Travagli, Jean-Paul; Dromain, Clarisse; Elias, Dominique; Ducreux, Michel; Malka, David

    2006-08-01

    The prevalence of thyroid metastases in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients is unknown. We retrieved the records of all patients with CRC and pathologically proved thyroid metastasis for the period 1993-2004. Among 5,862 consecutive patients with CRC, 6 (0.1%) were diagnosed with thyroid metastases, a median of 61 months after the diagnosis of primary tumour, and a median of 19 months after the last surgical resection or radiofrequency ablation of other metastases (which were present in all cases). Signs and symptoms, when present (n=3), consisted of cervical pain, cervical adenopathy, goitre, dysphagia, and/or dysphonia. In other cases, the diagnosis was made by positron emission tomography scanning. Thyroidectomy was performed in the 5 patients with isolated thyroid metastases, with cervical lymph node dissection being required in all cases. The only patient treated conservatively because of concomitant liver and lung metastases developed life-threatening dyspnoea, which required emergent tracheal stenting. Median overall survival was 77 months, 58 months, and 12 months after the diagnosis of primary CRC, initial metastases, and thyroid metastasis, respectively. It is concluded that thyroid metastases are rare and occur late in the course of CRC. Thyroidectomy (with cervical lymph node dissection) may result in prevention or improvement of life-threatening symptoms and prolonged survival.

  19. THYROID CANCER Successful remnant ablation-what is success?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, Thera P.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive iodine ablation therapy is a standard treatment for most patients with differentiated thyroid cancer to prevent relapse. The effective dose of radioactive iodine and optimal preparation has been investigated in two recent studies but these factors still need to be confirmed.

  20. Engagement of Patients With Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    End of Life; Advanced Cancer; Lung Neoplasm; Gastric Cancer; Colon Cancer; Glioblastoma Multiforme; Head and Neck Neoplasms; Rectum Cancer; Melanoma; Kidney Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Neoplasms; Liver Cancer; Cancer of Unknown Origin

  1. Clinicopathological characteristics of thyroid cancer misdiagnosed by fine needle aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hideki; Kutomi, Goro; Satomi, Fukino; Shima, Hiroaki; Mori, Mitsuru; Hirata, Koichi; Takemasa, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is commonly used as a preoperative assessment to diagnose thyroid cancer. However, misdiagnosis of malignancy by FNA is not rare, even if image examination suggests the possibility of thyroid cancer. In the present study, the clinicopathological factors of patients whose preoperative FNA examination had not led to a diagnosis of thyroid cancer were examined. In total, 125 patients with thyroid cancer who underwent FNA and surgery (total thyroidectomy, subtotal thyroidectomy or hemithyroidectomy) at the Department of Surgery, Surgical Oncology and Science of the Sapporo Medical University Hospital between 2006 and 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A, malignancy determined by FNA, and group B, no malignancy. The groups were then compared by gender, age, tumor size, stage, tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, histology, surgical procedure methods, presence or absence of calcification and thyroglobulin levels. The mean age of the patients in group A (5 males and 59 females) was 53.0 years. The mean age in group B (11 males and 49 females) was 54.2 years. The mean tumor size in both groups was 1.6 cm. The mean thyroglobulin levels were 82.7 ng/ml in Group A and 525.5 ng/ml in group B. There were also significant differences between the groups for tumor stage (P=0.046), histological type (P=0.024) and thyroglobulin levels (P=0.035). The results of the present study suggested that it may be difficult to diagnose thyroid cancer by FNA in cases with non-papillary carcinoma and higher thyroglobulin levels. PMID:27698782

  2. Nuclear detonation, thyroid cancer and potassium iodide prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent nuclear disaster at Japan has raised global concerns about effects of radioactive leakage in the environment, associated hazards, and how they can be prevented. In this article, we have tried to explain about the guidelines laid down by World Health Organization for a potassium iodide prophylaxis following a nuclear disaster, and its mechanism of action in preventing thyroid cancer. Data was collected mainly from the studies carried out during the Chernobyl disaster of Russia in 1986 and the hazardous effects especially on the thyroid gland were studied. It was seen that radioactive iodine leakage from the nuclear plants mainly affected the thyroid gland, and especially children were at a higher risk at developing the cancers. Potassium Iodide prophylaxis can be administered in order to prevent an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancers in the population of an area affected by a nuclear disaster. However, one has to be cautious while giving it, as using it without indication has its own risks.

  3. Genetic Alterations in Hungarian Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiás, Bálint; Halászlaki, Csaba; Balla, Bernadett; Kósa, János P; Árvai, Kristóf; Horváth, Péter; Takács, István; Nagy, Zsolt; Horváth, Evelin; Horányi, János; Járay, Balázs; Székely, Eszter; Székely, Tamás; Győri, Gabriella; Putz, Zsuzsanna; Dank, Magdolna; Valkusz, Zsuzsanna; Vasas, Béla; Iványi, Béla; Lakatos, Péter

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancers is increasing worldwide. Some somatic oncogene mutations (BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, KRAS) as well as gene translocations (RET/PTC, PAX8/PPAR-gamma) have been associated with the development of thyroid cancer. In our study, we analyzed these genetic alterations in 394 thyroid tissue samples (197 papillary carcinomas and 197 healthy). The somatic mutations and translocations were detected by Light Cycler melting method and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction techniques, respectively. In tumorous samples, 86 BRAF (44.2%), 5 NRAS (3.1%), 2 HRAS (1.0%) and 1 KRAS (0.5%) mutations were found, as well as 9 RET/PTC1 (4.6%) and 1 RET/PTC3 (0.5%) translocations. No genetic alteration was seen in the non tumorous control thyroid tissues. No correlation was detected between the genetic variants and the pathological subtypes of papillary cancer as well as the severity of the disease. Our results are only partly concordant with the data found in the literature.

  4. Emerging therapies for thyroid carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S

    2012-02-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed endocrine malignancy. Its incidence is currently rising worldwide. The discovery of genetic mutations associated with the development of thyroid cancer, such as BRAF and RET, has lead to the development of new drugs which target the pathways which they influence. Despite recent advances, the prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is still unfavourable. In this review we look at emerging novel therapies for the treatment of well-differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma, and advances and future directions in the management of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  5. Thyroid Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g., at regular intervals after thyroid cancer treatment) Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody, Thyroid Stimulating Immunoglobulin TRAb, TSHR Ab, TSI Graves disease When a person has symptoms of hyperthyroidism If a pregnant woman has a known autoimmune ...

  6. Thyroid cancer risk is not increased in diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hsiao Tseng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated thyroid cancer risk with regards to diabetes status and diabetes duration, and with the use of anti-diabetic drugs including sulfonylurea, metformin, insulin, acarbose, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, by using a population-based reimbursement database in Taiwan. METHODS: A random sample of 1,000,000 subjects covered by the National Health Insurance was recruited. After excluding patients with type 1 diabetes, 999730 subjects (495673 men and 504057 women were recruited into the analyses. Logistic regression estimated the odds ratios (OR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI for independent variables including age, sex, diabetes status/duration, anti-diabetic drugs, other medications, comorbidities, living regions, occupation and examinations that might potentially lead to the diagnosis of thyroid cancer in various models. RESULTS: The diabetic patients had a significantly higher probability of receiving potential detection examinations (6.38% vs. 5.83%, P<0.0001. After multivariable-adjustment, the OR (95% CI for diabetes status was 0.816 (0.652-1.021; and for diabetes duration <1 year, 1-3 years, 3-5 years and ≥ 5 years vs. non-diabetes was 0.071 (0.010-0.507, 0.450 (0.250-0.813, 0.374 (0.203-0.689 and 1.159 (0.914-1.470, respectively. Among the anti-diabetic agents, only sulfonylurea was significantly associated with thyroid cancer, OR (95% CI: 1.882 (1.202-2.947. The OR (95% CI for insulin, metformin, acarbose, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone was 1.701 (0.860-3.364, 0.696 (0.419-1.155, 0.581 (0.202-1.674, 0.522 (0.069-3.926 and 0.669 (0.230-1.948, respectively. Furthermore, patients with benign thyroid disease or other cancer, living in Kao-Ping/Eastern regions, or receiving potential detection examinations might have a significantly higher risk; and male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, vascular complications or use of statin, aspirin or non-steroidal anti

  7. Chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma: metabolic and morphologic changes on PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Ukihide [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Gamez, Cristina; Yeung, Henry W.D.; Macapinlac, Homer A. [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Dawood, Shaheenah; Cristofanilli, Massimo [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Breast Medical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    To investigate clinical implications of FDG uptake in the thyroid glands in patients with advanced breast carcinoma by comparing metabolic and morphologic patterns on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). The institutional review board waived the requirement for informed consent. A retrospective analysis was performed in 146 women (mean age 54 years) with advanced breast carcinoma who received systemic treatment. All patients underwent PET-CT before and after treatment. All PET-CT studies were reviewed in consensus by two reviewers. Morphologic changes including volume and mean parenchymal density of the thyroid glands were evaluated. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were determined to evaluate metabolic changes. These parameters were compared between patients with chronic thyroiditis who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy and those who did not. Of the 146 patients, 29 (20%) showed bilaterally diffuse uptake in the thyroid glands on the baseline PET-CT scan. The SUVmax showed a linear relationship with volume (r = 0.428, p = 0.021) and the mean parenchymal density (r = -0.385, p = 0.039) of the thyroid glands. In 21 of the 29 patients (72%) with hypothyroidism who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy, the volume, mean parenchymal density, SUVmax, and TLG of the thyroid glands showed no significant changes. In contrast, 8 of the 29 patients (28%) who did not receive thyroid hormone replacement therapy showed marked decreases in SUVmax and TLG. Diffuse thyroid uptake on PET-CT represents active inflammation caused by chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma. Diffuse thyroid uptake may also address the concern about subclinical hypothyroidism which develops into overt disease during follow-up. (orig.)

  8. Thyroid cancer mortality and incidence: a global overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vecchia, Carlo; Malvezzi, Matteo; Bosetti, Cristina; Garavello, Werner; Bertuccio, Paola; Levi, Fabio; Negri, Eva

    2015-05-01

    In most areas of the world, thyroid cancer incidence has been appreciably increasing over the last few decades, whereas mortality has steadily declined. We updated global trends in thyroid cancer mortality and incidence using official mortality data from the World Health Organization (1970-2012) and incidence data from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (1960-2007). Male mortality declined in all the major countries considered, with annual percent changes around -2/-3% over the last decades. Only in the United States mortality declined up to the mid 1980s and increased thereafter. Similarly, in women mortality declined in most countries considered, with APCs around -2/-5% over the last decades, with the exception of the UK, the United States and Australia, where mortality has been declining up to the late 1980s/late 1990s to level off (or increase) thereafter. In 2008-2012, most countries had mortality rates (age-standardized, world population) between 0.20 and 0.40/100,000 men and 0.20 and 0.60/100,000 women, the highest rates being in Latvia, Hungary, the Republic of Moldova and Israel (over 0.40/100,000) for men and in Ecuador, Colombia and Israel (over 0.60/100,000) for women. In most countries, a steady increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer (mainly papillary carcinomas) was observed in both sexes. The declines in thyroid cancer mortality reflect both variations in risk factor exposure and changes in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease, while the increases in the incidence are likely due to the increase in the detection of this neoplasm over the last few decades.

  9. Sustained ERK inhibition maximizes responses of BrafV600E thyroid cancers to radioiodine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagarajah, J.; Le, M.; Knauf, J.A.; Ferrandino, G.; Montero-Conde, C.; Pillarsetty, N.; Bolaender, A.; Irwin, C.; Krishnamoorthy, G.P.; Saqcena, M.; Larson, S.M.; Ho, A.L.; Seshan, V.; Ishii, N.; Carrasco, N.; Rosen, N.; Weber, W.A.; Fagin, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Radioiodide (RAI) therapy of thyroid cancer exploits the relatively selective ability of thyroid cells to transport and accumulate iodide. Iodide uptake requires expression of critical genes that are involved in various steps of thyroid hormone biosynthesis. ERK signaling, which is markedly increase

  10. Isolated Liver Metastasis in Hürthle Cell Thyroid Cancer Treated with Microwave Ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Segkos; Carl Schmidt; Fadi Nabhan

    2017-01-01

    Hürthle cell thyroid cancer (HCTC) is a less common form of differentiated thyroid cancer. It rarely metastasizes to the liver, and when it does, the metastasis is almost never isolated. Here we report a 62-year-old male with widely invasive Hürthle cell thyroid cancer, who underwent total thyroidectomy and received adjuvant treatment with I-131 with posttreatment scan showing no evidence of metastatic disease. His thyroglobulin however continued to rise after that and eventually an isolated ...

  11. Incidental thyroid 99mTc-MDP uptake in a patient affected by differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Domenico; Magri, Gian Carlo; Treglia, Giorgio; Bertagna, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of incidental uptake of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate in the thyroid in a 62-year-old female with a history of breast cancer treated with quadrantectomy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, who underwent total-body-bone scintigraphy during follow up. Planar scintigraphy was followed by neck SPECT-CT that demonstrated an area of increased tracer uptake in the neck at the left lobe of the thyroid. Neck ultrasonography showed a nodule corresponding to SPECT-CT finding and the ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration documented the presence of papillary carcinoma. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy and ipsilateral lymphadenectomy; histological examination confirmed the presence of a papillary carcinoma and the patient underwent ablation therapy with iodine-131.

  12. Ultrasonographic Findings of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with or without Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Young; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    This study was designed to compare the ultrasonographic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma with and without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This retrospective study included 190 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma which was proven by neck surgery. The difference in the ultrasonographic findings between papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 61 of 190 patients following neck surgery. The incidence of coexisting papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly higher in women (p=0.0026). In addition, the frequency of macrocalcification in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also significantly higher (p=0.0009). Conversely,other ultrasonographic findings including the shape, margin, echogenicity and calcifications, for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis, were not statistically significant. We also found that patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis who showed no calcification on ultrasonography tended not to detect the papillary carcinoma at a higher frequency. On ultrasonography, macrocalcifications occurred more frequently in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than those without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Malignant thyroid nodules without calcifications in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis more often could not be detected. Therefore, it is important carefully examine patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  13. Management of metastatic thyroid cancer in pregnancy: risk and uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Rowe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic thyroid cancer is an uncommon condition to be present at the time of pregnancy, but presents a challenging paradigm of care. Clinicians must balance the competing interests of long-term maternal health, best achieved by iatrogenic hyperthyroidism, regular radioiodine therapy and avoidance of dietary iodine, against the priority to care for the developing foetus, with inevitable compromise. Additionally, epidemiological and cellular data support the role of oestrogen as a growth factor for benign and malignant thyrocytes, although communicating the magnitude of this risk to patients and caregivers, as well as the uncertain impact of any pregnancy on long-term prognosis, remains challenging. Evidence to support treatment decisions in this uncommon situation is presented in the context of a case of a pregnant teenager with known metastatic papillary thyroid cancer and recent radioiodine therapy.

  14. Expression, clinical significance and mechanism of Slit2 in papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rong-Liang; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wang, Yu-Long; Wang, Yu; Sun, Guo-Hua; Ji, Qing-Hai

    2016-05-01

    Thyroid cancer is a common endocrine malignancy. The last decade has seen exciting progress in understanding thyroid cancer molecular pathogenesis. Several major signaling pathways and related molecular derangements have been elucidated, which represent novel diagnostic and prognostic molecular markers for thyroid cancer. Based on the molecular biology of thyroid cancer, a series of therapeutic targets have been developed, which provide unprecedented opportunities. Thus, histological characterization of subgroups of patients and the correct molecular characterization of patients are thought to be key aspects for future clinical management of these patients. In the present study, we identified Slit2 as a prognostic marker for thyroid cancer oncogenesis and recurrence. Mechanistically, Slit2 regulated Warburg effect in thyroid cancer cells through regulation of HIF1α and HIF1α transcriptional activity. Taken together, our present data uncovered Slit2 as a novel predictive marker for thyroid cancer. The mechanism study indicated that Slit2 regulated the Warburg effect. Additional study on the function of Slit2 in thyroid cancer is required to provide new insights into the potential mechanisms of oncogenesis and recurrence potential of thyroid cancer.

  15. High-throughput drug library screening identifies colchicine as a thyroid cancer inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Yang, Zhaoying; Granieri, Letizia; Pasculescu, Adrian; Datti, Alessandro; Asa, Sylvia L; Xu, Zheli; Ezzat, Shereen

    2016-04-12

    We employed a high-throughput drug library screening platform to identify novel agents affecting thyroid cancer cells. We used human thyroid cancer cell lines to screen a collection of approximately 5200 small molecules with biological and/or pharmacologial properties. Parallel primary screens yielded a number of hits differentially active between thyroid and melanoma cells. Amongst compounds specifically targeting thyroid cancer cells, colchicine emerged as an effective candidate. Colchicine inhibited cell growth which correlated with G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These effects were hampered through inhibition of MEK1/2 and JNK. In contrast, inhibition of p38-MAPK had little effect, and AKT had no impact on colchicine action. Systemic colchicine inhibited thyroid cancer progression in xenografted mice. These findings demonstrate that our screening platform is an effective vehicle for drug reposition and show that colchicine warrants further attention in well-defined clinical niches such as thyroid cancer.

  16. High-throughput drug library screening identifies colchicine as a thyroid cancer inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Yang, Zhaoying; Granieri, Letizia; Pasculescu, Adrian; Datti, Alessandro; Asa, Sylvia L.; Xu, Zheli; Ezzat, Shereen

    2016-01-01

    We employed a high-throughput drug library screening platform to identify novel agents affecting thyroid cancer cells. We used human thyroid cancer cell lines to screen a collection of approximately 5200 small molecules with biological and/or pharmacologial properties. Parallel primary screens yielded a number of hits differentially active between thyroid and melanoma cells. Amongst compounds specifically targeting thyroid cancer cells, colchicine emerged as an effective candidate. Colchicine inhibited cell growth which correlated with G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These effects were hampered through inhibition of MEK1/2 and JNK. In contrast, inhibition of p38-MAPK had little effect, and AKT had no impact on colchicine action. Systemic colchicine inhibited thyroid cancer progression in xenografted mice. These findings demonstrate that our screening platform is an effective vehicle for drug reposition and show that colchicine warrants further attention in well-defined clinical niches such as thyroid cancer. PMID:26942566

  17. EFFICACY OF ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ahmad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ultrasonographic (US findings of medullary thyroid carcinoma as compared to findings of papillary thyroid carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 21 cases of MTC and 114 cases of PTCs that were diagnosed between 2005 and 2011. Two radiologists reached a cons ensus in the evaluation of the US findings. The sonographic findings of medullary and papillary carcinomas were compared with use of the chi - square test. RESULTS: The predominant sonographic features of MTCs were solid internal content (91%, an ovoid to r ound shape (57%, marked hypoechogenicity (52% and calcifications (52%. Lesions in MTCs were larger than those in PTCs but this difference was not statistically significant. An ovoid to round shape was more prevalent in MTC lesions than PTC lesions and t his was the only statistically significant difference ( p <0.05. CONCLUSION: Currently accepted sonographic criteria can be applied for a diagnosis of MTCs. The US findings for MTC are not greatly different from PTC except for the prevalence of an ovoid to round shape in the former

  18. Regional Distributions of Distant Metastases Detected in Differentiated Thyroid Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebuzer Kalender

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of our multicenter study is to determine retrospectively the regional distributions of distant metastases which are detected in differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC. Material and Method: Thirty-two of 960 patients with distant metastases who were given radioiodine (RAI treatment in Gaziantep University School of Medicine and Mustafa Kemal University School of Medicine were included to study. Six of patients were male, 26 of them were female. Mean age was 52±15.4. Hystopathological diagnoses were reported as papillary thyroid cancer in 23 patients and folliculary thyroid cancer in 9 patients. The distant metastasis ratio, metastasis regions and distributions were determined. Results: It was observed only lung metastasis in 18 (56.25 %, only bone metastasis in 6 (18.75 %, combination of lung and bone metastases in 3 (9.4 %, other organ metastases accompanying to bone and lung metastases in 3 (9.4 % (liver, soft tissue, mediastinum and multipl organ involvoment in 2 (6.2 % of patients. It was determined single metastasis region in 24 (75 %, 2 metastasis regions in 6 (18.75 % and multipl metastasis regions in 2 (6.25 % of patients. Discussion: Distant metastases are the biggest problem in treatment and follow-up of DTCs. It is very important to diagnosis of metastases and determine the regions of involvoment in these patients.

  19. Thyroid Cancer Risk Is Not Increased in Diabetic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated thyroid cancer risk with regards to diabetes status and diabetes duration, and with the use of anti-diabetic drugs including sulfonylurea, metformin, insulin, acarbose, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, by using a population-based reimbursement database in Taiwan. Methods A random sample of 1,000,000 subjects covered by the National Health Insurance was recruited. After excluding patients with type 1 diabetes, 999730 subjects (495673 men and 504057 women) were recruited into the analyses. Logistic regression estimated the odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for independent variables including age, sex, diabetes status/duration, anti-diabetic drugs, other medications, comorbidities, living regions, occupation and examinations that might potentially lead to the diagnosis of thyroid cancer in various models. Results The diabetic patients had a significantly higher probability of receiving potential detection examinations (6.38% vs. 5.83%, Pdiabetes status was 0.816 (0.652–1.021); and for diabetes duration diabetes was 0.071 (0.010–0.507), 0.450 (0.250–0.813), 0.374 (0.203–0.689) and 1.159 (0.914–1.470), respectively. Among the anti-diabetic agents, only sulfonylurea was significantly associated with thyroid cancer, OR (95% CI): 1.882 (1.202–2.947). The OR (95% CI) for insulin, metformin, acarbose, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone was 1.701 (0.860–3.364), 0.696 (0.419–1.155), 0.581 (0.202–1.674), 0.522 (0.069–3.926) and 0.669 (0.230–1.948), respectively. Furthermore, patients with benign thyroid disease or other cancer, living in Kao-Ping/Eastern regions, or receiving potential detection examinations might have a significantly higher risk; and male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, vascular complications or use of statin, aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs might be associated with a significantly lower risk. Conclusions There is a lack of an overall

  20. Association of telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations with clinicopathological features and prognosis of thyroid cancer: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su X

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Xingyun Su,1 Xiaoxia Jiang,1 Weibin Wang,1 Haiyong Wang,1 Xin Xu,2 Aihui Lin,1 Xiaodong Teng,3 Huiling Wu,4 Lisong Teng1 1Department of Surgical Oncology, 2Department of Medical Oncology, 3Department of Pathology, 4Department of Plastic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The clinicopathological and prognostic significance of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT promoter mutations have been widely investigated in thyroid cancer; however, the results are still discrepant. Systematic searches were performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Ovid, and the Cochran Library databases for relevant articles prior to April 2016. Mutation rates were synthesized by R statistical software. The odds ratio or standardized mean difference with 95% confidence interval was pooled by Stata. A total of 22 studies with 4,907 cases were included in this meta-analysis. TERT promoter mutations tended to present in aggressive histological types including poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (33.37%, anaplastic thyroid cancer (38.69%, and tall-cell variant papillary thyroid cancer (30.23%. These promoter mutations were likely to exist in older patients and males and were well associated with larger tumor size, extrathyroidal extension, vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, advanced tumor stage, disease recurrence/persistence, and mortality. In addition, TERT promoter mutations (especially C228T tended to coexist with BRAFV600E mutation, which indicated more aggressive tumor behavior. Therefore, TERT promoter mutations may be promising biomarkers for early diagnosis, risk stratification, prognostic prediction, and management of thyroid cancer. Keywords: TERT promoter mutations, thyroid cancer, clinicopathological features, prognosis, BRAFV600E mutation

  1. Risk of thyroid cancer in survivors of childhood cancer: results from the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Aliki J; Croft, Adam P; Palace, Aimee M; Winter, David L; Reulen, Raoul C; Stiller, Charles A; Stevens, Michael C G; Hawkins, Mike M

    2009-11-15

    Second primary neoplasms (SPNs) are a recognised late effect of treatment for childhood cancer. Thyroid SPNs can develop after exposure to low-dose radiation, due to the radio-sensitivity of the thyroid gland. The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) was set up to directly monitor the late effects of treatment, including risk of SPNs, in childhood cancer survivors and includes 17,980 5-year survivors. We carried out a cohort analysis to determine the risk of thyroid SPNs in the BCCSS, and estimated risk using standardised incidence ratios (SIRs), relative risk (RR) using multivariate Poisson regression and cumulative incidence curves. There were 340,202 person years at risk subsequent to a 5-year survival, median follow-up 17.4 years per survivor. We identified 50 thyroid SPNs including 31 (62%) papillary carcinomas, 15 (30%) follicular carcinomas and 4 (8%) other types. 88% of thyroid SPNs developed after exposure to radiotherapy in or around the thyroid gland. SIR overall was 18.0 (95% confidence interval 13.4-23.8). Risk of thyroid cancer was highest after Hodgkin's disease: RR 3.3 (1.1-10.1) and Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma: RR 3.4 (1.1-10.7) relative to leukaemia (RR 1.0) (p Survivors treated with radiotherapy in childhood had a RR of 4.6 (1.4-15.1) relative to survivors not treated with radiotherapy (RR 1.0), p = 0003. In conclusion, the risk of thyroid cancer in childhood cancer survivors is relatively high in this cohort of childhood cancer survivors. These results will be of use in counselling survivors of childhood cancer exposed to radiation in or around the thyroid area.

  2. Increased 18F-FDG uptake mimicking thyroid cancer in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Daniel T.; Kneifel, Stefan; Merrill, Griff; Goerres, Gerhard W. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Stoeckli, Sandro J. [Clinic of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Padberg, Barbara-C. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2003-09-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old patient with a known paravertebral malignant schwannoma, sent to us for postoperative staging. A combined whole-body PET/CT scan showed only poor {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the region of the primary tumor but distinct increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the left and right thyroid gland. Thyroid sonography showed two hypoechogenic nodules. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of one nodule showed oxyphil transformed cells, compatible with malignancy. Based on these findings, the patient underwent a subtotal thyroidectomy. Histopathology of the specimen revealed a chronic follicular Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This case demonstrates that Hashimoto's thyroiditis can mimic thyroid cancer in PET but also in sonography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy. (orig.)

  3. Generation of Novel Thyroid Cancer Stem-Like Cell Clones: Effects of Resveratrol and Valproic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Heather; Yu, Xiao-Min; Harrison, April D; Larrain, Carolina; Zhang, Ranran; Chen, Jidong; Chen, Herbert; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2016-06-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an aggressive and highly lethal cancer for which conventional therapies have proved ineffective. Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) represent a small fraction of cells in the cancer that are resistant to chemotherapy and radiation therapy and are responsible for tumor reoccurrence and metastasis. We characterized CSCs in thyroid carcinomas and generated clones of CSC lines. Our study showed that anaplastic thyroid cancers had significantly more CSCs than well-differentiated thyroid cancers. We also showed that Aldefluor-positive cells revealed significantly higher expression of stem cell markers, self-renewal properties, thyrosphere formation, and enhanced tumorigenicity. In vivo passaging of Aldefluor-positive cells resulted in the growth of larger, more aggressive tumors. We isolated and generated two clonal spheroid CSC lines derived from anaplastic thyroid cancer that were even more enriched with stem cell markers and more tumorigenic than the freshly isolated Aldefluor-positive cells. Resveratrol and valproic acid treatment of one of the CSC lines resulted in a significant decrease in stem cell markers, Aldefluor expression, proliferation, and invasiveness, with an increase in apoptosis and thyroid differentiation markers, suggesting that these cell lines may be useful for discovering new adjuvant therapies for aggressive thyroid cancers. For the first time, we have two thyroid CSC lines that will be useful tools for the study of thyroid CSC targeted therapies.

  4. Management of thyroid cancer: United Kingdom National Multidisciplinary Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A L; Gandhi, A; Scott-Coombes, D; Perros, P

    2016-05-01

    This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK. This paper provides recommendations on the management of thyroid cancer in adults and is based on the 2014 British Thyroid Association guidelines. Recommendations • Ultrasound scanning (USS) of the nodule or goitre is a crucial investigation in guiding the need for fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). (R) • FNAC should be considered for all nodules with suspicious ultrasound features (U3-U5). If a nodule is smaller than 10 mm in diameter, USS guided FNAC is not recommended unless clinically suspicious lymph nodes on USS are also present. (R) • Cytological analysis and categorisation should be reported according to the current British Thyroid Association Guidance. (R) • Ultrasound scanning assessment of cervical nodes should be done in FNAC-proven cancer. (R) • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) should be done in suspected cases of retrosternal extension, fixed tumours (local invasion with or without vocal cord paralysis) or when haemoptysis is reported. When CT with contrast is used pre-operatively, there should be a two-month delay between the use of iodinated contrast media and subsequent radioactive iodine (I131) therapy. (R) • Fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography imaging is not recommended for routine evaluation. (G) • In patients with thyroid cancer, assessment of extrathyroidal extension and lymph node disease in the central and lateral neck compartments should be undertaken pre-operatively by USS and cross-sectional imaging (CT or MRI) if indicated. (R) • For patients with Thy 3f or Thy 4 FNAC a diagnostic hemithyroidectomy is recommended. (R) • Total thyroidectomy is recommended for patients with tumours greater than 4 cm in diameter or tumours of any size in association with any of the following characteristics: multifocal disease, bilateral disease, extrathyroidal

  5. Diagnostic Accuracy of Detecting Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in Thyroid Cancer Patients Who Underwent Thyroid Surgery: Comparison of Ultrasonography, Positron Emission Tomography/CT, Contrast Enhanced CT, and Anti-Thyroid Antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Gyun; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee; Nam, Sang Been [Dept. of Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography (US), F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), contrast enhanced CT (CECT), serum anti-thyroid antibody for detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis in thyroid cancer patients who underwent neck surgery. A total of 150 patients with suspicious for thyroid cancer, who had previously undergone US guided needle aspiration of thyroid, were evaluated with the use of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. The four studies were performed within two months before neck surgery. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was confirmed by histopathological results. The diagnostic accuracy of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 51 out of the 150 patients, following neck surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of US were 76.5%, 92.9%, 84.8%, 88.5%, and 87.3%, respectively. The corresponding values of PET/CT were 37.3%, 96.0%, 82.6%, 74.8%, and 76.0%, and CECT were 62.7%, 89.9%, 76.2%, 82.4%, and 80.7%, and serum anti-thyroid antibody level were 90.2%, 93.9%, 88.5%, 94.9%, and 92.7%, respectively. McNemar test revealed significant difference among PET/CT and others, but no significant differences among US, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. Overall, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed most accurate diagnostic performance. In detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed higher diagnostic accuracy than others. US also showed relatively high diagnostic accuracy.

  6. Cytokine production in patients with papillary thyroid cancer and associated autoimmune Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivancevic-Simonovic, Snezana; Mihaljevic, Olgica; Majstorovic, Ivana; Popovic, Suzana; Markovic, Slavica; Milosevic-Djordjevic, Olivera; Jovanovic, Zorica; Mijatovic-Teodorovic, Ljiljana; Mihajlovic, Dusan; Colic, Miodrag

    2015-08-01

    Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is the most frequent thyroid autoimmune disease, while papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is one of the most common endocrine malignancies. A few patients with HT also develop PTC. The aim of this study was to analyze cytokine profiles in patients with PTC accompanied with autoimmune HT in comparison with those in patients with PTC alone or HT alone and healthy subjects. Cytokine levels were determined in supernatants obtained from phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated whole blood cultures in vitro. The concentrations of selected cytokines: Th1-interferon gamma (IFN-γ); Th2-interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 5 (IL-5), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and interleukin 13 (IL-13); Th9-interleukin 9 (IL-9); and Th17-interleukin 17 (IL-17A) were measured using multiplex cytokine detection systems for human Th1/Th2/Th9/Th17/Th22. We found that PTC patients with HT produced significantly higher concentrations of IL-4, IL-6, IL-9, IL-13 and IFN-γ than PTC patients without HT. In conclusion, autoimmune HT affects the cytokine profile of patients with PTC by stimulating secretion of Th1/Th2/Th9 types of cytokines. Th1/Th2 cytokine ratios in PTC patients with associated autoimmune HT indicate a marked shift toward Th2 immunity.

  7. Risk Stratification in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: An Ongoing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omry-Orbach, Gal

    2016-01-28

    Thyroid cancer is an increasingly common malignancy, with a rapidly rising prevalence worldwide. The social and economic ramifications of the increase in thyroid cancer are multiple. Though mortality from thyroid cancer is low, and most patients will do well, the risk of recurrence is not insignificant, up to 30%. Therefore, it is important to accurately identify those patients who are more or less likely to be burdened by their disease over years and tailor their treatment plan accordingly. The goal of risk stratification is to do just that. The risk stratification process generally starts postoperatively with histopathologic staging, based on the AJCC/UICC staging system as well as others designed to predict mortality. These do not, however, accurately assess the risk of recurrence/persistence. Patients initially considered to be at high risk may ultimately do very well yet be burdened by frequent unnecessary monitoring. Conversely, patients initially thought to be low risk, may not respond to their initial treatment as expected and, if left unmonitored, may have higher morbidity. The concept of risk-adaptive management has been adopted, with an understanding that risk stratification for differentiated thyroid cancer is dynamic and ongoing. A multitude of variables not included in AJCC/UICC staging are used initially to classify patients as low, intermediate, or high risk for recurrence. Over the course of time, a response-to-therapy variable is incorporated, and patients essentially undergo continuous risk stratification. Additional tools such as biochemical markers, genetic mutations, and molecular markers have been added to this complex risk stratification process such that this is essentially a continuum of risk. In recent years, additional considerations have been discussed with a suggestion of pre-operative risk stratification based on certain clinical and/or biologic characteristics. With the increasing prevalence of thyroid cancer but stable mortality

  8. Coexistence of papillary thyroid cancer and Hashimoto thyroiditis in children: report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koibuchi, Harumi; Omoto, Kiyoka; Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Toyotsuji, Tomonori; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Kawano, Mikihiko

    2014-07-01

    This report documents 3 pediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma cases with associated Hashimoto thyroiditis. In all 3 cases, hypoechoic nodules accompanied by multiple echogenic spots were noted on sonography of the thyroid. Hashimoto thyroiditis was suspected on the basis of positive thyroid autoantibody test results and pathologic examinations of thyroidectomy specimens, which revealed chronic thyroiditis with lymphocytic infiltration as the background of papillary thyroid carcinoma development. The potential for papillary carcinoma development warrants close follow-up, and meticulous sonographic examinations must be performed in children with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  9. Current Management of Low Risk Differentiated Thyroid Cancer and Papillary Microcarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, V D; Tuttle, R M

    2017-01-10

    Each year, the proportion of thyroid cancer patients presenting with low risk disease is increasing. Moreover, the definition of low risk thyroid cancer is expanding and several histological subtypes beyond papillary microcarcinomas are now classified as low risk disease. This shift in the landscape of thyroid cancer presentation is forcing clinicians to critically re-evaluate whether or not traditional management paradigms that were effective in treating intermediate and high risk disease are applicable to these low risk patients. Here we review the definition of low risk disease, examine the various histological subtypes that are considered low risk in the 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer, and review our current approach to the management of these low risk tumours.

  10. Classification of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer by global RNA profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing worldwide and thyroid nodules are a frequent clinical finding. Diagnosing follicular cell-derived cancers is, however, challenging both histopathologically and especially cytopathologically. The advent of high-throughput molecular technologies has...... profiling of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancers....... prompted many researchers to explore the transcriptome and, in recent years, also the miRNome in order to generate new molecular classifiers capable of classifying thyroid tumours more accurately than by conventional cytopathological and histopathological methods. This has led to a number of molecular...

  11. Clinical value of cancer cells joint detection in peripheral blood plasma of thyroid cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaqiong Ni; Qinjiang Liu ; Youxin Tian

    2014-01-01

    Objective:We aimed to detect cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and polymorphic epithelial mucin 1 (MUC1) expression in peripheral blood of thyroid cancer patients, and investigate the clinical value of it as a diagnostic marker for circulating blood micrometastases. Methods:The flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect and analyze CK19 and MUC1-expressing cel s in peripheral blood of 491 thyroid cancer patients. Results:CK19 and MUC1 expression showed no statistical y significant dif-ference with gender and age in thyroid cancer patients (P>0.05), while had statistical y significant dif erence with tumor size, lymph node stage and distant metastasis (P<0.01). The expression of CK19 and MUC1 were positively correlated (r=0.628, P=0.00). Conclusion:CK19 is closely related to MUC1 expression, tumor size, extent of invasion and distant metastasis in peripheral blood of thyroid cancer patients. The circulating blood CK19 and MUC1 tests can help predict thyroid cancer micrometastases and prognosis.

  12. Risk of Thyroid Nodular Disease and Thyroid Cancer in Patients with Acromegaly – Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kosma Wolinski; Agata Czarnywojtek; Marek Ruchala

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acromegaly is a quite rare chronic disease caused by the increased secretion of growth hormone (GH) and subsequently insulin - like growth factor 1. Although cardiovascular diseases remains the most common cause of mortality among acromegalic patients, increased prevalence of malignant and benign neoplasms remains a matter of debate. The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of thyroid nodular disease (TND) and thyroid cancer in patients with acromegaly. MATERIALS AND METHOD...

  13. Tumorigenesis of Papillary Thyroid Cancer Is Not BRAF-Dependent in Patients with Acromegaly

    OpenAIRE

    Hee Kyung Kim; Ji Shin Lee; Min Ho Park; Jin Seong Cho; Jee Hee Yoon; Soo Jeong Kim; Ho-Cheol Kang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have reported a high frequency of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in patients with acromegaly. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of thyroid cancer in patients with acromegaly and to investigate the frequency of the BRAF V600E mutation in PTC patients with and without acromegaly. Materials and Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 60 patients with acromegaly. Thyroid ultrasonography (US) and US-guided fine needle aspiration...

  14. Evolution of thyroid cancer occurrence in metropolitan France. Assessment over 25 years; evolution de l'incidence du cancer de la thyroide en France metropolitaine. Bilan sur 25 ans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogel, Agnes; Caserio-Schonemann, Celine; Cherie-Challine, Laurence; Rudant, Jeremie; Bloch, Juliette; Thuret, Anne [Unite cancer, Departement des maladies chroniques et traumatismes - DMCT, Institut de veille sanitaire - InVS (France); Colonna, Marc [Registre des cancers de l' Isere, Reseau francais des registres de cancer (Francim) (France); Uhry, Zoe; Kudjawu, Yao; Danzon, Arlette [Unite cancer, DMCT, InVS (France); Lacour, Brigitte [Registre national des tumeurs solides de l' enfant, Francim (France); Schvartz, Claire [Registre des cancers de la thyroide Marne-Ardennes, Francim (France); Pascal, Laurence; Lasalle, Jean-Luc [Cellule interregionale d' epidemiologie - Cire Sud (France); Borson-Chazot, Francoise; Sassolas, Genevieve; Hafdi-Nejjari, Zakia [Registre des cancers thyroidiens de la region Rhone-Alpes (France); Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Guenel, Pascal; Vathaire, Florent de; Guillas, Gwenaelle; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Clero, Enora; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Bedouche, Lallia [Institut national de la sante et de la recherche medicale (Inserm) U1018 (France); Belot, Aurelien [Unite Cancer, DMCT, InVS (France); Hospices civils de Lyon - HCL (France); Fieffe, Sandrine; Dalac, Audrey; Goncalves, Katia; Kaplan, Martine; Pochart, Jean-Marie [Registre des cancers de la thyroide Marne-Ardennes, Francim, Centre de luttre contre le cancer de Reims (France); Desenclos, Jean-Claude [Direction scientifique, InVS (France)

    2011-04-15

    After a presentation of the epidemiological context of thyroid cancer in France, this report, based on cancer record data, analyzes the occurrence of thyroid cancers between 1982 and 2006. It discusses the contribution and limits of medical-administrative data for the epidemiological monitoring of thyroid cancer occurrence between 1997 and 2009. It proposes a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancers in two districts (Marne and Ardennes) between 1975 and 2008, and a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancer for children under 14 between 2000 and 2008. It proposes an estimation of thyroid cancer occurrence in Corsica between 1998 and 2006. It reports and discusses a pilot study performed in two regions (Ile de France and Nord Pas-de-Calais), based on a multi-source system of cancer monitoring (SMSC), and comments studies on risk factors for differentiated thyroid cancers in France

  15. Thyroid cancer in dogs: an update based on 638 cases (1995-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wucherer, Katja L; Wilke, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to update the descriptive statistics of thyroid cancer by using data from multiple institutions collected through the Veterinary Medical Database (VMDB). Information was collected and reported from cases of canine thyroid cancer submitted to the VMDB between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2005. Odds ratio (OR) analysis was performed on breeds that had > or =3% of the total number of dogs with thyroid cancer; ORs for each age category were also determined. Thyroid cancer represented 1.1% of all neoplasms during the time period of interest. Golden retrievers, beagles, and Siberian huskies all had significantly increased ORs for developing thyroid cancer. No sex predisposition was evident, but dogs between 10 and 15 years of age had a significantly increased chance of developing thyroid disease. Carcinomas and adenocarcinomas represented 90% of thyroid cancers, while adenomas represented 9.3%. Thyroid carcinoma and adenocarcinoma continue to be uncommon in our canine population. Older dogs are still more commonly affected, and this study is in agreement with previous studies that golden retrievers and beagles are overrepresented. A new finding is that Siberian huskies are also overrepresented. Carcinomas represent a much higher proportion of thyroid cancers than previously reported, and adenomas are likely incidental findings on necropsy. Thyroid cancer should be high on the list of differentials for a neck mass in older, large-breed dogs, as they make up 1.1% of the cancer cases reported. The overwhelming majority of thyroid cancers are carcinomas, and they are most common in golden retrievers, beagles, and Siberian huskies.

  16. Association between thyroid cancer and epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in female with nonsmall cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seo Yun; Kim, Hye-Ryoun; Kim, Cheol Hyeon; Koh, Jae Soo; Baek, Hee Jong; Choi, Chang-Min; Song, Joon Seon; Lee, Jae Cheol; Na, Im II

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and thyroid cancer in female patients with nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: In a retrospective study, we examined 835 female patients who were diagnosed with NSCLC and underwent an EGFR mutation test between June 2003 and August 2013. The associations of EGFR mutation with thyroid cancer and a family history of thyroid cancer were evaluated using logistic regression models. RESULTS: EGFR mutation was found in 378 of 835 patients. In addition to adenocarcinoma (P cancer (5.8% versus 2.6%; P = 0.020), while showing a trend toward inverse association with a personal history of nonthyroid cancer (5.8% vs. 9.0%; P = 0.086). Likewise, the incidence of EGFR mutations was associated with a family history of thyroid cancer (2.9% vs. 0.9%; P = 0.028), while showing a trend toward inverse association with a family history of nonthyroid cancer (27.8% vs. 33.7%; P = 0.066). Multivariate logistic regression showed that the incidence of EGFR mutations was different in women with thyroid or nonthyroid cancer (P = 0.035) and in women with a family history of thyroid or nonthyroid cancer (P = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that thyroid cancer and a family history of thyroid cancer are associated with EGFR-mutated NSCLC in female patients. The differences in the incidence of thyroid cancer and a family history of thyroid cancer by EGFR mutational status provide new insight into pathogenesis of this genetic change.

  17. Thyroid cancer in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident (in the framework of the Ukraine–US Thyroid Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronko, Mykola; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Bogdanova, Tetiana; Hatch, Maureen; Likhtarev, Ilya; Bouville, Andre; Oliynik, Valeriy; McConnell, Robert; Shpak, Viktor; Zablotska, Lydia; Tereshchenko, Valeriy; Brenner, Alina; Zamotayeva, Galyna

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, millions of residents of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine were exposed to large doses of radioactive iodine isotopes, mainly I-131. The purpose of the Ukraine–American (UkrAm) and Belarus–American (BelAm) projects are to quantify the risks of thyroid cancer in the framework of a classical cohort study, comprising subjects who were aged under 18 years at the time of the accident, had direct measurements of thyroid I-131 radioactivity taken within two months after the accident, and were residents of three heavily contaminated northern regions of Ukraine (Zhitomir, Kiev, and Chernigov regions). Four two-year screening examination cycles were implemented from 1998 until 2007 to study the risks associated with thyroid cancer due to the iodine exposure caused during the Chernobyl accident. A standardised procedure of clinical examinations included: thyroid palpation, ultrasound examination, blood collection followed by a determination of thyroid hormone levels, urinary iodine content test, and fine-needle aspiration if required. Among the 110 cases of thyroid cancer diagnosed in UkrAm as the result of four screening examinations, 104 cases (94.5%) of papillary carcinomas, five cases (4.6%) of follicular carcinomas, and one case (0.9%) of medullary carcinoma were diagnosed. PMID:22394669

  18. Aurora kinase A induces papillary thyroid cancer lymph node metastasis by promoting cofilin-1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaiti, Yusufu; Jie, Tan; Jing, Zhou; Changwen, Wang; Pan, Yu; Chen, Chen; Tao, Huang

    2016-04-22

    Aurora-A (Aur-A), a member of the serine/threonine Aurora kinase family, plays an important role in ensuring genetic stability during cell division. Previous studies indicated that Aur-A possesses oncogenic activity and may be a valuable therapeutic target in cancer therapy. However, the role of Aur-A in the most common thyroid cancer, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), remains largely unknown. In patients with PTC, cancer cell migration and invasion account for most of the metastasis, recurrence, and cancer-related deaths. Cofilin-1 (CFL-1) is the most important effector of actin polymerization and depolymerization, determining the direction of cell migration. Here, we assessed the correlation between Aur-A and CFL-1 in PTC with lymph node metastasis. Tissue microarray data showed that simultaneous overexpression of Aur-A and CFL-1 correlated with lymph node metastasis in thyroid cancer tissue. Inhibition of Aur-A suppressed thyroid cancer cell migration in vitro and decreased lymph node metastasis in nude mice. Importantly, Aur-A increased the non-phosphorylated, active form of CFL-1 in TPC-1 cells, thus promoting cancer cell migration and thyroid cancer lymph node metastasis. Our findings indicate that the combination of Aur-A and CFL-1 may be useful as a molecular prediction model for lymph node metastasis in thyroid cancer and raise the possibility of targeting Aur-A and CFL-1 for more effective treatment of thyroid cancer.

  19. Treatment Options by Stage (Thyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  20. REC8 is a novel tumor suppressor gene epigenetically robustly targeted by the PI3K pathway in thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dingxie; Shen, Xiaopei; Zhu, Guangwu; Xing, Mingzhao

    2015-11-17

    The role of the PI3K pathway in human cancer has been well established, but much of its molecular mechanism, particularly the epigenetic aspect, remains to be defined. We hypothesized that aberrant methylation and hence altered expression of certain unknown important genes induced by the genetically activated PI3K pathway signaling is a major epigenetic mechanism in human tumorigenesis. Through a genome-wide search for such genes that were epigenetically controlled by the PI3K pathway in thyroid cancer cells, we found a wide range of genes with broad functions epigenetically targeted by the PI3K pathway. The most prominent among these genes was REC8, classically known as a meiotic-specific gene, which we found to be robustly down-regulated by the PI3K pathway through hypermethylation. REC8 hypermethylation was strongly associated with genetic alterations and activities of the PI3K pathway in thyroid cancer cell lines, thyroid cancer tumors, and some other human cancers; it was also associated with poor clinicopathological outcomes of thyroid cancer, including advanced disease stages and patient mortality. Demethylating the hypermethylated REC8 gene restored its expression in thyroid cancer cells in which the PI3K pathway was genetically over-activated and induced expression of REC8 protein inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of these cells. These findings are consistent with REC8 being a novel major bona fide tumor suppressor gene and a robust epigenetic target of the PI3K pathway. Aberrant inactivation of REC8 through hypermethylation by the PI3K pathway may represent an important mechanism mediating the oncogenic functions of the PI3K pathway.

  1. SENTINEL LYMPH NODE CONCEPT IN DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC account up to 90% of all thyroid malignacies, and represents the most common malignant tumors of endocrine system. The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, especially small tumors is rapidly increasing during past three decades. At the time of diagnosis, the incidence of lymph node metastases (LNM ranges from 80 to 90%. During the last 15 years, LNM were recognized as bad prognostic factor for both local-regional relapse (LRR and cancer specific survival. There is general agreement that neck dissections are indicated in cases of clinically apparent LNM. The subject of the current controversy is the surgical treatment of occult LNM that remain unrecognized on preoperative diagnosis (cN0. The extent of operations of the lymph nodes ranges from “wait and see” so-called “Western school” principle substantiated the role of applying ablative I131therapy and frequency peroperative complications (recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and hypoparathyroidism, especially for less experienced teams to mutual prophylactic dissection of the central and lateral compartments so-called “Japanese school” due to the limited use of radioactive iodine therapy and significantly lower operating morbidity if dissetion was done during primary operation. Despite high prevalence of occult LNM, existing controversies regarding diagnosis, longterm prognostic impact and extent of lymph node surgery, motivated some authors to apply consept of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNb in DTC, taking into account excellent results of SLN concept in breast cancer and skin melanoma. This review presents the summarized results of relevant studies and three meta-analysis of accuracy and applicability of SLN concept in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

  2. Sentinel lymph node concept in differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC account up to 90% of all thyroid malignacies, and represents the most common malignant tumors of endocrine system. The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, especially small tumors is rapidly increasing during past three decades. At the time of diagnosis, the incidence of lymph node metastases (LNM ranges from 80 to 90%. During the last 15 years, LNM were recognized as bad prognostic factor for both local-regional relapse (LRR and cancer specific survival. There is general agreement that neck dissections are indicated in cases of clinically apparent LNM. The subject of the current controversy is the surgical treatment of occult LNM that remain unrecognized on preoperative diagnosis (cN0. The extent of operations of the lymph nodes ranges from 'wait and see' so-called 'Western school' principle substantiated the role of applying ablative I131 therapy and frequency peroperative complications (recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and hypoparathyroidism, especially for less experienced teams to mutual prophylactic dissection of the central and lateral compartments so-called 'Japanese school' due to the limited use of radioactive iodine therapy and significantly lower operating morbidity if dissetion was done during primary operation. Despite high prevalence of occult LNM, existing controversies regarding diagnosis, longterm prognostic impact and extent of lymph node surgery, motivated some authors to apply concept of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNb in DTC, taking into account excellent results of SLN concept in breast cancer and skin melanoma. This review presents the summarized results of relevant studies and three meta-analysis of accuracy and applicability of SLN concept in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

  3. Advanced Cancer Detection Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    Coeur d’Alene, ID IASLC 9th World Conference on Lung Cancer, Cellular Targeting in the Molecular Diagnosis of Lung Cancer, Tokyo, Japan The...World Conference on Lung Cancer, Cellular Targeting in the Molecular Diagnosis of Lung Cancer, Tokyo, Japan The first International Conference on

  4. The expression of translocator protein in human thyroid cancer and its role in the response of thyroid cancer cells to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Joanna; Jensen, Kirk; Bauer, Andrew; Patel, Aneeta; Costello, John; Burman, Kenneth D; Wartofsky, Leonard; Hardwick, Matthew J; Vasko, Vasyl V

    2012-08-01

    The translocator protein (TSPO), formerly known as a peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, exerts pro-apoptotic function via regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential. We examined TSPO expression in human thyroid tumors (25 follicular adenomas (FA), 15 follicular cancers (FC), and 70 papillary cancers (PC)). The role of TSPO in the regulation of cell growth, migration, and apoptosis was examined in thyroid cancer cell lines after TSPO knockdown with siRNA and after treatment with TSPO antagonist (PK11195). Compared with normal thyroid, the level of TSPO expression was increased in FA, FC, and PC in 24, 26.6, and 55.7% of cases respectively. Thyroid cancer cell lines demonstrated variable levels of TSPO expression, without specific association with thyroid oncogene mutations. Treatment with inhibitors of PI3K/AKT or MEK/ERK signaling was not associated with changes in TSPO expression. Treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitor (valproic acid) increased TSPO expression in TSPO-deficient cell lines (FTC236 cells). TSPO gene silencing or treatment with PK11195 did not affect thyroid cancer cell growth and migration but prevented depolarization of mitochondrial membranes induced by oxidative stress. Induction of TSPO expression by valproic acid was associated with increased sensitivity of FTC236 to oxidative stress-inducible apoptosis. Overall, we showed that TSPO expression is frequently increased in PC. In vitro data suggested the role of epigenetic mechanism(s) in the regulation of TSPO in thyroid cells. Implication of TSPO in the thyroid cancer cell response to oxidative stress suggested its potential role in the regulation of thyroid cancer cell response to treatment with radioiodine and warrants further investigation.

  5. Investigation of excess thyroid cancer incidence in Los Alamos County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athas, W.F.

    1996-04-01

    Los Alamos County (LAC) is home to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear research and design facility. In 1991, the DOE funded the New Mexico Department of Health to conduct a review of cancer incidence rates in LAC in response to citizen concerns over what was perceived as a large excess of brain tumors and a possible relationship to radiological contaminants from the Laboratory. The study found no unusual or alarming pattern in the incidence of brain cancer, however, a fourfold excess of thyroid cancer was observed during the late-1980`s. A rapid review of the medical records for cases diagnosed between 1986 and 1990 failed to demonstrate that the thyroid cancer excess had resulted from enhanced detection. Surveillance activities subsequently undertaken to monitor the trend revealed that the excess persisted into 1993. A feasibility assessment of further studies was made, and ultimately, an investigation was conducted to document the epidemiologic characteristics of the excess in detail and to explore possible causes through a case-series records review. Findings from the investigation are the subject of this report.

  6. Thyroid cancer in Denmark 1943-2008, before and after iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, M; Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Andersen, K K

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence has increased worldwide during the previous decades. In this nationwide study, we aimed to identify the overall incidence of thyroid cancer in Denmark during 66 years (1943-2008) and incidences of the four main histological types of thyroid cancer from 1978 to 2008. Data......-period-cohort models were fitted to describe trends in incidence. To quantify trends in incidence over time, log-linear Poisson models were used to estimate annual percentage change. From 1943 to 2008, 1,947 men (29%) and 4,682 women (71%) were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. The age-standardized incidence increased......, and it was particularly present during the last decades of the study period. It cannot be ruled out that iodine supplementation may play a role for the risk of thyroid cancer, but as the strongest increase in incidence began in the years before the implementation, it is likely that improvement in diagnostic modalities...

  7. Diffuse thyroid metastases and bilateral internal jugular vein tumor thrombus from renal cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Priyanka; Shekhar, Mallika; Wan, Jennifer; Mari-Aparici, Carina

    2016-12-01

    Renal cell cancer rarely metastasizes to the thyroid gland, and it has been reported to present as a solitary mass. We present a case of diffuse thyroid cancer metastases from renal cell cancer. Bilateral internal jugular vein tumor thrombi were also present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of diffuse thyroid metastases from renal cell cancer in the English literature. Renal cell cancer metastases should be considered in the differential of thyroid imaging abnormalities arising in the setting of known renal cell carcinoma, particularly late in the course of disease. This is frequently associated with internal jugular vein thrombi, which should be evaluated with an abnormal thyroid. Thyroglobulin levels are usually normal in such patients.

  8. Tc-99m-Labeled-rhTSH Analogue (TR1401) for Imaging Poorly Differentiated Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galli, Filippo; Manni, Isabella; Piaggio, Giulia; Balogh, Lajos; Weintraub, Bruce D.; Szkudlinski, Mariusz W.; Fremont, Valerie; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Signore, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background: Differentiated thyroid carcinomas originating from thyroid follicular cells are frequent tumors of the thyroid with relatively good prognosis due to improved surgical techniques and follow-up procedures. Poorly differentiated thyroid cancers, which lose iodine uptake ability, in most cas

  9. Monitoring isotretinoin therapy in thyroid cancer using {sup 18}F-FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, A.R.; Petrich, T.; Weckesser, E.; Fricke, H.; Hofmann, M.; Otto, D.; Knapp, W.H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover Medical School (Germany); Weckesser, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Muenster (Germany); Langen, K.J. [Institute of Medicine, Research Centre Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    2002-02-01

    Treatment with isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid, 13-cis-RA) is a recent additional option in advanced, otherwise intractable differentiated thyroid cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET) in the prediction and the monitoring of response to 13-cis-RA therapy. Twenty-one patients with advanced differentiated thyroid cancers were investigated using {sup 18}F-FDG PET and iodine-131 whole-body scans before and 3, 6 and 9 months after initiation of 13-cis-RA therapy. After 9 months, 13-cis-RA treatment was discontinued and imaging procedures repeated 3 months later. Average {sup 18}F-FDG uptake (SUV) decreased significantly during 13-cis-RA therapy but subsequently increased in five of eight patients after withdrawal of 13-cis-RA. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake (SUV) 3 months after onset of 13-cis-RA therapy was significantly lower in patients who developed increased {sup 131}I uptake in their tumour sites than in patients with no subsequent increase in {sup 131}I uptake. There was no relationship between serum thyroglobulin level on the one hand and simultaneously measured {sup 131}I or {sup 18}F-FDG uptake on the other hand. There was a tendency towards lower {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in tumour manifestations with a better outcome. Therefore, {sup 18}F-FDG PET at 3 months after the start of treatment promises to differentiate between those patients who will eventually benefit from 13-cis-RA and those who will not. In conclusion, these data indicate that {sup 18}F-FDG PET is a useful tool for the evaluation and monitoring of adjuvant therapy with 13-cis-RA in thyroid cancer. (orig.)

  10. A loss-of-function genetic screening identifies novel mediators of thyroid cancer cell viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantisani, Maria Carmela; Parascandolo, Alessia; Perälä, Merja; Allocca, Chiara; Fey, Vidal; Sahlberg, Niko; Merolla, Francesco; Basolo, Fulvio; Laukkanen, Mikko O.; Kallioniemi, Olli Pekka; Santoro, Massimo; Castellone, Maria Domenica

    2016-01-01

    RET, BRAF and other protein kinases have been identified as major molecular players in thyroid cancer. To identify novel kinases required for the viability of thyroid carcinoma cells, we performed a RNA interference screening in the RET/PTC1(CCDC6-RET)-positive papillary thyroid cancer cell line TPC1 using a library of synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the human kinome and related proteins. We identified 14 hits whose silencing was able to significantly reduce the viability and the proliferation of TPC1 cells; most of them were active also in BRAF-mutant BCPAP (papillary thyroid cancer) and 8505C (anaplastic thyroid cancer) and in RAS-mutant CAL62 (anaplastic thyroid cancer) cells. These included members of EPH receptor tyrosine kinase family as well as SRC and MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinases) families. Importantly, silencing of the identified hits did not affect significantly the viability of Nthy-ori 3-1 (hereafter referred to as NTHY) cells derived from normal thyroid tissue, suggesting cancer cell specificity. The identified proteins are worth exploring as potential novel druggable thyroid cancer targets. PMID:27058903

  11. Application of Parametric Models of Survival Analysis in Determining the Cancer Influencing Factors in Patients with Thyroid Nodules

    OpenAIRE

    J.Yazdani Charati; O. Akha; AR Baghestani; F. Khosravi; Y Kavyani Charati

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: One of the most common clinical problems among individuals is thyroid nodule diseases which are characterized by one or more nodules in the thyroid and are usually benign. It can be said that thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine cancer worldwide. This study aimed to determine the risk factors for cancer in patients with thyroid nodule in Mazandaran province,Iran, using parametric survival analysis. Methods: In the present historical cohort study, 26,730 patients w...

  12. Thyroglobulin measurement using highly sensitive assays in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovanella, Luca; Clark, Penelope M; Chiovato, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is the most common endocrine cancer and its incidence has increased in recent decades. Initial treatment usually consists of total thyroidectomy followed by ablation of thyroid remnants by iodine-131. As thyroid cells are assumed to be the only source...... at low concentrations now allows detection of very low Tg concentrations reflecting minimal amounts of thyroid tissue without the need for TSH stimulation. Use of these highly sensitive Tg assays has not yet been incorporated into clinical guidelines but they will, we believe, be used by physicians...

  13. IMRT versus 3D-CRT for thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizynska, Marta K.; Zawadzka, Anna

    2008-01-01

    A 3D-CRT involving a 4-field (5-field, 6-field, etc.) technique (photon and electron beams) and an alternative IMRT 7-field technique with 6 MV photon fields for thyroid cancer were compared. The IMRT allows reduction in the dose to the spinal cord of about 12 Gy and permits better coverage of the target volume with smaller standard deviation (average 4.65% for 3D-CRT as compared with 1.81% for IMRT). The time needed to prepare therapy (TPS, dosimetry, preparing boluses and electron aperture) and the session time are about the same for both techniques.

  14. Effects and Role of Multikinase Inhibitors in Thyroid Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rasmus; Wehland, Markus; Kopp, Sascha;

    2016-01-01

    of resistance against these anti-angiogenic treatments, partly due to compensatory mechanisms. Lenvatinib, the recently approved drug for RAI-refractory thyroid cancer, blocks a different receptor than the currently available drugs. Lenvatinib inhibits fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), as well as other...... receptors. FGFR plays a key role in the development of resistance against anti-angiogenic drugs. In a phase III trial (SELECT) on RAI-refractory DTC, the lenvatinib group showed a PFS of 18.3 months, compared to 3.6 months in the placebo group. This led to the approval of lenvatinib, the first drug capable...

  15. Thyroid dysfunction and neoplasia in children receiving neck irradiation for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, I.D.; Black, T.L.; Thompson, E.I.; Pratt, C.; Rao, B.; Hustu, O.

    1985-03-15

    The reported relationship of radiation exposure and thyroid carcinoma stimulated this retrospective study of 298 patients treated at St. Jude Children's Hospital with radiation therapy to the neck for childhood cancer to identify patients who developed subsequent thyroid abnormalities. This series includes 153 patients with Hodgkin's disease, 95 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, 28 with lymphoepithelioma, and 22 with miscellaneous tumors. Inclusion in the study required 5 years of disease-free survival following therapy for their original tumor, which included thyroid irradiation. Follow-up has been 100%. Most patients also received chemotherapy. Seventeen patients were found to have decreased thyroid reserve with normal levels of free triiodothyroxine (T3) or free thyroxin, (T4) and an elevated level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In nine patients hypothyroidism developed, with decreased T3 or T4 levels and an elevated level of TSH. One hyperthyroid patient was identified. Two patients had thyroiditis, and seven had thyroid neoplasms: (carcinoma in two, adenoma in two, colloid nodule in one, and undiagnosed nodules in two). This survey has demonstrated an increased incidence of thyroid dysfunction and thyroid neoplasia when compared to the general population. The importance of long-term follow-up for thyroid disease is emphasized in patients who have received thyroid irradiation. The possible role of subclinical hypothyroidism with TSH elevation coupled with radiation damage to the thyroid gland as a model for the development of neoplastic disease is discussed.

  16. 自噬与甲状腺癌的研究进展%Autophagy and its research progress in thyroid cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张思林; 罗庆; 余杰情

    2016-01-01

    To summarize the autophagy and its research progress in thyroid cancer.In combination with available literatures published in recent years involving the relationship between autophagy and thyroid cancer,the characteristics of autophagy,the role in thyroid cancer were reviewed.The changes of autophagy level will directly or indirectly participate in the pathogenesis and progression of thyroid cancer.Reagents regulating autophagy will have broad prospect of application in thyroid cancer therapy.The autophagy in the thyroid cancer is still poorly understood,and to clarify the molecular mechanism of autophagy and kill thyroid cancer cells by reasonable regulation of autophagy still needs more further studies.

  17. Temperature-sensitive polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a potential drug delivery system for targeted therapy of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppolu, Bhanuprasanth; Bhavsar, Zarna; Wadajkar, Aniket S; Nattama, Sivaniarvindpriya; Rahimi, Maham; Nwariaku, Fiemu; Nguyen, Kytai T

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and investigate temperature-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylamide-allylamine)-coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (TPMNPs) as possible targeted drug carriers for treatments of advanced thyroid cancer (ATC). These nanoparticles were prepared by free radical polymerization of monomers on the surface of silane-coupled iron oxide nanoparticles. In vitro studies demonstrated that TPMNPs were cytocompatible and effectively taken up by cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. An external magnetic field significantly increased nanoparticle uptake, especially when cells were exposed to physiological flow conditions. Drug loading and release studies using doxorubicin confirmed the temperature-responsive release of drugs from nanoparticles. In addition, doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles significantly killed ATC cells when compared to free doxorubicin. The in vitro results indicate that TPMNPs have potential as targeted and controlled drug carriers for thyroid cancer treatment.

  18. Thyroglossal duct cyst cancer most likely arises from a thyroid gland remnant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Esther D; Martini, Maurizio; Straccia, Patrizia; Cocomazzi, Alessandra; Pennacchia, Ilaria; Revelli, Luca; Rossi, Armando; Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Larocca, Luigi M; Fadda, Guido

    2014-07-01

    Thyroglossal duct cancer is a rare entity, occurring in 1.5 % of all thyroglossal duct cysts (TDC). A definitive consensus about its neoplastic origin has not been established as two contrasting theories exist, one proposing an origin in extra-thyroid remnants and the other a metastatic localization of a primary thyroid cancer. We compare morphological and molecular characteristics of both thyroglossal and thyroid carcinomas in a case series from our institute. We evaluated histology of 80 TDC. In 12 cases, prior cytological evaluation had been performed by liquid-based cytology (LBC). The BRAF gene was examined for mutations, and the histology of both thyroglossal duct and synchronous thyroid carcinoma was reevaluated. In 9 out of 80 (11 %) TDC cases, a papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was diagnosed. In five out of nine (56 %) thyroglossal carcinomas, a synchronous thyroid cancer was diagnosed: 3 PTC and 2 follicular variant PTC (FVPC). In five thyroglossal carcinomas, mutated BRAF (V600E) was found, three in PTC and in thyroglossal as well as in the synchronous tumor in the thyroid. All the patients are in a disease-free status and still alive. Our results suggest that the majority of thyroglossal carcinomas most likely develop as a primary malignancy from a thyroid remnant. Neither the presence of V600E BRAF mutations nor that of a well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma changed the outcome or disease-free survival. We suggest that a diagnosis of thyroglossal carcinoma should be followed by a detailed evaluation of the thyroid gland. In the absence of clinical and radiological thyroid alterations, follow-up as for thyroid cancer is the correct management.

  19. Dietary patterns, goitrogenic food, and thyroid cancer: a case-control study in French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cléro, Énora; Doyon, Françoise; Chungue, Vaïana; Rachédi, Frédérique; Boissin, Jean-Louis; Sebbag, Joseph; Shan, Larrys; Rubino, Carole; de Vathaire, Florent

    2012-01-01

    French Polynesia has one of the world's highest thyroid cancer incidence rates. A case-control study among native residents of French Polynesia included 229 cases of differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, and 371 population controls. Dietary patterns and goitrogenic food consumption (cabbage, cassava) were analyzed. We used a factor analysis to identify dietary patterns and a conditional logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between dietary patterns or food items and thyroid cancer risk. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified: traditional Polynesian and Western. A nonsignificant inverse association was observed between the traditional Polynesian dietary pattern and thyroid cancer risk. The Western pattern was not associated with thyroid cancer risk. Cassava consumption was significantly associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. In conclusion, a traditional Polynesian dietary pattern led to a weak reduced risk of thyroid cancer in French Polynesia. The protective effect of cassava on this cancer does not seem to be substantially different from that of cabbage, which was the main goitrogenic food studied to date.

  20. Dyspnea during Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by chemotherapy. Conditions that are not related to cancer: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), such as chronic bronchitis or emphysema . ... depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated. Laser therapy for tumors inside large ... Postradiation bronchiolitis obliterans Steroid ...

  1. Management of Advanced Laryngeal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Sheahan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx continues to be the commonest head and neck cancer in many Western countries. The larynx plays a key role for many essential functions, including breathing, voice production, airway protection, and swallowing. The goals of laryngeal cancer treatment are thus to provide best possible oncologic control, while optimizing functional outcomes. In recent decades, the treatment paradigm for advanced laryngeal cancer has shifted from one of primary surgery (total laryngectomy as gold standard, toward non-surgical organ-preserving treatment using radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. However, concerns have emerged regarding functional outcomes after chemoradiotherapy, as well as possible decreased overall survival in patients with laryngeal cancer. The purpose of the present review is to review surgical and non-surgical options for treatment of advanced laryngeal cancer, as well as the evidence supporting each of these.

  2. New Targeted Molecular Therapies for Dedifferentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Antonelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dedifferentiated thyroid cancer (DeTC derived from follicular epithelium is often incurable because it does not respond to radioiodine, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy. In cases, RET/PTC rearrangements are found in 30%–40%, RAS mutations in about 10%, and BRAF mutations in around 40%–50%, with no overlap between these mutations results in papillary thyroid cancer, while a higher prevalence of BRAF mutations (up to 70% has been observed in DeTC. The identification of these activating mutations in DeTC makes this malignancy an excellent model to examine the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs. Clinical trials with several TKIs targeting RET, and to a lesser extent BRAF, and other TKRs have shown positive results, with about one-third of DeTC showing a reduction in tumor size up to 50%, with the longest treatment duration of approximately three-four years. Angiogenesis inhibitors have also shown promising activity in DeTC. Progress is being made toward effective targeted DeTC therapy. The possibility of testing the sensitivity of primary DeTC cells from each subject to different TKIs could increase the effectiveness of the treatment.

  3. Municipal mortality due to thyroid cancer in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Barroso Diana

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid cancer is a tumor with a low but growing incidence in Spain. This study sought to depict its spatial municipal mortality pattern, using the classic model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. Methods It was possible to compile and ascertain the posterior distribution of relative risk on the basis of a single Bayesian spatial model covering all of Spain's 8077 municipal areas. Maps were plotted depicting standardized mortality ratios, smoothed relative risk (RR estimates, and the posterior probability that RR > 1. Results From 1989 to 1998 a total of 2,538 thyroid cancer deaths were registered in 1,041 municipalities. The highest relative risks were mostly situated in the Canary Islands, the province of Lugo, the east of La Coruña (Corunna and western areas of Asturias and Orense. Conclusion The observed mortality pattern coincides with areas in Spain where goiter has been declared endemic. The higher frequency in these same areas of undifferentiated, more aggressive carcinomas could be reflected in the mortality figures. Other unknown genetic or environmental factors could also play a role in the etiology of this tumor.

  4. Electric Blanket Use and Risk of Thyroid Cancer in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ikuko; Young, Alicia; Liu, Jingmin; Abrams, Judith; Bock, Cathryn; Simon, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer disproportionally affects more women than men. The aim of this study was to assess whether exposure to extremely low frequency electric magnetic fields from electric blankets (EBs) was associated with the development of thyroid cancer. Data were analyzed from 89,527 women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study and who responded to questions concerning prior use of EBs. During a mean follow-up of 12.2 years, 190 incident cases of thyroid cancer were identified. We estimated the hazard ratio (HR) and 95 percent confidence interval (CI) of incident thyroid cancer associated with EB use by Cox's proportional hazard model, adjusted for selected covariates. A majority, 57 percent, of the women in the cohort reported the use of EBs while sleeping and/or for warming the bed before sleep. No association was found between use of EBs and subsequent risk of thyroid cancer (HR = 0.98, 95 percent CI 0.72-1.32). Duration of EB use measured in years, months, or hours had no effect on risk. These results did not change when the cases were limited to papillary thyroid cancer, the most frequently occurring histologic type. The results of this study do not support possible health hazards of EBs in regards to thyroid cancer risk.

  5. Fewer Cancer Reoperations for Medullary Thyroid Cancer After Initial Surgery According to ATA Guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Hans H. G.; Meijer, Johannes A. A.; Zandee, Wouter T.; Kramp, Kelvin H.; Sluiter, Willem; Smit, Johannes W.; Kievit, Job; Links, Thera P.; Plukker, John Th M.

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is still the only curative treatment for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). We evaluated clinical outcome in patients with locoregional MTC with regard to adequacy of treatment following ATA guidelines and number of sessions to first intended curative surgery in different hospitals. We reviewed

  6. Fewer cancer reoperations for medullary thyroid cancer after initial surgery according to ATA guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, H.H.; Meijer, J.A.M.; Zandee, W.T.; Kramp, K.H.; Sluiter, W.J.; Smit, J.W.A.; Kievit, J.; Links, T.P.; Plukker, J.T.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surgery is still the only curative treatment for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). We evaluated clinical outcome in patients with locoregional MTC with regard to adequacy of treatment following ATA guidelines and number of sessions to first intended curative surgery in different hospitals.

  7. GLP-1 Based Therapy for Diabetes and Potential of Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Akif Büyükbese

    2014-01-01

    Despite incredible effort on understanding and awareness of diabetes, management procedure is becoming more challenging since the complications of the disease as well as the newly discovered or yet put on market drugs that may have a suspicious association with cancer. This metabolic disorder itself does already have high prevalence of cancer such as pancreas and colon. Thyroid cancer itself is also increasing and thyroid disorders associated with diabetes is well known endocrinological probl...

  8. BRMS1 and Cx43 expression in fine needle aspiration thyroid cancer tissue and their correlation with tumor malignancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Guo Sheng; Bin Wang; Zong-Ping Diao; Kun-Kun Cao; Sai Zhang; Zheng-Guo Pu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the BRMS1 and Cx43 expression in fine needle aspiration thyroid cancer tissue and their correlation with tumor malignancy.Methods:Patients undergoing thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy in our hospital from April 2012 to October 2015 were selected for study, 60 patients with thyroid cancer and 60 patients with benign thyroid tumor were screened after pathological diagnosis, biopsy tissue was collected to determine the expression of BRMS1 and Cx43, and serum specimens were collected to determin Gal-3, CEACAM1, MMP2 and MMP9 content.Results: mRNA levels and positive expression rate of BRMS1 andCx43in thyroid cancer tissue were significantly lower than those in benign thyroid tumor tissue; mRNA levels ofBRMS1andCx43in thyroid cancer tissue with different pathological types and tumor diameters were not different, mRNA level ofCx43in thyroid cancer tissue with TNM III-IV stage was significantly lower than that in thyroid cancer tissue with TNM I-II stage, mRNA levels ofBRMS1 in thyroid cancer tissue with different TNM stages were not different, and mRNA levels ofBRMS1andCx43in thyroid carcinoma tissue with lymph node metastasis were significantly lower than those in thyroid carcinoma tissue without lymph node metastasis; serum Gal-3, CEACAM1, MMP2 and MMP9 levels in patients with positive BRMS1 and Cx43 expression in thyroid cancer tissue were significantly lower than those in patients with negative BRMS1 and Cx43 expression in thyroid cancer tissue.Conclusions:Lower expression of BRMS1 and Cx43 in fine needle aspiration thyroid cancer tissue is associated with the distant metastasis and malignant degree of tumor, and lower expression of Cx43 is also associated with the growth of tumor and cancer cell proliferation.

  9. The clinical significance evaluation of serum β2-microglobulin for thyroid cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shihong Ma; Qinjiang Liu; Kesheng Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical value and relevance on the serum β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) of patients with thyroid cancer. Methods: One thousand and two normal cases, 95 thyroid cancer patients and 243 nodular goiter patients were selected to measure serum β2-MG levels using double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immu-nosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The positive rate of 7.78% in normal population (78/1002) and 31.57% in thyroid cancer patients (30/95). There were significant differences between the normal population and thyroid cancer patients (χ2 = 55.352; P = 0.000). The positive rate of 7.81% in nodular goiter patients (19/243) and there were no significant differences between the normal population and nodular goiter patients (χ2 = 0.0004; P = 0.986), but significant differences between nodular goiter patients and thyroid cancer patients (χ2 = 31.106; P = 0.000). Meanwhile, the significant difference of the positive rate existed in between the various pathological types of thyroid cancer (χ2 = 10.015; P = 0.007), anaplastic thyroid cancer patients with the highest positive rate and The significant difference was found between the positive lymph node metastasis groups and negative lymph node metastasis groups (χ2 = 4.441; P = 0.035), the presence of distant metastasis group and absence of distant metastasis group (χ2 = 9.795; P = 0.002). Conclusion: Serum β2-MG levels and prognosis of thyroid cancer patients was negatively correlated. It showed important clinical value to detect the level of β2-MG in the early diagnosis, prognosis and the clinical observation for thyroid cancer patients.

  10. Coping with Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  11. Clinical guidelines for management of thyroid nodule and cancer during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofré, Juan Carlos; Riesco-Eizaguirre, Garcilaso; Alvarez-Escolá, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Special considerations are warranted in management of thyroid nodule and thyroid cancer during pregnancy. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach of thyroid nodules follows the standard practice in non-pregnant women. On the other hand, differentiated thyroid cancer management during pregnancy poses a number of challenges for the mother and fetus. The available data show that pregnancy is not a risk factor for thyroid cancer development or recurrence, although flare-ups cannot be completely ruled out in women with active disease. If surgery is needed, it should be performed during the second term or, preferably, after delivery. A majority of pregnant patients with low-risk disease only need adjustment in levothyroxine therapy. However, women with increased serum thyroglobulin levels before pregnancy or structural disease require regular thyroglobulin measurements and neck ultrasound throughout pregnancy. Pregnancy is an absolute contraindication for radioactive iodine administration.

  12. Metabolic irradiation of differentiated thyroid cancers and periodic hemodialysis; Irradiation metabolique des cancers differencies de la thyroide et hemodialyse periodique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courbon, F.; Hoff, M. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire CHU TOULOUSE RANGUEIL (France); Caselles, O. [Unite de Physique, CENTRE CLAUDIUS REGAUD TOULOUSE (France); Duthil, P.; Zerdoud, S.; Berry, I.; Regis, H. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire CHU TOULOUSE RANGUEIL (France)

    1997-12-31

    The association of a terminal renal insufficiency with a thyroid well-differentiated cancer is a rare contingency which complicates the {sup 131}I therapy in these patients. A women 56 years old has been treated by administration of 3700 MBq (100 mCi) of {sup 131}I for a thyroid well-differentiated cancer after a complete thyroidectomy (with a {sup 131}I fixation rate on 24 h < 1%). Due to a terminal renal insufficiency 3 weekly hemodialysis sessions were necessary. The hemo-dialyses were achieved at the 3. and 5. day after the iodine administration. The dose rate at 1 meter during the first three days remained constant at 90 {mu}Gy/h. The circulatory activity amounted up to 1.8% of the injected activity. The post-dosage whole-body scintigraphy evidenced an iodo-fixation cervical relic with a iodine biological half-time of 77.66 h, while the delivered dose amounted up to 250 mGy. The first dialysis at the 3D has reduced the dose rate at 1 meter to 60% and the circulatory activity to 73%. The cumulative activity over 5 days at the level of tumoral residue is only slightly modified by the dialyses. The dose rate at 1 meter of the dialysis appliance after washing was lower than 10 {mu}Gy/h. No significant radioactivity was detected in the disposable material used in dialysis. In conclusion, the administration of {sup 131}I does not result in any contamination of the materials of dialysis. The biological half-time of iodine at the level of thyroid tumor parenchyma is short. Consequently, this treatment should be reserved for the cases of detectable masses with `tracing` doses of {sup 131}I, but higher `therapeutic` activities of {sup 131}I are necessary. To reduce the dose delivered in critical organs the hemodialysis could be carried out after the 24. hour

  13. A Clinical Review of Thyroid Cancer at Sapporo Medical University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Junichi; Takano, Kenichi; Obata, Kazufumi; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Murayama, Kosuke; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is a disease that affects 8,000 new individuals a year, a number that has increased approximately 3-fold in the past 30 years. The increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer can be related to various factors. The evolution of diagnostic technology has distinctly occurred in the fields of diagnostic imaging, cytology and immunochemistry. For example, liquid-based cytology, developed to assess gynecological lesions, has improved diagnostic accuracy over conventional smear cytology. This technique can also be positively applied to cytological analyses of thyroid cancer. In the field of tumor biomarkers, thyroglobulin and trefoil factor-1 are well known and useful. On the other hand, a new specific biomarker of thyroid cancer has been developed. Furthermore, definitive diagnosis of follicular thyroid tumors is extremely difficult or impossible with current tumor biomarkers and cytological methods. Although the standard treatment for thyroid cancer is a basic surgical resection, iodine adjuvant therapy after surgery is a well-known treatment. Here we present a treatment strategy for thyroid cancer according to the statistics obtained at our facility.

  14. Volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy sparing the thyroid gland for early-stage glottic cancer: A dosimetrical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Seok; Yeo, Seung-Gu

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies on advanced radiotherapy (RT) techniques for early stage glottic cancer have focused on sparing the carotid artery. However, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the dosimetric advantages of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in terms of sparing the thyroid gland in early-stage glottic cancer patients. In total, 15 cT1N0M0 glottic cancer patients treated with definitive RT using VMAT were selected, and for dosimetric comparison, a conventional RT plan comprising opposed-lateral wedged fields was generated for each patient. The carotid artery, thyroid gland and spinal cord were considered organs at risk. The prescription dose was 63 Gy at 2.25 Gy per fraction. For the thyroid gland and carotid artery, all compared parameters were significantly lower with VMAT compared with conventional RT. For the thyroid gland, the median reduction rates of the mean dose (Dmean), the volume receiving ≥30% of the prescription dose (V30) and the V50 were 32.6, 40.9 and 46.0%, respectively. The Dmean was 14.7±2.6 Gy when using VMAT compared with 22.2±3.9 Gy when using conventional RT. The differences between the techniques in terms of planning target volume coverage and dose homogeneity were not significant. When considering a recent normal tissue complication probability model, which indicated the mean thyroid gland dose as the most significant predictor of radiation-induced hypothyroidism, the dosimetric advantage shown in this study may be valuable in reducing hypothyroidism following RT for early stage glottic cancer patients.

  15. Irradiation doses on thyroid gland during the postoperative irradiation for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akın

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: In majority of the node-positive breast cancer patients treated with 3D CRT, the thyroid gland was exposed to considerable doses. On the other hand, for 44% of the patients are at risk for developing thyroid function abnormalities which should be considered during the routine follow-up.

  16. Measurement of Thyroid Dose by TLD arising from Radiotherapy of Breast Cancer Patients from Supraclavicular Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhood B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading global cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Radiotherapy plays a significant role in treatment of breast cancer and reduces locoregional recurrence and eventually improves survival. The treatment fields applied for breast cancer treatment include: tangential, axillary, supraclavicular and internal mammary fields. Objective: In the present study, due to the presence of sensitive organ such as thyroid inside the supraclavicular field, thyroid dose and its effective factors were investigated. Materials and Methods: Thyroid dose of 31 female patients of breast cancer with involved supraclavicular lymph nodes which had undergone radiotherapy were measured. For each patient, three TLD-100 chips were placed on their thyroid gland surface, and thyroid doses of patients were measured. The variables of the study include shield shape, the time of patient’s setup, the technologists’ experience and qualification. Finally, the results were analyzed by ANOVA test using SPSS 11.5 software. Results: The average age of the patients was 46±10 years. The average of thyroid dose of the patients was 140±45 mGy (ranged 288.2 and 80.8 in single fraction. There was a significant relationship between the thyroid dose and shield shape. There was also a significant relationship between the thyroid dose and the patient’s setup time. Conclusion: Beside organ at risk such as thyroid which is in the supraclavicular field, thyroid dose possibility should be reduced. For solving this problem, an appropriate shield shape, the appropriate time of the patient’s setup, etc. could be considered.

  17. Discovery of protein profiles for differentiated thyroid cancer using SELDI TOF MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joon Kee; Lee, Myung Hoon; Joh, Chul Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam; Soh, Eui Young [College of Medicine, Univ. of Ajou, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Low sensitivity of diagnostic whole body iodine scintigraphy and intermediate range of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) with or without anti-Tg antibody make it difficult to select the patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who need further treatment. Surfaced Enhanced Laser Desorption /Ionization - Time of Flight - Mass Spectrometry (SELDI TOF MS) is a useful method to evaluate cancer proteome, biomarkers and patterns of biomarkers. In this preliminary study, we evaluated and developed protein profiles for the discrimination between patients with differentiated thyroid cancer and non-cancer controls using SELDI technology. Serum samples from 10 healthy controls and from 14 patients with papillary thyroid cancer before thyroidectomy were analyzed by SELDI MS. Multiple protein peaks detected were analyzed by the computer software to develop a classifier for separating cancer patients form controls. The classifier was then challenged to 24 serum samples to determine the validity and accuracy of the classification system. All patients with papillary thyroid cancer had no other concomitant cancer or thyroiditis. Their serum Tg concentration was 55.8 (1.5 - 249.7) and 2 patients had extra-thyroidal extension. According to the SELDI analysis, protein peaks at 3696 Da, 4178 Da, and 8149 Da were more prominent in cancer patients than controls in various degrees. Among those, protein peak at 4178 Da was determined as classifier by computer software, and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for discrimination of cancer patients from controls was 92.9% (13/14), 90% (9/10) and 91.7% respectively. This preliminary study suggests that serum protein profiles of differentiated thyroid cancer can be used for differentiation between cancer patients and non-cancer controls. And further clinical studies in various test sets will offer useful information in selecting patients who require treatment.

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... typically performed on people who have or had thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: ... such as lumps (nodules) or inflammation determine whether thyroid cancer has spread beyond the thyroid gland evaluate changes ...

  19. Is Very High Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Level Required in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer for Ablation Success?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekiye Hasbek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Remnant ablation with radioactive iodine (I-131 is a successful form of treatment that aims to destroy the remaining residual tissue and/or metastatic tissue after total thyroidectomy in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC patients. High level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH (≥30 mIU/L is recommended for success of ablation treatment. In this retrospective study, our aim was to investigate whether the TSH levels at the time of ablation effect the success of radioactive iodine remnant ablation. Methods: Patients who were diagnosed with DTC, treated with bilateral total/near total thyroidectomy and who were referred for I-131 remnant ablation were included in this study. Patients with undetectable TSH-stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Tg level, normal physical examination, negative results on whole body scan with I-131, and no evidence of neck lymph node metastasis on ultrasound were defined as disease-free. The correlation between TSH level at the time of ablation and ablation success was assessed. Results: Two hundred sixty one consecutive patients were included in the present study. Mean TSH level was 19.47±6 mIU/L in the 34 patients with TSH <30 mIU/L, while mean TSH level was 73.65±27 mIU/L in the 227 patients with TSH ≥30 mIU/L during I-131 remnant ablation. Ablation was unsuccessful in only one patient with TSH <30 mIU/L who had lung metastasis. Ablation was unsuccessful in 5.1% of patients with TSH ≥30 mIU/L. The effect of TSH level was not significant on ablation success (p=0.472. Conclusion: In conclusion, we think that a high TSH serum level alone is not a factor for the success of ablation. Age, presence of metastasis, extent of residual thyroid mass should also be considered. Especially, in the presence of metastatic tissue, obtaining adequate increase in TSH level is not always possible. The success of ablation at lower levels of TSH elevations may be sufficient for patients, and long-term hypothyroidism may not

  20. 甲状腺癌的影像学诊断%Imaging Diagnosis of Thyroid Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都敏; 韩若凌

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor of thyroid, the incidence rate of which is rising year by year. Early discovery and diagnosis of thyroid cancer is very important for clinical therapy , increasing survival rate and improving life quality. Early discovery and diagnosis depends on advanced techniques of imaging diagnosis. This article reviews some techniques to help doctors choose reasonable examination, such as Ultrasonics, CT, MRI, PET and so on.%甲状腺癌是最常见的甲状腺恶性肿瘤,近年发病率逐年上升.甲状腺癌的早期发现、早期诊断对指导临床治疗,提高患者生存率及改善患者生活质量有重要意义,而早期发现及诊断均依赖于先进的影像学诊断技术.常用的甲状腺癌诊断方法包括超声、CT、MRI、ECT等.本文对各种影像学诊断方法的现状做一综述,为临床合理选择检查方法提供依据.

  1. Evidence of increased chromosomal abnormalities in French Polynesian thyroid cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violot, D.; M' kacher, R.; Dossou, J. [UPRES, Laboratory of Radiosensitivity and Radiocarcinogenesis (France); Adjadj, E.; Vathaire, F. de [INSERM, Laboratory of Cancer Epidemiology (France); Parmentier, C. [UPRES, Laboratory of Radiosensitivity and Radiocarcinogenesis (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Villejuif (France)

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in thyroid cancer patients before and after radioactive iodine administration in order to assess cytogenetic particularity in Polynesian thyroid cancer patients. Chromosomal abnormalities were studied in 30 Polynesian patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, prior to and 4 days after{sup 131}I administration. Unstable chromosomal abnormalities were counted in peripheral blood lymphocytes using a conventional cytogenetic method. Peripheral blood was irradiated in vitro at different doses (0.5, 1 and 2 Gy) in order to establish the dose-response of the lymphocytes. Control groups were composed of 50 European thyroid cancer patients before and after first administration of{sup 131}I, and of ten European healthy donors. In addition, in vitro irradiation assays were performed at different doses (0.5, 1 and 2 Gy). The relative risk of spontaneous dicentrics before any radiation treatment was 2.9 (95% CI 1.7-5.1) times higher among Polynesian thyroid patients than among European thyroid cancer patients. After in vitro irradiation, the rise in frequency of dicentrics was similar in the Polynesian thyroid cancer group and the European thyroid patients and healthy donors. Four days after administration of 3.7 GBq{sup 131}I, the relative risk for a dicentric per cell was 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.5) times higher in Polynesian than in European patients. This can be explained by higher{sup 131}I retention in Polynesian compared with European patients. The results obtained revealed an increased frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities in Polynesian thyroid cancer patients compared with European control patients. These preliminary findings are compatible with possible previous environmental aggression and therefore imply a need for further investigations on larger series including, in particular, French Polynesian healthy donors. In addition to French Polynesians, Maori and Hawaiian control groups could be

  2. Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... very accurate for identifying cancerous or “suspicious” nodules. Thyroid ultrasound is used to get an exact picture of ... up may involve a physical exam or a thyroid ultrasound or both. If the nodule gets larger, you ...

  3. Nuclear Molecular and Theranostic Imaging for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Sheikh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional nuclear medicine is rapidly being transformed by the evolving concepts in molecular imaging and theranostics. The utility of new approaches in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC diagnostics and therapy has not been fully appreciated. The clinical information, relevant to disease management and patient care, obtained by scintigraphy is still being underestimated. There has been a trend towards moving away from the use of radioactive iodine (RAI imaging in the management of the disease. This paradigm shift is supported by the 2015 American Thyroid Association Guidelines (1. A more systematic and comprehensive understanding of disease pathophysiology and imaging methodologies is needed for optimal utilization of different imaging modalities in the management of DTC. There have been significant developments in radiotracer and imaging technology, clinically proven to contribute to the understanding of tumor biology and the clinical assessment of patients with DTC. The research and development in the field continues to evolve, with expected emergence of many novel diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. The role for nuclear imaging applications will continue to evolve and be reconfigured in the changing paradigm. This article aims to review the clinical uses and controversies surrounding the use of scintigraphy, and the information it can provide in assisting in the management and treatment of DTC.

  4. DNA damage among thyroid cancer and multiple cancer cases, controls, and long-lived individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigurdson, A J; Hauptmann, M; Alexander, B J; Doody, M M; Thomas, C B; Struewing, J P; Jones, I M

    2004-08-24

    Variation in the detection, signaling, and repair of DNA damage contributes to human cancer risk. To assess capacity to modulate endogenous DNA damage among radiologic technologists who had been diagnosed with breast cancer and another malignancy (breast-other; n=42), early-onset breast cancer (early-onset, age {<=} 35; n=38), thyroid cancer (n=68), long-lived cancer-free individuals (hyper-normals; n=20) and cancer-free controls (n=49) we quantified DNA damage (single strand breaks and abasic sites) in untreated lymphoblastoid cell lines using the alkaline comet assay. Komet{trademark} software provided comet tail length, % DNA in tail (tail DNA), comet distributed moment (CDM), and Olive tail moment (OTM) summarized as the geometric mean of 100 cells. Category cut-points (median and 75th percentile) were determined from the distribution among controls. Tail length (for {>=} 75% vs. below the median, age adjusted) was most consistently associated with the highest odds ratios in the breast-other, early-onset, and thyroid cancer groups (with risk increased 10-, 5- or 19-fold, respectively, with wide confidence intervals) and decreased risk among the hyper-normal group. For the other three Comet measures, risk of breast-other was elevated approximately three-fold. Risk of early-onset breast cancer was mixed and risk of thyroid cancer ranged from null to a two-fold increase. The hyper-normal group showed decreased odds ratios for tail DNA and OTM, but not CDM. DNA damage, as estimated by all Comet measures, was relatively unaffected by survival time, reproductive factors, and prior radiation treatment. We detected a continuum of endogenous DNA damage that was highest among cancer cases, less in controls, and suggestively lowest in hyper-normal individuals. Measuring this DNA damage phenotype may contribute to the identification of susceptible sub-groups. Our observations require replication in a prospective study with a large number of pre-diagnostic samples.

  5. A case report of thyroid gland metastasis associated with lung metastasis from colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Nozawa, Keijiro; Aoyagi, Yoshiko; Ishihara, Soichiro; Matsuda, Keiji; Fukushima, Junichi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid gland metastasis of malignant tumors is observed in 1.9% to 9.5% of histologically examined autopsy cases. Thyroid metastasis from colon cancer is extremely rare and the prognosis is poor. Here we report a case of lung metastasis and thyroid gland metastasis following sigmoid colon cancer surgery. In 2000, a 58-year-old woman underwent a sigmoid colectomy for sigmoid colon cancer. In 2005, a metastatic lung tumor was detected by chest CT. The patient underwent a partial thoracoscopic resection of the left lung in April 2005. On a CT scan taken 3 years and 4 months after the lung resection, a tumor mass was observed in the left lung and a low-absorption region with an unclear border was seen in the left lobe of the thyroid gland. Thyroid aspiration cytology showed adenocarcinoma, and a diagnosis of thyroid gland metastasis from sigmoid colon cancer was made. In April 2008 a subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. Following surgery, the patient underwent chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6 and bevacizumab. Nevertheless a number of lung metastases and expressions of lung metastasis were subsequently observed. Histopathological examination revealed a number of metastases of differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma in the thyroid gland from colon cancer.

  6. Advances in cancer immunology and cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voena, Claudia; Chiarle, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    After decades of setbacks, cancer immunology is living its Golden Age. Recent advances in cancer immunology have provided new therapeutic approaches to treat cancer. The objective clinical response observed in patients treated with antibodies that block the immune checkpoints, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell-death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell-death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathways, has led to their FDA approval for the treatment of melanoma in 2011 and in 2014, respectively. The anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab has received the FDA-approval in March 2015 for squamous lung cancer treatment. In addition, antibodies targeting PD-1 or PD-L1 have demonstrated their efficacy and safety in additional tumors, including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), bladder cancer, and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Almost at the same time, the field of adoptive cell transfer has exploded. The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T technology has provided strong evidence of efficacy in the treatment of B cell malignancies, and different T cell based treatments are currently under investigation for different types of tumors. In this review we will discuss the latest advances in cancer immunology and immunotherapy as well as new treatments now under development in the clinic and potential strategies that have shown promising results in preclinical models.

  7. [Therapeutic advances in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestalozzi, B C

    2006-04-01

    The treatment of breast cancer has made significant improvements during the past ten years. For early breast cancer with a clinically negative axilla sentinel node biopsy has become the preferred approach. For endocrine therapy of postmenopausal patients the selective aromatase inhibitors have become standard in metastatic as well as in early breast cancer. Trastuzumab (Herceptin) plays an important role in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer in the metastatic and since 2005 also in the adjuvant setting. When chemotherapy is used to treat metastatic breast cancer drug combinations are superior to monotherapy only in terms of response rates. By contrast, in the adjuvant setting combination drug therapy is the standard. New methods of tissue analysis including expression patterns of mRNA and proteins are promising research strategies to further advance the field.

  8. Evaluation of 118 Thyroid Cancer Patients Who Underwent a Re-operation after Local Resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Hang; Dong Meng; Liqi Li

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the incidence of residual thyroid cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis following a previous local resection for thyroid cancer, and to discuss methods of a reoperation.METHODS From 1994~2005, 118 patients with thyroid cancer who had previously been treated with a nodule-resection or subtotal Iobectomy in other hospitals underwent a surgical re-operation.RESULTS The incidence of residual cancer at the primary site was 38.1%. The lymph node metastasis rate at the central area was 39.8%.The rate of lymph node metastasis in patients with enlarged lymph nodes in the ipsilateral internal jugular chain was 37.5%. The rate of laryngeal recurrent nerve injury was 15.2% in other hospitals while that of the second operation in our hospital was 1.6%.CONCLUSION Nodule-resection or subtotal Iobectomy alone is not indicated for patients with thyroid cancer because of the high rate of local residual cancer. It is important to be familiar with the anatomy of the laryngeal recurrent nerve for thyroid surgery. Exploration to the central area is necessary for differentiated thyroid cancer.

  9. Advanced Cancer Detection Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Neurocognitive Deficits in Children who Received Cancer Treatment Affecting the Central Nervous System (HLMCC 0707) • Melatonin and sleep hygiene...Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young. (PI: Jeffrey Krischer, Ph.D.) The aetiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains unknown, however...progression to diabetes . To test these hypotheses, large groups of young children at risk for T1D must be followed prospectively with collection of

  10. The Efficacy of Thyrotropin Suppression Therapy in Treatment of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer after Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abo-Touk Niveen A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this prospective study was to assess the effect of the TSH suppression on both disease-free and overall survivals in patients with nonmetastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC after total thyroidectomy.

  11. Risk of thyroid cancer after exposure to fertility drugs: results from a large Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, C.G.; Jensen, A.; Sharif, H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Findings from the few epidemiological studies that have investigated thyroid cancer risk after fertility drugs have been inconclusive. Using data from the largest cohort of infertile women to date, we examined the effects of fertility drugs on thyroid cancer risk. METHODS: A cohort...... of 54 362 women with infertility problems referred to Danish fertility clinics in the period 1963-1998 was established. A detailed data collection including information about type and amount of treatment was conducted. Using case-cohort techniques, we calculated rate ratios (RRs) of thyroid cancer...... associated with different fertility drugs after adjustment for age at first live birth. RESULTS: A total of 29 thyroid cancers were identified during follow-up through 2000. Use of clomiphene [RR = 2.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-4.82] or progesterone (RR = 10.14; 95% CI: 1.93-53.33) was associated...

  12. CHIP promotes thyroid cancer proliferation via activation of the MAPK and AKT pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Lianyong; He, Xiaohua; Shen, Yunling; Liu, Xuerong; Wei, Jing; Yu, Fang; Tian, Jianqing

    2016-08-26

    The carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) is a U box-type ubiquitin ligase that plays crucial roles in various biological processes, including tumor progression. To date, the functional mechanism of CHIP in thyroid cancer remains unknown. Here, we obtained evidence of upregulation of CHIP in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. CHIP overexpression markedly enhanced thyroid cancer cell viability and colony formation in vitro and accelerated tumor growth in vivo. Conversely, CHIP knockdown impaired cell proliferation and tumor growth. Notably, CHIP promoted cell growth through activation of MAPK and AKT pathways, subsequently decreasing p27 and increasing cyclin D1 and p-FOXO3a expression. Our findings collectively indicate that CHIP functions as an oncogene in thyroid cancer, and is therefore a potential therapeutic target for this disease.

  13. Is Primary Hyperparathyroidism a Risk Factor for Papillary Thyroid Cancer? An Exemplar Study and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinamon, Udi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT is associated with several cancer types, including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. Objective To explore further the relation between PHPT and PTC. Methods By considering patients with PHPT as extra-suspicious for PTC, we studied an exemplar group of patients with PHPT with a small (≤1 cm thyroid nodule, which was negative in preoperative cytologic examination. During parathyroidectomy, a frozen section biopsy of the thyroid nodule confirmed PTC, as did the final surgical specimen, revealing that the preoperative cytology was false-negative. Additionally, relevant reports retrieved from the English literature addressing thyroid cancer and hyperparathyroidism were reviewed and processed. Results Four patients with PHPT were studied. Three had a multifocal thyroid disease, and three had neck lymph node metastasis. Processing previous report data supported an association between PHPT and PTC. Although thyroid nodularity among patients with PHPT was similar to the general population, PTC incidence was higher. This was true also for patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Conclusions This study emphasized that PHPT should be considered as a noteworthy risk factor for PTC. Fine needle aspiration of a thyroid nodule is the most valuable diagnostic procedure for thyroid cancer. Yet, false-negative results were reported in up to 10% of cases, especially in small, subcentimeter nodules. In line with our data and the literature, patients with PHPT should have both a detailed ultrasound addressing the thyroid and cytology of any thyroid nodule, including small subcentimeter lesions. Moreover, surgical flexibility, allowing intraoperative thyroid nodule sampling, should be considered even for “innocent” nodules.

  14. Advances in value of BRAF gene mutation on the diagnosis and treatment of papillary thyroid cancer%BRAF基因突变对甲状腺乳头状癌诊治价值的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 潘明志

    2015-01-01

    鼠类肉瘤滤过性毒菌致癌基因同源体B1(BRAF)基因突变是甲状腺乳头状癌(PTC)最常见的基因变化.相关性分析显示PTC的发生、发展与BRAF基因突变密切相关,BRAF基因突变对PTC的诊断及治疗指导的价值受到了广泛关注.但现有的临床证据显示,不能单纯依赖BRAF基因突变制定PTC患者的手术方式、指导初始危险度分层及术后选择放射性碘治疗.索拉非尼和司美替尼可改善放射性碘抵抗性PTC患者的预后,但其疗效与患者BRAF基因突变与否无显著相关性.%v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) mutation represents the most common oncogenic event in papillary thyroid cancer(PTC).The value of BRAF mutation in the diagnosis and guiding treatment of PTC has achieved enthusiastic investigation since the initiation and progression of PTC has been correlated with BRAF mutation.However,existing evidence does not suggest BRAF mutation as an independent factor in guiding surgical approach,stratifying recurrence risk,or selecting postoperative radioiodine therapy for PTC patients.Although sorafenib and selumetinib have effectively improved the prognosis of patients with radioactive iodine-refractory PTC,such efficacy is independent of BRAF mutation status.

  15. A study on the incidence of thyroid cancer in gender ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Eun Suk; Lim, Cheong Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Oh Nam [Dept. of Radiology, Mokpo Science University, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Thyroid nodules are an endocrine disease often found in clinical practice, and patients with thyroid nodules found by chance have rapidly increased alongside development of thyroid ultrasound techniques for health examination purposes. This study analyzes the subjects’ general characteristics, thyroid ultrasounds, and fine needle aspiration cytology in order to find out the relationship between male and female thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer frequency. An ultrasound examination of the thyroid was performed for 32,973 individuals who visited the K Hospital of Health Examination. Subjects have no history of thyroid disease and are 20 years old or over. Data of general characteristics, diabetes) was collected by a written survey completed by the subject, and the ultrasound of the thyroid (thyroid nodules existence, size, number) and FNAC was used to find out the malignancy rate. Frequency of patients with thyroid nodule was 4,611 (26.1%) in men and 5,341 (34.9%) in women between 32,973 individuals. Women’s prevalence rate is significantly higher than men, and the prevalence rate significantly increased with age in men and women (p<0.05). The prevalence of multiple nodules was significantly higher in women (43.5%) than in men (35.6%), and significantly increased with age in men and women (p<0.05). The fine needle aspiration cytology was performed in 692 (men 342, women 350) subjects who showed signs of malignancy through ultrasound. Prevalence of malignancy of the nodules was higher in men (33.3%) than in women (29.4%) although it is not statistically significant. It is known that thyroid nodule prevalence in women is much higher than in men. But this study shows the men’s prevalence rate was not too low compared with women, and the men showed a rather higher malignancy rate in nodules than women. It is considered that the role of thyroid ultrasound is both important in men and women.

  16. Follicular Thyroid Cancer Presenting as a Pelvic Mass: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halit Karaca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDistant metastasis is uncommon in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC and 7% to 23% of DTC patients develop distant metastasis. The remarkably good prognosis and long-term survival in DTC are significantly reduced in patients with distant metastasis as those at the pelvic site. We report the rare case of a patient wth follicular thyroid cancer initially diagnosed as a pelvic mass. Turk Jem 2011; 15: 23-5

  17. Non-thyroid cancer in Northern Ukraine in the post-Chernobyl period: Short Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hatch, M.; Ostroumova, E.; Brenner, A.; Federenko, Z; Gorokh, Y; Zvinchuk, O; Shpak, V.; Tereschenko, V.; Tronko, M.; Mabuchi, K

    2015-01-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in Ukraine in 1986 led to widespread radioactive releases into the environment - primarily of radioiodines and cesium – heavily affecting the northern portions of the country, with settlement-averaged thyroid doses estimated to range from 10 mGy to more than 10 Gy. The increased risk of thyroid cancer among exposed children and adolescents is well-established but the impact of radioactive contamination on the risk of other types of cancer is much les...

  18. BMI, diet and female reproductive factors as risks for thyroid cancer: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Peterson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence rates have been increasing worldwide but the reason behind this is unclear. Both the increasing use of diagnostic technologies allowing the detection of thyroid cancer and a true increase in thyroid cancer incidence have been proposed. This review assesses the role of body mass index (BMI, diet, and reproductive factors on the thyroid cancer trend. METHODS: Epidemiologic studies of the selected risk factors up to June 2010 were reviewed and critically assessed. RESULTS: Among the thirty-seven studies reviewed and despite variation in the risk estimates, most papers supported a small but positive association for BMI (risk estimate range: 1.1-2.3 in males and 1.0-7.4 in females.. Among specific dietary components, there was no consistent association of thyroid cancer risk with iodine intake through fortification (risk estimate range: 0.49-1.6 or fish consumption (risk estimate range 0.6-2.2, nor with diets high in cruciferous vegetables (risk estimate range 0.6-1.9. A small number of studies showed a consistent protective effect of diets high in non-cruciferous vegetable (risk estimate range: 0.71-0.92. Among reproductive factors (pregnancy, parity, number of live births, use of prescription hormones, menstrual cycle regularity, and menopausal status, none were consistently associated with higher thyroid cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: BMI had the strongest link to thyroid cancer risk among those examined. Detailed examinations of population-level risk factors can help identify and support prevention efforts to reduce the burden of thyroid cancer.

  19. Anthropometric Factors and Thyroid Cancer Risk by Histological Subtype: Pooled Analysis of 22 Prospective Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Marjorie L.; Franceschi, Silvia; Rinaldi, Sabina; Wolk, Alicja; Neta, Gila; Olov Adami, Hans; Anderson, Kristin; Andreotti, Gabriella; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Bernstein, Leslie; Buring, Julie E.; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; De Roo, Lisa A.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giles, Graham G.; Håkansson, Niclas; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Kirsh, Vicki A.; Linet, Martha S.; MacInnis, Robert J.; Orsini, Nicola; Park, Yikyung; Patel, Alpa V.; Purdue, Mark P.; Riboli, Elio; Robien, Kimberly; Rohan, Thomas; Sandler, Dale P.; Schairer, Catherine; Schneider, Arthur B.; Sesso, Howard D.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Singh, Pramil N.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Ward, Elizabeth; Weiderpass, Elisabete; White, Emily; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Hartge, Patricia; Berrington de González, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Greater height and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, particularly papillary carcinoma, the most common and least aggressive subtype. Few studies have evaluated these associations in relation to other, more aggressive histologic types or thyroid cancer-specific mortality. Methods: This large pooled analysis of 22 prospective studies (833,176 men and 1,260,871 women) investigated thyroid cancer incidence associated with greater height, BMI at baseline and young adulthood, and adulthood BMI gain (difference between young-adult and baseline BMI), overall and separately by sex and histological subtype using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. Associations with thyroid cancer mortality were investigated in a subset of cohorts (578,922 men and 774,373 women) that contributed cause of death information. Results: During follow-up, 2996 incident thyroid cancers and 104 thyroid cancer deaths were identified. All anthropometric factors were positively associated with thyroid cancer incidence: hazard ratios (HR) [confidence intervals (CIs)] for height (per 5 cm) = 1.07 [1.04–1.10], BMI (per 5 kg/m2) = 1.06 [1.02–1.10], waist circumference (per 5 cm) = 1.03 [1.01–1.05], young-adult BMI (per 5 kg/m2) = 1.13 [1.02–1.25], and adulthood BMI gain (per 5 kg/m2) = 1.07 [1.00–1.15]. Associations for baseline BMI and waist circumference were attenuated after mutual adjustment. Baseline BMI was more strongly associated with risk in men compared with women (p = 0.04). Positive associations were observed for papillary, follicular, and anaplastic, but not medullary, thyroid carcinomas. Similar, but stronger, associations were observed for thyroid cancer mortality. Conclusion: The results suggest that greater height and excess adiposity throughout adulthood are associated with higher incidence of most major types of thyroid cancer, including the least common but

  20. Evaluation of the Quality of Online Information for Patients with Rare Cancers: Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzel, Ulrike; Monga Sindeu, Tabea; Schroth, Sarah; Huebner, Jutta; Herth, Natalie

    2017-01-24

    The Internet offers an easy and quick access to a vast amount of patient information. However, several studies point to the poor quality of many websites and the resulting hazards of false information. The aim of this study was to assess quality of information on thyroid cancer. A patients' search for information about thyroid cancer on German websites was simulated using the search engine Google and the patient portal "Patienten-Information.de". The websites were assessed using a standardized instrument with formal and content aspects from the German Cancer Society. Supporting the results of prior studies that analysed patient information on the Internet, the data showed that the quality of patient information on thyroid cancer is highly heterogeneous depending on the website providers. The majority of website providers are represented by media and health providers other than health insurances, practices and professionals offering patient information of relatively poor quality. Moreover, most websites offer patient information of low-quality content. Only a few trustworthy, high-quality websites exist. Especially Google, a common search engine, focuses more on the dissemination of information than on quality aspects. In order to improve the patient information from the Internet, the visibility of high-quality websites must be improved. For that, education programs to improve patients' eHealth literacy are needed. A quick and easy evaluation tool for online information suited for patients should be implemented, and patients should be taught to integrate such a tool into their research process.

  1. Thyroid cancer after x-ray treatment of benign disorders of the cervical spine in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damber, Lena; Johansson, Lennart; Johansson, Robert; Larsson, Lars-Gunnar [Univ. Hospital, Umeaa (Sweden). Oncology Centre

    2002-02-01

    While there is very good epidemiological evidence for induction of thyroid cancer by radiation exposure in children, the risk for adults after exposure is still uncertain, especially when concerning relatively small radiation doses. A cohort of 27415 persons which in 1950 through 1964 had received x-ray treatment for various benign disorders in the locomotor system (such as painful arthrosis and spondylosis) was selected from three hospitals in Northern Sweden. A proportion of this cohort, consisting of 8144 persons (4075 men and 4069 women), had received treatment to the cervical spine and thereby received an estimated average dose in the thyroid gland of about 1 Gy. Standard incidence rates (SIR) were calculated by using the Swedish Cancer Register. In the cervical spine cohort, 22 thyroid cancers were found versus 13.77 expected (SIR 1.60; CI 1.00-2.42). The corresponding figures for women were 16 observed cases versus 9.60 expected cases (SIR 1.67; CI 0.75-2.71). Most thyroid cancers (15 out of 22) were diagnosed >15 years after the exposure. In the remaining part of the total cohort, i.e. those without cervical spine exposure, no increased risk of thyroid cancer was found (SIR 0.98; CI 0.64-1.38). The study strongly suggests that external radiation exposure of adults at relatively small doses increases the risk of thyroid cancer but also that this increase is very much lower than that reported after exposure in children.

  2. microRNA-141 inhibits thyroid cancer cell growth and metastasis by targeting insulin receptor substrate 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Su; Meng, Xianying; Xue, Shuai; Yan, Zewen; Ren, Peiyou; Liu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    microRNA-141 (miR-141), a member of the miR-200 family, and has been reported to involve in tumor initiation and development in many types of cancers. However, the function and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-141 in thyroid cancer remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify its expression, function, and molecular mechanism in thyroid cancer. In this study, we found that miR-141 expression levels were downregulated in human thyroid cancer specimens compared to the adjacent normal tissues, and its expression were strongly correlated with clinical stages and lymph node metastases. Function assays showed that overexpression of miR-141 inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis, and decreased migration, invasion in thyroid cancer cells, as well as tumor growth in nude mice. Moreover, insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), a known oncogene, was confirmed as a direct target of miR-141, and IRS2 expression levels were upregulated in thyroid cancer, and its expression were inversely correlated with miR-141 expression levels in human thyroid cancer specimens. Forced expression of IRS2 reversed the inhibition effect induced by miR-141 overexpression in thyroid cancer cells. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence that miR-141 suppressed thyroid cancer cell growth and metastasis through inhibition of IRS2. Thus, miR-141 might serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for thyroid cancer treatment.

  3. Expansion of microsatellite in the thyroid hormone receptor-alpha1 gene linked to increased receptor expression and less aggressive thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onda, Masamitsu; Li, Daisy; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the length of the THRA1 microsatellite, which resides in a noncoding portion of the thyroid hormone receptor-alpha1 gene, affects receptor expression and is linked to clinicopathological parameters in thyroid cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN......: In 30 cases of surgically resected sporadic thyroid cancer, the length of the THRA1 microsatellite was determined by DNA sequence analysis, and expression of thyroid hormone receptor-alpha1 was assessed immunohistochemically in thin sections cut from tumor blocks. The length of THRA1 and expression...... of thyroid hormone receptor-alpha1 were also assessed in seven cancer cell lines. Regression analysis was used to gauge the correlation between the size of THRA1 and receptor expression. Multivariate analysis was used to test for links to the clinical parameters of gender, age, histology, stage, nodal...

  4. Dental x-rays and the risk of thyroid cancer: A case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memon, Anjum (Div. of Primary Care and Public Health, Brighton and Sussex Medical School (United Kingdom)), E-mail: a.memon@bsms.ac.uk; Godward, Sara (Dept. of Public Health and Primary Care, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Williams, Dillwyn (Thyroid Carcinogenesis Research Group, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Siddique, Iqbal (Dept. of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait)); Al-Saleh, Khalid (Kuwait Cancer Control Centre, Ministry of Health (Kuwait))

    2010-05-15

    The thyroid gland is highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis and exposure to high-dose ionising radiation is the only established cause of thyroid cancer. Dental radiography, a common source of low-dose diagnostic radiation exposure in the general population, is often overlooked as a radiation hazard to the gland and may be associated with the risk of thyroid cancer. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has been reported in dentists, dental assistants, and x-ray workers; and exposure to dental x-rays has been associated with an increased risk of meningiomas and salivary tumours. Methods. To examine whether exposure to dental x-rays was associated with the risk of thyroid cancer, we conducted a population-based case-control interview study among 313 patients with thyroid cancer and a similar number of individually matched (year of birth +- three years, gender, nationality, district of residence) control subjects in Kuwait. Results. Conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for other upper-body x-rays, showed that exposure to dental x-rays was significantly associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.1) (p=0.001) with a dose-response pattern (p for trend <0.0001). The association did not vary appreciably by age, gender, nationality, level of education, or parity. Discussion. These findings, based on self-report by cases/controls, provide some support to the hypothesis that exposure to dental x-rays, particularly multiple exposures, may be associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer; and warrant further study in settings where historical dental x-ray records may be available.

  5. 分化型甲状腺癌的合理治疗%Reasonable treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连小兰

    2010-01-01

    @@ 分化型甲状腺癌(differentiated thyroid cancer,DTC)占甲状腺癌的绝大部分,主要包括乳头状甲状腺癌(papillary thyroid cancer,PTC)和滤泡状甲状腺癌(follicular thyroid cancer,FTC)2种类型.DTC的处理包括初始阶段治疗、随诊和复发治疗3个方面.

  6. Role of dietary iodine and cruciferous vegetables in thyroid cancer: a countrywide case-control study in New Caledonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, Thérèse; Baron-Dubourdieu, Dominique; Rougier, Yannick; Guénel, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Exceptionally high incidence rates of thyroid cancer have been reported in New Caledonia, particularly in Melanesian women. To clarify the reasons of this elevated incidence, we conducted a countrywide population-based case-control study in the multiethnic population of Caledonian women. The study included 293 cases of thyroid cancer and 354 population controls. Based on a food frequency questionnaire, we investigated the role in thyroid cancer of food items rich in io...

  7. Zn(II)-curc targets p53 in thyroid cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garufi, Alessia; D'Orazi, Valerio; Crispini, Alessandra; D'Orazi, Gabriella

    2015-10-01

    TP53 mutation is a common event in many cancers, including thyroid carcinoma. Defective p53 activity promotes cancer resistance to therapies and a more malignant phenotype, acquiring oncogenic functions. Rescuing the function of mutant p53 (mutp53) protein is an attractive anticancer therapeutic strategy. Zn(II)-curc is a novel small molecule that has been shown to target mutp53 protein in several cancer cells, but its effect in thyroid cancer cells remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether Zn(II)-curc could affect p53 in thyroid cancer cells with both p53 mutation (R273H) and wild-type p53. Zn(II)-curc induced mutp53H273 downregulation and reactivation of wild-type functions, such as binding to canonical target promoters and target gene transactivation. This latter effect was similar to that induced by PRIMA-1. In addition, Zn(II)-curc triggered p53 target gene expression in wild-type p53-carrying cells. In combination treatments, Zn(II)-curc enhanced the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic drugs, in both mutant and wild-type-carrying cancer cells. Taken together, our data indicate that Zn(II)-curc promotes the reactivation of p53 in thyroid cancer cells, providing in vitro evidence for a potential therapeutic approach in thyroid cancers.

  8. Restoration of Brain Acid Soluble Protein 1 Inhibits Proliferation and Migration of Thyroid Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Run-Sheng Guo; Yue Yu; Jun Chen; Yue-Yu Chen; Na Shen; Ming Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Brain acid soluble protein 1 (BASP1) is identified as a novel potential tumor suppressor in several cancers.However,its role in thyroid cancer has not been investigated yet.In the present study,the antitumor activities of BASP1 against the growth and migration of thyroid cancer cells were evaluated.Methods:BASP1 expression in thyroid cancer tissues and normal tissues were examined by immunohistochemical staining and the association between its expression and prognosis was analyzed,pcDNA-BASP 1 carrying full length ofBASP1 cDNA was constructed to restore the expression ofBASP 1 in thyroid cancer cell lines (BHT-101 and KMH-2).The cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo was evaluated by WST-1 assay and xenograft tumor models,respectively.Cell cycle distribution after transfection was analyzed using flow cytometry.Cell apoptosis after transfection was examined by annexin V/propidium iodide assay.The migration was examined using transwell assay.Results:BASP 1 expression was abundant in normal tissues while it is significantly decreased in cancer tissues (P =0.000).pcDNA-BASP1 restored the expression of BASP1 and significantly inhibited the growth of BHT-101 and KMH-2 cells as well as xenograft tumors in nude mice (P =0.000).pcDNA-BASP1 induced G1 arrest and apoptosis in BHT-101 and KMH-2 cells.In addition,pcDNA-BASP1 significantly inhibited the cell migration.Conclusions:Downregnlation of BASP1 expression may play a role in the tumorigenesis of thyroid cancer.Restoration of BASP1 expression exerted extensive antitumor activities against growth and migration of thyroid cancer cells,which suggested that BASP1 gene might act as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of thyroid cancer.

  9. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R.; Ulanovski, A.; Schotola, C.; Proehl, G. [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Kenigsberg, J.; Buglova, E.; Kruk, J. [Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Likhtarev, I.; Kovgan, L.; Vavilov, S.; Chepurniy, M. [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Inst., Kyiv (Ukraine); Tronko, M.; Bogdanova, T. [Institute of Endocrinolgoy and Metabolism of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Shinkarev, S.; Gavrilin, Y. [All-Russian Public Organization of Invalids ' Chernobylets' , Scientific Center ' FENIX' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Demidchik, Y. [Thyroid Cancer Center, Minsk (Belarus)

    2005-07-01

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  10. Circulating thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and hypothyroid status and the risk of prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Mondul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones may influence risk of cancer through their role in cell differentiation, growth, and metabolism. One study of circulating thyroid hormones supports this hypothesis with respect to prostate cancer. We undertook a prospective analysis of thyroid hormones and prostate cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study. METHODS: Within the ATBC Study, a randomized controlled trial of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplements and cancer incidence in male smokers, 402 prostate cancer cases were sampled. Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on age and date of blood collection. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of prostate cancer were estimated for quintiles of serum total and free thyroxine (T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyroid-binding globulin (TBG, and by categories of thyroid status. RESULTS: Men with serum higher TSH had a decreased risk of prostate cancer compared to men with lower TSH (Q5 vs. Q1-4: OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.51-0.97, p = 0.03. When the T4 and TSH measurements were combined to define men as hypothyroid, euthyroid or hyperthyroid, hypothyroid men had a lower risk of prostate cancer compared to euthyroid men (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.28-0.81, p = 0.006. We observed no association between hyperthyroid status and risk, although the number of hyperthyroid men with prostate cancer was small (n = 9. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study of smokers, men with elevated TSH and those classified as being in a hypothyroid state were at decreased risk of prostate cancer. Future studies should examine the association in other populations, particularly non-smokers and other racial/ethnic groups.

  11. Reduced expression of N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 in human thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jianjun

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NDRG2 (N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 was initially cloned in our laboratory. Previous results have shown that NDRG2 expressed differentially in normal and cancer tissues. Specifically, NDRG2 mRNA was down-regulated or undetectable in several human cancers, and over-expression of NDRG2 inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells. NDRG2 also exerts important functions in cell differentiation and tumor suppression. However, it remains unclear whether NDRG2 participates in carcinogenesis of the thyroid. Methods In this study, we investigated the expression profile of human NDRG2 in thyroid adenomas and carcinomas, by examining tissues from individuals with thyroid adenomas (n = 40 and carcinomas (n = 35, along with corresponding normal tissues. Immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR and western blot methods were utilized to determine both the protein and mRNA expression status of Ndrg2 and c-Myc. Results The immunostaining analysis revealed a decrease of Ndrg2 expression in thyroid carcinomas. When comparing adenomas or carcinomas with adjacent normal tissue from the same individual, the mRNA expression level of NDRG2 was significantly decreased in thyroid carcinoma tissues, while there was little difference in adenoma tissues. This differential expression was confirmed at the protein level by western blotting. However, there were no significant correlations of NDRG2 expression with gender, age, different histotypes of thyroid cancers or distant metastases. Conclusion Our data indicates that NDRG2 may participate in thyroid carcinogenesis. This finding provides novel insight into the important role of NDRG2 in the development of thyroid carcinomas. Future studies are needed to address whether the down-regulation of NDRG2 is a cause or a consequence of the progression from a normal thyroid to a carcinoma.

  12. Selumetinib in Treating Patients With Papillary Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-02

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  13. Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Thyroid Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mi Ah; Kim, Jin Hwa

    2017-01-01

    An inverse association has been reported between coffee consumption and the risk of several cancers. However, the association between coffee and thyroid cancer is controversial. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and the risk of thyroid cancer through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Published studies were examined from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central, and the reference lists of the retrieved articles. The summary odds ratio (OR) for the association between coffee consumption was categorized as highest versus lowest consumption, and thyroid cancer risk was calculated using a fixed effects model. Subgroup analyses by study design, geographic location, source of controls, and adjusted variables were performed. A total of 1039 thyroid cancer cases and 220,816 controls were identified from five case-control studies and two cohort studies. The summary OR for the association between coffee consumption and thyroid cancer risk was 0.88 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71–1.07). There was no significant heterogeneity among the study results (I² = 0%, p = 0.79). However, the beneficial effect of coffee consumption on thyroid cancer was found only in hospital-based case-control studies (OR= 0.59, 95% CI= 0.37–0.93). There was no significant association between coffee consumption and thyroid cancer risk according to our meta-analysis results. These findings should be interpreted with caution because of potential biases and confounding variables. Further prospective studies with a larger number of cases are encouraged to confirm these results. PMID:28134794

  14. Serum thyroglobulin in the monitoring of differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Carol; Tennant, Sarah; Perros, Petros

    2016-01-01

    Patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) usually have an excellent prognosis. Following surgical and radioiodine treatment to remove the cancer cells and suppressive doses of levothyroxine, long-term follow-up, including measurement of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) using a sensitive assay is required to detect recurrence. To interpret Tg results clinicians need to know the corresponding serum TSH concentration, have an appreciation of the clearance of Tg from patient serum following various interventions and the limitations of its measurement. The limitations of Tg immunoassay are well described and include potential interference from TgAb. For the majority of patients with DTC who are TgAb-negative, Tg measurement remains the most useful method of follow-up. For the TgAb-positive minority, interference and the possibility of producing erroneous results is a concern. Some assays are less badly affected than others and laboratories are advised to choose their assays carefully. Laboratories have sought to identify interferences using measurement of TgAb, lack of concordance between RIAs and immunometric assays and recovery of added Tg. More recently LC-MSMS assays to quantify Tg have been developed. They are not currently as sensitive as Tg immunoassays and it is likely these assays will, like immunoassays, be limited by Tg heterogeneity and standardization issues, although initial evaluations indicate that they may have value in the clinical setting as a second line test in antibody-positive DTC patients in whom Tg is unmeasurable by immunoassay.

  15. Breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2016-12-20

    The purpose of this study was to examine overdiagnosis and overtreatment related to cancer screening and to review relevant reports and studies. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and gray literature was conducted for relevant studies published between January 2000 and December 2015 reporting breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis. This study revealed no dichotomy on where screening would lower risk or cause overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Many screening tests did both, that is, at population level, there were both benefit (decreased disease-specific mortality) and harm (overdiagnosis and overtreatment). Therefore, we need to consider a balanced argument with citations for the potential benefits of screening along with the harms associated with screening. Although the benefits and harms can only be tested through randomized trials, important data from cohort studies, diagnostic accuracy studies, and modeling work can help define the extent of benefits and harms in the population. The health care cycle that prompt patients to undergo periodic screening tests is self-reinforcing. In most developed countries, screening test recommendations encourage periodic testing. Therefore, patients are continuing their screening. It is necessary for patients to become wise consumers of screening tests and make decisions with their physicians regarding further testing and treatments.

  16. Pulmonary fibrosis in youth treated with radioiodine for juvenile thyroid cancer and lung metastases after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebestreit, Helge; Burkhardt, Antje [University Children' s Hospital, Wuerzburg (Germany); Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Drozd, Valentina [International Belarussian-German Foundation, Minsk (Belarus); Demidchik, Yuri [Thyroid Cancer Centre, Minsk (Belarus); Trusen, Andreas [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Johanniter-Krankenhaus, Genthin-Stendal gGmbH, Stendal (Germany); Beer, Meinrad [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    The objective of this project was to systematically determine the prevalence and consequences of pulmonary fibrosis in youth with thyroid carcinoma and lung metastases from Belarus who were treated with radioiodine ({sup 131}I). A total of 69 patients treated for juvenile thyroid carcinoma and lung metastasis with {sup 131}I were assessed. A group of 29 patients without lung metastases and prior {sup 131}I treatment served as controls. The assessments included a CT scan of the lungs, extensive pulmonary function testing and an incremental cycle test to volitional fatigue with measurements of oxygen uptake (V. O{sub 2}), oxygen saturation and alveolar-arterial difference in oxygen partial pressure ({delta}aaO{sub 2}). Five patients with lung metastases showed advanced pulmonary fibrosis on CT scans and also had poorer lung functions compared with the 62 patients with none or minor signs of fibrosis and the 29 controls. Furthermore, these five patients showed lower peak V.O{sub 2}, lower oxygen saturation at peak exercise and higher exercise {delta}aaO{sub 2}. They were younger at the time of cancer diagnosis and had received chemotherapy more frequently than youth with pulmonary metastases who did not develop fibrosis. One of the five patients subsequently died from pulmonary fibrosis. Following the Chernobyl catastrophe, about 7% of children treated with radioiodine for thyroid carcinoma and lung metastases displayed pulmonary fibrosis which was associated with functional impairments. Based on the characteristics of affected individuals, the number of radioiodine courses may have to be limited, especially in young children, and chemotherapy should be avoided. (orig.)

  17. Correlation of thyroid cancer Doppler hemodynamic indexes with tumor proliferation and angiogenesis indexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei; Jin Zhang; Jian-Jun Zhang; Hui Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the correlation of thyroid cancer Doppler hemodynamic indexes with tumor proliferation and angiogenesis indexes.Methods:A total of 108 cases of thyroid cancer were diagnosed by B-ultrasound and pathology and then included in the observation group of the research, 107 cases of non-cancer patients who received excision of thyroid adenoma in our hospital during the same period were selected as healthy control group, thyroid hemodynamic indexes, tumor proliferation-related indexes and serum angiogenesis-related indexes of two groups were detected, and the correlation of thyroid cancer hemodynamic indexes with tumor proliferation and angiogenesis indexes was further analyzed.Results:S and D values of observation group were higher than those of control group (P0.05); p53, PCNA and Ki-67 expression levels in thyroid tumor of observation group were higher than those of control group while TIPE2 protein expression level was lower than that of control group (P<0.05); serum VEGF, Ang-2, HIF-1α, IGF-Ⅱ and endostatin values of observation group were higher than those of control group while MBP value was lower than that of control group (P<0.05); thyroid artery peak systolic velocity (S) and end diastolic velocity (D) were directly proportional to p53, PCNA, Ki-67, VEGF, Ang-2, HIF-1α, IGF-Ⅱ and endostatin values, and inversely proportional to TIPE2 and MBP values (P<0.05).Conclusions:Artery blood flow velocity in patients with thyroid cancer is directly correlated with tumor proliferation and angiogenesis, and can be used as the reliable index to judge tumor condition and curative effect.

  18. Imaging and Clinical Features of Thyroid Cancer in Children and Adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Young; Hong, HyunSook; Lee, Eun Hye; Yi, Beom Ha; Lee, Hae Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheonl (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Hwa [Dept. of Labortory Medicine and Genetics, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheonl (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Eun Suk [Dept. of Pathology, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheonl (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    To evaluate clinical and imaging features of pediatric thyroid cancer, including BRAF'V{sup 600E} mutation status in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We evaluated clinical findings including BRAF''6{sup 00E} status, ultrasound (US), and CT features of 13 pediatric patients with thyroid cancer. US findings were retrospectively analyzed for location, presence of a nodule, echotexture, echogenicity, calcifications, margin, shape, intranodular vascularity and abnormal lymph nodes. CT characteristics of the lesions, including attenuation, calcification, and measured degree of enhancement, were assessed. The patients included three boys and ten girls with a mean age of 15.5 years (range 6-18 years). No patient was exposed to radiation. Palpable neck mass was the most common presentation. Eleven of 13 patients (84.6%) were diagnosed with PTC, and two (15.4%) had follicular thyroid cancer (FTC). Nine of 13 (69.2%) had high T-staging. BRAF{sup V600E} mutations were detected in 30.0% of PTC patients. A diffusely enlarged thyroid with calcifications (n = 2) or nodules (n = 7) was detected on US. All PTC nodules showed malignant US findings and one FTC displayed on indeterminate nodule. Nodules generally showed low attenuation on enhanced CT (n = 11/12). US demonstrated enlarged glands with calcifications or nodules. Diffusely enlarged thyroids with microcalcifications should be evaluated using fine-needle aspiration. A low attenuation nodule was a common finding on enhanced CT.

  19. Thyroid cancer in Egypt: histopathological criteria, correlation with survival and oestrogen receptor protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rehab Allah; Aboelnaga, Engy M

    2015-07-01

    Thyroid cancer represents approximately 1% of new cancer and oestrogen may play a role in the pathogenesis of thyroid neoplasm. We aimed to study the clinicopathological criteria and ER expression of thyroid cancer in Mansoura University (Egypt), and to correlate the survival to these clinicopathological data and ER expression. This retrospective study reviewed 644 patients with histologically proven thyroid carcinoma during the period from 2003 to 2011. 152 cases during the period between 2008 and 2011 were retrieved from the archive and examined by immunohistochemistry for oestrogen receptor-α (ER) expression. ER-α expression is significantly associated with the female sex, lymph node metastasis, TNM stage, extrathyroid extension, multifocality disease and recurrence and in the whole series (p gender of the patient. Tumour type, extrathyroid extension and ER expression were the independent prognostic factors of DFS, while in PTC, only ER expression was the independent one. The histological type was the only independent prognostic factor for OAS in the series were studied for ER expression, while extrathyroid extension was the only one that affected OAS of PTC. There was significant positive correlation with lymph node metastasis and ER expression in whole patient and PTC cases. No difference in survival between the low and high ranges of positive oestrogen expression. The prognosis of thyroid carcinoma in Egypt is similar to that occurs worldwide. ER-α expression was a significant prognostic marker for DFS in thyroid cancer and can be used as a predictive factor of lymph node metastasis.

  20. Incidence and survival differences of differentiated thyroid cancer among younger women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boltz MM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Melissa M Boltz,1 Laura M Enomoto,1,2 Rollyn M Ornstein,3 Brian D Saunders,1,4 Christopher S Hollenbeak1,2,51Department of Surgery, 2Division of Outcomes Research and Quality, The Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, 3Department of Pediatrics, Division of Adolescent Medicine and Eating Disorders, The Pennsylvania State University, Hershey Children’s Hospital, 4Division of General Surgery Specialties and Surgical Oncology, 5Department of Public Health Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USAAbstract: Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, with an estimated 60,220 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2013. For reasons that are unclear, differentiated thyroid cancer is three times more common in females than in males. However, among adolescent and young adult females between ages 15–39 years, differentiated thyroid cancer remains under-recognized. The disparity in cancer incidence and outcomes in this population may be secondary to the tumor's biology, and risk factors unique to women. This review summarizes the incidence and survival rates of thyroid cancer in women younger than 45 years of age, as well as the pathophysiology, etiology, risk factors, prognosis, and current and emerging treatment options for this patient population.Keywords: differentiated thyroid cancer, young adult women, adolescents, incidence, risk factors, treatment

  1. Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation induced Follows treatment with radioactive iodine for hyperthyroidism or external beam radiation therapy for certain cancers. Occasionally thyrotoxicosis, more frequently hypothyroidism. ...

  2. Non-thyroid cancer in Northern Ukraine in the post-Chernobyl period: Short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, M; Ostroumova, E; Brenner, A; Federenko, Z; Gorokh, Y; Zvinchuk, O; Shpak, V; Tereschenko, V; Tronko, M; Mabuchi, K

    2015-06-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in Ukraine in 1986 led to widespread radioactive releases into the environment - primarily of radioiodines and cesium - heavily affecting the northern portions of the country, with settlement-averaged thyroid doses estimated to range from 10 mGy to more than 10 Gy. The increased risk of thyroid cancer among exposed children and adolescents is well established but the impact of radioactive contamination on the risk of other types of cancer is much less certain. To provide data on a public health issue of major importance, we have analyzed the incidence of non-thyroid cancers during the post-Chernobyl period in a well-defined cohort of 13,203 individuals who were cancers identified through linkage with the National Cancer Registry of Ukraine for the period 1998 through 2009. We compared the observed and expected number of cases in three cancer groupings: all solid cancers excluding thyroid, leukemia, and lymphoma. Our analyses found no evidence of a statistically significant elevation in cancer risks in this cohort exposed at radiosensitive ages, although the cancer trends, particularly for leukemia (SIR=1.92, 95% confidence interval: 0.69; 4.13), should continue to be monitored.

  3. Methylation of DACT2 promotes papillary thyroid cancer metastasis by activating Wnt signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyan Zhao

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignant disease and the incidence is increasing. DACT2 was found frequently methylated in human lung cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. To explore the epigenetic change and the role of DACT2 in thyroid cancer, 7 thyroid cancer cell lines, 10 cases of non-cancerous thyroid tissue samples and 99 cases of primary thyroid cancer samples were involved in this study. DACT2 was expressed and unmethylated in K1, SW579, FTC-133, TT, W3 and 8505C cell lines. Loss of expression and complete methylation was found in TPC-1 cells. Restoration of DACT2 expression was induced by 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine treatment. It demonstrates that the expression of DACT2 was regulated by promoter region methylation. In human primary papillary thyroid cancer, 64.6% (64/99 was methylated and methylation of DACT2 was related to lymph node metastasis (p<0.01. Re-expression of DACT2 suppresses cell proliferation, invasion and migration in TPC-1 cells. The activity of TCF/LEF was inhibited by DACT2 in wild-type or mutant β-catenin cells. The activity of TCF/LEF was increased by co-transfecting DACT2 and Dvl2 in wild-type or mutant β-catenin cells. Overexpression of wild-type β-catenin promotes cell migration and invasion in DACT2 stably expressed cells. The expression of β-catenin, c-myc, cyclinD1 and MMP-9 were decreased and the level of phosphorylated β-catenin (p-β-catenin was increased after restoration of DACT2 expression in TPC-1 cells. The expression of β-catenin, c-myc, cyclinD1 and MMP-9 were increased and the level of p-β-catenin was reduced after knockdown of DACT2 in W3 and SW579 cells. These results suggest that DACT2 suppresses human papillary thyroid cancer growth and metastasis by inhibiting Wnt signaling. In conclusion, DACT2 is frequently methylated in papillary thyroid cancer. DACT2 expression was regulated by promoter region methylation. DACT2 suppresses papillary thyroid cancer proliferation and metastasis

  4. The value of ultrasound in the follow-up of thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedbæk, Finn Noe; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    The value of ultrasound in the follow-up of thyroid cancer The commonly used tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system is designed to predict death and not recurrence. Based on this, patients with thyroid cancer are grouped into risk categories at the time of initial treatment. However, recent...... guidelines proposed a novel staging system focusing on microscopic invasion into the perithyroidal tissues, neck lymph node involvement and 131I uptake outside the thyroid bed following treatment. This risk re-assessment improves the prediction of recurrent/persistent disease. The cornerstone in the follow......-up is measurement of plasma-thyroglobulin concentration and ultrasound of the neck focusing on the thyroid bed and classification of lymph nodes according to their location and high risk signs....

  5. Axillary node metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma with hürthle and signet ring cell differentiation. A case of disseminated thyroid cancer with peculiar histologic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiofalo Maria

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiated thyroid cancer is usually associated with an excellent prognosis and indolent course. Distant metastases are rare events at the onset of thyroid cancer. Among these presentations, metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes is even more unusual: only few cases were previously reported in the literature; there has been no report of axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. Axillary lymph node metastasis generally arises in the context of disseminated disease and carries an ominous prognosis. Case presentation Here we present a case of axillary lymph node metastasis in the context of disseminated differentiated thyroid cancer. The patient underwent near total thyroidectomy and neck and axillary lymph node dissection. A histopathological diagnosis of poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma with "signet ring cells" and Hürthle cell features was established. The patient received radioactive iodine therapy and TSH suppression therapy. Subsequently his serum thyroglobulin level decreased to 44.000 ng/ml from over 100.000 ng/ml. Discussion and Conclusion Currently there are only few reported cases of axillary node metastases from thyroid cancer, and to our knowledge, this is the first report on axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. "Signet ring cell" is a morphologic feature shared by both benign and, more rarely, malignant follicular thyroid neoplasm, and it generally correlates with an arrest in folliculogenesis. Our case is one of the rare "signet ring cells" carcinomas so far described.

  6. False positive diagnosis on (131)iodine whole-body scintigraphy of differentiated thyroid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triggiani, Vincenzo; Giagulli, Vito Angelo; Iovino, Michele; De Pergola, Giovanni; Licchelli, Brunella; Varraso, Antonio; Dicembrino, Franca; Valle, Guido; Guastamacchia, Edoardo

    2016-09-01

    (131)Iodine is used both to ablate any residual thyroid tissue or metastatic disease and to obtain whole-body diagnostic images after total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Even though whole-body scan is highly accurate in showing thyroid residues as well as metastases of DTC, false positive results can be found, possibly leading to diagnostic errors and unnecessary treatments. This paper reviews the physiological and pathological processes involved as well as the strategy to recognize and rule out false positive radioiodine images.

  7. Radiologic and pathologic findings of a follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer with extensive stromal fat: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jn Woo; Kim, Tae Hyung; Roh, Hong Gee; Moon, Won Jin; Lee, Sang Hwa; Hwang, Tae Sook; Park, Kyoung Sik [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Thyroid cancer may have small adipose structures detected by microscopy. However, there are no reports of thyroid cancer with gross fat evaluated by radiological methods. We reported a case of a 58-year-old woman with a fat containing thyroid mass. The mass was hyperechoic and ovoid in shape with a smooth margin on ultrasonography. On computed tomography, the mass had markedly low attenuation suggestive of fat, and fine reticular and thick septa-like structures. The patient underwent a right lobectomy. The mass was finally diagnosed as a follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer with massive stromal fat.

  8. The impact of thyroid cancer and post-surgical radioactive iodine treatment on the lives of thyroid cancer survivors: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Sawka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adjuvant treatment with radioactive iodine (RAI is often considered in the treatment of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC. We explored the recollections of thyroid cancer survivors on the diagnosis of WDTC, adjuvant radioactive iodine (RAI treatment, and decision-making related to RAI treatment. Participants provided recommendations for healthcare providers on counseling future patients on adjuvant RAI treatment. METHODS: We conducted three focus group sessions, including WDTC survivors recruited from two Canadian academic hospitals. Participants had a prior history of WDTC that was completely resected at primary surgery and had been offered adjuvant RAI treatment. Open-ended questions were used to generate discussion in the groups. Saturation of major themes was achieved among the groups. FINDINGS: There were 16 participants in the study, twelve of whom were women (75%. All but one participant had received RAI treatment (94%. Participants reported that a thyroid cancer diagnosis was life-changing, resulting in feelings of fear and uncertainty. Some participants felt dismissed as not having a serious disease. Some participants reported receiving conflicting messages from healthcare providers on the appropriateness of adjuvant RAI treatment or insufficient information. If RAI-related side effects occurred, their presence was not legitimized by some healthcare providers. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer significantly impacts the lives of survivors. Fear and uncertainty related to a cancer diagnosis, feelings of the diagnosis being dismissed as not serious, conflicting messages about adjuvant RAI treatment, and treatment-related side effects, have been raised as important concerns by thyroid cancer survivors.

  9. Thyroid ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Vikas Chaudhary; Shahina Bano

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid ultrasonography has established itself as a popular and useful tool in the evaluation and management of thyroid disorders. Advanced ultrasound techniques in thyroid imaging have not only fascinated the radiologists but also attracted the surgeons and endocrinologists who are using these techniques in their daily clinical and operative practice. This review provides an overview of indications for ultrasound in various thyroid diseases, describes characteristic ultrasound findings in th...

  10. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, A.; Salomaa, S. [eds.] [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.; Tekkel, M. [eds.] [Inst. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Tallinn (Estonia); Hakulinen, T. [ed.] [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Boice, J.D. Jr. [ed.] [Int. Epidemiology Inst., MD (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  11. Thyroid cancer causing obstruction of the great veins in the neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Masud

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims To report our experience and review the literature of thyroid cancer obstructing the great veins in the neck, highlighting clinical aspects and response to treatment. Methods Clinical data were collected from the thyroid cancer register and from follow-up clinic visits of patients referred to the Thyroid Unit at the Royal Marsden Hospital. A Medline literature search was conducted between 1980 and 2007. Results Of 1448 patients with thyroid cancer on our cancer register and treated in our unit over the last 60 years, we identified five patients, four women and one man, aged 43 – 81 years with a median follow up of 28 (24–78 months in whom tumour had occluded the great veins in the neck. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy and all subsequently received ablative 131I with the exception of patient 3 whose post-operative isotope scan shown no significant 131I uptake. External beam radiotherapy to the neck and upper mediastinum was used for residual disease control in the 5 patients. The median survival was 28 months and the disease-free survival was 24 months. One patient remains asymptomatic but with disease 53 months after initial presentation. Survival in this small series is significantly better than that previously reported for this condition. Conclusion A multimodality therapeutic approach comprising surgery, radioiodine and external beam radiotherapy may give the best results for patients in whom thyroid cancer is occluding the great veins.

  12. Cribiform variant of papillary thyroid cancer and familial adenomatous polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Perea del Pozo

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The diagnosis of CMV of PTC is very strongly related to the FAP syndrome and must be suspected when a thyroid node appears in FAP patients. Likewise, any patient without known FAP who presents this histology in a surgically biopsied or resected thyroid node should undergo total colonoscopy for screening of colonic polyposis and genetic study of the APC gene sequence.

  13. Trametinib in Increasing Tumoral Iodine Incorporation in Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-31

    BRAF Gene Mutation; Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  14. Risk of thyroid nodular disease and thyroid cancer in patients with acromegaly--meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosma Wolinski

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acromegaly is a quite rare chronic disease caused by the increased secretion of growth hormone (GH and subsequently insulin - like growth factor 1. Although cardiovascular diseases remains the most common cause of mortality among acromegalic patients, increased prevalence of malignant and benign neoplasms remains a matter of debate. The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of thyroid nodular disease (TND and thyroid cancer in patients with acromegaly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Cinahl, Academic Search Complete, Web of Knowledge, PubMed Central, PubMed Central Canada and Clinical Key databases were searched to identify studies containing. Random-effects model was used to calculate pooled odds ratios and risk ratios of TND in acromegaly. Studies which not included control groups were systematically reviewed. RESULTS: TND was more frequent in acromegaly than in control groups (OR = 6.9, RR = 2.1. The pooled prevalence of TND was 59.2%. Also thyroid cancer (TC proved to be more common in acromegalic patients (OR = 7.5, RR = 7.2, prevalence was 4.3%. The pooled rate of malignancy (calculated per patient was equal to 8.7%. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that both TND and TC occur significantly more often in acromegalic patients than in general population. These results indicate that periodic thyroid ultrasound examination and careful evaluation of eventual lesions should be an important part of follow-up of patients with acromegaly.

  15. Childhood thyroid cancers and radioactive iodine therapy: necessity of precautious radiation health risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Atsushi; Reiners, Christoph; Drozd, Valentina; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2007-12-01

    One of the lessons from Chernobyl's legacy on health impact beyond 20 years is not only how to detect and treat the patients with radiation-associated thyroid cancers but how to follow up those who received radioactive iodine treatment repetitively after surgery in order to monitor any recurrence/worsening and also how to predict the risk of secondary primary cancers for their lifetime period. To evaluate the possibility of second primary tumors after radioactive iodine treatment, we reviewed the reports on risks from both external and internal radiation exposure, especially at high doses during childhood through an internet service of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, PubMed by the end of June, 2007, together with our own experience of Chernobyl childhood thyroid cancers. Children who were internally exposed after Chernobyl accident have a long-term risk of well differentiated thyroid cancers. Once they have disease, ironically radioactive iodine ablation is one of the useful therapies after surgical treatment. Elevated risks of solid cancers and leukemia have been found in radioiodine-treated patients, however, so far precious few reports from Chernobyl thyroid cancer patient were published. To reduce the adverse effects of radioactive iodine therapy on non-target tissues, recombinant human TSH has been applied and proved effective. Period of latency of second primary cancers may be very long. Therefore patients treated with high activities of radioactive iodine, especially children cases, should be carefully followed up during their whole lifespan.

  16. Genetically Engineered Immunotherapy for Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this trial, doctors will collect T lymphocytes from patients with advanced mesothelin-expressing cancer and genetically engineer them to recognize mesothelin. The gene-engineered cells will be multiplied and infused into the patient to fight the cancer

  17. Fibronectin 1 promotes migration and invasion of papillary thyroid cancer and predicts papillary thyroid cancer lymph node metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shujun; Wang, Chuandong; Postma, Emily Louise; Yang, Yanhua; Ni, Xiaofeng; Zhan, Weiwei

    2017-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is common in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), and is an indicator of recurrence. The detailed molecular mechanism of LNM in PTC has not been well described. This study aimed to investigate the role of fibronectin 1 in PTC LNM and its clinical relevance. The expression of fibronectin 1 was confirmed in PTC tissues and cell lines. A correlation analysis was conducted and a receiver-operating characteristic curve obtained. The effect of fibronectin 1 on the proliferation of PTC cell lines was performed using a colony-formation assay and Cell Counting Kit 8. Cell-cycle analysis was performed with a flow-cytometry assay. Migration and invasion ability were evaluated by transwell and wound-healing assays. Fibronectin 1 was overexpressed in metastasized PTC. Overexpressed fibronectin 1 was positively correlated with PTC LNM. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed that the diagnostic accuracy of fibronectin 1 was 81.1%, with sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 82%. Overexpression of fibronectin 1 promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion in PTC. Fibronectin 1 plays a critical role in PTC metastasis by modulating the proliferation, migration, and invasion ability of PTC cells, and it is a valuable diagnostic biomarker for predicting PTC LNM. PMID:28367057

  18. Mechanisms of apoptosis in irradiated and sunitinib-treated follicular thyroid cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Jirka; Warnke, Elisabeth; Wehland, Markus; Pietsch, Jessica; Pohl, Fabian; Wise, Petra; Magnusson, Nils E; Eilles, Christoph; Grimm, Daniela

    2014-03-01

    The multikinase inhibitor sunitinib (S) seems to have promising potential in the treatment of thyroid cancer. We focused on the impact of S and/or irradiation (R) on mechanisms of apoptosis in follicular thyroid cancer cells. The effects of R, S and their combination were evaluated 2 and 4 days after treatment, using the human thyroid cancer cell line CGTH W-1. The transcription of genes involved in the regulation of apoptosis was investigated using quantitative real-time PCR. Western blot analyses of caspases and survivin were also performed. S elevated BAX (day 4), CASP9, CASP3, BIRC5 (day 4) and PRKACA (day 4) gene expression, whereas the mRNAs of BCL2, CASP8, PRKCA, ERK1, and ERK2 were not significantly changed. S, R and R+S clearly induced caspase-9 protein and elevated caspase-3 activity. Survivin was down-regulated at day 4 in control cells and the expression was blunted by S treatment. R+S induced survivin expression at day 2 followed by a reduction at day 4 of treatment. Sunitinib and the combined application with radiation induced apoptosis in follicular thyroid cancer cells via the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In addition, sunitinib might induce apoptosis via decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein survivin. These findings suggest the potential use of sunitinib for the treatment of poorly differentiated follicular thyroid carcinomas.

  19. A Review on the Association between Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists and Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yih Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a concern on the risk of thyroid cancer associated with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 analogs including liraglutide and exenatide. In this article, we review related experimental studies, clinical trials and observational human studies currently available. In rodents, liraglutide activated the GLP-1 receptors on C-cells, causing an increased incidence of C-cell neoplasia. Animal experiments with monkeys demonstrated no increase in calcitonin release and no C-cell proliferation after long-term liraglutide administration. Longitudinal 2-year data from clinical trials do not support any significant risk for the activation or growth of C-cell cancer in humans in response to liraglutide. However, an analysis of the FDA adverse event reporting system database suggested an increased risk for thyroid cancer associated with exenatide after its marketing. Noticeably, a recent study discovered that GLP-1 receptor could also be expressed in human papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC, but the impact of GLP-1 analogs on PTC is not known. Therefore, GLP-1 analogs might increase the risk of thyroid C-cell pathology in rodents, but its risk in humans awaits confirmation. Since GLP-1 receptor is also expressed in PTC besides C-cells, it is important to investigate the actions of GLP-1 on different subtypes of thyroid cancer in the future.

  20. HABP2 G534E Mutation in Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Xing, Mingzhao

    2016-06-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is a common endocrine malignancy, accounting for nearly 90% of all thyroid cancers. About 5% of PTC is hereditary familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC). No general susceptibility gene is known for FNMTC. An oncogenic HABP2 G534E mutation has been recently reported in one FNMTC kindred, suggesting that HABP2 is a susceptibility gene for FNMTC. Because of the limited kindred studied, how commonly this gene is responsible-and hence how important clinically it is-for FNMTC remains to be answered. By investigating a large number of FNMTC kindreds in the present study, we identified HABP2 G534E in several independent kindreds of FNMTC. The overall prevalence of HABP2 G534E was six per 43 (14.0%) PTC patients from the 29 kindreds and four per 29 (13.8%) kindreds. None of the subjects with benign thyroid neoplasm or the normal subjects from these kindreds had this mutation. These results are consistent with HABP2 G534E being a susceptibility gene in a subgroup of FNMTC, providing important diagnostic implications for this hereditary thyroid cancer.

  1. Implications of Thyroglobulin Antibody Positivity in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verburg, Frederik A; Luster, Markus; Cupini, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Even though the presence of antithyroglobulin antibodies (TgAbs) represents a significant problem in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), the current guidelines on the management of DTC that have been published in recent years contain no text concerning...... the methods to be used for detecting such antibody-related interference in thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement or how to manage TgAb-positive patients in whom Tg cannot be used reliably as a tumor marker. Aim: An international group of experts from the European Thyroid Association Cancer Research Network who...... insufficient evidence was available, a thorough discussion by a group of physician-scientists, all of whom have a distinguished track record in thyroid cancer care, was held to arrive at a consensus expert opinion. The questions and answers discussed were then summarized into an algorithm for the management...

  2. Isolated Liver Metastasis in Hürthle Cell Thyroid Cancer Treated with Microwave Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Segkos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hürthle cell thyroid cancer (HCTC is a less common form of differentiated thyroid cancer. It rarely metastasizes to the liver, and when it does, the metastasis is almost never isolated. Here we report a 62-year-old male with widely invasive Hürthle cell thyroid cancer, who underwent total thyroidectomy and received adjuvant treatment with I-131 with posttreatment scan showing no evidence of metastatic disease. His thyroglobulin however continued to rise after that and eventually an isolated liver metastasis was identified. He underwent laparoscopic microwave ablation of the liver metastasis, with dramatic decline in thyroglobulin and no structural disease identified to date. This case highlights the rare occurrence of isolated liver metastasis from HCTC and also illustrates the utility of thermoablation as an alternative to surgical resection in the treatment of small isolated liver metastases from HCTC.

  3. Isolated Liver Metastasis in Hürthle Cell Thyroid Cancer Treated with Microwave Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segkos, Konstantinos; Schmidt, Carl; Nabhan, Fadi

    2017-01-01

    Hürthle cell thyroid cancer (HCTC) is a less common form of differentiated thyroid cancer. It rarely metastasizes to the liver, and when it does, the metastasis is almost never isolated. Here we report a 62-year-old male with widely invasive Hürthle cell thyroid cancer, who underwent total thyroidectomy and received adjuvant treatment with I-131 with posttreatment scan showing no evidence of metastatic disease. His thyroglobulin however continued to rise after that and eventually an isolated liver metastasis was identified. He underwent laparoscopic microwave ablation of the liver metastasis, with dramatic decline in thyroglobulin and no structural disease identified to date. This case highlights the rare occurrence of isolated liver metastasis from HCTC and also illustrates the utility of thermoablation as an alternative to surgical resection in the treatment of small isolated liver metastases from HCTC.

  4. Thyroid Cancer in Ukrainian Population Groups Affected by the Chernobyl Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Prysyazhnyuk

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The study goal was to investigate thyroid cancer morbidity in population groups affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe. The study period comprised 1994-2006 for clean-up workers and 1990-2006 for Chernobyl evacuees and residents of contaminated territories. A significant increase of thyroid cancer incidence was registered in all observed population groups. The most significant excess over the national level was identified in clean-up workers. This amounted to a factor of 5.9, while it was 5.5 for the evacuees and 1.7 for the residents. The highest thyroid cancer risk was observed in persons exposed to radioiodine in childhood and adolescence.

  5. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography for Primary Thyroid Cancer: Correlation with the Clinical, Pathologic and Sonographic Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Eun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    We wanted to investigate the incidence and the clinicopathologic and sonographic characteristics of thyroid cancers that exhibit positive PET scans. From January 2007 to February 2008, 156 patients with thyroid cancer underwent both sonography and FDG-PET for the purpose of staging the cancer. We conducted a retrospective review of their clinical, radiologic and pathologic records and we evaluated the incidence of PET-positive thyroid cancer, as well as the associated clinicopathologic aggressiveness and the sonographic features. The incidence of PET-positive thyroid carcinoma was 78.2% (122/156). On univariate analysis, PET-positive thyroid cancer was significantly associated with tumor size, extracapsular invasion and central lymph node metastasis, but there was no association between the sonographic features of the thyroid cancer or the sonographic features of the 2 groups of tumor (1. probably benign and 2. suspicious for malignancy) and the FDG uptake. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between PET positivity and both extrathyroidal extension and a higher cancer stage (III/IV) (p < 0.05). The incidence of PET positive thyroid carcinoma is high (78.2%) and PET positivity is significantly associated with tumor size, extracapsular extension and a higher stage. However, there is no significant association between PET positivity and the sonographic features of thyroid carcinoma

  6. Hypothyroidism after Radiotherapy of Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Eun; Eun; Kim, Jae Chul; Park, In Kyu [Kyungpook National Yonsei University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Yea, Ji Woon [Dongguk University Gyeongju Hospital, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    The aim of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the incidence of hypothyroidism in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients who received radiotherapy (RT) either with or without neck dissection. From January 2000 to December 2005, 115 patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer and who received definitive RT or postoperative RT including standard anterior low-neck field were recruited to be part of this study. Nineteen patients had undergone ipsilateral neck dissection, whereas, 18 patients underwent bilateral neck dissection, and 78 patients were received RT alone. Patients' ages ranged from 28 to 85 years (median, 59 years) and there were a total of 73 male and 42 female patients. The primary tumor sites were the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, and other sites in 18, 40, 28, 22 and 7 patients, respectively. Radiation dose to the thyroid gland ranged from 44 Gy to 66 Gy with a median dose of 50 Gy. Follow-up time ranged from 2 to 91 months, with a median of 29 months. The 1- and 3- year incidence of hypothyroidism was 28.7% (33 patients) and 33.0% (38 patients), respectively. The median time to detection of hypothyroidism was 8.5 months (range, 0 to 36 months). A univariate analysis revealed that neck node dissection was a risk factor for hypothyroidism (p=0.037). However, no factor was statistically significant from the results of a multivariate analysis. Patients treated for advanced head and neck cancer with radiotherapy with or without neck dissection will develop hypothyroidism. It is important to check the thyroid function periodically in these patients especially with the risk factor of neck node dissection.

  7. Living near nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyoung; Bang, Yejin; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-02-01

    There has been public concern regarding the safety of residing near nuclear power plants, and the extent of risk for thyroid cancer among adults living near nuclear power plants has not been fully explored. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the association between living near nuclear power plants and the risk of thyroid cancer. A comprehensive literature search was performed on studies published up to March 2015 on the association between nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk. The summary standardized incidence ratio (SIR), standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effect model of meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed by study quality. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis, covering 36 nuclear power stations in 10 countries. Overall, summary estimates showed no significant increased thyroid cancer incidence or mortality among residents living near nuclear power plants (summary SIR=0.98; 95% CI 0.87-1.11, summary SMR=0.80; 95% CI 0.62-1.04). The pooled estimates did not reveal different patterns of risk by gender, exposure definition, or reference population. However, sensitivity analysis by exposure definition showed that living less than 20 km from nuclear power plants was associated with a significant increase in the risk of thyroid cancer in well-designed studies (summary OR=1.75; 95% CI 1.17-2.64). Our study does not support an association between living near nuclear power plants and risk of thyroid cancer but does support a need for well-designed future studies.

  8. Common symptoms in advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagman, Ruth L; Davis, Mellar P; LeGrand, Susan B; Walsh, Declan

    2005-04-01

    The key points of this article are anorexia and cachexia are: A major cause of cancer deaths. Several drugs are available to treat anorexia and cachexia. Dyspnea in cancer usually is caused by several factors. Treatment consists of reversing underlying causes, empiric bronchodilators, cortico-steroids--and in the terminally ill patients-opioids, benzodiazepines,and chlorpromazine. Delirium is associated with advanced cancer. Empiric treatment with neuroleptics while evaluating for reversible causes is a reasonable approach to management. Nausea and vomiting are caused by extra-abdominal factors (drugs,electrolyte abnormalities, central nervous system metastases) or intra-abdominal factors (gastroparesis, ileus, gastric outlet obstruction, bowel obstruction). The pattern of nausea and vomiting differs depending upon whether the cause is extra- or intra-abdominal. Reversible causes should be sought and empiric metoclopramide or haloperidol should be initiated. Fatigue may be caused by anemia, depression, endocrine abnormalities,or electrolyte disturbances that should be treated before using empiric methylphenidate. Constipation should be treated with laxatives and stool softeners. Both should start with the first opioid dose.

  9. A review on ultrasound-based thyroid cancer tissue characterization and automated classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U R; Swapna, G; Sree, S V; Molinari, F; Gupta, S; Bardales, R H; Witkowska, A; Suri, J S

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we review the different studies that developed Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) for automated classification of thyroid cancer into benign and malignant types. Specifically, we discuss the different types of features that are used to study and analyze the differences between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. These features can be broadly categorized into (a) the sonographic features from the ultrasound images, and (b) the non-clinical features extracted from the ultrasound images using statistical and data mining techniques. We also present a brief description of the commonly used classifiers in ultrasound based CAD systems. We then review the studies that used features based on the ultrasound images for thyroid nodule classification and highlight the limitations of such studies. We also discuss and review the techniques used in studies that used the non-clinical features for thyroid nodule classification and report the classification accuracies obtained in these studies.

  10. [Incidence of anaplastic tumor in structure of other histologic forms of the thyroid gland cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnik, Iu A; Gorbenko, V N; Vas'ko, A R; Kikhtenko, E V; Gargin, V V

    2014-01-01

    The degrees of invasiveness, proliferative activity, morphofunctional activity of nuclei in the thyroidal gland tumors were studied, while analyzing material, obtained in 1343 patients, suffering thyroidal gland cancer (THGC) and operated on in 2000-2013 yrs. Morphological point quantity of malignancy (as a criterion of the tumor progression grade) and mitotic activity in cellular population were determined in various kinds of THGC. Undifferentiated (anaplastic carcinoma) type of THGC is the most malignant one. There were determined a spindle-like, giant-cell and squamous-cell forms of undifferentiated THGC. The presence of sites of differentiated cancer in 33% of histological preparations witnesses the interrelationship with the earlier existed pathological process.

  11. Human recombinant anti-thyroperoxidase autoantibodies: in vitro cytotoxic activity on papillary thyroid cancer expressing TPO

    OpenAIRE

    Rebuffat, S A; Morin, M.; Nguyen, B; Castex, F; Robert, B.; Péraldi-Roux, S

    2010-01-01

    Background: Thyroid cancers are difficult to treat due to their limited responsiveness to chemo- and radiotherapy. There is thus a great interest in and a need for alternative therapeutic approaches. Results: We studied the cytotoxic activity of anti-thyroperoxidase autoantibodies (anti-TPO aAbs, expressed in baculovirus/insect cell (B4) and CHO cells (B4′) or purified from patients' sera) against a papillary thyroid cancer (NPA) cell line. Anti-TPO aAbs from patients' sera led to a partial d...

  12. Cabozantinib-S-Malate in Treating Patients With Refractory Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Tall Cell Variant Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Oncocytic Follicular Carcinoma

  13. Bethesda categorization of thyroid nodule cytology and prediction of thyroid cancer type and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Liu (Xiaoyun); M. Medici (Marco); N. Kwong (Norra); T.E. Angell (Trevor E.); E. Marqusee (Ellen); M.I. Kim (Matthew I.); P.R. Larsen (P. Reed); N.L. Cho (Nancy L.); M.A. Nehs (Matthew A.); D.T. Ruan (Daniel T.); A. Gawande (Atul); F. Moore (Francis); J. Barletta (Justine); J.F. Krane (Jeffrey F.); E.S. Cibas (Edmund S.); T. Yang (Tao); E.K. Alexander (Erik K.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Since its inception, the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBS) has been widely adopted. Each category conveys a risk of malignancy and recommended next steps, though it is unclear if each category also predicts the type and extent of malignancy. If so, thi

  14. Gene signature of the post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Rusinek, Dagmara; Oczko-Wojciechowska, Malgorzata; Kowalska, Malgorzata; Jarzab, Barbara [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Swierniak, Michal [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Medical University of Warsaw, Genomic Medicine, Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery, Warsaw (Poland); Dom, Genevieve; Maenhaut, Carine; Detours, Vincent [Universite libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Institute of Interdisciplinary Research, Bruxelles (Belgium); Unger, Kristian [Imperial College London Hammersmith Hospital, Human Cancer Studies Group, Division of Surgery and Cancer, London (United Kingdom); Helmholtz-Zentrum, Research Unit Radiation Cytogenetics, Munich (Germany); Bogdanova, Tetiana [Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kiev (Ukraine); Thomas, Geraldine [Imperial College London Hammersmith Hospital, Human Cancer Studies Group, Division of Surgery and Cancer, London (United Kingdom); Likhtarov, Ilya [Academy of Technological Sciences of Ukraine, Radiation Protection Institute, Kiev (Ukraine); Jaksik, Roman [Silesian University of Technology, Systems Engineering Group, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Informatics, Gliwice (Poland); Chmielik, Ewa [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Tumour Pathology, Gliwice (Poland); Jarzab, Michal [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, IIIrd Department of Radiation Therapy, Gliwice (Poland); Swierniak, Andrzej [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Automatic Control, Gliwice (Poland)

    2016-07-15

    Following the nuclear accidents in Chernobyl and later in Fukushima, the nuclear community has been faced with important issues concerning how to search for and diagnose biological consequences of low-dose internal radiation contamination. Although after the Chernobyl accident an increase in childhood papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was observed, it is still not clear whether the molecular biology of PTCs associated with low-dose radiation exposure differs from that of sporadic PTC. We investigated tissue samples from 65 children/young adults with PTC using DNA microarray (Affymetrix, Human Genome U133 2.0 Plus) with the aim of identifying molecular differences between radiation-induced (exposed to Chernobyl radiation, ECR) and sporadic PTC. All participants were resident in the same region so that confounding factors related to genetics or environment were minimized. There were small but significant differences in the gene expression profiles between ECR and non-ECR PTC (global test, p < 0.01), with 300 differently expressed probe sets (p < 0.001) corresponding to 239 genes. Multifactorial analysis of variance showed that besides radiation exposure history, the BRAF mutation exhibited independent effects on the PTC expression profile; the histological subset and patient age at diagnosis had negligible effects. Ten genes (PPME1, HDAC11, SOCS7, CIC, THRA, ERBB2, PPP1R9A, HDGF, RAD51AP1, and CDK1) from the 19 investigated with quantitative RT-PCR were confirmed as being associated with radiation exposure in an independent, validation set of samples. Significant, but subtle, differences in gene expression in the post-Chernobyl PTC are associated with previous low-dose radiation exposure. (orig.)

  15. [Innovation in Surgery for Advanced Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tomoyuki; Yasunori, Sohara; Endo, Shunsuke

    2016-07-01

    Thoracoscopic surgery can be one of less invasive surgical interventions for early stage lung cancer. Locally advanced lung cancer, however, cannot avoid aggressive procedures including pneumonectomy and/or extended combined resection of chest wall, aorta, esophagus, etc. for complete resection. Surgical approach even for advanced lung cancer can be less invasive by benefit from new anti-cancer treatment, innovated manipulations of bronchoplasty and angioplasty, and bench surgery( lung autotransplantation technique). We herein reviewed the strategy to minimize invasive interventions for locally advanced lung cancer, introducing 2 successful cases with advanced lung cancer. The 1st patient is a 62-year old man with centrally advanced lung cancer invading to mediastinum. Right upper sleeve lobectomy with one-stoma carinoplasty following induction chemoradiation therapy was successful. The operation time was 241 minutes. The performance status is good with no recurrence for 60 months after surgery. The 2nd is a 79-year old man with advanced lung cancer invading to the distal aortic arch. Left upper segmentectomy following thoracic endovascular aortic repair with stentgraft was successful with no extracorporeal circulation. The operation time was 170 minutes. The performance status is good with no recurrence for 30 months after surgery. The invasiveness of surgical interventions for local advanced lung cancer can be minimized by innovated device and new anti-cancer drugs.

  16. Dose distribution in the thyroid gland following radiation therapy of breast cancer-a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knutstad K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To relate the development of post-treatment hypothyroidism with the dose distribution within the thyroid gland in breast cancer (BC patients treated with loco-regional radiotherapy (RT. Methods and materials In two groups of BC patients postoperatively irradiated by computer tomography (CT-based RT, the individual dose distributions in the thyroid gland were compared with each other; Cases developed post-treatment hypothyroidism after multimodal treatment including 4-field RT technique. Matched patients in Controls remained free for hypothyroidism. Based on each patient's dose volume histogram (DVH the volume percentages of the thyroid absorbing respectively 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy were then estimated (V20, V30, V40 and V50 together with the individual mean thyroid dose over the whole gland (MeanTotGy. The mean and median thyroid dose for the included patients was about 30 Gy, subsequently the total volume of the thyroid gland (VolTotGy and the absolute volumes (cm3 receiving respectively Results No statistically significant inter-group differences were found between V20, V30, V40 and V50Gy or the median of MeanTotGy. The median VolTotGy in Controls was 2.3 times above VolTotGy in Cases (ρ = 0.003, with large inter-individual variations in both groups. The volume of the thyroid gland receiving Conclusions We concluded that in patients with small thyroid glands after loco-radiotherapy of BC, the risk of post-treatment hypothyroidism depends on the volume of the thyroid gland.

  17. On the cells of origin of radiogenic thyroid cancer: New studies based on an old idea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, K.H.; Domann, F.E.; Groch, K.M.

    1990-12-31

    We have presented evidence that the functional thyroid follicles (follicular units, FU) which are formed in grafts of monodispersed rat thyroid cells, and hence the thyroid tumors which later develop in such grafts, are clonal in origin. Recent studies have been designed to investigate: whether cell number-dependent inhibition of promotion-progression is mediated by remote hormonal feed-back, local cell-cell interactions, or both; the cell population kinetics of the clonogen subpopulation during goitrogenesis and goiter involution; and the effect of prolonged exposure to high levels of TSH (thyrotropin) on the capacity of the clonogens to give rise to functional FU. The results indicate that local cell-cell interactions play an important role in the cell number-dependent suppression of neoplastic promotion-progression. They also show that if sufficient thyroid cells are grafted, the thyroid-pituitary axis can be reestablished in thyroidectomized rats fed normal diets. In such animals given iodine deficient diets, the FU that develop in the thyroid grafts shift their secretory pattern to increase the ratio of T3 (triiodothyronine) to T4 (thyroxine), and thus conserve the available iodine. Finally, the clonogenic subpopulation is conserved during both goitrogenesis and goiter involution. When they are transplanted to thyroidectomized recipients, clonogens from two types of goiters form FU that are morphologically indistinguishable from those that develop in grafts of normal thyroid clonogens. Furthermore, the secretion of T3 and T4 by such grafts is dependent on the grafted clonogen number, and hence FU formation, and not on the total number of thyroid cells transplanted. We conclude that the thyroid clonogens, the presumptive cancer progenitor cells, have many of the characteristics of stem cells.

  18. On the cells of origin of radiogenic thyroid cancer: New studies based on an old idea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, K.H.; Domann, F.E.; Groch, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    We have presented evidence that the functional thyroid follicles (follicular units, FU) which are formed in grafts of monodispersed rat thyroid cells, and hence the thyroid tumors which later develop in such grafts, are clonal in origin. Recent studies have been designed to investigate: whether cell number-dependent inhibition of promotion-progression is mediated by remote hormonal feed-back, local cell-cell interactions, or both; the cell population kinetics of the clonogen subpopulation during goitrogenesis and goiter involution; and the effect of prolonged exposure to high levels of TSH (thyrotropin) on the capacity of the clonogens to give rise to functional FU. The results indicate that local cell-cell interactions play an important role in the cell number-dependent suppression of neoplastic promotion-progression. They also show that if sufficient thyroid cells are grafted, the thyroid-pituitary axis can be reestablished in thyroidectomized rats fed normal diets. In such animals given iodine deficient diets, the FU that develop in the thyroid grafts shift their secretory pattern to increase the ratio of T3 (triiodothyronine) to T4 (thyroxine), and thus conserve the available iodine. Finally, the clonogenic subpopulation is conserved during both goitrogenesis and goiter involution. When they are transplanted to thyroidectomized recipients, clonogens from two types of goiters form FU that are morphologically indistinguishable from those that develop in grafts of normal thyroid clonogens. Furthermore, the secretion of T3 and T4 by such grafts is dependent on the grafted clonogen number, and hence FU formation, and not on the total number of thyroid cells transplanted. We conclude that the thyroid clonogens, the presumptive cancer progenitor cells, have many of the characteristics of stem cells.

  19. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: similar and dissimilar characteristics in neighboring areas. Possible implications for the epidemiology of thyroid cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Latina

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Medical centers worldwide report an increased frequency of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and thyroid cancer (TC, two environmentally influenced diseases. In Sicily, data on HT are available for the province of Messina (1975-2005; data on TC are available for the whole island (2002-2004, with the volcanic province of Catania having the highest incidence. OBJECTIVE: To replicate in Catania, on comparable years, the HT data of Messina. DESIGN METHODS SETTING: Review of the clinical records of patients in years 1995-2005 to compare presentation and yearly changes of HT. During 1995-2005, records were computer stored in the Endocrine Divisions of the University Hospitals of Catania and Messina, two tertiary referral centers. RESULTS: Catania is outnumbered by Messina (742 vs. 3,409 HT patients. Similar were the linear increase in the yearly number of HT patients, rates of thyroid dysfunctions though with different proportions of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism, and rates of positiveness for TgAb or TPOAb. Different were age and its yearly trend; gender distribution and rates of the sonography variants, though yearly trends were similar. CONCLUSION: The HT epidemics is smaller in Catania, with changes in presentation overlapping partially those in Messina. Whatever environmental factors might be involved, they (and/or their intensity were not necessarily the same in these provinces. Intriguingly, the expected number of TC in HT patients with thyroid nodules in Catania is congruent with that of the general population of this province, but it is far less than in the Messina province. Thus, TC and HT incidences could be influenced by distinct environmental factors.

  20. Meta-analysis in the association between obesity and risk of thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Bai, Xiyong; Ge, Huai’e; Cui, Haibin; Wei, Zhijiang; Han, Guoda

    2014-01-01

    Although many epidemiologic studies have investigated obesity and thyroid cancer risk, definite conclusions cannot be drawn. To clarify the effects of obesity on the risk of thyroid cancer, a meta-analysis was performed. Related studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM) till 16 Aug 2014. Pooled RRs and 95% CIs were used to assess the strength of the associations. A total of 16 studies including 12616154 subjects were involved in this meta-analysis. A significantly elevated thyroid cancer risk was found in overall analysis (RR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.20-1.37, P < 0.00001). In the gender subgroup analyses, a statistically significant association was found in male patients (RR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.16-1.58, P = 0.0001) and in female patients (RR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.19-1.40, P < 0.00001). When we limited the meta-analysis to studies that controlled for age (RR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.24-1.44, P < 0.00001), smoke (RR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.22-1.52, P < 0.00001), alcohol use (RR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.15-1.71, P = 0.0009), and history of benign thyroid disease (RR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.24-1.83, P < 0.0001), a significant association between obesity and thyroid cancer risk remained. This meta-analysis provides the evidence that obesity may contribute to the thyroid cancer development. PMID:25664030

  1. The discovery and development of sorafenib for the treatment of thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peter T; Cohen, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction While the prognosis for most differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) remains excellent, recurrence and in-sensitivity to radioactive iodine (RAI) lead to therapeutic challenges and poorer outcomes. In defining the pathogenesis of DTC, multiple genetic alterations have been identified in key pathways focused around receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and the MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade. Sorafenib was specifically developed to target RAF kinase in the MAPK pathway. It has been shown however to have potent inhibition of several key RTKs, RAF kinase, and the V600E BRAF mutation, gaining FDA approval in November 2013 for advanced RAI-refractory DTC. Areas covered The authors provide a review of the targeted RAF kinase discovery strategy as well as the preclinical and clinical development of sorafenib, leading to FDA approval for DTC. The authors also provide some insight into the clinical use of sorafenib and look at important considerations for treatment. Expert opinion Sorafenib significantly improves progression free survival in metastatic DTC patients who are RAI-refractory. However, the overall survival benefit is still unproven and requires additional follow-up. Despite its cost and significant side effect profile, which results in dose reductions in the majority of DTC patients, sorafenib should be considered for the treatment of RAI-refractory advanced DTC patients following evaluation of their individual risk/benefit stratification. PMID:25662396

  2. Perspectivas de novos tratamentos para o carcinoma tireoidiano avançado Perspectives for new treatments in advanced thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluízio Rodrigues

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of thyroid cancer, the greatest problem existis in tumors that continue to grow or express recurrences, despite surgical, radioidine or t4 supressive therapies. Improved knowledge of the molecular biology of tumors showed that elevated expression of oncogeneses, uncontrolled ativation of tyrosine cinase receptors and their signaling pathways, and inibition of programmed apoptosis are all important factors in the origin and evolution of tumors and their metastasis. The development of therapies targeted against especific molecular deregulation envolved in tumor progression is now been evaluated, with sucess, in various types of cancer. In thyroid cancer, target therapies using drugs, antibodies, genes, and small molecules are in development in preclinical studies and show a potential role in the managment of thyroid cancer, in the future. In this review, some of these studies are discussed.

  3. Thyroid cancer imaging in vivo by targeting the anti-apoptotic molecule galectin-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Bartolazzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of thyroid nodules increases with age, average 4-7% for the U.S.A. adult population, but it is much higher (19-67% when sub-clinical nodules are considered. About 90% of these lesions are benign and a reliable approach to their preoperative characterization is necessary. Unfortunately conventional thyroid scintigraphy does not allow the distinction among benign and malignant thyroid proliferations but it provides only functional information (cold or hot nodules. The expression of the anti-apoptotic molecule galectin-3 is restricted to cancer cells and this feature has potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications. We show here the possibility to obtain thyroid cancer imaging in vivo by targeting galectin-3. METHODS: The galectin-3 based thyroid immuno-scintigraphy uses as radiotracer a specific (99mTc-radiolabeled mAb. A position-sensitive high-resolution mini-gamma camera was used as imaging capture device. Human galectin-3 positive thyroid cancer xenografts (ARO and galectin-3 knockout tumors were used as targets in different experiments in vivo. 38 mice with tumor mass of about 1 gm were injected in the tail vein with 100 microCi of (99mTc-labeled mAb to galectin-3 (30 microg protein/in 100 microl saline solution. Tumor images were acquired at 1 hr, 3 hrs, 6 hrs, 9 hrs and 24 hrs post injection by using the mini-gamma camera. FINDINGS: Results from different consecutive experiments show an optimal visualization of thyroid cancer xenografts between 6 and 9 hours from injection of the radiotracer. Galectin-3 negative tumors were not detected at all. At 6 hrs post-injection galectin-3 expressing tumors were correctly visualized, while the whole-body activity had essentially cleared. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the possibility to distinguish preoperatively benign from malignant thyroid nodules by using a specific galectin-3 radio-immunotargeting. In vivo imaging of thyroid cancer may allow a better

  4. Thyroid Function after Postoperative Radiation Therapy in Patients with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolny-Rokicka, Edyta; Tukiendorf, Andrzej; Wydmański, Jerzy; Roszkowska, Danuta; Staniul, Bogusław; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess thyroid function in breast cancer patients exposed to therapeutic external beam radiation. The focus was on possible progressive changes and any relationships between the incidence of primary hypothyroidism, the time required to become hypothyroid, and factors such as chemotherapy, hormonotherapy and immunotherapy. Materials and Methods: Seventy females undergoing 3D conformal and IMRT radiation therapy for breast cancers were enrolled in a non-randomized prospective study. The patients was divided into two groups: those after mastectomy or breast conserving surgery (BCS) were irradiated to a scar of the chest wall/breast and the ipsilateral supraclavicular and the axillary areas (supraclavicular radiotherapy group - SC-RT group – 32 patients) and the control group receiving adjuvant chest wall/breast RT only (BCT group - 38 patients).The total doses were 50.0 to 70 Gy in 5 to 7 weeks. The median follow-up term was 24 months (range, 1–40 months). Thyroid function was evaluated by measuring thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), and free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels. The minimum, maximum and mean thyroid gland doses for 20 Gy (V20) were calculated for all patients. Results: Statistically significant results were obtained for the SC-RT group. Two yearsa fter the end of RT the chance of an event was increased in 6% of the population (p=0.009) in the SC-RT group. In the BCT group no significance was noted. No statistically significant differences were found for V20, chemio-, immunotherapy and hormonotherapy or Ki67 values (p=0.12). No significant results were obtained for development of hypothyroidism and clinical factors (age, thyroid volume, treatment modalities). Conclusion: Radiotherapy is associated with a higher incidence of thyroid toxicity in breast cancer patients. Routine thyroid function monitoring should be recommended in such cases.

  5. Diagnostic features of lung metastases differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Geliashvili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The worldwide increasing incidence of thyroid cancer (TC is mainly due to a rise in its major form of differentiated TC (DTC: papillary. Most patients with DTC have a good prognosis; 10-year survival overall rates are as high as 85 %, but not greater than 40 % in a group of patients with distant metastases. At the same time, the lung is the most frequent target for distant metastases, accounting for 70 % of all sites.Objective: to estimate and compare the capabilities of different diagnostic techniques to detect lung metastases of DTC. Materials and methods. The results of diagnosing lung metastases were retrospectively analyzed in 36 patients (33 women and 3 men; mean age 53 years with DTC (29 patients with papillary TC and 7 with follicular TC treated at the department of radiotherapy with systemic therapy, Chelyabinsk Regional Clinical Oncology Center from 2011 to 2014.Results. Chest X-ray could reveal pulmonary metastases in 13 (36 % patients; lung pathology foci were absent in 23 (64 % patients. 131I whole-body scintigraphy (WBS proved to be of informative value in 24 (66.7 % patients, it displayed no increased accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in the lung of 12 (33.3 % cases. Multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT of the chest was carried out in 22 (61 % patients; out of them 21 (95.5 % were found to have 1.4-to-20-mm lung cancer foci. 18Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET / CT was performed in 18 (50 % patients, which showed 3–26-mm lung pathology foci in all the patents; out of them 16 (88.9 % were detected to have metastases owing to the CT component of this method. Thus, the highest sensitivity was exhibited by MSCT (95.5 %, 18FDG PET / CT (100 % due to its CT component, and 131I WBS (66.7 %.Conclusion. When lung metastases of DTC are suspected, 1 chest X-ray should be used as a screening test; 2 131I WBS should be performed in all patients; 3 MSCT of the chest is

  6. Quercetin-Induced Cell Death in Human Papillary Thyroid Cancer (B-CPAP Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergül Mutlu Altundağ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have investigated the antiproliferative effect of quercetin on human papillary thyroid cancer cells and determined the apoptotic mechanisms underlying its actions. We have used different concentrations of quercetin to induce apoptosis and measured cell viability. Apoptosis and cell cycle analysis was determined by flow cytometry using Annexin V and propidium iodide. Finally, we have measured changes in caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP protein expression levels as hallmarks of apoptosis and Hsp90 protein expression level as a marker of proteasome activity in treated and control cells. Quercetin treatment of human papillary thyroid cancer cells resulted in decreased cell proliferation and increased rate of apoptosis by caspase activation. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that quercetin induces cancer cell apoptosis by downregulating the levels of Hsp90. In conclusion, we have shown that quercetin induces downregulation of Hsp90 expression that may be involved in the decrease of chymotrypsin-like proteasome activity which, in order, induces inhibition of growth and causes cell death in thyroid cancer cells. Thus, quercetin appears to be a promising candidate drug for Hsp90 downregulation and apoptosis of thyroid cancer cells.

  7. Comparison of therapeutic efficacy and clinical parameters between recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid hormone withdrawal in high-dose radioiodine treatment with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Se Hun; Na, Chang Ju; Kim, Jeong Hun; Han, Yeon Hee; KIm, Hee Kwon; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee; Lim, Seok Tae [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    High-dose radioiodine treatment (HD-RIT) after injection of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rh-TSH) has become widely used. This study compared the therapeutic efficacy of HD-RIT and clinical parameters between rh-TSH supplement and thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) after total thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 266 patients (47 male and 219 female; age, 49.0 ± 10.9 years) with differentiated thyroid cancer detected from September 2011 to September 2012. Patients comprised THW (217, 81.6 %) and rh-TSH (49, 18.4 %). Inclusion criteria were: first HD-RIT; any TN stage; absence of distant metastasis. To evaluate the complete ablation of the remnant thyroid tissue or metastasis, we reviewed stimulated serum thyroglobulin (sTg), I-123 whole-body scan (RxWBS) on T4 off-state, and thyroid ultrasonography (US) or [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) 6–8 months after HD-RIT. We defined a complete ablation state when all three of the follow-up conditions were satisfied; <2.0 ng/ml of the sTg, I-123 RxWBS (−), and thyroid US or F-18 FDG PET/CT (−). If one of the three was positive, ablation was considered incomplete. We also compared various clinical biomarkers (body weight, body mass index, liver and kidney function) between THW and rh-TSH groups. The rates of complete ablation were 73.7 % (160/217) for the THW group and 73.5 % (36/49) for the rh-TSH group. There was no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.970). The follow-up aspartate transaminase (p = 0.001) and alanine transaminase (p = 0.001) were significantly higher in the THW group. The renal function parameters of blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.001) and creatinine (p = 0.005) tended to increase in the THW group. The change of body weight was + Δ0.96 (±1.9) kg for the THW group and was decreased by -Δ1.39 (±1.5) kg for the rh-TSH group. The change

  8. [Reinnervation of larynx in surgical treatment of invasive thyroidal gland cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamarchuk, V A

    2013-10-01

    The possibilities and efficacy of performance of simultant operations for invasive thyroid gland cancer in initial neuropathic laryngeal stenosis and dysphonic syndrome, aimed at minimization of the residual volume of thyroid gland tissue and surgical laryngeal reinnervation, were studied. The results of laryngeal surgical reinnervation, in accordance to data of videolaryngoscopy, aerodynamical and spectral analysis of the voice, self estimation of the vocal disorders impact on the patients quality of life were analyzed. Postoperatively in all the patients the improvement of phonation and quality of life was noted. Primary neurorhaphia of recurrent laryngeal nerve secures restoration of normal or nearly normal talkative voice due to restoration of the tone and volume of m. cricoarytenoideus lateralis and m. thyroarytenoideus on the side of affection and may be effectively applied for correction of consequences of laryngeal neuropathic paralysis in surgical treatment of the thyroid gland cancer.

  9. Cediranib Maleate With or Without Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-17

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  10. The application of sentinel lymph node detection in thyroid cancer%前哨淋巴结检测在甲状腺癌中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡蕾; 华清泉

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is more common in thyroid diseases, because of its slow growth and good prognosis, different scholars have different views on lymph node dissection. During the study of definition and positioning methods of sentinel lymph node biopsy, discuss the necessity of cervical node dissection and the application of cleaning scope in thyroid cancer surgery.

  11. Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene found for the first time in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamatani, K.; Mukai, M.; Takahashi, K.; Nakachi, K.; Kusunoki, Y. [Radiobiology/Molecular Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Hayashi, Y. [Geriatric Health Service Facility Hidamari, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: Thyroid cancer is one of the malignancies most strongly associated with ionizing radiation in humans. Epidemiology studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have indicated that excess relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer per Gy was remarkably high in the survivors. We therefore aim to clarify mechanisms linking A-bomb radiation exposure and development of papillary thyroid cancer. Toward this end, we intend to clarify characteristics of gene alterations occurring in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of A-bomb survivors. We have thus far found that with increased radiation dose, papillary thyroid cancer cases with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC rearrangements) significantly increased and papillary thyroid cancer cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF-V600E) significantly decreased. Papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations that carried no mutations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF or RAS genes tended to increase with increased radiation dose. In addition, we found that relative frequency of these papillary thyroid cancer cases significantly decreased with time elapsed since exposure. Through analysis of papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations, we recently discovered a new type of rearrangement for the first time in papillary thyroid cancer, i.e., rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, although identification of any partner gene(s) is needed. Specifically, rearrangement of ALK was found in 10 of 19 exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations but not in any of the six non-exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases. Furthermore, papillary thyroid cancer with ALK rearrangement was frequently found in the cases with high radiation dose or with short time elapsed since A-bomb exposure. These results suggest that chromosomal rearrangement, typically of RET and ALK, may play an important

  12. Thyroid cancer in child (about 9 cases); Le cancer de la thyroide chez l'enfant (a propos de 9 cas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ech-Charraq, I.; Ben Rais, N. [CHU Ibn Sina Rabat-Sale, Service de Medecine Nucleaire (Morocco)

    2009-12-15

    Children thyroid cancer is a very uncommon affection. Its incidence has sharply risen among the patients who underwent therapeutic irradiation and after the Chernobylsk accident in the contaminated regions. Our study consists of emphasizing the distinctive features of children thyroid cancer on the epidemiological, clinical and para clinical aspects, in order to discuss diagnostic difficulties, prognostic elements as well as a therapeutic approach. Through a study conducted in the nuclear medical department of Rabat, we brought together 9 cases of thyroid cancer in children aged between 11 and 15 years old. In our series, the average age is 13 years, with a feminine prevalence. A family notion of goitre is reported in one case, without notion of irradiation, the revealing mode is mainly an euthyroid goitre and the cervical adenopathies, with good general health conditions being maintained. The scintigraphy showed a cold nodule, witch anatomo-pathological examination is papillary carcinoma. Extensive surgery, ira therapy and substitute hormonal treatment combined allowed a high recovery rate among our patients, with no side effects. The medium-term evolution was positive even in metastases cases. The prognostic is generally good, especially in the differentiated forms. (authors)

  13. Extended resection for locally advanced colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-ping; SONG Xin-ming

    2006-01-01

    @@ Colorectal cancer is a common cause of cancer-related mortality.1 In China, it is one of eight cancers in the cancer control blueprint, which are suggested to have comprehensive treatment.Some patients with colorectal cancer presented no symptoms when they were diagnosed, yet the tumor had already penetrated the intestinal wall and involved adjacent organs. If the tumor is localized at time of diagnosis without distant metastases, it is termed locally advanced colorectal cancer (LACC)regardless of whether there is lymph node metastasis. LACC commonly encountered in clinical practice accounts for 5%-10% of all colorectal cancers.2

  14. Is there any association between Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and thyroid cancer? A retrospective data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daysi Maria de Alcântara-Jones

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. Materials and Methods: The patients were evaluated by ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology. Typical cytopathological aspects and/or classical histopathological findings were taken into consideration in the diagnosis of HT, and only histopathological results were considered in the diagnosis of PTC. Results: Among 1,049 patients with multi- or uninodular goiter (903 women and 146 men, 173 (16.5% had cytopathological features of thyroiditis. Thirty-three (67.4% out of the 49 operated patients had PTC, 9 (27.3% of them with histopathological features of HT. Five (31.3% out of the 16 patients with non-malignant disease also had HT. In the groups with HT, PTC, and PCT+HT, the female prevalence rate was 100%, 91.6%, and 77.8%, respectively. Mean age was 41.5, 43.3, and 48.5 years, respectively. No association was observed between the two diseases in the present study where HT occurred in 31.1% of the benign cases and in 27.3% of malignant cases (p = 0.8. Conclusion: In spite of the absence of association between HT and PCT, the possibility of malignancy in HT should always be considered because of the coexistence of the two diseases already reported in the literature.

  15. 8q24 rs6983267G variant is associated with increased thyroid cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahasrabudhe, Ruta; Estrada, Ana; Lott, Paul; Martin, Lynn; Echeverry, Guadalupe Polanco; Velez, Alejandro; Neta, Gila; Takahasi, Meiko; Saenko, Vladimir; Mitsutake, Norisato; Jaeguer, Emma; Duque, Carlos Simon; Rios, Alejandro; Bohorquez, Mabel; Prieto, Rodrigo; Criollo, Angel; Echeverry, Magdalena; Tomlinson, Ian; Carvajal Carmona, Luis G.

    2015-01-01

    The G allele of the rs6983267 single nucleotide polymorphism, located on chromosome 8q24, has been associated with increased risk of several cancer types. The association between rs6983267G and thyroid cancer has been tested in different populations, mostly of European ancestry, and has led to inconclusive results. While significant associations have been reported in the British and Polish populations, no association has been detected in populations from Spain, Italy and the USA. To further investigate the role of rs6983267G in thyroid cancer susceptibility, we evaluated rs6983267 genotypes in three populations of different continental ancestry (British Isles, Colombia and Japan), providing a total of 3,067 cases and 8,575 controls. We detected significant associations between rs6983267G and thyroid cancer in the British Isles (Odds Ratio, OR= 1.19, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.11–1.27, P= 4.03 × 10−7), Japan (OR= 1.20, 95% CI: 1.03–1.41, P= 0.022) and a borderline significant association of similar effect direction and size in Colombia (OR= 1.19, 95% CI: 0.99–1.44, P= 0.069). A meta-analysis of our multi-ethnic study and previously published non-overlapping datasets, which included a total of 5,484 cases and 12,594 controls, confirmed the association between rs6983267G and thyroid cancer (P= 1.23 × 10−7, OR= 1.13, 95% CI: 1.07–1.18). Our results therefore support the notion that rs6983267G is a bona fide thyroid cancer risk variant that increases the risk of disease by ~13%. PMID:26290501

  16. A CASE OF SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT OF PRIMARY MULTIPLE CANCER OF THE OROPHARYNX AND THYROID

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    M. G. Madzhidov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the author’s practice case of successful radiotherapy (gamma-teletherapy using the radio modifier 5-fluorouracil for squamous cell carcinoma of the palatine tonsils and surgery for metachronous papillary thyroid cancer occurring 15 years later.

  17. Radiofrequency induction on sodium/iodide symporter expression of thyroid cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youxin Tian; Qinjiang Liu; Yaqiong Ni

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the ef ects of radiofrequency treatment on sodium/iodide symporter expression of thyroid cancer cells. Methods:In 29 thyroid cancer patients with low or no expression of soda\\iodide symporter, the radio frequency combined 131I therapy was used, the whole-body scintigraphy and serum Ig were detected before and after the radiofrequency treatment. Results:The whole-body scintigraphy showed that 4 cases (4/29) before radiofrequency treatment had positive iodine uptake, 19 cases (19/29) two weeks after radiofrequency treatment had the positive iodine uptake, 12 cases (12/29) four weeks after radiofrequency treatment had the positive iodine uptake. Four weeks after radiofrequency treatment, 5 cases had increased serum Ig levels, 17 cases had decreased serum Ig levels, 7 cases showed no change. 25 cases (25/29) were ef ective, 15 cases (15/29) were cured. Conclusion:The radiofrequency induced the non-expressed the sodium/iodide symporter of thyroid cancer cells regain the iodine intake ability, it improved the clinical ef icacy of 131I therapy in dedif erentiated thyroid cancer.

  18. Diagnosis of medullary thyroid cancer and prognostic factors of disease aggressiveness

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    D O Gazizova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study were enrolled 137 patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC. Low 35%-sensitivity of FNAC and high accuracy of basal calcitonin in MTC diagnostics were found. Mutation analysis of the RET pro- tooncogene in familial and sporadic MTC, RAS -gene in sporadic MTC were done. The correlation between type of the mutation and disease aggressiveness was found.

  19. Comparison of C-11-methionine PET and F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET in differentiated thyroid cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, Ha T. T.; Jager, Pieter L.; Plukker, John T. M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Links, Thera P.

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this prospective study is to evaluate the possibility of C-11-methionine (Met) PET compared with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET for the detection of recurrent or metastatic disease in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Materials and methods Twenty patient

  20. Detection of bone metastases in thyroid cancer patients : Bone scintigraphy or F-18-DG PET?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, Ha T. T.; Jager, Pieter L.; Plukker, John T. M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Links, Thera P.

    2007-01-01

    Background Similar to the situation in other tumour types, it is currently unclear whether fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is adequate in the detection of bone metastases of thyroid cancer. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the performance of bone sc

  1. The value of detectable thyroglobulin in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer after initial I-131 therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, D.; Plukker, J. T. M.; van der Horst-Schrivers, A. N. A.; Jansen, L.; Brouwers, A. H.; Muller-Kobold, A.; Sluiter, W. J.; Links, T. P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the prognostic value of detectable thyroglobulin (Tg) after initial surgery and radioactive iodine (I-131) therapy by comparing patients with a negative post-therapeutic whole body scan (WBS) with either detectable or undetectable Tg. Background Differentiated thyroid cancer has

  2. Implications of thyroglobulin antibody positivity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: a clinical position statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, F.A.; Luster, M.; Cupini, C.; Chiovato, L.; Duntas, L.; Elisei, R.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.; Rimmele, H.; Seregni, E.; Smit, J.W.A.; Theimer, C.; Giovanella, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Even though the presence of antithyroglobulin antibodies (TgAbs) represents a significant problem in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), the current guidelines on the management of DTC that have been published in recent years contain no text concerning the

  3. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer - II. Menstrual and reproductive factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negri, E; Dal Maso, L; Ron, E; La Vecchia, C; Mark, SD; Preston-Martin, S; McTiernan, A; Kolonel, L; Yoshimoto, Y; Jin, F; Wingren, G; Galanti, MR; Hardell, L; Glattre, E; Lund, E; Levi, F; Linos, D; Braga, C; Franceschi, S

    1999-01-01

    Objective: It has been suggested that female hormones, and hence menstrual and reproductive factors, play a role in thyroid cancer etiology. Epidemiological data, however, are limited and inconsistent, partly because of the small number of cases included in each study. To clarify the etiology of thy

  4. Feasibility of a randomized trial on adjuvant radio-iodine therapy in differentiated thyroid cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragoiescu, C.; Hoekstra, O.S.; Kuik, D.J.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Plaizier, MA; Rodrigus, PT; Huijsmans, DA; Ribot, JG; Kuijpens, J; Coebergh, J.W.; Teule, G.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Justification for adjuvant radio-iodine (I-131) therapy in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is purely based on retrospective data. This is true for ablative therapy and even more so for high-dosage adjuvant schedules. Randomized trials on the latter application are considered impossib

  5. Iodine I-131 With or Without Selumetinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-26

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  6. Statins as a new therapeutic approach in dedifferentiated thyroid cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, A.; John, P.; Sinzinger, H.; Staudenherz, A. [Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Univ. Clinic of Nuclear Medicine; Schaffarich, M.P. [Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics

    2006-07-01

    Generally, primary differentiated tumours are removed surgically followed by adjuvant radioiodine treatment. The effect and outcome of radioiodine ablation depends on the uptake in the thyroid carcinoma cells. But, about one third of patients with local recurrent thyroid carcinomas or distant metastases do not respond to iodine treatment due to loss of differentiation. Prognosis was impaired if tumour cells are losing the capability for radioiodine uptake due to dedifferentiation. However, several trials have been attempted to induce re-differentiation of tumour cells in order to regain their potential for radioiodine uptake. (orig.)

  7. Estrogen induced metastatic modulators MMP-2 and MMP-9 are targets of 3,3'-diindolylmethane in thyroid cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Rajoria

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine related cancer with increasing incidences during the past five years. Current treatments for thyroid cancer, such as surgery or radioactive iodine therapy, often require patients to be on lifelong thyroid hormone replacement therapy and given the significant recurrence rates of thyroid cancer, new preventive modalities are needed. The present study investigates the property of a natural dietary compound found in cruciferous vegetables, 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM, to target the metastatic phenotype of thyroid cancer cells through a functional estrogen receptor. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thyroid cancer cell lines were treated with estrogen and/or DIM and subjected to in vitro adhesion, migration and invasion assays to investigate the anti-metastatic and anti-estrogenic effects of DIM. We observed that DIM inhibits estrogen mediated increase in thyroid cell migration, adhesion and invasion, which is also supported by ER-α downregulation (siRNA studies. Western blot and zymography analyses provided direct evidence for this DIM mediated inhibition of E(2 enhanced metastasis associated events by virtue of targeting essential proteolytic enzymes, namely MMP-2 and MMP-9. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data reports for the first time that DIM displays anti-estrogenic like activity by inhibiting estradiol enhanced thyroid cancer cell proliferation and in vitro metastasis associated events, namely adhesion, migration and invasion. Most significantly, MMP-2 and MMP-9, which are known to promote and enhance metastasis, were determined to be targets of DIM. This anti-estrogen like property of DIM may lead to the development of a novel preventive and/or therapeutic dietary supplement for thyroid cancer patients by targeting progression of the disease.

  8. Economic Evaluation of Recombinant Human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Stimulation vs. Thyroid Hormone Withdrawal Prior to Radioiodine Ablation for Thyroid Cancer: The Korean Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Young Sohn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPrevious studies have suggested that recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH stimulation is an acceptable alternative to thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW when radioiodine remnant ablation is planned for thyroid cancer treatment, based on superior short-term quality of life with non-inferior remnant ablation efficacy. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of radioiodine remnant ablation using rhTSH, compared with the traditional preparation method which renders patients hypothyroid by THW, in Korean perspective.MethodsThis economic evaluation considered the costs and benefits to the Korean public healthcare system. Clinical experts were surveyed regarding the current practice of radioiodine ablation in Korea and their responses helped inform assumptions used in a cost effectiveness model. Markov modelling with 17 weekly cycles was used to assess the incremental costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY associated with rhTSH. Clinical inputs were based on a multi-center, randomized controlled trial comparing remnant ablation success after rhTSH preparation with THW. The additional costs associated with rhTSH were considered relative to the clinical benefits and cost offsets.ResultsThe additional benefits of rhTSH (0.036 QALY are achieved with an additional cost of Korean won ₩961,105, equating to cost per QALY of ₩26,697,361. Sensitivity analyses had only a modest impact upon cost-effectiveness, with one-way sensitivity results of approximately ₩33,000,000/QALY.ConclusionThe use of rhTSH is a cost-effective alternative to endogenous hypothyroid stimulation prior to radioiodine ablation for patients who have undergone thyroidectomy in Korea.

  9. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of thyroid function following total laryngectomy in laryngeal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motasaddi Zarandy M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothyroidism is a well-documented complication after treatment of laryngeal cancer and is particularly significant among patients undergoing laryngectomy. We investigated the frequency of hypothyroidism in patients treated with total laryngectomy for laryngeal cancer. We also evaluated the effect of neck radiotherapy on thyroid function after total laryngectomy for laryngeal cancer. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated 31 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (mean age 53.6 years. Among these patients, 14 were treated with surgery only and 17 were treated with surgery plus radiotherapy. Laboratory evaluation included levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free T4, free T3, and antithyroid antibodies both preoperatively and postoperatively at the first day, as well as one and six months after surgery. Results: All patients had normal thyroid function before treatment; however, after 6 months, five patients (16.1% were hypothyroid. Of these, three patients (9.6% had subclinical symptoms, including elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal free T4, and two patients (6.5% showed clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism. Radiotherapy and neck dissection were significantly associated with higher incidences of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: Our data suggest that hypothyroidism occurs in a substantial proportion of patients undergoing surgery for laryngeal cancer. The results indicate that thyroid function studies should be routinely performed in the follow-up care of laryngeal cancer patients, especially if radiotherapy and neck dissection were part of the treatment. We suggest that this approach will improve the patient's quality of life and diminish the co-morbidity associated with this kind of surgery.

  10. Thyroid, Renal, and Breast Carcinomas, Chondrosarcoma, Colon Adenomas, and Ganglioneuroma: A New Cancer Syndrome, FAP, or Just Coincidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihab Shafek Atta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a case associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, invasive mammary carcinoma, chondrosarcoma, benign ganglioneuroma, and numerous colon adenomas. The patient had a family history of colon cancer, kidney and bladder cancers, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, leukemia, and throat and mouth cancers. She was diagnosed with colonic villous adenoma at the age of 41 followed by thyroid, renal, and breast cancers and chondrosarcoma at the ages of 48, 64, 71, and 74, respectively. Additionally, we included a table with the most common familial cancer syndromes with one or more benign or malignant tumors diagnosed in our case, namely, FAP, HNPCC, Cowden, Peutz-Jeghers, renal cancer, tuberous sclerosis, VHL, breast/other, breast/ovarian, Carney, Werner’s, Bloom, Li-Fraumeni, xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia-telangiectasia, osteochondromatosis, retinoblastoma, and MEN2A.

  11. Medullary thyroid cancer: RET testing of an archival material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, Christian; Jørgensen, Gita; Gerdes, Anne-Marie Axø

    2010-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) might be sporadic (75%) or hereditary (25%). Until the mid nineties the diagnosis of hereditary MTC was based on family history, clinical evaluation, histological detection of C-cell hyperplasia and tumor multifocality. Patients and families with hereditary MTC...

  12. Medullary thyroid cancer: RET testing of an archival material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, Christian; Jørgensen, Gita; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) might be sporadic (75%) or hereditary (25%). Until the mid nineties the diagnosis of hereditary MTC was based on family history, clinical evaluation, histological detection of C-cell hyperplasia and tumor multifocality. Patients and families with hereditary MTC...

  13. Studies for the application of boron neutron capture therapy to the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagrosa, A., E-mail: dagrosa@cnea.gov.ar [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina)] [National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, (1033) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Carpano, M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina); Perona, M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina)] [National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, (1033) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Thomasz, L. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina); Nievas, S. [Department of Chemistry, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina); Cabrini, R. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina); Juvenal, G. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina)] [National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, (1033) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pisarev, M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina)] [National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, (1033) Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Department of Biochemistry, UBA School of Medicine (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate the possibility of treating differentiated thyroid cancer by BNCT. These carcinomas are well controlled with surgery followed by therapy with {sup 131}I; however, some patients do not respond to this treatment. BPA uptake was analyzed both in vitro and in nude mice implanted with cell lines of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The boron intracellular concentration in the different cell lines and the biodistribution studies showed the selectivity of the BPA uptake by this kind of tumor.

  14. Downregulation of Notch-regulated Ankyrin Repeat Protein Exerts Antitumor Activities against Growth of Thyroid Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Feng Chu; Yi-Yu Qin; Sheng-Lai Zhang; Zhi-Wei Quan; Ming-Di Zhang; Jian-Wei Bi

    2016-01-01

    Background:The Notch-regulated ankyrin repeat protein (NRARP) is recently found to promote proliferation of breast cancer cells.The role of NRARP in carcinogenesis deserves extensive investigations.This study attempted to investigate the expression of NRARP in thyroid cancer tissues and assess the influence of NRARP on cell proliferation,apoptosis,cell cycle,and invasion in thyroid cancer.Methods:Thirty-four cases with thyroid cancer were collected from the Department of General Surgery,Xinhua Hospital,Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine between 2011 and 2012.Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the level of NRARP in cancer tissues.Lentivirus carrying NRARP-shRNA (Lenti-NRARP-shRNA) was applied to down-regulate NRARP expression.Cell viability was tested after treatment with Lenti-NRARP-shRNA using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay.Apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were determined by flow cytometry.Cell invasion was tested using Transwell invasion assay.In addition,expressions of several cell cycle-associated and apoptosis-associated proteins were examined using Western blotting after transfection.Student's t-test,one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA),or Kaplan-Meier were used to analyze the differences between two group or three groups.Results:NRARP was highly expressed in thyroid cancer tissues.Lenti-NRARP-shRNA showed significantly inhibitory activities against cell growth at a multiplicity of infection of 10 or higher (P < 0.05).Lenti-NRARP-shRNA-induced G1 arrest (BHT 101:72.57% ± 5.32%;8305C:75.45% ± 5.26%) by promoting p21 expression,induced apoptosis by promoting bax expression and suppressing bcl-2 expression,and inhibited cell invasion by suppressing matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression.Conclusion:Downregulation of NRARP expression exerts significant antitumor activities against cell growth and invasion of thyroid cancer,that suggests a potential role of NRARP in thyroid cancer targeted

  15. Clinical and Genetic Aspects of Sporadic Non-Medullar Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Rumjanzeva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of somatic mutations in sporadic thyroid cancer is unclear today. Probably they coming out as aetiological factors in carcinogenesis as well as, respectfully to many authors, can to participate in TC pathogenesis and to determine the clinical course and prognosis of the disease. For today as main oncogenes taking part in initiation of thyroid malignant tumors are considered: RET/PTC, TRK, PTEN, P53, RAS, MET, PPARγ. By means of genetic investigations scientists are trying to solve problems with thyroid cancer differentiated diagnostics (cytokeratin-19, cytokeratin-20, mesothelial cells antigen (Hector Battifora MEsotelial (cell or HBME-1, loss of heterozigitoty (LOH in short arm of 3 chromosome (gene VHL -von Hippel Lindau, 3р26. Recently in foreign literature appeared reports of activated mutations in gene BRAF which most frequently are occurred in melanoma and papillary TC. Prognosis of thyroid cancer may reflected by the LOH as a biological breakage as well as changes of tumor suppressive gene P53 which fraught with decrease of disease prognosis. Thus, both researchers and clinicians have many questions concerning the role of genome, particularly in order to precise of genetic abnormality influence on tumor growth and therefore for assessment of clinical prognosis and with aim to chose adequate treatment tactic in each case.

  16. Pre-Ablation Thyroglobulin Levels and Persistence / Recurrence Associated to Early Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

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    Arturo Mejía López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most frequent endocrine neoplasm in the world and its incidence is growing rapidly. The relationship between levels of pre-ablation thyroglobulin (Tg and early persistence/recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer was studied. Materials and Methods: 91 patients with papillary thyroid cancer who underwent post-surgical ablation with radioactive iodine registered in the Fundacion Cardioinfantil between January 2006 and January 2010 were evaluated. The analysis of the results was performed using the SPSS statistical package and the research hypothesis was evaluated using nonparametric methods. Results: The disease progressed in 20 patients during the first year post-ablation, at the end of this period (p=0.000 a significant relationship between pre-ablation Tg and disease status was found. In the group of individuals by whom the disease progressed there was no significant change in Tg between the first and the second semester post-ablation (p = 0.554; there were no cases of recurrence/persistence in those with levels less than or equal to 2.7 ng/mL; 80 % of these cases involved individuals with initial levels higher than 24 ng/mL. Conclusion: In patients with papillary thyroid cáncer the serum pre-ablation Tg is related to the disease status at the end of the first year post-ablation. The persistence/recurrence is less frequent in low levels and more frequent in higher levels.

  17. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS OF THE THYROID GLAND IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF LARYNGEAL CANCER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Vorozhtsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ, which has a significant influence on human organism from the perinatal period and throughout the whole life, participating in the regulation of metabolism. The most common variant of thyroid dysfunction is hypothyroidism, which causes different disorders in various organs and systems, including psycho-emotional sphere. This can burden comorbidities and particularly malignant processes.Laryngeal cancer is the most common type of head and neck cancer. Despite the visual availability of this localization for diagnosis, more than 50% of cases stay timely unrecognized. Many cases are found out at stages III and IV, which requires expanded operations and causes traumatization because of disruption or loss of such important functions as breathing, swallowing, speech, causing long-term or permanent disability. This makes laryngeal cancer significant medical and social and economic problem.One of the leading treatments for cancer of the larynx is external beam radiotherapy. Thyroid gland gets into the radiation area and may take more than 50% of the total focal dose. The most common outcome of post-radiation inflammation is fibrosis of thyroid tissue due to lesions of the blood vessels and destruction of thyrocytes. It causes the development of hypothyroidism, which exacerbate stress caused by cancer and by aggressive antitumor therapy. Also, hypothyroidism adversely affects the patients’ condition during the postoperative period.Despite the fact that the diagnosis of hypothyroidism is pretty simple, and replacement therapy with L-thyroxine is cheap and available, many doctors don’t monitorthyroid function in cancer patients at all or don’t make all necessary tests.Thus, timely detection of hypothyroidism is extremely important during and after the treatment of laryngeal cancer. Early prescribing adequate treatment helps to reduce the incidence of complications.

  18. The association between selenium and other micronutrients and thyroid cancer incidence in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J O'Grady

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is an essential trace element that is important for thyroid hormone metabolism and has antioxidant properties which protect the thyroid gland from oxidative stress. The association of selenium, as well as intake of other micronutrients, with thyroid cancer is unclear. METHODS: We evaluated associations of dietary selenium, beta-carotene, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin C, vitamin E, folate, magnesium, and zinc intake with thyroid cancer risk in the National Institutes of Health - American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study, a large prospective cohort of 566,398 men and women aged 50-71 years in 1995-1996. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine associations between dietary intake of micronutrients, assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and thyroid cancer cases, ascertained by linkage to state cancer registries and the National Death Index. RESULTS: With the exception of vitamin C, which was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (HR(Q5 vs Q1, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.02-1.76; P(trend, <0.01, we observed no evidence of an association between quintile of selenium (HR(Q5 vs Q1, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.92-1.65; P(trend, 0.26 or other micronutrient intake and thyroid cancer. CONCLUSION: Our study does not suggest strong evidence for an association between dietary intake of selenium or other micronutrients and thyroid cancer risk. More studies are needed to clarify the role of selenium and other micronutrients in thyroid carcinogenesis.

  19. Lack of germline A339V mutation in thyroid transcription factor-1 (TITF-1/NKX2.1 gene in familial papillary thyroid cancer

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    Cantara Silvia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thyroid cancer may have a familial predisposition but a specific germline alteration responsible for the disease has not been discovered yet. We have shown that familial papillary thyroid cancer (FPTC patients have an imbalance in telomere-telomerase complex with short telomeres and increased telomerase activity. A germline mutation (A339V in thyroid transcription factor-1 has been described in patients with multinodular goiter and papillary thyroid cancer. In this report, the presence of the A339V mutation and the telomere length has been studied in FPTC patients and unaffected family members. All samples analyzed displayed a pattern typical of the homozygous wild type revealing the absence of the A339V mutation. Shortening of telomeres was confirmed in all patients. We concluded that the A339V mutation in thyroid transcription factor-1 (TITF-1/NKX2.1 is not correlated with the familial form of PTC, even when the tumor was in the context of multinodular goiter.

  20. Radioiodine therapy in skeletal metastases from well-differentiated thyroid cancer: a Johannesburg experience

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    Nalini Sindy Perumal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim.The purpose of this study was to examine the outcome of patients with skeletal metastases from well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma and analyse the effect of variables that influence the prognosis of this disease. Method. We retrospectively reviewed 352 patients treated and followed-up at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital’s thyroid cancer clinic from 1982 - 1999. Findings. Skeletal metastases were diagnosed in 24 (6.8%, 17 at presentation to the thyroid clinic, and 7 at follow-up. Patients’ ages ranged from 30 - 77 years (mean 53.9 years and the female:male ratio was 3.8:1. Based on the original pathology reports from resected tumours, 9 were papillary and 15 were follicular cancers. Twenty-three of the 24 patients underwent thyroid surgery as the initial management – total thyroidectomy in 18, subtotal thyroidectomy in 3, and lobectomy plus neck dissection in one. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer was based on lobectomy in a single subject. Radioactive iodine (RAI was used as part of the original treatment; external radiation therapy (XRT was mainly used to alleviate severe symptoms. Twenty-one patients (87.5% were treated with RAI; 11 (45.8% received radiotherapy. Seven patients died – 4 from neurological disease directly associated with bone metastases. Of the 17 surviving patients, 2 appeared to be disease-free, 8 were asymptomatic despite overt bony disease, and 7 had persistent symptoms which much improved in 5. Bone metastases were uncommon, and follicular cancer predominated in this survey. Conclusion. RAI therapy improves quality of life in most patients. There is a place for XRT.

  1. The value of ultrasound in the follow-up of thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedbæk, Finn Noe; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    The commonly used tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system is designed to predict death and not recurrence. Based on this, patients with thyroid cancer are grouped into risk categories at the time of initial treatment. However, recent guidelines proposed a novel staging system focusing...... on microscopic invasion into the perithyroidal tissues, neck lymph node involvement and 131I uptake outside the thyroid bed following treatment. This risk re-assessment improves the prediction of recurrent/persistent disease. The cornerstone in the follow-up is measurement of plasma-thyroglobulin concentration...... and ultrasound of the neck focusing on the thyroid bed and classification of lymph nodes according to their location and high risk signs....

  2. Silent thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lymphocytic thyroiditis; Painless thyroiditis; Postpartum thyroiditis; Thyroiditis - silent; Hyperthyroidism - silent thyroiditis ... earliest symptoms result from an overactive thyroid gland ( hyperthyroidism ). These symptoms may last for up to 3 ...

  3. Association of vitamin D levels and receptor gene polymorphisms with medullary thyroid cancer

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    Mehrnoosh Ramezani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Accounting for approximately 1-2% of all cancers. Thyroid cancers have been divided into four main types: papillary, follicular, medullary and anaplastic. The active form of vitamin D (1,25- (OH 2-vitamin D3 by binding to its receptor, using genomic and non-genomic mechanisms inhibits the proliferative effect of TSH on thyroid cells. Therefore, vitamin D may have a role in regulating of thyroid gland cell proliferation. Many studies have shown anti-cancer effects of vitamin D in cancers. Polymorphisms of Vitamin D receptor can influence the prevalence to various cancers. In the present study, serum level of vitamin D and FokI, BsmI and Tru9I polymorphism of vitamin D receptor was investigated. Methods: This case-control study was performed in the summer of 2015 in Endocrinology and Metabolism Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Forty medullary thyroid cancer patients and 40 healthy controls were investigated. Genomic DNA of subjects was extracted with saturated salt/proteinase K and polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor gene investigated by polymerase chain reaction-sequencing. Serum level of vitamin D evaluated by ELISA technique. The results were analyzed by SPSS, ver. 20 (Chicago, IL, USA and GraphPad Prism, ver. 5 (GraphPad, Inc., CA, USA softwares. Results: Genotypic and allelic abundance of FokI and BsmI polymorphisms between test and control groups have not shown significant different. In Tru9I polymorphism, Tt genotype abundance in test group were 45 percent and in control group were 17.5 percent and t allelic abundance in test group were 25 percent and in control group were 8.7 percent which this different were significant. Average serum level of vitamin D in test group was 23.32 ng/ml and in control group was 18.95 ng/ml which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Unexpectedly, serum levels of vitamin D in test group were higher

  4. Assessing risk of thyroid cancer using resonance-frequency based electrical impedance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Tublin, Mitchell E.; Lederman, Dror; Klym, Amy H.; Brown, Erica D.; Gur, David

    2011-03-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has risen faster than many malignancies and has nearly doubled in the USA over the past 30 years. Palpable nodules and subclinical nodules detected by imaging are found in a large percentage of the USA population. Most of these (.>95%) are fortunately benign. This vast reservoir of nodules makes the detection and diagnosis of thyroid cancer a diagnostic dilemma. Ultrasound guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB) is excellent for triaging patients but up to 25% of FNABs are inconclusive. As a result, definitive diagnosis is often only possible with a diagnostic lobectomy; many thousands of these are performed in the USA annually for ultimately benign disease. It would be extremely beneficial if we could develop a non-invasive procedure that could assist the diagnostician in reliably predicting the likelihood of malignancy of otherwise indeterminate thyroid nodules, thereby reducing the number of these "exploratory/diagnostic" lobectomies performed under general anesthesia. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) was considered as a possible approach to address this problem. However, the diagnostic accuracy of EIS is too low for routine clinical use to date. In our group, we developed a substantially modified technology termed Resonance-frequency Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (REIS), which yields usable information for classifying risk of having breast abnormalities. We preliminarily applied REIS to measure signals on participants having thyroid nodules aiming to assess whether we can assist in improving diagnosis of indeterminate thyroid nodules. In this study we present a new multi-probe based REIS device specifically designed for the assessment of indeterminate thyroid nodules. Our preliminary assessment presented here demonstrates the feasibility of using this proposed REIS device in a busy tertiary care center.

  5. Hashimoto's thyroiditis accompanying with thyroid cancer:98 cases%桥本甲状腺炎合并甲状腺癌98例诊治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐胜前; 宋智明; 朱国华

    2010-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical characteristics of Hashimoto's thyroiditis accompanying with thyroid cancer. Methods Clinical data of 98 cases Hashimoto's thyroiditis accompanying with thyroid cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Results 2 cases underwent lateral thyroid lobectomy and isthmus resection. 58 cases underwent bilateral thyroid lobectomy. 35 cases underwent central lymph node dissection, with 15 cases of lymph node positive. 3 cases underwent modified radical dissection of cervical lymph nodes and all of them were proved to be lymph node positive. Metastasis rate is 25.0% and 52. 2% respectively for tumors whose diameter was less than 1 cm and greater than 1 cm. The difference has no statistic significance. Conclusions Hashimoto's thyroiditis usually accompany with thyroid papillary carcinoma and cervical lymph node metastasis can occur even if it's microcarcinoma. Lymph node metastasis rate increases with increasement of the tumor's diameter. Total thyroidectomy should be performed for Hashimoto's thyroiditis concomitant with thyroid cancer. And if necessary,lymph node dissection should be extended to the central region and lateral neck area.%目的 探讨桥本甲状腺炎合并甲状腺癌的诊治特点.方法 回顾性分析98例桥本甲状腺炎合并甲状腺癌的临床资料.结果 行甲状腺一侧腺叶切除+峡部切除2例;行甲状腺双叶切除58例;行中央区淋巴结清扫35例,淋巴结阳性15例;行颈部淋巴结改良根治术3例,淋巴结阳性3例.原发灶直径≤1.0 cm和>1 cm,中央区淋巴结转移率分别为25.0%和52.2%,差异无统计学意义.结论 桥本甲状腺炎常合并甲状腺乳头状癌,即使为微小癌,也常伴有颈部淋巴结转移.随着肿瘤直径的增大,淋巴结转移亦相应增多.桥本甲状腺炎合并甲状腺癌手术中,应行甲状腺双叶切除,必要时加行中央区及颈侧区淋巴结的清扫.

  6. Multikinase inhibitors use in differentiated thyroid carcinoma

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    Jasim S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sina Jasim,1,* Levent Ozsari,2,* Mouhammed Amir Habra2 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism, and Nutrition, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Department of Endocrine Neoplasia and Hormonal Disorders, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA *These authors contributed equally in this work Abstract: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, and its incidence is increasing. Standard therapy for most patients with localized differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC includes surgery, radioactive iodine, and thyroid hormone replacement. A minority of thyroid cancer patients requires systemic therapy for metastatic disease. Patients with metastatic DTC do not usually benefit from traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy. In this review, we describe newly developed small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs that are being actively tested and used in the management of advanced thyroid cancer. The use of TKIs as a form of molecular targeted therapy is evolving based on understanding of the pathways involved in DTC. Disrupting tumor vascular supply by targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling is the most commonly used approach to treat advanced/metastatic DTC. Other mechanisms include targeting BRAF, MAPK/ERK kinase, or mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. Although TKIs appear to have superior efficacy compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy, they can cause substantial adverse effects; symptomatic management of adverse effects, dose adjustment, or cessation of therapy may be required. Keywords: differentiated thyroid cancer, progression-free survival, adverse effects, targeted therapy, sorafenib, lenvatinib

  7. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Dagmara; Król, Wojciech; Szliszka, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease.

  8. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances

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    Dagmara Jaworska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease.

  9. Role of dietary iodine and cruciferous vegetables in thyroid cancer: a countrywide case-control study in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Thérèse; Baron-Dubourdieu, Dominique; Rougier, Yannick; Guénel, Pascal

    2010-08-01

    Exceptionally high incidence rates of thyroid cancer have been reported in New Caledonia, particularly in Melanesian women. To clarify the reasons of this elevated incidence, we conducted a countrywide population-based case-control study in the multiethnic population of Caledonian women. The study included 293 cases of thyroid cancer and 354 population controls. Based on a food frequency questionnaire, we investigated the role in thyroid cancer of food items rich in iodine-such as seafood-and of vegetables containing goitrogens-such as cruciferous vegetables. A measure of total daily iodine intake based on a food composition table was also used. Our findings provided little support for an association between thyroid cancer and consumption of fish and seafood. We found that high consumption of cruciferous vegetables was associated with thyroid cancer among women with low iodine intake (OR = 1.86; 95% CI: 1.01-3.43 for iodine intake cruciferous vegetables among Melanesian women, a group with mild iodine deficiency, may contribute to explain the exceptionally high incidence of thyroid cancer in this group.

  10. Incidence of Breast, Prostate, Testicular, and Thyroid Cancer in Italian Contaminated Sites with Presence of Substances with Endocrine Disrupting Properties

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    Marta Benedetti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of breast (females, prostate, testicular, and thyroid cancer in the Italian National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs, served by cancer registries, where the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs, reported to be linked to these tumours, was documented. Evidence of carcinogenicity of EDs present in NPCSs was assessed based on evaluation by international scientific institutions and committees. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs were computed for each NPCS and cancer site between 1996 and 2005. Excess incidence of one or more cancer site studied was found in twelve out of fourteen NPCSs. Significantly increased SIRs were found for breast cancer in eight NPCSs, for prostate cancer in six, for thyroid cancer (both gender in four, and for testicular cancer in two. Non-significantly increased SIRs were found in five NPCSs for testicular cancer and in two for thyroid cancer (males. In a small number of instances a significant deficit was reported, mainly for thyroid and prostate cancer. Although increased incidence of one or more cancer sites studied were found in several NPCSs, the ecological study design and the multifactorial aetiology of the considered tumours do not permit concluding causal links with environmental contamination. Regarding the observation of some excesses in SIRs, continuing epidemiological surveillance is warranted.

  11. Incidence of Breast, Prostate, Testicular, and Thyroid Cancer in Italian Contaminated Sites with Presence of Substances with Endocrine Disrupting Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Marta; Zona, Amerigo; Beccaloni, Eleonora; Carere, Mario; Comba, Pietro

    2017-03-29

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of breast (females), prostate, testicular, and thyroid cancer in the Italian National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs), served by cancer registries, where the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs), reported to be linked to these tumours, was documented. Evidence of carcinogenicity of EDs present in NPCSs was assessed based on evaluation by international scientific institutions and committees. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs) were computed for each NPCS and cancer site between 1996 and 2005. Excess incidence of one or more cancer site studied was found in twelve out of fourteen NPCSs. Significantly increased SIRs were found for breast cancer in eight NPCSs, for prostate cancer in six, for thyroid cancer (both gender) in four, and for testicular cancer in two. Non-significantly increased SIRs were found in five NPCSs for testicular cancer and in two for thyroid cancer (males). In a small number of instances a significant deficit was reported, mainly for thyroid and prostate cancer. Although increased incidence of one or more cancer sites studied were found in several NPCSs, the ecological study design and the multifactorial aetiology of the considered tumours do not permit concluding causal links with environmental contamination. Regarding the observation of some excesses in SIRs, continuing epidemiological surveillance is warranted.

  12. EpCAM nuclear localization identifies aggressive Thyroid Cancer and is a marker for poor prognosis

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    MacMillan Christina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain (EpEx of Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM and nuclear signaling by its intracellular oncogenic domain Ep-ICD has recently been implicated in increased proliferation of cancer cells. The clinical significance of Ep-ICD in human tumors remains an enigma. Methods EpEx, Ep-ICD and β-catenin immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies was conducted on 58 archived thyroid cancer (TC tissue blocks from 34 patients and correlated with survival analysis of these patients for up to 17 years. Results The anaplastic (ATC and aggressive thyroid cancers showed loss of EpEx and increased nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of Ep-ICD. In contrast, the low grade papillary thyroid cancers (PTC showed membranous EpEx and no detectable nuclear Ep-ICD. The ATC also showed concomitant nuclear expression of Ep-ICD and β-catenin. Kaplan-Meier Survival analysis revealed reduced overall survival (OS for TC patients showing nuclear Ep-ICD expression or loss of membranous EpEx (p Conclusion We report reciprocal loss of membrane EpEx but increased nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of Ep-ICD in aggressive TC; nuclear Ep-ICD correlated with poor OS of TC patients. Thus nuclear Ep-ICD localization may serve as a useful biomarker for aggressive TC and may represent a novel diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic target for aggressive TC.

  13. Tumor Genotype Determines Phenotype and Disease-related Outcomes in Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Linwah; Nikiforova, Marina N.; Yoo, Jenny Y.; McCoy, Kelly L.; Stang, Michael T.; Armstrong, Michaele J.; Nicholson, Kristina J.; Ohori, N. Paul; Coyne, Christopher; Hodak, Steven P.; Ferris, Robert L.; LeBeau, Shane O.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Carty, Sally E.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To correlate thyroid cancer genotype with histology and outcomes. Background The prognostic significance of molecular signature in thyroid cancer (TC) is undefined but can potentially change surgical management. Methods We reviewed a consecutive series of 1510 patients who had initial thyroidectomy for TC with routine testing for BRAF, RAS, RET/PTC, and PAX8/PPARG alterations. Histologic metastatic or recurrent TC was tracked for 6 or more months after oncologic thyroidectomy. Results Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was diagnosed in 97% of patients and poorly differentiated/anaplastic TC in 1.1%. Genetic alterations were detected in 1039 (70%); the most common mutations were BRAFV600E (644/1039, 62%), and RAS isoforms (323/1039, 31%). BRAFV600E-positive PTC was often conventional or tall cell variant (58%), with frequent extrathyroidal extension (51%) and lymph node metastasis (46%). Conversely, RAS-positive PTC was commonly follicular variant (87%), with infrequent extrathyroidal extension (4.6%) and lymph node metastasis (5.6%). BRAFV600E and RET/PTC-positive PTCs were histologically similar. Analogously, RAS and PAX8/PPARG-positive PTCs were histologically similar. Compared with RAS or PAX8/PPARG-positive TCs, BRAFV600E or RET/PTC-positive TCs were more often associated with stage III/IV disease (40% vs 15%, P cancers, with higher risks of both distant metastasis and early recurrence. Preoperative genotype provides valuable prognostic data to appropriately inform surgery. PMID:26258321

  14. The prevalence of thyroid cancers in surgically treated patients with nodular goiter in Şırnak city

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    Sevda Sert Bektaş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Iodine deficiency is still considered to be the major etiological factor for endemic goiter. The pathogenesis of the goiter in iodine deficient area caries different characteristics. The aim of this study investigate the prevalence of thyroid cancers and type of thyroid cancers in surgically treated patients with nodular goiter in Şırnak city where is iodine deficiency region.Materials and methods: Thyroid surgical materials which were sent to our department were screened retrospectively from the archives between the years 2009-2010. Thyroid resection was performed on 241 patients with nodular goiter in one year. We evaluated patients who received the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma with histhopatological examination.Results: 222 of our patients (92.1% female and 19 (7.9% were male. The youngest patient 16 and the oldest patient was 80 years old and the average age is 40.9 ± 12.8. Histopathological examination of 197 (81.7% cases of nodular goiter, 31 (12.9% cases lymphocytic thyroiditis, 13 (5.4% patients had thyroid tumors. The three tumors on the 2 cases (0.8% benign, 11 (4.6% were malignant. As a type of cancer 1 (0.4% patients, follicular carcinoma-oncocytic variant, 10 (4.2% cases were papillary carcinoma.Conclusions: Iodine deficiency area in the province of Şırnak in patients with nodular goiter who underwent surgery for thyroid cancer rate of 4.6%, and most cancers is seen as a type of thyroid papillary carcinoma.

  15. Features of radionuclide research after thyroidectomy at the thyroid gland cancer

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    David В Dolidze

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AimTo clarify the possibility of postoperative radioisotope studies in determining the remnants of thyroid tissue in patients with thyroid carcinoma.Materials and methodsThe work is based on the study results of surgical treatment and postoperative examination of 120 patients with thyroid cancer, at the Botkin hospital during the period from 2007 to 2013. All patients were performed extrafascial intervention. 118 (98.3% patients were provided thyroidectomy (including lymph node dissection. For all patients in the postoperative period after 2–4 weeks were performed thyroid and whole-body scan with iodine and technetium, as well as ultrasound and computed tomography of the neck and the chest cavity.ResultsDuring the research, 16 (13.3% patients after scanning with 123I (7 (5.8% patients, 131I (3 (2.5% patients, 99mTs-Pertechnetate (6 (5% patients and applying them consistently (6 (5% patients received the accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in the operation area, as in the midline in the area of the isthmus, and the locations of the right, left and pyramidal thyroid share. These facts were interpreted as an accumulation of the isotope in the remnants of thyroid tissue after surgery. With additional research methods were revealed swelling and infiltration of tissues in 10 (8.3% cases in the sterno-hyoid and sterno-thyroid muscles, and in 6 (5% cases – in the paratracheal and paralaryngeal areas. After fine-needle aspiration biopsy from infiltrative zone was received cytology of nonspecific inflammation. All patients received antiinflammatory and antibiotic therapy with a positive effect. Control ultrasound noted a gradual reduction of the inflammatory infiltrate. After 6 months of thyroid scan was recorded decrease area of uptake, and a year later its complete disappearance.ConclusionsThus, postoperative radionuclide scanning in patients with thyroid gland carcinoma in some cases gives false-positive results, regardless of the type

  16. Nausea and vomiting in advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Pamela; LeGrand, Susan B; Walsh, Declan

    2014-01-05

    Nausea and vomiting are very common symptoms in cancer both treatment and non-treatment related. Many complications of advanced cancer such as gastroparesis, bowel and outlet obstructions, and brain tumors may have nausea and vomiting or either symptom alone. In a non-obstructed situation, nausea may be more difficult to manage and is more objectionable to patients. There is little research on management of these symptoms except the literature on chemotherapy induced nausea where guidelines exist. This article will review the etiologies of nausea and vomiting in advanced cancer and the medications which have been used to treat them. An etiology based protocol to approach the symptom is outlined.

  17. Advances in personalized cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimi, Kazuhiro; Karasaki, Takahiro; Matsushita, Hirokazu; Sugie, Tomoharu

    2017-01-01

    There are currently three major approaches to T cell-based cancer immunotherapy, namely, active vaccination, adoptive cell transfer therapy and immune checkpoint blockade. Recently, this latter approach has demonstrated remarkable clinical benefits, putting cancer immunotherapy under the spotlight. Better understanding of the dynamics of anti-tumor immune responses (the "Cancer-Immunity Cycle") is crucial for the further development of this form of treatment. Tumors employ multiple strategies to escape from anti-tumor immunity, some of which result from the selection of cancer cells with immunosuppressive activity by the process of cancer immunoediting. Apart from this selective process, anti-tumor immune responses can also be inhibited in multiple different ways which vary from patient to patient. This implies that cancer immunotherapy must be personalized to (1) identify the rate-limiting steps in any given patient, (2) identify and combine strategies to overcome these hurdles, and (3) proceed with the next round of the "Cancer-Immunity Cycle". Cancer cells have genetic alterations which can provide the immune system with targets by which to recognize and eradicate the tumor. Mutated proteins expressed exclusively in cancer cells and recognizable by the immune system are known as neoantigens. The development of next-generation sequencing technology has made it possible to determine the genetic landscape of human cancer and facilitated the utilization of genomic information to identify such candidate neoantigens in individual cancers. Future immunotherapies will need to be personalized in terms of the identification of both patient-specific immunosuppressive mechanisms and target neoantigens.

  18. Protective effect of application of carbon nanoparticles in thyroid cancer surgery and evaluation of inflammatory stress reaction degree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Sheng Zheng; Jun-Zheng Li; Wei-Xiong Hong; Jiao-Yuan Xu; Si-Yi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the protective effect of application of carbon nanoparticles in thyroid cancer surgery and its influence on inflammatory stress reaction degree.Methods:Patients who received thyroid cancer surgery in our hospital from June 2013 to June 2014 were chosen for study and randomly divided into conventional group and nano-carbon group. Then contents of thyroid cancer related malignant molecules, pro-inflammation cytokines and inflammation inhibiting factors in serum were detected.Results:(1) Malignant molecules: compared with conventional group, mRNA levels of Wip1, gal-3, SATB1, LSD1, GDF-15 and TBX2 in serum of nano-carbon group were lower; (2) Inflammation inhibiting factors: compared with conventional group, serum MFG-E8 and Omentin-1 levels of nano-carbon group were higher; (3) Pro-inflammation cytokines: compared with conventional group, serum MIP-1, SGK-1 and β-EP levels of nano-carbon group were lower.Conclusion: Application of carbon nanoparticles in thyroid cancer surgery is helpful to reduce operative damage to thyroid tissue, prevent release of malignant biological molecules into bloodstream and relieve inflammatory response; it’s an ideal surgical method for thyroid cancer.

  19. A geographical study of thyroid cancer incidence in north-west England following the Windscale nuclear reactor fire of 1957.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Richard J Q; Wakeford, Richard; James, Peter W; Basta, Nermine O; Alston, Robert D; Pearce, Mark S; Elliott, Alex T

    2016-12-01

    The Windscale nuclear reactor fire at Sellafield, United Kingdom, in October 1957 led to an uncontrolled release of iodine-131 (radioactive half-life, 8 d) into the atmosphere. Contamination from the accident was most pronounced in the counties of Cumbria and Lancashire, north-west England. Radioiodine concentrates in the thyroid gland producing an excess risk of thyroid cancer, notably among those exposed as children, which persists into later life. For an initial investigation of thyroid cancer incidence in north-west England, data were obtained on cases of thyroid cancer among people born during 1929-1973 and diagnosed during 1974-2012 while resident in England, together with corresponding populations. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs), with Poisson 95% confidence intervals (CIs), compared thyroid cancer incidence rates in Cumbria and in Lancashire with those in the rest of England. For those aged  investigations are required to properly understand the unusual patterns of thyroid cancer IRRs in Cumbria and Lancashire, the results of this preliminary study are not consistent with an effect of exposure to iodine-131 from the Windscale accident.

  20. RET oncogene in MEN2, MEN2B, MTC and other forms of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2008-04-01

    Hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is caused by specific autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. MTC represents a promising model for targeted cancer therapy, as the oncogenic event responsible for initiating malignancy has been well characterized. The RET proto-oncogene has become the target for molecularly designed drug therapy. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting activated RET are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of patients with MTC. This review will provide a brief overview of MTC and the associated RET oncogenic mutations, and will summarize the therapies designed to strategically interfere with the pathologic activation of the RET oncogene.

  1. Soft tissue metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosed by {sup 18}F FDG PET-CT

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    Califano, Ines; Quildrian, Sergio; Otero, Jose; Coduti, Martin; Califano, Leonardo; Rojas Bilbao, Erica, E-mail: ines.m.califano@gmail.com [Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-06-15

    Distant metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer are unusual; lung and bones are the most frequently affected sites. Soft tissue metastases (STM) are extremely rare. We describe two cases of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer metastasizing to soft tissues. Both patients had widespread metastatic disease; clinically asymptomatic soft tissue metastases were found by 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F FDG PET-CT), and confirmed by cytological and/or histopathological studies. These findings underscore the ability of {sup 18}F FDG PET-CT in accurately assessing the extent of the disease, as well as the utility of the method to evaluate regions of the body that are not routinely explored. (author)

  2. Thyroid cancer in a long-term nonprogressor HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday A Phatak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term non-progressor HIV infection (LTNP-HIV is seen in <1 percent of HIV-afflicted population. There are definite criteria for the diagnosis of LTNP-HIV. Malignancies either solid tumors or haematological cancers have not been reported in such population. We report here a rare case of follicular thyroid carcinoma in LTNP-HIV infection. She never had any opportunistic infections. She did not receive anti-retroviral therapy in the entire course of illness and continued to have good quality of life. Treatment of follicular thyroid cancer was similar to other patients without HIV infection. This could be the first case study from India.

  3. Autopsy report of acute necrotizing opticomyelopathy associated with thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Y; Miyahara, M; Sakemi, T; Matsui, M; Ryu, T; Yamaguchi, M; Sasadomi, E; Sugihara, H

    1993-12-01

    We report an autopsied case of paraneoplastic necrotizing myelopathy. The patient had bilateral blindness, quadriplegia, and dyspnea of acute onset and died without remission 7 weeks later. The severe tissue necrosis and demyelination were found in the optic chiasm and from the medulla oblongata throughout the whole length of spinal cord. A papillary carcinoma was found in the thyroid gland at autopsy. In the present case IgG, myelin basic protein and activated helper T cells were increased in the CSF at onset, suggesting a mechanism of autoimmune demyelination for the condition.

  4. Hypertensive crisis in a patient with thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, H S; Seshadri, M S; Rajaratnam, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Phaeochromocytomas may be discovered incidentally when patients present with hypertensive crisis during general anaesthesia. A 49-year-old man underwent thyroidectomy 25 years ago and was diagnosed to have spindle cell carcinoma of the thyroid. He presented with recent onset of hoarseness of voice and was found to have a vocal cord nodule. He developed a hypertensive crisis during surgery. He was subsequently evaluated and found to have bilateral phaeochromocytoma. Further evaluation revealed a RET proto-oncogene mutation at codon 634 consistent with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)-2A.

  5. Prophylactic central lymph nodes dissection (VI level in papillary thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Olegovich Rumiantsev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic involvement of central lymph nodes in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC is very common. However, prophylactic central lymph nodes dissection additionally to thyroidectomy does not significantly affect disease-free and overall survival of PTC patients. Meanwhile its routine conduction is tangibly increase postsurgical complications. From efficacy/safety point of view prophylactic central lymph nodes dissection couldn't be recommended as substantiated in all PTC patients.

  6. Practice patterns among thyroid cancer surgeons: implications of performing a prophylactic central neck dissection

    OpenAIRE

    Deutschmann, Michael W.; Chin-Lenn, Laura; Nakoneshny, Steven C.; Dort, Joseph C.; Pasieka, Janice L.; Chandarana, Shamir P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Indications for performing a prophylactic central neck dissection (pCND) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) remain controversial. It is unclear how identification of lymph node (LN) metastases should impact the decision to treat with radioactive iodine (RAI). The goals of this study were to identify indications for performing pCND and identify factors that predict the use of adjuvant RAI. Methods This was a population based cross-sectional analysis. A prospectively collected databas...

  7. Thoracic Duct Fistula after Thyroid Cancer Surgery: Towards a New Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Rodier

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of somatostatin analogs is a new conservative therapeutic approach for the treatment of chyle fistulas developing after thyroid cancer surgery. The combination therapy with a total parenteral nutrition should avoid the high morbidity of are-intervention with an uncertain outcome. This promising trend is supported by the present case report of a chyle leak occurring after total thyroidectomy with central and lateral neck dissection for a papillary carcinoma, which was treated successfully without immediate or distant sequelae.

  8. Pattern of nodal involvement in papillary thyroid cancer: a challenge of quantitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fama, Fausto; Cicciù, Marco; Giudice, Giuseppe Lo; Sindoni, Alessandro; Palella, Jessica; Piquard, Arnaud; Saint-Marc, Olivier; Benvenga, Salvatore; Bramanti, Ennio; Cervino, Gabriele; Florio, Maria Gioffre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Backgrounds of this study were to examine and analyse the relationship among the number of lymph nodes with metastases harvested in central and lateral compartments, the characteristics of tumours and patients, and the recurrences rate. Methods: A retrospective review of 118 patients treated for a papillary thyroid cancer and underwent to neck dissection, including in all cases both central and lateral compartment, was realised. A quantitative analysis, on this homogeneous cohor...

  9. {sup 131}I treatment for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism: a cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chien-Mu [Taipei Medical University - Shuang Ho Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Medical University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Taipei (China); Doyle, Pat [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London (United Kingdom); Tsan, Yu-Tse [National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, Taipei (China); Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Taichung (China); Chung Shan Medical University, School of Medicine, Taichung (China); Lee, Chang-Hsing [Ton Yen General Hospital, Department of Occupational Medicine, Hsinchu County (China); Wang, Jung-Der [National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, Taipei (China); National Cheng Kung University College of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Tainan (China); Chen, Pau-Chung [National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Department of Public Health, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine and Hospital, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Taipei (China); Collaboration: Health Data Analysis in Taiwan (hDATa) Research Group

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the association between {sup 131}I therapy for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism. This was a nationwide population-based cohort study of patients with thyroid cancer diagnosed during the period 1997-2008. The data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset. The cumulative {sup 131}I dose in each patient was calculated. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a proportional hazards model to estimate the effect of {sup 131}I therapy on the risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism in the cohort. A total of 8,946 patients with thyroid cancer were eligible for the final analysis. Among these patients, 8 developed primary hyperparathyroidism during the follow-up period that represented 38,248 person-years giving an incidence rate of 20.9 per 10{sup 5} person-years. {sup 131}I was used in the treatment of 6,153 patients (68.8 %) with a median cumulative dose of 3.7 GBq. The adjusted HRs were 0.21 (95% CI 0.02-1.86) and 0.46 (95% CI 0.10-2.10) for those receiving a cumulative {sup 131}I dose of 0.1-3.6 GBq and ≥3.7 GBq, respectively, compared to no therapy. The risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism did not increase with increasing {sup 131}I dose (test for trend p = 0.51). No interaction was found between {sup 131}I dose and age (p = 0.94) or {sup 131}I dose and sex (p = 0.99). {sup 131}I treatment for thyroid cancer did not increase risk of primary hyperparathyroidism during a 10-year follow-up in this study population. Further research with a longer follow-up period is needed to assess late adverse effects beyond 10 years. (orig.)

  10. HABP2 germline variants are uncommon in familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Weeks, Alexia L.; Scott G Wilson; Ward, Lynley; Goldblatt, Jack; Hui, Jennie; Walsh, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The genetic basis of nonsyndromic familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC) is poorly understood. A recent study identified HABP2 as a tumor suppressor gene and identified a germline variant (G534E) in an extended FNMTC kindred. The relevance of this to other FNMTC kindreds is uncertain. Methods Sanger sequencing was performed on peripheral blood DNA from probands from 37 Australian FNMTC kindreds to detect the G534E variant. Whole exome data from 59 participants from 20 kindred...

  11. Thoracic Duct Fistula after Thyroid Cancer Surgery: Towards a New Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, Jean-François; Volkmar, Pierre-Philippe; Bodin, Frédéric; Frigo, Séverine; Ciftci, Sait; Dahlet, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The use of somatostatin analogs is a new conservative therapeutic approach for the treatment of chyle fistulas developing after thyroid cancer surgery. The combination therapy with a total parenteral nutrition should avoid the high morbidity of a re-intervention with an uncertain outcome. This promising trend is supported by the present case report of a chyle leak occurring after total thyroidectomy with central and lateral neck dissection for a papillary carcinoma, which was treated successfully without immediate or distant sequelae. PMID:21734879

  12. Aflibercept in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-24

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  13. Recombinant human TSH in differentiated thyroid cancer: a nuclear medicine perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanotti-Fregonara, P. [CEA, DSV, I2BM, SHFJ, LMNRB, Orsay (France); Rubello, D. [Osped S Maria Misericordia, IRCCS, IOV, Dept Nucl Med, PET Ctr, I-45100 Rovigo (Italy); Hindie, E. [Hop St Louis, Dept Nucl Med, Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    The use of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is widely discussed in the literature with regard to the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the management of DTC patients. However, some controversy about the appropriate indications, advantages and potential disadvantages of the use of rhTSH may still exist within the community of nuclear medicine physicians. In our opinion, the clinical benefits of rhTSH in avoiding hypothyroidism outweigh its somewhat lesser diagnostic accuracy. However, we disagree on designating rhTSH as the 'golden standard' to obtain TSH stimulation, as suggested by some authors. Thus, the first follow-up examination after ablation, which is determinant for patients' prognostic classification, can be either done under rhTSH stimulation or after hormone withdrawal. In our practice, and for higher risk patients, we still favour performing the initial follow-up after thyroid hormone withdrawal. rhTSH also shows the ability to enhance radioiodine concentration into thyroid cells. This characteristic is obviously of great interest among the nuclear medicine community. In clinical practice, it seems preferable to perform {sup 131}I treatment for metastatic disease during hypothyroidism. rhTSH may find its utility for the treatment of specific populations of patients, i.e. those in whom hormone withdrawal is medically contraindicated or in whom adequate endogenous TSH levels cannot be obtained due to reduced pituitary reserve or continued thyroxine production by metastatic tissue. In conclusion, rhTSH has demonstrated to be a reliable alternative to hypothyroidism for the stimulation of Tg in the follow-up of thyroid cancer patients. However, its use must be more carefully chosen in the therapeutic setting. Our feeling is that rhTSH should no tbe used for remnant ablation in high-risk patients and for the treatment of metastatic disease, except for specific populations of

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls and omega-3 fatty acid exposure from fish consumption, and thyroid cancer among New York anglers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Alyson; Robb, Sara Wagner; Bonner, Matthew R; Lindblad, William; Allegra, Joey; Shen, Ye; Vena, John E

    2016-03-01

    Fish from the Great Lakes contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which have been shown to disrupt endocrine function and mimic thyroid hormones, but they also contain beneficial omega-3 fatty acids that may offer protection against endocrine cancers. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Lake Ontario fish consumption and the estimated consumption of PCBs and omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of thyroid cancer in a group of sport fishermen. Anglers from the New York State Angler Cohort Study were followed for cancer incidence from 1991-2008. Twenty-seven cases of incident thyroid cancer and 108 controls were included in the analyses. Total estimated fish consumption, estimated omega-3 fatty acid consumption, and estimated PCB consumption from Lake Ontario fish were examined for an association with the incidence of thyroid cancer, while matching on sex, and controlling for age and smoking status. Results from logistic regression indicate no significant associations between fish consumption, short-term estimated omega-3 fatty acids, or estimated PCB consumption from Great Lakes fish and the development of thyroid cancer, but it was suggested that long-term omega-3 fatty acid from Great Lakes fish may be protective of the development of thyroid cancer. In conclusion, fish consumption, with the possible concomitant PCBs, from the Great Lakes does not appear to increase the risk of thyroid cancer in New York anglers. Further research is needed in order to separate the individual health effects of PCBs from omega-3 fatty acids contained within the fish.

  15. The clinical features of papillary thyroid cancer in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis patients from an area with a high prevalence of Hashimoto’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ling

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was to identify the clinicopathological factors of co-existing papillary thyroid cancer (PTC in patients with Hashimoto���s thyroiditis (HT and provide information to aid in the diagnosis of such patients. Methods This study included 6109 patients treated in a university-based tertiary care cancer hospital over a 3-year period. All of the patients were categorised based on their final diagnosis. Several clinicopathological factors, such as age, gender, nodular size, invasive status, central compartment lymph node metastasis (CLNM and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level, were compared between the various groups of patients. Results There were 653 patients with a final diagnosis of HT. More PTC was found in those with HT (58.3%; 381 of 653 than those without HT (2416 of 5456; 44.3%; p Conclusion PTC and HT have a close relationship in this region of highly prevalent HT disease. Based on the results of our study, we hypothesise that long-term HT leads to elevated serum TSH, which is the real risk factor for thyroid cancer.

  16. Thyroid Lobectomy Is Associated with Excellent Clinical Outcomes in Properly Selected Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Patients with Primary Tumors Greater Than 1 cm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vaisman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. An individualized risk-based approach to the treatment of thyroid cancer is being extensively discussed in the recent literature. However, controversies about the ideal surgical approach remain an important issue with regard to the impact on prognosis and follow-up strategies. This study was designed to describe clinical outcomes in a cohort of low and intermediate risk thyroid cancer patients treated with thyroid lobectomy. Methods. Retrospective review of 70 patients who underwent lobectomy. Results. After a median follow-up of 11 years, 5 patients (5/70, 7.1% recurred and 5 had a completion for benign lesions, while 60 patients (86% continued to be observed without evidence for disease recurrence. Suspicious ultrasound findings were significantly more common in patients that had structural disease recurrence (100% versus 4.3%, P<0.001. Furthermore, a rising suppressed Tg value over time was also associated with structural disease recurrence (80% versus 21.5%, P=0.01. After additional therapy, 99% of the patients had no evidence of disease. Conclusions. Properly selected thyroid cancer patients can be treated with lobectomy with excellent clinical outcomes.

  17. Nulliparity enhances the risk of second primary malignancy of the breast in a cohort of women treated for thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milazzo Francesca

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have reported an increased risk of developing a second primary malignancy (SPM of the breast in women treated for thyroid cancer. In this study, we investigated several potential risk factors for this association. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to identify a subgroup of women surgically treated for papillary thyroid cancer that may benefit from more careful breast cancer screening. Methods A total of 101 women surgically treated for papillary thyroid cancer from 1996 to 2009 with subsequent follow-up were interviewed by phone regarding personal risk factors and lifestyle habits. Only 75 questionnaires could be evaluated due to a 25.7% rate of patients not retrieved or refusing the interview. Data analysis was performed using a multivariate logistic model. Results The standardised incidence ratio (SIR for breast cancer was 3.58 (95% IC 1.14 - 8.37. Our data suggest a protective effect of multiparity on the development of a SPM of the breast (O.R. 0.15; 95% IC 0.25 - 0.86. Significant associations were not found with other known risk factors including Body Mass Index (BMI, age at first tumour, concurrent metabolic diseases, smoking, physical activity and familiarity. Conclusions This study confirms that a higher incidence of SPM of the breast is observed in women treated for papillary thyroid cancer. Additionally, this risk is increased by nulliparity, thus a strict breast screening program for nulliparous women treated for thyroid cancer may be advisable.

  18. Proteome Analysis of Human Follicular Thyroid Cancer Cells Exposed to the Random Positioning Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Johann; Kopp, Sascha; Schlagberger, Elisabeth Maria; Grosse, Jirka; Sahana, Jayashree; Riwaldt, Stefan; Wehland, Markus; Luetzenberg, Ronald; Infanger, Manfred; Grimm, Daniela

    2017-03-03

    Several years ago, we detected the formation of multicellular spheroids in experiments with human thyroid cancer cells cultured on the Random Positioning Machine (RPM), a ground-based model to simulate microgravity by continuously changing the orientation of samples. Since then, we have studied cellular mechanisms triggering the cells to leave a monolayer and aggregate to spheroids. Our work focused on spheroid-related changes in gene expression patterns, in protein concentrations, and in factors secreted to the culture supernatant during the period when growth is altered. We detected that factors inducing angiogenesis, the composition of integrins, the density of the cell monolayer exposed to microgravity, the enhanced production of caveolin-1, and the nuclear factor kappa B p65 could play a role during spheroid formation in thyroid cancer cells. In this study, we performed a deep proteome analysis on FTC-133 thyroid cancer cells cultured under conditions designed to encourage or discourage spheroid formation. The experiments revealed more than 5900 proteins. Their evaluation confirmed and explained the observations mentioned above. In addition, we learned that FTC-133 cells growing in monolayers or in spheroids after RPM-exposure incorporate vinculin, paxillin, focal adhesion kinase 1, and adenine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation factor 6 in different ways into the focal adhesion complex.

  19. Emerging integrated nanoclay-facilitated drug delivery system for papillary thyroid cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Long, Mei; Huang, Peng; Yang, Huaming; Chang, Shi; Hu, Yuehua; Tang, Aidong; Mao, Linfeng

    2016-09-01

    Nanoclay can be incorporated into emerging dual functional drug delivery systems (DDSs) to promote efficiency in drug delivery and reduce the toxicity of doxorubicin (DOX) used for thyroid cancer treatment. This paper reports the expansion of the basal spacing of kaolinite nanoclay was expanded from 0.72 nm to 0.85 nm, which could provide sufficiently spacious site for hosting doxorubicin molecules and controlling the diffusion rate. A targeted design for papillary thyroid cancer cells was achieved by introducing KI, which is consumed by the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS). As indicated by MTT assays, confocal laser scanning microscopy and bio-TEM observations, methoxy-intercalated kaolinite (KaolinMeOH) exhibited negligible cytotoxicity against papillary thyroid cancer cells. By contrast, DOX-KaolinMeOH showed dose-dependent therapeutic effects in vitro, and KI@DOX-KaolinMeOH was found to act as a powerful targeted therapeutic drug. Furthermore, active and passive targeting strategies played a role in the accumulation of the drug molecules, as verified by an in vivo bio-distribution analysis.

  20. Quantitative analysis of collagen change between normal and cancerous thyroid tissues based on SHG method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiwen; Huang, Zufang; Xi, Gangqin; Chen, Yongjian; Lin, Duo; Wang, Jing; Li, Zuanfang; Sun, Liqing; Chen, Jianxin; Chen, Rong

    2012-03-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) is proved to be a high spatial resolution, large penetration depth and non-photobleaching method. In our study, SHG method was used to investigate the normal and cancerous thyroid tissue. For SHG imaging performance, system parameters were adjusted for high-contrast images acquisition. Each x-y image was recorded in pseudo-color, which matches the wavelength range in the visible spectrum. The acquisition time for a 512×512-pixels image was 1.57 sec; each acquired image was averaged four frames to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Our results indicated that collagen presence as determined by counting the ratio of the SHG pixels over the whole pixels for normal and cancerous thyroid tissues were 0.48+/-0.05, 0.33+/-0.06 respectively. In addition, to quantitatively assess collagen-related changes, we employed GLCM texture analysis to the SHG images. Corresponding results showed that the correlation both fell off with distance in normal and cancerous group. Calculated value of Corr50 (the distance where the correlation crossed 50% of the initial correlation) indicated significant difference. This study demonstrates that SHG method can be used as a complementary tool in thyroid histopathology.

  1. Prediagnostic serum selenium in a case-control study of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glattre, E; Thomassen, Y; Thoresen, S O; Haldorsen, T; Lund-Larsen, P G; Theodorsen, L; Aaseth, J

    1989-03-01

    Sera from 43 persons who developed thyroid cancer on an average 4.8 years after blood sampling were compared with sera from controls. Three controls per case matched for sex, age, place of residence and year of blood sampling, with regard to serum selenium and serum copper. Cases were significantly lower in serum selenium than controls, and the estimated odds ratio of thyroid cancer increased from 1 for levels greater than or equal to 1.65 mumol/l, to 6.1 for levels 1.26-1.64 mumol/l, to 7.7 for levels less than or equal to 1.25 mumol/l. When time from blood sampling to diagnosis of the case was considered, it could be shown that the protective effect of high serum selenium concentrations was restricted to the last (less than 7) years prior to the diagnosis of thyroid cancer. The serum selenium concentration of cases tended to decrease relative to controls the shorter time was from blood sampling to the diagnosis. There was no difference between cases and controls with regard to serum copper.

  2. HER2 Analysis in Sporadic Thyroid Cancer of Follicular Cell Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria M. Ruggeri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Epidermal Growth Factor Receoptor (EGFR family member human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 is overexpressed in many human epithelial malignancies, representing a molecular target for specific anti-neoplastic drugs. Few data are available on HER2 status in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC. The present study was aimed to investigate HER2 status in sporadic cancers of follicular cell origin to better clarify the role of this receptor in the stratification of thyroid cancer. By immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in-situ hybridization, HER2 expression was investigated in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded surgical specimens from 90 DTC patients, 45 follicular (FTC and 45 papillary (PTC histotypes. No HER2 immunostaining was recorded in background thyroid tissue. By contrast, overall HER2 overexpression was found in 20/45 (44% FTC and 8/45 (18% PTC, with a significant difference between the two histotypes (p = 0.046. Five of the six patients who developed metastatic disease during a median nine-year follow-up had a HER2-positive tumor. Therefore, we suggest that HER2 expression may represent an additional aid to identify a subset of patients who are characterized by a worse prognosis and are potentially eligible for targeted therapy.

  3. 甲状腺肿瘤干细胞与甲状腺肿瘤治疗:理论与应用%Thyroid cancer stem cells and thyroid cancer treatment:theory and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赛恒; 毕力夫; 吴岩

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Thyroid cancer stem cells are one of the reasons for tumor resistance that promotes tumor development. The research of thyroid cancer stem cells has provides a new clinic means for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer. OBJECTIVE:To overview the discovery, identification, and correlation of thyroid cancer stem cells with thyroid cancer. METHODS:A computer-based online search of PubMed database and Wan Fang database between 1995-01/2014-01 was performed to search related articles with the key words of“thyroid cancer, cancer stem cell, stem cell, cancer suppressor gene”in English and Chinese, respectively. Literatures related to thyroid cancer stem cells were selected;in the same field, the articles published lately in authoritative journals were preferred. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:A total of 561 literatures were primarily selected, and 57 documents were involved for result analysis according to inclusion criteria. Cancer stem cells have become a focus in the study of carcinogenesis. Stem cells also exist in the thyroid gland and its tumor. At present, there are several ways to isolate and identify thyroid cancer stem cells. The tumor thyroid stem cells are closely related to the occurrence, transfer and treatment of tumors. But whether we can cure thyroid cancer through restraining or eliminating thyroid cancer stem cells is stil unknown that needs further studies.%背景:研究发现甲状腺肿瘤干细胞促进肿瘤的发生发展,是肿瘤耐药的原因之一。对甲状腺肿瘤干细胞的认识与研究,可以为甲状腺肿瘤的诊断与治疗提供一些新的思路。目的:对甲状腺肿瘤干细胞的发现、鉴定识别、与肿瘤的关系及其临床应用进行综述。方法:由作者应用计算机检索PubMed、万方数据库中1995年1月至2014年1月相关文献。在标题、、关键词中以“thyroid cancer,cancer stem cel ,stem cel ,cancer suppressor gene”或“甲状腺肿瘤、肿瘤干细

  4. 2017 Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease during Pregnancy and the Postpartum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Erik K; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Brent, Gregory A

    2017-01-01

    autoantibodies and pregnancy complications, thyroid considerations in infertile women, hypothyroidism in pregnancy, thyrotoxicosis in pregnancy, thyroid nodules and cancer in pregnant women, fetal and neonatal considerations, thyroid disease and lactation, screening for thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy......BACKGROUND: Thyroid disease in pregnancy is a common clinical problem. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were first published in 2011, significant clinical and scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines...... is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease in women during pregnancy, preconception and the postpartum period. METHODS: The specific clinical questions addressed in these guidelines were based...

  5. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  6. Somatic mutation profiling of follicular thyroid cancer by next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierniak, Michal; Pfeifer, Aleksandra; Stokowy, Tomasz; Rusinek, Dagmara; Chekan, Mykola; Lange, Dariusz; Krajewska, Jolanta; Oczko-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Czarniecka, Agnieszka; Jarzab, Michal; Jarzab, Barbara; Wojtas, Bartosz

    2016-09-15

    The molecular etiology of follicular thyroid tumors is largely unknown, rendering the diagnostics of these tumors challenging. The somatic alterations present in these tumors apart from RAS gene mutations and PAX8/PPARG translocations are not well described. To evaluate the profile of somatic alteration in follicular thyroid tumors, a total of 82 thyroid tissue samples derived from 48 patients were subjected to targeted Illumina HiSeq next generation sequencing of 372 cancer-related genes. New somatic alterations were identified in oncogenes (MDM2, FLI1), transcription factors and repressors (MITF, FLI1, ZNF331), epigenetic enzymes (KMT2A, NSD1, NCOA1, NCOA2), and protein kinases (JAK3, CHEK2, ALK). Single nucleotide and large structural variants were most and least frequently identified, respectively. A novel translocation in DERL/COX6C was detected. Many somatic alterations in non-coding gene regions with high penetrance were observed. Thus, follicular thyroid tumor somatic alterations exhibit complex patterns. Most tumors contained distinct somatic alterations, suggesting previously unreported heterogeneity.

  7. MRI-based finite element simulation on radiofrequency ablation of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chao; He, Zhizhu; Liu, Jing

    2014-02-01

    In order to provide a quantitative disclosure on the RFA (radiofrequency ablation)-induced thermal ablation effects within thyroid tissues, this paper has developed a three-dimensional finite element simulation strategy based on a MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)-reconstructed model. The thermal lesion's growth was predicted and interpreted under two treatment conditions, i.e. single-cooled-electrode modality and two-cooled-electrode system. The results show that the thermal lesion's growth is significantly affected by two factors including the position of RF electrode and thermal-physiological behavior of the breathing airflow. Additional parametric studies revealed several valuable phenomena, e.g. with the electrode's movement, thermal injury with varying severity would happen to the trachea wall. Besides, the changes in airflow mass produced evident effects on the total heat flux of thyroid surface, while the changes in breathing frequency only generated minor effects that can be ignored. The present study provided a better understanding on the thermal lesions of RFA within thyroid domain, which will help guide future treatment of the thyroid cancer.

  8. Thyroid cancer among Ukrainians and Belarusians who were children or adolescents at the time of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Bogdanova, T I [Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine (Ukraine); Buglova, E [Research Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Chepurniy, M [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Institute, Kyiv (Ukraine); Demidchik, Y [Belarus State Medical University, Minsk, Belarus (Belarus); Gavrilin, Y [State Research Center-Institute of Biophysics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kenigsberg, J [Research Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Kruk, J [Research Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Schotola, C [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Shinkarev, S [State Research Center-Institute of Biophysics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tronko, M D [Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine (Ukraine); Vavilov, S [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Institute, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2006-03-15

    Our objective is to assess the regional and temporal dependences of the baseline cases contributing to thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed in childhood or during adolescence in Belarus and Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident. Data are analysed for Kyiv and Sevastopol City and the 25 oblasts (regions) in Ukraine, and for Minsk and Gomel City and the 6 oblasts in Belarus. Average thyroid doses due to the Chernobyl accident were assessed for every birth year in the period from 1968 to 1985. Case data pertain to people who underwent surgical removal of thyroid cancers during the period 1986 to 2001 and who were allocated to their place of residence at the time of the accident. The 35 oblasts/cities were subdivided into an upper, middle and lower group of baseline thyroid cancer incidence. Poisson regressions were performed to estimate age, time and gender dependences of the baseline incidence rates in the three groups. The majority of oblasts/cities with high average doses and the majority of Belarusian oblasts/cities belong to the upper group of baseline thyroid cancer incidence. The baseline in the upper group is estimated to be larger than in the middle group by a factor of 2.3, and by a factor of 4.0 when compared to the lower group. The baseline incidence increases with age and with time since exposure. Estimated baseline incidence rates were found to increase from 1988 to 1999 by factors of three and two for the upper and the two lower groups respectively. The estimated thyroid cancer incidence rates in Belarus and Ukraine, and their dependences on gender and age, are consistent with observed rates found in the larger cancer registries of other countries. In conclusion, the baseline cases are found to contribute about 70% to the thyroid cancer incidence in Ukraine, and about 40% to the incidence in Belarus.

  9. Down-regulation of transcription elogation factor A (SII like 4 (TCEAL4 in anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto Shizuyo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is one of the most aggressive human malignancies and appears to arise mainly from transformation of pre-existing differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC. However, the carcinogenic mechanism of anaplastic transformation remains unclear. Previously, we investigated specific genes related to ATC based on gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray analysis. One of these genes, transcription elongation factor A (SII-like 4 (TCEAL4, encodes a member of the transcription elongation factor A (SII-like gene family. The detailed function of TCEAL4 has not been described nor has any association between this gene and human cancers been reported previously. Methods To investigate the role of TCEAL4 in ATC carcinogenesis, we examined expression levels of TCEAL4 in ACLs as well as in other types of thyroid cancers and normal human tissue. Results Expression of TCEAL4 was down-regulated in all 11 ACLs as compared to either normal thyroid tissues or papillary and follicular thyroid cancerous tissues. TCEAL4 was expressed ubiquitously in all normal human tissues tested. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of altered TCEAL4 expression in human cancers. We suggest that loss of TCEAL4 expression might be associated with development of ATC from DTC. Further functional studies are required.

  10. The role of F18-FDG PET scans in predicting micropapillary thyroid cancer aggressiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, E. H.; Cho, H. J.; Kim, T. S.; Kang, W. J.; Yun, M. J.; Lee, J. D. [Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The purpose is to evaluate F18-FDG PET in predicting micropapillary thyroid cancer aggressiveness. 41 patients (38 female, mean age 50y) who had PET before total thyroidectomy between 2002.1{approx}2007.8 were reviewed. Patients with thyroiditis and multiple nodules were excluded. Thyroid nodules were visually analyzed into groups with increased and no FDG uptake. Peak SUV ratio of liver-to-nodule (pSUV ratio) was taken. pSUV ratio was correlated with nodule size and micropapillary cancer aggressiveness. Perithyroid extension and/or LN metastasis was used as an indicator of micropapillary cancer aggressiveness 20 patients had 0.89 and nodules with increased FDG uptake, with an average pSUV ratio of 1.67 0.15. 21 patients had nodules that were not visible, average size of 0.66 cm 0.24. FDG uptake and nodule size correlation was with an average size of 0.52 cm significant (p=0.051). The nodules were divided into two groups using a cut-off value of pSUV ratio of 0.9. 19 patients had nodules with a pSUV ratio of 0.9 or higher, and 15 of the 19 patients had perithyroid extension and/or LN metastasis. 22 patients had nodules with pSUV ratio lower than 0.9 and 7 of these patients had perithyroid extension and/or LN metastasis. Patients with higher pSUV ratio showed more perithyroid extension or LN metastasis than those with lower pSUV ratio (p=0.01). A total of 8 patients had LN metastasis, but none were visualized on PET. Higher FDG uptake seems to be significantly correlated with tumor aggressiveness in micropapillary thyroid carcinomas. But FDG uptakes in primary tumors were also correlated with tumor size. In other words, larger nodules tend to show aggressive behavior in micropapillary thyroid carcinomas and FDG it self may not be an independent factor for tumor aggressiveness. Also, PET shows an extremely poor sensitivity for the detection of LN metastasis. Therefore, PET may not have any role in the evaluation of patients with micropapillary thyroid carcinomas.

  11. The clinical features of Hashimoto thyroiditis with thyroid cancer%桥本甲状腺炎合并甲状腺癌的临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白超; 杨雯雯; 张丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical features of Hashimoto thyroiditis with thyroid cancer, and provide scientific basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods The clinical data of 87 patients of Hashimoto thyroiditis with thyroid cancer and 105 patients of Hashimoto thyroiditis were retrospectively analyzed. Results The rates of Hashimoto thyroiditis with thyroid cancer in age 0.05). There were statistical differences in total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) levels between Hashimoto thyroiditis with thyroid cancer and Hashimoto thyroiditis, there were statistical differences (P0.05).桥本甲状腺炎合并甲状腺癌患者和桥本甲状腺炎患者总甲状腺素(TT4)、促甲状腺激素(TSH)、甲状腺球蛋白抗体(TgAb)、甲状腺过氧化物酶抗体(TPOAb)比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或<0.01).多因素Logistic回归分析结果表明,血清TT4减低和TSH、TgAb、TPOAb水平增高与桥本甲状腺炎合并甲状腺癌的发生独立相关(P<0.05或<0.01). 结论 血清TT4减低,TSH、TgAb、TPOAb增高可增加桥本甲状腺炎合并甲状腺癌的风险.临床工作中,对于30~49岁的男性桥本甲状腺炎患者,应高度怀疑其合并甲状腺癌的可能性.

  12. Can the Serum Level of Myostatin be Considered as an Informative Factor for Cachexia Prevention in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Mehdi; Nozhat, Zahra; Hannani, Masoomeh

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer, the most common endocrine neoplasia, consists of four main types of carcinomas: papillary, follicular, and anaplastic, all with thyroid follicular origin, and medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) related to para-follicular cells. Cronic diseases such as diverse cancers may be associated with cachexia, especially at advanced stage. Cancer-induced cachexia is associated with diminished quality of life, functional performance, reduced response to antitumor therapy, and increased morbidity and mortality. Myostatin (Mst) is one of the outstanding molecules in the skeletal muscle loss process in cancer and it may be released by both skeletal muscle and cachexia-inducing tumors. Recently changes in serum levels of Mst have been identified as an important factor of cancer-induced cachexia. The goal of this study was to assessserum Mst levels in MTC patients. In this descriptive and case-control study, 90 participants were selected, comprising 45 MTC patients (20 males, 29±13.9 years, 25 females, 29±14.5 years) and 45 control individuals (25 males, 23.1±11.6 years, 20 females, 31.5±14.4 years). Serum Mst was determined using an ELISA kit and body mass index (BMI) was calculated by weight and height measurements. The Kolmogorov Simonov test showed a normal distribution for log transformed Mst serum levels in both case and control groups. Geometric means were 5.9 and 8.2 ng/ml respectively, and a significant difference was found according to the independent t-test results (Pcachexia in MTC patients, especially in females.

  13. Effect of an Outreach Programme on Vandetanib Safety in Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastholt, Lars; Kreissl, Michael C.; Führer, Dagmar; Maia, Ana L.; Locati, Laura D.; Maciel, Léa; Wu, Yi; Heller, Kevin N.; Webster, Alan; Elisei, Rossella

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Effective management of adverse events (AEs) following vandetanib treatment is important to maximize clinical benefits. We examined whether more frequent contact with vandetanib-treated patients reduced AEs of CTCAE grade 2 or higher. Study Design In this open-label, multicentre, phase III study, patients with locally advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer were randomized to a patient outreach programme (outreach) or a standard AE monitoring schedule (vandetanib control) for 52 weeks. In addition to standard AE monitoring, patients in the outreach arm were contacted every 2 weeks by telephone/during their clinic visit for specific AE questioning related to diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, headache and rash. Patients received vandetanib at 200 or 300 mg/day, depending on the creatinine levels at screening. Results Altogether, 205 patients were randomized (outreach, n = 103; vandetanib control, n = 102). This study did not meet its primary objective; the mean percentage of time patients experienced at least one AE of grade 2 or higher was higher for the outreach group (51.65%) than for the vandetanib control group (45.19%); the difference was not statistically significant (t statistic: 1.29; 95% CI −3.44 to 16.37%; p = 0.199). The most frequently reported AEs were diarrhoea (56.9% for the outreach group vs. 46.6% for the vandetanib controls), hypertension (36.3 vs. 31.1%), rash (25.5 vs. 24.3%) and nausea (25.5% vs. 18.4%), and the most frequently reported AEs of grade 2 or higher were hypertension (33.3 vs. 23.3%), diarrhoea (26.5 vs. 24.3%) and dermatitis acneiform (11.8 vs. 9.7%). Conclusions Additional outreach to patients treated with vandetanib had no impact on the rate or severity of AEs compared to the standard AE monitoring schedule. AEs were consistent with the known safety profile of vandetanib. PMID:27843809

  14. New possibilities for cancer therapy with advances in cancer immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, G D; Longenecker, B M

    1994-04-01

    There has been progress over the last decade in addressing three questions: Are there cancer-associated antigens that could be targets for immunotherapy? Can the human immune system recognize cancer-associated antigens? Can an anti-cancer immune response affect cancer cells and lead to increased survival? Results from animal model studies have been interpreted by optimists as encouraging, and by pessimists as being irrelevant to human cancer. Earlier studies on "cancer vaccines" utilized heterogeneous cell extracts of cell components. Monoclonal antibodies have enabled identification of relevant cancer-associated antigens or epitopes, such as the ganglioside GM2, the carbohydrates TF and STn, and the peptide sequences of MUC-1. In parallel with research on immune adjuvants and measures designed to inhibit suppressor activity, these epitopes are being tested for their potential in the immunotherapy of solid tumors. It is clear that some of these cancer-associated epitopes are immunogenic in humans. Mixed responses may relate to cancer heterogeneity and may indicate the importance of multi-epitopic vaccines. Responses are encouraging, but are they relevant? Prolonged disease stability challenges us to re-think the goals of cancer therapy. Recent advances in the knowledge of the effect of cytokines on tumor antigen expression and the regulation of the immune response, coupled with advances in active specific immunotherapy, provide hope that biomodulation may become an important part of the therapy of solid tumors in the next century.

  15. Management of patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillessen, S; Omlin, A; Attard, G

    2015-01-01

    -resistant prostate cancer and the recent studies of chemo-hormonal therapy in men with castration-naïve prostate cancer have led to considerable uncertainty as to the best treatment choices, sequence of treatment options and appropriate patient selection. Management recommendations based on expert opinion......The first St Gallen Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) Expert Panel identified and reviewed the available evidence for the ten most important areas of controversy in advanced prostate cancer (APC) management. The successful registration of several drugs for castration...... decisions on treatment as always will involve consideration of disease extent and location, prior treatments, host factors, patient preferences as well as logistical and economic constraints. Inclusion of men with APC in clinical trials should be encouraged....

  16. Cytogenomics of Feline Cancers: Advances and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Rachael Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Relative to the dog, integration of the cat into the “One Health” concept has been more restricted, particularly in the field of molecular oncology. Beyond the continual need to enhance the sophistication of feline healthcare per se, the unique spectrum of naturally-occurring cancers in the cat offers tremendous opportunities for comparative and translational advances that may have mutual benefit for human and veterinary medicine. The study of feline cancers additionally may generate new insi...

  17. Comparison of childhood thyroid cancer prevalence among 3 areas based on external radiation dose after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: The Fukushima health management survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hideto; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Satoru; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sakai, Akira; Yamashita, Shunichi; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-08-01

    The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake led to a subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In its wake, we sought to examine the association between external radiation dose and thyroid cancer in Fukushima Prefecture. We applied a cross-sectional study design with 300,476 participants aged 18 years and younger who underwent thyroid examinations between October 2011 and June 2015. Areas within Fukushima Prefecture were divided into three groups based on individual external doses (≥1% of 5 mSv, accident and thyroid examination was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence. There were no significant associations between individual external doses and prevalence of thyroid cancer. External radiation dose was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence among Fukushima children within the first 4 years after the nuclear accident.

  18. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Valentina M; Saenko, Vladimir A; Brenner, Alina V; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V; Demidchik, Yuri E; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer.

  19. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina M Drozd

    Full Text Available One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer.

  20. A novel BAP1 mutation is associated with melanocytic neoplasms and thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Kevin J; Gallanis, Gregory T; Heller, Kathleen A; Melas, Marilena; Idos, Gregory E; Culver, Julie O; Martin, Sue-Ellen; Peng, David H; Gruber, Stephen B

    2016-03-01

    Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene, BRCA-1 associated protein (BAP1), underlie a tumor predisposition syndrome characterized by increased risk for numerous cancers including uveal melanoma, melanocytic tumors and mesothelioma, among others. In the present study we report the identification of a novel germline BAP1 mutation, c.1777C>T, which produces a truncated BAP1 protein product and segregates with cancer. Family members with this mutation demonstrated a primary clinical phenotype of autosomal dominant, early-onset melanocytic neoplasms with immunohistochemistry (IHC) of these tumors demonstrating lack of BAP1 protein expression. In addition, family members harboring the BAP1 c.1777C>T germline mutation developed other neoplastic disease including thyroid cancer. IHC analysis of the thyroid cancer, as well, demonstrated loss of BAP1 protein expression. Our investigation identifies a new BAP1 mutation, further highlights the relevance of BAP1 as a clinically important tumor suppressor gene, and broadens the range of cancers associated with BAP1 inactivation. Further study will be required to understand the full scope of BAP1-associated neoplastic disease.

  1. The Contributions of Gamma Probe to Lesion Detectability and Surgical Safety in Recurrent Thyroid Cancer at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Sinan Gültekin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In patients, who underwent thyroid surgery or treated with I-131 radioiodine previously for differentiated thyroid cancer, a second surgical intervention carries higher risks due to distortion of the natural anatomy and development of fibrotic/cicatricial tissue. In addition, accurate assessment of current status about extent of the disease is important in terms of success of the surgery. In this case report, we present the positive contribution of intraoperative gamma probe used for lesion detectability and for surgical safety in a patient operated for several times and administered high cumulative dose of radioiodine therapy for diffentiated thyroid carcinoma previously.

  2. Breast cancer. Part 3: advanced cancer and psychological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    This is the last article in this 3-part series on breast cancer. The previous two articles have outlined the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases, types of breast cancer and staging, and treatment for breast cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment. The series concludes by giving information on advanced disease, including when a patient presents late with a fungating breast lesion, or if the disease has metastasized from the breast to other organs. Lymphoedema is also described and discussed, and the latter half of this article discusses psychological implications of breast cancer, from diagnosis through the individual treatments.

  3. Increased thyroid cancer incidence in a basaltic volcanic area is associated with non-anthropogenic pollution and biocontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandrino, Pasqualino; Russo, Marco; Ronchi, Anna; Minoia, Claudio; Cataldo, Daniela; Regalbuto, Concetto; Giordano, Carla; Attard, Marco; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Trimarchi, Francesco; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2016-08-01

    The increased thyroid cancer incidence in volcanic areas suggests an environmental effect of volcanic-originated carcinogens. To address this problem, we evaluated environmental pollution and biocontamination in a volcanic area of Sicily with increased thyroid cancer incidence. Thyroid cancer epidemiology was obtained from the Sicilian Regional Registry for Thyroid Cancer. Twenty-seven trace elements were measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry in the drinking water and lichens (to characterize environmental pollution) and in the urine of residents (to identify biocontamination) in the Mt. Etna volcanic area and in adjacent control areas. Thyroid cancer incidence was 18.5 and 9.6/10(5) inhabitants in the volcanic and the control areas, respectively. The increase was exclusively due to the papillary histotype. Compared with control areas, in the volcanic area many trace elements were increased in both drinking water and lichens, indicating both water and atmospheric pollution. Differences were greater for water. Additionally, in the urine of the residents of the volcanic area, the average levels of many trace elements were significantly increased, with values higher two-fold or more than in residents of the control area: cadmium (×2.1), mercury (×2.6), manganese (×3.0), palladium (×9.0), thallium (×2.0), uranium (×2.0), vanadium (×8.0), and tungsten (×2.4). Urine concentrations were significantly correlated with values in water but not in lichens. Our findings reveal a complex non-anthropogenic biocontamination with many trace elements in residents of an active volcanic area where thyroid cancer incidence is increased. The possible carcinogenic effect of these chemicals on the thyroid and other tissues cannot be excluded and should be investigated.

  4. Deregulated Expression of Aurora Kinases Is Not a Prognostic Biomarker in Papillary Thyroid Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzi, Natalie; Sorrenti, Salvatore; Falvo, Laura; De Vito, Corrado; Catania, Antonio; Tartaglia, Francesco; Mocini, Renzo; Coccaro, Carmela; Alessandrini, Stefania; Barollo, Susi; Mian, Caterina; Antonelli, Alessandro; De Antoni, Enrico; D’Armiento, Massimino; Ulisse, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    A number of reports indicated that Aurora-A or Aurora-B overexpression represented a negative prognostic factor in several human malignancies. In thyroid cancer tissues a deregulated expression of Aurora kinases has been also demonstrated, butno information regarding its possible prognostic role in differentiated thyroid cancer is available. Here, weevaluated Aurora-A and Aurora-B mRNA expression and its prognostic relevance in a series of 87 papillary thyroid cancers (PTC), with a median follow-up of 63 months. The analysis of Aurora-A and Aurora-B mRNA levels in PTC tissues, compared to normal matched tissues, revealed that their expression was either up- or down-regulatedin the majority of cancer tissues. In particular, Aurora-A and Aurora-B mRNA levels were altered, respectively, in 55 (63.2%) and 79 (90.8%) out of the 87 PTC analyzed.A significant positive correlation between Aurora-A and Aurora-B mRNAswas observed (p=0.001). The expression of both Aurora genes was not affected by the BRAFV600E mutation. Univariate, multivariate and Kaplan-Mayer analyses documented the lack of association between Aurora-A or Aurora-B expression and clinicopathological parameterssuch as gender, age, tumor size, histology, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis and BRAF status as well asdisease recurrences or disease-free interval. Only Aurora-B mRNA was significantly higher in T(3-4) tissues, with respect to T(1-2) PTC tissues. The data reported here demonstrate that the expression of Aurora kinases is deregulated in the majority of PTC tissues, likely contributing to PTC progression. However, differently from other human solid cancers, detection of Aurora-A or Aurora-B mRNAs is not a prognostic biomarker inPTC patients. PMID:25807528

  5. Childhood Height and Body Mass Index Were Associated with Risk of Adult Thyroid Cancer in a Large Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Berrington de González, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Taller stature and obesity in adulthood have been consistently associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, but few studies have investigated the role of childhood body size. Using data from a large prospective cohort, we examined associations for height and body mass index (BMI) at ages 7...... to 13 years with risk of thyroid cancer in later life. The study population included 321,085 children from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born between 1930 and 1989 in Copenhagen, Denmark, with measurements of height and weight from 7 to 13 years of age. These data were linked...... with the Danish Cancer Registry to identify incident thyroid cancer cases (1968-2010). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for age- and sex-specific height and BMI SD scores (SDS) using proportional hazards models stratified by birth cohort and sex. During follow-up (median = 38...

  6. Management of low-risk well-differentiated thyroid cancer based only on thyroglobulin measurement after recombinant human thyrotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartofsky, Leonard

    2002-07-01

    A multicenter study was undertaken to ascertain prevalence and significance of recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH)-stimulated increases in thyroglobulin (Tg) levels in thyroid cancer patients classified to be at low risk for recurrence. Patients were eligible for enrollment if they had undergone near-total or total thyroidectomy and remnant ablation between 1-10 years prior to enrollment and had received thyroxine suppression therapy (THST) with a TSH level of < 0.5 mU/L and Tg level less than or equal to 5 ng/mL within the prior year. Patients with anti-Tg antibodies, distant metastases, or other evidence of residual disease were excluded. Four hundred eighty-six patients were entered into the study, and 300 were considered eligible and comprise the study population. TSH, Tg, and anti-Tg antibody levels were obtained at baseline, followed by intramuscular injection of 0.9 mg of rhTSH on days 1 and 2 and measurement of Tg on day 5. After rhTSH, 53 patients (18%) had elevations in Tg of at least 2 ng/mL, including 33 patients (11%) with increases from baseline of equal to or greater than 5 ng/mL. Patients with an initial advanced stage of disease were more likely to display elevations in Tg after rhTSH. One third of those with stage III disease displayed elevations in Tg of 2 ng/mL or more. Patients within 5 years of thyroidectomy were as likely to display elevations in rhTSH-stimulated Tg as those 5-10 years from surgery. In conclusion, these data suggest rhTSH-stimulated Tg testing without scan may be a useful tool in the follow-up of patients with low-risk thyroid cancer, and may serve to identify patients previously thought free of disease on the basis of undetectable Tg levels while undergoing THST. A strategy is presented for incorporation of this approach into the management of patients with low-risk well-differentiated thyroid cancer.

  7. Strategies for advancing cancer nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Vikash P.; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2013-11-01

    Cancer nanomedicines approved so far minimize toxicity, but their efficacy is often limited by physiological barriers posed by the tumour microenvironment. Here, we discuss how these barriers can be overcome through innovative nanomedicine design and through creative manipulation of the tumour microenvironment.

  8. Targeted therapy: a new hope for thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Francesco; Pezzullo, Luciano; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Lastoria, Secondo; Di Gennaro, Francesca; Scarpati, Giuseppina Della Vittoria; Caponigro, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Thyroid carcinomas are rare and heterogeneous diseases representing less than 1% of all malignancies. The majority of thyroid carcinomas are differentiated entities (papillary and folliculary carcinomas) and are characterized by good prognosis and good response to surgery and radioiodine therapy. Nevertheless, about 10% of differentiated carcinomas recur and become resistant to all therapies. Anaplastic and medullary cancers are rare subtypes of thyroid cancer not suitable for radioiodine therapy. A small percentage of differentiated and all the anaplastic and medullary thyroid carcinomas often recur after primary treatments and are no longer suitable for other therapies. In the last years, several advances have been made in the field of molecular biology and tumorigenesis mechanisms of thyroid carcinomas. Starting from these issues, the targeted therapy may be employed as a new option. The MAP-Kinase pathway has been found often dysregulated in thyroid carcinomas and several upstream signals have been recognized as responsible for this feature. RET/PTC mutations are often discovered both in papillary and in medullary carcinomas, while B-RAF mutation is typical of papillary and anaplastic histologies. Also mTOR disruptions and VEGFR pathway disruption are common features in all advanced thyroid cancers. Some angiogenesis inhibitors and a number of RET/PTC pathway blocking agents are yet present in the clinical armamentarium. Vandetanib, cabozatinib and sorafenib have reached clinical use. A number of other biological compounds have been tested in phase II and III trials. Understanding the biology of thyroid cancers may help us to design a well shaped targeted therapy.

  9. The Evaluation of Microcarcinoma in Differentiated Thyroid Cancers According to Old and New TNM Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekiye Hasbek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the tumor size for proximal and distant metastases when the new and old TNM clas¬sification is taken into account in differentiated thyroid cancers. Material and Methods: Two hundred sixty eight patients diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma, undergoing bilateral total or subto¬tal thyroidectomy treated with high doses of I-131 were examined retrospectively. The data of these patients were compared after classification, according to tumor size 1 cm. In the same group, according to the revised TNM classification, in 149 of 207 patients (72% the tumor size was 2 cm. Of 187 patients with negative lymph nodes, 15 (8% showed abnormal activity accumulation in the first post I-131 treatment whole-body scan and 10 (40% of 25 patients positive lymph node (p<0.05 involvement. Conclusion: Since the treatment of patients with microcarcinoma is controversial, tumor size should not be the only factor consid¬ered in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer Tissue tumor invasion, age, gender and multifocality should also be taken into account. (MIRT2011;20:94-99

  10. Down-regulation of miR-181b promotes apoptosis by targeting CYLD in thyroid papillary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dengfeng; Jian, Wei; Wei, Chuankui; Song, Hongming; Gu, Yifan; Luo, Yi; Fang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a small class of non-coding RNAs that are widely deregulated in various cancers. They act as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in human cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential role of miR-181b in human thyroid papillary cancer. The expression levels of different miRNAs were measured by micro array analysis in 10 thyroid papillary cancer specimens and adjacent normal thyroid cancer tissues. MTT assays, colony formation assays, apoptosis assays were used to explore the potential function of miR-181b inhibitor in TPC1 human thyroid papillary cancer cells. Luciferase reporter assays were performed to validate the regulation of a putative target of miR-181b, in corroboration with qPCR and western blot assays. We found that the expression of miR-181b was higher in thyroid papillary cancer specimens compared with adjacent normal tissues (P miR-181b inhibited cellular growth and promoted cellular apoptosis. Luciferase assays indicated that miR-181b can bind with its putative target site in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of CYLD, suggesting that CYLD is a direct target of miR-181b. Western blot analysis indicated that downregulation of miR-181b results in the upregulation of CYLD at protein levels. Taken together, downregulation of miR-181b expression causes cellular growth inhibition, promoting cellular apoptosis by targeting CYLD. These findings suggest that downregulation of the expression of miR-181b may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of human thyroid papillary cancer.

  11. 甲状腺癌围手术期的护理心得%Thyroid Cancer Perioperative Nursing Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林素芳

    2016-01-01

    ABSTARCT: Objective To study the thyroid cancer perioperative nursing intervention.Methods Introduction of thyroid carcinoma preoperative nursing measures and postoperative complicationsResults Improved the understanding of thyroid disease people to eliminate people’s fear of thyroid carcinoma and promoted the recovery of thyroid cancer.Conclusion Thyroid cancer through effective nursing, standardized treatment is controlled and treatment[1].%目的:探讨甲状腺癌围手术期的护理措施。方法介绍甲状腺癌术前术后的护理措施及并发症。结果:提高了人们对甲状腺癌疾病的认识消除了人们对甲状腺癌的恐惧,促进了甲状腺癌的康复。结论甲状腺癌通过有效的护理,规范化的治疗是可以得到控制和治疗[1]。

  12. Increased expression of phosphatidylcholine (16:0/18:1 and (16:0/18:2 in thyroid papillary cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Ishikawa

    Full Text Available A good prognosis can be expected for most, but not all, cases of thyroid papillary cancer. Numerous molecular studies have demonstrated beneficial treatment and prognostic factors in various molecular markers. Whereas most previous reports have focused on genomics and proteomics, few have focused on lipidomics. With the advent of mass spectrometry (MS, it has become possible to identify many types of molecules, and this analytical tool has become critical in the field of omics. Recently, imaging mass spectrometry (IMS was developed. After a simple pretreatment process, IMS can be used to examine tissue sections on glass slides with location information.Here, we conducted an IMS analysis of seven cases of thyroid papillary cancer by comparison of cancerous with normal tissues, focusing on the distribution of phospholipids. We identified that phosphatidylcholine (16:0/18:1 and (16:0/18:2 and sphingomyelin (d18:0/16:1 are significantly higher in thyroid papillary cancer than in normal thyroid tissue as determined by tandem mass (MS/MS analysis. These distributional differences may be associated with the biological behavior of thyroid papillary cancer.

  13. Expression and function of the novel proto-oncogene PBF in thyroid cancer: a new target for augmenting radioiodine uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Vicki E; Franklyn, Jayne A; McCabe, Christopher J

    2011-08-01

    Pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG)-binding factor (PBF; PTTG1IP) was initially identified through its interaction with the human securin, PTTG. Like PTTG, PBF is upregulated in multiple endocrine tumours including thyroid cancer. PBF is believed to induce the translocation of PTTG into the cell nucleus where it can drive tumourigenesis via a number of different mechanisms. However, an independent transforming ability has been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that PBF is itself a proto-oncogene. Studied in only a limited number of publications to date, PBF is emerging as a protein with a growing repertoire of roles. Recent data suggest that PBF possesses a complex multifunctionality in an increasing number of tumour settings. For example, PBF is upregulated by oestrogen and mediates oestrogen-stimulated cell invasion in breast cancer cells. In addition to a possible role in the induction of thyroid tumourigenesis, PBF overexpression in thyroid cancers inhibits iodide uptake. PBF has been shown to repress sodium iodide symporter (NIS) activity by transcriptional regulation of NIS expression through the human NIS upstream enhancer and further inhibits iodide uptake via a post-translational mechanism of NIS governing subcellular localisation. This review discusses the current data describing PBF expression and function in thyroid cancer and highlights PBF as a novel target for improving radioiodine uptake and thus prognosis in thyroid cancer.

  14. Time trends of thyroid cancer incidence in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidenreich, W F [GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute for Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Bogdanova, T I [Ukrainian Research Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 254114 Kiev (Ukraine); Biryukov, A G [Ukrainian Research Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 254114 Kiev (Ukraine); Tronko, N D [Ukrainian Research Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 254114 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2004-09-01

    The rate of childhood thyroid cancer incidence observed in northern Ukraine during the period 1986-1998 is described as a function of time-since-exposure, age-at-exposure, and sex. Conclusions are drawn for the excess absolute risk per dose: after a minimal latency period of about three years it shows a linear increase with time-since-exposure for at least nine years. It is roughly constant in age-at-exposure, up to 15 years. For girls exposed very young it is about a factor 2 larger than for boys. For children exposed at age 16-18 this ratio increases to about 5. The thyroids of young children are not more sensitive to radiation dose than those of older ones in absolute risk in northern Ukraine in the currently used data set. As the background is increasing with age, a constant absolute risk gives a decreasing relative risk.

  15. CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO LEVOTHYROXINE THERAPY AFTER SURGERY IN PATIENTS WITH WELL-DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Rumyantsev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Levothyroxine therapy with purpose to suppress thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH after surgery in patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer is implemented since 1937. Accumulated results of levothyroxine suppressive therapy (LST application are attesting its heterogeneous efficacy in various risk groups of tumor recurrence: low, medium and high. Similar risk groups are emphasized towards adverse effect risk due to LST. The more intensivity and duration of TSH suppression the higher risk of adverse effects. First, they include osteopenia or osteoporosis and atrial fibrillation. Contemporary approaches to intensivity and duration of LTS are based on accounting of its potential efficiency into various clinical risk groups of tumor recurrence as well as adverse effects risk groups.

  16. Risk factors for developing hyponatremia in thyroid cancer patients undergoing radioactive iodine therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Eun Lee

    Full Text Available Due to the alarming increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer worldwide, more patients are receiving postoperative radioactive iodine (RAI therapy and these patients are given a low-iodine diet along with levothyroxine withdrawal to induce a hypothyroid state to maximize the uptake of RAI by thyroid tissues. Recently, the reported cases of patients suffering from life-threatening severe hyponatremia following postoperative RAI therapy have increased. This study aimed to systematically assess risk factors for developing hyponatremia following RAI therapy in post-thyroidectomy patients.We reviewed the medical records of all thyroid cancer patients who underwent thyroidectomy and postoperative RAI therapy from July 2009 to February 2012. Demographic and biochemical parameters including serum sodium and thyroid function tests were assessed along with medication history.A total of 2229 patients (47.0±11.0 years, female 76.3% were enrolled in the analysis. Three hundred seven patients (13.8% of all patients developed hyponatremia; 44 patients (2.0% developed moderate to severe hyponatremia (serum Na+≤130 mEq/L and another 263 (11.8% patients showed mild hyponatremia (130 mEq/L

  17. CD133+ anaplastic thyroid cancer cells initiate tumors in immunodeficient mice and are regulated by thyrotropin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Friedman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is one of the most lethal human malignancies. Its rapid onset and resistance to conventional therapeutics contribute to a mean survival of six months after diagnosis and make the identification of thyroid-cancer-initiating cells increasingly important. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In prior studies of ATC cell lines, CD133(+ cells exhibited stem-cell-like features such as high proliferation, self-renewal and colony-forming ability in vitro. Here we show that transplantation of CD133(+ cells, but not CD133(- cells, into immunodeficient NOD/SCID mice is sufficient to induce growth of tumors in vivo. We also describe how the proportion of ATC cells that are CD133(+ increases dramatically over three months of culture, from 7% to more than 80% of the total. This CD133(+ cell pool can be further separated by flow cytometry into two distinct populations: CD133(+/high and CD133(+/low. Although both subsets are capable of long-term tumorigenesis, the rapidly proliferating CD133(+/high cells are by far the most efficient. They also express high levels of the stem cell antigen Oct4 and the receptor for thyroid stimulating hormone, TSHR. Treating ATC cells with TSH causes a three-fold increase in the numbers of CD133(+ cells and elicits a dose-dependent up-regulation of the expression of TSHR and Oct4 in these cells. More importantly, immunohistochemical analysis of tissue specimens from ATC patients indicates that CD133 is highly expressed on tumor cells but not on neighboring normal thyroid cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that CD133(+ ATC cells are solely responsible for tumor growth in immunodeficient mice. Our data also give a unique insight into the regulation of CD133 by TSH. These highly tumorigenic CD133(+ cells and the activated TSH signaling pathway may be useful targets for future ATC therapies.

  18. Employment and insurance outcomes and factors associated with employment among long-term thyroid cancer survivors : a population-based study from the PROFILES registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S. J.; Bultmann, U.; Husson, O.; Kuijpens, J. L. P.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.

    2016-01-01

    To obtain insight into employment and insurance outcomes of thyroid cancer survivors and to examine the association between not having employment and other factors including quality of life. In this cross-sectional population-based study, long-term thyroid cancer survivors from the Netherlands parti

  19. Management of locally advanced prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heather Payne

    2009-01-01

    The management of all stages of prostate cancer is an increasingly complex process and involves a variety of available treatments and many disciplines.Despite prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing,the presentation of prostate cancer at a locally advanced stage is common in the UK,accounting for one-third of all new cases.There is no universally accepted definition of locally advanced prostate cancer;the term is loosely used to encompass a spectrum of disease profiles that show high-risk features.Men with high-risk prostate cancer generally have a significant risk of disease progression and cancer-related death if left untreated.High-risk patients,including those with locally advanced disease,present two specific challenges.There is a need for local control as well as a need to treat any microscopic metastases likely to be present but undetectable until disease progression.The optimal treatment approach will therefore often necessitate multiple modalities.The exact combinations,timing and intensity of treatment continue to be strongly debated.Management decisions should be made after all treatments have been discussed by a multidisciplinary team (including urologists,oncologists,radiologists,pathologists and nurse specialists) and after the balance of benefits and side effects of each therapy modality has been considered by the patient with regard to his own individual circumstances.This article reviews the current therapy options.

  20. Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of short-lived internal emitters and external radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessard, E.T.; Brill, A.B.; Adams, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. We determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentially exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individual more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. We computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. 14 refs., 8 tabs.

  1. Detection of Metastatic Breast and Thyroid Cancer in Lymph Nodes by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jialing; Feider, Clara L.; Nagi, Chandandeep; Yu, Wendong; Carter, Stacey A.; Suliburk, James; Cao, Hop S. Tran; Eberlin, Livia S.

    2017-02-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry has been widely applied to image lipids and metabolites in primary cancer tissues with the purpose of detecting and understanding metabolic changes associated with cancer development and progression. Here, we report the use of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) to image metastatic breast and thyroid cancer in human lymph node tissues. Our results show clear alterations in lipid and metabolite distributions detected in the mass spectra profiles from 42 samples of metastatic thyroid tumors, metastatic breast tumors, and normal lymph node tissues. 2D DESI-MS ion images of selected molecular species allowed discrimination and visualization of specific histologic features within tissue sections, including regions of metastatic cancer, adjacent normal lymph node, and fibrosis or adipose tissues, which strongly correlated with pathologic findings. In thyroid cancer metastasis, increased relative abundances of ceramides and glycerophosphoinisitols were observed. In breast cancer metastasis, increased relative abundances of various fatty acids and specific glycerophospholipids were seen. Trends in the alterations in fatty acyl chain composition of lipid species were also observed through detailed mass spectra evaluation and chemical identification of molecular species. The results obtained demonstrate DESI-MSI as a potential clinical tool for the detection of breast and thyroid cancer metastasis in lymph nodes, although further validation is needed.

  2. Tumorigenesis of papillary thyroid cancer is not BRAF-dependent in patients with acromegaly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Kyung Kim

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several studies have reported a high frequency of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC in patients with acromegaly. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of thyroid cancer in patients with acromegaly and to investigate the frequency of the BRAFV600E mutation in PTC patients with and without acromegaly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 60 patients with acromegaly. Thyroid ultrasonography (US and US-guided fine needle aspiration were performed on nodules with sonographic features of malignancy. We selected 16 patients with non-acromegalic PTC as a control group. The BRAFV600E mutation was analyzed in paraffin-embedded surgical specimens of PTC by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and tumor specimens from patients with PTC were stained immunohistochemically with an antibody against insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor β (IGF-1Rβ. RESULTS: Thyroid cancer was found in 15 (25.0% patients. No differences in age, sex, initial growth hormone (GH and IGF-1 percentage of the upper limit of normal values or treatment modalities were observed between patients with and without PTC. Acromegaly was active in 12 of 15 patients at the time of PTC diagnosis; uncontrolled acromegaly had a significantly higher frequency in the PTC group (60% than in the non-PTC group (28.9% (p = 0.030. The BRAFV600E mutation was present in only 9.1% (1/11 of PTC patients with acromegaly, although 62.5% (10/16 of control patients with PTC had the mutation (p = 0.007. IGF-1Rβ immunostaining showed moderate-to-strong staining in all malignant PTC cells in patients with and without acromegaly. Significantly less staining for IGF-1Rβ was observed in normal adjacent thyroid tissues of PTC patients with acromegaly compared with those without (p = 0.014. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PTC in acromegalic patients was high (25%. An uncontrolled hyperactive GH-IGF-1 axis may play a dominant role in the

  3. Preoperative treatment with radiochemotherapy for locally advanced gastroesophageal junction cancer and unresectable locally advanced gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratosa Ivica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. To purpose of the study was to analyze the results of preoperative radiochemotherapy in patients with unresectable gastric or locoregionally advanced gastroesophageal junction (GEJ cancer treated at a single institution.

  4. Correlation Analysis of Immune Cell and Hashimoto Thyroiditis jointed with Thyroid Cancer%桥本甲状腺炎合并甲状腺癌与免疫细胞的相关性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘三保(综述); 陈斌(审校)

    2015-01-01

    近年来,桥本甲状腺炎、甲状腺癌及桥本甲状腺炎合并甲状腺癌患病率均明显上升, HT合并甲状腺癌上升更明显。桥本甲状腺炎与甲状腺癌相关性的机制尚未明了,目前发现HT易发生甲状腺癌发病的机制及局部侵袭及远处转移的关系可能与免疫紊乱有密切关系,从免疫方面探讨桥本甲状腺炎和甲状腺癌之间关联,预测甲状腺癌的发生率,并对甲状腺癌的预后有临床指导意义。%In recent years, the incidences of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT), thyroid cancer and HT with thyroid cancer were dramatically increased, and HT with thyroid cancer rose even faster. Although the correlation mechanism of HT and thyroid cancer was not clear yet, it was found that the relationship between HT and thyroid cancer and the relationship between local invasion and distant metastasis might closely relate to the immune disorder. To explore the correlation between HT and thyroid cancer from the aspect of im-munity, and to predict the incidence of thyroid cancer accordingly, play an important role in the prognosis of thyroid carcinoma.

  5. Afatinib in Advanced Refractory Urothelial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    Distal Urethral Cancer; Proximal Urethral Cancer; Recurrent Bladder Cancer; Recurrent Urethral Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage III Urethral Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Urethral Cancer; Ureter Cancer

  6. Two breast metastases from thyroid carcinoma presented 6 years later after total thyroidectomy: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Gene Hyuk; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Sung Hun; Lee, Ah Won [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Na Young [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Thyroid carcinoma is usually indolent with good prognosis, as compared to other malignancy. Distant metastases from thyroid cancer are rare and usually manifest as multiple lesions especially in lungs, bones and lymph nodes, in advanced stages of the disease. Metastasis to the breast from thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare, with about 16 cases reported in the English literature. Herein, we reported a case of metastatic poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which presented as 2 breast masses in a 72-year-old woman, 6 years after total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (USG) image findings are nonspecific oval mass with circumscribed or partially indistinct margin, metastases from thyroid cancer should be included in the differential diagnosis when recurrence of thyroid carcinoma is suspected. Also, fusion images of CT and USG are helpful to the radiologists in localizing the targeted lesion and conducting accurate USG-guided biopsy.

  7. Late intervention with anti-BRAF(V600E) therapy induces tumor regression in an orthotopic mouse model of human anaplastic thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehs, Matthew A; Nucera, Carmelo; Nagarkatti, Sushruta S; Sadow, Peter M; Morales-Garcia, Dieter; Hodin, Richard A; Parangi, Sareh

    2012-02-01

    Human anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a lethal disease with an advanced clinical presentation and median survival of 3 months. The BRAF(V600E) oncoprotein is a potent transforming factor that causes human thyroid cancer cell progression in vitro and in vivo; therefore, we sought to target this oncoprotein in a late intervention model of ATC in vivo. We used the human ATC cell line 8505c, which harbors the BRAF(V600E) and TP53(R248G) mutations. Immunocompromised mice were randomized to receive the selective anti-BRAF(V600E) inhibitor, PLX4720, or vehicle by oral gavage 28 d after tumor implantation, 1 wk before all animals typically die due to widespread metastatic lung disease and neck compressive symptoms in this model. Mice were euthanized weekly to evaluate tumor volume and metastases. Control mice showed progressive tumor growth and lung metastases by 35 d after tumor implantation. At that time, all control mice had large tumors, were cachectic, and were euthanized due to their tumor-related weight loss. PLX4720-treated mice, however, showed a significant decrease in tumor volume and lung metastases in addition to a reversal of tumor-related weight loss. Mouse survival was extended to 49 d in PLX4720-treated animals. PLX4720 treatment inhibited cell cycle progression from 28 d to 49 d in vivo. PLX4720 induces striking tumor regression and reversal of cachexia in an in vivo model of advanced thyroid cancer that harbors the BRAF(V600E) mutation.

  8. Solitary metastatic cancer to the thyroid: a report of five cases with fine-needle aspiration cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batoroev Yuri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three men and 2 women with ages ranging from 37 to 70 years, clinically and histologically confirmed solitary, palpable metastatic cancers to the thyroid (SMCT and preoperative cytologic investigation of their thyroid lesions by fine-needle aspiration (FNA, were reviewed. Four patients were known to have a solid cancer treated by radical surgery 1 to 4 years prior [1 bronchogenic squamous cell carcinoma, 1 parotid adenoid cystic carcinoma, 1 renal cell carcinoma (RCC and 1 cutaneous melanoma], and 1 patient had no past history of cancer. Direct smears prepared from the patients' thyroid FNAs were fixed in 95% ethanol and stained with the Papanicolaou method. In 3 cases, immunostaining of the aspirated tumor cells with thyroglobulin antibody was performed, and in 1 case an aspiration smear was stained with commercial HMB-45 antibody. A correct cytodiagnosis of metastatic cancer to the thyroid was made in all 5 cases. In 1 patient the thyroid FNA revealed a metastatic RCC that led to the discovery of a clinically occult RCC. All 5 patients died of metastatic disease 27 to 40 months after surgical resection of their SMCTs.

  9. Thyroid Cancer and the Chornobyl Accident in Ukraine: Experience With the Implementation of a Follow-Up Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyka, Dimitry A; Prysyazhnyuk, Anatoly Ye; Fuzik, Mykola M; Fedorenko, Zoya P

    2016-09-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence, its annual variation pattern and influence of gender and age at exposure were analyzed in population groups of Ukraine exposed to ionizing radiation by the Chornobyl accident. Significant radiation risks are demonstrated in the recovery operation workers and evacuees from Prypiat town and the exclusion zone. The radiation-induced excess of thyroid cancer is confirmed among people exposed as children and adolescents and subjects who had relatively high average thyroid radiation doses. Some excess is observed in population groups exposed as adults. In the female age group of 40-49 at the moment of the accident the age-specific thyroid cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in 'high exposure' regions versus 'low exposure' ones for all the years of follow-up since 1989 until 2012. The available Ukrainian data suggest that wider survey of population with application of thyroid ultrasound examination improves the early detection of cancer and only marginally leads to bias of the completeness of registration of this disease because of 'screening effect'.

  10. Absence of survival benefit of radioactive iodine (RAI) after thyroidectomy in low risk differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, C.; Fieffe, S.; Pochart, J.M. [Endocrinology Nuclear Medicine, Institut Jean Godinot, Reims (France); Bonnetain, F.; Gauthier, M.; Cueff, A. [Statistics and Epidemiology, Centre Georges Francois Leclerc, Dijon (France); Crevisy, E.; Dygai-Cochet, I.; Toubeau, M. [Nuclear Medicine, Centre Georges Francois Leclerc, Dijon (France)

    2012-07-01

    After thyroidectomy, the goal of the first dose of radioactive iodine (RAI) is remnant ablation to facilitate the initial staging with the post-therapy scan and to facilitate the early detection of recurrences. The purpose of this study is to the survival benefit of RAI in low-risk thyroid cancer patients. Using Cancer thyroid registry of Marne Ardennes (1041 patients) and hospital data base of centre Leclerc (257 patients), we included all differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients at low risk from 1975 to 2005. Median follow-up was 10.3 years, during which 19 recurrences, 61 other malignant diseases and 105 deaths were registered. 387 patients (30%) received no RAI and 911 had RAI (70%). If we confirmed that some clinical characteristics were associated with RAI intake, the study failed to demonstrate any survival benefit of RAI in low risk DTC patients

  11. Detecting and Treating Thyroid Nodules and Cancer Before, During, and After Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid nodules relies mainly on the results of thyroid ultrasound imaging and fine-needle aspiration biopsy . A biopsy ... small sample of the nodule for further testing. Thyroid ultrasound uses the same safe technique of high- frequency ...

  12. Early results of an in vivo trial of ESS in thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jennifer E.; Goukassian, Ilona D.; A'Amar, Ousama M.; Bigio, Irving J.; Lee, Stephanie L.

    2012-02-01

    Introduction: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. The current gold standard for diagnosis, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, yields 10-25% of indeterminate cytology results, leading to patients undergoing thyroidectomy for diagnosis. We assessed the technical potential of a miniaturized in vivo ESS (elastic light scattering spectroscopy) probe, built into an FNA needle assembly, to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Methods: Under IRB approval, 15 patients in the endocrine clinic undergoing FNAB of a thyroid nodule had collection of ESS data using our novel miniaturized FNA probe. Using final surgical pathology as our gold standard, data post processing and visual inspection was completed. Results: 225 spectra were grouped and analyzed (120 benign, 30 malignant and 75 from indeterminate cytology). ESS probes demonstrated excellent reproducibility in use. Initial analysis of these preliminary data is promising, indicating distinction of spectral ESS features between malignant and benign conditions. Conclusion(s): An in vivo trial of an invasive miniaturized integrated ESS biopsy probe is acceptable to patients, and collection of ESS data is feasible and reliable. With development of a disease-specific algorithm, ESS could potentially be used as an in-situ real time intra-operative diagnostic tool or as a minimally invasive adjunct to conventional FNA cytology.

  13. Is Every Patient Followed up as a Papillary Thyroid Cancer Patient Really That?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrezzak, Ummuhan; Tutus, Ahmet; Kula, Mustafa; Öztürk, Figen; Soyuer, Işın

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a 64-year-old man followed up for two years as suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). In the patient’s follow up, despite thyroglobulin level and I-131 whole body scan results being normal, metastases were identified at the 4th thoracic vertebra corpus by MR. Histopathological findings were carcinoma metastases. F-18 FDG PET/CT showed increased metabolic activity in the right renal mass, bilaterally in the surrenal gland, multiple lymph nodes in the thoracic and abdominal para-aortic region and in multiple vertebral and pelvic bones. An excisional biopsy of the right renal mass was reported as renal cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining performed retrospectively to the first thyroid preparation showed renal cell carcinoma metastases. Consequently, any patient who presents with a thyroid nodule can also be considered as possibly suffering from metastatic disease. F-18 FDG PET/CT can provide valuable information in finding the primary focus and metastases. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23487501

  14. Is Every Patient Followed up as a Papillary Thyroid Cancer Patient Really That?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummuhan Abdulrezzak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 64-year-old man followed up for two years as suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC. In the patient’s follow up, despite thyroglobulin level and I-131 whole body scan results being normal, metastases were identified at the 4th thoracic vertebra corpus by MR. Histopathological findings were carcinoma metastases. F-18 FDG PET/CT showed increased metabolic activity in the right renal mass, bilaterally in the surrenal gland, multiple lymph nodes in the thoracic and abdominal para-aortic region and in multiple vertebral and pelvic bones. An excisional biopsy of the right renal mass was reported as renal cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining performed retrospectively to the first thyroid preparation showed renal cell carcinoma metastases. Consequently, any patient who presents with a thyroid nodule can also be considered as possibly suffering from metastatic disease. F-18 FDG PET/CT can provide valuable information in finding the primary focus and metastases. (MIRT 2012;21:38-41

  15. Association between neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and differentiated thyroid cancer: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Feng; Ba, Luo; Lv, Hong; Lv, Dan; Du, Jin-Tao; Jing, Xiao-Mei; Yang, Ning-Jing; Wang, Shao-Xin; Li, Chao; Li, Xiao-Xia

    2016-01-01

    The association between neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is undecided. To rectify this question, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis based on 7 prospective cohort studies published between 2013 and 2015, comprising 7349 patients. Six of these cohorts included pretreatment (baseline) NLR data for patients with thyroid nodules. The meta-analysis of these 6 cohorts showed that the NLR of patients with DTC (4617 cases) was statistically similar to patients with benign nodules only (1666 cases), with a mean difference (MD) of 0.19 (95% CI: −0.09 to 0.46; I2 = 93%; P thyroid carcinoma in patients stratified by age <45 and ≥45 years (496 and 891 cases, respectively); the pooled MD was 0.09 (95% CI: −0.37 to 0.55; I2 = 92.2%, P < 0.001). An elevated NLR seems not a reliable indicator of progressing DTC in patients with goiters, and there was no difference in NLR between patients aged <45 years and those aged ≥45 years. Well-designed and large-scale investigations are warranted to understand the value of NLR in the prognosis of DTC. PMID:27941815

  16. Chemo-radionuclide therapy for thyroid cancer. Initial experimental study with cultured cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misaki, Takashi; Iwata, Masahiro; Iida, Yasuhiro; Kasagi, Kanji; Konishi, Junji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-09-01

    Radioiodine therapy has long been used for distant metastases of thyroid cancer. Although partially effective in most cases, it can render a complete cure only in a limited number of patients. One way to enhance its efficacy would be to combine it with antineoplastic agents. Here we describe an initial in vitro evaluation with 4 thyroid cancer cell lines. Cells were sparsely seeded in microtiter plates and allowed to grow for 2 days; then they were exposed to sublethal concentrations of cisplatin (CDDP), doxorubicin (Dox), or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), followed by treatment with I-131 for 48 hr. Cell survival was measured with a commercial kit based on the colorimetry of succinate dehydrogenase activity. Chemotherapeutic drugs exerted similar concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects in all 4 cell lines. The doses necessary to reduce the surviving fraction to half of the control were about 3 {mu}g/ml for CDDP, 0.3 {mu}g/ml for Dox, and 3 {mu}g/ml for 5-FU (when used continuously for 48 hours). On the other hand, sensitivity to I-131 irradiation differed among the lines; same doses (7.4-14.8 MBq/ml) caused the greatest damage in FRO cells, a modest effect in NPA and WRO, and only minimal change in B-CPAP. The combined effect was most demonstrable in wells treated with Dox and radioiodine, whereas the addition of CDDP or 5-FU had marginal or insignificant merit, respectively. In FRO cells, half-lethal doses of the above mentioned CDDP, Dox, and 5-FU, when used together with 14.8 MBq/ml I-131, reduced cell survival to 54.5%, 29.4% and 33.4%, respectively, vs. 60.2% with radioiodine alone. In vitro, clinical concentrations of Dox can accelerate the killing of thyroid cancer cells by radioiodine. These favorable experimental results warrant future studies to evaluate whether this new bidisciplinary approach is clinically relevant and feasible. (author)

  17. Important drugs for cough in advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsi, J; Walsh, D; Nelson, K A

    2001-11-01

    Cough is a defense mechanism that prevents the entry of noxious materials into the respiratory system and clears foreign materials and excess secretions from the lungs and respiratory tract. In advanced cancer, it is a common symptom that interferes with the patient's daily activity and quality of life. Empiric treatment with antitussive agents is often needed. Two classes of antitussive drugs are available: (1) centrally acting: (a) opioids and (b) non-opioids; (2) peripherally acting: (a) directly and (b) indirectly. Antitussive availability varies widely around the world. Many antitussives, such as benzonatate, codeine, hydrocodone, and dextromethorphan, were extensively studied in the acute and chronic cough settings and showed relatively high efficacy and safety profiles. Benzonatate, clobutinol, dihydrocodeine, hydrocodone, and levodropropizine were the only antitussives specifically studied in cancer and advanced cancer cough. They all have shown to be effective and safe in recommended daily dose for cough. In advanced cancer the patient's current medications, previous antitussive use, the availability of routes of administration, any history of drug abuse, the presence of other symptoms and other factors, all have a role in the selection of antitussives for prescription. A good knowledge of the pharmacokinetics, dosage, efficacy, and side effects of the available antitussives provides for better management.

  18. Risk of thyroid cancer after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shunichi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2013-09-01

    The appropriateness of the initial response and countermeasures taken following the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 should be further examined. Implementation of a prospective epidemiological study on human health risks from low-dose radiation exposure and comprehensive health protection from radiation should be emphasized on a basis of the lessons learnt from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. In contrast, the doses to a vast majority of the population in Fukushima were not high enough to expect to see any increase in incidence of cancer and health effects in the future, however, public concerns about the long-term health effects of radioactive environmental contamination have increased in Japan. Since May 2011, the Fukushima Prefecture started the Fukushima Health Management Survey Project with the purpose of long-term health care administration and early medical diagnosis/treatment for prefectural residents. In this report, risk and countermeasures of thyroid cancer occurrence after nuclear accidents, especially due to early exposure of radioactive iodine, will be focused upon to understand the current situation of risk of thyroid cancer in Fukushima, and the difficult challenges surrounding accurate estimations of low-dose and low-dose rate radiation exposures will be discussed.

  19. Antineoplastic Effects of PPARγ Agonists, with a Special Focus on Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Materazzi, Gabriele; Baldini, Enke; Ulisse, Salvatore; Miccoli, Paolo; Antonelli, Alessandro; Fallahi, Poupak

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated nuclear hormone receptor that functions as transcription factor and plays an important role in lipid metabolism and insulin sensitization. Recent studies have shown that PPARγ is overexpressed in many tumor types, including cancers of breast, lung, pancreas, colon, glioblastoma, prostate and thyroid differentiated/anaplastic cancers. These data suggest a role of PPARγ in tumor development and/or progression. PPARγ is emerging as a growth-limiting and differentiation-promoting factor, and it exerts a tumor suppressor role. Moreover, naturally-occurring and synthetic PPARγ agonists promote growth inhibition and apoptosis. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are synthetic agonists of PPARγ that were developed to treat type II diabetes. These compounds also display anticancer effects which appear mainly to be independent of their PPARγ agonist activity. Various preclinical and clinical studies strongly suggest a role for TZDs both alone and in combination with existing chemotherapeutic agents, for the treatment of cancer. Differentiation therapy involves the use of agents with the ability to induce differentiation in cells that have lost this ability, i.e. cancer cells, targeting pathways capable of re-activating blocked terminal differentiation programs. PPARγ agonists have been shown to induce differentiation in solid tumors such as thyroid differentiated/ anaplastic cancers and sarcomas. However, emerging data suggest that chronic use of TZDs is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. The exploration of newer PPARγ agonists can help in unveiling the underlying mechanisms of these drugs, providing new molecules that are able to treat cancer, without increasing the cardiovascular risk of neoplastic patients.

  20. The HABP2 G534E Variant Is an Unlikely Cause of Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sahasrabudhe, R; Stultz, J; Williamson, J; Lott, P; A. Estrada; Bohorquez, M; Palles, C; Polanco-Echeverry, G; Jaeger, E; Martin, L.; Magdalena Echeverry, M; Tomlinson, I.; Carvajal-Carmona, LG; TCUKIN,

    2016-01-01

    A recent study reported the non-synonymous G534E (rs7080536, allele A) variant in the HABP2 gene as causal in familial non-medullary thyroid cancer (NMTC).The objective of this study was to evaluate the causality of HABP2 G534E in the TCUKIN study, a multi-center population based study of NMTC cases from the British Isles.A case-control analysis of rs7080536 genotypes was performed using 2,105 TCUKIN cases and 5,172 UK controls.Cases comprised 2,105 NMTC cases. Patients sub-groups with papill...

  1. The HABP2 G534E polymorphism does not increase nonmedullary thyroid cancer risk in Hispanics

    OpenAIRE

    Bohórquez, Mabel E; Ana P Estrada; Jacob Stultz; Ruta Sahasrabudhe; John Williamson; Paul Lott; Duque, Carlos S; Jorge Donado; Gilbert Mateus; Fernando Bolaños; Alejandro Vélez; Magdalena Echeverry; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis G

    2016-01-01

    Familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer (NMTC) has not been clearly linked to causal germline variants, despite the large role that genetic factors play in risk. Recently, HABP2 G534E (rs7080536A) has been implicated as a causal variant in NMTC. We have previously shown that the HABP2 G534E variant is not associated with TC risk in patients from the British Isles. Hispanics are the largest and the youngest minority in the United States and NMTC is now the second most common malignancy in women f...

  2. Serum Thyroid Function, Mortality and Disability in Advanced Old Age: The Newcastle 85+ Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvi, Salman; Yadegarfar, Mohammad E.; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Kingston, Andrew; Collerton, Joanna; Visser, Theo J.; Kirkwood, Tom B.; Jagger, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Context: Perturbations in thyroid function are common in older individuals but their significance in the very old is not fully understood. Objective: This study sought to determine whether thyroid hormone status and variation of thyroid hormones within the reference range correlated with mortality and disability in a cohort of 85-year-olds. Design: A cohort of 85-year-old individuals were assessed in their own homes (community or institutional care) for health status and thyroid function, and followed for mortality and disability for up to 9 years. Setting and Participants: Six hundred and forty-three 85-year-olds registered with participating general practices in Newcastle and North Tyneside, United Kingdom. Main Outcomes: All-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and disability according to thyroid disease status and baseline thyroid hormone parameters (serum TSH, FT4, FT3, and rT3). Models were adjusted for age, sex, education, body mass index, smoking, and disease count. Results: After adjustment for age and sex, all-cause mortality was associated with baseline serum rT3 and FT3 (both P subclinical hypothyroidism and subclinical hyperthyroidism do not have a significantly worse survival over 9 years than their euthyroid peers. However, thyroid function tests did predict disability, with higher serum TSH levels predicting better outcomes. These data strengthen the argument for routine use of age-specific thyroid function reference ranges. PMID:27552542

  3. Serum thyroid function, mortality and disability in advanced old age: The newcastle 85+ study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearce, S.H.S. (Simon H.S.); S. Razvi (Salman); Yadegarfar, M.E. (Mohammad E.); C. Martin-Ruiz (Carmen); Kingston, A. (Andrew); J.C. Collerton (Joanna); T.J. Visser (Theo); J.M. Kirkwood (John); C. Jagger (Carol)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractContext: Perturbations in thyroid function are common in older individuals but their significance in the very old is not fully understood. Objective: This study sought to determine whether thyroidhormonestatusandvariation of thyroid hormones within the reference range correlated with mor

  4. Comprehensive Analysis of the Transcriptional and Mutational Landscape of Follicular and Papillary Thyroid Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Keun Yoo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC and benign follicular adenoma (FA are indistinguishable by preoperative diagnosis due to their similar histological features. Here we report the first RNA sequencing study of these tumors, with data for 30 minimally invasive FTCs (miFTCs and 25 FAs. We also compared 77 classical papillary thyroid carcinomas (cPTCs and 48 follicular variant of PTCs (FVPTCs to observe the differences in their molecular properties. Mutations in H/K/NRAS, DICER1, EIF1AX, IDH1, PTEN, SOS1, and SPOP were identified in miFTC or FA. We identified a low frequency of fusion genes in miFTC (only one, PAX8-PPARG, but a high frequency of that in PTC (17.60%. The frequencies of BRAFV600E and H/K/NRAS mutations were substantially different in miFTC and cPTC, and those of FVPTC were intermediate between miFTC and cPTC. Gene expression analysis demonstrated three molecular subtypes regardless of their histological features, including Non-BRAF-Non-RAS (NBNR, as well as BRAF-like and RAS-like. The novel molecular subtype, NBNR, was associated with DICER1, EIF1AX, IDH1, PTEN, SOS1, SPOP, and PAX8-PPARG. The transcriptome of miFTC or encapsulated FVPTC was indistinguishable from that of FA, providing a molecular explanation for the similarly indolent behavior of these tumors. We identified upregulation of genes that are related to mitochondrial biogenesis including ESRRA and PPARGC1A in oncocytic follicular thyroid neoplasm. Arm-level copy number variations were correlated to histological and molecular characteristics. These results expanded the current molecular understanding of thyroid cancer and may lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to the disease.

  5. Comprehensive Analysis of the Transcriptional and Mutational Landscape of Follicular and Papillary Thyroid Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seong-Keun; Lee, Seungbok; Kim, Su-Jin; Jee, Hyeon-Gun; Kim, Byoung-Ae; Cho, Hyesun; Song, Young Shin; Cho, Sun Wook; Won, Jae-Kyung; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Park, Do Joon; Kim, Jong-Il; Lee, Kyu Eun; Park, Young Joo; Seo, Jeong-Sun

    2016-08-01

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and benign follicular adenoma (FA) are indistinguishable by preoperative diagnosis due to their similar histological features. Here we report the first RNA sequencing study of these tumors, with data for 30 minimally invasive FTCs (miFTCs) and 25 FAs. We also compared 77 classical papillary thyroid carcinomas (cPTCs) and 48 follicular variant of PTCs (FVPTCs) to observe the differences in their molecular properties. Mutations in H/K/NRAS, DICER1, EIF1AX, IDH1, PTEN, SOS1, and SPOP were identified in miFTC or FA. We identified a low frequency of fusion genes in miFTC (only one, PAX8-PPARG), but a high frequency of that in PTC (17.60%). The frequencies of BRAFV600E and H/K/NRAS mutations were substantially different in miFTC and cPTC, and those of FVPTC were intermediate between miFTC and cPTC. Gene expression analysis demonstrated three molecular subtypes regardless of their histological features, including Non-BRAF-Non-RAS (NBNR), as well as BRAF-like and RAS-like. The novel molecular subtype, NBNR, was associated with DICER1, EIF1AX, IDH1, PTEN, SOS1, SPOP, and PAX8-PPARG. The transcriptome of miFTC or encapsulated FVPTC was indistinguishable from that of FA, providing a molecular explanation for the similarly indolent behavior of these tumors. We identified upregulation of genes that are related to mitochondrial biogenesis including ESRRA and PPARGC1A in oncocytic follicular thyroid neoplasm. Arm-level copy number variations were correlated to histological and molecular characteristics. These results expanded the current molecular understanding of thyroid cancer and may lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to the disease.

  6. Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of TSH Levels in Differentiated Thyroid Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Müslüm Tuna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The frequency of thyroid surgery for suspected malignancy but with a benign result in pathological examination is increasing in recent years. For this reason, additional preoperative markers are needed for increasing the sensitivity for evaluating the preoperative malignancy risk of thyroid nodules. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum TSH levels for determining the differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC and to identify a proper cut-off value if relevant association is present. Material and Method: Our study included 380 patients who underwent thyroidectomy due to nodular goiter in our hospital between 01.01.2012 and 01.06.2013 retrospectively. 201 patients who were diagnosed with DTC constituted the study group, and 179 consecutive patients with a benign pathology result were included as controls. Patients who had overt hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism and was taken medicines that affect TSH level were excluded. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, sex, and family history of thyroid disease. Preoperative TSH levels were 1.66 mIU/lt and 1.59 mIU/lt in patients with DTC and controls, respectively (p=0.641. There was no correlation between TSH and tumor size, and no relationship between TSH and capsular invasion, vascular invasion, extrathyroidal invasion and lymph node metastasis. Discussion: In our study, no relationship was found between preoperative TSH level and DTC. In addition, there was no relationship between TSH and bad prognostic parameters. Turk Jem 2014; 1: 1-4

  7. Is thyroid gland an organ at risk in breast cancer patients treated with locoregional radiotherapy? Results of a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutahir Ali Tunio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aim was to evaluate the dose distribution within the thyroid gland its association with hypothyroidism in breast cancer (BC patients receiving supraclavicular (SC radiation therapy (RT. Materials and Methods: Consecutive 40 BC patients with baseline normal thyroid function tests (TFTs, were randomized into two groups: (a Adjuvant chest wall/breast with SC-RT (20 patients and (b control group (adjuvant chest wall/breast RT only; 20 patients. The thyroid gland was contoured for each patient. Each patient′s dose volume histogram (DVH, mean thyroid volume, the volume percentages of the thyroid absorbing respectively 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy (V5, V10, V20, V30, V40, and V50, and D mean (average dose in whole volume of thyroid were then estimated. TFTs were performed at the time of the last follow-up and compared. Results: Mean thyroid volume of cohort was 19.6 cm 3 (4.02-93.52 and D mean of thyroid gland in SC-RT and control group was 25.8 Gy (16.4-52.2 and 5.6 Gy (0.7-12.8, respectively. Median values of V5, V10, V20, V30, V40, and V50 were 54%, 51%, 42.8%, 30.8%, 27.8%, and 7.64%, respectively, in SC-RT as compared to control group (V5;4.9%, V10;2.4%, V20;1.75%, V301%, V40;0%, and V50;0%, respectively with P 50% and the risk can be minimized by thyroid gland shielding during RT.

  8. Anaesthesia for robotic thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagun Bhatia Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotic thyroidectomy (RT is a new gasless, scarless technique which utilises the da Vinci™ surgical robot to excise thyroid tumours. Anaesthetic management must be modified according to the patient position and robotic surgery equipment. Anaesthesiologists need to be geared up to face the new challenges posed by advancements in surgical techniques in order to maintain patient safety. Another vital aspect of this surgery is documenting possible recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, for which a C-Mac D-Blade™ video laryngoscope serves as a valuable tool. Post-operative pain management in RT also merits special attention.

  9. Application of Parametric Models of Survival Analysis in Determining the Cancer Influencing Factors in Patients with Thyroid Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Yazdani Charati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: One of the most common clinical problems among individuals is thyroid nodule diseases which are characterized by one or more nodules in the thyroid and are usually benign. It can be said that thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine cancer worldwide. This study aimed to determine the risk factors for cancer in patients with thyroid nodule in Mazandaran province,Iran, using parametric survival analysis. Methods: In the present historical cohort study, 26,730 patients with thyroid nodules who were referred to health care centers from July 2002 to March 2008 were identified. Parametric log-normal and log-logistic models were compared with and without taking frailty into account. The criterion for comparing models was Akaike's criterion. All calculations were performed with the SPSS software and the significance level was considered 0.05. Results: The mean time of the conversion of thyroid nodules to cancer in patients was found to be 29.32 months. Using Kaplan-Meier method, survival rates of one year, five years and ten years of nodule conversion to cancer was calculated 94.6, 88.6 and respectively. According to the log rank test age (p=0.03, hypothyroidism (p=0.01, bilateral nodules (p <0.001, a multi-nodular goiter (p <0.001, TSH hormone (p <0.001, T4 hormones (p = 0.005, cholesterol (p = 0.03, creatinin levels (p = 0.001 a significant relationship was seen. Based on the Akaike's criterion, the lognormal model which takes frailty into account best fits to the data. Conclusion: Based on the log-normal model with frailty, It can be concluded that the thyroid nodule patients with abnormal TSH hormone are 6.55 times more likely to develop risk of thyroid cancer than patients who had normal TSH hormone overall. This model also indicated that patients who had heart palpitations are 5.52 times more likely to develop risk of cancer than patients who did not have heart palpitations.

  10. Clinical Significance of Diffuse Intrathoracic Uptake on Post-Therapy I-131 Scans in Thyroid Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyun Su; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Sonya Youngju; Park, Hye Lim; Seo, Ye Young; Choi, Woo Hee [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and possible cause of diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy I-131 scans in thyroid cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed 781 post-therapy scans of 755 thyroid cancer patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy between January and December 2010. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was examined, and clinical patient characteristics including sex, age, regimen for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation (thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human TSH injection), TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg Ab) levels, therapeutic dose of radioactive iodine therapy and prior history of radioactive iodine therapy were recorded.Scan findings were correlated with chest CT, chest radiographs, laboratory tests and/or clinical status. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake without evidence of pathologic condition was categorized as indeterminate. The association between clinical characteristics and intrathoracic uptake were analyzed for negative intrathoracic uptake and indeterminate uptake groups. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was demonstrated in 39 out of 755 (5.2 %) patients, among which 3 were confirmed as lung metastasis. The 14 patients that showed high Tg or anti-Tg Ab levels were considered to be at risk of having undetected micrometastasis on other imaging modalities. The remaining 22 were indeterminate (2.9 %). Upon comparison of negative intrathoracic uptake and indeterminate uptake groups, TSH stimulation by thyroid hormone withdrawal was shown to be significantly correlated with diffuse intrathoracic uptake (p <0.05). The frequency of diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was 5.2 % and could be seen in thyroid cancer patients with underlying lung metastasis as well as those without definite pathologic condition. In the latter, there was a higher frequency for diffusely increased intrathoracic

  11. EXPRESSING DISTRESS IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Gabriela FELEA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Negative emotions (distress are recognized as part of the psychological profile of patients diagnosed with advanced stage cancer. However, most patients are not accustomed to verbalize feelings towards their physician, and generally towards family and medical care personnel. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the expression of emotions by patients in advanced stages of cancer, respectively the means by which they get to express emotions. To this respect, we identified the most common types of emotions expressed, or metaphors used by patients to describe their emotions and topics that trigger emotions. Words and phrases most commonly used are in relation to: fear, anxiety, depression, guilt, negligence, concern. They are uttered in order to depict the network created between disclosed emotions and topics on health status, symptoms, adverse effects and therapeutic choice, patient privacy, and social and family issues.

  12. Advances in nanotheranostics II cancer theranostic nanomedicine

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book surveys recent advances in theranostics based on magnetic nanoparticles, ultrasound contrast agents, silica nanoparticles and polymeric micelles. It presents magnetic nanoparticles, which offer a robust tool for contrast enhanced MRI imaging, magnetic targeting, controlled drug delivery, molecular imaging guided gene therapy, magnetic hyperthermia, and controlling cell fate. Multifunctional ultrasound contrast agents have great potential in ultrasound molecular imaging, multimodal imaging, drug/gene delivery, and integrated diagnostics and therapeutics. Due to their diversity and multifunctionality, polymeric micelles and silica-based nanocomposites are highly capable of enhancing the efficacy of multimodal imaging and synergistic cancer therapy. This comprehensive book summarizes the main advances in multifunctional nanoprobes for targeted imaging and therapy of gastric cancer, and explores the clinical translational prospects and challenges. Although more research is needed to overcome the substan...

  13. Advanced strategies in liposomal cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Thomas Lars; Jensen, Simon Skøde; Jørgensen, Kent

    2005-01-01

    , none of them have yet led to marketed drugs and are still far from achieving this goal. The most advanced and prospective technologies are probably the prodrug strategies where nontoxic drugs are carried and activated specifically in the malignant tissue by overexpressed enzymes. In the second part......Tumor specific drug delivery has become increasingly interesting in cancer therapy, as the use of chemotherapeutics is often limited due to severe side effects. Conventional drug delivery systems have shown low efficiency and a continuous search for more advanced drug delivery principles...... is therefore of great importance. In the first part of this review, we present current strategies in the drug delivery field, focusing on site-specific triggered drug release from liposomes in cancerous tissue. Currently marketed drug delivery systems lack the ability to actively release the carried drug...

  14. Thyroid cancer in French Polynesia: a population based case control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brindel, P.; Doyon, F.; Adjadj, E.; Vathaire, F. de [Institut Gustave Roussy, INSERM U605, 94 - Villejuif (France); Drozdovitch, V. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 69 - Lyon (France); Bouville, A. [DHHS/NIH/NCI/Div. of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics EPS (United States); Paoaafaite, J.; Teuri, J. [IRD, Papeete Tahiti (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Because a previous study had shown that registered thyroid cancer incidence is higher among natives of French Polynesia (FP) than in other Maori populations from Hawaii and New-Zealand, a case-control study of thyroid cancer coordinated by Unit 605 of INSERM was conducted in FP. The main objective was to assess the potential role of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by France between 1966 and 1974 on such a high incidence. The study included 600 subjects born and residing in FP: 229 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, aged up to 30 years old at start of nuclear weapons testing and 371 control s matched on gender and birth date randomly selected from the FP registry of births. Face to face interviews were conducted from 2002 to 2004 by specialized investigators native from FP who received a specific formation for this study. Addresses were collected from the territorial medical insurance, which covers all the inhabitants, whatever their professional status. Detailed information about nutrition at time of interview and at the end of adolescence was collected by means of a semi-quantitative method using pictures. Data concerning residence, hormonal and reproductive life, familial and personal background of thyroid pathologies and cancers, and professional and environmental exposure to carcinogens were also collected. For each study subject, radiation thyroid dose was estimated taking into account residential history and dietary habits of the subject and deposition densities of radionuclides reconstructed for each island where the subject resided during the testing period. The iodine intake will be estimated from the dietary questionnaire, as well as from mass-spectrometry measurements of stable iodine in nail clippings, which were collected during the interviews. Among the 229 cases, 89% were females, 54% declared themselves as of pure Maori origin, another 36% of Maori-Asian or Maori

  15. Technological advances in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milan; Vosmik; Jiri; Petera; Igor; Sirak; Miroslav; Hodek; Petr; Paluska; Jiri; Dolezal; Marcela; Kopacova

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy and surgery represent the main treatment modalities in esophageal cancer.The goal of modern radiotherapy approaches,based on recent technological advances,is to minimize post-treatment complications by improving the gross tumor volume definition (positron emission tomography-based planning),reducing interfraction motion (image-guided radiotherapy) and intrafraction motion (respiratory-gated radiotherapy),and by better dose delivery to the precisely defined planning ...

  16. Optimal cytoreduction for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kormosh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is review of literature on role of surgery in the initial management of advanced stage ovarian cancer, focusing on the definition of optimum surgical cytoreduction, assessment of resectability, estimation of the risk of postoperative complications. Analyze of published scien- tific data suggest that removal of all evidence of macroscopic disease should be the goal of primary or interval cytoreductive surgery.

  17. Postoperative Stimulated Thyroglobulin Level and Recurrence Risk Stratification in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative preablative stimulated thyroglobulin (ps-Tg has been evaluated in predicting prognosis and success of ablation regarding differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC; however, its relationship with recurrence risk and radioiodine decision-making remains uncertain, especially in Chinese DTC patients. We aimed to evaluate the association between ps-Tg and recurrence risk stratification in DTC, to provide incremental values for ps-Tg in postoperative assessment and radioiodine management. Methods: Seven hundred and seven patients with DTC were included; low-risk (L; n = 90, intermediate-risk (I; n = 283, and high-risk (H; n = 334, 117 with distant metastasis [M1] patients were divided according to recurrence risk stratification. The M1 group was further analyzed regarding evidence of metastasis. Cut-off values of ps-Tg were obtained using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: Patients with more advanced disease at initial risk stratification were more likely to have higher ps-Tg levels (I vs. L: P < 0.05; H vs. I: P < 0.001; H vs. L: P < 0.001. The corresponding cut-off value of ps-Tg for distinguishing sensitivity and specificity in each of the two groups was 2.95 ng/ml (I vs. L: 61.5%, 63.3%, 29.5 ng/ml (H vs. I: 41.9%, 92.6%, 47.1 ng/ml (M1 vs. M0 in the H group: 79.5%, 88.9% and 47.1 ng/ml (M1 vs. M0 in all patients: 79.5%, 93.7%. With the cut-off value at 47.1 ng/ml, ps-Tg was the only factor that could be used to identify distant metastases, and consequently if measured before radioiodine therapy would prevent 10.26% of patients with M1 from undertreatment. Conclusions: Ps-Tg, as an ongoing reassessment marker, favors differential recurrence risk grading and provides incremental values for radioiodine treatment decision-making.

  18. Postoperative Stimulated Thyroglobulin Level and Recurrence Risk Stratification in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Yang; Jun Liang; Tian-Jun Li; Ke Yang; Dong-Quan Liang; Zhuang Yu; Yan-Song Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background:Postoperative preablative stimulated thyroglobulin (ps-Tg) has been evaluated in predicting prognosis and success of ablation regarding differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC);however,its relationship with recurrence risk and radioiodine decision-making remains uncertain,especially in Chinese DTC patients.We aimed to evaluate the association between ps-Tg and recurrence risk stratification in DTC,to provide incremental values for ps-Tg in postoperative assessment and radioiodine management.Methods:Seven hundred and seven patients with DTC were included;low-risk (L;n =90),intermediate-risk (I;n =283),and high-risk (H;n =334,117 with distant metastasis [M 1]) patients were divided according to recurrence risk stratification.The M 1 group was further analyzed regarding evidence of metastasis.Cut-off values of ps-Tg were obtained using receiver operating characteristic analysis.Results:Patients with more advanced disease at initial risk stratification were more likely to have higher ps-Tg levels (Ⅰ vs.L:P < 0.05;H vs.I:P < 0.001;H vs.L:P < 0.001).The corresponding cut-off value of ps-Tg for distinguishing sensitivity and specificity in each of the two groups was 2.95 ng/ml (Ⅰ vs.L:61.5%,63.3%),29.5 ng/ml (H vs.I:41.9%,92.6%),47.1 ng/ml (M1 vs.M0 in the H group:79.5%,88.9%) and 47.1 ng/ml (M1 vs.M0 in all patients:79.5%,93.7%).With the cut-off value at 47.1 ng/ml,ps-Tg was the only factor that could be used to identify distant metastases,and consequently if measured before radioiodine therapy would prevent 10.26%of patients with M 1 from undertreatment.Conclusions:Ps-Tg,as an ongoing reassessment marker,favors differential recurrence risk grading and provides incremental values for radioiodine treatment decision-making.

  19. Characterization of novel non-clonal intrachromosomal rearrangements between the H4 and PTEN genes (H4/PTEN) in human thyroid cell lines and papillary thyroid cancer specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puxeddu, Efisio [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, PO Box 670547, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0547 (United States); Zhao Guisheng [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, PO Box 670547, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0547 (United States); Stringer, James R. [Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, PO Box 670547, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0547 (United States); Medvedovic, Mario [Center for Biostatistic Service, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, PO Box 670547, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0547 (United States); Moretti, Sonia [Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Via E. dal Pozzo, Perugia 06126, (Italy); Fagin, James A. [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, PO Box 670547, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0547 (United States)]. E-mail: james.fagin@uc.edu

    2005-02-15

    The two main forms of RET rearrangement in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) arise from intrachromosomal inversions fusing the tyrosine kinase domain of RET with either the H4 (RET/PTC1) or the ELE1/RFG genes (RET/PTC3). PTEN codes for a dual-specificity phosphatase and maps to chromosome 10q22-23. Germline mutations confer susceptibility to Cowden syndrome whereas somatic mutations or deletions are common in several sporadic human tumors. Decreased PTEN expression has been implicated in thyroid cancer development. We report the characterization of a new chromosome 10 rearrangement involving H4 and PTEN. The initial H4/PTEN rearrangement was discovered as a non-specific product of RT-PCR for RET/PTC1 in irradiated thyroid cell lines. Sequencing revealed a transcript consisting of exon 1 and 2 of H4 fused with exons 3-6 of PTEN. Nested RT-PCR with specific primers bracketing the breakpoints confirmed the H4/PTEN rearrangements in irradiated KAT-1 and KAT-50 cells. Additional H4/PTEN variants, generated by recombination of either exon 1 or exon 2 of H4 with exon 6 of PTEN, were found in non-irradiated KAK-1, KAT-50, ARO and NPA cells. Their origin through chromosomal recombination was confirmed by detection of the reciprocal PTEN/H4 product. H4/PTEN recombination was not a clonal event in any of the cell lines, as Southern blots with appropriate probes failed to demonstrate aberrant bands, and multicolor FISH of KAK1 cells with BAC probes for H4 and PTEN did not show a signal overlap in all cells. Based on PCR of serially diluted samples, the minimal frequency of spontaneous recombination between these loci was estimated to be approximately 1/10{sup 6} cells. H4/PTEN products were found by nested RT-PCR in 4/14 normal thyroid tissues (28%) and 14/18 PTC (78%) (P < 0.01). H4/PTEN is another example of recombination involving the H4 locus, and points to the high susceptibility of thyroid cells to intrachromosomal gene rearrangements. As this also represents a

  20. HiLo: Multicentre randomized phase III clinical trial of high vs low dose radioiodine, with or without recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH), for remnant ablation for differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallick, U. [Freeman Hospital, Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Harmer, C.; Clarke, S.; Moss, L.; Nicol, A.; Clarke, P.; Smellie, J.; McCready, R.; Farnell, K.; Franklyn, J.; John, R.; Nutting, C.; Yap, B.; Lemon, C.; Wadlsey, J.; Gerrard, G.; Roques, T.; Macias, E.; Whitaker, S.; Abdul-Hamid, A.; Alvarez, P.; Kadalayil, L.; Hackshaw, A.

    2012-07-01

    Recommended treatment for most patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is surgery followed by radioiodine ablation. Current practice in many centres is to use a high administered activity of 3.7 GBq (100 mCi). However, a lower activity (1.1 GBq or 30 mCi) has advantages including a shorter stay in hospital isolation and lower risk of side effects, including the risk of a second cancer. Also, Thyrogen (rhTSH) allows patients to continue thyroid hormone replacement during ablation, avoiding symptoms of hypothyroidism and also reduces total body radiation dose. We conducted a large randomized factorial multi centre trial to simultaneously address whether ablation success rates are similar using (i) either 1.1 GBq or 3.7 GBq, and (ii) either Thyrogen or thyroid hormone withdrawal. It is the first ever national prospective trial in thyroid cancer in the UK. Final results will be available in 2011

  1. Locally advanced rectal cancer: management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokelaar RF

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available RF Kokelaar, MD Evans, M Davies, DA Harris, J Beynon Department of Colorectal Surgery, Singleton Hospital, Swansea, UK Abstract: Between 5% and 10% of patients with rectal cancer present with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC, and 10% of rectal cancers recur after surgery, of which half are limited to locoregional disease only (locally recurrent rectal cancer. Exenterative surgery offers the best long-term outcomes for patients with LARC and locally recurrent rectal cancer so long as a complete (R0 resection is achieved. Accurate preoperative multimodal staging is crucial in assessing the potential operability of advanced rectal tumors, and resectability may be enhanced with neoadjuvant therapies. Unfortunately, surgical options are limited when the tumor involves the lateral pelvic sidewall or high sacrum due to the technical challenges of achieving histological clearance, and must be balanced against the high morbidity associated with resection of the bony pelvis and significant lymphovascular structures. This group of patients is usually treated palliatively and subsequently survival is poor, which has led surgeons to seek innovative new solutions, as well as revisit previously discarded radical approaches. A small number of centers are pioneering new techniques for resection of beyond-total mesorectal excision tumors, including en bloc resections of the sciatic notch and composite resections of the first two sacral vertebrae. Despite limited experience, these new techniques offer the potential for radical treatment of previously inoperable tumors. This narrative review sets out the challenges facing the management of LARCs and discusses evolving management options. Keywords: rectal cancer, exenteration, pelvic sidewall, sacrectomy

  2. Reconstruction of radiation doses to the thyroid of children in Belarus suffering from thyroid gland cancer; Rekonstruktion der Schilddruesendosis fuer Kinder mit Schilddruesenkrebs in Weissrussland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robl, R.; Voigt, G.; Paretzke, H.G.

    1997-10-01

    About four years after the reactor accident of Chernobyl a pronounced rise in childhood tyroid gland cancer was registered throughout the republic of Belarus. It was soon understood that most likely the short-lived radioiodine isotope {sup 131}I was responsible for this effect. Therefore, methods had to be developed to reconstruct the tyroid dose of those children who suffered from thyroid cancer. To assess the tyroid dose the concentration of {sup 1}31 I in soil was then determined using the assumption of a constant release and transport ratio between {sup 129}I and {sup 131}I. The inferred {sup 131}I-deposition densities on ground were used as input data to a radiological food-chain model and an average integrated tyroid dose to certain age groups of various residence areas were calculated for the main exposure path of milk ingestion. An intercomparison between this new approach and the results of direct thyroid activity measurements was performed. In addition to these two approaches two others were applied for comparison. The first one was based on the generalisation of a correlation between the {sup 137}Cs-deposition density and a few {sup 131}I-measurements. The second approach was based on the determination of {sup 131}I-deposition by an atmospheric dispersion model. It turned out that the values which resulted from the {sup 129}I-method were higher but still closer to those of the direct measurements than the other two approaches. Thyroid doses inferred by the {sup 129}I-method generally ranged between 1 and 100 Sv, depending on the mode of deposition, whereas the values of the direct measurements were found to be in the range of 0.5-5 Sv. The two model approaches applying caesium deposition densities and atmospheric dispersion calculations of radioiodine resulted in lower thyroid exposures ranging between 0.001 and 1.0 Sv only. (orig./MG)

  3. Papillary Thyroid Cancer in Struma Testis with Malignant Transformation in the Lung Associated with Trisomy 17 Successfully Treated with Total Thyroidectomy and Radioiodine Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Barakat

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Struma testis is a rare entity, and there are only few reports on the malignant transformation of a testicular teratoma to papillary thyroid carcinoma in the literature. In this report, we describe the malignant transformation of struma testis with distant lung metastasis associated with trisomy 17 and a coexisting papillary microcarcinoma in the thyroid. Case Report: A 56-year-old man presented after a left orchiectomy for an undescended left testicle. Pathologic examination identified a monodermal teratoma composed of thyroid parenchyma and associated with a 1.7-cm papillary thyroid carcinoma. Further evaluation showed a pulmonary mass on a chest CT scan. Total thyroidectomy revealed a 0.5-mm focus of papillary thyroid cancer, and removal of the lung mass confirmed metastatic papillary thyroid cancer. Array-comparative genomic hybridization of both tumors showed trisomy 17 in the struma testes and the lung metastasis. The patient responded well to radioactive iodine ablation and has no evidence of cancer 3 years later. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first case of papillary thyroid cancer in struma testes metastatic to the lung. It highlights the difficulties in treating these patients. Surgery to remove cancer foci, followed by radioactive iodine ablation, resulted in an excellent response in our patient. Interestingly, trisomy 17, which has so far been observed only in noninvasive thyroid nodules, was associated with pulmonary metastasis in our patient.

  4. Delayed luminescence to monitor programmed cell death induced by berberine on thyroid cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordino, Agata; Campisi, Agata; Grasso, Rosaria; Bonfanti, Roberta; Gulino, Marisa; Iauk, Liliana; Parenti, Rosalba; Musumeci, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    Correlation between apoptosis and UVA-induced ultraweak photon emission delayed luminescence (DL) from tumor thyroid cell lines was investigated. In particular, the effects of berberine, an alkaloid that has been reported to have anticancer activities, on two cancer cell lines were studied. The FTC-133 and 8305C cell lines, as representative of follicular and anaplastic thyroid human cancer, respectively, were chosen. The results show that berberine is able to arrest cell cycle and activate apoptotic pathway as shown in both cell lines by deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation, caspase-3 cleavage, p53 and p27 protein overexpression. In parallel, ch