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Sample records for advanced thermally stable

  1. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  2. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, April 1993--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C. [and others

    1993-10-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and (5) assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Some of our accomplishments and findings are: The product distribution and reaction mechanisms for pyrolysis of alkylcyclohexanes at 450{degree}C have been investigated in detail. In this report we present results of pyrolysis of cyclohexane and a variety of alkylcyclohexanes in nitrogen atmospheres, along with pseudo-first order rate constants, and possible reaction mechanisms for the origin of major pyrolysis products are presented. Addition of PX-21 activated carbon effectively stops the formation of carbonaceous solids on reactor walls during thermal stressing of JPTS. A review of physical and chemical interactions in supercritical fluids has been completed. Work has begun on thermal stability studies of a second generation of fuel additives, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-l-naphthol, 9,10-phenanthrenediol, phthalan, and 1,2-benzenedimethanol, and with careful selection of the feedstock, it is possible to achieve 85--95% conversion of coal to liquids, with 40--50% of the dichloromethane-soluble products being naphthalenes. (Further hydrogenation of the naphthalenes should produce the desired highly stable decalins.)

  3. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, October 1993--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Walsh, P.M.; Coleman, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Penn State program in advancd thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding them formation of vcarbonaceous solids; and, (5) assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal.

  4. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels: Technical progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Boehman, A.; Coleman, M.M.

    1995-02-01

    There are five tasks within this project on thermally stable coal-based jet fuels. Progress on each of the tasks is described. Task 1, Investigation of the quantitative degradation chemistry of fuels, has 5 subtasks which are described: Literature review on thermal stability of jet fuels; Pyrolytic and catalytic reactions of potential endothermic fuels: cis- and trans-decalin; Use of site specific {sup 13}C-labeling to examine the thermal stressing of 1-phenylhexane: A case study for the determination of reaction kinetics in complex fuel mixtures versus model compound studies; Estimation of critical temperatures of jet fuels; and Surface effects on deposit formation in a flow reactor system. Under Task 2, Investigation of incipient deposition, the subtask reported is Uncertainty analysis on growth and deposition of particles during heating of coal-derived aviation gas turbine fuels; under Task 3, Characterization of solid gums, sediments, and carbonaceous deposits, is subtask, Studies of surface chemistry of PX-21 activated carbon during thermal degradation of jet A-1 fuel and n-dodecane; under Task 4, Coal-based fuel stabilization studies, is subtask, Exploratory screening and development potential of jet fuel thermal stabilizers over 400 C; and under Task 5, Exploratory studies on the direct conversion of coal to high quality jet fuels, are 4 subtasks: Novel approaches to low-severity coal liquefaction and coal/resid co-processing using water and dispersed catalysts; Shape-selective naphthalene hydrogenation for production of thermally stable jet fuels; Design of a batch mode and a continuous mode three-phase reactor system for the liquefaction of coal and upgrading of coal liquids; and Exploratory studies on coal liquids upgrading using mesopores molecular sieve catalysts. 136 refs., 69 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Thermally stable diamond brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Robert P [Kingwood, TX

    2009-02-10

    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  6. Gas phase thermal diffusion of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of stable isotopes at Mound Facility is reviewed from a historical perspective. The historical development of thermal diffusion from a laboratory process to a separation facility that handles all the noble gases is described. In addition, elementary thermal diffusion theory and elementary cascade theory are presented along with a brief review of the uses of stable isotopes

  7. Advanced thermal management materials

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Guosheng; Kuang, Ken

    2012-01-01

    ""Advanced Thermal Management Materials"" provides a comprehensive and hands-on treatise on the importance of thermal packaging in high performance systems. These systems, ranging from active electronically-scanned radar arrays to web servers, require components that can dissipate heat efficiently. This requires materials capable of dissipating heat and maintaining compatibility with the packaging and dye. Its coverage includes all aspects of thermal management materials, both traditional and non-traditional, with an emphasis on metal based materials. An in-depth discussion of properties and m

  8. Thermally stable sintered porous metal articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombach, A.L.; Thellmann, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    A sintered porous metal article is provided which is essentially thermally stable at elevated temperatures. In addition, a method for producing such an article is also provided which method comprises preparing a blend of base metal particles and active dispersoid particles, forming the mixture into an article of the desired shape, and heating the so-formed article at sintering temperatures

  9. Method of producing thermally stable uranium carbonitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugajin, M.; Takahashi, I.

    1975-01-01

    A thermally stable uranium carbonitride can be produced by adding tungsten and/or molybdenum in the amount of 0.2 wt percent or more, preferably 0.5 wt percent or more, to a pure uranium carbonitride. (U.S.)

  10. Stable isotope separation by thermal diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasaru, Gheorghe

    2001-01-01

    Thermal diffusion in both gaseous and liquid phase has been subject of extensive experimental and theoretical investigations, especially after the invention of K. Clusius and G. Dickel of the thermal diffusion column, sixty three years ago. This paper gives a brief overview of the most important research and developments performed during the time at the National Institute for Research and Development for Isotopic and Molecular Technology (ITIM) at Cluj - Napoca, Romania in the field of separation of stable isotopes by thermal diffusion. An retrospective analysis of the research and results concerning isotope separation by thermal diffusion entails the following conclusions: - thermal diffusion is an adequate method for hydrogen isotope separation (deuterium and tritium) and for noble gas isotope separation (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe); - thermal diffusion is attractive also for 13 C enrichment using methane as raw material for separation, when annual yields of up to 100 g are envisaged; - lately, the thermal diffusion appears to be chosen as a final enrichment step for 17 O. An obvious advantage of this method is its non-specificity, i.e. the implied equipment can be utilized for isotope separation of other chemical elements too. Having in view the low investment costs for thermal diffusion cascades the method appears economically attractive for obtaining low-scale, laboratory isotope production. The paper has the following content: 1. The principle of method; 2. The method's application; 3. Research in the field of thermal diffusion at ITIM; 4. Thermal diffusion cascades for N, C, Ne, Ar and Kr isotope separation; 5. Conclusion

  11. Preparation of thermally stable nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite by hydrothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Parthiban, S; Elayaraja, K; Girija, E K; Yokogawa, Y; Kesavamoorthy, R; Palanichamy, M; Asokan, K; Narayana Kalkura, S

    2009-12-01

    Thermally stable hydroxyapatite (HAp) was synthesized by hydrothermal method in the presence of malic acid. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was done on the synthesized powders. These analyses confirmed the sample to be free from impurities and other phases of calcium phosphates, and were of rhombus morphology along with nanosized particles. IR and Raman analyses indicated the adsorption of malic acid on HAp. Thermal stability of the synthesized HAp was confirmed by DTA and TGA. The synthesized powders were thermally stable upto 1,400 degrees C and showed no phase change. The proposed method might be useful for producing thermally stable HAp which is a necessity for high temperature coating applications.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of thermally stable oligomer-metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermal stabilities of the oligomer-metal complexes were compared by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal (DTA) analyses. According to TG, oligomer-metal complexes were stable against to temperature and thermooxidative decomposition. The weight losses of oligomer-metal complexes were found to be 5 ...

  13. Synthesis and Photophysical Characterizations of Thermal -Stable Naphthalene Benzimidazoles

    OpenAIRE

    Erten Ela, Şule; Özçelik, Serdar; Eren, Ersin

    2011-01-01

    Microwave-assisted synthesis, photophysical and electrochemical properties of thermal-stable naphthalene benzimidazoles and naphthalimides are studied in this paper. Microwave-assisted synthesis of naphthalene benzimidazoles provide higher yields than the conventional thermal synthesis. Comparative photophysical properties of naphthalene benzimidazoles and naphthalimides are revealed that conjugation of electron-donating group onto naphthalimide moiety increases fluorescence ...

  14. Thermally stable dexsil-400 glass capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Olerich, G.

    1980-01-01

    The factors affecting efficiency, thermal stability, and reproducibility of Dexsil-400 glass capillary columns for gas chromatography in general, and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particular were investigated. Columns were drawn from Kimble KG-6 (soda-lime) glass or Kimox (borosilicate) glass. All silylation was carried out at 200 0 C. Columns were coated according to the static method. Freshly prepared, degassed solutions of Dexsil-400 in pentane or methylene chloride were used. Thermal stability of the Dexsil 400 columns with respect to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were tested. Column-to-column variability is a function of each step in the fabrication of the columns. The degree of etching, extent of silylation, and stationary phase film thickness must be carefully controlled. The variability in two Dexsil-400 capillary column prepared by etching, silylation with solution of hexa methyl disilazone (HMDS), and static coating is shown and also indicates the excellent selectivity of Dexsil-400 for the separation of alkylated aromatic compounds. The wide temperature range of Dexsil-400 and the high efficiency of the capillary columns also allow the analysis of complex mixtures with minimal prefractionation. Direct injection of a coal liquefaction product is given. Analysis by GC/MS indicated the presence of parent PAHs, alkylated PAHs, nitrogen and sulfur heterocycles, and their alkylated derivatives. 4 figures

  15. Stable isotope enrichment by thermal diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasaru, Gheorghe

    2003-01-01

    Thermal diffusion (TD) in both gaseous and liquid phase has been the subject of extensive experimental and theoretical investigations, especially after the invention by K. Clusius and G. Dickel of the thermal diffusion column, sixty years ago. This paper gives a brief overview of the most important applications and developments of this transport phenomenon for enrichment of 13 C and of some noble gases isotopes in our institute. The results of calculations of the transport coefficients H and K for a concentric tube type TD column, operated with methane as process gas, are presented. Static separation factor at equilibrium vs gas pressure has been calculated for various molecular models. The experimental separation factors for different gas pressure were found to be consistent with those calculated for the inverse power repulsion model and the Lennard-Jones model. The most important characteristics of a seven-stage cascade consisting of 19 TD columns of concentric tube type are given. This system has been constructed and successfully operated at a temperature of 673 K and produces an enrichment of methane of natural isotopic 13 C abundance, up to the concentration of 25% 13 CH 4 . Enrichment of the noble gases isotopes implies: - a . Enrichment of 20 Ne and 22 Ne in a eight-stage cascade consisting of 8 TD columns; - b. enrichment of 46 Ar in a seven-stage cascade consisting of TD columns and finally; - c. enrichment of 78 Kr and 86 Kr in a fifteen-stage cascade, consisting of 35 TD columns. For all these installations we have adopted TD columns of hot wire type (4 m in length), operated at a temperature of 1073 K. (author)

  16. New developments in thermally stable polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrother, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    Advances in high-temperature polymers since 1985 are discussed with the emphasis on the chemistry. High-temperature polymers refer to materials that exhibit glass-transition temperatures greater than 200 C and have the chemical structure expected to provide high thermooxidative stability. Specific polymers or series of polymers were selected to show how the chemical structure influences certain properties. Poly(arylene ethers) and polyimides are the two principal families of polymers discussed. Recent work on poly(arylene ethers) has concentrated on incorporating heterocyclic units within the polymer backbone. Recent polyimide work has centered on the synthesis of new polymers from novel monomers, several containing the trifluoromethyl group strategically located on the molecule. Various members in each of these polymer families display a unique combination of properties, heretofore unattainable. Other families of polymers are also briefly discussed with a polymer from an AB maleimidobenzocyclobutene exhibiting an especially attractive combination of properties.

  17. Synthesis and photophysical characterizations of thermal-stable naphthalene benzimidazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten-Ela, Sule; Ozcelik, Serdar; Eren, Esin

    2011-07-01

    Microwave-assisted synthesis, photophysical and electrochemical properties of thermal-stable naphthalene benzimidazoles and naphthalimides are studied in this paper. Microwave-assisted synthesis of naphthalene benzimidazoles provide higher yields than the conventional thermal synthesis. Comparative photophysical properties of naphthalene benzimidazoles and naphthalimides are revealed that conjugation of electron-donating group onto naphthalimide moiety increases fluorescence quantum yields. Fluorophore-solvent interactions are also investigated using Lippert-Mataga equation for naphthalimides and naphthalene benzimidazoles. Thermal stabilities of naphthalene benzimidazoles are better than naphthalimides due to increased aromaticity. The experimental E(LUMO) levels of naphthalene benzimidazoles are found to be between 3.15 and 3.28 eV. Therefore, naphthalene benzimidazole derivatives consisting of anchoring groups are promising materials in organic dye sensitized solar cells. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  18. Advanced thermal management technologies for defense electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloschock, Kristen P.; Bar-Cohen, Avram

    2012-05-01

    Thermal management technology plays a key role in the continuing miniaturization, performance improvements, and higher reliability of electronic systems. For the past decade, and particularly, the past 4 years, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has aggressively pursued the application of micro- and nano-technology to reduce or remove thermal constraints on the performance of defense electronic systems. The DARPA Thermal Management Technologies (TMT) portfolio is comprised of five technical thrust areas: Thermal Ground Plane (TGP), Microtechnologies for Air-Cooled Exchangers (MACE), NanoThermal Interfaces (NTI), Active Cooling Modules (ACM), and Near Junction Thermal Transport (NJTT). An overview of the TMT program will be presented with emphasis on the goals and status of these efforts relative to the current State-of-the-Art. The presentation will close with future challenges and opportunities in the thermal management of defense electronics.

  19. Thermally Stable Gold Nanoparticles with a Crosslinked Diblock Copolymer Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Se Gyu; Khan, Anzar; Hawker, Craig J.; Kramer, Edward J.

    2010-03-01

    The use of polymer-coated Au nanoparticles prepared using oligomeric- or polymeric-ligands tethered by Au-S bonds for incorporation into block copolymer templates under thermal processing has been limited due to dissociation of the Au-S bond at T > 100^oC where compromises their colloidal stability. We report a simple route to prepare sub-5nm gold nanoparticles with a thermally stable polymeric shell. An end-functional thiol ligand consisting of poly(styrene-b-1,2&3,4-isoprene-SH) is synthesized by anionic polymerization. After a standard thiol ligand synthesis of Au nanoparticles, the inner PI block is cross-linked through reaction with 1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane. Gold nanoparticles with the cross-linked shell are stable in organic solvents at 160^oC as well as in block copolymer films of PS-b-P2VP annealed in vacuum at 170^oC for several days. These nanoparticles can be designed to strongly segregate to the PS-P2VP interface resulting in very large Au nanoparticle volume fractions φp without macrophase separation as well as transitions between lamellar and bicontinuous morphologies as φp increases.

  20. Isolation of thermally stable cellulose nanocrystals by phosphoric acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero Espinosa, Sandra; Kuhnt, Tobias; Foster, E Johan; Weder, Christoph

    2013-04-08

    On account of their intriguing mechanical properties, low cost, and renewable nature, high-aspect-ratio cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are an attractive component for many nanomaterials. Due to hydrogen bonding between their surface hydroxyl groups, unmodified CNCs (H-CNCs) aggregate easily and are often difficult to disperse. It is shown here that on account of ionic repulsion between charged surface groups, slightly phosphorylated CNCs (P-CNCs, average dimensions 31 ± 14 × 316 ± 127 nm, surface charge density = 10.8 ± 2.7 mmol/kg cellulose), prepared by controlled hydrolysis of cotton with phosphoric acid, are readily dispersible and form stable dispersions in polar solvents such as water, dimethyl sulfoxide, and dimethylformamide. Thermogravimetric analyses reveal that these P-CNCs exhibit a much higher thermal stability than partially sulfated CNCs (S-CNCs), which are frequently employed, but suffer from limited thermal stability. Nanocomposites of an ethylene oxide-epichlorohydrin copolymer and H-CNCs, S-CNCs, and P-CNCs were prepared, and their mechanical properties were studied by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. The results show that P-CNCs offer a reinforcing capability that is comparable to that of H-CNCs or S-CNCs.

  1. Minimized thermal conductivity in highly stable thermal barrier W/ZrO{sub 2} multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doering, Florian; Major, Anna; Eberl, Christian; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich [University of Goettingen, Institut fuer Materialphysik, Goettingen (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Nanoscale thin-film multilayer materials are of great research interest since their large number of interfaces can strongly hinder phonon propagation and lead to a minimized thermal conductivity. When such materials provide a sufficiently small thermal conductivity and feature in addition also a high thermal stability, they would be possible candidates for high-temperature applications such as thermal barrier coatings. For this article, we have used pulsed laser deposition in order to fabricate thin multilayers out of the thermal barrier material ZrO{sub 2} in combination with W, which has both a high melting point and high density. Layer thicknesses were designed such that bulk thermal conductivity is governed by the low value of ZrO{sub 2}, while ultrathin W blocking layers provide a high number of interfaces. By this phonon scattering, reflection and shortening of mean free path lead to a significant reduction in overall thermal conductivity even below the already low value of ZrO{sub 2}. In addition to this, X-ray reflectivity measurements were taken showing strong Bragg peaks even after annealing such multilayers at 1300 K. Those results identify W/ZrO{sub 2} multilayers as desired thermally stable, low-conductivity materials. (orig.)

  2. Palmitic acid/polypyrrole composites as form-stable phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silakhori, Mahyar; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis; Mahlia, Teuku Meurah Indra; Fauzi, Hadi; Baradaran, Saeid; Naghavi, Mohammad Sajad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel phase change composite of palmitic acid–polypyrrole(PA–PPy) was fabricated. • Thermal properties of PA–PPy are characterized in different mass ratios of PA–PPy. • Thermal cycling test showed that form stable PCM had a favorable thermal reliability. - Abstract: In this study a novel palmitic acid (PA)/polypyrrole (PPy) form-stable PCMs were readily prepared by in situ polymerization method. PA was used as thermal energy storage material and PPy was operated as supporting material. Form-stable PCMs were investigated by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectrometer) analysis that illustrated PA Particles were wrapped by PPy particles. XRD (X-ray diffractometer) was used for crystalline phase of PA/PPy composites. Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used for investigating Thermal stability and thermal energy storage properties of prepared form-stable PCMs. According to the obtained results the form stable PCMs exhibited favorable thermal stability in terms of their phase change temperature. The form-stable PCMs (79.9 wt% loading of PA) were considered as the highest loading PCM with desirable latent heat storage of 166.3 J/g and good thermal stability. Accelerated thermal cycling tests also showed that form stable PCM had an acceptable thermal reliability. As a consequence of acceptable thermal properties, thermal stability and chemical stability, we can consider the new kind of form stable PCMs for low temperature solar thermal energy storage applications

  3. Advanced Testing Method for Ground Thermal Conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL; Clemenzi, Rick [Geothermal Design Center Inc.; Liu, Su [University of Tennessee (UT)

    2017-04-01

    A new method is developed that can quickly and more accurately determine the effective ground thermal conductivity (GTC) based on thermal response test (TRT) results. Ground thermal conductivity is an important parameter for sizing ground heat exchangers (GHEXs) used by geothermal heat pump systems. The conventional GTC test method usually requires a TRT for 48 hours with a very stable electric power supply throughout the entire test. In contrast, the new method reduces the required test time by 40%–60% or more, and it can determine GTC even with an unstable or intermittent power supply. Consequently, it can significantly reduce the cost of GTC testing and increase its use, which will enable optimal design of geothermal heat pump systems. Further, this new method provides more information about the thermal properties of the GHEX and the ground than previous techniques. It can verify the installation quality of GHEXs and has the potential, if developed, to characterize the heterogeneous thermal properties of the ground formation surrounding the GHEXs.

  4. Thermal modelling of Advanced LIGO test masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H; Dovale Álvarez, M; Mow-Lowry, C M; Freise, A; Blair, C; Brooks, A; Kasprzack, M F; Ramette, J; Meyers, P M; Kaufer, S; O’Reilly, B

    2017-01-01

    High-reflectivity fused silica mirrors are at the epicentre of today’s advanced gravitational wave detectors. In these detectors, the mirrors interact with high power laser beams. As a result of finite absorption in the high reflectivity coatings the mirrors suffer from a variety of thermal effects that impact on the detectors’ performance. We propose a model of the Advanced LIGO mirrors that introduces an empirical term to account for the radiative heat transfer between the mirror and its surroundings. The mechanical mode frequency is used as a probe for the overall temperature of the mirror. The thermal transient after power build-up in the optical cavities is used to refine and test the model. The model provides a coating absorption estimate of 1.5–2.0 ppm and estimates that 0.3 to 1.3 ppm of the circulating light is scattered onto the ring heater. (paper)

  5. Advances in stable isotope assisted labeling strategies with information science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigawa, Takanori

    2017-08-15

    Stable-isotope (SI) labeling of proteins is an essential technique to investigate their structures, interactions or dynamics by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The assignment of the main-chain signals, which is the fundamental first step in these analyses, is usually achieved by a sequential assignment method based on triple resonance experiments. Independently of the triple resonance experiment-based sequential assignment, amino acid-selective SI labeling is beneficial for discriminating the amino acid type of each signal; therefore, it is especially useful for the signal assignment of difficult targets. Various combinatorial selective labeling schemes have been developed as more sophisticated labeling strategies. In these strategies, amino acids are represented by combinations of SI labeled samples, rather than simply assigning one amino acid to one SI labeled sample as in the case of conventional amino acid-selective labeling. These strategies have proven to be useful for NMR analyses of difficult proteins, such as those in large complex systems, in living cells, attached or integrated into membranes, or with poor solubility. In this review, recent advances in stable isotope assisted labeling strategies will be discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lightweight Thermally Stable Multi-Meter Aperture Submillimeter Reflectors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future astrophysics missions will require lightweight, thermally stable, submillimeter reflectors in sizes of 4m and greater. To date, graphite fiber reinforced...

  7. Development of demonstration advanced thermal reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Seiji; Oguchi, Isao; Touhei, Kazushige

    1982-08-01

    The design of the advanced thermal demonstration reactor with 600 MWe output was started in 1975. In order to make the compact core, 648 fuel assemblies, each comprising 36 fuel rods, were used, and the mean channel output was increased by 20% as compared with the prototype reactor. The heavy water dumping mechanism for the calandria was abolished. Advanced thermal reactors are suitable to burn plutonium, since the control rod worth does not change, the void reactivity coefficient of coolant shifts to the negative side, and the harmful influence of high order plutonium is small. The void reactivity coefficient is nearly zero, the fluctuation of output in relation to pressure disturbance is small, and the local output change of fuel by the operation of control rods is small, therefore, the operation following load change is relatively easy. The coolant recirculation system is of independent loop construction dividing the core into two, and steam and water are separated in respective steam drums. At present, the rationalizing design is in progress by the leadership of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. The outline of the demonstration reactor, the reactor construction, the nuclear-thermal-hydraulic characteristics and the output control characteristics are reported.

  8. Development of demonstration advanced thermal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Seiji; Oguchi, Isao; Touhei, Kazushige.

    1982-01-01

    The design of the advanced thermal demonstration reactor with 600 MWe output was started in 1975. In order to make the compact core, 648 fuel assemblies, each comprising 36 fuel rods, were used, and the mean channel output was increased by 20% as compared with the prototype reactor. The heavy water dumping mechanism for the calandria was abolished. Advanced thermal reactors are suitable to burn plutonium, since the control rod worth does not change, the void reactivity coefficient of coolant shifts to the negative side, and the harmful influence of high order plutonium is small. The void reactivity coefficient is nearly zero, the fluctuation of output in relation to pressure disturbance is small, and the local output change of fuel by the operation of control rods is small, therefore, the operation following load change is relatively easy. The coolant recirculation system is of independent loop construction dividing the core into two, and steam and water are separated in respective steam drums. At present, the rationalizing design is in progress by the leadership of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. The outline of the demonstration reactor, the reactor construction, the nuclear-thermal-hydraulic characteristics and the output control characteristics are reported. (Kako, I.)

  9. Advanced materials for thermal protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Sangvavann; Sherman, Andrew J.

    1996-03-01

    Reticulated open-cell ceramic foams (both vitreous carbon and silicon carbide) and ceramic composites (SiC-based, both monolithic and fiber-reinforced) were evaluated as candidate materials for use in a heat shield sandwich panel design as an advanced thermal protection system (TPS) for unmanned single-use hypersonic reentry vehicles. These materials were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition/infiltration (CVD/CVI) and evaluated extensively for their mechanical, thermal, and erosion/ablation performance. In the TPS, the ceramic foams were used as a structural core providing thermal insulation and mechanical load distribution, while the ceramic composites were used as facesheets providing resistance to aerodynamic, shear, and erosive forces. Tensile, compressive, and shear strength, elastic and shear modulus, fracture toughness, Poisson's ratio, and thermal conductivity were measured for the ceramic foams, while arcjet testing was conducted on the ceramic composites at heat flux levels up to 5.90 MW/m2 (520 Btu/ft2ṡsec). Two prototype test articles were fabricated and subjected to arcjet testing at heat flux levels of 1.70-3.40 MW/m2 (150-300 Btu/ft2ṡsec) under simulated reentry trajectories.

  10. Evaluation of Erosion Resistance of Advanced Turbine Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Miller, Robert A.; Cuy, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The erosion resistant turbine thermal barrier coating system is critical to aircraft engine performance and durability. By demonstrating advanced turbine material testing capabilities, we will be able to facilitate the critical turbine coating and subcomponent development and help establish advanced erosion-resistant turbine airfoil thermal barrier coatings design tools. The objective of this work is to determine erosion resistance of advanced thermal barrier coating systems under simulated engine erosion and/or thermal gradient environments, validating advanced turbine airfoil thermal barrier coating systems based on nano-tetragonal phase toughening design approaches.

  11. Lightweight Thermally Stable Multi-Meter Aperture Submillimeter Reflectors, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II effort will be an affordable demonstrated full-scale design for a thermally stable multi-meter submillimeter reflector. The Phase I...

  12. Stable isotope study of thermal and other waters in Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, M.E.; Hulston, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The O-18/O-16, D/H ratios and chloride concentrations of 79 thermal spring, subsurface, and surface waters from the two main islands of Fiji have been measured to determine the origin of the thermal waters and the characteristics of the geothermal activity. The meteoric waters generally fall along the Meteoric Water Line with a slope of 8, and best fit a line of this slope with a delta D intercept of +13 per mill. The delta O-18/delta D ratios of the thermal waters indicate low magnitude subsurface temperatures and a negligible enrichment in O-18. In one coastal locality in which higher temperature conditions exist, up to 50% seawater is shown to be mixing within the system, probably at shallow depths. The isotopic characteristics of the thermal waters reflect those of the local meteoric water, indicating localised recharge and an essentially meteoric origin. The effects of prevailing wind conditions and topography of these islands cause a depletion of deuterium in both precipitation and surface meteoric water from windward to leeward coasts (auth)

  13. Direct numerical simulation of stable and unstable turbulent thermal boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Hirofumi; Houra, Tomoya; Nagano, Yasutaka

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents direct numerical simulations (DNS) of stable and unstable turbulent thermal boundary layers. Since a buoyancy-affected boundary layer is often encountered in an urban environmental space where stable and unstable stratifications exist, exploring a buoyancy-affected boundary layer is very important to know the transport phenomena of the flow in an urban space. Although actual observation may qualitatively provide the characteristics of these flows, the relevant quantitative turbulent quantities are very difficult to measure. Thus, in order to quantitatively investigate a buoyancy-affected boundary layer in detail, we have here carried out for the first time time- and space-developing DNS of slightly stable and unstable turbulent thermal boundary layers. The DNS results show the quantitative turbulent statistics and structures of stable and unstable thermal boundary layers, in which the characteristic transport phenomena of thermally stratified boundary layers are demonstrated by indicating the budgets of turbulent shear stress and turbulent heat flux. Even though the input of buoyant force is not large, the influence of buoyancy is clearly revealed in both stable and unstable turbulent boundary layers. In particular, it is found that both stable and unstable thermal stratifications caused by the weak buoyant force remarkably alter the structure of near-wall turbulence

  14. Thermally Stable Dialkylzirconocenes with β-Hydrogens. Synthesis and Diastereoselectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Wendt, Ola F.; Bercaw, John E.

    2001-01-01

    Alkylation of Cp^r_2ZrCl_2 (Cpr = Cp (η^5-C_5H_5), Cp‘ (η^5-C_5H_4Me), Cp^* (η^5-C_5Me_5)) and CpCp^*Zr(CH_3)Cl with 1-lithio-2-methylpentane (R^1Li) gives the corresponding dialkylzirconocenes Cp^r_2ZrR^1_2 and CpCp^*Zr(CH_3)R^1, in high yields. Such alkyls have unprecedented thermal stabilities, especially for the CpCp^* ligand framework. The diastereomers of the Cp^r_2ZrR^1_2 complexes are formed in a statistical distribution, whereas the diastereomers of CpCp^*Zr(CH_3)R^1 form in a 2:3 ra...

  15. Stable coronary syndromes: pathophysiology, diagnostic advances and therapeutic need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, David

    2018-01-01

    The diagnostic management of patients with angina pectoris typically centres on the detection of obstructive epicardial CAD, which aligns with evidence-based treatment options that include medical therapy and myocardial revascularisation. This clinical paradigm fails to account for the considerable proportion (approximately one-third) of patients with angina in whom obstructive CAD is excluded. This common scenario presents a diagnostic conundrum whereby angina occurs but there is no obstructive CAD (ischaemia and no obstructive coronary artery disease—INOCA). We review new insights into the pathophysiology of angina whereby myocardial ischaemia results from a deficient supply of oxygenated blood to the myocardium, due to various combinations of focal or diffuse epicardial disease (macrovascular), microvascular dysfunction or both. Macrovascular disease may be due to the presence of obstructive CAD secondary to atherosclerosis, or may be dynamic due to a functional disorder (eg, coronary artery spasm, myocardial bridging). Pathophysiology of coronary microvascular disease may involve anatomical abnormalities resulting in increased coronary resistance, or functional abnormalities resulting in abnormal vasomotor tone. We consider novel clinical diagnostic techniques enabling new insights into the causes of angina and appraise the need for improved therapeutic options for patients with INOCA. We conclude that the taxonomy of stable CAD could improve to better reflect the heterogeneous pathophysiology of the coronary circulation. We propose the term ‘stable coronary syndromes’ (SCS), which aligns with the well-established terminology for ‘acute coronary syndromes’. SCS subtends a clinically relevant classification that more fully encompasses the different diseases of the epicardial and microvascular coronary circulation. PMID:29030424

  16. Thermally stable silica-coated hydrophobic gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehara, Masayuki; Watanabe, Yuka; Teranishi, Toshiharu

    2009-01-01

    We have successfully developed a method for silica coating on hydrophobic dodecanethiol-protected Au nanoparticles with coating thickness ranging from 10 to 40 nm. The formation of silica-coated Au nanoparticles could be accomplished via the preparation of hydrophilic Au nanoparticle micelles by cationic surfactant encapsulation in aqueous phase, followed by hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate on the hydrophilic surface of gold nanoparticle micelles. Silica-coated Au nanoparticles exhibited quite high thermal stability, that is, no agglomeration of the Au cores could be observed after annealing at 600 degrees C for 30 min. Silica-coated Au nanoparticles could serve as a template to derive hollow nanoparticles. An addition of NaCN solution to silica-coated Au nanoparticles led the formation of hollow silica nanoparticles, which were redispersible in deionized water. The formation of the hollow silica nanoparticles results from the mesoporous structures of the silica shell and such a mesoporous structure is applicable to both catalyst support and drug delivery.

  17. Thermal Model Predictions of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Fabanich, William Anthony; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes the capabilities of three-dimensional thermal power model of advanced stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG). The performance of the ASRG is presented for different scenario, such as Venus flyby with or without the auxiliary cooling system.

  18. Advances in solar thermal energy in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco Noceto, P.

    2012-01-01

    This article is about the law 18585 which declared de solar thermal energy as national interest. This law establishes the obligation to incorporate solar heating systems in health care centers, hotels and sports clubs.

  19. Thermal-Hydraulic Experiment To Test The Stable Operation Of A PIUS Type Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irianto, Djoko; Kanji, T.; Kukita, Y.

    1996-01-01

    An advanced type of reaktor concept as the Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor was based on intrinsically passive safety considerations. The stable operation of a PIUS type reactor is based on the automation of circulation pump speed. An automatic circulation pump speed control system by using a measurement of the temperature distribution in the lower density lock is proposed the PIUS-type reactor. In principle this control system maintains the fluid temperature at the axial center of the lower density lock at average of the fluid temperatures below and above the lower density lock. This control system will prevent the poison water from penetrating into the core during normal operation. The effectiveness of this control system was successfully confirmed by a series of experiments using atmospheric pressure thermal-hydraulic test loop which simulated the PIUS principle. The experiments such as: start-up and power ramping tests for normal operation simulation and loss of feedwater test for an accident condition simulation, carried out in JAERI

  20. Advanced Fuel Cell System Thermal Management for NASA Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA exploration program. An analysis of a state-of-the-art fuel cell cooling systems was done to benchmark the portion of a fuel cell system s mass that is dedicated to thermal management. Additional analysis was done to determine the key performance targets of the advanced passive thermal management technology that would substantially reduce fuel cell system mass.

  1. Thermal effects and their compensation in Advanced Virgo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocchi, A; Coccia, E; Fafone, V; Malvezzi, V; Minenkov, Y; Sperandio, L

    2012-01-01

    Thermal effects in the test masses of the gravitational waves interferometric detectors may result in a strong limitation to their operation and sensitivity. Already in initial LIGO and Virgo, these effects have been observed and required the installation of dedicated compensation systems. Based on CO 2 laser projectors, the thermal compensators heat the peripheral of the input test masses to reduce the lensing effect. In advanced detectors, the power circulating in the interferometer will increase, thus making thermal effects more relevant. In this paper, the concept of the compensation system for Advanced Virgo is described.

  2. Stability, rheology and thermal analysis of functionalized alumina- thermal oil-based nanofluids for advanced cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyas, Suhaib Umer; Pendyala, Rajashekhar; Narahari, Marneni; Susin, Lim

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Alumina nanoparticles are functionalized with oleic acid. • Functionalization of alumina nanoparticles gives better dispersion in thermal oil. • Thermophysical properties of nanofluids are experimentally measured. • TGA confirms the improvement in life of nanofluids. - Abstract: Thermal oils are widely used as cooling media in heat transfer processes. However, their potential has not been utilised exquisitely in many applications due to low thermal properties. Thermal oil-based nanofluids are prepared by dispersing functionalized alumina with varying concentrations of 0.5–3 wt.% to enhance thermal properties of oil for advanced cooling systems. The oleic acid coated alumina is prepared and then dispersed in the oil to overcome the aggregation of nanoparticles in base fluid. The surface characterizations of functionalized nanoparticles are performed using different analysis such as XRD, EDS, SEM, TEM and FTIR. Dispersion behaviour and agglomeration studies are conducted at natural and functionalized conditions using different analysis to ensure long-term stability of nanofluids. In addition, rheological behaviour of non-Newtonian nanofluids is studied at high shear rates (100–2000 s"−"1). Effective densities and enhancement in thermal conductivities are measured for different nanofluids concentrations. Specific heat capacity is measured using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The correlations are developed for thermophysical properties of nanofluids. Thermogravimetric analysis is performed with respect to temperature and time to exploit the effect of the addition of nanoparticles on the degradation of nanofluids. Significant improvement in the thermal properties of oil is observed using highly stable functionalized alumina nano-additives.

  3. Highly thermal-stable and functional cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibrils produced using fully recyclable organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liheng Chen; Junyong Zhu; Carlos Baez; Peter Kitin; Thomas Elder

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the production of highly thermal stable and functional cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and nanofibrils (CNF) by hydrolysis using concentrated organic acids. Due to their low water solubility, these solid organic acids can be easily recovered after hydrolysis reactions through crystallization at a lower or ambient temperature. When dicarboxylic acids were...

  4. New rapid-curing, stable polyimide polymers with high-temperature strength and thermal stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, E. A.; Jones, J. F.; Kendrick, W. R.; Lubowitz, H. R.; Thorpe, R. S.; Wilson, E. R.

    1969-01-01

    Additive-type polymerization reaction forms thermally stable polyimide polymers, thereby eliminating the volatile matter attendant with the condensation reaction. It is based on the utilization of reactive alicyclic rings positioned on the ends of polyimide prepolymers having relatively low molecular weights.

  5. Organic light emitting diodes with environmentally and thermally stable doped graphene electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuruvila, Arun; Kidambi, Piran R.; Kling, Jens

    2014-01-01

    We present a comparative study of the environmental and thermal stability of graphene charge transfer doping using molybdenum– trioxide (MoO3), vanadium–pentoxide (V2O5) and tungsten–trioxide (WO3). Our results show that all these metal oxides allow a strong and stable p-type doping of graphene...

  6. Solvent-resistant organic transistors and thermally stable organic photovoltaics based on cross-linkable conjugated polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyeongjun; Han, A. Reum; Cho, Chulhee; Kang, Hyunbum; Cho, Hanhee; Lee, Mooyeol; Frechet, Jean; Oh, Joonhak; Kim, Bumjoon

    2012-01-01

    organic electronics with air stability, solvent resistance, and thermal stability. Herein, we have developed a simple but powerful approach to achieve solvent-resistant and thermally stable organic electronic devices with a remarkably improved air

  7. High-Temperature Adhesives for Thermally Stable Aero-Assist Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberts, Kenneth; Ou, Runqing

    2013-01-01

    Aero-assist technologies are used to control the velocity of exploration vehicles (EVs) when entering Earth or other planetary atmospheres. Since entry of EVs in planetary atmospheres results in significant heating, thermally stable aero-assist technologies are required to avoid the high heating rates while maintaining low mass. Polymer adhesives are used in aero-assist structures because of the need for high flexibility and good bonding between layers of polymer films or fabrics. However, current polymer adhesives cannot withstand temperatures above 400 C. This innovation utilizes nanotechnology capabilities to address this need, leading to the development of high-temperature adhesives that exhibit high thermal conductivity in addition to increased thermal decomposition temperature. Enhanced thermal conductivity will help to dissipate heat quickly and effectively to avoid temperature rising to harmful levels. This, together with increased thermal decomposition temperature, will enable the adhesives to sustain transient high-temperature conditions.

  8. Preparation and thermal properties of form stable paraffin phase change material encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xing; Liu Hongyan; Wang Shujun; Zhang Lu; Cheng Hua

    2006-01-01

    Paraffin waxes are cheap and have moderate thermal energy storage density but low thermal conductivity and, hence, require large surface area to be used in energy storage. Form stable paraffin phase change materials (PCM) in which paraffin serves as a latent heat storage material and polyolefins act as a supporting material, because of paraffin leakage, are required to be improved. The form stable paraffin PCM in the present paper was encapsulated in an inorganic silica gel polymer successfully by in situ polymerization. The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to measure its thermal properties. At the same time, the Washburn equation, which measures the wetting properties of powder materials, was used to test the hydrophilic-lipophilic properties of the PCMs. The result indicated that the enthalpy of the microencapsulated PCMs was reduced little, while their hydrophilic properties were enhanced largely

  9. Advanced materials for thermal management of electronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Xingcun Colin

    2011-01-01

    The need for advanced thermal management materials in electronic packaging has been widely recognized as thermal challenges become barriers to the electronic industry's ability to provide continued improvements in device and system performance. With increased performance requirements for smaller, more capable, and more efficient electronic power devices, systems ranging from active electronically scanned radar arrays to web servers all require components that can dissipate heat efficiently. This requires that the materials have high capability of dissipating heat and maintaining compatibility

  10. FY 2017 – Thermal Aging Effects on Advanced Structural Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Meimei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, K [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, Wei-Ying [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This report provides an update on the evaluation of the effect of thermal aging on tensile properties of existing laboratory-sized heats of Alloy 709 austenitic stainless steel and the completion of effort on the thermal aging effect on the tensile properties of optimized G92 ferritic-martensitic steel. The report is a Level 3 deliverable in FY17 (M3AT-17AN1602081), under the Work Package AT-17AN160208, “Advanced Alloy Testing - ANL” performed by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of the Advanced Reactor Technologies Program.

  11. Long term thermal energy storage with stable supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Schultz, Jørgen M.; Johansen, Jakob Berg

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate makes it possible to store thermal energy partly loss free. This principle makes seasonal heat storage in compact systems possible. To keep high and stable energy content and cycling stability phase separation of the storage material must...... it expands and will cause a pressure built up in a closed chamber which might compromise stability of the supercooling. This can be avoided by having an air volume above the phase change material connected to an external pressure less expansion tank. Supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate at 20 °C stores up...

  12. Reliable Refuge: Two Sky Island Scorpion Species Select Larger, Thermally Stable Retreat Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jamie E; Brown, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Sky island scorpions shelter under rocks and other surface debris, but, as with other scorpions, it is unclear whether these species select retreat sites randomly. Furthermore, little is known about the thermal preferences of scorpions, and no research has been done to identify whether reproductive condition might influence retreat site selection. The objectives were to (1) identify physical or thermal characteristics for retreat sites occupied by two sky island scorpions (Vaejovis cashi Graham 2007 and V. electrum Hughes 2011) and those not occupied; (2) determine whether retreat site selection differs between the two study species; and (3) identify whether thermal selection differs between species and between gravid and non-gravid females of the same species. Within each scorpion's habitat, maximum dimensions of rocks along a transect line were measured and compared to occupied rocks to determine whether retreat site selection occurred randomly. Temperature loggers were placed under a subset of occupied and unoccupied rocks for 48 hours to compare the thermal characteristics of these rocks. Thermal gradient trials were conducted before parturition and after dispersal of young in order to identify whether gravidity influences thermal preference. Vaejovis cashi and V. electrum both selected larger retreat sites that had more stable thermal profiles. Neither species appeared to have thermal preferences influenced by reproductive condition. However, while thermal selection did not differ among non-gravid individuals, gravid V. electrum selected warmer temperatures than its gravid congener. Sky island scorpions appear to select large retreat sites to maintain thermal stability, although biotic factors (e.g., competition) could also be involved in this choice. Future studies should focus on identifying the various biotic or abiotic factors that could influence retreat site selection in scorpions, as well as determining whether reproductive condition affects thermal

  13. Advanced Filter Technology For Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillon, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The Scrubber System focuses on using HEPA filters and carbon filtration to purify the exhaust of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion engine of its aerosols and radioactive particles; however, new technology may lend itself to alternate filtration options, which may lead to reduction in cost while at the same time have the same filtering, if not greater, filtering capabilities, as its predecessors. Extensive research on various types of filtration methods was conducted with only four showing real promise: ionization, cyclonic separation, classic filtration, and host molecules. With the four methods defined, more research was needed to find the devices suitable for each method. Each filtration option was matched with a device: cyclonic separators for the method of the same name, electrostatic separators for ionization, HEGA filters, and carcerands for the host molecule method. Through many hours of research, the best alternative for aerosol filtration was determined to be the electrostatic precipitator because of its high durability against flow rate and its ability to cleanse up to 99.99% of contaminants as small as 0.001 micron. Carcerands, which are the only alternative to filtering radioactive particles, were found to be non-existent commercially because of their status as a "work in progress" at research institutions. Nevertheless, the conclusions after the research were that HEPA filters is recommended as the best option for filtering aerosols and carbon filtration is best for filtering radioactive particles.

  14. High-energy, stable and recycled molecular solar thermal storage materials using AZO/graphene hybrids by optimizing hydrogen bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen; Feng, Yiyu; Qin, Chengqun; Li, Man; Li, Shipei; Cao, Chen; Long, Peng; Liu, Enzuo; Hu, Wenping; Yoshino, Katsumi; Feng, Wei

    2015-10-21

    An important method for establishing a high-energy, stable and recycled molecular solar heat system is by designing and preparing novel photo-isomerizable molecules with a high enthalpy and a long thermal life by controlling molecular interactions. A meta- and ortho-bis-substituted azobenzene chromophore (AZO) is covalently grafted onto reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for solar thermal storage materials. High grafting degree and close-packed molecules enable intermolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) for both trans-(E) and cis-(Z) isomers of AZO on the surface of nanosheets, resulting in a dramatic increase in enthalpy and lifetime. The metastable Z-form of AZO on RGO is thermally stabilized with a half-life of 52 days by steric hindrance and intermolecular H-bonds calculated using density functional theory (DFT). The AZO-RGO fuel shows a high storage capacity of 138 Wh kg(-1) by optimizing intermolecular H-bonds with a good cycling stability for 50 cycles induced by visible light at 520 nm. Our work opens up a new method for making advanced molecular solar thermal storage materials by tuning molecular interactions on a nano-template.

  15. A framework for shear driven dissolution of thermally stable particles during friction stir welding and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palanivel, S. [Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Processes Institute, Center for Friction Stir Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Arora, A. [Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Palaj, Gandhinagar 382355, Gujarat (India); Doherty, K.J. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Science Division, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Mishra, R.S., E-mail: Rajiv.Mishra@unt.edu [Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Processes Institute, Center for Friction Stir Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    A framework is proposed to explain the dissolution and fragmentation of particles during friction stir welding and processing. Two major mechanisms dissolve the particle during the process: (i) thermally activated diffusion, and (ii) dislocation and grain boundary sweeping of atoms. We use a three-dimensional coupled viscoplastic flow and heat transfer model to quantify these mechanisms. For illustration purposes, calculations were done on a thermally stable Mg{sub 2}Y intermetallic that dissolved during processing. The framework is universal and applies to any second phase dissolution and fragmentation during friction stir welding and processing, thus enabling a science-based approach to tailor microstructures.

  16. Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Vivek Kumar

    to heat-sinking units. This dissertation presents results of the experimental investigation and theoretical interpretation of thermal transport in the advanced engineered materials, which include thin films for thermal management of nanoscale devices, nanostructured superlattices as promising candidates for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials, and improved TIMs with graphene and metal particles as fillers providing enhanced thermal conductivity. The advanced engineered materials studied include chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and microcrystalline diamond (MCD) films on Si substrates, directly integrated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films on GaN, free-standing polycrystalline graphene (PCG) films, graphene oxide (GOx) films, and "pseudo-superlattices" of the mechanically exfoliated Bi2Te3 topological insulator films, and thermal interface materials (TIMs) with graphene fillers.

  17. Preparation of organo clays thermally stable to be employed as filler in PET nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, I.F.; Soares, A.P.S.; Silva, S.M.L.; Malta, O.M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal stability of organically modified clays is fundamental to melt processing polymer nanocomposites, especially, poly(terephthalate ethylene) (PET). However, the use of organic salts with high thermal stability is factor essential to obtaining of organoclays with great thermal properties. This work has as purpose to evaluate the influence of organic modifier based on alkyl ammonium, alkyl phosphonium and aryl phosphonium, in the clay organic modification visa to improve thermal properties to use as filler in nanocomposites preparation, where temperatures at about 260 deg C will be employed. The most common, and commercially available, surfactants used for cation exchange reactions with montmorillonites, rendering them organophilic, are quaternary ammonium salts, that when present as cations in montmorillonite, typically begin degradation at above 200 deg C. However, organoclays prepared with quaternary alkyl phosphonium salts may be potentially useful for the organoclays preparation stable thermally. In this study bentonite clay from Bentonit Uniao Nordeste/PB was purified and organically modified with the organic salts reported above. Organoclays were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and analysis thermogravimetry. The results shown that the samples modified with the salts based on phosphonium presented higher thermal stability that the alkyl ammonium salt. (author)

  18. From Advance Euthanasia Directive to Euthanasia: Stable Preference in Older People?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Eva E; Pasman, H Roeline W; Deeg, Dorly J H; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether older people with advance directive for euthanasia (ADEs) are stable in their advance desire for euthanasia in the last years of life, how frequently older people with an ADE eventually request euthanasia, and what factors determine this. Mortality follow-back study nested in a cohort study. The Netherlands. Proxies of deceased members of a cohort representative of Dutch older people (n = 168) and a cohort of people with advance directives (n = 154). Data from cohort members (possession of ADE) combined with after-death proxy information on cohort members' last 3 months of life. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed on determinants of a euthanasia request in individuals with an ADE. Response rate was 65%. One hundred forty-two cohort members had an ADE at baseline. Three months before death, 87% remained stable in their desire for euthanasia; 47% eventually requested euthanasia (vs 6% without an ADE), and 16% died after euthanasia. People with an ADE were more likely to request euthanasia if they worried about loss of dignity. The majority of older adults who complete an ADE will have a stable preference over time, but an advance desire for euthanasia does not necessarily result in a euthanasia request. Writing an ADE may reflect a person's need for reassurance that they can request euthanasia in the future. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Thermal performance study of form-stable composite phase change material with polyacrylic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Shin Yiing; Munusamy, Yamuna; Ong, Kok Seng; Chee, Swee Yong; Sanmuggam, Shimalaa

    2017-04-01

    Phase change material (PCM) is one of the most popular and widely used as thermal energy storage material because it is able to absorb and release a large amount of latent heat during a phase change process over a narrow temperature range. In this work, the form-stable composite PCM was prepared by blending of PMMA and myristic acid in different weight percentage. PMMA was used as a supporting material while myristic acid was used as PCM. Theoretically, PCM can be encapsulated in the support material after blending. However, a small amount of liquid PCMs can leak out from supporting material due to the volume change in phase change process. Therefore, a form-stable composite PCM with polyacrylic coating was studied. Leakage test was carried out to determine the leakage percentage of the form-stable composite PCM. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to characterize the chemical compatibility of the form-stable PCM composite while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the melting, freezing point and the latent heat of melting and freezing for the form-stable composite PCM.

  20. Thermal Model Predictions of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Fabanich, William Anthony; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents recent thermal model results of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). The three-dimensional (3D) ASRG thermal power model was built using the Thermal Desktop(trademark) thermal analyzer. The model was correlated with ASRG engineering unit test data and ASRG flight unit predictions from Lockheed Martin's (LM's) I-deas(trademark) TMG thermal model. The auxiliary cooling system (ACS) of the ASRG is also included in the ASRG thermal model. The ACS is designed to remove waste heat from the ASRG so that it can be used to heat spacecraft components. The performance of the ACS is reported under nominal conditions and during a Venus flyby scenario. The results for the nominal case are validated with data from Lockheed Martin. Transient thermal analysis results of ASRG for a Venus flyby with a representative trajectory are also presented. In addition, model results of an ASRG mounted on a Cassini-like spacecraft with a sunshade are presented to show a way to mitigate the high temperatures of a Venus flyby. It was predicted that the sunshade can lower the temperature of the ASRG alternator by 20 C for the representative Venus flyby trajectory. The 3D model also was modified to predict generator performance after a single Advanced Stirling Convertor failure. The geometry of the Microtherm HT insulation block on the outboard side was modified to match deformation and shrinkage observed during testing of a prototypic ASRG test fixture by LM. Test conditions and test data were used to correlate the model by adjusting the thermal conductivity of the deformed insulation to match the post-heat-dump steady state temperatures. Results for these conditions showed that the performance of the still-functioning inboard ACS was unaffected.

  1. Revision of construction plan for advanced thermal demonstration reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Federation of Electric Power Companies demanded the revision of the construction plan for the advanced thermal demonstration reactor, which is included in the 'Long term plan on the research, development and utilization of atomic energy' decided by the Atomic Energy Commission in 1994, for economical reason. The Atomic Energy Commission carried out the deliberation on this demand. It was found that the cost of construction increases to 580 billion yen, and the cost of electric power generation increases three times as high as that of LWRs. The role as the reactor that utilizes MOX fuel can be substituted by LWRs. The relation of trust with the local town must be considered. In view of these circumstances, it is judged that the stoppage of the construction plan is appropriate. It is necessary to investigate the substitute plan for the stoppage, and the viewpoints of investigating the substitute plan, the examination of the advanced BWR with all MOX fuel core and the method of advancing its construction are considered. On the research and development related to advanced thermal reactors, the research and development contributing to the advance of nuclear fuel recycling are advanced, and the prototype reactor 'Fugen' is utilized. (K.I.)

  2. Thermal Analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8 Meter Primary Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, Linda; Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The primary mirror will be maintained at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop(R) SINDA/FLUINT(R) was used for the thermal analysis and the radiation environment was analyzed using RADCAD(R). A XX node model was executed in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew or 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the environment which influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Parametric analyses are summarized for design parameters including primary mirror coatings and sunshade configuration. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model demonstrates results for the primary mirror heated from the back side and edges using a heater system with multiple independently controlled zones.

  3. A Truly Second-Order and Unconditionally Stable Thermal Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An unconditionally stable thermal lattice Boltzmann method (USTLBM is proposed in this paper for simulating incompressible thermal flows. In USTLBM, solutions to the macroscopic governing equations that are recovered from lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE through Chapman–Enskog (C-E expansion analysis are resolved in a predictor–corrector scheme and reconstructed within lattice Boltzmann framework. The development of USTLBM is inspired by the recently proposed simplified thermal lattice Boltzmann method (STLBM. Comparing with STLBM which can only achieve the first-order of accuracy in time, the present USTLBM ensures the second-order of accuracy both in space and in time. Meanwhile, all merits of STLBM are maintained by USTLBM. Specifically, USTLBM directly updates macroscopic variables rather than distribution functions, which greatly saves virtual memories and facilitates implementation of physical boundary conditions. Through von Neumann stability analysis, it can be theoretically proven that USTLBM is unconditionally stable. It is also shown in numerical tests that, comparing to STLBM, lower numerical error can be expected in USTLBM at the same mesh resolution. Four typical numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the robustness of USTLBM and its flexibility on non-uniform and body-fitted meshes.

  4. Effective thermal conductivity of advanced ceramic breeder pebble beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pupeschi, S., E-mail: simone.pupeschi@kit.edu; Knitter, R.; Kamlah, M.

    2017-03-15

    As the knowledge of the effective thermal conductivity of ceramic breeder pebble beds under fusion relevant conditions is essential for the development of solid breeder blanket concepts, the EU advanced and reference lithium orthosilicate material were investigated with a newly developed experimental setup based on the transient hot wire method. The effective thermal conductivity was investigated in the temperature range RT–700 °C. Experiments were performed in helium and air atmospheres in the pressure range 0.12–0.4 MPa (abs.) under a compressive load up to 6 MPa. Results show a negligible influence of the chemical composition of the solid material on the bed’s effective thermal conductivity. A severe reduction of the effective thermal conductivity was observed in air. In both atmospheres an increase of the effective thermal conductivity with the temperature was detected, while the influence of the compressive load was found to be small. A clear dependence of the effective thermal conductivity on the pressure of the filling gas was observed in helium in contrast to air, where the pressure dependence was drastically reduced.

  5. Emission and thermal performance upgrade through advanced control backfit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, A.K. [Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, Boston, MA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Reducing emission and improving thermal performance of currently operating power plants is a high priority. A majority of these power plants are over 20 years old with old control systems. Upgrading the existing control systems with the latest technology has many benefits, the most cost beneficial are the reduction of emission and improving thermal performance. The payback period is usually less than two years. Virginia Power is installing Stone & Webster`s NO{sub x} Emissions Advisor and Advanced Steam Temperature Control systems on Possum Point Units 3 and 4 to achieve near term NO{sub x} reductions while maintaining high thermal performance. Testing has demonstrated NO{sub x} reductions of greater than 20 percent through the application of NO{sub x} Emissions Advisor on these units. The Advanced Steam Temperature Control system which has been operational at Virginia Power`s Mt. Storm Unit 1 has demonstrated a signification improvement in unit thermal performance and controllability. These control systems are being combined at Units 3 and 4 to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and achieve improved unit thermal performance and control response with the existing combustion hardware. Installation has been initiated and is expected to be completed by the spring of 1995. Possum Point Power Station Units 3 and 4 are pulverized coal, tangentially fired boilers producing 107 and 232 MW and have a distributed control system and a PC based performance monitoring system. The installation of the advanced control and automation system will utilize existing control equipment requiring the addition of several PCs and PLC.

  6. IMPULSE---an advanced, high performance nuclear thermal propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrosky, L.J.; Disney, R.K.; Mangus, J.D.; Gunn, S.A.; Zweig, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    IMPULSE is an advanced nuclear propulsion engine for future space missions based on a novel conical fuel. Fuel assemblies are formed by stacking a series of truncated (U, Zr)C cones with non-fueled lips. Hydrogen flows radially inward between the cones to a central plenum connected to a high performance bell nozzle. The reference IMPULSE engine rated at 75,000 lb thrust and 1800 MWt weighs 1360 kg and is 3.65 meters in height and 81 cm in diameter. Specific impulse is estimated to be 1000 for a 15 minute life at full power. If longer life times are required, the operating temperature can be reduced with a concomitant decrease in specific impulse. Advantages of this concept include: well defined coolant paths without outlet flow restrictions; redundant orificing; very low thermal gradients and hence, thermal stresses, across the fuel elements; and reduced thermal stresses because of the truncated conical shape of the fuel elements

  7. Stable isotope dilution analysis by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekman, A.; Raaphorst, J.G. van

    1984-01-01

    The combination of stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) is in use for lead and uranium determination at milligram per kilogram levels for over 20 years. However, several other elements can also be determined accurately by SIDA/TIMS. In this study the determinations of cadmium and copper are described. Details of the digestion, electrochemical and ion-exchange separations and the loading of the elements on a filament are given. The advantages of the SIDA/TIMS technique are shown and illustrated with results for several certified reference materials. (orig.) [de

  8. Advanced deposition model for thermal activated chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Dang

    Thermal Activated Chemical Vapor Deposition (TACVD) is defined as the formation of a stable solid product on a heated substrate surface from chemical reactions and/or dissociation of gaseous reactants in an activated environment. It has become an essential process for producing solid film, bulk material, coating, fibers, powders and monolithic components. Global market of CVD products has reached multi billions dollars for each year. In the recent years CVD process has been extensively used to manufacture semiconductors and other electronic components such as polysilicon, AlN and GaN. Extensive research effort has been directed to improve deposition quality and throughput. To obtain fast and high quality deposition, operational conditions such as temperature, pressure, fluid velocity and species concentration and geometry conditions such as source-substrate distance need to be well controlled in a CVD system. This thesis will focus on design of CVD processes through understanding the transport and reaction phenomena in the growth reactor. Since the in situ monitor is almost impossible for CVD reactor, many industrial resources have been expended to determine the optimum design by semi-empirical methods and trial-and-error procedures. This approach has allowed the achievement of improvements in the deposition sequence, but begins to show its limitations, as this method cannot always fulfill the more and more stringent specifications of the industry. To resolve this problem, numerical simulation is widely used in studying the growth techniques. The difficulty of numerical simulation of TACVD crystal growth process lies in the simulation of gas phase and surface reactions, especially the latter one, due to the fact that very limited kinetic information is available in the open literature. In this thesis, an advanced deposition model was developed to study the multi-component fluid flow, homogeneous gas phase reactions inside the reactor chamber, heterogeneous surface

  9. solar thermal power systems advanced solar thermal technology project, advanced subsystems development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design for a prototype small (20 kWe) solar thermal electric generating unit was completed, consisting of several subsystems. The concentrator and the receiver collect solar energy and a thermal buffer storage with a transport system is used to provide a partially smoothed heat input to the Stirling engine. A fossil-fuel combustor is included in the receiver designs to permit operation with partial or no solar insolation (hybrid). The engine converts the heat input into mechanical action that powers a generator. To obtain electric power on a large scale, multiple solar modules will be required to operate in parallel. The small solar electric power plant used as a baseline design will provide electricity at remote sites and small communities.

  10. Electron beam induced strong organic/inorganic grafting for thermally stable lithium-ion battery separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yunah; Kim, Jin Il; Moon, Jungjin; Jeong, Jongyeob; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2018-06-01

    A tailored interface between organic and inorganic materials is of great importance to maximize the synergistic effects from hybridization. Polyethylene separators over-coated with inorganic thin films are the state-of-the art technology for preparing various secondary batteries with high safety. Unfortunately, the organic/inorganic hybrid separators have the drawback of a non-ideal interface, thus causing poor thermal/dimensional stability. Here, we report a straightforward method to resolve the drawback of the non-ideal interface between vapor deposited SiO2 and polyethylene separators, to produce a highly stable lithium-ion battery separator through strong chemical linking generated by direct electron beam irradiation. The simple treatment with an electron beam with an optimized dose generates thermally stable polymer separators, which may enhance battery safety under high-temperature conditions. Additionally, the newly formed Si-O-C or Si-CH3 chemical bonding enhances electrolyte-separator compatibility and thus may provide a better environment for ionic transport between the cathode and anode, thereby leading to better charge/discharge behaviors.

  11. Thermally Stable, Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Polymeric Substrates and Method Relating Thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joycelyn O. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Production of an electric voltage in response to mechanical excitation (piezoelectricity) or thermal excitation (pyroelectricity) requires a material to have a preferred dipole orientation in its structure. This preferred orientation or polarization occurs naturally in some crystals such as quartz and can be induced into some ceramic and polymeric materials by application of strong electric or mechanical fields. For some materials, a combination of mechanical and electrical orientation is necessary to completely polarize the material. The only commercially available piezoelectric polymer is poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVF2). However, this polymer has material and process limitations which prohibit its use in numerous device applications where thermal stability is a requirement. By the present invention, thermally stable, piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymeric substrates were prepared from polymers having a softening temperature greater than 1000C. A metal electrode material is deposited onto the polymer substrate and several electrical leads are attached to it. The polymer substrate is heated in a low dielectric medium to enhance molecular mobility of the polymer chains. A voltage is then applied to the polymer substrate inducing polarization. The voltage is then maintained while the polymer substrate is cooled 'freezing in' the molecular orientation. The novelty of the invention resides in the process of preparing the piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymeric substrate. The nonobviousness of the invention is found in heating the polymeric substrate in a low dielectric medium while applying a voltage.

  12. Equipping simulators with an advanced thermal hydraulics model EDF's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldermann, R.; Poizat, F.; Sekri, A.; Faydide, B.; Dumas, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The development of an accelerated version of the advanced CATHARe-1 thermal hydraulics code designed for EDF training simulators (CATHARE-SIMU) was successfully completed as early as 1991. Its successful integration as the principal model of the SIPA Post-Accident Simulator meant that its use could be extended to full-scale simulators as part of the renovation of the stock of existing simulators. In order to further extend the field of application to accidents occurring in shutdown states requiring action and to catch up with developments in respect of the CATHARE code, EDF initiated the SCAR Project designed to adapt CATHARE-2 to simulator requirements (acceleration, parallelization of the computation and extension of the simulation range). In other respects, the installation of SIPA on workstations means that the authors can envisage the application of this remarkable training facility to the understanding of thermal hydraulics accident phenomena

  13. Thermal hydraulic evaluation of advanced wire-wrapped assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal-hydraulic analyses presented in this report are based on application of the subchannel concept in association with the use of bulk parameters for coolant velocity and coolant temperature within a subchannel. The interactions between subchannels are due to turbulent interchange, pressure-induced diversion crossflow, directed sweeping crossflow induced by the helical wire wrap, and transverse thermal conduction. The FULMIX-II computer program was successfully developed to perform the steady-state temperature predictions for LMFBR fuel assemblies with the reference straight-start design and the advanced wire-wrap designs. Predicted steady-state temperature profiles are presented for a typical CRBRP 217-rod wire-wrapped assembly with the selected wire-wrap designs

  14. Preparation of thermally stable microcapsules with a chitosan-silica hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong-Yi; Chen, Hui-Huang

    2014-09-01

    Addition of microcapsules with a high dielectric constant and low specific heat capacity to a battered layer was designed to create a higher temperature in the crust than in the prefried fish nuggets to prevent the water vapor in the fish nuggets from migrating to the crust during microwave heating. Therefore, chitosan-silica hybrids and soybean oil were utilized to prepare the shell and core of the thermally stable microcapsules (MC(CS)), respectively. The MC(CS) were prepared by sol-gel coacervation from an oil-in-water emulsion. The sodium silicate was hydrolyzed and coacervated through polymerization for 24 h at pH 5. The zeta potential analysis indicated that chitosan with a positive charge and silica with a negative charge interacted through electrostatic attraction to form a hybrid shell. The volume mean particle size and encapsulation efficiency of the MC(CS) were 9.6 ± 0.2 μm and 75.6% ± 1.3%, respectively, when oil/chitosan = 0.2 and chitosan/silica = 0.5 (w/w). In addition to H-bonding and electrostatic attraction, Si-O-N bonds were formed between chitosan and silica. Dehydration of the bound water in the MC(CS) was observed in the range of 25 to 250 °C in the differential scanning calorimetry thermal analysis, with the lack of apparent thermal peaks indicating its high thermal stability. The decrease of force to cut the crust observed by texture analysis as well as the increase of hedonic score by consumer acceptance test revealed the addition of 1% MC(CS) significantly improved the crispness of the crust in the microwave-reheated nuggets. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Use of advanced modeling techniques to optimize thermal packaging designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formato, Richard M; Potami, Raffaele; Ahmed, Iftekhar

    2010-01-01

    Through a detailed case study the authors demonstrate, for the first time, the capability of using advanced modeling techniques to correctly simulate the transient temperature response of a convective flow-based thermal shipper design. The objective of this case study was to demonstrate that simulation could be utilized to design a 2-inch-wall polyurethane (PUR) shipper to hold its product box temperature between 2 and 8 °C over the prescribed 96-h summer profile (product box is the portion of the shipper that is occupied by the payload). Results obtained from numerical simulation are in excellent agreement with empirical chamber data (within ±1 °C at all times), and geometrical locations of simulation maximum and minimum temperature match well with the corresponding chamber temperature measurements. Furthermore, a control simulation test case was run (results taken from identical product box locations) to compare the coupled conduction-convection model with a conduction-only model, which to date has been the state-of-the-art method. For the conduction-only simulation, all fluid elements were replaced with "solid" elements of identical size and assigned thermal properties of air. While results from the coupled thermal/fluid model closely correlated with the empirical data (±1 °C), the conduction-only model was unable to correctly capture the payload temperature trends, showing a sizeable error compared to empirical values (ΔT > 6 °C). A modeling technique capable of correctly capturing the thermal behavior of passively refrigerated shippers can be used to quickly evaluate and optimize new packaging designs. Such a capability provides a means to reduce the cost and required design time of shippers while simultaneously improving their performance. Another advantage comes from using thermal modeling (assuming a validated model is available) to predict the temperature distribution in a shipper that is exposed to ambient temperatures which were not bracketed

  16. Advances in Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management and Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demands for vehicle dynamic performance, economy, safety and comfort, and with ever stricter laws concerning energy conservation and emissions, vehicle power systems are becoming much more complex. To pursue high efficiency and light weight in automobile design, the power system and its vehicle integrated thermal management (VITM system have attracted widespread attention as the major components of modern vehicle technology. Regarding the internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV, its integrated thermal management (ITM mainly contains internal combustion engine (ICE cooling, turbo-charged cooling, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR cooling, lubrication cooling and air conditioning (AC or heat pump (HP. As for electric vehicles (EVs, the ITM mainly includes battery cooling/preheating, electric machines (EM cooling and AC or HP. With the rational effective and comprehensive control over the mentioned dynamic devices and thermal components, the modern VITM can realize collaborative optimization of multiple thermodynamic processes from the aspect of system integration. Furthermore, the computer-aided calculation and numerical simulation have been the significant design methods, especially for complex VITM. The 1D programming can correlate multi-thermal components and the 3D simulating can develop structuralized and modularized design. Additionally, co-simulations can virtualize simulation of various thermo-hydraulic behaviors under the vehicle transient operational conditions. This article reviews relevant researching work and current advances in the ever broadening field of modern vehicle thermal management (VTM. Based on the systematic summaries of the design methods and applications of ITM, future tasks and proposals are presented. This article aims to promote innovation of ITM, strengthen the precise control and the performance predictable ability, furthermore, to enhance the level of research and development (R&D.

  17. Small scale thermal-hydraulic experiment for stable operation of a pius-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, K.; Tamaki, M.; Imai, S.; Irianto, I.D.; Tsuji, Y.; Kukita, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic experiments using a small-scale atmospheric pressure test loop have been performed for the Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS)-type reactor to develop the new pump speed feedback control system. Three feedback control systems based on the measurement of flow rate, differential pressure, and fluid temperature distribution in the lower density lock have been proposed and confirmed by a series of experiments. Each of the feedback control systems had been verified in the simulation experiment such as a start-up simulation test. The automatic pump speed control based on the fluid temperature at the lower density lock was quite effective to maintain the stratified interface between primary water and borated pool water for stable operation of the reactor. (author)

  18. Identification of a thermal stable allergen in yam (Dioscorea opposita) to cause anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying-Yang; Yin, Jia

    2018-01-01

    Yam ( Dioscorea opposita ) is commonly consumed in East Asia, but allergic reaction to this plant food is rare. To date, there is no report of anaphylactic reaction after ingestion of cooked yam. We described 3 cases with anaphylaxis after eating boiled yam and 1 present with oral allergy syndrome as well. Basophil activation test in patients showed positive reactivity to boiled yam extract. In immunoblotting, a 30-kDa protein was recognized by all patients' sera and a 17-kDa band was detected by 1 patient. N-terminal amino acid revealed the 30-kDa IgE reacted band was DB3S, dioscorin in Dioscorea tuber. It promoted us that DB3S was a thermal stable oral allergen to trigger anaphylactic reaction and oral allergy syndrome in cooked yam ( D. opposita ) allergy. Patients with this plant food allergy should avoid both raw and well-cooked yam.

  19. Highly transparent, flexible, and thermally stable superhydrophobic ORMOSIL aerogel thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budunoglu, Hulya; Yildirim, Adem; Guler, Mustafa O; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2011-02-01

    We report preparation of highly transparent, flexible, and thermally stable superhydrophobic organically modified silica (ORMOSIL) aerogel thin films from colloidal dispersions at ambient conditions. The prepared dispersions are suitable for large area processing with ease of coating and being directly applicable without requiring any pre- or post-treatment on a variety of surfaces including glass, wood, and plastics. ORMOSIL films exhibit and retain superhydrophobic behavior up to 500 °C and even on bent flexible substrates. The surface of the films can be converted from superhydrophobic (contact angle of 179.9°) to superhydrophilic (contact angle of <5°) by calcination at high temperatures. The wettability of the coatings can be changed by tuning the calcination temperature and duration. The prepared films also exhibit low refractive index and high porosity making them suitable as multifunctional coatings for many application fields including solar cells, flexible electronics, and lab on papers.

  20. Cast thermally stable high temperature nickel-base alloys and casting made therefrom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuncius, D.A.; Herchenroeder, R.B.; Kirchner, R.W.; Silence, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    A cast thermally stable high temperature nickel-base alloy characterized by superior oxidation resistance, sustainable hot strength and retention of ductility on aging is provided by maintaining the alloy chemistry within the composition molybdenum 13.7% to 15.5%; chromium 14.7% to 16.5%; carbon up to 0.1%, lanthanum in an effective amount to provide oxidation resistance up to 0.08%; boron up to 0.015%; manganese 0.3% to 1.0%; silicon 0.2% to 0.8%; cobalt up to 2.0%; iron up to 3.0%; tungsten up to 1.0%; copper up to 0.4%; phosphorous up to 0.02%; sulfur up to 0.015%; aluminum 0.1% to 0.5% and the balance nickel while maintaining the Nv number less than 2.31

  1. Advanced modelling and numerical strategies in nuclear thermal-hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staedtke, H.

    2001-01-01

    The first part of the lecture gives a brief review of the current status of nuclear thermal hydraulics as it forms the basis of established system codes like TRAC, RELAP5, CATHARE or ATHLET. Specific emphasis is given to the capabilities and limitations of the underlying physical modelling and numerical solution strategies with regard to the description of complex transient two-phase flow and heat transfer conditions as expected to occur in PWR reactors during off-normal and accident conditions. The second part of the lecture focuses on new challenges and future needs in nuclear thermal-hydraulics which might arise with regard to re-licensing of old plants using bestestimate methodologies or the design and safety analysis of Advanced Light Water Reactors relying largely on passive safety systems. In order to meet these new requirements various advanced modelling and numerical techniques will be discussed including extended wellposed (hyperbolic) two-fluid models, explicit modelling of interfacial area transport or higher order numerical schemes allowing a high resolution of local multi-dimensional flow processes.(author)

  2. Thermal green protein, an extremely stable, nonaggregating fluorescent protein created by structure-guided surface engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Devin W; Paul, Craig Don; Langan, Patricia S; Wilce, Matthew C J; Traore, Daouda A K; Halfmann, Randal; Rocha, Reginaldo C; Waldo, Geoffery S; Payne, Riley J; Rucker, Joseph B; Prescott, Mark; Bradbury, Andrew R M

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we describe the engineering and X-ray crystal structure of Thermal Green Protein (TGP), an extremely stable, highly soluble, non-aggregating green fluorescent protein. TGP is a soluble variant of the fluorescent protein eCGP123, which despite being highly stable, has proven to be aggregation-prone. The X-ray crystal structure of eCGP123, also determined within the context of this paper, was used to carry out rational surface engineering to improve its solubility, leading to TGP. The approach involved simultaneously eliminating crystal lattice contacts while increasing the overall negative charge of the protein. Despite intentional disruption of lattice contacts and introduction of high entropy glutamate side chains, TGP crystallized readily in a number of different conditions and the X-ray crystal structure of TGP was determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structural reasons for the enhanced stability of TGP and eCGP123 are discussed. We demonstrate the utility of using TGP as a fusion partner in various assays and significantly, in amyloid assays in which the standard fluorescent protein, EGFP, is undesirable because of aberrant oligomerization. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Recoil Induced Room Temperature Stable Frenkel Pairs in a-Hafnium Upon Thermal Neutron Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, Tilman; Das, Satyendra K.; Dey, Chandi C.; Ghoshal, Shamik

    2013-11-01

    Ultrapure hafnium metal (110 ppm zirconium) was neutron activated with a thermal neutron flux of 6:6 · 1012 cm-2s-1 in order to obtain 181Hf for subsequent time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) experiments using the nuclear probe 181Hf(β-) 181Ta. Apart from the expected nuclear quadrupole interaction (NQI) signal for a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metal, three further discrete NQIs were observed with a few percent fraction each. The TDPAC spectra were recorded for up to 11 half lives with extreme statistical accuracy. The fitted parameters vary slightly within the temperature range between 248 K and 373 K. The signals corresponding to the three additional sites completely disappear after `annealing' at 453 K for one minute. Based on the symmetry of the additional NQIs and their temperature dependencies, they are tentatively attributed to Frenkel pairs produced by recoil due to the emission of a prompt 5:694 MeV -ray following thermal neutron capture and reported by the nuclear probe in three different positions. These Frenkel pairs are stable up to at least 373 K.

  4. Cobalt-Based Electrolytes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Recent Advances towards Stable Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Bella

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Redox mediators based on cobalt complexes allowed dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs to achieve efficiencies exceeding 14%, thus challenging the emerging class of perovskite solar cells. Unfortunately, cobalt-based electrolytes demonstrate much lower long-term stability trends if compared to the traditional iodide/triiodide redox couple. In view of the large-scale commercialization of cobalt-based DSCs, the scientific community has recently proposed various approaches and materials to increase the stability of these devices, which comprise gelling agents, crosslinked polymeric matrices and mixtures of solvents (including water. This review summarizes the most significant advances recently focused towards this direction, also suggesting some intriguing way to fabricate third-generation cobalt-based photoelectrochemical devices stable over time.

  5. Advances in primate stable isotope ecology-Achievements and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Brooke E; Reitsema, Laurie J; Oelze, Vicky M; Sponheimer, Matt

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotope biogeochemistry has been used to investigate foraging ecology in non-human primates for nearly 30 years. Whereas early studies focused on diet, more recently, isotopic analysis has been used to address a diversity of ecological questions ranging from niche partitioning to nutritional status to variability in life history traits. With this increasing array of applications, stable isotope analysis stands to make major contributions to our understanding of primate behavior and biology. Most notably, isotopic data provide novel insights into primate feeding behaviors that may not otherwise be detectable. This special issue brings together some of the recent advances in this relatively new field. In this introduction to the special issue, we review the state of isotopic applications in primatology and its origins and describe some developing methodological issues, including techniques for analyzing different tissue types, statistical approaches, and isotopic baselines. We then discuss the future directions we envision for the field of primate isotope ecology. Am. J. Primatol. 78:995-1003, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. In-liquid Plasma. A stable light source for advanced oxidation processes in environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Akihiro; Shimamura, Takeshi; Sawada, Seiya; Sato, Susumu; Serpone, Nick; Horikoshi, Satoshi

    2018-06-01

    A microwave-inspired device that generates stable in-liquid plasma (LP) in aqueous media and emits narrow light emission lines at 280-320 nm, 660 nm and 780 nm is examined as a light source capable of driving photochemical reactions and advanced oxidation processes in wastewater treatments. The microwave-driven lighting efficiency was improved by decompressing the inside of the reaction vessel, which resulted in lowering the incident power of the microwaves and suppressed the deterioration of the microwave irradiation antenna. This protocol made it possible to generate continuous stable plasma in water. Evaluation of the LP device was carried out by revisiting the decomposition of 1,4-dioxane in aqueous media against the use of such other conventional water treatment processes as (i) UV irradiation alone, (ii) TiO2-assisted photocatalysis with UV irradiation (UV/TiO2), (iii) oxidation with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), and (iv) UV-assisted decomposition in the presence of NaClO (UV/NaClO). The in-liquid plasma technique proved superior to these four other methods. The influence of pH on the LP protocol was ascertained through experiments in acidified (HCl and H2SO4) and alkaline (NaOH and KOH) aqueous media. Except for H2SO4, decomposition of 1,4-dioxane was enhanced in both acidic and alkaline media.

  7. ATLAS program for advanced thermal-hydraulic safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chul-Hwa; Choi, Ki-Yong; Kang, Kyoung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Major achievements of the ATLAS program are highlighted in conjunction with both developing advanced light water reactor technologies and enhancing the nuclear safety. • The ATLAS data was shown to be useful for the development and licensing of new reactors and safety analysis codes, and also for nuclear safety enhancement through domestic and international cooperative programs. • A future plan for the ATLAS testing is introduced, covering recently emerging safety issues and some generic thermal-hydraulic concerns. - Abstract: This paper highlights the major achievements of the ATLAS program, which is an integral effect test program for both developing advanced light water reactor technologies and contributing to enhancing nuclear safety. The ATLAS program is closely related with the development of the APR1400 and APR"+ reactors, and the SPACE code, which is a best-estimate system-scale code for a safety analysis of nuclear reactors. The multiple roles of ATLAS testing are emphasized in very close conjunction with the development, licensing, and commercial deployment of these reactors and their safety analysis codes. The role of ATLAS for nuclear safety enhancement is also introduced by taking some examples of its contributions to voluntarily lead to multi-body cooperative programs such as domestic and international standard problems. Finally, a future plan for the utilization of ATLAS testing is introduced, which aims at tackling recently emerging safety issues such as a prolonged station blackout accident and medium-size break LOCA, and some generic thermal-hydraulic concerns as to how to figure out multi-dimensional phenomena and the scaling issue.

  8. Development of vacuum glazing with advanced thermal properties - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Manz, H.

    2009-03-15

    Windows constitute a weak link in the building envelope and hence contribute significantly to the total heating energy demand in buildings. By evacuating the glazing cavity a vacuum glazing is created and heat transfer can be significantly reduced. This project was designed to build knowledge and technology necessary to fabricate vacuum glazing with advanced thermal properties. More specifically, various strategies for improvement of conventional technology were investigated. Of central importance was the development of a novel edge sealing approach which can in theory circumvent the main limitation of conventional glass soldering technology. This approach which is rapid, low temperature, low cost and completely vacuum compatible was filed for patenting in 2008. With regards to thermal insulation performance and glazing deflection, numerical studies were performed demonstrating the importance of nonlinear behavior with glazing size and the results published. A detailed service life prediction model was elaborated which defines a set of parameters necessary to keep the expected pressure increase below a threshold value of 0.1 Pa after 30 years. The model takes into account four possible sources of pressure increase and a getter material which acts as a sink. For the production of 0.5 m by 0.5 m glazing assembly prototypes, a high vacuum chamber was constructed and a first sealing prototype realized therein. The manufacture of improved prototypes and optimization of the anodic bonding edge sealing technology with emphasis on process relevant aspects is the goal of a follow-up project. (authors)

  9. Novel thermally stable poly(vinyl chloride) composites for sulfate removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N., E-mail: Nadagouda.mallikarjuna@epa.gov [Water Supply and Water Resources Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive Cincinnati, Ohio 45268 (United States); Pressman, Jonathan; White, Colin; Speth, Thomas F.; McCurry, Daniel L. [Water Supply and Water Resources Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive Cincinnati, Ohio 45268 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Graphical abstract: Barium carbonate and/or barium carbonate-loaded silica aero-gels dispersed polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composites were prepared by dissolving PVC in tetrahydrofuran (THF), dispersing BaCO{sub 3} and/or BaCO{sub 3}-loaded silica aero-gels, re-precipitating the PVC with water at room temperature. The PVC composites were then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The obtained composites had better thermal properties than the control PVC. The composites were tested for sulfate removal and found to significantly reduce sulfate when compared with control PVC. - Abstract: BaCO{sub 3} dispersed PVC composites were prepared through a polymer re-precipitation method. The composites were tested for sulfate removal using rapid small scale column test (RSSCT) and found to significantly reduce sulfate concentration. The method was extended to synthesize barium carbonate-loaded silica aero-gels-polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymer composites. The PVC composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The method has advantages over conventional sulfate precipitation (sulfate removal process) using BaCO{sub 3} wherein clogging of the filter can be avoided. The method is environmentally friendly and does not interfere with natural organic matter as the conventional resin does. Some of the composites were thermally more stable as compared with the pure PVC discussed in the literature.

  10. Novel thermally stable poly(vinyl chloride) composites for sulfate removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N.; Pressman, Jonathan; White, Colin; Speth, Thomas F.; McCurry, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Barium carbonate and/or barium carbonate-loaded silica aero-gels dispersed polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composites were prepared by dissolving PVC in tetrahydrofuran (THF), dispersing BaCO 3 and/or BaCO 3 -loaded silica aero-gels, re-precipitating the PVC with water at room temperature. The PVC composites were then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The obtained composites had better thermal properties than the control PVC. The composites were tested for sulfate removal and found to significantly reduce sulfate when compared with control PVC. - Abstract: BaCO 3 dispersed PVC composites were prepared through a polymer re-precipitation method. The composites were tested for sulfate removal using rapid small scale column test (RSSCT) and found to significantly reduce sulfate concentration. The method was extended to synthesize barium carbonate-loaded silica aero-gels-polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymer composites. The PVC composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The method has advantages over conventional sulfate precipitation (sulfate removal process) using BaCO 3 wherein clogging of the filter can be avoided. The method is environmentally friendly and does not interfere with natural organic matter as the conventional resin does. Some of the composites were thermally more stable as compared with the pure PVC discussed in the literature.

  11. Thermally Stable Bulk Heterojunction Prepared by Sequential Deposition of Nanostructured Polymer and Fullerene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heewon Hwang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A morphologically-stable polymer/fullerene heterojunction has been prepared by minimizing the intermixing between polymer and fullerene via sequential deposition (SqD of a polymer and a fullerene solution. A low crystalline conjugated polymer of PCPDTBT (poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl-4H-cyclopenta [2,1-b;3,4-b′]dithiophene-alt-4,7(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole] has been utilized for the polymer layer and PC71BM (phenyl-C71-butyric-acid-methyl ester for the fullerene layer, respectively. Firstly, a nanostructured PCPDTBT bottom layer was developed by utilizing various additives to increase the surface area of the polymer film. The PC71BM solution was prepared by dissolving it in the 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE, exhibiting a lower vapor pressure and slower diffusion into the polymer layer. The deposition of the PC71BM solution on the nanostructured PCPDTBT layer forms an inter-digitated bulk heterojunction (ID-BHJ with minimized intermixing. The organic photovoltaic (OPV device utilizing the ID-BHJ photoactive layer exhibits a highly reproducible solar cell performance. In spite of restricted intermixing between the PC71BM and the PCPDTBT, the efficiency of ID-BHJ OPVs (3.36% is comparable to that of OPVs (3.87% prepared by the conventional method (deposition of a blended solution of polymer:fullerene. The thermal stability of the ID-BHJ is superior to the bulk heterojunction (BHJ prepared by the conventional method. The ID-BHJ OPV maintains 70% of its initial efficiency after thermal stress application for twelve days at 80 °C, whereas the conventional BHJ OPV maintains only 40% of its initial efficiency.

  12. Thermal hydraulics analysis of the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dean, E-mail: Dean_Wang@uml.edu [University of Massachusetts Lowell, One University Avenue, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Yoder, Graydon L.; Pointer, David W.; Holcomb, David E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley RD #6167, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The TRACE AHTR model was developed and used to define and size the DRACS and the PHX. • A LOFF transient was simulated to evaluate the reactor performance during the transient. • Some recommendations for modifying FHR reactor system component designs are discussed. - Abstract: The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a liquid salt-cooled nuclear reactor design concept, featuring low-pressure molten fluoride salt coolant, a carbon composite fuel form with embedded coated particle fuel, passively triggered negative reactivity insertion mechanisms, and fully passive decay heat rejection. This paper describes an AHTR system model developed using the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) thermal hydraulic transient code TRAC/RELAP Advanced Computational Engine (TRACE). The TRACE model includes all of the primary components: the core, downcomer, hot legs, cold legs, pumps, direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS), the primary heat exchangers (PHXs), etc. The TRACE model was used to help define and size systems such as the DRACS and the PHX. A loss of flow transient was also simulated to evaluate the performance of the reactor during an anticipated transient event. Some initial recommendations for modifying system component designs are also discussed. The TRACE model will be used as the basis for developing more detailed designs and ultimately will be used to perform transient safety analysis for the reactor.

  13. Identifying and addressing specific student difficulties in advanced thermal physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    As part of an ongoing multi-university research study on student understanding of concepts in thermal physics at the upper division, I identified several student difficulties with topics related to heat engines (especially the Carnot cycle), as well as difficulties related to the Boltzmann factor. In an effort to address these difficulties, I developed two guided-inquiry worksheet activities (a.k.a. tutorials) for use in advanced undergraduate thermal physics courses. Both tutorials seek to improve student understanding of the utility and physical background of a particular mathematical expression. One tutorial focuses on a derivation of Carnot's theorem regarding the limit on thermodynamic efficiency, starting from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The other tutorial helps students gain an appreciation for the origin of the Boltzmann factor and when it is applicable; focusing on the physical justification of its mathematical derivation, with emphasis on the connections between probability, multiplicity, entropy, and energy. Student understanding of the use and physical implications of Carnot's theorem and the Boltzmann factor was assessed using written surveys both before and after tutorial instruction within the advanced thermal physics courses at the University of Maine and at other institutions. Classroom tutorial sessions at the University of Maine were videotaped to allow in-depth scrutiny of student successes and failures following tutorial prompts. I also interviewed students on various topics related to the Boltzmann factor to gain a more complete picture of their understanding and inform tutorial revisions. Results from several implementations of my tutorials at the University of Maine indicate that students did not have a robust understanding of these physical principles after lectures alone, and that they gain a better understanding of relevant topics after tutorial instruction; Fisher's exact tests yield statistically significant improvement at the

  14. NEPTUNE: A new software platform for advanced nuclear thermal hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelfi, A.; Boucker, M.; Herard, J.M.; Peturaud, P.; Bestion, D.; Boudier, P.; Hervieu, E.; Fillion, P.; Grandotto, M.

    2007-01-01

    The NEPTUNE project constitutes the thermal-hydraulic part of the long-term Electricite de France and Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique joint research and development program for the next generation of nuclear reactor simulation tools. This program is also financially supported by the Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire and AREVA NP. The project aims at developing a new software platform for advanced two-phase flow thermal hydraulics covering the whole range of modeling scales and allowing easy multi-scale and multidisciplinary calculations. NEPTUNE is a fully integrated project that covers the following fields: software development, research in physical modeling and numerical methods, development of advanced instrumentation techniques, and performance of new experimental programs. The analysis of the industrial needs points out that three main simulation scales are involved. The system scale is dedicated to the overall description of the reactor. The component or subchannel scale allows three-dimensional computations of the main components of the reactors: cores, steam generators, condensers, and heat exchangers. The current generation of system and component codes has reached a very high level of maturity for industrial applications. The third scale, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in open medium, allows one to go beyond the limits of the component scale for a finer description of the flows. This scale opens promising perspectives for industrial simulations, and the development and validation of the NEPTUNE CFD module have been a priority since the beginning of the project. It is based on advanced physical models (two-fluid or multi field model combined with interfacial area transport and two-phase turbulence) and modern numerical methods (fully unstructured finite volume solvers). For the system and component scales, prototype developments have also started, including new physical models and numerical methods. In addition to scale

  15. Oil Palm Defensin: A Thermal Stable Peptide that Restricts the Mycelial Growth of Ganoderma boninense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yung-Chie; Ang, Cheng-Liang; Wong, Mui-Yun; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Plant defensins are plant defence peptides that have many different biological activities, including antifungal, antimicrobial, and insecticidal activities. A cDNA (EgDFS) encoding defensin was isolated from Elaeis guineensis. The open reading frame of EgDFS contained 231 nucleotides encoding a 71-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight at 8.69 kDa, and a potential signal peptide. The eight highly conserved cysteine sites in plant defensins were also conserved in EgDFS. The EgDFS sequence lacking 30 amino acid residues at its N-terminus (EgDFSm) was cloned into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS and successfully expressed as a soluble recombinant protein. The recombinant EgDFSm was found to be a thermal stable peptide which demonstrated inhibitory activity against the growth of G. boninense possibly by inhibiting starch assimilation. The role of EgDFSm in oil palm defence system against the infection of pathogen G. boninense was discussed.

  16. Synthesis and thermal properties of the MA/HDPE composites with nano-additives as form-stable PCM with improved thermal conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yaojie; Su, Di; Huang, Xiang; Alva, Guruprasad; Liu, Lingkun; Fang, Guiyin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MA/HDPE composites with nano-additives were prepared for thermal conductivity enhancement. • Microstructure and chemical structure of the FSPCM were analyzed. • Thermal properties and thermal reliability of the FSPCM were investigated. • Thermal conductivity of the FSPCM can be enhanced by adding NAO and NG. - Abstract: For the purpose of improving the thermal conductivity of the form–stable phase change materials (FSPCM), two types of nano–powders with high thermal conductivity were added into the samples. In the modified FSPCM, myristic acid (MA) was used as a solid–liquid phase change material (PCM), high density polyethylene (HDPE) acted as supporting material to prevent the leakage of the melted MA. Nano–Al 2 O 3 (NAO) and nano–graphite (NG) were the additives for thermal conductivity enhancement. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope (FT–IR) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were used to analyze the microstructure, chemical structure and crystalline phase of the samples, respectively. Furthermore, the specific latent heat and phase transition temperature, thermal conductivity and thermal reliability were investigated using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermal conductivity meter and thermo–gravimetric analyzer (TGA). The results showed that the MA was uniformly absorbed in the HDPE matrices and there was no leakage during the melting process when the mass fraction of the MA in the MA/HDPE composite was less than 70%. The DSC results revealed that the modified FSPCM have a constant phase change temperature and high specific latent heat. The thermal conductivity of the FSPCM was measured in the solid (30 °C) and liquid (60 °C) states of the MA. When the mass fraction of nano–powder additives is 12%, the thermal conductivities of the FSPCM increase by 95% (NAO) and 121% (NG) at 30 °C. It is anticipated that the FSPCM possess a potential application for thermal energy

  17. New glyme-cyclic imide lithium salt complexes as thermally stable electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takashi; Hachida, Takeshi; Yoshida, Kazuki; Tachikawa, Naoki; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    New glyme-Li salt complexes were prepared by mixing equimolar amounts of a novel cyclic imide lithium salt LiN(C 2F 4S 2O 4) (LiCTFSI) and a glyme (triglyme (G3) or tetraglyme (G4)). The glyme-Li salt complexes, [Li(G3)][CTFSI] and [Li(G4)][CTFSI], are solid and liquid, respectively, at room temperature. The thermal stability of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is much higher than that of pure G4, and the vapor pressure of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is negligible at temperatures lower than 100 °C. Although the viscosity of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is high (132.0 mPa s at 30 °C), because of its high molar concentration (ca. 3 mol dm -3), its ionic conductivity at 30 °C is relatively high, i.e., 0.8 mS cm -1, which is slightly lower than that of a conventional organic electrolyte solution (1 mol dm -3 LiTFSI dissolved in propylene carbonate). The self-diffusion coefficients of a Li + cation, a CTFSI - anion, and a glyme molecule were measured by the pulsed gradient spin-echo NMR method (PGSE-NMR). The ionicity (dissociativity) of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] at 30 °C is ca. 0.5, as estimated from the PGSE-NMR diffusivity measurements and the ionic conductivity measurements. Results of linear sweep voltammetry revealed that [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is electrochemically stable in an electrode potential range of 0-4.5 V vs. Li/Li +. The reversible deposition-stripping behavior of lithium was observed by cyclic voltammetry. The [LiCoO 2|[Li(G4)][CTFSI]|Li metal] cell showed a stable charge-discharge cycling behavior during 50 cycles, indicating that the [Li(G4)][CTFSI] complex is applicable to a 4 V class lithium secondary battery.

  18. Form-stable paraffin/high density polyethylene composites as solid-liquid phase change material for thermal energy storage: preparation and thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, Ahmet

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the preparation of paraffin/high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites as form-stable, solid-liquid phase change material (PCM) for thermal energy storage and with determination of their thermal properties. In such a composite, the paraffin (P) serves as a latent heat storage material and the HDPE acts as a supporting material, which prevents leakage of the melted paraffin because of providing structural strength. Therefore, it is named form-stable composite PCM. In this study, two kinds of paraffins with melting temperatures of 42-44 deg. C (type P1) and 56-58 deg. C (type P2) and latent heats of 192.8 and 212.4 J g -1 were used. The maximum weight percentage for both paraffin types in the PCM composites without any seepage of the paraffin in the melted state were found as high as 77%. It is observed that the paraffin is dispersed into the network of the solid HDPE by investigation of the structure of the composite PCMs using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The melting temperatures and latent heats of the form-stable P1/HDPE and P2/HDPE composite PCMs were determined as 37.8 and 55.7 deg. C, and 147.6 and 162.2 J g -1 , respectively, by the technique of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore, to improve the thermal conductivity of the form-stable P/HDPE composite PCMs, expanded and exfoliated graphite (EG) by heat treatment was added to the samples in the ratio of 3 wt.%. Thereby, the thermal conductivity was increased about 14% for the form-stable P1/HDPE and about 24% for the P2/HDPE composite PCMs. Based on the results, it is concluded that the prepared form-stable P/HDPE blends as composite type PCM have great potential for thermal energy storage applications in terms of their satisfactory thermal properties and improved thermal conductivity. Furthermore, these composite PCMs added with EG can be considered cost effective latent heat storage materials since they do not require encapsulation and extra cost to enhance

  19. COMMIX analysis of four constant flow thermal upramp experiments performed in a thermal hydraulic model of an advanced LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarlagadda, B.S.

    1989-04-01

    The three-dimensional thermal hydraulics computer code COMMIX-1AR was used to analyze four constant flow thermal upramp experiments performed in the thermal hydraulic model of an advanced LMR. An objective of these analyses was the validation of COMMIX-1AR for buoyancy affected flows. The COMMIX calculated temperature histories of some thermocouples in the model were compared with the corresponding measured data. The conclusions of this work are presented. 3 refs., 5 figs

  20. Experiment study on the thermal properties of paraffin/kaolin thermal energy storage form-stable phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Peizhao; Liu, Chenzhen; Rao, Zhonghao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Different particle sizes of kaolin were employed to load paraffin. • The effects and reasons of particle size on thermal conductivity were studied. • Thermal property and thermal stability of the composites were investigated. • The leakage and thermal storage and release rate of the composites were studied. • The effect of vacuum impregnation method on thermal conductivity was investigated. - Abstract: In this paper, different particle sizes of kaolin were employed to incorporate paraffin via vacuum impregnation method. The paraffin/kaolin composites were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) and Thermogravimetry (TG). The results showed that the paraffin/kaolin composite with the largest particle size of kaolin (K4) has the highest thermal conductivity (0.413 W/(m K) at 20 °C) among the diverse composites. The latent heat capacity of paraffin/K4 is 119.49 J/g and the phase change temperature is 62.4 °C. In addition, the thermal properties and thermal conductivities of paraffin/K4 with different mass fraction of K4 (0–60%) were investigated. The thermal conductivities of the composites were explained in microcosmic field. The phonon mean free path determines the thermal conductivity, and it can be significantly affected by temperature and the contact surface area. The leaks, thermal storage and release properties of pure paraffin and paraffin/kaolin composites were investigated and the composites presented good thermal stabilities.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of thermally stable large-pore mesoporous nanocrystallineanatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermokhina, Natalia I.; Nevinskiy, Vitaly A.; Manorik, Piotr A.; Ilyin, Vladimir G. [L.V. Pisarzhevskiy Institute of Physical Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31 Prospekt Nauki, Kyiv 03028 (Ukraine); Novichenko, Viktor N.; Shcherbatiuk, Mykola M.; Klymchuk, Dmitro O. [M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2Tereshchenkivska St., 01601, Kyiv (Ukraine); Tsyba, Mykola M. [Institute for Sorption and Problems of Endoecology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 13 Naumov St., Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine); Puziy, Alexander M., E-mail: alexander.puziy@ispe.kiev.ua [Institute for Sorption and Problems of Endoecology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 13 Naumov St., Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine)

    2013-04-15

    Thermally stable mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} with a pure anatase structure was obtained by sol–gel synthesis (in combination with hydrothermal treatment) using titanium tetrabutoxide and dibenzo-18-crown-6 as a structure-directing agent in presence of surfactant and/or La{sup 3+} ions additives. Nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} demonstrates various textures with a well-defined spherical morphology (micro- and nanospheres), a crystallite size of no greater than 10 nm (XRD), and a narrow pore size distribution. Spherical particles of micrometer scale in the presence of La{sup 3+} ions do not form. TiO{sub 2} calcined (at 500 °C) after hydrothermal treatment (at 175 °C) has a significantly more developed porous structure as compared with TiO{sub 2} which was not treated hydrothermally. For example, specific surface area amounts 137 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and 69 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, pore volume 0.98 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1} and 0.21 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}, pore diameter 17.5 nm and 12.5 nm respectively for samples hydrothermally treated and not treated. - Graphical abstract: Large-pore mesoporous nanocristalline anatase. Highlights: ► Large-pore mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} was obtained by sol–gel synthesis. ► Crown ether was used as template in presence of surfactant and/or La{sup 3+} ions. ► Anatase (crystalline size<11 nm) is the only crystalline phase present in TiO{sub 2}. ► TiO{sub 2} shows well-defined homogeneous spherical morphology (micro- and nano-spheres)

  2. Research advance on stable mechanism of endophytic fungi to red wine colour during the aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Lijun; Li, Yashan; Cui, Changwei; Ning, Na; Huang, Jing; Xu, Chengdong; Tao, Fang; Zhang, Jinyong

    2018-04-01

    Based on the fact that persistent mutation of vinous color was not conducive to the stabilization of vinous quality during the aging, research advance on the stable mechanism of endophytic fungi to colour of red wine during the aging, including investigative status and developmental dynamic at home and abroad, endophytes and pigment of materials in wine, including effect of endophyte on vinaceous color, and even the application of tracer method in wine was summarized, respectively. The relationship between diversity of community the endophytic fungi and the main pigment material in wine was existent objectively, also included the response mechanism on colony dynamic of endophytic fungi to the various pigment as well as substance related to color, which laid the foundation for exploring the relationships between endophytic fungi and wine color, and the variational mechanism of the color under endophytic fungi during the aging period of wine. Color as an important reference index of wine quality influenced not only the sensory evaluation of consumer, but also the quality of wine because of the self-aggregation or combination of phenolic composition with other substances under the endophytic fungi during the storage. Only steady wine in the color could guarantee the security of quality.

  3. Thermal-Hydraulic Experiments and Modelling for Advanced Nuclear Reactor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, C. H.; Baek, W. P.; Chung, M. K.

    2007-06-01

    The objectives of the project are to study thermal hydraulic characteristics of advanced nuclear reactor system for evaluating key thermal-hydraulic phenomena relevant to new safety concepts. To meet the research goal, several thermal hydraulic experiments were performed and related thermal hydraulic models were developed with the experimental data which were produced through the thermal hydraulic experiments. The Followings are main research topics: - Multi-dimensional Phenomena in a Reactor Vessel Downcomer - Condensation-induced Thermal Mixing in a Pool - Development of Thermal-Hydraulic Models for Two-Phase Flow - Construction of T-H Data Base

  4. Solvent-resistant organic transistors and thermally stable organic photovoltaics based on cross-linkable conjugated polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyeongjun

    2012-01-10

    Conjugated polymers, in general, are unstable when exposed to air, solvent, or thermal treatment, and these challenges limit their practical applications. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop new materials or methodologies that can enable organic electronics with air stability, solvent resistance, and thermal stability. Herein, we have developed a simple but powerful approach to achieve solvent-resistant and thermally stable organic electronic devices with a remarkably improved air stability, by introducing an azide cross-linkable group into a conjugated polymer. To demonstrate this concept, we have synthesized polythiophene with azide groups attached to end of the alkyl chain (P3HT-azide). Photo-cross-linking of P3HT-azide copolymers dramatically improves the solvent resistance of the active layer without disrupting the molecular ordering and charge transport. This is the first demonstration of solvent-resistant organic transistors. Furthermore, the bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaics (BHJ OPVs) containing P3HT-azide copolymers show an average efficiency higher than 3.3% after 40 h annealing at an elevated temperature of 150 °C, which represents one of the most thermally stable OPV devices reported to date. This enhanced stability is due to an in situ compatibilizer that forms at the P3HT/PCBM interface and suppresses macrophase separation. Our approach paves a way toward organic electronics with robust and stable operations. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. Advances in thermal-hydraulic studies of a transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, Laura Garcia; Castells, Facundo Alberto Escriva; Lira, Carlos Brayner de Olivera

    2013-01-01

    The Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) is a pebble-bed Accelerator Driven System (ADS) with a graphite-gas configuration, designed for nuclear waste trans- mutation and for obtaining heat at very high temperatures to produce hydrogen. In previous work, the TADSEA's nuclear core was considered as a porous medium performed with a CFD code and thermal-hydraulic studies of the nuclear core were presented. In this paper, the heat transfer from the fuel to the coolant was analyzed for three core states during normal operation. The heat transfer inside the spherical fuel elements was also studied. Three critical fuel elements groups were defined regarding their position inside the core. Results were compared with a realistic CFD model of the critical fuel elements groups. During the steady state, no critical elements reached the limit temperature of this type of fuel. (author)

  6. Investigation of transient thermal dissipation in thinned LSI for advanced packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araga, Yuuki; Shimamoto, Haruo; Melamed, Samson; Kikuchi, Katsuya; Aoyagi, Masahiro

    2018-04-01

    Thinning of LSI is necessary for superior form factor and performance in dense cutting-edge packaging technologies. At the same time, degradation of thermal characteristics caused by the steep thermal gradient on LSIs with thinned base silicon is a concern. To manage a thermal environment in advanced packages, thermal characteristics of the thinned LSIs must be clarified. In this study, static and dynamic thermal dissipations were analyzed before and after thinning silicon to determine variations of thermal characteristics in thinned LSI. Measurement results revealed that silicon thinning affects dynamic thermal characteristics as well as static one. The transient variations of thermal characteristics of thinned LSI are precisely verified by analysis using an equivalent model based on the thermal network method. The results of analysis suggest that transient thermal characteristics can be easily estimated by employing the equivalent model.

  7. Characterisation of advanced windows. Determination of thermal properties by measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duer, K.

    2001-04-01

    This report describes work carried out with the aim of facilitating a full energy performance characterisation of advanced windows and glazings by means of measurements. The energy performance of windows and glazings are characterised by two parameters: The thermal transmittance (U-value) and the total solar energy transmittance (g-value) and methods to determine these two parameters by measurements have been investigated. This process has included the improvement of existing equipment and existing measuring methods as well as the development of new measuring equipment and new methods of measuring and data treatment. Measurements of the thermal transmittance of windows and glazings in a guarded hot box have been investigated. The calibration and measuring procedures for determining the U-values of facade windows were analysed and a suggestion for a new calibration and measuring procedure for determining the U-values of roof windows in a guarded hot box was elaborated. The accuracy of the guarded hot box measurements was examined by comparisons to measurements in a hot-plate device and excellent agreement between the results was obtained. Analysis showed that the expected uncertainty in the U-value measurement is about 5% for a specimen with a U-value of 1.75 W/m{sup 2}K. The U-values of three different windows were measured in two separate round robin tests applying two different calibration procedures. The windows U-values where ranging from 1.1 to 2.5 W/m{sup 2}K and all measured results were within the expected uncertainties of the measurements. On the basis of the investigations on hot box measurements a high degree of confidence in the measurement accuracy and the measuring procedure of the guarded hot box at the Department of Buildings and Energy has been obtained. Indoor g-value measurements in a calorimetric test facility (the METSET) mounted in a solar simulator have been investigated and a number of problems regarding these measurements have been

  8. Preparation and thermal energy storage properties of paraffin/calcined diatomite composites as form-stable phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhiming; Zhang, Yuzhong; Zheng, Shuilin; Park, Yuri; Frost, Ray L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Composite phase change material (PCM) was prepared by blending composite paraffin and calcined diatomite. ► The optimum mixed proportion was obtained through differential scanning calorimetry. ► Thermal energy storage properties of the composite PCMs were determined by DSC. ► Thermal cycling test showed that the prepared PCMs are thermally reliable and chemically stable. - Abstract: A composite paraffin-based phase change material (PCM) was prepared by blending composite paraffin and calcined diatomite through the fusion adsorption method. In this study, raw diatomite was purified by thermal treatment in order to improve the adsorption capacity of diatomite, which acted as a carrier material to prepare shape-stabilized PCMs. Two forms of paraffin (paraffin waxes and liquid paraffin) with different melting points were blended together by the fusion method, and the optimum mixed proportion with a suitable phase-transition temperature was obtained through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Then the prepared composite paraffin was adsorbed in calcined diatomite. The prepared paraffin/calcined diatomite composites were characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) analysis techniques. Thermal energy storage properties of the composite PCMs were determined by DSC method. DSC results showed that there was an optimum adsorption ratio between composite paraffin and calcined diatomite and the phase-transition temperature and the latent heat of the composite PCMs were 33.04 °C and 89.54 J/g, respectively. Thermal cycling test of composite PCMs showed that the prepared material is thermally reliable and chemically stable. The obtained paraffin/calcined diatomite composites have proper latent heat and melting temperatures, and show practical significance and good potential application value

  9. Preparation and thermal energy storage properties of paraffin/calcined diatomite composites as form-stable phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhiming [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Chemistry Discipline, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Zhang, Yuzhong [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Zheng, Shuilin, E-mail: shuilinzh@yahoo.com.cn [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Park, Yuri [Chemistry Discipline, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Frost, Ray L., E-mail: r.frost@qut.edu.au [Chemistry Discipline, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia)

    2013-04-20

    Highlights: ► Composite phase change material (PCM) was prepared by blending composite paraffin and calcined diatomite. ► The optimum mixed proportion was obtained through differential scanning calorimetry. ► Thermal energy storage properties of the composite PCMs were determined by DSC. ► Thermal cycling test showed that the prepared PCMs are thermally reliable and chemically stable. - Abstract: A composite paraffin-based phase change material (PCM) was prepared by blending composite paraffin and calcined diatomite through the fusion adsorption method. In this study, raw diatomite was purified by thermal treatment in order to improve the adsorption capacity of diatomite, which acted as a carrier material to prepare shape-stabilized PCMs. Two forms of paraffin (paraffin waxes and liquid paraffin) with different melting points were blended together by the fusion method, and the optimum mixed proportion with a suitable phase-transition temperature was obtained through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Then the prepared composite paraffin was adsorbed in calcined diatomite. The prepared paraffin/calcined diatomite composites were characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) analysis techniques. Thermal energy storage properties of the composite PCMs were determined by DSC method. DSC results showed that there was an optimum adsorption ratio between composite paraffin and calcined diatomite and the phase-transition temperature and the latent heat of the composite PCMs were 33.04 °C and 89.54 J/g, respectively. Thermal cycling test of composite PCMs showed that the prepared material is thermally reliable and chemically stable. The obtained paraffin/calcined diatomite composites have proper latent heat and melting temperatures, and show practical significance and good potential application value.

  10. The use of ionic salt dyes as amorphous, thermally stable emitting layers in organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondroudis, Konstantinos; Mitzi, David B.

    2000-01-01

    The conversion of two neutral dye molecules (D) to ionic salts (H2N-D-NH2ṡ2HX) and their utilization as emitting layers in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is described. The dye salts, AEQTṡ2HCl and APTṡ2HCl, can be deposited as amorphous films using conventional evaporation techniques. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis, coupled with thermal annealing studies, demonstrate the resistance of the films to crystallization. This stability is attributed to strong ionic forces between the relatively rigid molecules. OLEDs incorporating such salts for emitting layers exhibit better thermal stability compared with devices made from the corresponding neutral dyes (H2N-D-NH2). These results suggest that ionic salts may more generally enable the formation of thermally stable, amorphous emitting, and charge transporting layers.

  11. [Research advances in identifying nitrate pollution sources of water environment by using nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei; Liang, Zhi-wei; Li, Wei; Zhu, Yao; Yanng, Mu-yi; Jia, Chao-jie

    2013-04-01

    Water body' s nitrate pollution has become a common and severe environmental problem. In order to ensure human health and water environment benign evolution, it is of great importance to effectively identify the nitrate pollution sources of water body. Because of the discrepant composition of nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in different sources of nitrate in water body, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes can be used to identify the nitrate pollution sources of water environment. This paper introduced the fractionation factors of nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in the main processes of nitrogen cycling and the composition of these stable isotopes in main nitrate sources, compared the advantages and disadvantages of five pre-treatment methods for analyzing the nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in nitrate, and summarized the research advances in this aspect into three stages, i. e. , using nitrogen stable isotope alone, using nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes simultaneously, and combining with mathematical models. The future research directions regarding the nitrate pollution sources identification of water environment were also discussed.

  12. Applicability of advanced automotive heat engines to solar thermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beremand, D. G.; Evans, D. G.; Alger, D. L.

    The requirements of a solar thermal power system are reviewed and compared with the predicted characteristics of automobile engines under development. A good match is found in terms of power level and efficiency when the automobile engines, designed for maximum powers of 65-100 kW (87 to 133 hp) are operated to the nominal 20-40 kW electric output requirement of the solar thermal application. At these reduced power levels it appears that the automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines have the potential to deliver the 40+ percent efficiency goal of the solar thermal program.

  13. Stable isotopes use in hydrogeology studies of mineral and thermal waters (Lindoia region, Sao Paulo, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, S.; Silva, A.A.K. de; Matsui, E.

    1991-01-01

    Deuterium and oxygen-18 studies were used to investigate the origin and the mineralizing processes of the mineral water and thermal water in Aguas de Lindoia and Lindoia, Brazilian municipal districts. (M.V.M.)

  14. Thermally stable, transparent, pressure-sensitive adhesives from epoxidized and dihydroxyl soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, B Kollbe; Kraft, Stefan; Wang, D; Sun, X Susan

    2011-05-09

    Thermal stability and optical transparency are important factors for flexible electronics and heat-related applications of pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs). However, current acryl- and rubber-based PSAs cannot attain the required thermal stability, and silicon-based PSAs are much more expensive than the alternatives. Oleo-chemicals including functionalized plant oils have great potential to replace petrochemicals. In this study, novel biobased PSAs from soybean oils were developed with excellent thermal stability and transparency as well as peel strength comparable to current PSAs. In addition, the fast curing (drying) property of newly developed biobased PSAs is essential for industrial applications. The results show that soybean oil-based PSA films and tapes have great potential to replace petro-based PSAs for a broad range of applications including flexible electronics and medical devices because of their thermal stability, transparency, chemical resistance, and potential biodegradability from triglycerides.

  15. Chemically and Thermally Stable High Energy Density Silicone Composites, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal energy storage systems with 300 -- 1000 kJ/kg energy density through either phase changes or chemical heat absorption are sought by NASA. This proposed...

  16. Advanced Thermal Interface Material Systems for Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ultimate aim of proposed efforts are to develop innovative material and process (M increase thermal cycles before degradation and efforts to ensure ease of...

  17. Preparation, Characterization and Thermal Properties of Paraffin Wax – Expanded Perlite Form-Stable Composites for Latent Heat Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba GURMEN OZCELIK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, form-stable composite phase change materials (PCM for latent heat storage were prepared by impregnating paraffin wax into the pores of the expanded perlite (EP. The characterization of the composite PCMs was performed by FTIR, TGA, SEM and DSC analysis. The melting point and heat of fusion were determined for 25 % paraffin included composite, as 54.3 °C and 94.71 J/g and for 45 % paraffin included composite as 53.6 °C and 106.69 J/g, respectively. The FTIR results showed that there were no chemical reaction between the perlite and paraffin. TGA analysis indicated that both composite PCMs had good thermal stability. SEM images showed that the paraffin was dispersed uniformly into the pores and on the EP surface. There was no leakage and degradation at the composite PCMs after heating and cooling cycles. According to the results, both prepared composites showed good thermal energy storage properties, reliability and stability. All results suggested that the presented form- stable composite PCMs has great potential for thermal energy storage applications.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.13661

  18. Thermally stable and flexible paper photosensors based on 2D BN nanosheets

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Chun-Ho

    2018-01-30

    The market for printed and flexible electronics, key attributes for internet of things, is estimated to reach $45 billion by 2016 and paper-based electronics shows great potential to meet this increasing demand due to its popularity, flexibility, low cost, mass productivity, disposability, and ease of processing [1]. In the family of flexible electronics, solarblind deep ultraviolet (DUV) photodetectors (PDs) can be widely applied in wearable applications such as military sensing, automatization, short-range communications security and environmental detection [2]. However, conventional flexible devices made of paper and plastic substrates are expected to have thermal issues due to their poor thermal conductivity. For instance, conventional paper has a very low thermal conductivity of 0.03 W/mK as that of plastic is 0.23 W/mK. As a result, it is required to increase the thermal conductivity of the substrates used for flexible electronics. In this work, we present flexible DUV paper PDs consisting of 2D boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) and ID nanofibrillated celluloses (NFCs) with good detectivity (up to 8.05 × 10 cm Hz/W), fast recovery time (down to 0.393 s), great thermal stability (146 W/m K, 3-order-of-magnitude larger than conventional flexible substrates), high working temperature (up to 200 °C), excellent flexibility and bending durability (showing repeatable ON/OFF switching during 200-time bending cycles), which opens avenues to the flexible electronics.

  19. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW THERMALLY STABLE POLYAMIDES BASED ON 2,5-PYRIDINE DICARBOXYLIC ACID AND AROMATIC DIAMINES

    OpenAIRE

    FAGHIHI, KHALIL

    2009-01-01

    Six new thermally stable polyamides 3a-f were synthesized through the polycondensation reaction of 2,5-pyridine dicarboxylic acid 1 with six different derivatives of aromatic diamines 2a-f in amedium consisting of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, triphenyl phosphite, calcium chloride and pyridine. The polycondensation reaction produced a series of novel polyamides containing pyridyl moieties in the main chain in high yield with inherent viscosities between 0.50-0.82 dL/g. The resulting polymers were f...

  20. Advanced Fuel Forms for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In NASA's 2014 Strategic Plan, Objective 1 specified the necessity to "expand human presence into the solar system and to the surface of mars to advance exploration,...

  1. Relevant thermal hydraulic aspects of advanced reactors design: status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This status report provides an overview on the relevant thermalhydraulic aspects of advanced reactor designs (e.g. ABWR, AP600, SBWR, EPR, ABB 80+, PIUS, etc.). Since all of the advanced reactor concepts are at the design stage, the information and data available in the open literature are still very limited. Some characteristics of advanced reactor designs are provided together with selected phenomena identification and ranking tables. Specific needs for thermalhydraulic codes together with the list of relevant and important thermalhydraulic phenomena for advanced reactor designs are summarized with the purpose of providing some guidance in development of research plans for considering further code development and assessment needs and for the planning of experimental programs

  2. Cluster-assembled cubic zirconia films with tunable and stable nanoscale morphology against thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghi, F.; Lenardi, C.; Podestà, A.; Milani, P., E-mail: pmilani@mi.infn.it [CIMAINA and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Sogne, E. [CIMAINA and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM), IFOM-IEO, Milano (Italy); Merlini, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra “Ardito Desio”, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Mangiagalli 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ducati, C. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-07

    Nanostructured zirconium dioxide (zirconia) films are very promising for catalysis and biotechnological applications: a precise control of the interfacial properties of the material at different length scales and, in particular, at the nanoscale, is therefore necessary. Here, we present the characterization of cluster-assembled zirconia films produced by supersonic cluster beam deposition possessing cubic structure at room temperature and controlled nanoscale morphology. We characterized the effect of thermal annealing in reducing and oxidizing conditions on the crystalline structure, grain dimensions, and topography. We highlight the mechanisms of film growth and phase transitions, which determine the observed interfacial morphological properties and their resilience against thermal treatments.

  3. Cluster-assembled cubic zirconia films with tunable and stable nanoscale morphology against thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghi, F.; Lenardi, C.; Podestà, A.; Milani, P.; Sogne, E.; Merlini, M.; Ducati, C.

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured zirconium dioxide (zirconia) films are very promising for catalysis and biotechnological applications: a precise control of the interfacial properties of the material at different length scales and, in particular, at the nanoscale, is therefore necessary. Here, we present the characterization of cluster-assembled zirconia films produced by supersonic cluster beam deposition possessing cubic structure at room temperature and controlled nanoscale morphology. We characterized the effect of thermal annealing in reducing and oxidizing conditions on the crystalline structure, grain dimensions, and topography. We highlight the mechanisms of film growth and phase transitions, which determine the observed interfacial morphological properties and their resilience against thermal treatments.

  4. Cluster-assembled cubic zirconia films with tunable and stable nanoscale morphology against thermal annealing

    KAUST Repository

    Borghi, F.; Sogne, Elisa; Lenardi, C.; Podestà , A.; Merlini, M.; Ducati, C.; Milani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured zirconium dioxide (zirconia) films are very promising for catalysis and biotechnological applications: a precise control of the interfacial properties of the material at different length scales and, in particular, at the nanoscale, is therefore necessary. Here, we present the characterization of cluster-assembled zirconia films produced by supersonic cluster beam deposition possessing cubic structure at room temperature and controlled nanoscale morphology. We characterized the effect of thermal annealing in reducing and oxidizing conditions on the crystalline structure, grain dimensions, and topography. We highlight the mechanisms of film growth and phase transitions, which determine the observed interfacial morphological properties and their resilience against thermal treatments. Published by AIP Publishing.

  5. Cluster-assembled cubic zirconia films with tunable and stable nanoscale morphology against thermal annealing

    KAUST Repository

    Borghi, F.

    2016-08-05

    Nanostructured zirconium dioxide (zirconia) films are very promising for catalysis and biotechnological applications: a precise control of the interfacial properties of the material at different length scales and, in particular, at the nanoscale, is therefore necessary. Here, we present the characterization of cluster-assembled zirconia films produced by supersonic cluster beam deposition possessing cubic structure at room temperature and controlled nanoscale morphology. We characterized the effect of thermal annealing in reducing and oxidizing conditions on the crystalline structure, grain dimensions, and topography. We highlight the mechanisms of film growth and phase transitions, which determine the observed interfacial morphological properties and their resilience against thermal treatments. Published by AIP Publishing.

  6. RF-driven tokamak reactor with sub-ignited, thermally stable operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harten, L.P.; Bers, A.; Fuchs, V.; Shoucri, M.M.

    1981-02-01

    A Radio-Frequency Driven Tokamak Reactor (RFDTR) can use RF-power, programmed by a delayed temperature measurement, to thermally stabilize a power equilibrium below ignition, and to drive a steady state current. We propose the parameters for such a device generating approx. = 1600 MW thermal power and operating with Q approx. = 40 (= power out/power in). A one temperature zero-dimensional model allows simple analytical formulation of the problem. The relevance of injected impurities for locating the equilibrium is discussed. We present the results of a one-dimensional (radial) code which includes the deposition of the supplementary power, and compare with our zero-dimensional model

  7. Thermal-stable proteins of fruit of long-living Sacred Lotus Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn var. China Antique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen-Miller, J; Lindner, Petra; Xie, Yongming; Villa, Sarah; Wooding, Kerry; Clarke, Steven G; Loo, Rachel R O; Loo, Joseph A

    2013-09-01

    Single-seeded fruit of the sacred lotus Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn var. China Antique from NE China have viability as long as ~1300 years determined by direct radiocarbon-dating, having a germination rate of 84%. The pericarp, a fruit tissue that encloses the single seeds of Nelumbo , is considered one of the major factors that contribute to fruit longevity. Proteins that are heat stable and have protective function may be equally important to seed viability. We show proteins of Nelumbo fruit that are able to withstand heating, 31% of which remained soluble in the 110°C-treated embryo-axis of a 549-yr-old fruit and 76% retained fluidity in its cotyledons. Genome of Nelumbo is published. The amino-acid sequences of 11 "thermal proteins" (soluble at 100°C) of modern Nelumbo embryo-axes and cotyledons, identified by mass spectrometry, Western blot and bioassay, are assembled and aligned with those of an archaeal-hyperthermophile Methancaldococcus jannaschii (Mj; an anaerobic methanogen having a growth optimum of 85°C) and with five mesophile angiosperms. These thermal proteins have roles in protection and repair under stress. More than half of the Nelumbo thermal proteins (55%) are present in the archaean Mj, indicating their long-term durability and history. One Nelumbo protein-repair enzyme exhibits activity at 100°C, having a higher heat-tolerance than that of Arabidopsis. A list of 30 sequenced but unassembled thermal proteins of Nelumbo is supplemented.

  8. Development of fire-resistant, low smoke generating, thermally stable end items for aircraft and spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliani, J.

    1978-01-01

    A new approach to the problem of flammability by the use of materials obtained from foamy polyimide resins is developed. The ability of these materials to provide fire protection is demonstrated. The development of processes for producing resilient cell foam for use in aircraft seating, thermal acoustical insulation, floor and wall panels, coated glass fabrics, and molded hardware.

  9. Thermally stable cellulose nanocrystals toward high-performance 2D and 3D nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao Jia; Huiyang Bian; Tingting Gao; Feng Jiang; Iain Michael Kierzewski; Yilin Wang; Yonggang Yao; Liheng Chen; Ziqiang Shao; J. Y. Zhu; Liangbing Hu

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials have attracted much attention in a broad range of fields such as flexible electronics, tissue engineering, and 3D printing for their excellent mechanical strength and intriguing optical properties. Economic, sustainable, and eco-friendly production of cellulose nanomaterials with high thermal stability, however, remains a tremendous challenge....

  10. Advanced Signal Processing for Thermal Flaw Detection; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VALLEY, MICHAEL T.; HANSCHE, BRUCE D.; PAEZ, THOMAS L.; URBINA, ANGEL; ASHBAUGH, DENNIS M.

    2001-01-01

    Dynamic thermography is a promising technology for inspecting metallic and composite structures used in high-consequence industries. However, the reliability and inspection sensitivity of this technology has historically been limited by the need for extensive operator experience and the use of human judgment and visual acuity to detect flaws in the large volume of infrared image data collected. To overcome these limitations new automated data analysis algorithms and software is needed. The primary objectives of this research effort were to develop a data processing methodology that is tied to the underlying physics, which reduces or removes the data interpretation requirements, and which eliminates the need to look at significant numbers of data frames to determine if a flaw is present. Considering the strengths and weakness of previous research efforts, this research elected to couple both the temporal and spatial attributes of the surface temperature. Of the possible algorithms investigated, the best performing was a radiance weighted root mean square Laplacian metric that included a multiplicative surface effect correction factor and a novel spatio-temporal parametric model for data smoothing. This metric demonstrated the potential for detecting flaws smaller than 0.075 inch in inspection areas on the order of one square foot. Included in this report is the development of a thermal imaging model, a weighted least squares thermal data smoothing algorithm, simulation and experimental flaw detection results, and an overview of the ATAC (Automated Thermal Analysis Code) software that was developed to analyze thermal inspection data

  11. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) Thermal Power Model in MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a one-dimensional steady-state mathematical thermal power model of the ASRG. It aims to provide a guideline of understanding how the ASRG works and what can change its performance. The thermal dynamics and energy balance of the generator is explained using the thermal circuit of the ASRG. The Stirling convertor performance map is used to represent the convertor. How the convertor performance map is coupled in the thermal circuit is explained. The ASRG performance characteristics under i) different sink temperatures and ii) over the years of mission (YOM) are predicted using the one-dimensional model. Two Stirling converter control strategies, i) fixing the hot-end of temperature of the convertor by adjusting piston amplitude and ii) fixing the piston amplitude, were tested in the model. Numerical results show that the first control strategy can result in a higher system efficiency than the second control strategy when the ambient gets warmer or the general-purpose heat source (GPHS) fuel load decays over the YOM. The ASRG performance data presented in this paper doesn't pertain to the ASRG flight unit. Some data of the ASRG engineering unit (EU) and flight unit that are available in public domain are used in this paper for the purpose of numerical studies.

  12. Thermal and electrodynamical formation mechanisms of overloaded AC states and charging rate influence on their stable dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovskii, V.; Watanabe, K.; Awaji, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Overloaded AC states are investigated to understand the mechanisms of there formation. •There exist characteristic time windows defining the existence of stable overloaded AC states. •Limiting values of the electric field, current and temperature are higher than the quench ones. -- Abstract: The macroscopic thermal and electrodynamical phenomena occurring in high-T c superconductors during overloaded AC states are theoretically investigated to understand the basic physical mechanisms, which are characteristic for the stable formation of the operating modes when the peak current exceeds the critical current of a superconductor during AC modes. It is shown that there exist characteristic time windows defining the existence of stable overloaded AC states. They identify the stability boundary of the overloaded AC states. Therefore, there is the maximum allowable value of a peak current of stable overloaded AC regimes at the given charging rate, cooling conditions and properties of a superconductor and a matrix. The results obtained prove that the limiting peak current is higher than the corresponding quench current defining the stability margin of DC states. It monotonically increases with the charging rate. Besides, in the stable overloaded AC states, the peak values of the electric field and temperature may be also noticeably higher than the corresponding quench values. They depend on the peak current and charging rate at the given cooling conditions. As a result, high-T c superconducting tapes can stably work under intensive AC modes without instability onset when the peak of applied currents may significantly exceed not only the critical current but also the corresponding values of DC-quench currents

  13. Comparison of the ENIGMA code with experimental data on thermal performance, stable fission gas and iodine release at high burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killeen, J C [Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    The predictions of the ENIGMA code have been compared with data from high burn-up fuel experiments from the Halden and RISO reactors. The experiments modelled were IFA-504 and IFA-558 from Halden and the test II-5 from the RISO power burnup test series. The code has well modelled the fuel thermal performance and has provided a good measure of iodine release from pre-interlinked fuel. After interlinkage the iodine predictions remain a good fit for one experiment, but there is significant overprediction for a second experiment (IFA-558). Stable fission gas release is also well modelled and the predictions are within the expected uncertainly band throughout the burn-up range. This report presents code predictions for stable fission gas release to 40GWd/tU, iodine release measurements to 50GWd/tU and thermal performance (fuel centre temperature) to 55GWd/tU. Fuel ratings of up to 38kW/m were modelled at the high burn-up levels. The code is shown to accurately or conservatively predict all these parameters. (author). 1 ref., 6 figs.

  14. High thermally stable Ni /Ag(Al) alloy contacts on p-GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C. H.; Lin, C. L.; Chuang, Y. C.; Bor, H. Y.; Liu, C. Y.

    2007-01-01

    Ag agglomeration was found to occur at Ni /Ag to p-GaN contacts after annealing at 500°C. This Ag agglomeration led to the poor thermal stability showed by the Ni /Ag contacts in relation to the reflectivity and electrical properties. However, after alloying with 10at.% Al by e-gun deposition, the Ni /Ag(Al) p-GaN contacts were found to effectively retard Ag agglomeration thereby greatly enhancing the thermal stability. Based on the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, the authors believe that the key for the retardation of Ag agglomeration was the formation of ternary Al-Ni-O layer at p-GaN interface.

  15. Thermally Stable Cellulose Nanocrystals toward High-Performance 2D and 3D Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chao; Bian, Huiyang; Gao, Tingting; Jiang, Feng; Kierzewski, Iain Michael; Wang, Yilin; Yao, Yonggang; Chen, Liheng; Shao, Ziqiang; Zhu, J Y; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-08-30

    Cellulose nanomaterials have attracted much attention in a broad range of fields such as flexible electronics, tissue engineering, and 3D printing for their excellent mechanical strength and intriguing optical properties. Economic, sustainable, and eco-friendly production of cellulose nanomaterials with high thermal stability, however, remains a tremendous challenge. Here versatile cellulose nanocrystals (DM-OA-CNCs) are prepared through fully recyclable oxalic acid (OA) hydrolysis along with disk-milling (DM) pretreatment of bleached kraft eucalyptus pulp. Compared with the commonly used cellulose nanocrystals from sulfuric acid hydrolysis, DM-OA-CNCs show several advantages including large aspect ratio, carboxylated surface, and excellent thermal stability along with high yield. We also successfully demonstrate the fabrication of high-performance films and 3D-printed patterns using DM-OA-CNCs. The high-performance films with high transparency, ultralow haze, and excellent thermal stability have the great potential for applications in flexible electronic devices. The 3D-printed patterns with porous structures can be potentially applied in the field of tissue engineering as scaffolds.

  16. Evidence of thermal transport anisotropy in stable glasses of vapor deposited organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ràfols-Ribé, Joan; Dettori, Riccardo; Ferrando-Villalba, Pablo; Gonzalez-Silveira, Marta; Abad, Llibertat; Lopeandía, Aitor F.; Colombo, Luciano; Rodríguez-Viejo, Javier

    2018-03-01

    Vapor deposited organic glasses are currently in use in many optoelectronic devices. Their operation temperature is limited by the glass transition temperature of the organic layers and thermal management strategies become increasingly important to improve the lifetime of the device. Here we report the unusual finding that molecular orientation heavily influences heat flow propagation in glassy films of small molecule organic semiconductors. The thermal conductivity of vapor deposited thin-film semiconductor glasses is anisotropic and controlled by the deposition temperature. We compare our data with extensive molecular dynamics simulations to disentangle the role of density and molecular orientation on heat propagation. Simulations do support the view that thermal transport along the backbone of the organic molecule is strongly preferred with respect to the perpendicular direction. This is due to the anisotropy of the molecular interaction strength that limits the transport of atomic vibrations. This approach could be used in future developments to implement small molecule glassy films in thermoelectric or other organic electronic devices.

  17. Advanced homogenization strategies in material modeling of thermally sprayed TBCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobzin, K.; Lugscheider, E.; Nickel, R.; Kashko, T.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC), obtained by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), have a complex microstructure (lamellar, porous, micro-cracked). Process parameters take an influence on this microstructure. Two methods based on the homogenization for periodic structures are presented in this article. The methods are used to calculate the effective material behavior of APS-TBCs made of partially yttria stabilized zirconia (PYSZ) depending on the microstructure. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Advanced welding for closed structure. Pt. 3 The thermal approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacripanti, A.; Bonanno, G.; Paoloni, M.; Sagratella, G. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Arborino, A.; Varesi, R.; Antonucci, A. [DUNE, (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    This report describes the activities developed for the European Contract BRITE AWCS III to study the use of thermal sensing techniques to obtain an accurate detection of the internal reinforcement of the closed steel structures employed in the shipbuilding industry. After a description of the methods, normally developed in Russia, about the techniques and problems, for the thermal testing of materials in the conventional approach, a new thermal detector was utilized, a new bolometric thermo camera is introduced with a special software for the on line image analysis, there are also shown the experimental tests and results. The obtained conclusion shows that the thermal non destructive testing techniques with the new detector should be useful to assemble a complete sensing system with one ultrasonic head. [Italian] Questo rapporto descrive le attivita' sperimentali sviluppate nell'ambito del contratto europeo BRITE AWCS III, in cui si sono utilizzate tecniche termiche per ottenere un preciso rilevamento dei rinforzi interni di strutture metalliche chiuse utilizzate nell'industria delle costruzioni navali. Dopo la descrizione dei metodi sviluppati essenzialmente in Russia, circa le tecniche e i problemi riguardanti il testing termico dei materiali, e' stato introdotto un approccio innovativo basato su un nuovo sensore: una termocamera bolometrica connessa con un software dedicato per l'analisi online del setto; vengono inoltre mostrati i risultati sperimentali ottenuti. Le conclusioni ottenute mostrano che nel nuovo approccio, il testing termico non distruttivo dovrebbe essere utile per assemblare un sistema sensoriale completo che utilizzi anche un sensore di tipo ultrasonico.

  19. Advanced thermal management of diesel engines; Neues Thermomanagement beim Dieselmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Wolfgang; Becker, Michael [BorgWarner, Ludwigsburg (Germany). Konzernvorentwicklung fuer Pkw-Antriebssysteme; Shutty, John [BorgWarner, Auburn Hills (United States). Regelung und Simulation in der Konzernvorentwicklung

    2013-05-01

    The potential of thermal management with respect to CO{sub 2} reduction is given by faster warm-up of engine and drivetrain, reduced losses from water pump and fan and finally the operation of the engine in an optimal temperature range. In a new approach, BorgWarner applies a variable coolant pump and a controlled coolant valve to a conventional cooling system. Both components, as well as the viscous fan clutch, are controlled by a newly developed controls approach.

  20. Use of stable sulphur isotopes to monitor directly the behaviour of sulphur in coal during thermal desulphurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Li; Hackley, Keith C.; Coleman, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been developed using stable sulphur isotope analyses to monitor the behaviour of sulphur forms in a coal during thermal desulphurization. In this method, the natural stable isotopic composition of the pyritic and organic sulphur in coal is used as a tracer to follow their mobility during the desulphurization process. This tracer method is based on the fact that the isotopic compositions of pyritic and organic sulphur are significantly different in some coals. Isotopic results of pyrolysis experiments at temperatures ranging from 350 to 750 ??C indicate that the sulphur released with the volatiles is predominantly organic sulphur. The pyritic sulphur is evolved in significant quantities only when pyrolysis temperatures exceed 500 ??C. The presence of pyrite seems to have no effect on the amount of organic sulphur evolved during pyrolysis. The chemical and isotopic mass balances achieved from three different samples of the Herrin (No. 6) coal of the Illinois Basin demonstrate that this stable isotope tracer method is quantitative. The main disadvantage of this tracing technique is that not all coals contain isotopically distinct organic and pyritic sulphur. ?? 1987.

  1. Penetration of steady fluid motions into an outer stable layer excited by MHD thermal convection in rotating spherical shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehiro, Shin-ichi; Sasaki, Youhei

    2018-03-01

    Penetration of steady magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) disturbances into an upper strongly stratified stable layer excited by MHD thermal convection in rotating spherical shells is investigated. The theoretical model proposed by Takehiro (2015) is reexamined in the case of steady fluid motion below the bottom boundary. Steady disturbances penetrate into a density stratified MHD fluid existing in the semi-infinite region in the vertical direction. The axis of rotation of the system is tilted with respect to the vertical. The basic magnetic field is uniform and may be tilted with respect to the vertical and the rotation axis. Linear dispersion relation shows that the penetration distance with zero frequency depends on the amplitude of Alfvén wave speed. When Alfvén wave speed is small, viscous diffusion becomes dominant and penetration distance is similar to the horizontal scale of the disturbance at the lower boundary. In contrast, when Alfvén wave speed becomes larger, disturbance can penetrate deeper, and penetration distance becomes proportional to the Alfvén wave speed and inversely proportional to the geometric average of viscous and magnetic diffusion coefficients and to the total horizontal wavenumber. The analytic expression of penetration distance is in good agreement with the extent of penetration of mean zonal flow induced by finite amplitude convection in a rotating spherical shell with an upper stably stratified layer embedded in an axially uniform basic magnetic field. The theory expects that the stable layer suggested in the upper part of the outer core of the earth could be penetrated completely by mean zonal flows excited by thermal/compositional convection developing below the stable layer.

  2. Potential of using stable nitrogen isotope ratio measurements to resolve fuel and thermal NOx in coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenggong Sun; Janos Lakatos; Colin E. Snape; Tony Fallick [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering (SChEME)

    2003-07-01

    In order to examine the potential of applying isotopic analysis to apportion NOx formation from different mechanisms, stable nitrogen isotope ratio measurements have been conducted on a number of thermal/prompt (diesel) and actual (coal) PF NO samples generated from a 1MW test facility at Powergen (UK), together with measurements on a range of pyrolysis and combustion chars obtained from a drop-tube reactor. A highly effective nitrogen-free sorbent, derived from white sugar with Mn as promoter, has been developed using an innovative procedure. This adsorbent has facilitated, for the first time, the determination of {delta}{sup 15}N values without background corrections. The isotopic data indicate that the thermal/prompt NOx collected during start-up with diesel as fuel has a {delta}{sup 15}N of close to 6.5(per thousand) compared to +15(per thousand) for the actual PF sample analysed. Thus, differences of up to ca. 20(per thousand) have been found to exist between thermal and PF fuel (char) NOx isotopic values. This augurs very well for the further development of the approach in order to help quantify the extent of thermal/prompt NOx formation in PF combustion. Measurements on chars have indicated that the extent of isotopic fractionation that occurs between coal-N and NOx from char is related to the reactivity of coals. Further, it would appear that much of the isotopic fractionation that occurs between coal nitrogen and fuel NO arises in the formation of char, although further fractionation can be inferred to occur during char combustion. In contrast, a lesser degree of isotopic fractionation is associated with the formation of thermal NO (ca. 6(per thousand)), atmospheric nitrogen having a value of 0(per thousand). 4 refs., 6 tabs.

  3. Advance development of a technique for characterizing the thermomechanical properties of thermally stable polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, J. K.; Stadnicki, S. J.; Hazony, Y.

    1974-01-01

    The torsional braid experiment has been interfaced with a centralized hierarchical computing system for data acquisition and data processing. Such a system, when matched by the appropriate upgrading of the monitoring techniques, provides high resolution thermomechanical spectra of rigidity and damping, and their derivatives with respect to temperature.

  4. Preparation and characterization of form-stable paraffin/polyurethane composites as phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Keping; Yu, Xuejiang; Tian, Chunrong; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Paraffin/polyurethane composite as form-stable phase change material was prepared by bulk polymerization. • Paraffin/polyurethane composite possesses typical character of dual phase transition. • Total latent heat of n-eicosane/PUPCM is as high as 141.2 J/g. • Maximum encapsulation ratio for n-octadecane/PUPCM composites is 25% w/w. - Abstract: Polyurethane phase change material (PUPCM) has been demonstrated to be effective solid–solid phase change material for thermal energy storage. However, the high cost and complex process on preparation of PUPCMs with high enthalpy and broad phase transition temperature range can prohibit industrial-scale applications. In this work, a series of novel form-stable paraffin/PUPCMs composites (n-octadecane/PUPCM, n-eicosane/PUPCM and paraffin wax/PUPCM) with high enthalpy and broad phase transition temperature range (20–65 °C) were directly synthesized via bulk polymerization. The composites were prepared at different mass fractions of n-octadecane (10, 20, 25, 30% w/w). The results indicated that the maximum encapsulation ratio for n-octadecane/PUPCM10000 composites was around 25% w/w. The chemical structure and crystalline properties of these composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), polarizing optical microscopy (POM), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). Thermal properties and thermal reliability of the composites were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). From DSC analysis, the composites showed a typical dual phase change temperature. The enthalpy for the composite with 25% w/w n-eicosane was as high as 141.2 J/g. TGA analysis indicated that the composites degraded at considerably high temperatures. The process of preparation of PUPCMs and their composites was very simple, inexpensive, environmental friendly and easy to process into desired shapes, which could find the promising applications in solar

  5. Development of fire-resistant, low smoke generating, thermally stable end items for aircraft and spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliani, J.; Sorathia, U. A. K.; Wilcoxson, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    Materials were developed to improve aircraft interior materials by modifying existing polymer structures, refining the process parameters, and by the use of mechanical configurations designed to overcome specific deficiencies. The optimization, selection, and fabrication of five fire resistant, low smoke emitting open cell foams are described for five different types of aircraft cabin structures. These include: resilient foams, laminate floor and wall paneling, thermal/acoustical insulation, molded shapes, and coated fabrics. All five have been produced from essentially the same polyimide precursor and have resulted in significant benefits from transfer of technology between the various tasks.

  6. Spin wave differential circuit for realization of thermally stable magnonic sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Taichi, E-mail: goto@ee.tut.ac.jp; Kanazawa, Naoki; Buyandalai, Altansargai; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yuichi; Inoue, Mitsuteru [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibari-Ga-Oka, Tempaku, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Okajima, Shingo; Hasegawa, Takashi [Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Kyoto 617-8555 (Japan); Granovsky, Alexander B. [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Sekiguchi, Koji [Department of Physics, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); JST-PRESTO, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Ross, Caroline A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    A magnetic-field sensor with a high sensitivity of 38 pT/Hz was demonstrated. By utilizing a spin-wave differential circuit (SWDC) using two yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films, the temperature sensitivity was suppressed, and the thermal stability of the phase of the spin waves was −0.0095° K{sup −1}, which is three orders of magnitude better than a simple YIG-based sensor, ∼20° K{sup −1}. The SWDC architecture opens the way to design YIG-based magnonic devices.

  7. Spin wave differential circuit for realization of thermally stable magnonic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Taichi; Kanazawa, Naoki; Buyandalai, Altansargai; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yuichi; Inoue, Mitsuteru; Okajima, Shingo; Hasegawa, Takashi; Granovsky, Alexander B.; Sekiguchi, Koji; Ross, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    A magnetic-field sensor with a high sensitivity of 38 pT/Hz was demonstrated. By utilizing a spin-wave differential circuit (SWDC) using two yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films, the temperature sensitivity was suppressed, and the thermal stability of the phase of the spin waves was −0.0095° K −1 , which is three orders of magnitude better than a simple YIG-based sensor, ∼20° K −1 . The SWDC architecture opens the way to design YIG-based magnonic devices

  8. The thermal neutron absorption cross-sections, resonance integrals and resonance parameters of silicon and its stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Story, J.S.

    1969-09-01

    The data available up to the end of November 1968 on the thermal neutron absorption cross-sections, resonance absorption integrals, and resonance parameters of silicon and its stable isotopes are collected and discussed. Estimates are given of the mean spacing of the energy levels of the compound nuclei near the neutron binding energy. It is concluded that the thermal neutron absorption cross-section and resonance absorption integral of natural silicon are not well established. The data on these two parameters are somewhat correlated, and three different assessments of the resonance integral are presented which differ over-all by a factor of 230. Many resonances have been detected by charged particle reactions which have not yet been observed in neutron cross-section measurements. One of these resonances of Si 2 8, at E n = 4 ± 5 keV might account for the large resonance integral which is derived, very uncertainly, from integral data. The principal source of the measured resonance integral of Si 3 0 has not yet been located. The thermal neutron absorption cross-section of Si 2 8 appears to result mainly from a negative energy resonance, possibly the resonance at E n = - 59 ± 5 keV detected by the Si 2 8 (d,p) reaction. (author)

  9. Advanced Computational Methods for Thermal Radiative Heat Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tencer, John; Carlberg, Kevin Thomas; Larsen, Marvin E.; Hogan, Roy E.,

    2016-10-01

    Participating media radiation (PMR) in weapon safety calculations for abnormal thermal environments are too costly to do routinely. This cost may be s ubstantially reduced by applying reduced order modeling (ROM) techniques. The application of ROM to PMR is a new and unique approach for this class of problems. This approach was investigated by the authors and shown to provide significant reductions in the computational expense associated with typical PMR simulations. Once this technology is migrated into production heat transfer analysis codes this capability will enable the routine use of PMR heat transfer in higher - fidelity simulations of weapon resp onse in fire environments.

  10. Thermal-Hydraulic Experiments and Modelling for Advanced Nuclear Reactor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, C. H.; Chung, M. K.; Park, C. K. and others

    2005-04-01

    The objectives of the project are to study thermal hydraulic characteristics of reactor primary system for the verification of the reactor safety and to evaluate new safety concepts of new safety design features. To meet the research goal, several thermal hydraulic experiments were performed and related thermal hydraulic models were developed with the experimental data which were produced through the thermal hydraulic experiments. Followings are main research topics; - Multi-dimensional Phenomena in a Reactor Vessel Downcomer - Condensation Load and Thermal Mixing in the IRWST - Development of Thermal-Hydraulic Models for Two-Phase Flow - Development of Measurement Techniques for Two-Phase Flow - Supercritical Reactor T/H Characteristics Analysis From the above experimental and analytical studies, new safety design features of the advanced power reactors were verified and lots of the safety issues were also resolved

  11. Advanced kinetics for calorimetric techniques and thermal stability screening of sulfide minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliyas, Abduljelil; Hawboldt, Kelly; Khan, Faisal

    2010-01-01

    Thermal methods of analysis such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) provide a powerful methodology for the study of solid reactions. This paper proposes an improved thermal analysis methodology for thermal stability investigation of complex solid-state reactions. The proposed methodology is based on differential iso-conversional approach and involves peak separation, individual peak analysis and combination of isothermal/non-isothermal DSC measurements for kinetic analysis and prediction. The proposed thermal analysis, which coupled with Mineral Libration Analyzer (MLA) technique was employed to investigate thermal behavior of sulfide mineral oxidation. The importance of various experimental variables such as particle size, heating rate and atmosphere were investigated and discussed. The information gained from such an advanced thermal analysis method is useful for scale-up processes with potential of significant savings in plant operations, as well as in mitigating adverse environmental and safety issues arising from handling and storage of sulfide minerals.

  12. Thermal-Hydraulic Experiments and Modelling for Advanced Nuclear Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C. H.; Chung, M. K.; Park, C. K. and others

    2005-04-15

    The objectives of the project are to study thermal hydraulic characteristics of reactor primary system for the verification of the reactor safety and to evaluate new safety concepts of new safety design features. To meet the research goal, several thermal hydraulic experiments were performed and related thermal hydraulic models were developed with the experimental data which were produced through the thermal hydraulic experiments. Followings are main research topics; - Multi-dimensional Phenomena in a Reactor Vessel Downcomer - Condensation Load and Thermal Mixing in the IRWST - Development of Thermal-Hydraulic Models for Two-Phase Flow - Development of Measurement Techniques for Two-Phase Flow - Supercritical Reactor T/H Characteristics Analysis From the above experimental and analytical studies, new safety design features of the advanced power reactors were verified and lots of the safety issues were also resolved.

  13. Multiturn Extraction Based on Trapping in Stable Islands at CERN PS: Recent Measurement Advances

    CERN Multimedia

    Cappi, R; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Martini, M; Métral, Elias; Müller, A S; Sakumi, A; Steerenberg, R

    2004-01-01

    Recently a novel approach to perform multi-turn extraction was proposed based on beam splitting in the transverse phase space by means of trapping inside stable islands. During the year 2002, preliminary measurements at the CERN Proton Synchrotron with a low-intensity, singlebunch, proton beam, confirmed the possibility of generating various beamlets starting from a single Gaussian beam. The experimental campaign continued also during the year 2003 to assess a number of key issues, such as the feasibility of trapping with high-intensity beam and capture efficiency. The experimental results are presented and discussed in detail in this paper.

  14. Intrinsic Flame-Retardant and Thermally Stable Epoxy Endowed by a Highly Efficient, Multifunctional Curing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Dong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to realize flame retardancy of epoxy without suffering much detriment in thermal stability. To solve the problem, a super-efficient phosphorus-nitrogen-containing reactive-type flame retardant, 10-(hydroxy(4-hydroxyphenylmethyl-5,10-dihydrophenophosphazinine-10-oxide (HB-DPPA is synthesized and characterized. When it is used as a co-curing agent of 4,4′-methylenedianiline (DDM for curing diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, the cured epoxy achieves UL-94 V-0 rating with the limiting oxygen index of 29.3%. In this case, the phosphorus content in the system is exceptionally low (0.18 wt %. To the best of our knowledge, it currently has the highest efficiency among similar epoxy systems. Such excellent flame retardancy originates from the exclusive chemical structure of the phenophosphazine moiety, in which the phosphorus element is stabilized by the two adjacent aromatic rings. The action in the condensed phase is enhanced and followed by pressurization of the pyrolytic gases that induces the blowing-out effect during combustion. The cone calorimeter result reveals the formation of a unique intumescent char structure with five discernible layers. Owing to the super-efficient flame retardancy and the rigid molecular structure of HB-DPPA, the flame-retardant epoxy acquires high thermal stability and its initial decomposition temperature only decreases by 4.6 °C as compared with the unmodified one.

  15. Fabrication of robust and thermally stable superhydrophobic nanocomposite coatings based on thermoplastic polyurethane and silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyfi, Javad [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, Seyed Hassan, E-mail: shjafari@ut.ac.ir [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khonakdar, Hossein Ali [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Hohe Strasse 6, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Sadeghi, Gity Mir Mohamad [Department of Polymer Engineering & Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zohuri, Gholamhossein [Polymer Group, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hejazi, Iman [Department of Polymer Engineering & Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Simon, Frank [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Hohe Strasse 6, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic coatings were prepared from an intrinsically hydrophilic polymer. • The superhydrophobicity remained intact at elevated temperatures. • Polyurethane plays a key role in improving the mechanical robustness of the coatings. • A complete surface coverage of nanosilica is necessary for superhydrophobicity. - Abstract: In this paper, superhydrophobic nanocomposite coatings based on thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and modified nanosilica were fabricated using a simple solution-based method. The main challenge was to impart superhydrophobicity to an intrinsically hydrophilic polymer substrate. The prepared nanocomposite coatings were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Based on the obtained results, it was proved that in order to achieve superhydrophobicity, no TPU macromolecule should be present on the coating's top layer, thus a complete coverage of coating's top layer by nanosilica particles was necessary for achieving ultra water repellent coatings. Mechanical and thermal resistance of the coatings, which are the main challenges in commercializing superhydrophobic surfaces, were also studied by drop impact and thermal annealing tests, respectively. It was proved that using TPU as a sublayer results in improving mechanical resistance of the coatings as compared with the pure silica nanocoating. Moreover, the samples showed an excellent resistance against elevated temperatures (150 °C) and remained superhydrophobic; however, further increment of the annealing temperatures to 200 °C caused the TPU macromolecules to migrate onto the top layer of the coatings significantly reducing the water repellency, which was visually proved by SEM.

  16. Diketopyrrolopyrrole-based polymer:fullerene nanoparticle films with thermally stable morphology for organic photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Natalie P. [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW (Australia). Centre for Organic Electronics; Vaughan, Ben [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW (Australia). Centre for Organic Electronics; CSIRO Energy Technology, Newcastle (Australia); Williams, Evan L. [Inst. of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Agency for Science, Technology, and Research (A*STAR), Singapore (Singapore); Kroon, Renee [Univ. of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA (Australia). Ian Wark Research Inst.; Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering/Polymer Technology; Anderrson, Mats R. [Univ. of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA (Australia). Ian Wark Research Inst.; Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering/Polymer Technology; Kilcoyne, A. L. David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS); Sonar, Prashant [Inst. of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Agency for Science, Technology, and Research (A*STAR), Singapore (Singapore); Queensland Univ. of Technology (QUT), Brisbane (Australia). School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering; Zhou, Xiaojing [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW (Australia). Centre for Organic Electronics; Dastoor, Paul C. [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW (Australia). Centre for Organic Electronics; Belcher, Warwick J. [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW (Australia). Centre for Organic Electronics

    2017-02-02

    Polymer:fullerene nanoparticles (NPs) offer two key advantages over bulk heterojunction (BHJ) films for organic photovoltaics (OPVs), water-processability and potentially superior morphological control. Once an optimal active layer morphology is reached, maintaining this morphology at OPV operating temperatures is key to the lifetime of a device. Here in this paper we study the morphology of the PDPP-TNT (poly{3,6-dithiophene-2-yl-2,5-di(2-octyldodecyl)-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione-alt-naphthalene}):PC71BM ([6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester) NP system and then compare the thermal stability of NP and BHJ films to the common poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) system. We find that material Tg plays a key role in the superior thermal stability of the PDPP-TNT:PC71BM system; whereas for the P3HT:PC61BM system, domain structure is critical.

  17. Coupled granular/continuous medium for thermally stable perpendicular magnetic recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonobe, Y.; Weller, D.; Ikeda, Y.; Takano, K.; Schabes, M.E.; Zeltzer, G.; Do, H.; Yen, B.K.; Best, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    We studied coupled granular/continuous (CGC) perpendicular media consisting of a continuous multilayer structure and a granular layer. The addition of Co/Pt multilayers decreased the nucleation field from 200 to -1800 Oe and increased the squareness from 0.9 to 1.0. The moment decay at room temperature was significantly reduced from -4.8% to -0.05% per decade. At elevated temperatures, strong exchange coupling between a granular layer and a continuous layer is needed for thermal stability. The exchange-coupled continuous layer reduces thermal demagnetization as it effectively increases the grain size, tightens the grain distribution, and prevents the reversal of individual grains. Magnetic Force Microscope image showed a larger magnetic cluster size for the CGC structure. Compared to the CoCr 18 Pt 12 medium, the CGC medium had 2.3 dB higher output. However, the noise for the CGC medium increased with the recording density, while the noise for the CoCr 18 Pt 12 medium remained constant from 4 to 15 kfc/mm. Further optimization and noise reduction are still required for future high density recording

  18. Fabrication of robust and thermally stable superhydrophobic nanocomposite coatings based on thermoplastic polyurethane and silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfi, Javad; Jafari, Seyed Hassan; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali; Sadeghi, Gity Mir Mohamad; Zohuri, Gholamhossein; Hejazi, Iman; Simon, Frank

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, superhydrophobic nanocomposite coatings based on thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and modified nanosilica were fabricated using a simple solution-based method. The main challenge was to impart superhydrophobicity to an intrinsically hydrophilic polymer substrate. The prepared nanocomposite coatings were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Based on the obtained results, it was proved that in order to achieve superhydrophobicity, no TPU macromolecule should be present on the coating's top layer, thus a complete coverage of coating's top layer by nanosilica particles was necessary for achieving ultra water repellent coatings. Mechanical and thermal resistance of the coatings, which are the main challenges in commercializing superhydrophobic surfaces, were also studied by drop impact and thermal annealing tests, respectively. It was proved that using TPU as a sublayer results in improving mechanical resistance of the coatings as compared with the pure silica nanocoating. Moreover, the samples showed an excellent resistance against elevated temperatures (150 °C) and remained superhydrophobic; however, further increment of the annealing temperatures to 200 °C caused the TPU macromolecules to migrate onto the top layer of the coatings significantly reducing the water repellency, which was visually proved by SEM.

  19. Coupled granular/continuous medium for thermally stable perpendicular magnetic recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonobe, Y.; Weller, D.; Ikeda, Y.; Takano, K.; Schabes, M. E.; Zeltzer, G.; Do, H.; Yen, B. K.; Best, M. E.

    2001-10-01

    We studied coupled granular/continuous (CGC) perpendicular media consisting of a continuous multilayer structure and a granular layer. The addition of Co/Pt multilayers decreased the nucleation field from 200 to -1800 Oe and increased the squareness from 0.9 to 1.0. The moment decay at room temperature was significantly reduced from -4.8% to -0.05% per decade. At elevated temperatures, strong exchange coupling between a granular layer and a continuous layer is needed for thermal stability. The exchange-coupled continuous layer reduces thermal demagnetization as it effectively increases the grain size, tightens the grain distribution, and prevents the reversal of individual grains. Magnetic Force Microscope image showed a larger magnetic cluster size for the CGC structure. Compared to the CoCr 18Pt 12 medium, the CGC medium had 2.3 dB higher output. However, the noise for the CGC medium increased with the recording density, while the noise for the CoCr 18Pt 12 medium remained constant from 4 to 15 kfc/mm. Further optimization and noise reduction are still required for future high density recording.

  20. A study on the advanced statistical core thermal design methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hyuk

    1992-02-01

    A statistical core thermal design methodology for generating the limit DNBR and the nominal DNBR is proposed and used in assessing the best-estimate thermal margin in a reactor core. Firstly, the Latin Hypercube Sampling Method instead of the conventional Experimental Design Technique is utilized as an input sampling method for a regression analysis to evaluate its sampling efficiency. Secondly and as a main topic, the Modified Latin Hypercube Sampling and the Hypothesis Test Statistics method is proposed as a substitute for the current statistical core thermal design method. This new methodology adopts 'a Modified Latin Hypercube Sampling Method' which uses the mean values of each interval of input variables instead of random values to avoid the extreme cases that arise in the tail areas of some parameters. Next, the independence between the input variables is verified through 'Correlation Coefficient Test' for statistical treatment of their uncertainties. And the distribution type of DNBR response is determined though 'Goodness of Fit Test'. Finally, the limit DNBR with one-sided 95% probability and 95% confidence level, DNBR 95/95 ' is estimated. The advantage of this methodology over the conventional statistical method using Response Surface and Monte Carlo simulation technique lies in its simplicity of the analysis procedure, while maintaining the same level of confidence in the limit DNBR result. This methodology is applied to the two cases of DNBR margin calculation. The first case is the application to the determination of the limit DNBR where the DNBR margin is determined by the difference between the nominal DNBR and the limit DNBR. The second case is the application to the determination of the nominal DNBR where the DNBR margin is determined by the difference between the lower limit value of the nominal DNBR and the CHF correlation limit being used. From this study, it is deduced that the proposed methodology gives a good agreement in the DNBR results

  1. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Studies of New Linear Thermally Stable Schiff Base Polymers with Flexible Spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Farah; Khuhawar, Muhammad Yar; Jahangir, Taj Muhammad; Channar, Abdul Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Five new linear Schiff base polymers having azomethine structures, ether linkages and extended aliphatic chain lengths with flexible spacers were synthesized by polycondensation of dialdehyde (monomer) with aliphatic and aromatic diamines. The formation yields of monomer and polymers were obtained within 75-92%. The polymers with flexible spacers of n-hexane were somewhat soluble in acetone, chloroform, THF, DMF and DMSO on heating. The monomer and polymers were characterized by melting point, elemental microanalysis, FT-IR, (1)HNMR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), fluorescence emission, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and viscosities and thermodynamic parameters measurements of their dilute solutions. The studies supported formation of the monomer and polymers and on the basis of these studies their structures have been assigned. The synthesized polymers were tested for their antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  2. Cost-effective fabrication of thermal- and chemical-stable ZIF-9 nanocrystals at ammonia atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Arash; Mansournia, Mohammadreza

    2017-12-01

    In this study, room temperature synthesis of zeolitic imidazolate framework-9 (ZIF-9) nanocrystals is reported for the first time at ammonia atmosphere in the absence of any organic additive. High thermal stability of the as-fabricated ZIF-9 up to 300 °C is illustrated by TG and XRD data. Also, the chemical resistance of product to harsh and severe solvothermal conditions introduces it to be an objective as potential material in many applications. Besides, the modest microporosity of the as-obtained ZIF-9 materials attracts more attentions for further investigation compared to those fabricated in organic solvents. By and large, the represented low-cost and room temperature synthetic method can be applicable in the large scale preparation of ZIF-9 for potentially practical utilization.

  3. A functional form-stable phase change composite with high efficiency electro-to-thermal energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wenhao; Huang, Xinyu; Li, Kai; Yao, Ruimin; Chen, Renjie; Zou, Ruqiang

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The thermal conductivity of PU was enhanced to 43 times of the pristine value by encapsulation in a PGF, PU@PGF can be used for highly efficient electro-to-heat energy conversion and storage with the highest energy storage efficiency up to 85%. - Highlights: • The composite exhibits an in-situ solid-solid phase change behavior. • The enthalpy of polyurethane is enhanced within the matrix. • The thermal conductivity of the composite is 43 times as much as that of the polyurethane. • Supercooling of polyurethane is greatly reduced. • The composite is applied to cold protection as a wear layer. - Abstract: A novel solid-to-solid phase change composite brick was prepared by combination of polyurethane (PU) and pitch-based graphite foam (PGF). The carbonaceous support, which can be used for mass production, not only greatly improves the thermal conductivity but promote electro-to-heat conversion efficiency of organic phase change materials (PCMs). Our composite retained the enthalpy of PCM and exhibited a greatly reduced supercooling temperature. The novel composite was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The enthalpy of polyurethane has increased about 8.6% after infiltrating into graphite foam. The composite was very stable during thermal cycle test, and the electro-to-heat conversion efficiency achieves to 85% at lower voltages (1.5–1.8 V), which can vastly reduce energy consumption. The as-prepared composite was used in a wear layer to test its performance comparing with normal fabric.

  4. Approaches to passive safety in advanced thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1980, there has been a proliferation of thermal reactor designs which incorporate passive safety features. The evolution of this trend is briefly traced, and the nature of various passive safety features is discussed with regard to how they have been incorporated into evolving design concepts. The key aspects of the passive safety features include reduced core power density, enhanced passive heat sinks, inherent assured shutdown mechanisms, elimination/minimization of potential leak paths from the primary coolant systems, enhanced robustness of fuel elements and improved coolant chemistry and component materials. An increased reliance on purely passive safety features typically translates into larger reactor structures at reduced power ratings. Proponents of the most innovative concepts seek to offset the increased costs by simplifying licensing requirements and reducing construction time

  5. Advanced high-temperature thermal energy storage media for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claar, T. D.; Waibel, R. T.

    1982-02-01

    An advanced thermal energy storage media concept based on use of carbonate salt/ceramic composite materials is being developed for industrial process and reject heat applications. The composite latent/sensible media concept and its potential advantages over state of the art latent heat systems is described. Media stability requirements, on-going materials development efforts, and planned thermal energy storage (TES) performance evaluation tests are discussed.

  6. High Thermal Conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond Composite Combustion Chamber Liner For Advanced Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Ellis, David; Singh, Jogender

    2014-01-01

    Advanced high thermal conductivity materials research conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with state of the art combustion chamber liner material NARloy-Z showed that its thermal conductivity can be increased significantly by adding diamond particles and sintering it at high temperatures. For instance, NARloy-Z containing 40 vol. percent diamond particles, sintered at 975C to full density by using the Field assisted Sintering Technology (FAST) showed 69 percent higher thermal conductivity than baseline NARloy-Z. Furthermore, NARloy-Z-40vol. percent D is 30 percent lighter than NARloy-Z and hence the density normalized thermal conductivity is 140 percent better. These attributes will improve the performance and life of the advanced rocket engines significantly. By one estimate, increased thermal conductivity will directly translate into increased turbopump power up to 2X and increased chamber pressure for improved thrust and ISP, resulting in an expected 20 percent improvement in engine performance. Follow on research is now being conducted to demonstrate the benefits of this high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-D composite for combustion chamber liner applications in advanced rocket engines. The work consists of a) Optimizing the chemistry and heat treatment for NARloy-Z-D composite, b) Developing design properties (thermal and mechanical) for the optimized NARloy-Z-D, c) Fabrication of net shape subscale combustion chamber liner, and d) Hot fire testing of the liner for performance. FAST is used for consolidating and sintering NARlo-Z-D. The subscale cylindrical liner with built in channels for coolant flow is also fabricated near net shape using the FAST process. The liner will be assembled into a test rig and hot fire tested in the MSFC test facility to determine performance. This paper describes the development of this novel high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-D composite material, and the advanced net shape technology to fabricate the combustion

  7. THEHYCO-3DT: Thermal hydrodynamic code for the 3 dimensional transient calculation of advanced LMFBR core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitruk, S.G.; Korsun, A.S. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Ushakov, P.A. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (R)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The multilevel mathematical model of neutron thermal hydrodynamic processes in a passive safety core without assemblies duct walls and appropriate computer code SKETCH, consisted of thermal hydrodynamic module THEHYCO-3DT and neutron one, are described. A new effective discretization technique for energy, momentum and mass conservation equations is applied in hexagonal - z geometry. The model adequacy and applicability are presented. The results of the calculations show that the model and the computer code could be used in conceptual design of advanced reactors.

  8. THEHYCO-3DT: Thermal hydrodynamic code for the 3 dimensional transient calculation of advanced LMFBR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitruk, S.G.; Korsun, A.S.; Ushakov, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The multilevel mathematical model of neutron thermal hydrodynamic processes in a passive safety core without assemblies duct walls and appropriate computer code SKETCH, consisted of thermal hydrodynamic module THEHYCO-3DT and neutron one, are described. A new effective discretization technique for energy, momentum and mass conservation equations is applied in hexagonal - z geometry. The model adequacy and applicability are presented. The results of the calculations show that the model and the computer code could be used in conceptual design of advanced reactors

  9. Trichoderma harzianum Produces a New Thermally Stable Acid Phosphatase, with Potential for Biotechnological Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Amanda Araújo; Leitão, Vanessa Oliveira; Ramada, Marcelo Henrique; Mehdad, Azadeh; Georg, Raphaela de Castro; Ulhôa, Cirano José; de Freitas, Sonia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Acid phosphatases (ACPases) are produced by a variety of fungi and have gained attention due their biotechnological potential in industrial, diagnosis and bioremediation processes. These enzymes play a specific role in scavenging, mobilization and acquisition of phosphate, enhancing soil fertility and plant growth. In this study, a new ACPase from Trichoderma harzianum, named ACPase II, was purified and characterized as a glycoprotein belonging to the acid phosphatase family. ACPase II presents an optimum pH and temperature of 3.8 and 65 °C, respectively, and is stable at 55 °C for 120 min, retaining 60% of its activity. The enzyme did not require metal divalent ions, but was inhibited by inorganic phosphate and tungstate. Affinity for several phosphate substrates was observed, including phytate, which is the major component of phosphorus in plant foods. The inhibition of ACPase II by tungstate and phosphate at different pH values is consistent with the inability of the substrate to occupy its active site due to electrostatic contacts that promote conformational changes, as indicated by fluorescence spectroscopy. A higher affinity for tungstate rather than phosphate at pH 4.0 was observed, in accordance with its highest inhibitory effect. Results indicate considerable biotechnological potential of the ACPase II in soil environments.

  10. Advanced Thermal Storage for Central Receivers with Supercritical Coolants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Bruce D.

    2010-06-15

    The principal objective of the study is to determine if supercritical heat transport fluids in a central receiver power plant, in combination with ceramic thermocline storage systems, offer a reduction in levelized energy cost over a baseline nitrate salt concept. The baseline concept uses a nitrate salt receiver, two-tank (hot and cold) nitrate salt thermal storage, and a subcritical Rankine cycle. A total of 6 plant designs were analyzed, as follows: Plant Designation Receiver Fluid Thermal Storage Rankine Cycle Subcritical nitrate salt Nitrate salt Two tank nitrate salt Subcritical Supercritical nitrate salt Nitrate salt Two tank nitrate salt Supercritical Low temperature H2O Supercritical H2O Two tank nitrate salt Supercritical High temperature H2O Supercritical H2O Packed bed thermocline Supercritical Low temperature CO2 Supercritical CO2 Two tank nitrate salt Supercritical High temperature CO2 Supercritical CO2 Packed bed thermocline Supercritical Several conclusions have been drawn from the results of the study, as follows: 1) The use of supercritical H2O as the heat transport fluid in a packed bed thermocline is likely not a practical approach. The specific heat of the fluid is a strong function of the temperatures at values near 400 °C, and the temperature profile in the bed during a charging cycle is markedly different than the profile during a discharging cycle. 2) The use of supercritical CO2 as the heat transport fluid in a packed bed thermocline is judged to be technically feasible. Nonetheless, the high operating pressures for the supercritical fluid require the use of pressure vessels to contain the storage inventory. The unit cost of the two-tank nitrate salt system is approximately $24/kWht, while the unit cost of the high pressure thermocline system is nominally 10 times as high. 3) For the supercritical fluids, the outer crown temperatures of the receiver tubes are in the range of 700 to 800 °C. At temperatures of 700 °C and above

  11. Towards a stable ion-solvating polymer electrolyte for advanced alkaline water electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Wright, Andrew G.; Kraglund, Mikkel Rykær

    2017-01-01

    Advanced alkaline water electrolysis using ion-solvating polymer membranes as electrolytes represents a new direction in the field of electrochemical hydrogen production. Polybenzimidazole membranes equilibrated in aqueous KOH combine the mechanical robustness and gas-tightness of a polymer...... stability in alkaline environments. The novel electrolytes are extensively characterized with respect to physicochemical and electrochemical properties and the chemical stability is assessed in 0-50 wt% aqueous KOH for more than 6 months at 88 degrees C. In water electrolysis tests using porous 3...

  12. Ceramic thermal wind sensor based on advanced direct chip attaching package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lin; Qin Ming; Chen Shengqi; Chen Bei

    2014-01-01

    An advanced direct chip attaching packaged two-dimensional ceramic thermal wind sensor is studied. The thermal wind sensor chip is fabricated by metal lift-off processes on the ceramic substrate. An advanced direct chip attaching (DCA) packaging is adopted and this new packaged method simplifies the processes of packaging further. Simulations of the advanced DCA packaged sensor based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model show the sensor can detect wind speed and direction effectively. The wind tunnel testing results show the advanced DCA packaged sensor can detect the wind direction from 0° to 360° and wind speed from 0 to 20 m/s with the error less than 0.5 m/s. The nonlinear fitting based least square method in Matlab is used to analyze the performance of the sensor. (semiconductor devices)

  13. Preparation and properties of lauric acid/silicon dioxide composites as form-stable phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Guiyin; Li Hui; Liu Xu

    2010-01-01

    Form-stable lauric acid (LA)/silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) composite phase change materials were prepared using sol-gel methods. The LA was used as the phase change material for thermal energy storage, with the SiO 2 acting as the supporting material. The structural analysis of these form-stable LA/SiO 2 composite phase change materials was carried out using Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope (FT-IR). The microstructure of the form-stable composite phase change materials was observed by a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The thermal properties and thermal stability were investigated by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a thermogravimetric analysis apparatus (TGA), respectively. The SEM results showed that the LA was well dispersed in the porous network of SiO 2 . The DSC results indicated that the melting latent heat of the form-stable composite phase change material is 117.21 kJ kg -1 when the mass percentage of the LA in the SiO 2 is 64.8%. The results of the TGA showed that these materials have good thermal stability. The form-stable composite phase change materials can be used for thermal energy storage in waste heat recovery and solar heating systems.

  14. Preparation, characterization and thermal properties of styrene maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA)/fatty acid composites as form stable phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, Ahmet; Alkan, Cemil; Karaipekli, Ali; Onal, Adem

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acids such as stearic acid (SA), palmitic acid (PA), myristic acid (MA) and lauric acid (LA) are promising phase change materials (PCMs) for latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) applications, but high cost is the major drawback of them, limiting their utility area in thermal energy storage. The use of fatty acids as form stable PCMs will increase their feasibilities in practical applications due to the reduced cost of the LHTES system. In this regard, a series of styrene maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA)/fatty acid composites, SMA/SA, SMA/PA, SMA/MA, and SMA/LA, were prepared as form stable PCMs by encapsulation of fatty acids into the SMA, which acts as a supporting material. The encapsulation ratio of fatty acids was as much as 85 wt.% and no leakage of fatty acid was observed even when the temperature of the form stable PCM was over the melting point of the fatty acid in the composite. The prepared form stable composite PCMs were characterized using optic microscopy (OM), viscosimetry and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy methods, and the results showed that the SMA was physically and chemically compatible with the fatty acids. In addition, the thermal characteristics such as melting and freezing temperatures and latent heats of the form stable composite PCMs were measured by using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique, which indicated they had good thermal properties. On the basis of all the results, it was concluded that form stable SMA/fatty acid composite PCMs had important potential for practical LHTES applications such as under floor space heating of buildings and passive solar space heating of buildings by using wallboard, plasterboard or floors impregnated with a form stable PCM due to their satisfying thermal properties, easy preparation in desired dimensions, direct usability without needing additional encapsulation thereby eliminating the thermal resistance caused by the shell and, thus, reducing the cost of

  15. Novel highly dispersible, thermally stable core/shell proppants for geothermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childers, Ian M.; Endres, Mackenzie; Burns, Carolyne; Garcia, Benjamin J.; Liu, Jian; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Bonneville, Alain; Moore, Joseph; Leavy, Ian I.; Zhong, Lirong; Schaef, Herbert T.; Fu, Li; Wang, Hong-Fei; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2017-11-01

    The use of proppants during reservoir stimulation in tight oil and gas plays requires the introduction of highly viscous fluids to transport the proppants (µm–mm) with the fracturing fluid. The highly viscous fluids required result in increased pump loads and energy costs. Furthermore, although proppant deployment with fracturing fluids is a standard practice for unconventional oil and gas stimulation operations, there are only a few examples in the US of the applying proppant technology to geothermal energy production. This is due to proppant dissolution, proppant flowback and loss of permeability associated with the extreme temperatures found in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). This work demonstrates proof-of-concept of a novel, CO2-responsive, lightweight sintered-bauxite/polymer core/shell proppant. The polymer shell has two main roles; 1) increase the stability of the proppant dispersion in water without the addition of rheology modifiers, and 2) once at the fracture network react with CO2 to promote particle aggregation and prop fractures open. In this work, both of these roles are demonstrated together with the thermal and chemical stability of the materials showing the potential of these CO2-responsive proppants as an alternative proppant technology for geothermal and unconventional oil/gas applications.

  16. Thermally and electrochemically stable amorphous hole-transporting materials based on carbazole dendrimers for electroluminescent devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promarak, Vinich; Ichikawa, Musubu; Sudyoadsuk, Taweesak; Saengsuwan, Sayant; Jungsuttiwong, Siriporn; Keawin, Tinnagon

    2008-01-01

    Amorphous hole-transporting carbazole dendrimers, 1,4-bis[3,6-di(carbazol-9-yl)carbazol-9-yl]-2,6-di(2-ethylhexyloxy)benzene (G2CB) and 1,4-bis[3,6-di(carbazol-9-yl)carbazol-9-yl]-9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole (G2CC), were synthesized by a divergent approach involving bromination and Ullmann coupling reactions. Compounds G2CB and G2CC showed high thermal stability (T g = 206 to 245 deg. C) and excellent electrochemical reversibility. Double-layer organic light-emitting diodes were fabricated by using G2CB and G2CC as hole-transporting layers (HTLs) and tris(8-quinolinato)aluminum (Alq 3 ) as light-emissive layer with the device configuration of indium tin oxide/HTL/Alq 3 /LiF:Al. Both devices exhibited bright green emission from Alq 3 . The device using G2CC as HTL has the best performance with a maximum brightness of 8900 cd/m 2 at 14 V and a low turn-on voltage of 3.5 V

  17. Strong, ductile, and thermally stable Cu-based metal-intermetallic nanostructured composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusoe, Keith J; Vijayan, Sriram; Bissell, Thomas R; Chen, Jie; Morley, Jack E; Valencia, Leopolodo; Dongare, Avinash M; Aindow, Mark; Lee, Seok-Woo

    2017-01-09

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) and nanocrystalline metals (NMs) have been extensively investigated due to their superior strengths and elastic limits. Despite these excellent mechanical properties, low ductility at room temperature and poor microstructural stability at elevated temperatures often limit their practical applications. Thus, there is a need for a metallic material system that can overcome these performance limits of BMGs and NMs. Here, we present novel Cu-based metal-intermetallic nanostructured composites (MINCs), which exhibit high ultimate compressive strengths (over 2 GPa), high compressive failure strain (over 20%), and superior microstructural stability even at temperatures above the glass transition temperature of Cu-based BMGs. Rapid solidification produces a unique ultra-fine microstructure that contains a large volume fraction of Cu 5 Zr superlattice intermetallic compound; this contributes to the high strength and superior thermal stability. Mechanical and microstructural characterizations reveal that substantial accumulation of phase boundary sliding at metal/intermetallic interfaces accounts for the extensive ductility observed.

  18. Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Cox, Michael; Srinivasan, Vijayakumar

    1997-01-01

    Thermal Protection Materials Branch (TPMB) has been involved in various research programs to improve the properties and structural integrity of the existing aerospace high temperature materials. Specimens from various research programs were brought into the analytical laboratory for the purpose of obtaining and refining the material characterization. The analytical laboratory in TPMB has many different instruments which were utilized to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of materials. Some of the instruments that were utilized by the SJSU students are: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray Diffraction Spectrometer (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultra Violet Spectroscopy/Visible Spectroscopy (UV/VIS), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). The above mentioned analytical instruments were utilized in the material characterization process of the specimens from research programs such as: aerogel ceramics (I) and (II), X-33 Blankets, ARC-Jet specimens, QUICFIX specimens and gas permeability of lightweight ceramic ablators. In addition to analytical instruments in the analytical laboratory at TPMB, there are several on-going experiments. One particular experiment allows the measurement of permeability of ceramic ablators. From these measurements, physical characteristics of the ceramic ablators can be derived.

  19. Thermal-hydraulic Experiments for Advanced Physical Model Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chul Hwa; Baek, W. P.; Yoon, B. J.

    2010-04-01

    The improvement of prediction models is needed to enhance the safety analysis capability through the fine measurements of local phenomena. To improve the two-phase interfacial area transport model, the various experiments were carried out used SUBO and DOBO. 2x2 and 6x6 rod bundle test facilities were used for the experiment on the droplet behavior. The experiments on the droplet behavior inside a heated rod bundle were focused on the break-up of droplets induced by a spacer grid in a rod bundle geometry. The experiments used GIRLS and JICO and CFD analysis were carried out to comprehend the local condensation of steam jet, turbulent jet induced by condensation and the thermal mixing in a pool. An experimental database of the CHF (Critical Heat Flux) and PDO (Post-dryout) had been constructed. The mechanism of the heat transfer enhancement by surface modifications in nano-fluid was investigated in boiling mode and rapid quenching mode. The special measurement techniques were developed. They are Double -sensor optical void probe, Optic Rod, PIV technique and UBIM system

  20. Thermal-hydraulic Experiments for Advanced Physical Model Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chulhwa

    2012-04-01

    The improvement of prediction models is needed to enhance the safety analysis capability through experimental database of local phenomena. To improve the two-phase interfacial area transport model, the various experiments were carried out with local two-phase interfacial structure test facilities. 2 Χ 2 and 6 Χ 6 rod bundle test facilities were used for the experiment on the droplet behavior. The experiments on the droplet behavior inside a heated rod bundle geometry. The experiments used GIRLS and JICO and CFD analysis were carried out to comprehend the local condensation of steam jet, turbulent jet induced by condensation and the thermal mixing in a pool. In order to develop a model for key phenomena of newly adapted safety system, experiments for boiling inside a pool and condensation in horizontal channel have been performed. An experimental database of the CHF (Critical Heat Flux) and PDO (Post-dryout) was constructed. The mechanism of the heat transfer enhancement by surface modifications in nano-fluid was investigated in boiling mode and rapid quenching mode. The special measurement techniques were developed. They are Double-sensor optical void probe, Optic Rod, PIV technique and UBIM system

  1. Salt-embedded carbon nanodots as a UV and thermal stable fluorophore for light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tak H.; Wang, Fu; McCormick, Paul; Wang, Lianzhou; Brown, Chris; Li, Qin

    2014-01-01

    UV and thermal stable, photoluminescent carbon dots (CDs) prepared by embedding CDs in ionic salt crystals such as NaCl, KCl, KBr are demonstrated. The salt crystal embedding matrix does not interfere with CDs strong emission, and provides effective protection to CDs from the environment. The degradation of 20% of the initial luminescence intensity of salt-encapsulated CDs (S-CDs) is 15 times slower under UV and 6 times slower under heat compared to that of CDs in silica matrix. We also demonstrate that the S-CDs can be applied as a color-converting phosphor for typical GaN UV light emitting diodes (LEDs) with significant improvements in stability as well as processability. - Highlights: • Carbon dots can be uniformly embedded in ionic salt crystals via crystallization. • Salt crystals provide oxygen-tight matrices for protecting carbon dots from degradations. • Salt-embedded carbon dots can be applied as a stable color-converting phosphor in LEDs

  2. Salt-embedded carbon nanodots as a UV and thermal stable fluorophore for light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tak H. [Queensland Micro- and Nano-Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Environmental Engineering, Griffith University, QLD 4111 (Australia); Wang, Fu [Institute of Physiology, University of Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Street 7, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); McCormick, Paul [School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, WA 2009 (Australia); Wang, Lianzhou [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Queensland, QLD 4072 (Australia); Brown, Chris [Queensland Micro- and Nano-Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Li, Qin, E-mail: qin.li@griffith.edu.au [Queensland Micro- and Nano-Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Environmental Engineering, Griffith University, QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    UV and thermal stable, photoluminescent carbon dots (CDs) prepared by embedding CDs in ionic salt crystals such as NaCl, KCl, KBr are demonstrated. The salt crystal embedding matrix does not interfere with CDs strong emission, and provides effective protection to CDs from the environment. The degradation of 20% of the initial luminescence intensity of salt-encapsulated CDs (S-CDs) is 15 times slower under UV and 6 times slower under heat compared to that of CDs in silica matrix. We also demonstrate that the S-CDs can be applied as a color-converting phosphor for typical GaN UV light emitting diodes (LEDs) with significant improvements in stability as well as processability. - Highlights: • Carbon dots can be uniformly embedded in ionic salt crystals via crystallization. • Salt crystals provide oxygen-tight matrices for protecting carbon dots from degradations. • Salt-embedded carbon dots can be applied as a stable color-converting phosphor in LEDs.

  3. Fabrication of Water Jet Resistant and Thermally Stable Superhydrophobic Surfaces by Spray Coating of Candle Soot Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qahtan, Talal F; Gondal, Mohammed A; Alade, Ibrahim O; Dastageer, Mohammed A

    2017-08-08

    A facile synthesis method for highly stable carbon nanoparticle (CNP) dispersion in acetone by incomplete combustion of paraffin candle flame is presented. The synthesized CNP dispersion is the mixture of graphitic and amorphous carbon nanoparticles of the size range of 20-50 nm and manifested the mesoporosity with an average pore size of 7 nm and a BET surface area of 366 m 2 g -1 . As an application of this material, the carbon nanoparticle dispersion was spray coated (spray-based coating) on a glass surface to fabricate superhydrophobic (water contact angle > 150° and sliding angle fabricated from direct candle flame soot deposition (candle-based coating). This study proved that water jet resistant and thermally stable superhydrophobic surfaces can be easily fabricated by simple spray coating of CNP dispersion gathered from incomplete combustion of paraffin candle flame and this technique can be used for different applications with the potential for the large scale fabrication.

  4. Advanced Thermal Storage System with Novel Molten Salt: December 8, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonemann, M.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Halotechnics Subcontract No. NEU-2-11979-01. Halotechnics has demonstrated an advanced thermal energy storage system with a novel molten salt operating at 700 degrees C. The molten salt and storage system will enable the use of advanced power cycles such as supercritical steam and supercritical carbon dioxide in next generation CSP plants. The salt consists of low cost, earth abundant materials.

  5. Thermally Stable and Electrically Conductive, Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube/Silicon Infiltrated Composite Structures for High-Temperature Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qi Ming; Deng, Lei Min; Li, Da Wei; Zhou, Yun Shen; Golgir, Hossein Rabiee; Keramatnejad, Kamran; Fan, Li Sha; Jiang, Lan; Silvain, Jean-Francois; Lu, Yong Feng

    2017-10-25

    Traditional ceramic-based, high-temperature electrode materials (e.g., lanthanum chromate) are severely limited due to their conditional electrical conductivity and poor stability under harsh circumstances. Advanced composite structures based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) and high-temperature ceramics are expected to address this grand challenge, in which ceramic serves as a shielding layer protecting the VACNTs from the oxidation and erosive environment, while the VACNTs work as a conductor. However, it is still a great challenge to fabricate VACNT/ceramic composite structures due to the limited diffusion of ceramics inside the VACNT arrays. In this work, we report on the controllable fabrication of infiltrated (and noninfiltrated) VACNT/silicon composite structures via thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) [and laser-assisted CVD]. In laser-assisted CVD, low-crystalline silicon (Si) was quickly deposited at the VACNT subsurfaces/surfaces followed by the formation of high-crystalline Si layers, thus resulting in noninfiltrated composite structures. Unlike laser-assisted CVD, thermal CVD activated the precursors inside and outside the VACNTs simultaneously, which realized uniform infiltrated VACNT/Si composite structures. The growth mechanisms for infiltrated and noninfiltrated VACNT/ceramic composites, which we attributed to the different temperature distributions and gas diffusion mechanism in VACNTs, were investigated. More importantly, the as-farbicated composite structures exhibited excellent multifunctional properties, such as excellent antioxidative ability (up to 1100 °C), high thermal stability (up to 1400 °C), good high velocity hot gas erosion resistance, and good electrical conductivity (∼8.95 Sm -1 at 823 K). The work presented here brings a simple, new approach to the fabrication of advanced composite structures for hot electrode applications.

  6. PEG/SiO2–Al2O3 hybrid form-stable phase change materials with enhanced thermal conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Bingtao; Wu, Cheng; Qiu, Meige; Zhang, Xiwen; Zhang, Shufen

    2014-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of form-stable PEG/SiO 2 phase change material (PCM) was enhanced by in situ doping of Al 2 O 3 using an ultrasound-assisted sol–gel method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to characterize the structure, and the crystal performance was characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) were used to determine the thermal properties. The phase change enthalpy of PEG/SiO 2 –Al 2 O 3 reached 124 J g −1 , and thermal conductivity improved by 12.8% for 3.3 wt% Al 2 O 3 in the PCM compared with PEG/SiO 2 . The hybrid PCM has excellent thermal stability and form-stable effects. - Highlights: • The PEG/SiO 2 –Al 2 O 3 hybrid form-stable phase change material (PCM) was obtained through the sol–gel method. • The inexpensive aluminum nitrate and tetraethyl orthosilicate were used as sol precursors. • This organic–inorganic hybrid process can effectively enhance the thermal conductivity of PCMs. • The PCM exhibited high thermal stability and excellent form-stable effects

  7. PEG/SiO{sub 2}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hybrid form-stable phase change materials with enhanced thermal conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Bingtao, E-mail: tangbt@dlut.edu.cn; Wu, Cheng; Qiu, Meige; Zhang, Xiwen; Zhang, Shufen

    2014-03-01

    The thermal conductivity of form-stable PEG/SiO{sub 2} phase change material (PCM) was enhanced by in situ doping of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using an ultrasound-assisted sol–gel method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to characterize the structure, and the crystal performance was characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) were used to determine the thermal properties. The phase change enthalpy of PEG/SiO{sub 2}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reached 124 J g{sup −1}, and thermal conductivity improved by 12.8% for 3.3 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the PCM compared with PEG/SiO{sub 2}. The hybrid PCM has excellent thermal stability and form-stable effects. - Highlights: • The PEG/SiO{sub 2}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hybrid form-stable phase change material (PCM) was obtained through the sol–gel method. • The inexpensive aluminum nitrate and tetraethyl orthosilicate were used as sol precursors. • This organic–inorganic hybrid process can effectively enhance the thermal conductivity of PCMs. • The PCM exhibited high thermal stability and excellent form-stable effects.

  8. Advances towards QH-mode viability for ELM-stable operation in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garofalo, A.M.; Burrell, K.H.; DeBoo, J.C.; Schaffer, M.J.; Snyder, P.B.; Solomon, W.M.; Park, J.-K.; Lanctot, M.J.; Reimerdes, H.; McKee, G.R.; Schmitz, L.

    2011-01-01

    The application of static, non-axisymmetric, nonresonant magnetic fields (NRMFs) to high beta DIII-D plasmas has allowed sustained operation with a quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) edge and both toroidal rotation and neutral beam injected torque near zero. Previous studies have shown that QH-mode operation can be accessed only if sufficient radial shear in the plasma flow is produced near the plasma edge. In past experiments, this flow shear was produced using neutral beam injection (NBI) to provide toroidal torque. In recent experiments, this torque was nearly completely replaced by the torque from applied NRMFs. The application of the NRMFs does not degrade the global energy confinement of the plasma. Conversely, the experiments show that the energy confinement quality increases with lower plasma rotation. Furthermore, the NRMF torque increases plasma resilience to locked modes at low rotation. These results open a path towards QH-mode utilization as an edge-localized mode (ELM)-stable H-mode in the self-heated burning plasma scenario, where toroidal momentum input from NBI may be small or absent.

  9. Study on thermal property of lauric–palmitic–stearic acid/vermiculite composite as form-stable phase change material for energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The form-stable composite phase change material of lauric–palmitic–stearic acid ternary eutectic mixture/vermiculite was prepared by vacuum impregnation method for thermal energy storage. The maximum mass fraction of lauric–palmitic–stearic acid ternary eutectic mixture retained in vermiculite was determined as 50 wt% without melted phase change material seepage from the composite phase change material. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope and scanning electron microscope were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the prepared lauric–palmitic–stearic acid ternary eutectic mixture/vermiculite form-stable composite phase change material, and the results indicate that lauric–palmitic–stearic acid ternary eutectic mixture was well confined into the layer porous structure of vermiculite by physical reaction. The melting and freezing temperatures and latent heats were measured by differential scanning calorimeter as 31.4°C and 30.3°C, and 75.8 and 73.2 J/g, respectively. Thermal cycling test showed that there was no significant change in the thermal properties of lauric–palmitic–stearic acid ternary eutectic mixture/vermiculite form-stable composite phase change material after 1000 thermal cycles. Moreover, 2 wt% expanded graphite was added to improve the thermal conductivity of lauric–palmitic–stearic acid ternary eutectic mixture/vermiculite form-stable composite phase change material. All results indicated that the prepared lauric–palmitic–stearic acid ternary eutectic mixture/vermiculite form-stable composite phase change material had suitable thermal properties and good thermal reliability for the application of thermal energy storage in building energy efficiency.

  10. Broad bandwidth vibration energy harvester based on thermally stable wavy fluorinated ethylene propylene electret films with negative charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Sessler, Gerhard M.; Ma, Xingchen; Xue, Yuan; Wu, Liming

    2018-06-01

    Wavy fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) electret films with negative charges were prepared by a patterning method followed by a corona charging process. The thermal stability of these films was characterized by the surface potential decay with annealing time at elevated temperatures. The results show that thermally stable electret films can be made by corona charging followed by pre-aging treatment. Vibration energy harvesters having a very simple sandwich structure, consisting of a central wavy FEP electret film and two outside metal plates, were designed and their performance, including the resonance frequency, output power, half power bandwidth, and device stability, was investigated. These harvesters show a broad bandwidth as well as high output power. Their performance can be further improved by using a wavy-shaped counter electrode. For an energy harvester with an area of 4 cm2 and a seismic mass of 80 g, the output power referred to 1 g (g is the gravity of the earth), the resonance frequency, and the 3 dB bandwidth are 1.85 mW, 90 Hz, and 24 Hz, respectively. The output power is sufficient to power some electronic devices. Such devices may be embedded in shoe soles, carpets or seat cushions where the flexibility is required and large force is available.

  11. Structurally Deformed MoS2 for Electrochemically Stable, Thermally Resistant, and Highly Efficient Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yen-Chang; Lu, Ang-Yu; Lu, Ping; Yang, Xiulin; Jiang, Chang-Ming; Mariano, Marina; Kaehr, Brian; Lin, Oliver; Taylor, André ; Sharp, Ian D.; Li, Lain-Jong; Chou, Stanley S.; Tung, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    The emerging molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) offers intriguing possibilities for realizing a transformative new catalyst for driving the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, the trade-off between catalytic activity and long-term stability represents a formidable challenge and has not been extensively addressed. This study reports that metastable and temperature-sensitive chemically exfoliated MoS2 (ce-MoS2) can be made into electrochemically stable (5000 cycles), and thermally robust (300 °C) while maintaining synthetic scalability and excellent catalytic activity through physical-transformation into 3D structurally deformed nanostructures. The dimensional transition enabled by a high throughput electrohydrodynamic process provides highly accessible, and electrochemically active surface area and facilitates efficient transport across various interfaces. Meanwhile, the hierarchically strained morphology is found to improve electronic coupling between active sites and current collecting substrates without the need for selective engineering the electronically heterogeneous interfaces. Specifically, the synergistic combination of high strain load stemmed from capillarity-induced-self-crumpling and sulfur (S) vacancies intrinsic to chemical exfoliation enables simultaneous modulation of active site density and intrinsic HER activity regardless of continuous operation or elevated temperature. These results provide new insights into how catalytic activity, electrochemical-, and thermal stability can be concurrently enhanced through the physical transformation that is reminiscent of nature, in which properties of biological materials emerge from evolved dimensional transitions.

  12. Structurally Deformed MoS2 for Electrochemically Stable, Thermally Resistant, and Highly Efficient Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yen-Chang

    2017-10-12

    The emerging molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) offers intriguing possibilities for realizing a transformative new catalyst for driving the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, the trade-off between catalytic activity and long-term stability represents a formidable challenge and has not been extensively addressed. This study reports that metastable and temperature-sensitive chemically exfoliated MoS2 (ce-MoS2) can be made into electrochemically stable (5000 cycles), and thermally robust (300 °C) while maintaining synthetic scalability and excellent catalytic activity through physical-transformation into 3D structurally deformed nanostructures. The dimensional transition enabled by a high throughput electrohydrodynamic process provides highly accessible, and electrochemically active surface area and facilitates efficient transport across various interfaces. Meanwhile, the hierarchically strained morphology is found to improve electronic coupling between active sites and current collecting substrates without the need for selective engineering the electronically heterogeneous interfaces. Specifically, the synergistic combination of high strain load stemmed from capillarity-induced-self-crumpling and sulfur (S) vacancies intrinsic to chemical exfoliation enables simultaneous modulation of active site density and intrinsic HER activity regardless of continuous operation or elevated temperature. These results provide new insights into how catalytic activity, electrochemical-, and thermal stability can be concurrently enhanced through the physical transformation that is reminiscent of nature, in which properties of biological materials emerge from evolved dimensional transitions.

  13. Strategic need for a multi-purpose thermal hydraulic loop for support of advanced reactor technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Yoon, Su -Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Housley, Gregory K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report presents a conceptual design for a new high-temperature multi fluid, multi loop test facility for the INL to support thermal hydraulic, materials, and thermal energy storage research for nuclear and nuclear-hybrid applications. In its initial configuration, the facility will include a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The three loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX). Research topics to be addressed with this facility include the characterization and performance evaluation of candidate compact heat exchangers such as printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) at prototypical operating conditions, flow and heat transfer issues related to core thermal hydraulics in advanced helium-cooled and salt-cooled reactors, and evaluation of corrosion behavior of new cladding materials and accident-tolerant fuels for LWRs at prototypical conditions. Based on its relevance to advanced reactor systems, the new facility has been named the Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST) facility. Research performed in this facility will advance the state of the art and technology readiness level of high temperature intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) for nuclear applications while establishing the INL as a center of excellence for the development and certification of this technology. The thermal energy storage capability will support research and demonstration activities related to process heat delivery for a variety of hybrid energy systems and grid stabilization strategies. Experimental results obtained from this research will assist in development of reliable predictive models for thermal hydraulic design and safety codes over the range of expected advanced reactor operating conditions. Proposed/existing IHX heat transfer and friction correlations and criteria will be assessed with information on materials compatibility and instrumentation

  14. Advances in Thermal Insulation. Vacuum Insulation Panels and Thermal Efficiency to Reduce Energy Usage in Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorsell, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    We are coming to realize that there is an urgent need to reduce energy usage in buildings and it has to be done in a sustainable way. This thesis focuses on the performance of the building envelope; more precisely thermal performance of walls and super insulation material in the form of vacuum insulation. However, the building envelope is just one part of the whole building system, and super insulators have one major flaw: they are easily adversely affected by other problems in the built environment. Vacuum Insulation Panels are one fresh addition to the arsenal of insulation materials available to the building industry. They are composite material with a core and an enclosure which, as a composite, can reach thermal conductivities as low as 0.004 W/(mK). However, the exceptional performance relies on the barrier material preventing gas permeation, maintaining a near vacuum into the core and a minimized thermal bridge effect from the wrapping of barrier material round the edge of a panel. A serpentine edge is proposed to decrease the heat loss at the edge. Modeling and testing shows a reduction of 60 % if a reasonable serpentine edge is used. A diffusion model of permeation through multilayered barrier films with metallization coatings was developed to predict ultimate service life. The model combines numerical calculations with analytical field theory allowing for more precise determination than current models. The results using the proposed model indicate that it is possible to manufacture panels with lifetimes exceeding 50 years with existing manufacturing. Switching from the component scale to the building scale; an approach of integrated testing and modeling is proposed. Four wall types have been tested in a large range of environments with the aim to assess the hydrothermal nature and significance of thermal bridges and air leakages. The test procedure was also examined as a means for a more representative performance indicator than R-value (in USA). The

  15. Advanced Monte Carlo methods for thermal radiation transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollaber, Allan B.

    During the past 35 years, the Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) method proposed by Fleck and Cummings has been the standard Monte Carlo approach to solving the thermal radiative transfer (TRT) equations. However, the IMC equations are known to have accuracy limitations that can produce unphysical solutions. In this thesis, we explicitly provide the IMC equations with a Monte Carlo interpretation by including particle weight as one of its arguments. We also develop and test a stability theory for the 1-D, gray IMC equations applied to a nonlinear problem. We demonstrate that the worst case occurs for 0-D problems, and we extend the results to a stability algorithm that may be used for general linearizations of the TRT equations. We derive gray, Quasidiffusion equations that may be deterministically solved in conjunction with IMC to obtain an inexpensive, accurate estimate of the temperature at the end of the time step. We then define an average temperature T* to evaluate the temperature-dependent problem data in IMC, and we demonstrate that using T* is more accurate than using the (traditional) beginning-of-time-step temperature. We also propose an accuracy enhancement to the IMC equations: the use of a time-dependent "Fleck factor". This Fleck factor can be considered an automatic tuning of the traditionally defined user parameter alpha, which generally provides more accurate solutions at an increased cost relative to traditional IMC. We also introduce a global weight window that is proportional to the forward scalar intensity calculated by the Quasidiffusion method. This weight window improves the efficiency of the IMC calculation while conserving energy. All of the proposed enhancements are tested in 1-D gray and frequency-dependent problems. These enhancements do not unconditionally eliminate the unphysical behavior that can be seen in the IMC calculations. However, for fixed spatial and temporal grids, they suppress them and clearly work to make the solution more

  16. Surface Catalytic Efficiency of Advanced Carbon Carbon Candidate Thermal Protection Materials for SSTO Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The catalytic efficiency (atom recombination coefficients) for advanced ceramic thermal protection systems was calculated using arc-jet data. Coefficients for both oxygen and nitrogen atom recombination on the surfaces of these systems were obtained to temperatures of 1650 K. Optical and chemical stability of the candidate systems to the high energy hypersonic flow was also demonstrated during these tests.

  17. Medium Access Control for Thermal Energy Harvesting in Advanced Metering Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vithanage, Madava D.; Fafoutis, Xenofon; Andersen, Claus Bo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the feasibility of powering wireless metering devices, namely heat cost allocators, by thermal energy harvested from radiators. The goal is to take a first step toward the realization of Energy-Harvesting Advanced Metering Infrastructures (EH-AMIs). While traditional...

  18. Monte Carlo simulations to advance characterisation of landmines by pulsed fast/thermal neutron analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maucec, M.; Rigollet, C.

    The performance of a detection system based on the pulsed fast/thermal neutron analysis technique was assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. The aim was to develop and implement simulation methods, to support and advance the data analysis techniques of the characteristic gamma-ray spectra,

  19. Advances in thermal hydraulic and neutronic simulation for reactor analysis and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tentner, A.M.; Blomquist, R.N.; Canfield, T.R.; Ewing, T.F.; Garner, P.L.; Gelbard, E.M.; Gross, K.C.; Minkoff, M.; Valentin, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes several large-scale computational models developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the simulation and analysis of thermal-hydraulic and neutronic events in nuclear reactors and nuclear power plants. The impact of advanced parallel computing technologies on these computational models is emphasized

  20. Epoxy-Based Organogels for Thermally Reversible Light Scattering Films and Form-Stable Phase Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Julieta; Dell' Erba, Ignacio E; Schroeder, Walter F; Hoppe, Cristina E; Williams, Roberto J J

    2017-03-29

    Alkyl chains of β-hydroxyesters synthesized by the capping of terminal epoxy groups of diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) with palmitic (C16), stearic (C18), or behenic (C22) fatty acids self-assemble forming a crystalline phase. Above a particular concentration solutions of these esters in a variety of solvents led to supramolecular (physical) gels below the crystallization temperature of alkyl chains. A form-stable phase change material (FS-PCM) was obtained by blending the ester derived from behenic acid with eicosane. A blend containing 20 wt % ester was stable as a gel up to 53 °C and exhibited a heat storage capacity of 161 J/g, absorbed during the melting of eicosane at 37 °C. Thermally reversible light scattering (TRLS) films were obtained by visible-light photopolymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate-ester blends (50 wt %) in the gel state at room temperature. The reaction was very fast and not inhibited by oxygen. TRLS films consisted of a cross-linked methacrylic network interpenetrated by the supramolecular network formed by the esters. Above the melting temperature of crystallites formed by alkyl chains, the film was transparent due to the matching between refractive indices of the methacrylic network and the amorphous ester. Below the crystallization temperature, the film was opaque because of light dispersion produced by the organic crystallites uniformly dispersed in the material. Of high significance for application was the fact that the contrast ratio did not depend on heating and cooling rates.

  1. Development of form stable Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) coated thermal phase change material for solar water heater applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munusamy, Y.; Shanmugam, S.; Shi-Ying, Kee

    2018-04-01

    Phase change material (PCM) is one of the most popular and widely used thermal energy storage material in solar water heater because it able to absorb and release a large amount of latent heat during a phase change process over a narrow temperature range. However the practical application of PCM is limited by two major issues; 1) leakage which leads to material loss and corrosion of tank and 2) large volume change during phase change process which cause pressure build up in the tank. In this work, form-stable PCM was prepared by coating myristic acid with Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to prevent leakage of PCM. PMMA was mixed with different weight percentage (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 wt%) of dicumyl peroxide (DCP). The purpose of adding DCP to PMMA is to crosslink the polymer and to increase the mechanical strength of PMMA to hold the myristic acid content inside the coating during the phase change process. Leakage test results showed that PMMA mixed with 0.1% DCP exhibit 0% leakage. This result is further supported by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) images and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis results, where a compact and uniform coating without cracks were formed for PCM coated with PMMA with 0.1% DCP. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results shows that the melting point of form-stable PCM is 55°C, freezing point is 50°C, the latent heat of melting and freezing is 67.59 J/g.

  2. High-temperature stable absorber coatings for linear concentrating solar thermal power plants; Hochtemperaturstabile Absorberschichten fuer linear konzentrierende solarthermische Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, Christina

    2009-03-23

    This work describes the development of new absorber coatings for different applications - para-bolic trough and linear Fresnel collectors - and operating conditions - absorber in vacuum or in air. The demand for higher efficiencies of solar thermal power plants using parabolic trough technology results in higher temperatures in the collectors and on the absorber tubes. As heat losses increase strongly with increasing temperatures, the need for a lower emissivity of the absorber coating at constant absorptivity arises. The linear Fresnel application envisions ab-sorber tubes stable in air at high temperatures of about 450 C, which are to date commercially not available. This work comprises the theoretical background, the modeling and the fabrication of absorber tubes including the technology transfer to a production-size inline sputter coater. In annealing tests and accompanying optical measurements, degradation processes have been observed and specified more precisely by material characterization techniques. The simulations provided the capability of different materials used as potential IR-reflector. The highest selectivity can be achieved by applying silver which consequently has been chosen for the application in absorber coatings of the parabolic trough technology. Thin silver films how-ever need to be stabilized when used at high temperatures. Appropriate barrier layers as well as process and layer parameters were identified. A high selectivity was achieved and stability of the absorber coating for 1200 h at 500 C in vacuum has been demonstrated. For the application in air, silver was also analyzed as a potential IR-reflector. Even though the stability could be increased considerably, it nevertheless proved to be insufficient. The main factors influencing stability in a positive way are the use of higher quality polishing, additional barrier layers and adequate process parameters. This knowledge was applied for developing coatings which are stable in air at

  3. Preparation, morphology and thermal properties of electrospun fatty acid eutectics/polyethylene terephthalate form-stable phase change ultrafine composite fibers for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yibing; Ke Huizhen; Lin Liang; Fei Xiuzhu; Wei Qufu; Song Lei; Hu Yuan; Fong Hao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Electrospun binary fatty acid eutectics/PET ultrafine composite fibers were prepared. ► Fatty acid eutectics had appropriate phase transition temperature and heat enthalpy. ► Their morphological structures and thermal properties were different from each other. ► Composite fibers could be innovative form-stable PCMs for thermal energy storage. - Abstract: The ultrafine composite fibers based on the composites of binary fatty acid eutectics and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) with varied fatty acid eutectics/PET mass ratios (50/100, 70/100, 100/100 and 120/100) were fabricated using the technique of electrospinning as form-stable phase change materials (PCMs). The five binary fatty acid eutectics including LA–MA, LA–PA, MA–PA, MA–SA and PA–SA were prepared according to Schrader equation, and then were selected as an innovative type of solid–liquid PCMs. The results characterized by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) indicated that the prepared binary fatty acid eutectics with low phase transition temperatures and high heat enthalpies for climatic requirements were more suitable for applications in building energy storage. The structural morphologies, thermal energy storage and thermal stability properties of the ultrafine composite fibers were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. SEM images revealed that the electrospun binary fatty acid eutectics/PET ultrafine composite fibers possessed the wrinkled surfaces morphologies compared with the neat PET fibers with cylindrical shape and smooth surfaces; the grooves or ridges on the corrugated surface of the ultrafine composite fibers became more and more prominent with increasing fatty acid eutectics amount in the composite fibers. The fibers with the low mass ratio maintained good structural morphologies while the quality became worse when the mass ratio is too high (more than 100/100). DSC measurements

  4. Ultra Stable, Industrial Green Tailored Pulse Fiber Laser with Diffraction-limited Beam Quality for Advanced Micromachining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deladurantaye, P; Roy, V; Desbiens, L; Drolet, M; Taillon, Y; Galarneau, P

    2011-01-01

    We report on a novel pulsed fiber laser platform providing pulse shaping agility at high repetition rates and at a wavelength of 532 nm. The oscillator is based on the direct modulation of a seed laser diode followed by a chain of fiber amplifiers. Advanced Large Mode Area (LMA) fiber designs as well as proprietary techniques to mitigate non-linear effects enable output energy per pulse up to 100 μJ at 1064 nm with diffraction-limited beam quality and narrow line widths suitable for efficient frequency conversion. Ultra stable pulses with tailored pulse shapes were demonstrated in the green region of the spectrum at repetition rates higher than 200 kHz. Pulse durations between 2.5 ns and 640 ns are available, as well as pulse to pulse dynamic shape selection at repetition rates up to 1 MHz. The pulse energy stability at 532 nm is better than ± 1.5%, 3σ, over 10 000 pulses. Excellent beam characteristics were obtained. The M 2 parameter is lower than 1.05, the beam waist astigmatism and beam waist asymmetry are below 10% and below 8% respectively, with high stability over time. We foresee that the small spot size, high repetition rate and pulse tailoring capability of this platform will provide advantages to practitioners who are developing novel, advanced processes in many industrially important applications.

  5. Positron annihilation lifetime in float-zone n-type silicon irradiated by fast electrons: a thermally stable vacancy defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arutyunov, Nikolay; Emtsev, Vadim; Oganesyan, Gagik; Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard; Elsayed, Mohamed; Kozlovskii, Vitalii

    2016-01-01

    Temperature dependency of the average positron lifetime has been investigated for n-type float-zone silicon, n-FZ-Si(P), subjected to irradiation with 0.9 MeV electrons at RT. In the course of the isochronal annealing a new defect-related temperature-dependent pattern of the positron lifetime spectra has been revealed. Beyond the well known intervals of isochronal annealing of acceptor-like defects such as E-centers, divacancies and A-centers, the positron annihilation at the vacancy defects has been observed in the course of the isochronal annealing from ∝ 320 C up to the limit of reliable detecting of the defect-related positron annihilation lifetime at ≥ 500 C. These data correlate with the ones of recovery of the concentration of the charge carriers and their mobility which is found to continue in the course of annealing to ∝ 570 C; the annealing is accomplished at ∝650 C. A thermally stable complex consisting of the open vacancy volume and the phosphorus impurity atom, V_o_p-P, is suggested as a possible candidate for interpreting the data obtained by the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. An extended couple of semi-vacancies, 2V_s_-_e_x_t, as well as a relaxed inwards a couple of vacancies, 2V_i_n_w, are suggested as the open vacancy volume V_o_p to be probed with the positron. It is argued that a high thermal stability of the V_s_-_e_x_t PV_s_-_e_x_t (or V_i_n_wPV_i_n_w_.) configuration is contributed by the efficiency of PSi_5 bonding. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Core Thermal-Hydraulic Conceptual Design for the Advanced SFR Design Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chung Ho; Chang, Jin Wook; Yoo, Jae Woon; Song, Hoon; Choi, Sun Rock; Park, Won Seok; Kim, Sang Ji

    2010-01-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has developed the advanced SFR design concepts from 2007 to 2009 under the National longterm Nuclear R and D Program. Two types of core designs, 1,200 MWe breakeven and 600 MWe TRU burner core have been proposed and evaluated whether they meet the design requirements for the Gen IV technology goals of sustainability, safety and reliability, economics, proliferation resistance, and physical protection. In generally, the core thermal hydraulic design is performed during the conceptual design phase to efficiently extract the core thermal power by distributing the appropriate sodium coolant flow according to the power of each assembly because the conventional SFR core is composed of hundreds of ducted assemblies with hundreds of fuel rods. In carrying out the thermal and hydraulic design, special attention has to be paid to several performance parameters in order to assure proper performance and safety of fuel and core; the coolant boiling, fuel melting, structural integrity of the components, fuel-cladding eutectic melting, etc. The overall conceptual design procedure for core thermal and hydraulic conceptual design, i.e., flow grouping and peak pin temperature calculations, pressure drop calculations, steady-state and detailed sub-channel analysis is shown Figure 1. In the conceptual design phase, results of core thermal-hydraulic design for advanced design concepts, the core flow grouping, peak pin cladding mid-wall temperature, and pressure drop calculations, are summarized in this study

  7. Intracellular surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with thermally stable gold nanoflowers grown from Pt and Pd seeds

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Hyon Min

    2013-01-01

    SERS provides great sensitivity at low concentrations of analytes. SERS combined with near infrared (NIR)-resonant gold nanomaterials are important candidates for theranostic agents due to their combined extinction properties and sensing abilities stemming from the deep penetration of laser light in the NIR region. Here, highly branched gold nanoflowers (GNFs) grown from Pd and Pt seeds are prepared and their SERS properties are studied. The growth was performed at 80°C without stirring, and this high temperature growth method is assumed to provide great shape stability of sharp tips in GNFs. We found that seed size must be large enough (>30 nm in diameter) to induce the growth of those SERS-active and thermally stable GNFs. We also found that the addition of silver nitrate (AgNO3) is important to induce sharp tip growth and shape stability. Incubation with Hela cells indicates that GNFs are taken up and reside in the cytoplasm. SERS was observed in those cells incubated with 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen)-loaded GNFs. This journal is © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Intracellular surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with thermally stable gold nanoflowers grown from Pt and Pd seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyon Min; Deng, Lin; Khashab, Niveen M

    2013-05-21

    SERS provides great sensitivity at low concentrations of analytes. SERS combined with near infrared (NIR)-resonant gold nanomaterials are important candidates for theranostic agents due to their combined extinction properties and sensing abilities stemming from the deep penetration of laser light in the NIR region. Here, highly branched gold nanoflowers (GNFs) grown from Pd and Pt seeds are prepared and their SERS properties are studied. The growth was performed at 80 °C without stirring, and this high temperature growth method is assumed to provide great shape stability of sharp tips in GNFs. We found that seed size must be large enough (>30 nm in diameter) to induce the growth of those SERS-active and thermally stable GNFs. We also found that the addition of silver nitrate (AgNO3) is important to induce sharp tip growth and shape stability. Incubation with Hela cells indicates that GNFs are taken up and reside in the cytoplasm. SERS was observed in those cells incubated with 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen)-loaded GNFs.

  9. Origin of thermally stable ferroelectricity in a porous barium titanate thin film synthesized through block copolymer templating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Suzuki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A porous barium titanate (BaTiO3 thin film was chemically synthesized using a surfactant-assisted sol-gel method in which micelles of amphipathic diblock copolymers served as structure-directing agents. In the Raman spectrum of the porous BaTiO3 thin film, a peak corresponding to the ferroelectric tetragonal phase was observed at around 710 cm−1, and it remained stable at much higher temperature than the Curie temperature of bulk single-crystal BaTiO3 (∼130 °C. Measurements revealed that the ferroelectricity of the BaTiO3 thin film has high thermal stability. By analyzing high-resolution transmission electron microscope images of the BaTiO3 thin film by the fast Fourier transform mapping method, the spatial distribution of stress in the BaTiO3 framework was clearly visualized. Careful analysis also indicated that the porosity in the BaTiO3 thin film introduced anisotropic compressive stress, which deformed the crystals. The resulting elongated unit cell caused further displacement of the Ti4+ cation from the center of the lattice. This displacement increased the electric dipole moment of the BaTiO3 thin film, effectively enhancing its ferro(piezoelectricity.

  10. Thermally Stable Nanocrystalline Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme-Smith, Christopher Neil; Ooi, Shgh Woei; Bhadeshia, Harshad K. D. H.

    2017-10-01

    Two novel nanocrystalline steels were designed to withstand elevated temperatures without catastrophic microstructural changes. In the most successful alloy, a large quantity of nickel was added to stabilize austenite and allow a reduction in the carbon content. A 50 kg cast of the novel alloy was produced and used to verify the formation of nanocrystalline bainite. Synchrotron X-ray diffractometry using in situ heating showed that austenite was able to survive more than 1 hour at 773 K (500 °C) and subsequent cooling to ambient temperature. This is the first reported nanocrystalline steel with high-temperature capability.

  11. CHF predictor derived from a 3D thermal-hydraulic code and an advanced statistical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banner, D.; Aubry, S.

    2004-01-01

    A rod bundle CHF predictor has been determined by using a 3D code (THYC) to compute local thermal-hydraulic conditions at the boiling crisis location. These local parameters have been correlated to the critical heat flux by using an advanced statistical method based on spline functions. The main characteristics of the predictor are presented in conjunction with a detailed analysis of predictions (P/M ratio) in order to prove that the usual safety methodology can be applied with such a predictor. A thermal-hydraulic design criterion is obtained (1.13) and the predictor is compared with the WRB-1 correlation. (author)

  12. Application of advanced thermal management technologies to the ATLAS SCT barrel module baseboards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apsimon, R.J. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Batchelor, L.E. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Beck, G.A. [Department of Physics, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Canard, P. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Carter, A.A. [Department of Physics, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: a.a.carter@qmul.ac.uk; Carter, J.R. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Davis, V.R. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Oliveira, R. de [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gibson, M.D. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Hominal, L. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ilie, D.M. [Department of Physics, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Ilie, S.D. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Leboube, C.G. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mistry, J. [Department of Physics, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Morin, J. [Department of Physics, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Morris, J.; Nagai, K. [Department of Physics, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Sexton, I.; Thery, X. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Tyndel, M. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 OQX (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    The paper describes the application of advanced thermal management technologies to the design and production of the barrel module baseboard of the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The barrel modules contain silicon microstrip sensors and readout ASICs for tracking charged particles, and the baseboard forms the central element of the module, providing both its necessary thermal management and its mechanical structure. The baseboard requirements and specifications are given, and design and fabrication details are described. The properties of the 3000 baseboards successfully produced for the SCT are summarised.

  13. To MARS and Beyond with Nuclear Power - Design Concept of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Chang, Soon Heung

    2013-01-01

    The President Park of ROK has also expressed support for space program promotion, praising the success of NARO as evidence of a positive outlook. These events hint a strong signal that ROK's space program will be accelerated by the national eager desire. In this national eager desire for space program, the policymakers and the aerospace engineers need to pay attention to the advanced nuclear technology of ROK that is set to a major world nuclear energy country, even exporting the technology. The space nuclear application is a very much attractive option because its energy density is the most enormous among available energy sources in space. This paper presents the design concept of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket (KANuTER) that is one of the advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine developing in Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) for space application. Solar system exploration relying on CRs suffers from long trip time and high cost. In this regard, nuclear propulsion is a very attractive option for that because of higher performance and already demonstrated technology. Although ROK was a late entrant into elite global space club, its prospect as a space racer is very bright because of the national eager desire and its advanced technology. Especially it is greatly meaningful that ROK has potential capability to launch its nuclear technology into space as a global nuclear energy leader and a soaring space adventurer. In this regard, KANuTER will be a kind of bridgehead for Korean space nuclear application

  14. To MARS and Beyond with Nuclear Power - Design Concept of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The President Park of ROK has also expressed support for space program promotion, praising the success of NARO as evidence of a positive outlook. These events hint a strong signal that ROK's space program will be accelerated by the national eager desire. In this national eager desire for space program, the policymakers and the aerospace engineers need to pay attention to the advanced nuclear technology of ROK that is set to a major world nuclear energy country, even exporting the technology. The space nuclear application is a very much attractive option because its energy density is the most enormous among available energy sources in space. This paper presents the design concept of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket (KANuTER) that is one of the advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine developing in Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) for space application. Solar system exploration relying on CRs suffers from long trip time and high cost. In this regard, nuclear propulsion is a very attractive option for that because of higher performance and already demonstrated technology. Although ROK was a late entrant into elite global space club, its prospect as a space racer is very bright because of the national eager desire and its advanced technology. Especially it is greatly meaningful that ROK has potential capability to launch its nuclear technology into space as a global nuclear energy leader and a soaring space adventurer. In this regard, KANuTER will be a kind of bridgehead for Korean space nuclear application.

  15. ATHENA [Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Energy Network Analyzer] solutions to developmental assessment problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, K.E.; Ransom, V.H.; Roth, P.A.

    1987-03-01

    The ATHENA (Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Energy Network Analyzer) code has been developed to perform transient simulation of the thermal hydraulic systems that may be found in fusion reactors, space reactors, and other advanced systems. As an assessment of current capability the code was applied to a number of physical problems, both conceptual and actual experiments. Results indicate that the numerical solution to the basic conservation equations is technically sound, and that generally good agreement can be obtained when modeling relevant hydrodynamic experiments. The assessment also demonstrates basic fusion system modeling capability and verifies compatibility of the code with both CDC and CRAY mainframes. Areas where improvements could be made include constitutive modeling, which describes the interfacial exchange term. 13 refs., 84 figs

  16. Functionally gradient materials for thermal barrier coatings in advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; Barmak, K.; Chan, H.M. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    New designs for advanced gas turbine engines for power production are required to have higher operating temperatures in order to increase efficiency. However, elevated temperatures will increase the magnitude and severity of environmental degradation of critical turbine components (e.g. combustor parts, turbine blades, etc{hor_ellipsis}). To offset this problem, the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has become popular by allowing an increase in maximum inlet temperatures for an operating engine. Although thermal barrier technology is over thirty years old, the principle failure mechanism is the spallation of the ceramic coating at or near the ceramic/bond coat interface. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a coating that combines the thermal barrier qualities of the ceramic layer and the corrosion protection by the metallic bond coat without the detrimental effects associated with the localization of the ceramic/metal interface to a single plane.

  17. On Special Optical Modes and Thermal Issues in Advanced Gravitational Wave Interferometric Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinet Jean-Yves

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of present ground-based gravitational wave antennas is too low to detect many events per year. It has, therefore, been planned for years to build advanced detectors allowing actual astrophysical observations and investigations. In such advanced detectors, one major issue is to increase the laser power in order to reduce shot noise. However, this is useless if the thermal noise remains at the current level in the 100 Hz spectral region, where mirrors are the main contributors. Moreover, increasing the laser power gives rise to various spurious thermal effects in the same mirrors. The main goal of the present study is to discuss these issues versus the transverse structure of the readout beam, in order to allow comparison. A number of theoretical studies and experiments have been carried out, regarding thermal noise and thermal effects. We do not discuss experimental problems, but rather focus on some theoretical results in this context about arbitrary order Laguerre–Gauss beams, and other “exotic” beams.

  18. Thermal and Irradiation Creep Behavior of a Titanium Aluminide in Advanced Nuclear Plant Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Per; Chen, Jiachao; Hoffelner, Wolfgang

    2009-12-01

    Titanium aluminides are well-accepted elevated temperature materials. In conventional applications, their poor oxidation resistance limits the maximum operating temperature. Advanced reactors operate in nonoxidizing environments. This could enlarge the applicability of these materials to higher temperatures. The behavior of a cast gamma-alpha-2 TiAl was investigated under thermal and irradiation conditions. Irradiation creep was studied in beam using helium implantation. Dog-bone samples of dimensions 10 × 2 × 0.2 mm3 were investigated in a temperature range of 300 °C to 500 °C under irradiation, and significant creep strains were detected. At temperatures above 500 °C, thermal creep becomes the predominant mechanism. Thermal creep was investigated at temperatures up to 900 °C without irradiation with samples of the same geometry. The results are compared with other materials considered for advanced fission applications. These are a ferritic oxide-dispersion-strengthened material (PM2000) and the nickel-base superalloy IN617. A better thermal creep behavior than IN617 was found in the entire temperature range. Up to 900 °C, the expected 104 hour stress rupture properties exceeded even those of the ODS alloy. The irradiation creep performance of the titanium aluminide was comparable with the ODS steels. For IN617, no irradiation creep experiments were performed due to the expected low irradiation resistance (swelling, helium embrittlement) of nickel-base alloys.

  19. Fuzzy logic-based advanced on–off control for thermal comfort in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chang-Soon; Hyun, Chang-Ho; Park, Mignon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fuzzy logic-based advanced on–off control is proposed. • An anticipative control mechanism is implemented by using fuzzy theory. • Novel thermal analysis program including solar irradiation as a factor is developed. • The proposed controller solves over-heating and under-heating thermal problems. • Solar energy compensation method is applied to compensate for the solar energy. - Abstract: In this paper, an advanced on–off control method based on fuzzy logic is proposed for maintaining thermal comfort in residential buildings. Due to the time-lag of the control systems and the late building thermal response, an anticipative control mechanism is required to reduce energy loss and thermal discomfort. The proposed controller is implemented based on an on–off controller combined with a fuzzy algorithm. On–off control was chosen over other conventional control methods because of its structural simplicity. However, because conventional on–off control has a fixed operating range and a limited ability for improvements in control performance, fuzzy theory can be applied to overcome these limitations. Furthermore, a fuzzy-based solar energy compensation algorithm can be applied to the proposed controller to compensate for the energy gained from solar radiation according to the time of day. Simulations were conducted to compare the proposed controller with a conventional on–off controller under identical external conditions such as outdoor temperature and solar energy; these simulations were carried out by using a previously reported thermal analysis program that was modified to consider such external conditions. In addition, experiments were conducted in a residential building called Green Home Plus, in which hydronic radiant floor heating is used; in these experiments, the proposed system performed better than a system employing conventional on–off control methods

  20. Task 4 supporting technology. Part 2: Detailed test plan for thermal seals. Thermal seals evaluation, improvement and test. CAN8-1, Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), advanced technology demonstrator: X-33. Leading edge and seals thermal protection system technology demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenson, P. A.; Lu, Tina

    1995-01-01

    The objective is to develop the advanced thermal seals to a technology readiness level (TRL) of 6 to support the rapid turnaround time and low maintenance requirements of the X-33 and the future reusable launch vehicle (RLV). This program is divided into three subtasks: (1) orbiter thermal seals operation history review; (2) material, process, and design improvement; and (3) fabrication and evaluation of the advanced thermal seals.

  1. Transmutation of Minor Actinide in well thermalized neutron field and application of advanced neutron source (ANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Tomohiko; Hirakawa, Naohiro

    1995-01-01

    Transmutation of Minor Actinide (MA) in a well thermalized neutron field was studied. Since MA nuclides have large effective cross sections in the well thermalized neutron field, the transmutation in the well thermalized neutron field has an advantage of high transmutation rate. However, the transmutation rate largely decreases by accumulation of 246 Cm when MA is transmuted only in the well thermalized neutron field for a long period. An acceleration method of burn-up of 246 Cm was studied. High transmutation rate can be obtained by providing a neutron field with high flux in the energy region between 1 and 100 eV. Two stage transmutation using the well thermalized neutron field and this field can transmute MA rapidly. The applicability of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) to the transmutation of MA was examined for a typical MA with the composition in the high-level waste generated in the conventional PWR. If the ANS is applied without changing the fuel inventory, the amount of MA which corresponds to that produced by a conventional 1,175 MWe PWR in one year can be transmuted by the ANS in one year. Furthermore, the amount of the residual can be reduced to about 1g (10 -5 of the initial MA weight) by continuing the transmutation for 5 years owing to the two stage transmutation. (author)

  2. High-temperature thermal storage systems for advanced solar receivers materials selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D. F.; Devan, J. H.; Howell, M.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced space power systems that use solar energy and Brayton or Stirling heat engines require thermal energy storage (TES) systems to operate continuously through periods of shade. The receiver storage units, key elements in both Brayton and Stirling systems, are designed to use the latent heat of fusion of phase-change materials (PCMs). The power systems under current consideration for near-future National Aeronautics and Space Administration space missions require working fluid temperatures in the 1100 to 1400 K range. The PCMs under current investigation that gave liquid temperatures within this range are the fluoride family of salts. However, these salts have low thermal conductivity, which causes large temperature gradients in the storage systems. Improvements can be obtained, however, with the use of thermal conductivity enhancements or metallic PCMs. In fact, if suitable containment materials can be found, the use of metallic PCMs would virtually eliminate the orbit associated temperature variations in TES systems. The high thermal conductivity and generally low volume change on melting of germanium and alloys based on silicon make them attractive for storage of thermal energy in space power systems. An approach to solving the containment problem, involving both chemical and physical compatibility, preparation of NiSi/NiSi2, and initial results for containment of germanium and NiSi/NiSi2, are presented.

  3. Selection of high temperature thermal energy storage materials for advanced solar dynamic space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Dovie E.; Coles-Hamilton, Carolyn; Juhasz, Albert

    1987-01-01

    Under the direction of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Technology (OAST), the NASA Lewis Research Center has initiated an in-house thermal energy storage program to identify combinations of phase change thermal energy storage media for use with a Brayton and Stirling Advanced Solar Dynamic (ASD) space power system operating between 1070 and 1400 K. A study has been initiated to determine suitable combinations of thermal energy storage (TES) phase change materials (PCM) that result in the smallest and lightest weight ASD power system possible. To date the heats of fusion of several fluoride salt mixtures with melting points greater than 1025 K have been verified experimentally. The study has indicated that these salt systems produce large ASD systems because of their inherent low thermal conductivity and low density. It is desirable to have PCMs with high densities and high thermal conductivities. Therefore, alternate phase change materials based on metallic alloy systems are also being considered as possible TES candidates for future ASD space power systems.

  4. Evaluation of thermal energy storage materials for advanced compressed air energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaloudek, F.R.; Wheeler, K.R.; Marksberry, L.

    1983-03-01

    Advanced Compressed-Air Energy Storage (ACAS) plants have the near-term potential to reduce the fuel consumption of compressed-air plants from 33 to 100%, depending upon their design. Fuel is saved by storing some or all of the heat of compression as sensible heat which is subsequently used to reheat the compressed air prior to expansion in the turbine generator. The thermal storage media required for this application must be low cost and durable. The objective of this project was to screen thermal store materials based on their thermal cycle durability, particulate formation and corrosion resistant characteristics. The materials investigated were iron oxide pellets, Denstone pebbles, cast-iron balls, and Dresser basalt rock. The study specifically addressed the problems of particle formation and thermal ratcheting of the materials during thermal cycling and the chemical attack on the materials by the high temperature and moist environment in an ACAS heat storage bed. The results indicate that from the durability standpoint Denstone, cast iron containing 27% or more chromium, and crushed Dresser basalt would possibly stand up to ACAS conditions. If costs are considered in addition to durability and performance, the crushed Dresser basalt would probably be the most desirable heat storage material for adiabatic and hybrid ACAS plants, and more in-depth longer term thermal cycling and materials testing of Dresser basalt is recommended. Also recommended is the redesign and costing analysis of both the hybrid and adiabatic ACAS facilities based upon the use of Dresser basalt as the thermal store material.

  5. Advanced thermal management of a solar cell by a nano-coated heat pipe plate: A thermal assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yanping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The nano-coated heat pipe plate provides sufficient cooling energy to the solar cell. • The induced solar cell temperature is below 40 °C in normal range of solar irradiance. • The evaporative heat flux is tuneable and varies with the change of operating conditions. • Additional cooling at the condenser is helpful to improve the heat removal of the device. - Abstract: The significant temperature effect on solar cells results in loss of photovoltaic (PV) efficiency by up to 20–25%, which may over-negate the efforts in technology development for promoting PV efficiency. This motivates studies in thermal management for solar cells. This study concerns the thermal assessment of an advanced system composed by a solar cell and a nano-coated heat pipe plate for thermal management. Solar cell temperature and the corresponding evaporative heat flux are evaluated based on a conjugated heat transfer model. It indicates that the solar cell can be cooled down to be below 40 °C and suffers no temperature effect due to the use of the heat pipe plate. The heat pipe plate can provide sufficient cooling to the solar cell under different solar irradiance. The analytical and experimental results show that the maximum evaporative heat flux of the current heat pipe plate is around 450 W/m"2. However, the practical heat removal flux at the condenser is 390 W/m"2. The loss of cooling energy is due to the gathered vapour at the condenser section, which prevents the liquid-vapour circulation inside the vacuum chamber of the device. By using additional cooling strategies (i.e. heat sink, PCMs, water jacket) at the condenser section, the heat removal ability can be further improved.

  6. High thermal efficiency, radiation-based advanced fusion reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taussig, R.T.

    1977-04-01

    A new energy conversion scheme is explored in this study which has the potential of achieving thermal cycle efficiencies high enough (e.g., 60 to 70 percent) to make advanced fuel fusion reactors attractive net power producers. In this scheme, a radiation boiler admits a large fraction of the x-ray energy from the fusion plasma through a low-Z first wall into a high-Z working fluid where the energy is absorbed at temperatures of 2000 0 K to 3000 0 K. The hot working fluid expands in an energy exchanger against a cooler, light gas, transferring most of the work of expansion from one gas to the other. By operating the radiation/boiler/energy exchanger as a combined cycle, full advantage of the high temperatures can be taken to achieve high thermal efficiency. The existence of a mature combined cycle technology from the development of space power plants gives the advanced fuel fusion reactor application a firm engineering base from which it can grow rapidly, if need be. What is more important, the energy exchanger essentially removes the peak temperature limitations previously set by heat engine inlet conditions, so that much higher combined cycle efficiencies can be reached. This scheme is applied to the case of an advanced fuel proton-boron 11 fusion reactor using a single reheat topping and bottoming cycle. A wide variety of possible working fluid combinations are considered and particular cycle calculations for the thermal efficiency are presented. The operation of the radiation boiler and energy exchanger are both described. Material compatibility, x-ray absorption, thermal hydraulics, structural integrity, and other technical features of these components are analyzed to make a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of this concept

  7. Advanced thermal barrier coatings for operation in high hydrogen content fueled gas turbines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampath, Sanjay [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2015-04-02

    The Center for Thermal Spray Research (CTSR) at Stony Brook University in partnership with its industrial Consortium for Thermal Spray Technology is investigating science and technology related to advanced metallic alloy bond coats and ceramic thermal barrier coatings for applications in the hot section of gasified coal-based high hydrogen turbine power systems. In conjunction with our OEM partners (GE and Siemens) and through strategic partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (materials degradation group and high temperature materials laboratory), a systems approach, considering all components of the TBC (multilayer ceramic top coat, metallic bond coat & superalloy substrate) is being taken during multi-layered coating design, process development and subsequent environmental testing. Recent advances in process science and advanced in situ thermal spray coating property measurement enabled within CTSR has been incorporated for full-field enhancement of coating and process reliability. The development of bond coat processing during this program explored various aspects of processing and microstructure and linked them to performance. The determination of the bond coat material was carried out during the initial stages of the program. Based on tests conducted both at Stony Brook University as well as those carried out at ORNL it was determined that the NiCoCrAlYHfSi (Amdry) bond coats had considerable benefits over NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Since the studies were also conducted at different cycling frequencies, thereby addressing an associated need for performance under different loading conditions, the Amdry bond coat was selected as the material of choice going forward in the program. With initial investigations focused on the fabrication of HVOF bond coats and the performance of TBC under furnace cycle tests , several processing strategies were developed. Two-layered HVOF bond coats were developed to render optimal balance of density and surface roughness

  8. Deep Space Thermal Cycle Testing of Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility - Imaging (AXAF-I) Solar Array Panels Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sisco, Jimmy

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility - Imaging (AXAF-I) satellite will be exposed to thermal conditions beyond normal experience flight temperatures due to the satellite's high elliptical orbital flight...

  9. Enhanced linear and nonlinear optical properties of thermally stable ZnO/poly(styrene)–poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeeju, P.P.; Jayalekshmi, S.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Sudheesh, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highly transparent and thermally stable zinc oxide (ZnO)/poly(styrene)–poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS–PMMA) nanocomposite films have been deposited on glass substrates, from the ZnO incorporated (PS–PMMA) solutions in toluene, using spin coating technique. A chemical route at room temperature is used to synthesize the ZnO nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscope and high-resolution transmission electron microscope images show that the ZnO nanoparticles are of size around 10 nm. The composite films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Ultraviolet–visible–Near Infrared (UV–vis–NIR) spectroscopy, Thermo-gravimetric analysis, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and Z-scan technique. From the UV–vis–NIR spectra it is observed that the ZnO/PS–PMMA nanocomposite films with 10 wt.% ZnO content exhibit excellent shielding property in the UV region and, high transparency in the visible region. The PL spectrum of the composite films is different from that of ZnO and PS–PMMA blend and exhibits an excitonic emission peak at ∼ 375 nm. The optical absorptive nonlinearity in the nanocomposite films is investigated using open aperture Z-scan technique. The results indicate optical limiting type nonlinearity in the films due to two photon absorption. A transmittance minimum of around 0.25 has been observed in the ZnO/PS–PMMA nanocomposite films which is much lower compared to that in ZnO/PMMA and ZnO/PS nanocomposite films. The ZnO/PS–PMMA nanocomposite films also show a self-defocusing type negative nonlinear refraction in closed aperture Z-scan experiment. These nanocomposite films extend ample scope of applications as excellent optical limiters and efficient UV protectors. - Highlights: ► Transparent, ZnO/poly(styrene)–poly(methyl methacrylate) composite films are prepared. ► The nanocomposite films with 10 wt.% ZnO content exhibit good UV-shielding property.

  10. [Difference of water relationships of poplar trees in Zhangbei County, Hebei, China based on stable isotope and thermal dissipation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Bo; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jin Song; He, Fang Jie; Sun, Shou Jia

    2017-07-18

    The water sources and transpiration of poplar trees in Zhangbei County were measured using stable hydrogen isotope and thermal dissipation method. The differences in water relationships between dieback and non-dieback poplar trees were analyzed. The results showed that the dieback trees mainly used shallow water from 0-30 cm soil layer during growing season while the non-dieback trees mainly used water from 30-80 cm soil layer. There was a significant difference in water source between them. The non-dieback trees used more water from middle and deep soil layers than that of the dieback trees during the dry season. The percentage of poplar trees using water from 0-30 cm soil layer increased in wet season, and the increase of dieback trees was higher than that of non-dieback trees. The contributions of water from 30-180 cm soil layer of dieback and non-dieback trees both decreased in wet season. The sap flow rate of non-dieback trees was higher than that of dieback trees. There was a similar variation tend of sap flow rate between dieback and non-dieback trees in different weather conditions, but the start time of sap flow of non-dieback trees was earlier than that of dieback trees. Correlation analysis showed that the sap flow rate of either dieback or non-dieback poplar trees strongly related to soil temperature, wind speed, photosynthetically active radiation, relative humidity and air temperature. The sap flow rate of die-back poplar trees strongly negatively related to soil temperature and relative humidity, and strongly positively related to the other factors. The sap flow rate of non-dieback poplar trees only strongly negatively related to relative humidity but positively related to the other factors. The results revealed transpiration of both poplar trees was easily affected by environmental factors. The water consumption of dieback trees was less than non-dieback trees because the cumulative sap flow amount of dieback trees was lower. Reduced transpiration

  11. Enhanced linear and nonlinear optical properties of thermally stable ZnO/poly(styrene)–poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeeju, P.P., E-mail: jeejupp@gmail.com [Division for Research in Advanced Materials, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682 022, Kerala (India); Jayalekshmi, S., E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in [Division for Research in Advanced Materials, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682 022, Kerala (India); Chandrasekharan, K.; Sudheesh, P. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Calicut, Kerala (India)

    2013-03-01

    Highly transparent and thermally stable zinc oxide (ZnO)/poly(styrene)–poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS–PMMA) nanocomposite films have been deposited on glass substrates, from the ZnO incorporated (PS–PMMA) solutions in toluene, using spin coating technique. A chemical route at room temperature is used to synthesize the ZnO nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscope and high-resolution transmission electron microscope images show that the ZnO nanoparticles are of size around 10 nm. The composite films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Ultraviolet–visible–Near Infrared (UV–vis–NIR) spectroscopy, Thermo-gravimetric analysis, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and Z-scan technique. From the UV–vis–NIR spectra it is observed that the ZnO/PS–PMMA nanocomposite films with 10 wt.% ZnO content exhibit excellent shielding property in the UV region and, high transparency in the visible region. The PL spectrum of the composite films is different from that of ZnO and PS–PMMA blend and exhibits an excitonic emission peak at ∼ 375 nm. The optical absorptive nonlinearity in the nanocomposite films is investigated using open aperture Z-scan technique. The results indicate optical limiting type nonlinearity in the films due to two photon absorption. A transmittance minimum of around 0.25 has been observed in the ZnO/PS–PMMA nanocomposite films which is much lower compared to that in ZnO/PMMA and ZnO/PS nanocomposite films. The ZnO/PS–PMMA nanocomposite films also show a self-defocusing type negative nonlinear refraction in closed aperture Z-scan experiment. These nanocomposite films extend ample scope of applications as excellent optical limiters and efficient UV protectors. - Highlights: ► Transparent, ZnO/poly(styrene)–poly(methyl methacrylate) composite films are prepared. ► The nanocomposite films with 10 wt.% ZnO content exhibit good UV-shielding property.

  12. Experimental investigation of thermal limits in parallel plate configuration for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siman-Tov, M.; Felde, D.K.; Kaminaga, M.; Yoder, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR) is currently being designed to become the world's highest-flux, steady-state, thermal neutron source for scientific experiments. Highly subcooled, heavy-water coolant flows vertically upward at a very high velocity of 25 m/s through parallel aluminum fuel-plates. The core has average and peak heat fluxes of 5.9 and 12 MW/m 2 , respectively. In this configuration, both flow excursion (FE) and true critical heat flux (CHF), represent potential thermal limitations. The availability of experimental data for both FE and true CHF at the conditions applicable to the ANSR is very limited. A Thermal Hydraulic Test Loop (THTL) facility was designed and built to simulate a full-length coolant subchannel of the core, allowing experimental determination of both thermal limits under the expected ANSR T/H conditions. A series of FE tests with water flowing vertically upward was completed over a nominal heat flux range of 6 to 14 MW/m 2 and a corresponding velocity range of 8 to 21 m/s. Both the exit pressure (1.7 MPa) and inlet temperature (45 degrees C) were maintained constant for these tests, while the loop was operated in a ''stiff''(constant flow) mode. Limited experiments were also conducted at 12 MW/m 2 using a ''soft'' mode (near constant pressure-drop) for actual FE burnout tests and using a ''stiff' mode for true CHF tests, to compare with the original FE experiments

  13. Development of steady thermal-hydraulic analysis code for China advanced research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Wenxi; Qiu Suizheng; Guo Yun; Su Guanghui; Jia Dounan; Liu Tiancai; Zhang Jianwei

    2006-01-01

    A multi-channel model steady-state thermal-hydraulic analysis code was developed for China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR). By simulating the whole reactor core, the detailed flow distribution in the core was obtained. The result shows that the structure size plays the most important role in flow distribution and the influence of core power could be neglected under single-phase flow. The temperature field of fuel element under unsymmetrical cooling condition was also obtained, which is necessary for the further study such as stress analysis etc. of the fuel element. At the same time, considering the hot channel effect including engineering factor and nuclear factor, calculation of hot channel was carried out and it is proved that all thermal-hydraulic parameters accord with the Safety Regulation of CARR. (authors)

  14. Thermal Testing and Model Correlation for Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter Instrument (ATLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) part of the Ice Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite 2 (ICESat-2) is an upcoming Earth Science mission focusing on the effects of climate change. The flight instrument passed all environmental testing at GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) and is now ready to be shipped to the spacecraft vendor for integration and testing. This topic covers the analysis leading up to the test setup for ATLAS thermal testing as well as model correlation to flight predictions. Test setup analysis section will include areas where ATLAS could not meet flight like conditions and what were the limitations. Model correlation section will walk through changes that had to be made to the thermal model in order to match test results. The correlated model will then be integrated with spacecraft model for on-orbit predictions.

  15. Diffusion, Thermal Properties and Chemical Compatibilities of Select MAX Phases with Materials For Advanced Nuclear Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsoum, Michel [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bentzel, Grady [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tallman, Darin J. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sindelar, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcia-Diaz, Brenda [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hoffman, Elizabeth [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-04

    The demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron irradiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ ºC) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the chemical compatibility of select MAX with potential materials that are important for nuclear energy, as well as to measure the thermal transport properties as a function of neutron irradiation. The chemical counterparts chosen for this work are: pyrolytic carbon, SiC, U, Pd, FLiBe, Pb-Bi and Na, the latter 3 in the molten state. The thermal conductivities and heat capacities of non-irradiated MAX phases will be measured.

  16. Thermal barrier coatings issues in advanced land-based gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, W. P.; Lee, W. Y.; Wright, I. G.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) program is aimed at forecasting the development of a new generation of land-based gas turbine systems with overall efficiencies significantly beyond those of current state-of-the-art machines, as well as greatly increased times between inspection and refurbishment, improved environmental impact, and decreased cost. The proposed duty cycle of ATS turbines will require the use of different criteria in the design of the materials for the critical hot gas path components. In particular, thermal barrier coatings will be an essential feature of the hot gas path components in these machines. While such coatings are routinely used in high-performance aircraft engines and are becoming established in land-based turbines, the requirements of the ATS turbine application are sufficiently different that significant improvements in thermal barrier coating technology will be necessary. In particular, it appears that thermal barrier coatings will have to function on all airfoil sections of the first stage vanes and blades to provide the significant temperature reduction required. In contrast, such coatings applied to the blades and vances of advanced aircraft engines are intended primarily to reduce air cooling requirements and extend component lifetime; failure of those coatings can be tolerated without jeopardizing mechanical or corrosion performance. A major difference is that in ATS turbines these components will be totally reliant on thermal barrier coatings which will, therefore, need to be highly reliable even over the leading edges of first stage blades. Obviously, the ATS program provides a very challenging opportunity for TBC's, and involves some significant opportunities to extend this technology.

  17. Improvement of environmental aspects of thermal power plant operation by advanced control concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulandrić Robert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, as formulated in the Kyoto Protocol, imposes the need for improving environmental aspects of existing thermal power plants operation. Improvements can be reached either by efficiency increment or by implementation of emission reduction measures. Investments in refurbishment of existing plant components or in plant upgrading by flue gas desulphurization, by primary and secondary measures of nitrogen oxides reduction, or by biomass co-firing, are usually accompanied by modernisation of thermal power plant instrumentation and control system including sensors, equipment diagnostics and advanced controls. Impact of advanced control solutions implementation depends on technical characteristics and status of existing instrumentation and control systems as well as on design characteristics and actual conditions of installed plant components. Evaluation of adequacy of implementation of advanced control concepts is especially important in Western Balkan region where thermal power plants portfolio is rather diversified in terms of size, type and commissioning year and where generally poor maintenance and lack of investments in power generation sector resulted in high greenhouse gases emissions and low efficiency of plants in operation. This paper is intended to present possibilities of implementation of advanced control concepts, and particularly those based on artificial intelligence, in selected thermal power plants in order to increase plant efficiency and to lower pollutants emissions and to comply with environmental quality standards prescribed in large combustion plant directive. [Acknowledgements. This paper has been created within WBalkICT - Supporting Common RTD actions in WBCs for developing Low Cost and Low Risk ICT based solutions for TPPs Energy Efficiency increasing, SEE-ERA.NET plus project in cooperation among partners from IPA SA - Romania, University of Zagreb - Croatia and Vinca

  18. Advanced storage concepts for solar thermal systems in low energy buildings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Andersen, Elsa; Schultz, Joergen M.

    2006-04-07

    The aim of Task 32 is to develop new and advanced heat storage systems which are economic and technical suitable as long-term heat storage systems for solar heating plants with a high degree of coverage. The project is international and Denmark's participation has focused on Subtask A, C, and D. In Subtask A Denmark has contributed to a status report about heat storage systems. In Subtask C Denmark has focused on liquid thermal storage tanks based on NaCH{sub 3}COO?3H{sub 2}O with a melting point of 58 deg. C. Theoretical and experimental tests have been conducted in order to establish optimum conditions for storage design. In Subtask D theoretical and experimental tests of optimum designs for advanced water tanks for solar heating plants for combined space heating and domestic hot water have been conducted. (BA)

  19. Structural and catalytic characterization of a thermally stable and acid-stable variant of human carbonic anhydrase II containing an engineered disulfide bond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, Christopher D.; Habibzadegan, Andrew [University of Florida, PO Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Tu, Chingkuang; Silverman, David N. [University of Florida, PO Box 100267, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); McKenna, Robert, E-mail: rmckenna@ufl.edu [University of Florida, PO Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The X-ray crystallographic structure of the disulfide-containing HCAII (dsHCAII) has been solved to 1.77 Å resolution and revealed that successful oxidation of the cysteine bond was achieved while also retaining desirable active-site geometry. The carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a family of mostly zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of CO{sub 2} to bicarbonate and a proton. Recently, there has been industrial interest in utilizing CAs as biocatalysts for carbon sequestration and biofuel production. The conditions used in these processes, however, result in high temperatures and acidic pH. This unfavorable environment results in rapid destabilization and loss of catalytic activity in CAs, ultimately resulting in cost-inefficient high-maintenance operation of the system. In order to negate these detrimental industrial conditions, cysteines at residues 23 (Ala23Cys) and 203 (Leu203Cys) were engineered into a wild-type variant of human CA II (HCAII) containing the mutation Cys206Ser. The X-ray crystallographic structure of the disulfide-containing HCAII (dsHCAII) was solved to 1.77 Å resolution and revealed that successful oxidation of the cysteine bond was achieved while also retaining desirable active-site geometry. Kinetic studies utilizing the measurement of {sup 18}O-labeled CO{sub 2} by mass spectrometry revealed that dsHCAII retained high catalytic efficiency, and differential scanning calorimetry showed acid stability and thermal stability that was enhanced by up to 14 K compared with native HCAII. Together, these studies have shown that dsHCAII has properties that could be used in an industrial setting to help to lower costs and improve the overall reaction efficiency.

  20. High Thermal Conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond Composite Liner for Advanced Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar; Greene, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    NARloy-Z (Cu-3Ag-0.5Zr) alloy is state-of-the-art combustion chamber liner material used in liquid propulsion engines such as the RS-68 and RS-25. The performance of future liquid propulsion systems can be improved significantly by increasing the heat transfer through the combustion chamber liner. Prior work1 done at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has shown that the thermal conductivity of NARloy-Z alloy can be improved significantly by embedding high thermal conductivity diamond particles in the alloy matrix to form NARloy-Z-diamond composite (fig. 1). NARloy-Z-diamond composite containing 40vol% diamond showed 69% higher thermal conductivity than NARloy-Z. It is 24% lighter than NARloy-Z and hence the density normalized thermal conductivity is 120% better. These attributes will improve the performance and life of the advanced rocket engines significantly. The research work consists of (a) developing design properties (thermal and mechanical) of NARloy-Z-D composite, (b) fabrication of net shape subscale combustion chamber liner, and (c) hot-fire testing of the liner to test performance. Initially, NARloy-Z-D composite slabs were made using the Field Assisted Sintering Technology (FAST) for the purpose of determining design properties. In the next step, a cylindrical shape was fabricated to demonstrate feasibility (fig. 3). The liner consists of six cylinders which are sintered separately and then stacked and diffusion bonded to make the liner (fig. 4). The liner will be heat treated, finish-machined, and assembled into a combustion chamber and hot-fire tested in the MSFC test facility (TF 115) to determine perform.

  1. Preparation and thermal properties of form-stable palmitic acid/active aluminum oxide composites as phase change materials for latent heat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Guiyin; Li, Hui; Cao, Lei; Shan, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Form-stable palmitic acid (PA)/active aluminum oxide composites as phase change materials were prepared by adsorbing liquid palmitic acid into active aluminum oxide. In the composites, the palmitic acid was used as latent heat storage materials, and the active aluminum oxide was used as supporting material. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) were used to determine the chemical structure, crystalloid phase and microstructure of the composites, respectively. The thermal properties and thermal stability were investigated by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a thermogravimetry analyzer (TGA). The FT-IR analyses results indicated that there is no chemical interaction between the palmitic acid and active aluminum oxide. The SEM results showed that the palmitic acid was well adsorbed into porous network of the active aluminum oxide. The DSC results indicated that the composites melt at 60.25 °C with a latent heat of 84.48 kJ kg −1 and solidify at 56.86 °C with a latent heat of 78.79 kJ kg −1 when the mass ratio of the PA to active aluminum oxide is 0.9:1. Compared with that of the PA, the melting and solidifying time of the composites CPCM5 was reduced by 20.6% and 21.4% because of the increased heat transfer rate through EG addition. The TGA results showed that the active aluminum oxide can improve the thermal stability of the composites. -- Highlights: ► Form-stable PA/active aluminum oxide composites as PCMs were prepared. ► Chemical structure, crystalloid phase and microstructure of composites were determined. ► Thermal properties and thermal stability of the composites were investigated. ► Expanded graphite can improve thermal conductivity of the composites.

  2. Thermogravimetric analysis and thermal degradation behaviour of advanced PMR-X carbon fiber composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rngie, M.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal degradation behavior of sized and unsized carbon fibers in polyimide matrix was investigated. Degradation of neat resin and unidirectional laminates were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis technique at temperatures between 470 d ig C -650 d ig C and up to 250 h rs. Isothermal ageing of the PMR-X composite samples under different test conditions (i. e. different temperatures and prolonged aging times), showed that oxidation and degradation occurs in stage three different rates. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the cured PMR-X composite panels are more stable in an inert atmosphere (nitrogen atmosphere)than in air and the degradation of neat resin is much higher than the composite samples. However, the rate of degradation of the unsized untreated carbon fibers in nitrogen environment is much higher than that for the PMR-X composites containing sized fibers

  3. Thermal hydraulic-Mechanic Integrated Simulation for Advanced Cladding Thermal Shock Fracture Analysis during Reflood Phase in LBLOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Seong Min; Lee, You Ho; Cho, Jae Wan; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study suggested thermal hydraulic-mechanical integrated stress based methodology for analyzing the behavior of ATF type claddings by SiC-Duplex cladding LBLOCA simulation. Also, this paper showed that this methodology could predict real experimental result well. That concept for enhanced safety of LWR called Advanced Accident-Tolerance Fuel Cladding (ATF cladding, ATF) is researched actively. However, current nuclear fuel cladding design criteria for zircaloy cannot be apply to ATF directly because those criteria are mainly based on limiting their oxidation. So, the new methodology for ATF design criteria is necessary. In this study, stress based analysis methodology for ATF cladding design criteria is suggested. By simulating LBLOCA scenario of SiC cladding which is the one of the most promising candidate of ATF. Also we'll confirm our result briefly through comparing some facts from other experiments. This result is validating now. Some of results show good performance with 1-D failure analysis code for SiC fuel cladding that already developed and validated by Lee et al,. It will present in meeting. Furthermore, this simulation presented the possibility of understanding the behavior of cladding deeper. If designer can predict the dangerous region and the time precisely, it may be helpful for designing nuclear fuel cladding geometry and set safety criteria.

  4. Advanced thermal-hydraulic and neutronic codes: current and future applications. Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    An OECD Workshop on Advanced Thermal-Hydraulic and Neutronic Codes Applications was held from 10 to 13 April 2000, in Barcelona, Spain, sponsored by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It was organised in collaboration with the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) and hosted by CSN and the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC) in collaboration with the Spanish Electricity Association (UNESA). The objectives of the Workshop were to review the developments since the previous CSNI Workshop held in Annapolis [NEA/CSNI/ R(97)4; NUREG/CP-0159], to analyse the present status of maturity and remnant needs of thermal-hydraulic (TH) and neutronic system codes and methods, and finally to evaluate the role of these tools in the evolving regulatory environment. The Technical Sessions and Discussion Sessions covered the following topics: - Regulatory requirements for Best-Estimate (BE) code assessment; - Application of TH and neutronic codes for current safety issues; - Uncertainty analysis; - Needs for integral plant transient and accident analysis; - Simulators and fast running codes; - Advances in next generation TH and neutronic codes; - Future trends in physical modeling; - Long term plans for development of advanced codes. The focus of the Workshop was on system codes. An incursion was made, however, in the new field of applying Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes to nuclear safety analysis. As a general conclusion, the Barcelona Workshop can be considered representative of the progress towards the targets marked at Annapolis almost four years ago. The Annapolis Workshop had identified areas where further development and specific improvements were needed, among them: multi-field models, transport of interfacial area, 2D and 3D thermal-hydraulics, 3-D neutronics consistent with level of details of thermal-hydraulics. Recommendations issued at Annapolis included: developing small pilot/test codes for

  5. Proceedings of the workshop on advanced thermal-hydraulic and neutronic codes: current and future applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    An OECD Workshop on Advanced Thermal-Hydraulic and Neutronic Codes Applications was held from 10 to 13 April 2000, in Barcelona, Spain, sponsored by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It was organised in collaboration with the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) and hosted by CSN and the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC) in collaboration with the Spanish Electricity Association (UNESA). The objectives of the Workshop were to review the developments since the previous CSNI Workshop held in Annapolis [NEA/CSNI/ R(97)4; NUREG/CP-0159], to analyse the present status of maturity and remnant needs of thermal-hydraulic (TH) and neutronic system codes and methods, and finally to evaluate the role of these tools in the evolving regulatory environment. The Technical Sessions and Discussion Sessions covered the following topics: - Regulatory requirements for Best-Estimate (BE) code assessment; - Application of TH and neutronic codes for current safety issues; - Uncertainty analysis; - Needs for integral plant transient and accident analysis; - Simulators and fast running codes; - Advances in next generation TH and neutronic codes; - Future trends in physical modeling; - Long term plans for development of advanced codes. The focus of the Workshop was on system codes. An incursion was made, however, in the new field of applying Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes to nuclear safety analysis. As a general conclusion, the Barcelona Workshop can be considered representative of the progress towards the targets marked at Annapolis almost four years ago. The Annapolis Workshop had identified areas where further development and specific improvements were needed, among them: multi-field models, transport of interfacial area, 2D and 3D thermal-hydraulics, 3-D neutronics consistent with level of details of thermal-hydraulics. Recommendations issued at Annapolis included: developing small pilot/test codes for

  6. Suppression of thermal transients in advanced LIGO interferometers using CO2 laser preheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaberian Hamedan, V.; Zhao, C.; Ju, L.; Blair, C.; Blair, D. G.

    2018-06-01

    In high optical power interferometric gravitational wave detectors, such as Advanced LIGO, the thermal effects due to optical absorption in the mirror coatings and the slow thermal response of fused silica substrate cause time dependent changes in the mirror profile. After locking, high optical power builds up in the arm cavities. Absorption induced heating causes optical cavity transverse mode frequencies to drift over a period of hours, relative to the fundamental mode. At high optical power this can cause time dependent transient parametric instability, which can lead to interferometer disfunction. In this paper, we model the use of CO2 laser heating designed to enable the interferometer to be maintained in a thermal condition such that transient changes in the mirrors are greatly reduced. This can minimize transient parametric instability and compensate dark port power fluctuations. Modeling results are presented for both single compensation where a CO2 laser acting on one test mass per cavity, and double compensation using one CO2 laser for each test mass. Using parameters of the LIGO Hanford Observatory X-arm as an example, single compensation allows the maximum mode frequency shift to be limited to 6% of its uncompensated value. However, single compensation causes transient degradation of the contrast defect. Double compensation minimise contrast defect degradation and reduces transients to less than 1% if the CO2 laser spot is positioned within 2 mm of the cavity beam position.

  7. High thermal efficiency x-ray energy conversion scheme for advanced fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quimby, D.C.; Taussig, R.T.; Hertzberg, A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reports on a new radiation energy conversion scheme which appears to be capable of producing electricity from the high quality x-ray energy with efficiencies of 60 to 70 percent. This new reactor concept incorporates a novel x-ray radiation boiler and a new thermal conversion device known as an energy exchanger. The low-Z first walls of the radiation boiler are semi-transparent to x-rays, and are kept cool by incoming working fluid, which is subsequently heated to temperatures of 2000 to 3000 0 K in the interior of the boiler by volumetric x-ray absorption. The radiation boiler may be a compact part of the reactor shell since x-rays are readily absorbed in high-Z materials. The energy exchanger transfers the high-temperature working fluid energy to a lower temperature gas which drives a conventional turbine. The overall efficiency of the cycle is characterized by the high temperature of the working fluid. The high thermal efficiencies which appear achievable with this cycle would make an otherwise marginal advanced fusion reactor into an attractive net power producer. The operating principles, initial conceptual design, and engineering problems of the radiation boiler and thermal cycle are presented

  8. Hafnia-Based Nanostructured Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramana, Chintalapalle; Choudhuri, Ahsan

    2013-01-31

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are critical technologies for future gas turbine engines of advanced coal based power generation systems. TBCs protect engine components and allow further increase in engine temperatures for higher efficiency. In this work, nanostructured HfO{sub 2}-based coatings, namely Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (YSH), Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (GSH) and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}-HfO{sub 2} (YSZH) were investigated for potential TBC applications in hydrogen turbines. Experimental efforts are aimed at creating a fundamental understanding of these TBC materials. Nanostructured ceramic coatings of YSH, GSH and YSZH were grown by physical vapor deposition methods. The effects of processing parameters and ceramic composition on the microstructural evolution of YSH, GSH and YSZH nanostructured coatings was studied using combined X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Electron microscopy analyses. Efforts were directed to derive a detailed understanding of crystal-structure, morphology, and stability of the coatings. In addition, thermal conductivity as a function of composition in YSH, YSZH and GSH coatings was determined. Laboratory experiments using accelerated test environments were used to investigate the relative importance of various thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical failure modes of TBCs. Effects of thermal cycling, oxidation and their complex interactions were evaluated using a syngas combustor rig.

  9. Steady-state thermal-hydraulic design analysis of the Advanced Neutron Source reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoder, G.L. Jr.; Dixon, J.R.; Elkassabgi, Y.; Felde, D.K.; Giles, G.E.; Harrington, R.M.; Morris, D.G.; Nelson, W.R.; Ruggles, A.E.; Siman-Tov, M.; Stovall, T.K.

    1994-05-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a research reactor that is planned for construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This reactor will be a user facility with the major objective of providing the highest continuous neutron beam intensities of any reactor in the world. Additional objectives for the facility include providing materials irradiation facilities and isotope production facilities as good as, or better than, those in the High Flux Isotope Reactor. To achieve these objectives, the reactor design uses highly subcooled heavy water as both coolant and moderator. Two separate core halves of 67.6-L total volume operate at an average power density of 4.5 MW(t)/L, and the coolant flows upward through the core at 25 m/s. Operating pressure is 3.1 MPa at the core inlet with a 1.4-MPa pressure drop through the core region. Finally, in order to make the resources available for experimentation, the fuel is designed to provide a 17-d fuel cycle with an additional 4 d planned in each cycle for the refueling process. This report examines the codes and models used to develop the thermal-hydraulic design for ANS, as well as the correlations and physical data; evaluates thermal-hydraulic uncertainties; reports on thermal-hydraulic design and safety analysis; describes experimentation in support of the ANS reactor design and safety analysis; and provides an overview of the experimental plan

  10. Transformation Laplacian metamaterials: recent advances in manipulating thermal and dc fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tiancheng; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The full control of single or even multiple physical fields has attracted intensive research attention in the past decade, thanks to the development of metamaterials and transformation optics. Significant progress has been made in vector fields (e.g., optics, electromagnetics, and acoustics), leading to a host of strikingly functional metamaterials, such as invisibility cloaks, illusion devices, concentrators, and rotators. However, metamaterials in vector fields, designed through coordinate transformation of Maxwell’s equations, usually require extreme parameters and impose challenges on the actual realization. In this context, metamaterials in scalar fields (e.g., thermal and dc fields), which are mostly governed by the Laplace equation, lead to more plausible and facile implementations, since there are native insulators and excellent conductors (serving as two extreme cases). This paper therefore is particularly dedicated to reviewing the most recent advances in Laplacian metamaterials in manipulating thermal (both transient and steady states) and dc fields, separately and (or) simultaneously. We focus on the theory, design, and realization of thermal/dc functional metamaterials that can be used to control heat flux and electric current at will. We also provide an outlook toward the challenges and future directions in this fascinating area. (review)

  11. Transformation Laplacian metamaterials: recent advances in manipulating thermal and dc fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tiancheng; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2016-04-01

    The full control of single or even multiple physical fields has attracted intensive research attention in the past decade, thanks to the development of metamaterials and transformation optics. Significant progress has been made in vector fields (e.g., optics, electromagnetics, and acoustics), leading to a host of strikingly functional metamaterials, such as invisibility cloaks, illusion devices, concentrators, and rotators. However, metamaterials in vector fields, designed through coordinate transformation of Maxwell’s equations, usually require extreme parameters and impose challenges on the actual realization. In this context, metamaterials in scalar fields (e.g., thermal and dc fields), which are mostly governed by the Laplace equation, lead to more plausible and facile implementations, since there are native insulators and excellent conductors (serving as two extreme cases). This paper therefore is particularly dedicated to reviewing the most recent advances in Laplacian metamaterials in manipulating thermal (both transient and steady states) and dc fields, separately and (or) simultaneously. We focus on the theory, design, and realization of thermal/dc functional metamaterials that can be used to control heat flux and electric current at will. We also provide an outlook toward the challenges and future directions in this fascinating area.

  12. Thermal-hydraulic studies of the Advanced Neutron Source cold source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.T.; Lucas, A.T.

    1995-08-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), in its conceptual design phase at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was to be a user-oriented neutron research facility producing the most intense steady-state flux of thermal and cold neutrons in the world. Among its many scientific applications, the production of cold neutrons was a significant research mission for the ANS. The cold neutrons come from two independent cold sources positioned near the reactor core. Contained by an aluminum alloy vessel, each cold source is a 410-mm-diam sphere of liquid deuterium that functions both as a neutron moderator and a cryogenic coolant. With nuclear heating of the containment vessel and internal baffling, steady-state operation requires close control of the liquid deuterium flow near the vessel's inner surface. Preliminary thermal-hydraulic analyses supporting the cold source design were performed with heat conduction simulations of the vessel walls and multidimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations of the liquid deuterium flow and heat transfer. This report presents the starting phase of a challenging program and describes the cold source conceptual design, the thermal-hydraulic feasibility studies of the containment vessel, and the future computational and experimental studies that were planned to verify the final design

  13. Preparation and characterization of form-stable paraffin/polycaprolactone composites as phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aludin M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraffin is Phase Change Materials (PCM that possesses desirable properties such as high thermal energy storage and thermal stability to make it suitable for thermal energy storage applications. However, paraffin has been reported to leak out during the melting process. In this study, composites were prepared by dissolving paraffin and polycaprolactone (PCL at varied mass percent compositions in chloroform and then purified through precipitation techniques. The leakage test was conducted by placing the composite samples on a set of four-layer filter papers and left in a furnace at 90°C for 1 hour. By incorporating PCL into paraffin phase, the leakage mass percentage was drastically reduced. The PCL polymer matrix in the composites may have trapped the paraffin molecules during melting process thus prevent it from leaking.

  14. Carbohydrates and thermal properties indicate a decrease in stable aggregate carbon following forest colonization of mountain grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guidi, Claudia; Cannella, David; Leifeld, Jens

    2015-01-01

    and thermally labile C showed similar patterns in bulk soil, suggesting that thermal analysis can be used to complement chemical analysis although a straightforward relationship could not be established. Following forest expansion on abandoned grassland, ratios of microbially to plant-derived carbohydrates......In mountainous areas of Europe, the abandonment of grasslands followed by forest expansion is the dominant land-use change. Labile (i.e. easily decomposable) litter represents the major source for soil microbial products, which promote soil aggregation and long-term C stabilization. Our objective...... was to investigate changes in the content and origin of soil C components involved into aggregate stabilization (i.e. carbohydrates) following forest expansion on abandoned grassland in the Alps, where only few studies have been conducted. Changes in carbohydrates and thermally labile C were assessed along a land...

  15. Design and Performance Optimizations of Advanced Erosion-Resistant Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings for Rotorcraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future rotorcraft engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. For thermal barrier coatings designed for rotorcraft turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability, because the rotorcraft are often operated in the most severe sand erosive environments. Advanced low thermal conductivity and erosion-resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with the current emphasis being placed on thermal barrier coating toughness improvements using multicomponent alloying and processing optimization approaches. The performance of the advanced thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in a high temperature erosion burner rig and a laser heat-flux rig to simulate engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition and architecture optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic oxidation durability

  16. Recent advances in SRS on hydrogen isotope separation using thermal cycling absorption process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, X.; Kit Heung, L.; Sessions, H.T. [Savannah River National Laboratory - SRNL, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-03-15

    TCAP (Thermal Cycling Absorption Process) is a gas chromatograph in principle using palladium in the column packing, but it is unique in the fact that the carrier gas, hydrogen, is being isotopically separated and the system is operated in a semi-continuous manner. TCAP units are used to purify tritium. The recent TCAP advances at Savannah River Site (SRS) include compressor-free concept for heating/cooling, push and pull separation using an active inverse column, and compact column design. The new developments allow significantly higher throughput and better reliability from 1/10 of the current production system's footprint while consuming 60% less energy. Various versions are derived in the meantime for external customers to be used in fusion energy projects.

  17. Development of a steady thermal-hydraulic analysis code for the China Advanced Research Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Wenxi; QIU Suizheng; GUO Yun; SU Guanghui; JIA Dounan; LIU Tiancai; ZHANG Jianwei

    2007-01-01

    A multi-channel model steady-state thermalhydraulic analysis code was developed for the China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR). By simulating the whole reactor core, the detailed mass flow distribution in the core was obtained. The result shows that structure size plays the most important role in mass flow distribution, and the influence of core power could be neglected under singlephase flow. The temperature field of the fuel element under unsymmetrical cooling condition was also obtained, which is necessary for further study such as stress analysis, etc. Of the fuel element. At the same time, considering the hot channel effect including engineering factor and nuclear factor, calculation of the mean and hot channel was carried out and it is proved that all thermal-hydraulic parameters satisfy the "Safety design regulation of CARR".

  18. Thermal Evaluation of Storage Rack with an Advanced Neutron Absorber during Normal Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee-Jae; Kim, Mi-Jin; Sohn, Dong-Seong [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The storage capacity of the domestic wet storage site is expected to reach saturation from Hanbit in 2024 to Sin-wolseong in 2038 and accordingly management alternatives are urgently taken. Since installation of the dense rack is considered in the short term, it is necessary to urgently develop an advanced neutron absorber which can be applied to a spent nuclear fuel storage facility. Neutron absorber is the material for controlling the reactivity. A material which has excellent thermal neutron absorption ability, high strength and corrosion resistance must be selected as the neutron absorber. Existing neutron absorbers are made of boron which has a good thermal absorption ability such as BORAL and METAMIC. However, possible problems have been reported in using the boron-based neutron absorber for wet storage facility. Gadolinium is known to have higher neutron absorption cross-section than that of boron. And the strength of duplex stainless steel is about 1.5 times higher than stainless steel 304 which has been frequently used as a structural material. Therefore, duplex stainless steel which contains gadolinium is in consideration as an advanced neutron absorber. Temperature distribution is shown in figure 4. In pool bottom region near the inlet shows a relatively low tendency and heat generated from the fuel assemblies is transmitted to the pool upper region by the vertical flow. Also, temperature gradient appear in rack structures for the axial direction and temperature is uniformly distributed in the pool upper region. Table 1 presents the calculated results. The maximum temperature is 306.63K and does not exceed the 333.15K (60℃). The maximum temperature of the neutron absorber is 306.48K.

  19. Structural Characterization of the Novel and Thermal Stable Hydrogenases from the Purple Sulfur Bacteria Thiocapsa Roseopersicina and Lamprobacter Modestohalophilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    advantages over other types of nanotubes. These CNTs form a stable monolayer which can be transferred to the conductive matrix using the Langmuir - Blodgett ...roseopersicina exhibits high stability in the buffer systems, in which its molecules have a negative charge: at the pH range 7-9 and low ionic strength; 4...coaxial glass cylinders. A modified 100 L bioreactor company ACE GLASS was used for deep cultivation. Sterilization of the total volume of liquid

  20. Manufacture and installation of reactor auxiliary facilities for advanced thermal prototype reactor 'Fugen'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Toshio; Matsushita, Tadashi

    1977-01-01

    The facilities of reactor auxiliary systems for the advanced thermal prtotype reactor ''Fugen'' were manufactured in factories since 1972, and the installation at the site began in November, 1974. It was almost completed in March, 1977, except a part of the tests and inspections, therefore the outline of the works is reported. The ATR ''Fugen'' is a heavy water-moderated, boiling light water reactor, and its reactor auxiliary systems comprise mainly the facilities for handling heavy water, such as heavy water cooling system, heavy water cleaning system, poison supplying system, helium circulating system, helium cleaning system, and carbon dioxide system. The poison supplying system supplies liquid poison to the heavy water cooling system to absorb excess reactivity in the initial reactor core. The helium circulating system covers heavy water surface with helium to prevent the deterioration of heavy water and maintains heavy water level by pressure difference. The carbon dioxide system flows highly pure CO 2 gas in the space of pressure tubes and carandria tubes, and provides thermal shielding. The design, manufacture and installation of the facilities of reactor auxiliary systems, and the helium leak test, synthetic pressure test and total cleaning are explained. (Kako, I.)

  1. Thermal and electrical joint test for the helical field coils in the Advanced Toroidal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.; Johnson, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Initial feasibility studies of a number of configurations for the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) resulted in the selection of a resistive copper continuous-coil torsatron as the optimum device considering the physics program, cost, and schedule. Further conceptual design work was directed toward optimization of this configuration and, if possible, a shorter schedule. It soon became obvious that in order to shorten the schedule, a number of design and fabrication activities should proceed in parallel. This was most critical for the vacuum vessel and the helical field (HF) coils. If the HF coils were wound in place on a completed vacuum vessel, the overall schedule would be significantly (greater than or equal to12 months) longer. The approach of parallel scheduel paths requires that the HF coils be segmented into parts of less than or equal to180 0 of poloidal angle and that joints be made on a turn-by-turn basis when the segments are installed. It was obvious from the outset that the compact and complex geometry of the joint design presented a special challenge in the areas of reliability, assembly, maintenance, disassembly, and cost. Also, electrical, thermal, and force excursions are significant for these joints. A number of soldered, welded, brazed, electroplated, and bolted joints were evaluated. The evaluations examined fabrication feasibility and complexity, thermal-electrical performance at approximately two-thirds of the steady-state design conditions, and installation and assembly processes. Results of the thermal-electrical tests were analyzed and extrapolated to predict performance at peak design parameters. The final selection was a lap-type joint clamped with insulated bolts that pass through the winding packing. 3 refs., 4 figs

  2. A study on the thermal design of the advanced multi purpose canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Eun Ju; Chang, S. H.

    2004-01-01

    The storage, transportation and disposal of pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel is an important issue in nuclear industry for safe and extended nuclear power plant operation. However, since wet-storage facilities almost reach to their capacity, dry-storage method, especially using a Multi Purpose Canister (MPC), has been highlighted because it gives better economic and safety point of view. In this study, an advanced design of MPC was proposed through an increase in storage capacity from 26 to 37 PWR fuel assemblies per MPC. Thermal analysis was also carried out by FLUENT 6 code to confirm the temperature criteria of the MPC. From the results, conceptual design of 37 PWR fuel assemblies can reduce the mass per fuel assembly ratio about 19 % compared to the 26 assemblies, and maximum temperature developed at the center of fuel assemblies shows within the range of design criteria. Based on the analysis, it is considered that the advanced MPC design well conforms to the safety requirement and it gives rise to economical gain because of reduction in mass per fuel assembly ratio

  3. Thionyl chloride assisted functionalization of amorphous carbon nanotubes: A better field emitter and stable nanofluid with better thermal conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, S.K.; Jha, A. [School of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Chattopadhyay, K.K., E-mail: kalyan_chattopadhyay@yahoo.com [Thin Film & Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); School of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Thionyl chloride assisted functionalization of amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs). • Improved dispersion enhanced thermal conductivity of engine oil. • Again f-a-CNTs showed enhanced field emission property compared to pure a-CNTs. - Abstract: Amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs) were synthesized at low temperature in open atmosphere and further functionalized by treating them in thionyl chloride added stearic acid-dichloro methane solution. The as prepared functionalized a-CNTs (f-a-CNTs) were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The nanofluid was prepared by dispersing f-a-CNTs in engine oil using ultrasonic treatment. The effective thermal conductivity of as prepared nanofluid was investigated at different loading (volume fraction of f-a-CNTs). Obtained experimental data of thermal conductivity were compared with the predicted values, calculated using existing theoretical models. Stability of the nanofluid was tested by means of zeta potential measurement to optimize the loading. The as prepared f-a-CNTs sample also showed improved field emission result as compared to pristine a-CNTs. Dependence of field emission behavior on inter electrode distance was investigated too.

  4. Integrated homeland security system with passive thermal imaging and advanced video analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Glen; Tillman, Jennifer; Hanna, Keith; Heubusch, Jeff; Ayers, Robert

    2007-04-01

    for creating initial alerts - we refer to this as software level detection, the next level building block Immersive 3D visual assessment for situational awareness and to manage the reaction process - we refer to this as automated intelligent situational awareness, a third building block Wide area command and control capabilities to allow control from a remote location - we refer to this as the management and process control building block integrating together the lower level building elements. In addition, this paper describes three live installations of complete, total systems that incorporate visible and thermal cameras as well as advanced video analytics. Discussion of both system elements and design is extensive.

  5. Preparation of thermally stable anatase TiO2 photocatalyst from TiOF2 precursor and its photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Kangle; Yu Jiaguo; Cui Longzhe; Chen Shulin; Li Mei

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The prepared anatase TiO 2 from TiOF 2 shows very high thermal stability (up to 1000 o C) and the 700 o C-calcined sample showed the highest photocatalytic activity. Display Omitted Research highlights: → TiOF 2 was prepared by a simple microwave assisted hydrothermal rout. → Anatase TiO 2 prepared by calcination of TiOF 2 shows high thermal stability. → F - play an important role in the improvement thermal stability of anatase TiO 2 . → The 700 o C-calcined sample shows the highest photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Preparation of anatase TiO 2 with high themal stability is of great importance for its environmental application. In this work, TiOF 2 was first synthesized by a simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal route using tetrabutyl titanate and hydrofluoric acid as precursors at 200 o C for 20 min. Then the resulted precipitates were calcined at different temperatures (300-1000 o C) for 2 h. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated using Brilliant Red X3B, an anionic azo dye, as the target organic molecule under UV light irradiation. The results showed that the prepared TiOF 2 exhibited weak or no photocatalytic activity. The phase transformation of TiOF 2 to anatase TiO 2 occurred at about 300 o C. The prepared anatase TiO 2 from TiOF 2 showed very high thermal stability and the anatase-to-rutile phase transformation temperature was up to 1000 o C. Fluoride ions played an important role in the improvement of thermal stability of anatase TiO 2 by strongly adsorbing on the crystal planes of anatase to stabilize the anatase structure. The 700 o C-calcined sample showed the highest photocatalytic activity due to its relative good crystallization and high specific surface areas.

  6. Thermal and electrical conductivity enhancement of graphite nanoplatelets on form-stable polyethylene glycol/polymethyl methacrylate composite phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Jiaoqun; Zhou, Weibing; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Graphite nanoplatelets (GnPs), obtained by sonicating the expanded graphite, were employed to simultaneously enhance the thermal (k) and electrical (σ) conductivity of organic form-stable phase change materials (FSPCMs). Using the method of in situ polymerization upon ultrasonic irradiation, GnPs serving as the conductive fillers and polyethylene glycol (PEG) acting as the phase change material (PCM) were uniformly dispersed and embedded inside the network structure of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), which contributed to the well package and self-supporting properties of composite FSPCMs. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results indicated that the GnPs were physically combined with PEG/PMMA matrix and did not participate in the polymerization. The GnPs additives were able to effectively enhance the k and σ of organic FSPCM. When the mass ratio of GnP was 8%, the k and σ of FSPCM changed up to 9 times and 8 orders of magnitude over that of PEG/PMMA matrix, respectively. The improvements in both k and σ were mainly attributed to the well dispersion and large aspect ratio of GnPs, which were endowed with benefit of forming conducting network in polymer matrix. It was also confirmed that all the prepared specimens possessed available thermal storage density and thermal stability. -- Highlights: ► GnPs were employed to simultaneously enhance the k and σ of organic FSPCMs. ► PEG/PMMA/GnPs composite FSPCMs were prepared by in situ polymerization method. ► The composite FSPCMs exhibited well package and self-supporting properties. ► GnPs additives effectively enhanced the k and σ of composite FSPCMs. ► All the composites possessed available thermal storage density and thermal stability.

  7. Thermally Stable Ni-rich Austenite Formed Utilizing Multistep Intercritical Heat Treatment in a Low-Carbon 10 Wt Pct Ni Martensitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Divya; Isheim, Dieter; Zhang, Xian J.; Ghosh, Gautam; Seidman, David N.

    2017-08-01

    Austenite reversion and its thermal stability attained during the transformation is key to enhanced toughness and blast resistance in transformation-induced-plasticity martensitic steels. We demonstrate that the thermal stability of Ni-stabilized austenite and kinetics of the transformation can be controlled by forming Ni-rich regions in proximity of pre-existing (retained) austenite. Atom probe tomography (APT) in conjunction with thermodynamic and kinetic modeling elucidates the role of Ni-rich regions in enhancing growth kinetics of thermally stable austenite, formed utilizing a multistep intercritical ( Quench- Lamellarization- Tempering (QLT)-type) heat treatment for a low-carbon 10 wt pct Ni steel. Direct evidence of austenite formation is provided by dilatometry, and the volume fraction is quantified by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The results indicate the growth of nm-thick austenite layers during the second intercritical tempering treatment (T-step) at 863 K (590 °C), with austenite retained from first intercritical treatment (L-step) at 923 K (650 °C) acting as a nucleation template. For the first time, the thermal stability of austenite is quantified with respect to its compositional evolution during the multistep intercritical treatment of these steels. Austenite compositions measured by APT are used in combination with the thermodynamic and kinetic approach formulated by Ghosh and Olson to assess thermal stability and predict the martensite-start temperature. This approach is particularly useful as empirical relations cannot be extrapolated for the highly Ni-enriched austenite investigated in the present study.

  8. High-Level Expression of a Thermally Stable Alginate Lyase Using Pichia pastoris, Characterization and Application in Producing Brown Alginate Oligosaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An alginate lyase encoding gene sagl from Flavobacterium sp. H63 was codon optimized and recombinantly expressed at high level in P.pastoris through high cell-density fermentation. The highest yield of recombinant enzyme of sagl (rSAGL in yeast culture supernatant reached 226.4 μg/mL (915.5 U/mL. This was the highest yield record of recombinant expression of alginate lyase so far. The rSAGL was confirmed as a partially glycosylated protein through EndoH digestion. The optimal reaction temperature and pH of this enzyme were 45 °C and 7.5; 80 mM K+ ions could improve the catalytic activity of the enzyme by 244% at most. rSAGL was a thermal stable enzyme with T5015 of 57–58 °C and T5030 of 53–54 °C. Its thermal stability was better than any known alginate lyase. In 100 mM phosphate buffer of pH 6.0, rSAGL could retain 98.8% of the initial activity after incubation at 50 °C for 2 h. Furthermore, it could retain 61.6% of the initial activity after 48 h. The specific activity of the purified rSAGL produced by P. pastoris attained 4044 U/mg protein, which was the second highest record of alginate lyase so far. When the crude enzyme of the rSAGL was directly used in transformation of sodium alginate with 40 g/L, 97.2% of the substrate was transformed to di, tri, tetra brown alginate oligosaccharide after 32 h of incubation at 50 °C, and the final concentration of reducing sugar in mixture reached 9.51 g/L. This is the first report of high-level expression of thermally stable alginate lyase using P. pastoris system.

  9. Photoluminescence properties and energy-transfer of thermal-stable Ce3+, Mn2+-codoped barium strontium lithium silicate red phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinguo; Gong Menglian

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Excited by UV, strong red luminescence is observed from Ce 3+ , Mn 2+ -codoped barium strontium lithium silicate (BSLS), while violet-blue emission from Ce 3+ sole doped BSLS. → These results indicate the Mn 2+ -derived red emission is originated by an efficient Ce 3+ → Mn 2+ energy transfer. → The red emission becomes stronger with increased Sr content, and shows red-shift. → These phosphors demonstrate good thermal stability even in 180 o C, which is suitable for NUV LED application. - Abstract: A series of thermal-stable Ce 3+ , Mn 2+ -codoped barium strontium lithium silicate (BSLS) phosphors was synthesized by a high-temperature solid-state reaction. The XRD patterns of this phosphor seem to be a new phase that has not been reported before. BSLS:Ce 3+ , Mn 2+ showed two emission bands under 365 nm excitation: one observed at 421 nm was attributed to Ce 3+ emission, and the other found in red region was assigned to Mn 2+ emission through Ce 3+ -Mn 2+ efficient energy transfer. The Mn 2+ emission shifted red along with the replacement of barium by strontium, which was due to the change of crystal field. A composition-optimized phosphor, BSLS:0.10Ce 3+ , 0.05Mn 2+ (Ba = 65), exhibited strong and broad red-emitting and supreme thermal stability. The results suggest that this phosphor is suitable as a red component for NUV LED or high pressure Hg vapor (HPMV) lamp.

  10. Advances in estimation technology of thermal conductivity of irradiated fuels (1). Application of a thermal microscope to measure the thermal conductivity of the second phases in irradiated pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Masayoshi; Murakami, Yukihiro

    2011-01-01

    CeO 2 sample as a surrogate for fuel and BaCeO 3 and BaMoO 4 samples as surrogates for the second phases, which have a lower thermal conductivity than the fuel matrix, were made. The thermal conductivity of these samples was measured by a thermal microscope. In this method, the thermal conductivity of a small region (e.g. 20 μm x 20 μm) of the sample can be measured. The valid thermal conductivity values for all the samples were obtained and the conditions of sample surface preparation and the thermal microscope measurement were found out. The thermal conductivity of a CeO 2 composite pellet which had the BaCeO 3 or BaMoO 4 second phase layer was also estimated. (author)

  11. Development of CFD software for the simulation of thermal hydraulics in advanced nuclear reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachar, Abdelaziz; Haslinger, Wolfgang; Scheuerer, Georg; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the project were: Improvement of the simulation accuracy for nuclear reactor thermo-hydraulics by coupling system codes with three-dimensional CFD software; Extension of CFD software to predict thermo-hydraulics in advanced reactor concepts; Validation of the CFD software by simulation different UPTF TRAM-C test cases and development of best practice guidelines. The CFD module was based on the ANSYS CFD software and the system code ATHLET of GRS. All three objectives were met: The coupled ATHLET-ANSYS CFD software is in use at GRS and TU Muenchen. Besides the test cases described in the report, it has been used for other applications, for instance the TALL-3D experiment of KTH Stockholm. The CFD software was extended with material properties for liquid metals, and validated using existing data. Several new concepts were tested when applying the CFD software to the UPTF test cases: Simulations with Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT) were performed for the first time. This led to better agreement between predictions and data and reduced uncertainties when applying temperature boundary conditions. The meshes for the CHT simulation were also used for a coupled fluid-structure-thermal analysis which was another novelty. The results of the multi-physics analysis showed plausible results for the mechanical and thermal stresses. The workflow developed as part of the current project can be directly used for industrial nuclear reactor simulations. Finally, simulations for two-phase flows with and without interfacial mass transfer were performed. These showed good agreement with data. However, a persisting problem for the simulation of multi-phase flows are the long simulation times which make use for industrial applications difficult.

  12. Facile Route to Transparent, Strong, and Thermally Stable Nanocellulose/Polymer Nanocomposites from an Aqueous Pickering Emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Shuji; Togawa, Eiji; Kuroda, Katsushi

    2017-01-09

    Cellulose nanofibril (CNF) is a promising nanofiller for polymer nanocomposite materials, and a critical challenge in designing these materials is organization of the nanostructure using a facile process. Here, we report a facile aqueous preparation process for nanostructured polystyrene (PS)/CNF composites via the formation of a CNF-stabilized Pickering emulsion. PS nanoparticles, with a narrow size distribution, were synthesized by free radical polymerization in water using CNF as a stabilizer. The nanoparticles were easily collected by filtration, and the resulting material had a composite structure of PS nanoparticles embedded in a CNF framework. The PS/CNF nanocomposite showed high optical transparency, strength, and thermal dimensional stability. Thus, this technique provides a simple and environmentally friendly method for the preparation of novel CNF/polymer nanocomposite materials.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Thermal Stable Polymers - Polymerization of N-[4-N´ -(Benzylamino-carbonylphenyl]maleimide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Hiran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the synthesis and characterization of homopolymer (H-BCPM of N-[4-N'-(benzylamino-carbonyl phenyl] maleimide (N-BACPMI and copolymer (C-BCPM of N-BACPMI with n-butyl acrylate (BA. The new monomer was synthesized from p-aminobenzoic acid, maleic anhydride and benzylamine. The homopolymerization of N-BACPMI is initiated by free radical using AIBN in THF solvent at 65°C. Radical copolymerization of N-BACPMI with BA, initiated by AIBN, was performed in THF solvent using equimolar amount. Effect of the different free radical initiator AIBN, BPO and solvents p-Dioxane, THF, DMF and DMSO was studied. Homopolymer and Copolymer were characterized by intrinsic viscosity, solubility test, FT-IR, 1H-NMR spectral analysis and elemental analysis. Thermal behaviour was studied by Thermo gravimetric analysis.

  14. Preparation and characterization of electrospun poly(phthalazinone ether nitrile ketone) membrane with novel thermally stable properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Gang; Zhang, Hao; Qian, Bingqing [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, Jinyan, E-mail: wangjinyan@dlut.edu.cn [Department of Polymer Science and Materials, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Jian, Xigao [Department of Polymer Science and Materials, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Qiu, Jieshan, E-mail: jqiu@dlut.edu.cn [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Poly (phthalazinone ether nitrile ketone) (PPENK) was used to successfully prepare nanofiber membranes by electrospinning. • Electrospun membrane exhibits a good thermostability. • Electrospun membrane. - Abstract: Electrospun nanofibrous membranes have several applications because of their excellent properties, such as high porosity, small fiber diameter, and large surface area. However, high-temperature resistant electrospun membranes remain a challenge because of the absence of precursors that offer spinnability, scalability, and superior thermal stability. In this study, poly(phthalazinone ether nitrile ketone) (PPENK) was used to successfully prepare nanofiber membranes by electrospinning. Electrospun PPENK membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and tensile stress–strain tests. Results indicated that the prepared electrospun membranes had a very high glass transition temperature, superior chemical resistance, and excellent mechanical strength. These desirable properties broaden their potential application in membranes and treatment of various hot fluid streams without strict temperature control.

  15. Photocatalytic Oxidation of Acetone Over High Thermally Stable TiO2 Nanosheets With Exposed (001) Facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ting; Duan, Youyu; Lv, Kangle; Hu, Zhao; Li, Qin; Li, Mei; Li, Xiaofang

    2018-01-01

    Anatase TiO 2 (A-TiO 2 ) usually exhibits superior photocatalytic activity than rutile TiO 2 (R-TiO 2 ). However, the phase transformation from A-TiO 2 to R-TiO 2 will inevitably happens when the calcination temperature is up to 600°C, which hampers the practical applications of TiO 2 photocatalysis in hyperthermal situations. In this paper, high energy faceted TiO 2 nanosheets (TiO 2 -NSs) with super thermal stability was prepared by calcination of TiOF 2 cubes. With increase in the calcination temperature from 300 to 600°C, TiOF 2 transforms into TiO 2 hollow nanoboxes (TiO 2 -HNBs) assembly from TiO 2 -NSs via Ostwald Rippening process. Almost all of the TiO 2 -HNBs are disassembled into discrete TiO 2 -NSs when calcination temperature is higher than 700°C. Phase transformation from A-TiO 2 to R-TiO 2 begins at 1000°C. Only when the calcination temperature is higher than 1200°C can all the TiO 2 -NSs transforms into R-TiO 2 . The 500°C-calcined sample (T500) exhibits the highest photoreactivity toward acetone oxidation possibly because of the production of high energy TiO 2 -NSs with exposed high energy (001) facets and the surface adsorbed fluorine. Surface oxygen vacancy, due to the heat-induced removal of surface adsorbed fluoride ions, is responsible for the high thermal stability of TiO 2 -NSs which are prepared by calcination of TiOF 2 cubes.

  16. Advanced Manufacturing for Thermal and Environmental Control Systems: Achieving National Energy Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogucz, Edward A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2017-02-20

    This project was part of a regional initiative in the five counties of Central New York (CNY) that received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and four other federal agencies through the 2012 Advanced Manufacturing Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge (AMJIAC). The CNY initiative was focused on cultivating the emergent regional cluster in “Advanced Manufacturing for Thermal and Environmental Control (AM-TEC).” As one component of the CNY AM-TEC initiative, the DOE-funded project supported five research & development seed projects that strategically targeted: 1) needs and opportunities of CNY AM-TEC companies, and 2) the goal of DOE’s Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) to reduce energy consumption by 50% across product life-cycles over 10 years. The project also sought to fulfill the AMO mission of developing and demonstrating new, energy-efficient processing and materials technologies at a scale adequate to prove their value to manufacturers and spur investment. The five seed projects demonstrated technologies and processes that can reduce energy intensity and improve production as well as use less energy throughout their lifecycles. The project was conducted over three years in two 18-month budget periods. During the first budget period, two projects proposed in the original AMJAIC application were successfully completed: Seed Project 1 focused on saving energy in heat transfer processes via development of nano structured surfaces to significantly increase heat flux; Seed Project 2 addressed saving energy in data centers via subzero cooling of the computing processors. Also during the first budget period, a process was developed and executed to select a second round of seed projects via a competitive request for proposals from regional companies and university collaborators. Applicants were encouraged to form industry-academic partnerships to leverage experience and resources of public and private sectors in the CNY region. Proposals were

  17. Design of Higher-k and More Stable Rare Earth Oxides as Gate Dielectrics for Advanced CMOS Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available High permittivity (k gate dielectric films are widely studied to substitute SiO2 as gate oxides to suppress the unacceptable gate leakage current when the traditional SiO2 gate oxide becomes ultrathin. For high-k gate oxides, several material properties are dominantly important. The first one, undoubtedly, is permittivity. It has been well studied by many groups in terms of how to obtain a higher permittivity for popular high-k oxides, like HfO2 and La2O3. The second one is crystallization behavior. Although it’s still under the debate whether an amorphous film is definitely better than ploy-crystallized oxide film as a gate oxide upon considering the crystal boundaries induced leakage current, the crystallization behavior should be well understood for a high-k gate oxide because it could also, to some degree, determine the permittivity of the high-k oxide. Finally, some high-k gate oxides, especially rare earth oxides (like La2O3, are not stable in air and very hygroscopic, forming hydroxide. This topic has been well investigated in over the years and significant progresses have been achieved. In this paper, I will intensively review the most recent progresses of the experimental and theoretical studies for preparing higher-k and more stable, in terms of hygroscopic tolerance and crystallization behavior, Hf- and La-based ternary high-k gate oxides.

  18. Design, manufacture and installation of measuring and control equipments for the advanced thermal prototype reactor 'Fugen'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Shigeo; Kawabata, Yoshinori

    1979-01-01

    The advanced thermal prototype reactor ''Fugen'' attained the criticality on March 20, 1978, and 100% output operation on November 13, 1978. On March 20, 1979, it passed the final inspection, and since then, it has continued the smooth operation up to now. The measuring and control equipments are provided for grasping the operational conditions of the plant and operating it safely and efficiently. At the time of designing, manufacturing and installing the measuring and control equipments for Fugen, it was required to clarify the requirements of the plant design, to secure the sufficient functions, and to improve the operational process, maintainability and the reliability and accuracy of the equipments. Many design guidelines and criteria were decided in order to coordinate the conditions among five manufacturers and give the unified state as one plant. The outline of the instrumentations for neutrons, radiation monitoring and process data, the control systems for reactivity, reactor output, pressure and water supply, the safety protection system, and the process computer are described. Finally, the installations and tests of the measuring and control equipments are explained. The aseismatic capability of the equipments was confirmed. (Kako, I.)

  19. Advanced Multiphysics Thermal-Hydraulics Models for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Prashant K [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Engineering design studies to determine the feasibility of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from using highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This work is part of an effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Reactor Conversion Program. HFIR is a very high flux pressurized light-water-cooled and moderated flux-trap type research reactor. HFIR s current missions are to support neutron scattering experiments, isotope production, and materials irradiation, including neutron activation analysis. Advanced three-dimensional multiphysics models of HFIR fuel were developed in COMSOL software for safety basis (worst case) operating conditions. Several types of physics including multilayer heat conduction, conjugate heat transfer, turbulent flows (RANS model) and structural mechanics were combined and solved for HFIR s inner and outer fuel elements. Alternate design features of the new LEU fuel were evaluated using these multiphysics models. This work led to a new, preliminary reference LEU design that combines a permanent absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, a burnable absorber in the inner element side plates, and a relocated and reshaped (but still radially contoured) fuel zone. Preliminary results of estimated thermal safety margins are presented. Fuel design studies and model enhancement continue.

  20. Advanced materials for solid state hydrogen storage: “Thermal engineering issues”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa Murthy, S.; Anil Kumar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen has been widely recognized as the “Energy Carrier” of the future. Efficient, reliable, economical and safe storage and delivery of hydrogen form important aspects in achieving success of the “Hydrogen Economy”. Gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities become important when one considers portable and mobile applications of hydrogen. In the case of solid state hydrogen storage, the gas is reversibly embedded (by physisorption and/or chemisorption) in a solid matrix. A wide variety of materials such as intermetallics, physisorbents, complex hydrides/alanates, metal organic frameworks, etc. have been investigated as possible storage media. This paper discusses the feasibility of lithium– and sodium–aluminum hydrides with emphasis on their thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties. Drawbacks such as poor heat transfer characteristics and poor kinetics demand special attention to the thermal design of solid state storage devices. - Highlights: • Advanced materials suitable for solid state hydrogen storage are discussed. • Issues related to thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of hydriding materials are brought out. • Hydriding and dehydriding behavior including sorption kinetics of complex hydrides with emphasis on alanates are explained

  1. Platinum nanoparticles: a non-toxic, effective and thermally stable alternative plasmonic material for cancer therapy and bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Akbar; Klingberg, Henrik; Jauffred, Liselotte; Kjær, Andreas; Bendix, Poul Martin; Oddershede, Lene B

    2018-05-17

    Absorption of near infrared (NIR) light by metallic nanoparticles can cause extreme heating and is of interest for instance in cancer treatment since NIR light has a relatively large penetration depth into biological tissue. Here, we quantify the extraordinary thermoplasmonic properties of platinum nanoparticles and demonstrate their efficiency in photothermal cancer therapy. Although platinum nanoparticles are extensively used for catalysis, they are much overlooked in a biological context. Via direct measurements based on a biological matrix we show that individual irradiated platinum nanoparticles with diameters of 50-70 nm can easily reach surface temperatures up to 900 K. In contrast to gold nanoshells, which are often used for photothermal purposes, we demonstrate that the platinum particles remain stable at these extreme temperatures. The experiments are paralleled by finite element modeling confirming the experimental results and establishing a theoretical understanding of the particles' thermoplasmonic properties. At extreme temperatures it is likely that a vapor layer will form around the plasmonic particle, and we show this scenario to be consistent with direct measurements and simulations. Viability studies demonstrate that platinum nanoparticles themselves are non-toxic at therapeutically relevant concentrations, however, upon laser irradiation we show that they efficiently kill human cancer cells. Therefore, platinum nanoparticles are highly promising candidates for thermoplasmonic applications in the life sciences, in nano-medicine, and for bio-medical engineering.

  2. Thermally stable single atom Pt/m-Al2O3 for selective hydrogenation and CO oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zailei

    2017-07-27

    Single-atom metal catalysts offer a promising way to utilize precious noble metal elements more effectively, provided that they are catalytically active and sufficiently stable. Herein, we report a synthetic strategy for Pt single-atom catalysts with outstanding stability in several reactions under demanding conditions. The Pt atoms are firmly anchored in the internal surface of mesoporous Al2O3, likely stabilized by coordinatively unsaturated pentahedral Al3+ centres. The catalyst keeps its structural integrity and excellent performance for the selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene after exposure to a reductive atmosphere at 200 °C for 24 h. Compared to commercial Pt nanoparticle catalyst on Al2O3 and control samples, this system exhibits significantly enhanced stability and performance for n-hexane hydro-reforming at 550 °C for 48 h, although agglomeration of Pt single-atoms into clusters is observed after reaction. In CO oxidation, the Pt single-atom identity was fully maintained after 60 cycles between 100 and 400 °C over a one-month period.

  3. Rational design and fabrication of highly transparent, flexible, and thermally stable superhydrophobic coatings from raspberry-like hollow silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xinshu; Tao, Chaoyou; Yang, Ke; Yang, Fan; Lv, Haibing; Yan, Lianghong; Yan, Hongwei; Li, Yuan; Xie, Yongyong; Yuan, Xiaodong; Zhang, Lin

    2018-05-01

    Multifunctional coatings with superhydrophobicity, high transparency, thermal stability, flexibility, and ultralow refractive index have been investigated for many years. They have promising applications in industries such as in electronic and optical devices, photonic materials, and templates for fabricating biological and chemical sensors. However, the relatively complex preparation technology of these coatings or difficult to possess these properties simultaneously are still the main factors that limit their wide application. In this paper, we report a facile atmospheric approach to create transparent multifunctional raspberry-like particulate coatings with a low refractive index, which were obtained via one-pot base-catalyzed sol-gel process using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyltrimethoxysilane (POTS) as co-precursors. The excellent superhydrophobicity, mechanical flexibility, self-cleaning property, thermal and chemical stability of the as-fabricated coatings were demonstrated. The refractive indices of coatings can be easily tuned at a range of 1.07-1.16. Particularly, the resulted samples on the K9 glasses exhibited superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle (WCA) of 162° when the scale ratio of the POTS and TEOS was 1.0. The superhydrophobicity of the as-prepared coatings could last for more than half a year under indoor condition, demonstrating the long stability of the superhydrophobicity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this simple efficient method could be extended to different substrates, including K9 glass, Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), stainless steel, aluminum alloy, and gingko leaf, to achieve superhydrophobicity. Interestingly, the superhydrophobicty of the coatings transferred to superhydrophilicity (WCA < 5°) by calcination at 500 °C, which resulted in a good antifogging property. Moreover, the coatings were not sensitive to the strong acid (pH = 1) and kept their superhydrophobic state for a long time

  4. Springtime carbon emission episodes at the Gosan background site revealed by total carbon, stable carbon isotopic composition, and thermal characteristics of carbonaceous particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jung

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the emission of carbonaceous aerosols at the Gosan background super-site (33.17° N, 126.10° E in East Asia, total suspended particles (TSP were collected during spring of 2007 and 2008 and analyzed for particulate organic carbon, elemental carbon, total carbon (TC, total nitrogen (TN, and stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C of TC. The stable carbon isotopic composition of TC (δ13CTC was found to be lowest during pollen emission episodes (range: −26.2‰ to −23.5‰, avg. −25.2 ± 0.9‰, approaching those of the airborne pollen (−28.0‰ collected at the Gosan site. Based on a carbon isotope mass balance equation, we found that ~42% of TC in the TSP samples during the pollen episodes was attributed to airborne pollen from Japanese cedar trees planted around tangerine farms in Jeju Island. A negative correlation between the citric acid-carbon/TC ratios and δ13CTC was obtained during the pollen episodes. These results suggest that citric acid emitted from tangerine fruit may be adsorbed on the airborne pollen and then transported to the Gosan site. Thermal evolution patterns of organic carbon during the pollen episodes were characterized by high OC evolution in the OC2 temperature step (450 °C. Since thermal evolution patterns of organic aerosols are highly influenced by their molecular weight, they can be used as additional information on the formation of secondary organic aerosols and the effect of aging of organic aerosols during the long-range atmospheric transport and sources of organic aerosols.

  5. Efficient and thermally stable red luminescence from nano-sized phosphor of Gd6MoO12:Eu3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Lin; Wei, Donglei; Huang, Yanlin; Kim, Sun Il; Yu, Young Moon; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2013-01-01

    A novel red-emitting nano-phosphor of Eu 3+ -doped Gd 6 MoO 12 was successfully synthesized by the Pechini method. The crystalline phase was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The morphology of the nano-phosphor was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, indicating a good crystallization with particles smaller than 500 nm. The luminescence properties such as photoluminescence spectra and decay curves were investigated. The phosphors can be efficiently excited by near-ultraviolet (near-UV) light and exhibit a bright red luminescence around 613 nm ascribed to the forced electric dipole transition 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 of Eu 3+ ions. The thermal stabilities were investigated from the temperature-dependent luminescence decay curves (lifetimes) and spectra intensities. The luminescence properties in relation to applications in white light-emitting diodes (W-LEDs) such as the absolute luminescence quantum efficiency, excitation wavelength, and color coordinates were discussed. The Gd 6 MoO 12 :Eu 3+ nano-phosphor is a promising red-emitting candidate for the fabrication of W-LEDs with near-UV chips

  6. Generic Repository Concepts and Thermal Analysis for Advanced Fuel Cycles - 12477

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800 MS 0736, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Blink, James [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551-0808 (United States); Carter, Joe [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Fratoni, Massimiliano; Greenberg, Harris; Sutton, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Howard, Robert [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A geologic disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or high-level waste (HLW) consists of three components: waste inventory, geologic setting, and concept of operations. A set of reference geologic disposal concepts has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Used Fuel Disposition campaign. Reference concepts are identified for crystalline rock, clay/shale, bedded salt, and deep borehole (crystalline basement) geologic settings. These were analyzed for waste inventory cases representing a range of waste types that could be produced by advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Concepts of operation consisting of emplacement mode, repository layout, and engineered barrier descriptions, were selected based on international progress. All of these disposal concepts are enclosed emplacement modes, whereby waste packages are in direct contact with encapsulating engineered or natural materials. Enclosed modes have less capacity to dissipate heat than open modes such as that proposed for a repository at Yucca Mountain. Thermal analysis has identified important relationships between waste package size and capacity, and the duration of surface decay storage needed to meet temperature limits for different disposal concepts. For the crystalline rock and clay/shale repository concepts, a waste package surface temperature limit of 100 deg. C was assumed to prevent changes in clay-based buffer material or clay-rich host rock. Surface decay storage of 50 to 100 years is needed for disposal of high-burnup LWR SNF in 4-PWR packages, or disposal of HLW glass from reprocessing LWR uranium oxide (UOX) fuel. High-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing of metal fuel used in a fast reactor could be disposed after decay storage of 50 years or less. For disposal in salt the rock thermal conductivity is significantly greater, and higher temperatures (200 deg. C) can be tolerated at the waste package surface. Decay storage of 10 years or less is needed for high-burnup LWR SNF in 4-PWR

  7. Advanced Oxide Material Systems for 1650 Deg. C Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S; Bansal, Narottam P; Miller, Robert A

    2004-01-01

    ... systems under engine high-heat-flux and severe thermal cycling conditions. In this report, the thermal conductivity and water vapor stability of selected candidate hafnia-, pyrochlore-, and magnetoplumbite-based TEBC materials are evaluated...

  8. Fabrication of High Thermal Conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond Composite Combustion Chamber Liner for Advanced Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Greene, Sandra E.; Singh, Jogender

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the process development for fabricating a high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond composite (NARloy-Z-D) combustion chamber liner for application in advanced rocket engines. The fabrication process is challenging and this paper presents some details of these challenges and approaches used to address them. Prior research conducted at NASA-MSFC and Penn State had shown that NARloy-Z-40%D composite material has significantly higher thermal conductivity than the state of the art NARloy-Z alloy. Furthermore, NARloy-Z-40 %D is much lighter than NARloy-Z. These attributes help to improve the performance of the advanced rocket engines. Increased thermal conductivity will directly translate into increased turbopump power, increased chamber pressure for improved thrust and specific impulse. Early work on NARloy-Z-D composites used the Field Assisted Sintering Technology (FAST, Ref. 1, 2) for fabricating discs. NARloy-Z-D composites containing 10, 20 and 40vol% of high thermal conductivity diamond powder were investigated. Thermal conductivity (TC) data. TC increased with increasing diamond content and showed 50% improvement over pure copper at 40vol% diamond. This composition was selected for fabricating the combustion chamber liner using the FAST technique.

  9. Research and development of advanced aluminium/graphite composites for thermal management applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wyszkowska, Edyta; Olejnik, Ewa; Bertarelli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Thermal management materials are continuously gaining importance as a consequence of everlasting evolution in performance of electronic and electric devices. In particular, by improving the heat exchanger’s materials' properties (i.e. thermal conductivity) it is possible to boost further performance and miniaturization of such devices. Due to their high thermal conductivity, Copper and Aluminium are currently the most commonly used materials for thermal management applications. However, the m...

  10. Application of Advanced Particle Swarm Optimization Techniques to Wind-thermal Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Sri Niwas; Østergaard, Jacob; Yadagiri, J.

    2009-01-01

    wind-thermal coordination algorithm is necessary to determine the optimal proportion of wind and thermal generator capacity that can be integrated into the system. In this paper, four versions of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) techniques are proposed for solving wind-thermal coordination problem...

  11. Baking system for ports of experimental advanced super-conducting tokamak vacuum vessel and thermal stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yali; Bao Liman; Song Yuntao; Yao Damao

    2006-01-01

    The baking system of Experimental Advanced Super-Conducting Toakamk (EAST) vacuum vessel is necessary to obtain the baking temperature of 150 degree C. In order to define suitable alloy heaters and achieve their reasonable layouts, thermal analysis was carried out with ANSYS code. The analysis results indicate that the temperature distribution and thermal stress of most parts of EAST vacuum vessel ports are uniform, satisfied for the requirement, and are safe based on ASME criterion. Feasible idea on reducing the stress focus is also considered. (authors)

  12. Preparation and thermal properties of mineral-supported polyethylene glycol as form-stable composite phase change materials (CPCMs) used in asphalt pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiao; Lin, Feipeng; Liu, Ruohua; Xiao, Ting; Zheng, Jianlong; Qian, Guoping; Liu, Hongfu; Wen, Pihua

    2017-12-05

    Three kinds of mineral-supported polyethylene glycol (PEG) as form-stable composite phase change materials (CPCMs) were prepared to choose the most suitable CPCMs in asphalt pavements for the problems of asphalt pavements rutting diseases and urban heat islands. The microstructure and chemical structure of CPCMs were characterized by SEM, FT-IR and XRD. Thermal properties of the CPCMs were determined by TG and DSC. The maximum PEG absorption of diatomite (DI), expanded perlite (EP) and expanded vermiculite (EVM) could reach 72%, 67% and 73.6%, respectively. The melting temperatures and latent heat of CPCMs are in the range of 52-55 °C and 100-115 J/g, respectively. The results show that PEG/EP has the best thermal and chemical stability after 100 times of heating-cooling process. Moreover, crystallization fraction results show that PEG/EP has slightly higher latent heats than that of PEG/DI and PEG/EVM. Temperature-adjusting asphalt mixture was prepared by substituting the fine aggregates with PEG/EP CPCMs. The upper surface maximum temperature difference of temperature-adjusting asphalt mixture reaches about 7.0 °C in laboratory, and the surface peak temperature reduces up to 4.3 °C in the field experiment during a typical summer day, indicating a great potential application for regulating pavement temperature field and alleviating the urban heat islands.

  13. New thermally stable red-emitting phosphors Pr{sup 3+}, M{sup +}:SrB{sub 4}O{sub 7} (M=Li, Na, K)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, F.B., E-mail: fbxiong@xmut.edu.cn [Department of Optoelectronics, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024 (China); Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information Materials and Devices, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024 (China); Lin, H.F.; Xu, Y.C.; Shen, H.X. [Department of Optoelectronics, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024 (China); Zhu, W.Z. [Department of Optoelectronics, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024 (China); Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information Materials and Devices, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024 (China)

    2016-09-15

    New red-emitting phosphors Pr{sup 3+}, M{sup +}:SrB{sub 4}O{sub 7} (M=Li, Na, K) in pure phase were synthesized via high-temperature solid-state reaction. Luminescent properties of those phosphors were characterized in detail. Pr{sup 3+}, M{sup +}:SrB{sub 4}O{sub 7} (M=Li, Na, K) can be excited under the range of 430–500 nm excitation, which covers the emission spectra of blue InGaN chip, exhibits pure red emission bands centered at 605 and 662 nm. The alkali-metal Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, or K{sup +} acting as charge compensators can improve fluorescent emission intensities of Pr{sup 3+} ions, and Pr{sup 3+}, Na{sup +}:SrB{sub 4}O{sub 7} shows the strongest emission intensities among those phosphors. Concentration quenching could be attributed to electric dipole–dipole interaction among Pr{sup 3+} ions. The temperature-dependent luminescence indicated Pr{sup 3+}, Na{sup +}:SrB{sub 4}O{sub 7} shows highly thermal stability. Those work suggests that Pr{sup 3+}, M{sup +}:SrB{sub 4}O{sub 7} (M=Li, Na, K) as thermally stable red-emitting phosphor might be potentially applied in WLED.

  14. Color-tunable and highly thermal stable Sr{sub 2}MgAl{sub 22}O{sub 36}:Tb{sup 3+} phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haiming; Zhang, Haoran; Liu, Yingliang [Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center for Optical Agricultural, College of Materials and Energy, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Lei, Bingfu, E-mail: tleibf@scau.edu.cn [Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center for Optical Agricultural, College of Materials and Energy, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Deng, Jiankun [Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center for Optical Agricultural, College of Materials and Energy, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Liu, Wei-Ren [Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taoyuan City, Taiwan (China); Zeng, Yuan; Zheng, Lingling; Zhao, Minyi [Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center for Optical Agricultural, College of Materials and Energy, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Tb{sup 3+} activated Sr{sub 2}MgAl{sub 22}O{sub 36} phosphor was prepared by a high-temperature solid-state reaction route. The X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy were used to characterize the as-prepared samples. The Sr{sub 2}MgAl{sub 22}O{sub 36}:Tb{sup 3+} phosphors show intense green light emission under UV excitation. The phosphor exhibit two groups of emission lines from about 370 to 700 nm, which originating from the characteristic {sup 5}D{sub 3}-{sup 7}F{sub J} and {sup 5}D{sub 4}-{sup 7}F{sub J} transitions of the Tb{sup 3+} ion, respectively. The cross-relaxation mechanism between the {sup 5}D{sub 3} and {sup 5}D{sub 4} emission was investigated and discussed. The emission colors of these phosphors can be tuned from bluish-green to green by adjusting the Tb{sup 3+} doping concentration. Furthermore, the thermal quenching temperature (T{sub 1/2}) is higher than 500 K. The excellent thermal stability and color-tunable luminescent properties suggest that the developed material is a promising green-emitting phosphor candidate for optical devices. - Highlights: • A Color-tunable emitting phosphor Sr{sub 2}MgAl{sub 22}O{sub 36}:Tb{sup 3+} was prepared successfully via high-temperature solid-state reaction. • The photoluminescence of Sr{sub 2}MgAl{sub 22}O{sub 36}:Tb{sup 3+} shows highly thermal stable. • The cross-relaxation mechanism between the {sup 5}D{sub 3} and {sup 5}D{sub 4} emission was investigated and discussed.

  15. Color-tunable and highly thermal stable Sr_2MgAl_2_2O_3_6:Tb"3"+ phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haiming; Zhang, Haoran; Liu, Yingliang; Lei, Bingfu; Deng, Jiankun; Liu, Wei-Ren; Zeng, Yuan; Zheng, Lingling; Zhao, Minyi

    2017-01-01

    Tb"3"+ activated Sr_2MgAl_2_2O_3_6 phosphor was prepared by a high-temperature solid-state reaction route. The X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy were used to characterize the as-prepared samples. The Sr_2MgAl_2_2O_3_6:Tb"3"+ phosphors show intense green light emission under UV excitation. The phosphor exhibit two groups of emission lines from about 370 to 700 nm, which originating from the characteristic "5D_3-"7F_J and "5D_4-"7F_J transitions of the Tb"3"+ ion, respectively. The cross-relaxation mechanism between the "5D_3 and "5D_4 emission was investigated and discussed. The emission colors of these phosphors can be tuned from bluish-green to green by adjusting the Tb"3"+ doping concentration. Furthermore, the thermal quenching temperature (T_1_/_2) is higher than 500 K. The excellent thermal stability and color-tunable luminescent properties suggest that the developed material is a promising green-emitting phosphor candidate for optical devices. - Highlights: • A Color-tunable emitting phosphor Sr_2MgAl_2_2O_3_6:Tb"3"+ was prepared successfully via high-temperature solid-state reaction. • The photoluminescence of Sr_2MgAl_2_2O_3_6:Tb"3"+ shows highly thermal stable. • The cross-relaxation mechanism between the "5D_3 and "5D_4 emission was investigated and discussed.

  16. Cu Nanoparticles Improved Thermal Property of Form-Stable Phase Change Materials Made with Carbon Nanofibers and LA-MA-SA Eutectic Mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaofei; Cai, Yibing; Huang, Cong; Gu, Ying; Zhang, Junhao; Qiao, Hui; Wei, Qufu

    2018-04-01

    A novel form-stable phase change materials (FSPCMs) was fabricated by incorporating fatty acid eutectics with electrospun carbon nanofibers (CNFs) surface-attached with copper (Cu) nanoparticles. Three different Cu/CNFs mats were made through combining the technique and principle of electrospinning, pre-oxidation/carbonization and in-situ reduction, while lauric-myristic-stearic acid (LA-MA-SA) ternary eutectic mixture was prepared as the model PCM. The morphology and crystal structure of Cu/CNFs were characterized by Fourier transfer infrared (FT-IR) spectra, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The results showed that Cu nanoparticles dispersed uniformly on the surface of CNFs mats without agglomeration, and Cu/CNFs mats could provide the mechanical support for FSPCMs and effectively prevent the flow/leakage of molten fatty acid. Morphological structures, as well as the properties of thermal energy storage and thermal energy storage/retrieval rates, of the resulting FSPCMs were investigated by SEM, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and measurement of melting/freezing times, respectively. The results indicated that the fabricated FSPCMs exhibited desired structural morphology, and LA-MA-SA well dispersed in three-dimensional porous structure of Cu/CNFs mats. The melting and crystallization enthalpies of the fabricated FSPCMs were in the range of 117.1-140.7 kJ/kg and 117.2-142.4 kJ/kg, respectively. In comparison with melting/freezing times of LA-MA-SA ternary eutectic mixture, the melting/freezing times of fabricated FSPCMs were respectively decreased ~27.0-49.2% and ~44.1-63.0%. The fabricated FSPCMs possessed good thermal energy storage/retrieval property, and might have great potential for renewable energy storage applications.

  17. The effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, A. F.; Bowyer, J. M.; Fujita, T.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the performance and cost of four 10-MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States. Each region has different insolation characteristics which result in varying collector field areas, plant performance, capital costs, and energy costs. The paraboloidal dish, central receiver, cylindrical parabolic trough, and compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) comprise the advanced concepts studied. This paper contains a discussion of the regional insolation data base, a description of the solar systems' performances and costs, and a presentation of a range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several decades.

  18. Looking back on safety management in construction of advanced thermal nuclear power plant 'Fugen'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emori, Kengo

    1979-01-01

    The safety management of the advanced thermal nuclear power plant ''Fugen'' during the period from the preparation of plant construction in October, 1970, to the full power operation in March, 1979, is looked back and explained. Any large human and material accidents did not occur during the long construction time. The total numbers of persons and hours were 1.397 x 10 6 workers and 11.55 x 10 6 hours, respectively. The number of labor accidents was twenty with no dead person, the number of loss days was 645 days, the number of accident rate was 1.73, the intensity rate was 0.06, and the mean rate of labor accidents per year per 1000 workers was 6.4. The radiation exposure dose was 65.27 man-rem for the managed 1804 workers in total, during the testing and operating periods. These data show that the safety management for ''Fugen'' is very excellent, considering the following special features: 1) there were many works which were carried out for the first time, 2) the construction of the plant was conducted by five contractors taking partial charge, there were many kinds of construction works, the construction and testing periods were long, and the workers had to go to the site from Tsuruga city by car and bus. The organization of preventing disasters, the concrete implementation items for safety management, including the planning of activities, various meetings, patrol, education and training, the honoring system, the prevention of traffic accident and so on, and the results of actual safety management are explained with the reflection. (Nakai, Y.)

  19. Thermal-hydraulics analysis for advanced fuel to be used in Candu 600 nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catana, Alexandru [RAAN, Institute for Nuclear Research, Str. Campului Nr. 1, Pitesti, Arges (Romania); Danila, Nicolae; Prisecaru, Ilie; Dupleac, Daniel [University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest (Romania)

    2008-07-01

    Two Candu 600 pressure tube nuclear reactors cover about 17% of Romania's electricity demand. These nuclear reactors are moderated/cooled with D{sub 2}O, fuelled on-power with Natural Uranium (NU) dioxide encapsulated in a standard (STD37) fuel bundle. High neutron economy is achieved using D{sub 2}O as moderator and coolant in separated systems. To reduce fuel cycle costs, programs were initiated in Canada, S.Korea, Argentina and Romania for the design and build new fuel bundles able to accommodate different fuel compositions. Candu core structure and modular fuel bundles, permits flexible fuel cycles. The main expected achievements are: reduced fuel cycle costs, increased discharge burn-up, plutonium and minor actinides management, thorium cycle, use of recycled PWR and in the same time waste minimization and operating cost reduction. These new fuel bundles are to be used in already operated Candu reactors. Advanced fuel bundle were proposed: CANFLEX bundle (Canada, S-Korea); the Romanian 'SEU43' bundle (Fig 1). In this paper thermal-hydraulic analysis in sub-channel approach is presented for SEU43. Comparisons with standard (STD37) fuel bundles are made using SEU-NU for NU fuel composition and SEU-0.96, for recycled uranium (RU) fuel with 0.96% U-235. Extended and comprehensive analysis must be made in order to assess the TH behaviour of SEU43. In this paper, considering STD37, SEU43-NU and SEU43-0.96 fuel bundles, main TH parameters were analysed: pressure drop, fuel highest temperatures, coolant density, critical heat flux. Differences between these fuel types are outlined. Benefits are: fuel costs reduction, spent fuel waste minimization, increase in competitiveness of nuclear power. Safety margins must be, at least, conserved. (authors)

  20. Thermal-hydraulics analysis for advanced fuel to be used in Candu 600 nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catana, Alexandru; Danila, Nicolae; Prisecaru, Ilie; Dupleac, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Two Candu 600 pressure tube nuclear reactors cover about 17% of Romania's electricity demand. These nuclear reactors are moderated/cooled with D 2 O, fuelled on-power with Natural Uranium (NU) dioxide encapsulated in a standard (STD37) fuel bundle. High neutron economy is achieved using D 2 O as moderator and coolant in separated systems. To reduce fuel cycle costs, programs were initiated in Canada, S.Korea, Argentina and Romania for the design and build new fuel bundles able to accommodate different fuel compositions. Candu core structure and modular fuel bundles, permits flexible fuel cycles. The main expected achievements are: reduced fuel cycle costs, increased discharge burn-up, plutonium and minor actinides management, thorium cycle, use of recycled PWR and in the same time waste minimization and operating cost reduction. These new fuel bundles are to be used in already operated Candu reactors. Advanced fuel bundle were proposed: CANFLEX bundle (Canada, S-Korea); the Romanian 'SEU43' bundle (Fig 1). In this paper thermal-hydraulic analysis in sub-channel approach is presented for SEU43. Comparisons with standard (STD37) fuel bundles are made using SEU-NU for NU fuel composition and SEU-0.96, for recycled uranium (RU) fuel with 0.96% U-235. Extended and comprehensive analysis must be made in order to assess the TH behaviour of SEU43. In this paper, considering STD37, SEU43-NU and SEU43-0.96 fuel bundles, main TH parameters were analysed: pressure drop, fuel highest temperatures, coolant density, critical heat flux. Differences between these fuel types are outlined. Benefits are: fuel costs reduction, spent fuel waste minimization, increase in competitiveness of nuclear power. Safety margins must be, at least, conserved. (authors)

  1. CAI and training system for the emergency operation procedure in the advanced thermal reactor, FUGEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozaki, T.; Imanaga, K.; Nakamura, S.; Maeda, K.; Sakurai, N.; Miyamoto, M.

    2003-01-01

    In the Advanced Thermal Reactor (ATR ) of the JNC, 'FUGEN', a symptom based Emergency Operating Procedure (EOF) was introduced in order to operate Fugen more safely and it became necessary for the plant operators to master the EOF. However it took a lot of time for the instructor to teach the EOP to operators and to train them. Thus, we have developed a Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) and Training System for the EOP, by which the operators can learn the EOP and can be trained. This system has two major functions, i.e., CAI and training. In the CAI function, there are three learning courses, namely, the EOP procedure, the simulation with guidance and Q and A, and the free simulation. In the training function, all of necessary control instruments (indicators, switches, annunciators and so forth) and physics models for the EOP training are simulated so that the trainees can be trained for all of the EOPs. In addition, 50 kinds of malfunction models are installed in order to perform appropriate accident scenarios for the EOP. The training of the EOP covers the range from AOO (Anticipated Operational Occurrence) to Over-DBAs (Design Based Accidents). This system is built in three personal computers that are connected by the computer network. One of the computers is expected to be used for the instructor and the other two are for the trainees. The EOP is composed of eight guidelines, such as 'Reactor Control' and 'Depression and Cooling', and the operation screens which are corresponded to the guidelines are respectively provided. According to the trial, we have estimated that the efficiency of the learning and the training would be improved about 30% for the trainee and about 75% for the instructor in the actual learning and training. (author)

  2. Advanced neutron and X-ray techniques for insights into the microstructure of EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Anand [State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Goland, Allen [State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Herman, Herbert [State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)]. E-mail: hherman@ms.cc.sunysb.edu; Allen, Andrew J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Dobbins, Tabbetha [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); DeCarlo, Francesco [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ilavsky, Jan [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Long, Gabrielle G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Fang, Stacy [Chromalloy Gas Turbine Corporation, Orangeburg, NY 10962 (United States); Lawton, Paul [Chromalloy Gas Turbine Corporation, Orangeburg, NY 10962 (United States)

    2006-06-25

    The ongoing quest to increase gas turbine efficiency and performance (increased thrust) provides a driving force for materials development. While improved engine design and usage of novel materials provide solutions for increased engine operating temperatures, and hence fuel efficiency, reliability issues remain. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), deposited onto turbine components using the electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process, exhibit unique pore architectures capable of bridging the technological gap between insulation/life extension and prime reliance. This article explores the potential of advanced X-ray and neutron techniques for comprehension of an EB-PVD TBC coating microstructure. While conventional microscopy reveals a hierarchy of voids, complementary advanced techniques allow quantification of these voids in terms of component porosities, anisotropy, size and gradient through the coating thickness. In addition, the derived microstructural parameters obtained both further knowledge of the nature and architecture of the porosity, and help establish its influence on the resultant thermal and mechanical properties.

  3. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  4. Power and Thermal Technologies for Air and Space - Scientific Research Program. Delivery Order 0020: Advanced Conductors and Thermal Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    power devices in modern aircrafts . Compared to Al2O3, when using SiO2 as buffer layer, less dense and shorter CNTs are produced under the same...generators for the recovery of high- temperature waste-heat emitted as exhaust by aircraft , automobiles and similar sources, but also to portable...legs would be subsequently backfilled with thermal insulation Aerogel . In one of our early experiments for proof-of-concept, the 2 μm thick SiO2

  5. Research and development of advanced aluminium/graphite composites for thermal management applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wyszkowska, Edyta; Bertarelli, Alessandro

    Thermal management materials are continuously gaining importance as a consequence of everlasting evolution in performance of electronic and electric devices. In particular, by improving the heat exchanger’s materials' properties (i.e. thermal conductivity) it is possible to boost further performance and miniaturization of such devices. Due to their high thermal conductivity, Copper and Aluminium are currently the most commonly used materials for thermal management applications. However, the mismatch in thermal expansion between Cooper/Aluminium and Silicon is limiting the heat transfer at the interface between the electronic chip and the heat exchanger. Furthermore, Copper is indeed characterized by a high thermal conductivity but at the same time its high density (8.9 g/cm3) increases weight of the final product, which in most of the cases does not meet specific application requirements. High cost of these materials is another constraint which limits their application. Due to aforementioned facts, monolith...

  6. Advanced Durable Flexible Ultra Low Outgassing Thermal Control Coatings for NASA Science Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I program proposes to synthesize novel nanoengineered ultra low out gassing elastomers and formulate high temperature capable flexible thermal control...

  7. Advanced Thermal Protection Systems (ATPS), Aerospace Grade Carbon Bonded Carbon Fiber Material, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulating material is the basis for several highly successful NASA developed thermal protection systems (TPS). Included among...

  8. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  9. Immobilization of Ni–Pd/core–shell nanoparticles through thermal polymerization of acrylamide on glassy carbon electrode for highly stable and sensitive glutamate detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Huicheng, E-mail: doyhc@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University for Nationalities, Nanning, 530008 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University for Nationalities, Nanning, 530008 (China); Key Laboratory of Chemistry and Engineering of Forest Products, Guangxi University for Nationalities, Nanning, 530008 (China); Key Laboratory of Guangxi Colleges and Universities for Food Safety and Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Guangxi University for Nationalities, Nanning, 530008 (China); Ma, Zhenzhen [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Wu, Zhaoyang, E-mail: zywu@hnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China)

    2015-10-08

    The preparation of a persistently stable and sensitive biosensor is highly important for practical applications. To improve the stability and sensitivity of glutamate sensors, an electrode modified with glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)/Ni–Pd/core–shell nanoparticles was developed using the thermal polymerization of acrylamide (AM) to immobilize the synthesized Ni–Pd/core–shell nanoparticles onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electrochemical data showed that the prepared biosensor had remarkably enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward glutamate. Moreover, superior reproducibility and excellent stability were observed (relative average deviation was 2.96% after continuous use of the same sensor for 60 times, and current responses remained at 94.85% of the initial value after 60 d). The sensor also demonstrated highly sensitive amperometric detection of glutamate with a low limit of detection (0.052 μM, S/N = 3), high sensitivity (4.768 μA μM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}), and a wide, useful linear range (0.1–500 μM). No interference from potential interfering species such as L-cysteine, ascorbic acid, and L-aspartate were noted. The determination of glutamate levels in actual samples achieved good recovery percentages. - Highlights: • Ni–Pd/core–shell nanoparticles were synthesized. • Nanoparticles were immobilized onto electrodes through thermal polymerization. • The modified sensor exhibited excellent stability and sensitivity for glutamate detection. • The biosensor exhibited remarkable electrocatalytic activity toward glutamate. • The sensor successfully detected glutamate in tomato soup samples.

  10. Immobilization of Ni–Pd/core–shell nanoparticles through thermal polymerization of acrylamide on glassy carbon electrode for highly stable and sensitive glutamate detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Huicheng; Ma, Zhenzhen; Wu, Zhaoyang

    2015-01-01

    The preparation of a persistently stable and sensitive biosensor is highly important for practical applications. To improve the stability and sensitivity of glutamate sensors, an electrode modified with glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)/Ni–Pd/core–shell nanoparticles was developed using the thermal polymerization of acrylamide (AM) to immobilize the synthesized Ni–Pd/core–shell nanoparticles onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electrochemical data showed that the prepared biosensor had remarkably enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward glutamate. Moreover, superior reproducibility and excellent stability were observed (relative average deviation was 2.96% after continuous use of the same sensor for 60 times, and current responses remained at 94.85% of the initial value after 60 d). The sensor also demonstrated highly sensitive amperometric detection of glutamate with a low limit of detection (0.052 μM, S/N = 3), high sensitivity (4.768 μA μM"−"1 cm"−"2), and a wide, useful linear range (0.1–500 μM). No interference from potential interfering species such as L-cysteine, ascorbic acid, and L-aspartate were noted. The determination of glutamate levels in actual samples achieved good recovery percentages. - Highlights: • Ni–Pd/core–shell nanoparticles were synthesized. • Nanoparticles were immobilized onto electrodes through thermal polymerization. • The modified sensor exhibited excellent stability and sensitivity for glutamate detection. • The biosensor exhibited remarkable electrocatalytic activity toward glutamate. • The sensor successfully detected glutamate in tomato soup samples.

  11. Design and Test of Advanced Thermal Simulators for an Alkali Metal-Cooled Reactor Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Anne E.; Dickens, Ricky E.

    2011-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has as one of its primary missions the development and testing of fission reactor simulators for space applications. A key component in these simulated reactors is the thermal simulator, designed to closely mimic the form and function of a nuclear fuel pin using electric heating. Continuing effort has been made to design simple, robust, inexpensive thermal simulators that closely match the steady-state and transient performance of a nuclear fuel pin. A series of these simulators have been designed, developed, fabricated and tested individually and in a number of simulated reactor systems at the EFF-TF. The purpose of the thermal simulators developed under the Fission Surface Power (FSP) task is to ensure that non-nuclear testing can be performed at sufficiently high fidelity to allow a cost-effective qualification and acceptance strategy to be used. Prototype thermal simulator design is founded on the baseline Fission Surface Power reactor design. Recent efforts have been focused on the design, fabrication and test of a prototype thermal simulator appropriate for use in the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). While designing the thermal simulators described in this paper, effort were made to improve the axial power profile matching of the thermal simulators. Simultaneously, a search was conducted for graphite materials with higher resistivities than had been employed in the past. The combination of these two efforts resulted in the creation of thermal simulators with power capacities of 2300-3300 W per unit. Six of these elements were installed in a simulated core and tested in the alkali metal-cooled Fission Surface Power Primary Test Circuit (FSP-PTC) at a variety of liquid metal flow rates and temperatures. This paper documents the design of the thermal simulators, test program, and test results.

  12. Production, Characterization, and Flocculation Mechanism of Cation Independent, pH Tolerant, and Thermally Stable Bioflocculant from Enterobacter sp. ETH-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Song, Liyan; Li, Dou; Qiao, Jing; Zhao, Tiantao; Zhao, Heping

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic high polymer flocculants, frequently utilized for flocculating efficiency and low cost, recently have been discovered as producing increased risk to human health and the environment. Development of a more efficient and environmentally sound alternative flocculant agent is investigated in this paper. Bioflocculants are produced by microorganisms and may exhibit a high rate of flocculation activity. The bioflocculant ETH-2, with high flocculating activity (2849 mg Kaolin particle/mg ETH-2), produced by strain Enterobacter sp. isolated from activated sludge, was systematically investigated with regard to its production, characterization, and flocculation mechanism. Analyses of microscopic observation, zeta potential and ETH-2 structure demonstrates the bridging mechanism, as opposed to charge neutralization, was responsible for flocculation of the ETH-2. ETH-2 retains high molecular weight (603 to 1820 kDa) and multi-functional groups (hydroxyl, amide and carboxyl) that contributed to flocculation. Polysaccharides mainly composed of mannose, glucose, and galactose, with a molar ratio of 1∶2.9∶9.8 were identified as the active constituents in bioflocculant. The structure of the long backbone with active sites of polysaccharides was determined as a primary basis for the high flocculation activity. Bioflocculant ETH-2 is cation independent, pH tolerant, and thermally stable, suggesting a potential fit for industrial application. PMID:25485629

  13. Stable Chlorine Isotopes and Elemental Chlorine by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Ion Chromatography; Martian Meteorites, Carbonaceous Chondrites and Standard Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, N.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Shih, C.-Y.; Fujitani, T.; Okano, O.

    2011-01-01

    Recently significantly large mass fractionation of stable chlorine isotopes has been reported for terrestrial and lunar samples [1,2]. In addition, in view of possible early solar system processes [3] and also potential perchlorate-related fluid/microbial activities on the Martian surface [4,5], a large chlorine isotopic fractionation might be expected for some types of planetary materials. Due to analytical difficulties of isotopic and elemental analyses, however, current chlorine analyses for planetary materials are controversial among different laboratories, particularly between IRMS (gas source mass spectrometry) and TIMS (Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry) groups [i.e. 1,6,7] for isotopic analyses, as well as between those doing pyrohydrolysis and other groups [i.e. 6,8]. Additional careful investigations of Cl isotope and elemental abundances are required to confirm real chlorine isotope and elemental variations for planetary materials. We have developed a TIMS technique combined with HF-leaching/ion chromatography at NASA JSC that is applicable to analysis of small amounts of meteoritic and planetary materials. We present here results for several standard rocks and meteorites, including Martian meteorites.

  14. Thermally Stable TiO2 - and SiO2 -Shell-Isolated Au Nanoparticles for In Situ Plasmon-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Hydrogenation Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Thomas; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2018-03-12

    Raman spectroscopy is known as a powerful technique for solid catalyst characterization as it provides vibrational fingerprints of (metal) oxides, reactants, and products. It can even become a strong surface-sensitive technique by implementing shell-isolated surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS). Au@TiO 2 and Au@SiO 2 shell-isolated nanoparticles (SHINs) of various sizes were therefore prepared for the purpose of studying heterogeneous catalysis and the effect of metal oxide coating. Both SiO 2 - and TiO 2 -SHINs are effective SHINERS substrates and thermally stable up to 400 °C. Nano-sized Ru and Rh hydrogenation catalysts were assembled over the SHINs by wet impregnation of aqueous RuCl 3 and RhCl 3 . The substrates were implemented to study CO adsorption and hydrogenation under in situ conditions at various temperatures to illustrate the differences between catalysts and shell materials with SHINERS. This work demonstrates the potential of SHINS for in situ characterization studies in a wide range of catalytic reactions. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  15. Immobilization of Ni-Pd/core-shell nanoparticles through thermal polymerization of acrylamide on glassy carbon electrode for highly stable and sensitive glutamate detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huicheng; Ma, Zhenzhen; Wu, Zhaoyang

    2015-10-08

    The preparation of a persistently stable and sensitive biosensor is highly important for practical applications. To improve the stability and sensitivity of glutamate sensors, an electrode modified with glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)/Ni-Pd/core-shell nanoparticles was developed using the thermal polymerization of acrylamide (AM) to immobilize the synthesized Ni-Pd/core-shell nanoparticles onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electrochemical data showed that the prepared biosensor had remarkably enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward glutamate. Moreover, superior reproducibility and excellent stability were observed (relative average deviation was 2.96% after continuous use of the same sensor for 60 times, and current responses remained at 94.85% of the initial value after 60 d). The sensor also demonstrated highly sensitive amperometric detection of glutamate with a low limit of detection (0.052 μM, S/N = 3), high sensitivity (4.768 μA μM(-1) cm(-2)), and a wide, useful linear range (0.1-500 μM). No interference from potential interfering species such as l-cysteine, ascorbic acid, and l-aspartate were noted. The determination of glutamate levels in actual samples achieved good recovery percentages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of groundwater pollution from ash ponds using stable and unstable isotopes around the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (Maharashtra, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltaggio, M; Spadoni, M; Sacchi, E; Sanam, R; Pujari, P R; Labhasetwar, P K

    2015-06-15

    The impact on local water resources due to fly ash produced in the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (district of Nagpur, Maharashtra - India) and disposed in large ponds at the surface was assessed through the study of environmental variation of ratios of stable and unstable isotopes. Analyses of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes suggest scarce interaction between the water temporarily stored in the ponds and the groundwater in the study area. Data also highlight that the high salinity of groundwater measured in the polluted wells is not due to evaporation, but to subsequent infiltration of stream waters draining from the ponds to the local aquifer. (87)Sr/(86)Sr values, when associated with Sr/Ca ratios, demonstrate the dominant role of waste waters coming from tens of brick kilns surrounding the pond sulfate pollution. Uranium isotopic analyses clearly show evidence of the interaction between groundwater and aquifer rocks, and confirm again the low influence of ash ponds. A new conceptual model based on the study of the isotopes of radium is also proposed and used to estimate residence times of groundwater in the area. This model highlights that high salinity cannot be in any case attributed to a prolonged water-rock interaction, but is due to the influence of untreated waste water of domestic or brick kiln origin on the shallow and vulnerable aquifers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Production, characterization, and flocculation mechanism of cation independent, pH tolerant, and thermally stable bioflocculant from Enterobacter sp. ETH-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tang

    Full Text Available Synthetic high polymer flocculants, frequently utilized for flocculating efficiency and low cost, recently have been discovered as producing increased risk to human health and the environment. Development of a more efficient and environmentally sound alternative flocculant agent is investigated in this paper. Bioflocculants are produced by microorganisms and may exhibit a high rate of flocculation activity. The bioflocculant ETH-2, with high flocculating activity (2849 mg Kaolin particle/mg ETH-2, produced by strain Enterobacter sp. isolated from activated sludge, was systematically investigated with regard to its production, characterization, and flocculation mechanism. Analyses of microscopic observation, zeta potential and ETH-2 structure demonstrates the bridging mechanism, as opposed to charge neutralization, was responsible for flocculation of the ETH-2. ETH-2 retains high molecular weight (603 to 1820 kDa and multi-functional groups (hydroxyl, amide and carboxyl that contributed to flocculation. Polysaccharides mainly composed of mannose, glucose, and galactose, with a molar ratio of 1:2.9:9.8 were identified as the active constituents in bioflocculant. The structure of the long backbone with active sites of polysaccharides was determined as a primary basis for the high flocculation activity. Bioflocculant ETH-2 is cation independent, pH tolerant, and thermally stable, suggesting a potential fit for industrial application.

  18. Thermally stable nanoparticles on supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan Cuenya, Beatriz; Naitabdi, Ahmed R.; Behafarid, Farzad

    2012-11-13

    An inverse micelle-based method for forming nanoparticles on supports includes dissolving a polymeric material in a solvent to provide a micelle solution. A nanoparticle source is dissolved in the micelle solution. A plurality of micelles having a nanoparticle in their core and an outer polymeric coating layer are formed in the micelle solution. The micelles are applied to a support. The polymeric coating layer is then removed from the micelles to expose the nanoparticles. A supported catalyst includes a nanocrystalline powder, thin film, or single crystal support. Metal nanoparticles having a median size from 0.5 nm to 25 nm, a size distribution having a standard deviation .ltoreq.0.1 of their median size are on or embedded in the support. The plurality of metal nanoparticles are dispersed and in a periodic arrangement. The metal nanoparticles maintain their periodic arrangement and size distribution following heat treatments of at least 1,000.degree. C.

  19. Advanced latent heat of fusion thermal energy storage for solar power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. M.; Stearns, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    The use of solar thermal power systems coupled with thermal energy storage (TES) is being studied for both terrestrial and space applications. In the case of terrestrial applications, it was found that one or two hours of TES could shift the insolation peak (solar noon) to coincide with user peak loads. The use of a phase change material (PCM) is attractive because of the higher energy storage density which can be achieved. However, the use of PCM has also certain disadvantages which must be addressed. Proof of concept testing was undertaken to evaluate corrosive effects and thermal ratcheting effects in a slurry system. It is concluded that the considered alkali metal/alkali salt slurry approach to TES appears to be very viable, taking into account an elimination of thermal ratcheting in storage systems and the reduction of corrosive effects. The approach appears to be useful for an employment involving temperatures applicable to Brayton or Stirling cycles.

  20. Thermal stability analysis and modelling of advanced perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beek, Simon; Martens, Koen; Roussel, Philippe; Wu, Yueh Chang; Kim, Woojin; Rao, Siddharth; Swerts, Johan; Crotti, Davide; Linten, Dimitri; Kar, Gouri Sankar; Groeseneken, Guido

    2018-05-01

    STT-MRAM is a promising non-volatile memory for high speed applications. The thermal stability factor (Δ = Eb/kT) is a measure for the information retention time, and an accurate determination of the thermal stability is crucial. Recent studies show that a significant error is made using the conventional methods for Δ extraction. We investigate the origin of the low accuracy. To reduce the error down to 5%, 1000 cycles or multiple ramp rates are necessary. Furthermore, the thermal stabilities extracted from current switching and magnetic field switching appear to be uncorrelated and this cannot be explained by a macrospin model. Measurements at different temperatures show that self-heating together with a domain wall model can explain these uncorrelated Δ. Characterizing self-heating properties is therefore crucial to correctly determine the thermal stability.

  1. Double-pass photovoltaic / thermal (PV/T) solar collector with advanced heat transfer features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Nazari Abu Bakar; Baharudin Yatim; Mohd Yusof Othman; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2006-01-01

    The use of PV/T in combination with concentrating reflectors has a potential to significantly increase power production from a given solar cell area. A prototype double-pass photovoltaic-thermal solar air collector with CPR and fins has been designed and fabricated and its performance over a range of operating conditions was studied. The absorber of the hybrid photovoltaic / thermal (PV/T) collector under investigation consists of an array of solar cells for generating electricity, compound parabolic concentrator (CPR) to increase the radiation intensity falling on the solar cells and fins attached to the back side of the absorber plate to improve heat transfer to the flowing air. The thermal, electrical and combined electrical and thermal efficiencies of the collector are presented and discussed

  2. Monocrystalline fibres for low thermal noise suspension in advanced gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amico, P; Bosi, L; Gammaitoni, L; Losurdo, G; Marchesoni, F; Mazzoni, M; Parisi, D; Punturo, M; Stanga, R; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Travasso, F; Vetrano, F; Vocca, H

    2004-01-01

    Thermal noise in mirror suspension will be the most severe fundamental limit to the low-frequency sensitivity of future interferometric gravitational wave detectors. We propose a new type of materials to realize low thermal noise suspension in such detectors. Monocrystalline suspension fibres are good candidates both for cryogenic and for ambient temperature interferometers. Material characteristics and a production facility are described in this paper

  3. Monocrystalline fibres for low thermal noise suspension in advanced gravitational wave detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amico, P [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, Virgo Project, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); Bosi, L [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, Virgo Project, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); Gammaitoni, L [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, Virgo Project, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); Losurdo, G [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze/Urbino, Florence (Italy); Marchesoni, F [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, Virgo Project, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); Mazzoni, M [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze/Urbino, Florence (Italy); Parisi, D [NEST-Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Punturo, M [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, Virgo Project, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); Stanga, R [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze/Urbino, Florence (Italy); Toncelli, A [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Tonelli, M [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Travasso, F [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, Virgo Project, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); Vetrano, F [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze/Urbino, Florence (Italy); Vocca, H [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, Virgo Project, I-06100 Perugia (Italy)

    2004-03-07

    Thermal noise in mirror suspension will be the most severe fundamental limit to the low-frequency sensitivity of future interferometric gravitational wave detectors. We propose a new type of materials to realize low thermal noise suspension in such detectors. Monocrystalline suspension fibres are good candidates both for cryogenic and for ambient temperature interferometers. Material characteristics and a production facility are described in this paper.

  4. Acquisition of an Advanced Thermal Analysis andImaging System for Integration with Interdisciplinary Researchand Education in Low Density Organic Inorganic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-02

    Report: Acquisition of an Advanced Thermal Analysis and Imaging System for Integration with Interdisciplinary Research and Education in Low Density...Agreement Number: W911NF-16-1-0475 Organization: University of Texas at El Paso Title: Acquisition of an Advanced Thermal Analysis and Imaging System ...for Integration with Interdisciplinary Research and Education in Low Density Organic-Inorganic Materials Report Term: 0-Other Email: dmisra2

  5. Preparation, thermal and flammability properties of a novel form-stable phase change materials based on high density polyethylene/poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)/organophilic montmorillonite nanocomposites/paraffin compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yibing; Song Lei; He Qingliang; Yang Dandan; Hu Yuan

    2008-01-01

    The paraffin is one of important thermal energy storage materials with many desirable characteristics (i.e., high heat of fusion, varied phase change temperature, negligible supercooling, self-nucleating, no phase segregation and cheap, etc.), but has low thermal stability and flammable. Hence, a novel form-stable phase change materials (PCM) based on high density polyethylene (HDPE)/poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA)/organophilic montmorillonite (OMT) nanocomposites and paraffin are prepared by twin-screw extruder technique. The structures of the HDPE-EVA/OMT nanocomposites and the form-stable PCM are evidenced by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The results of XRD and TEM show that the HDPE-EVA/OMT nanocomposites form the ordered intercalated nanomorphology. The form-stable PCM consists of the paraffin, which acts as a dispersed phase change material and the HDPE-EVA/OMT nanocomposites, which acts as the supporting material. The paraffin disperses in the three-dimensional net structure formed by HDPE-EVA/OMT nanocomposites. The thermal stability, latent heat and flammability properties are characterized by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), dynamic Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and cone calorimeter, respectively. The TGA and dynamic FTIR analyses indicate that the incorporation of suitable amount of OMT into the form-stable PCM increase the thermal stability. The DSC results show that the latent heat of the form-stable PCM has a certain degree decrease. The cone calorimeter shows that the heat release rate (HRR) has remarkably decreases with loading of OMT in the form-stable PCM, contributing to the improved flammability properties

  6. First 3D thermal mapping of an active volcano using an advanced photogrammetric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Raphael; Baratoux, David; Lacogne, Julien; Lopez, Teodolina; Fauchard, Cyrille; Bretar, Frédéric; Arab-Sedze, Mélanie; Staudacher, Thomas; Jacquemoud, Stéphane; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Thermal infrared data obtained in the [7-14 microns] spectral range are usually used in many Earth Science disciplines. These studies are exclusively based on the analysis of 2D information. In this case, a quantitative analysis of the surface energy budget remains limited, as it may be difficult to estimate the radiative contribution of the topography, the thermal influence of winds on the surface or potential imprints of subsurface flows on the soil without any precise DEM. The draping of a thermal image on a recent DEM is a common method to obtain a 3D thermal map of a surface. However, this method has many disadvantages i) errors can be significant in the orientation process of the thermal images, due to the lack of tie points between the images and the DEM; ii) the use of a recent DEM implies the use of another remote sensing technique to quantify the topography; iii) finally, the characterization of the evolution of a surface requires the simultaneous acquisition of thermal data and topographic information, which may be expensive in most cases. The stereophotogrammetry method allows to reconstitute the relief of an object from photos taken from different positions. Recently, substantial progress have been realized in the generation of high spatial resolution topographic surfaces using stereophotogrammetry. However, the presence of shadows, homogeneous textures and/or weak contrasts in the visible spectrum (e.g., flowing lavas, uniform lithologies) may prevent from the use of such method, because of the difficulties to find tie points on each image. Such situations are more favorable in the thermal infrared spectrum, as any variation in the thermal properties or geometric orientation of the surfaces may induce temperature contrasts that are detectable with a thermal camera. This system, usually functioning with a array sensor (Focal Plane Array) and an optical device, have geometric characteristics that are similar to digital cameras. Thus, it may be possible

  7. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors

  8. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [comp.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors.

  9. Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity of Nano-fluid for the advanced heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Shin; Lee, Jae Young

    2006-01-01

    The enhancement of heat transfer has been widely investigated to provide an effective way to cool down the modern electronic devices. Among the methods, Choi discovered a large amount of increase of thermal conductivity when nano sized particles were suspended in the fluid. It was first introduced by Masuda as a potential heat transfer enhancement media and since then, many researchers have investigated the nanofluids phenomena. Many researchers reported in substantially increasing the thermal conductivity of fluids by adding small amounts of suspended metallic oxide nanoparticles of Cu, CuO, Al 2 O 3 and carbon nano-tube. Masuda reported that the use Al 2 O 3 particles of 13 nm at 4.3% volume fraction increased the thermal conductivity of water by 30%. For carbon nano-tube nanofluids shows even greater enhancement. Xie et al. measured the thermal conductivity of carbon nanotube suspended in organic liquid and water with the enhancement of 10-20%. Recent studies have shown that inserting just 1% concentration of nano-particles sometimes increases about maximum 40% of thermal conductivity. However, there is still few experiments done for TiO 2 nanoparticles. Murshed found that the enhancement of thermal conductivity shows about 30% with 15nm in diameter with maximum 5% volume fraction and about 40% enhancement is observed using 15nmD x 40nm rod-shape nanoparticles of TiO 2 . The present experimental shows that a 20% maximum of enhancement in thermal conductivity using TiO 2 of 10nm for 3% volume fraction. Theses results are compared with previous research with theoretical models. As the first step of the heat transfer of nano fluid, the theories related to the nanofluids investigations have been discussed to understand not only the mechanism of thermal conductivity measurement, but also to understand the nanofluid behavior. Colloidal stability is the key to the nanofluid considered to prevent the agglomeration. Through the results, we will discuss the importance of

  10. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a

  11. Advanced oxidation technology for H2S odor gas using non-thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, ZHU; Ruonan, WANG; Wenjing, BIAN; Yang, CHEN; Weidong, JING

    2018-05-01

    Non-thermal plasma technology is a new type of odor treatment processing. We deal with H2S from waste gas emission using non-thermal plasma generated by dielectric barrier discharge. On the basis of two criteria, removal efficiency and absolute removal amount, we deeply investigate the changes in electrical parameters and process parameters, and the reaction process of the influence of ozone on H2S gas removal. The experimental results show that H2S removal efficiency is proportional to the voltage, frequency, power, residence time and energy efficiency, while it is inversely proportional to the initial concentration of H2S gas, and ozone concentration. This study lays the foundations of non-thermal plasma technology for further commercial application.

  12. Integrated Advanced Monopropellant CMC Thruster / Thermal Stand-Off Assembly, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High performance non-toxic monopropellants offer significant benefits relative to the current state-of-the-art. The benefits of these advanced monopropellants (AMP)...

  13. Recent advances in thermal analysis and stability evaluation of insensitive plastic bonded explosives (PBXs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Qi-Long; Zeman, Svatopluk; Elbeih, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We summarize currently used insensitive polymer based explosives and their ingredients. ► We examine the calculation methods that are suitable for kinetic evaluation of polymer based explosives. ► The calculation method for thermal stability parameters of polymer based explosives are summarized, which mainly include shelf life, explosion delay, critical temperature, thermostability threshold, 500 day cookoff temperature and approximate time to explosion. ► The polymer bases could greatly affect the thermal properties of PBXs, including their thermal stability, kinetic parameters and thermodynamic properties. ► PBXs, containing some innovative energetic fillers such as CL-20, NTO, Fox-12 and BCHMX, are only at design stage, which need more research work in the future. - Abstract: In this paper, several fundamental investigations published over the past decades with regard to the thermal analysis of polymer-based explosives (PBXs) have been briefly reviewed. A number of explosive fillers and polymer bases that were used as their main ingredients of PBXs are summarized herein. In addition, the calculation methods for their decomposition kinetics and thermal stability parameters are also introduced in detail. It was concluded that only PBXs based on HMX, RDX and TATB have been widely investigated, and that some other PBXs containing innovative fillers, such as CL-20, TNAZ, NTO and BCHMX are at the design stage. The isoconversional methods and model fitting procedures are usually used to analyze the discrete thermolysis processes of PBXs. In addition, their thermal stability parameters such as shelf life, explosion delay, critical temperature, thermostability threshold, 500-day cookoff temperature and approximate time to explosion could be calculated easily from the kinetic data.

  14. Advanced diffusion system for low contamination in-line rapid thermal processing of silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, D.; Preu, R.; Schultz, O.; Peters, S.; Huljic, D.M.; Zickermann, D.; Schindler, R.; Luedemann, R.; Willeke, G. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2002-10-01

    A novel diffusion system for in-line rapid thermal diffusion is presented. The lamp-heated furnace has a low thermal mass and a metal free transport system based on the walking beam principle. The furnace has been used to process first solar cells with lightly and highly doped emitters respectively. Solar cells with shallow lightly doped emitters show that the emitters processed in the new device can be well passivated. Shallow emitters with sheet resistances of up to 40/sq. have been contacted successfully by means of screen printing and firing through a SiN{sub x} antireflection coating. (author)

  15. Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measurement of Thermal Evolution in Geothermal Reservoirs: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell A. Plummer; Carl D. Palmer; Earl D. Mattson; Laurence C. Hull; George D. Redden

    2011-07-01

    The injection of cold fluids into engineered geothermal system (EGS) and conventional geothermal reservoirs may be done to help extract heat from the subsurface or to maintain pressures within the reservoir (e.g., Rose et al., 2001). As these injected fluids move along fractures, they acquire heat from the rock matrix and remove it from the reservoir as they are extracted to the surface. A consequence of such injection is the migration of a cold-fluid front through the reservoir (Figure 1) that could eventually reach the production well and result in the lowering of the temperature of the produced fluids (thermal breakthrough). Efficient operation of an EGS as well as conventional geothermal systems involving cold-fluid injection requires accurate and timely information about thermal depletion of the reservoir in response to operation. In particular, accurate predictions of the time to thermal breakthrough and subsequent rate of thermal drawdown are necessary for reservoir management, design of fracture stimulation and well drilling programs, and forecasting of economic return. A potential method for estimating migration of a cold front between an injection well and a production well is through application of reactive tracer tests, using chemical whose rate of degradation is dependent on the reservoir temperature between the two wells (e.g., Robinson 1985). With repeated tests, the rate of migration of the thermal front can be determined, and the time to thermal breakthrough calculated. While the basic theory behind the concept of thermal tracers has been understood for some time, effective application of the method has yet to be demonstrated. This report describes results of a study that used several methods to investigate application of reactive tracers to monitoring the thermal evolution of a geothermal reservoir. These methods included (1) mathematical investigation of the sensitivity of known and hypothetical reactive tracers, (2) laboratory testing of novel

  16. Synthesis of Hierarchical Sisal-Like V2O5 with Exposed Stable {001} Facets as Long Life Cathode Materials for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Naiteng; Du, Wuzhou; Liu, Guilong; Zhou, Zhan; Fu, Hong-Ru; Tang, Qianqian; Liu, Xianming; He, Yan-Bing

    2017-12-20

    Vanadium pentoxide (V 2 O 5 ) is considered a promising cathode material for advanced lithium-ion batteries owing to its high specific capacity and low cost. However, the application of V 2 O 5 -based electrodes has been hindered because of their inferior conductivity, cycling stability, and power performance. Herein, hierarchical sisal-like V 2 O 5 microstructures consisting of primary one-dimensional (1D) nanobelts with [001] facets orientation growth and rich oxygen vacancies are synthesized through a facile hydrothermal process using polyoxyethylene-20-cetyl-ether as the surface control agent, followed by calcination. The primary 1D nanobelt shortens the transfer path of electrons and ions, and the stable {001} facets could reduce the side reaction at the interface of electrode/electrolyte, simultaneously. Moreover, the formation of low valence state vanadium would generate the oxygen vacancies to facilitate lithium-ion diffusion. As a result, the sisal-like V 2 O 5 manifests excellent electrochemical performances, including high specific capacity (297 mA h g -1 at a current of 0.1 C) and robust cycling performance (capacity fading 0.06% per cycle). This work develops a controllable method to craft the hierarchical sisal-like V 2 O 5 microstructures with excellent high rate and long-term cyclic stability.

  17. Assessment of groundwater pollution from ash ponds using stable and unstable isotopes around the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (Maharashtra, India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voltaggio, M.; Spadoni, M. [CNR — Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria, Via Salaria km. 29.300, 00010 Montelibretti, Roma (Italy); Sacchi, E. [Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia and CNR-IGG, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Sanam, R.; Pujari, P.R.; Labhasetwar, P.K. [CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440020 (India)

    2015-06-15

    The impact on local water resources due to fly ash produced in the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (district of Nagpur, Maharashtra — India) and disposed in large ponds at the surface was assessed through the study of environmental variation of ratios of stable and unstable isotopes. Analyses of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes suggest scarce interaction between the water temporarily stored in the ponds and the groundwater in the study area. Data also highlight that the high salinity of groundwater measured in the polluted wells is not due to evaporation, but to subsequent infiltration of stream waters draining from the ponds to the local aquifer. {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values, when associated with Sr/Ca ratios, demonstrate the dominant role of waste waters coming from tens of brick kilns surrounding the pond sulfate pollution. Uranium isotopic analyses clearly show evidence of the interaction between groundwater and aquifer rocks, and confirm again the low influence of ash ponds. A new conceptual model based on the study of the isotopes of radium is also proposed and used to estimate residence times of groundwater in the area. This model highlights that high salinity cannot be in any case attributed to a prolonged water–rock interaction, but is due to the influence of untreated waste water of domestic or brick kiln origin on the shallow and vulnerable aquifers. - Highlights: • Ash ponds have wide environmental and social impact in India. • Isotope ratios can be used as tracers for possible pollution of groundwater. • Isotopes of O, H, Sr, U and Ra have been used to investigate the area of Koradi. • Salinity of groundwater is not due to fly ash but linked to local brick kilns. • A model for the residence time of water based on Ra isotopes is described.

  18. Effects of steam-heating processes on a stratified volcanic aquifer: Stable isotopes and dissolved gases in thermal waters of Vulcano Island (Aeolian archipelago)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, C.; Capasso, G.; Paonita, A.; Favara, R.

    2010-05-01

    We report on a comprehensive study of major-ion chemistry, dissolved gases, and stable isotopes measured in water wells at Vulcano Island since 1988. The work focuses on a quantitative model describing steam condensation and boiling phenomena in shallow water bodies. The model is based on the differences in partition coefficients between liquid water and vapor characterizing oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, as well as volcanic gases (CO 2, S species, and HCl). Based on both physical conditions of aquifers identified during drilling campaigns and the composition of the volcanic vapor, mass and enthalpy balances are applied in a multistep process of steam separation and condensation in shallower aquifers. By comparing the model results with measured data, we infer that (i) strong isotope enrichment observed in some shallow thermal waters can result from an increasing mass rate of condensing deep vapor, even in water meteoric in origin; (ii) the high CO 2 content measured in the fumarolic vapor during 1988-1993 affected the δ18O value of the steam-heated water due to CO 2-H 2O isotope exchange; (iii) the high pCO 2 measured in the coldest and peripheral waters are explained by the progressive enrichment of this gas in the vapor phase during multistep boiling; and (iv) the high Cl - and SO 42-contents in the hottest waters can be attributed to the direct condensation (single-step) of volcanic vapor. The model also takes into account both the mass fluxes and the compositions of the involved endmembers (steam and shallow groundwater), which provides important inferences on the modifications observed or expected during periods of increasing mass and heat input from depth.

  19. Integrated energy and advanced thermal management system for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, C.

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) featuring a fuel source engine and an energy storage source battery play an important role in improving fuel efficiency compared with its conventional counterparts. In view of the drawbacks of the existing research neglecting the thermal aspects when it comes to

  20. Advances in Thermal Spray Deposition of Billets for Particle Reinforced Light Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzelburger, Martin; Zimmermann, Christian; Gadow, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Forming of light-metals in semi-solid state offers some advantages like low process temperatures, improved mould durability, good flow behavior and fine, globular microstructure of the final material. By the introduction of ceramic particles, increased elastic modulus and yield strength as well as wear resistance and creep behavior can be obtained. By semi-solid forging or semi-solid casting, particle reinforced metals (PRM) can be produced with improved matrix microstructure and beneficial forming process parameters compared to conventional MMC manufacturing techniques. The production of this kind of light metal matrix composites requires the supply of dense semi-finished parts with well defined volume fractions of homogeneously distributed particulate reinforcement. A manufacturing method for cylindrical light metal billets is described that applies thermal spraying as a build-up process for simultaneous deposition of matrix and reinforcement phase with cored wires as spraying material. Thermal spraying leads to small grain sizes and prevents dendrite formation. However, long process cycle times lead to billet heating and recrystallization of the matrix microstructure. In order to preserve small grain sizes that enable semi-solid forming, the thermal spraying process was analyzed by in-flight particle analysis and thermography. As a consequence, the deposition process was optimized by adaptation of the thermal spraying parameters and by application of additional cooling, leading to lower billet temperatures and finer PRM billet microstructure

  1. Advanced three-dimensional thermal modeling of a baseline spent fuel repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altenbach, T.J.; Lowry, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    A three-dimensional thermal analysis using finite difference techniques was performed to determine the near-field response of a baseline spent fuel repository in a deep geologic salt medium. A baseline design incorporates previous thermal modeling experience and OWI recommendations for areal thermal loading in specifying the waste form properties, package details, and emplacement configuration. The base case in this thermal analysis considers one 10-year old PWR spent fuel assembly emplaced to yield a 36 kW/acre (8.9 W/m 2 ) loading. A unit cell model in an infinite array is used to simplify the problem and provide upper-bound temperatures. Boundary conditions are imposed which allow simulations to 1000 years. Variations studied include a comparison of ventilated and unventilated storage room conditions, emplacement packages with and without air gaps surrounding the canister, and room cool-down scenarios with ventilation following an unventilated state for retrieval purposes. It was found that at this low-power level, ventilating the emplacement room has an immediate cooling influence on the canister and effectively maintains the emplacement room floor near the temperature of the ventilating air

  2. Advances in thermal control and performance of the MMT M1 mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. D.; Williams, G. G.; Callahan, S.; Comisso, B.; Ortiz, R.; Williams, J. T.

    2010-07-01

    Strategies for thermal control of the 6.5-meter diameter borosilicate honeycomb primary (M1) mirror at the MMT Observatory have included: 1) direct control of ventilation system chiller setpoints by the telescope operator, 2) semiautomated control of chiller setpoints, using a fixed offset from the ambient temperature, and 3) most recently, an automated temperature controller for conditioned air. Details of this automated controller, including the integration of multiple chillers, heat exchangers, and temperature/dew point sensors, are presented here. Constraints and sanity checks for thermal control are also discussed, including: 1) mirror and hardware safety, 2) aluminum coating preservation, and 3) optimization of M1 thermal conditions for science acquisition by minimizing both air-to-glass temperature differences, which cause mirror seeing, and internal glass temperature gradients, which cause wavefront errors. Consideration is given to special operating conditions, such as high dew and frost points. Precise temperature control of conditioned ventilation air as delivered to the M1 mirror cell is also discussed. The performance of the new automated controller is assessed and compared to previous control strategies. Finally, suggestions are made for further refinement of the M1 mirror thermal control system and related algorithms.

  3. Thermal behaviour of advanced composite materials based on SiC fibres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balek, V.; Mitsuhasi, T.; Šubrt, Jan; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Málek, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2003), s. 119-127 ISSN 1388-6150 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 497 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : annealing * emanation thermal analysis * near surface layers Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.094, year: 2003

  4. Advances of study on thermal-hydraulic performance in tight-lattice rod bundles for reduced-moderation water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akira Ohnuki; Kazuyuki Takase; Masatoshi Kureta; Hiroyuki Yoshida; Hidesada Tamai; Wei Liu; Toru Nakatsuka; Hajime Akimoto

    2005-01-01

    R and D project to investigate thermal-hydraulic performance in tight-lattice rod bundles for Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) is started at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in collaboration with power company, reactor vendors, universities since 2002. The RMWR can attain the favorable characteristics such as effective utilization of uranium resources, multiple recycling of plutonium, high burn-up and long operation cycle, based on matured LWR technologies. MOX fuel assemblies with tight lattice arrangement are used to increase the conversion ratio by reducing the moderation of neutron. Increasing the in-core void fraction also contributes to the reduction of neutron moderation. The confirmation of thermal-hydraulic feasibility is one of the most important R and D items for the RMWR because of the tight-lattice configuration. In this paper, we will show the R and D plan and describe some advances on experimental and analytical studies. The experimental study is performed mainly using large-scale (37-rod bundle) test facility and the analytical one aims to develop a predictable technology for geometry effects such as gap between rods, grid spacer configuration etc. using advanced 3-D two-phase flow simulation methods. Steady-state and transient critical power experiments are conducted with the test facility (Gap width between rods: 1.0 mm) and the experimental data reveal the feasibility of RMWR. (authors)

  5. A new multi-scale platform for advanced nuclear thermal-hydraulics status and prospects of the Neptune project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestion, D.; Boudier, P.; Hervieu, E.; Boucker, M.; Peturaud, P.; Guelfi, A.; Fillion, P.; Grandotto, M.; Herard, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Further to a thorough analysis of the industrial needs and of the limitations of current simulation tools, EDF (Electricite de France) and CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) launched in 2001 a new long-term joint development program for the next generation of nuclear reactors simulation tools. The NEPTUNE Project, which constitutes the Thermal-Hydraulics part of this comprehensive program, aims at building a new software platform for advanced two-phase flow thermal-hydraulics allowing easy multi-scale and multi-disciplinary calculations meeting the industrial needs. The NEPTUNE activities include software development, research in physical modeling and numerical methods, the development of advanced instrumentation techniques and performance of new experimental programs. The work focuses on the four different simulation scales: DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation), local CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), component (subchannel-type analysis) and system scales. New physical models and numerical methods are being developed for each scale as well as for their coupling. This paper gives an overview of the NEPTUNE activities. It presents the main scientific and technical achievements obtained during Phase 1 (2002-2003) and at the beginning of Phase 2 (2004- 2006). Planned work for the future is also presented. (authors)

  6. An optimization study of peak thermal neutron flux in moderators of advanced repetitive pulse reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaoka, Takumi; Watanabe, N.

    1976-01-01

    In achieving a high peak thermal neutron flux in hydrogenous moderators installed in repetitive pulse reactors, the core-moderator arrangement can play as much an important role as the moderator design itself. However, the effect of the former has not been adequately emphasized to date, while a rather extensive study has been made on the latter. The present study concerns with a core-moderator system parameter optimization for a repetitive accelerator pulsed fast reactor. The results have shown that small differences in the arrangement resulting from the optimizations of various parameters are significant and the effects can be summed up to give an increase in the peak thermal flux by a factor of about two. (auth.)

  7. Advances in analysis of pre-earthquake thermal anomalies by analyzing IR satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, D.; Bryant, N.; Filizzola, C.; Pergola, N.; Taylor, P.; Tramutoli, V.

    Presented work addresses the possible relationship between tectonic stress, electro-chemical and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere and increasing infrared (IR) flux as part of a larger family of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena related to earthquake activity. Thermal infra-red (TIR) surveys performed by polar orbiting (NOAA/AVHRR, MODIS) and geosynchronous weather satellites (GOES, METEOSAT) seems to indicate the appearance (from days to weeks before the event) of "anomalous" space-time TIR transients associated with the place (epicentral area, linear structures and fault systems) and the time of occurrence of a number of major earthquakes with M>5 and focal depths no deeper than 50km. As Earth emitted in 8-14 microns range the TIR signal measured from satellite strongly vary depending on meteorological conditions and other factors (space-time changes in atmospheric transmittance, time/season, solar and satellite zenithal angles and etc) independent from seismic activity, a preliminary definition of "anomalous TIR signal" should be given. To provide reliable discrimination of thermal anomalous area from the natural events (seasonal changes, local morphology) new robust approach (RAT) has been recently proposed (and successfully applied in the field of the monitoring of the major environmental risks) that permits to give a statistically based definition of thermal info-red (TIR) anomaly and reduce of false events detection. New techniques also were specifically developed to assure the precise co-registration of all satellite scenes and permit accurate time-series analysis of satellite observations. As final results we present examples of most recent 2000/2004 worldwide strong earthquakes and the techniques used to capture the tracks of thermal emission mid-IR anomalies and methodology for practical future use of such phenomena in the early warning systems.

  8. Modelling of shear effects on thermal and particle transport in advanced Tokamak scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, D.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Baker, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Evolution of thermal and particle internal transport barriers (ITBs) is studied by modelling the time-dependent energy and particle balance in DIII-D plasmas with reversed magnetic shear configurations and in JET discharges with monotonic or slightly reversed q-profiles and large ExB rotation shear. Simulations are performed with semi-empirical models for anomalous diffusion and particle pinch. Stabilizing effects of magnetic and ExB rotation shears are included in anomalous particle and heat diffusivity. Shear effects on particle and thermal transport are compared. Improved particle and energy confinement with the formation of an internal transport barrier (ITB) has been produced in DIII-D plasmas during current ramp-up accompanied with neutral beam injection (NBI). These plasmas are characterized by strong reversed magnetic shear and large ExB rotation shear which provide the reduction of anomalous fluxes. The formation of ITB's in the optimized shear (OS) JET scenario starts with strong NBI heating in a target plasma with a flat or slightly reversed q-profile pre-formed during current ramp-up with ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). Our paper presents the modelling of particle and thermal transport for these scenarios. (authors)

  9. ADVANCED COMPUTATIONALMETHODS FOR COMPLEX SIMULATION OF THERMAL PROCESSES IN POWER ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto V. Filkoski

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The overall frame and principal steps of complex numerical modelling of thermal processes in power boiler furnaces on pulverised coal with tangential disposition of the burners are presented in the paper. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD technique is used as a tool to perform comprehensive thermal analysis in two test cases. The methodology for creation of three-dimensional models of boiler furnaces is briefly described. Standard steady k- model is employed for description of the turbulent flow. The coupling of continuity and momentum is achieved by the SIMPLEC method. Coal combustion is modelled by the mixture fraction/probability density function approach for the reaction chemistry, with equilibrium assumption applied for description of the system chemistry. Thermal radiation is computed by means of the simplified P-N model, based on expansion of the radiation intensity into an orthogonal series of spherical harmonics.Comparison between the simulation predictions and available site measurements leads to a conclusion that the model produces realistic insight into the furnace processes. Qualitative agreement of the results indicates reasonability of the calculations and validates the employed sub-models. The described test cases and other experiences with CFD modelling stress the advantages over a purely field data study, such as the ability to quickly and cheaply analyse a variety of design options without actually modifying the object and the availability of significantly more data to interpret the results.

  10. Validation of thermal hydraulic computer codes for advanced light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Czech Republic operates 4 WWER-440 units, two WWER-1000 units are being finalised (one of them is undergoing commissioning). Thermal-hydraulics Department of the Nuclear Research Institute Rez performs accident analyses for these plants using a number of computer codes. To model the primary and secondary circuits behaviour the system codes ATHLET, CATHARE, RELAP, TRAC are applied. Containment and pressure-suppressure system are modelled with RALOC and MELCOR codes, the reactor power calculations (point and space-neutron kinetics) are made with DYN3D, NESTLE and CDF codes (FLUENT, TRIO) are used for some specific problems. An integral part of the current Czech project 'New Energy Sources' is selection of a new nuclear source. Within this and the preceding projects financed by the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade and the EU PHARE, the Department carries and has carried out the systematic validation of thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics computer codes applying data obtained on several experimental facilities as well as the real operational data. The paper provides a concise information on these activities of the NRI and its Thermal-hydraulics Department. A detailed example of the system code validation and the consequent utilisation of the results for a real NPP purposes is included. (author)

  11. Recent advances in flat plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Adnan; Othman, Mohd Yusof; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Mat, Sohif; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman [Solar Energy Research Institute Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    Flat plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collector produces both thermal energy and electricity simultaneously. This paper presents the state-of-the-art on flat plate PV/T collector classification, design and performance evaluation of water, air and combination of water and/or air based. This review also covers the future development of flat plate PV/T solar collector on building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) and building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPVT) applications. Different designs feature and performance of flat plate PV/T solar collectors have been compared and discussed. Future research and development (R and D) works have been elaborated. The tube and sheet design is the simplest and easiest to be manufactured, even though, the efficiency is 2% lower compared to other types of collectors such as, channel, free flow and two-absorber. It is clear from the review that for both air and water based PV/T solar collectors, the important key factors that influenced the efficiency of the system are the area where the collector covered, the number of passes and the gap between the absorber collector and solar cells. From the literature review, it is obvious that the flat plate PV/T solar collector is an alternative promising system for low-energy applications in residential, industrial and commercial buildings. Other possible areas for the future works of BIPVT are also mentioned. (author)

  12. A review of modern advances in analyses and applications of single-phase natural circulation loop in nuclear thermal hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Dipankar N.; Bhattacharyya, Souvik; Das, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive review of state-of-the-art on single-phase natural circulation loops. • Detailed discussion on growth in solar thermal system and nuclear thermal hydraulics. • Systematic development in scaling methodologies for fabrication of test facilities. • Importance of numerical modeling schemes for stability assessment using 1-D codes. • Appraisal of current trend of research and possible future directions. - Abstract: A comprehensive review of single-phase natural circulation loop (NCL) is presented here. Relevant literature reported since the later part of 1980s has been meticulously surveyed, with occasional obligatory reference to a few pioneering studies originating prior to that period, summarizing the key observations and the present trend of research. Development in the concept of buoyancy-induced flow is discussed, with introduction to flow initiation in an NCL due to instability. Detailed discussion on modern advancement in important application areas like solar thermal systems and nuclear thermal hydraulics are presented, with separate analysis for various reactor designs working on natural circulation. Identification of scaling criteria for designing lab-scale experimental facilities has gone through a series of modification. A systematic analysis of the same is presented, considering the state-of-the-art knowledge base. Different approaches have been followed for modeling single-phase NCLs, including simplified Lorenz system mostly for toroidal loops, 1-D computational modeling for both steady-state and stability characterization and 3-D commercial system codes to have a better flow visualization. Methodical review of the relevant studies is presented following a systematic approach, to assess the gradual progression in understanding of the practical system. Brief appraisal of current research interest is reported, including the use of nanofluids for fluid property augmentation, marine reactors subjected to rolling waves

  13. A review of modern advances in analyses and applications of single-phase natural circulation loop in nuclear thermal hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Dipankar N., E-mail: dipankar.n.basu@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Bhattacharyya, Souvik; Das, P.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Comprehensive review of state-of-the-art on single-phase natural circulation loops. • Detailed discussion on growth in solar thermal system and nuclear thermal hydraulics. • Systematic development in scaling methodologies for fabrication of test facilities. • Importance of numerical modeling schemes for stability assessment using 1-D codes. • Appraisal of current trend of research and possible future directions. - Abstract: A comprehensive review of single-phase natural circulation loop (NCL) is presented here. Relevant literature reported since the later part of 1980s has been meticulously surveyed, with occasional obligatory reference to a few pioneering studies originating prior to that period, summarizing the key observations and the present trend of research. Development in the concept of buoyancy-induced flow is discussed, with introduction to flow initiation in an NCL due to instability. Detailed discussion on modern advancement in important application areas like solar thermal systems and nuclear thermal hydraulics are presented, with separate analysis for various reactor designs working on natural circulation. Identification of scaling criteria for designing lab-scale experimental facilities has gone through a series of modification. A systematic analysis of the same is presented, considering the state-of-the-art knowledge base. Different approaches have been followed for modeling single-phase NCLs, including simplified Lorenz system mostly for toroidal loops, 1-D computational modeling for both steady-state and stability characterization and 3-D commercial system codes to have a better flow visualization. Methodical review of the relevant studies is presented following a systematic approach, to assess the gradual progression in understanding of the practical system. Brief appraisal of current research interest is reported, including the use of nanofluids for fluid property augmentation, marine reactors subjected to rolling waves

  14. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  15. Thermal hydraulic studies for passive heat transport systems relevant to advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, P.K.; Sharma, M.; Borgohain, A.; Srivastava, A.K.; Pilkhwal, D.S.; Maheshwari, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear is the only non-green house gas generating power source that can replace fossil fuels and can be commercially deployed in large scale. However, the enormous developmental efforts and safety upgrades during the past six decades have somewhat eroded the economic competitiveness of water-cooled reactors which form the mainstay of the current nuclear power programme. Further, the introduction of the supercritical Rankine cycle and the gas turbine based advanced fuel cycles have enhanced the efficiency of fossil fired power plants (FPP) thereby reducing its greenhouse gas emissions. The ongoing development of ultra-supercritical and advanced ultra-supercritical turbines aims to further reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and economic competitiveness of FPPs. In the backdrop of these developments, the nuclear industry also initiated development of advanced nuclear power plants (NPP) with improved efficiency, sustainability and enhanced safety as the main goals. A review of the advanced reactor concepts being investigated currently reveals that excepting the SCWR, all other concepts use coolants other than water. The coolants used are lead, lead bismuth eutectic, liquid sodium, molten salts, helium and supercritical water. Besides, some of these are employing passive systems to transport heat from the core under normal operating conditions. In view of this, a study is in progress at BARC to examine the performance of simple passive systems using SC CO 2 , SCW, LBE and molten salts as the coolant. This paper deals with some of the recent results of these studies. The study focuses on the steady state, transient and stability behaviour of the passive systems with these coolants. (author)

  16. High-flux/high-temperature solar thermal conversion: technology development and advanced applications

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Manuel; González-Aguilar José

    2016-01-01

    Solar Thermal Power Plants have generated in the last 10 years a dynamic market for renewable energy industry and a pro-active networking within R&D community worldwide. By end 2015, there are about 5 GW installed in the world, most of them still concentrated in only two countries, Spain and the US, though a rapid process of globalization is taking place in the last few years and now ambitious market deployment is starting in countries like South Africa, Chile, Saudi Arabia, India, United Ara...

  17. Comparative Evaluation of the Loss and Thermal Performance of Advanced Three Level Inverter Topologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthon, Alexander; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    . The first solution directly replaces the 1200V primary Si IGBT switches with lower loss 1200V SiC MOSFETs. The second solution strategically adds 600V CoolMos FET devices to the conventional Si T-Type inverter to reduce the primary commutation losses. Semiconductor loss models, experimentally verified...... on calibrated heat sinks, are used to show that both variations can significantly reduce the semiconductor losses compared to the Si T-Type inverter. The results show that both alternatives are attractive if high efficiencies and reduced thermal stress are major requirements for the converter design....

  18. Best estimate LB LOCA approach based on advanced thermal-hydraulic codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvage, J.Y.; Gandrille, J.L.; Gaurrand, M.; Rochwerger, D.; Thibaudeau, J.; Viloteau, E.

    2004-01-01

    Improvements achieved in thermal-hydraulics with development of Best Estimate computer codes, have led number of Safety Authorities to preconize realistic analyses instead of conservative calculations. The potentiality of a Best Estimate approach for the analysis of LOCAs urged FRAMATOME to early enter into the development with CEA and EDF of the 2nd generation code CATHARE, then of a LBLOCA BE methodology with BWNT following the Code Scaling Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) proceeding. CATHARE and TRAC are the basic tools for LOCA studies which will be performed by FRAMATOME according to either a deterministic better estimate (dbe) methodology or a Statistical Best Estimate (SBE) methodology. (author)

  19. Association of rectal toxicity with thermal dose parameters in treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer with radiation and hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurwitz, Mark D.; Kaplan, Irving D.; Hansen, Jorgen L.; Prokopios-Davos, Savina; Topulos, George P.; Wishnow, Kenneth; Manola, Judith; Bornstein, Bruce A.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2002-01-01

    .66 (p=0.03), and 2.29 (p=0.08), respectively. A model combining these three parameters explained 48.6% of the variability among groups. Conclusion: Rectal toxicity correlates with maximum allowable rectal wall temperature, average rectal wall Tmax, and average prostate Tmax for patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound hyperthermia combined with radiation for treatment of advanced clinically localized prostate cancer. Further definition of this association of thermal dose parameters with rectal toxicity in treatment of pelvic malignancies with hyperthermia should advance the goal of delivering thermal therapy in an effective yet safe manner

  20. High-flux/high-temperature solar thermal conversion: technology development and advanced applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar Thermal Power Plants have generated in the last 10 years a dynamic market for renewable energy industry and a pro-active networking within R&D community worldwide. By end 2015, there are about 5 GW installed in the world, most of them still concentrated in only two countries, Spain and the US, though a rapid process of globalization is taking place in the last few years and now ambitious market deployment is starting in countries like South Africa, Chile, Saudi Arabia, India, United Arab Emirates or Morocco. Prices for electricity produced by today's plants fill the range from 12 to 16 c€/kWh and they are capital intensive with investments above 4000 €/kW, depending on the number of hours of thermal storage. The urgent need to speed up the learning curve, by moving forward to LCOE below 10 c€/kWh and the promotion of sun-to-fuel applications, is driving the R&D programmes. Both, industry and R&D community are accelerating the transformation by approaching high-flux/high-temperature technologies and promoting the integration with high-efficiency conversion systems.

  1. Micro-fabricated silicon devices for advanced thermal management and integration of particle tracking detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Romagnoli, Giulia; Gambaro, Carla

    Since their first studies targeting the cooling of high-power computing chips, micro-channel devices are proven to provide a very efficient cooling system. In the last years micro-channel cooling has been successfully applied to the cooling of particle detectors at CERN. Thanks to their high thermal efficiency, they can guarantee a good heat sink for the cooling of silicon trackers, fundamental for the reduction of the radiation damage caused by the beam interactions. The radiation damage on the silicon detector is increasing with temperature and furthermore the detectors are producing heat that should be dissipated in the supporting structure. Micro-channels guarantee a distributed and uniform thermal exchange, thanks to the high flexibility of the micro-fabrication process that allows a large variety of channel designs. The thin nature of the micro-channels etched inside silicon wafers, is fulfilling the physics requirement of minimization of the material crossed by the particle beam. Furthermore micro-chan...

  2. Non-Thermal Plasma (NTP) session overview: Second International Symposium on Environmental Applications of Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOTs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Technologies (used in pollution control and treating hazardous wastes) has expanded from using hydroxyl radicals to treat organic compounds in water, to using reductive free radicals as well, and to application to pollutants in both gases and aqueous media. Non-Thermal Plasma (NTP) is created in a gas by an electrical discharge or energetic electron injection. Highly reactive species (O atoms, OH, N radicals, plasma electrons) react with entrained hazardous organic chemicals in the gas, converting them to CO2, H2O, etc. NTP can be used to simultaneously remove different kinds of pollutants (eg, VOCs, SOx, NOx in flue gases). This paper presents an overview of NTP technology for pollution control and hazardous waste treatment; it is intended as an introduction to the NTP session of the symposium

  3. Expected very-near-field thermal environments for advanced spent-fuel and defense high-level waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickertsen, L.D.; Misplon, M.A.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1982-03-01

    The very-near-field thermal environments expected in a nuclear waste repository in a salt formation have been evaluated for the Westinghouse Form I advanced waste package concepts. The repository descriptions used to supplement the waste package designs in these analyses are realistic and take into account design constraints to assure conservatism. As a result, areal loadings are well below the acceptable values established for salt repositories. Predicted temperatures are generally well below any temperature limits which have been discussed for waste packages in a salt formation. These low temperatures result from the conservative repository designs. Investigations are also made of the sensitivity of these temperatures to areal loading, canister separation, and other design features

  4. Advanced methodology to simulate boiling water reactor transient using coupled thermal-hydraulic/neutron-kinetic codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Christoph Oliver

    2016-06-13

    Coupled Thermal-hydraulic/Neutron-kinetic (TH/NK) simulations of Boiling Water Reactor transients require well validated and accurate simulation tools. The generation of cross-section (XS) libraries, depending on the individual thermal-hydraulic state parameters, is of paramount importance for coupled simulations. Problem-dependent XS-sets for 3D core simulations are being generated mainly by well validated, fast running commercial and user-friendly lattice codes such as CASMO and HELIOS. In this dissertation a computational route, based on the lattice code SCALE6/TRITON, the cross-section interface GenPMAXS, the best-estimate thermal-hydraulic system code TRACE and the core simulator PARCS, for best-estimate simulations of Boiling Water (BWR) transients has been developed and validated. The computational route has been supplemented by a subsequent uncertainty and sensitivity study based on Monte Carlo sampling and propagation of the uncertainties of input parameters to the output (SUSA code). The analysis of a single BWR fuel assembly depletion problem with PARCS using SCALE/TRITON cross-sections has been shown a good agreement with the results obtained with CASMO cross-section sets. However, to compensate the deficiencies of the interface program GenPMAXS, PYTHON scripts had to be developed to incorporate missing data, as the yields of Iodine, Xenon and Promethium, into the cross-section-data sets (PMAXS-format) generated by GenPMAXS from the SCALE/TRITON output. The results of the depletion analysis of a full BWR core with PARCS have indicated the importance of considering history effects, adequate modeling of the reflector region and the control rods, as the PARCS simulations for depleted fuel and all control rods inserted (ARI) differs significantly at the fuel assembly top and bottom. Systematic investigations with the coupled codes TRACE/PARCS have been performed to analyse the core behaviour at different thermal conditions using nuclear data (XS

  5. Nanoencapsulation of phase change materials for advanced thermal energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchukina, E. M.; Graham, M.; Zheng, Z.

    2018-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) allow the storage of large amounts of latent heat during phase transition. They have the potential to both increase the efficiency of renewable energies such as solar power through storage of excess energy, which can be used at times of peak demand; and to reduce overall energy demand through passive thermal regulation. 198.3 million tons of oil equivalent were used in the EU in 2013 for heating. However, bulk PCMs are not suitable for use without prior encapsulation. Encapsulation in a shell material provides benefits such as protection of the PCM from the external environment and increased specific surface area to improve heat transfer. This review highlights techniques for the encapsulation of both organic and inorganic PCMs, paying particular attention to nanoencapsulation (capsules with sizes energy release/uptake. PMID:29658558

  6. Nanoencapsulation of phase change materials for advanced thermal energy storage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchukina, E M; Graham, M; Zheng, Z; Shchukin, D G

    2018-04-16

    Phase change materials (PCMs) allow the storage of large amounts of latent heat during phase transition. They have the potential to both increase the efficiency of renewable energies such as solar power through storage of excess energy, which can be used at times of peak demand; and to reduce overall energy demand through passive thermal regulation. 198.3 million tons of oil equivalent were used in the EU in 2013 for heating. However, bulk PCMs are not suitable for use without prior encapsulation. Encapsulation in a shell material provides benefits such as protection of the PCM from the external environment and increased specific surface area to improve heat transfer. This review highlights techniques for the encapsulation of both organic and inorganic PCMs, paying particular attention to nanoencapsulation (capsules with sizes energy release/uptake.

  7. Recent advances in modeling and validation of nuclear thermal-hydraulics applications with NEPTUNE CFD - 15471

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guingo, M.; Baudry, C.; Hassanaly, M.; Lavieville, J.; Mechitouna, N.; Merigoux, N.; Mimouni, S.; Bestion, D.; Coste, P.; Morel, C.

    2015-01-01

    NEPTUNE CFD is a Computational Multi-(Fluid) Dynamics code dedicated to the simulation of multiphase flows, primarily targeting nuclear thermo-hydraulics applications, such as the departure from nuclear boiling (DNB) or the two-phase Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS). It is co-developed within the joint research/development project NEPTUNE (AREVA, CEA, EDF, IRSN) since 2001. Over the years, to address the aforementioned applications, dedicated physical models and numerical methods have been developed and implemented in the code, including specific sets of models for turbulent boiling flows and two-phase non-adiabatic stratified flows. This paper aims at summarizing the current main modeling capabilities of the code, and gives an overview of the associated validation database. A brief summary of emerging applications of the code, such as containment simulation during a potential severe accident or in-vessel retention, is also provided. (authors)

  8. Consideration of a design optimization method for advanced nuclear power plant thermal-hydraulic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridluan, Artit; Tokuhiro, Akira; Manic, Milos; Patterson, Michael; Danchus, William

    2009-01-01

    In order to meet the global energy demand and also mitigate climate change, we anticipate a significant resurgence of nuclear power in the next 50 years. Globally, Generation III plants (ABWR) have been built; Gen' III+ plants (EPR, AP1000 others) are anticipated in the near term. The U.S. DOE and Japan are respectively pursuing the NGNP and MSFR. There is renewed interest in closing the fuel cycle and gradually introducing the fast reactor into the LWR-dominated global fleet. In order to meet Generation IV criteria, i.e. thermal efficiency, inherent safety, proliferation resistance and economic competitiveness, plant and energy conversion system engineering design have to increasingly meet strict design criteria with reduced margin for reliable safety and uncertainties. Here, we considered a design optimization approach using an anticipated NGNP thermal system component as a Case Study. A systematic, efficient methodology is needed to reduce time consuming trial-and-error and computationally-intensive analyses. We thus developed a design optimization method linking three elements; that is, benchmarked CFD used as a 'design tool', artificial neural networks (ANN) to accommodate non-linear system behavior and enhancement of the 'design space', and finally, response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the design solution with targeted constraints. The paper presents the methodology including guiding principles, an integration of CFD into design theory and practice, consideration of system non-linearities (such as fluctuating operating conditions) and systematic enhancement of the design space via application of ANN, and a stochastic optimization approach (RSM) with targeted constraints. Results from a Case Study optimizing the printed circuit heat exchanger for the NGNP energy conversion system will be presented. (author)

  9. Preparation of organo clays thermally stable to be employed as filler in PET nano composites; Preparacao de argilas organofilicas estaveis termicamente para serem empregadas como cargas em nanocompositos de PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, I.F. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (PGMTR/CCEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia de Materiais; Soares, A.P.S.; Silva, S.M.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Malta, O.M.L. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza. Dept. de Quimica Fundamental

    2009-07-01

    Thermal stability of organically modified clays is fundamental to melt processing polymer nanocomposites, especially, poly(terephthalate ethylene) (PET). However, the use of organic salts with high thermal stability is factor essential to obtaining of organoclays with great thermal properties. This work has as purpose to evaluate the influence of organic modifier based on alkyl ammonium, alkyl phosphonium and aryl phosphonium, in the clay organic modification visa to improve thermal properties to use as filler in nanocomposites preparation, where temperatures at about 260 deg C will be employed. The most common, and commercially available, surfactants used for cation exchange reactions with montmorillonites, rendering them organophilic, are quaternary ammonium salts, that when present as cations in montmorillonite, typically begin degradation at above 200 deg C. However, organoclays prepared with quaternary alkyl phosphonium salts may be potentially useful for the organoclays preparation stable thermally. In this study bentonite clay from Bentonit Uniao Nordeste/PB was purified and organically modified with the organic salts reported above. Organoclays were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and analysis thermogravimetry. The results shown that the samples modified with the salts based on phosphonium presented higher thermal stability that the alkyl ammonium salt. (author)

  10. Thermohydraulic Design Analysis Modeling for Korea Advanced NUclear Thermal Engine Rocket for Space Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Choi, Jae Young; Venneria, Paolo F.; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Space exploration is a realistic and profitable goal for long-term humanity survival, although the harsh space environment imposes lots of severe challenges to space pioneers. To date, almost all space programs have relied upon Chemical Rockets (CRs) rating superior thrust level to transit from the Earth's surface to its orbit. However, CRs inherently have insurmountable barrier to carry out deep space missions beyond Earth's orbit due to its low propellant efficiency, and ensuing enormous propellant requirement and launch costs. Meanwhile, nuclear rockets typically offer at least two times the propellant efficiency of a CR and thus notably reduce the propellant demand. Particularly, a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) is a leading candidate for near-term manned missions to Mars and beyond because it satisfies a relatively high thrust as well as a high efficiency. The superior efficiency of NTRs is due to both high energy density of nuclear fuel and the low molecular weight propellant of Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) over the chemical reaction by-products. A NTR uses thermal energy released from a nuclear fission reactor to heat the H{sub 2} propellant and then exhausted the highly heated propellant through a propelling nozzle to produce thrust. A propellant efficiency parameter of rocket engines is specific impulse (I{sub s}p) which represents the ratio of the thrust over the propellant consumption rate. If the average exhaust H{sub 2} temperature of a NTR is around 3,000 K, the I{sub s}p can be achieved as high as 1,000 s as compared with only 450 - 500 s of the best CRs. For this reason, NTRs are favored for various space applications such as orbital tugs, lunar transports, and manned missions to Mars and beyond. The best known NTR development effort was conducted from 1955 to1974 under the ROVER and NERVA programs in the USA. These programs had successfully designed and tested many different reactors and engines. After these projects, the researches on NERVA derived

  11. Thermal fluid dynamics study of nuclear advanced reactors of high temperature using RELAP5-3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scari, Maria Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Fourth Generation nuclear reactors (GEN-IV) are being designed with special features such as intrinsic safety, reduction of isotopic inventory and use of fuel in proliferation-resistant cycles. Therefore, the investigation and evaluation of operational and safety aspects of the GEN-IV reactors have been the subject of numerous studies by the international community and also in Brazil. In 2008, in Brazil, was created the National Institute of Science and Technology of Innovative Nuclear Reactors, focusing on studies of projects and systems of new generation reactors, which included GEN-IV reactors as well as advanced PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) concepts. The Department of Nuclear Engineering of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (DEN-UFMG) is a partner of this Institute, having started studies on the GEN-IV reactors in the year 2007. Therefore, in order to add knowledge to these studies, in this work, three projects of advanced reactors were considered to verify the simulation capability of the thermo-hydraulic RELAP5-3D code for these systems, either in stationary operation or in transient situations. The addition of new working fluids such as ammonia, carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, various types of liquid salts, among them Flibe, lead, lithium-bismuth, lithium-lead, was a major breakthrough in this version of the code, allowing also the simulation of GEN-IV reactors. The modeling of the respective core of an HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor), HTR-10 (High Temperature Test Module Reactor) and LS-VHTR (Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very-High-Temperature Reactor) were developed and verified in steady state comparing the values found through the calculations with reference data from other simulations, when it is possible. The first two reactors use helium gas as coolant and the LS-VHTR uses a mixture of 66% LiF and 34% of BeF 2 , the LiF-BeF 2 , also know as Flibe. All the studied reactors use enriched uranium as fuel, in form of TRISO (Tristructural

  12. Advanced Spectroscopic and Thermal Imaging Instrumentation for Shock Tube and Ballistic Range Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Jay H.; Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.; Cruden, Brett A.; Bogdanoff, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility and Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility (HFFAF, an aeroballistic range) at NASA Ames support basic research in aerothermodynamic phenomena of atmospheric entry, specifically shock layer radiation spectroscopy, convective and radiative heat transfer, and transition to turbulence. Innovative optical instrumentation has been developed and implemented to meet the challenges posed from obtaining such data in these impulse facilities. Spatially and spectrally resolved measurements of absolute radiance of a travelling shock wave in EAST are acquired using multiplexed, time-gated imaging spectrographs. Nearly complete spectral coverage from the vacuum ultraviolet to the near infrared is possible in a single experiment. Time-gated thermal imaging of ballistic range models in flight enables quantitative, global measurements of surface temperature. These images can be interpreted to determine convective heat transfer rates and reveal transition to turbulence due to isolated and distributed surface roughness at hypersonic velocities. The focus of this paper is a detailed description of the optical instrumentation currently in use in the EAST and HFFAF.

  13. Method and Process Development of Advanced Atmospheric Plasma Spraying for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihm, Sebastian; Duda, Thomas; Gruner, Heiko; Thomas, Georg; Dzur, Birger

    2012-06-01

    Over the last few years, global economic growth has triggered a dramatic increase in the demand for resources, resulting in steady rise in prices for energy and raw materials. In the gas turbine manufacturing sector, process optimizations of cost-intensive production steps involve a heightened potential of savings and form the basis for securing future competitive advantages in the market. In this context, the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process for thermal barrier coatings (TBC) has been optimized. A constraint for the optimization of the APS coating process is the use of the existing coating equipment. Furthermore, the current coating quality and characteristics must not change so as to avoid new qualification and testing. Using experience in APS and empirically gained data, the process optimization plan included the variation of e.g. the plasma gas composition and flow-rate, the electrical power, the arrangement and angle of the powder injectors in relation to the plasma jet, the grain size distribution of the spray powder and the plasma torch movement procedures such as spray distance, offset and iteration. In particular, plasma properties (enthalpy, velocity and temperature), powder injection conditions (injection point, injection speed, grain size and distribution) and the coating lamination (coating pattern and spraying distance) are examined. The optimized process and resulting coating were compared to the current situation using several diagnostic methods. The improved process significantly reduces costs and achieves the requirement of comparable coating quality. Furthermore, a contribution was made towards better comprehension of the APS of ceramics and the definition of a better method for future process developments.

  14. Advanced core physics and thermal hydraulics analysis of boiling water reactors using innovative fuel concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The economical operation of a boiling water reactor (BWR) is mainly achieved by the axially uniform utilization of the nuclear fuel in the assemblies which is challenging because the neutron spectrum in the active reactor core varies with the axial position. More precisely, the neutron spectrum becomes harder the higher the position is resulting in a decrease of the fuel utilization because the microscopic fission cross section is smaller by several orders of magnitude. In this work, the use of two fuel concepts based on a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and an innovative thorium-plutonium (ThPu) fuel is investigated by a developed simulation model encompassing thermal hydraulics, neutronics, and fuel burnup. The main feature of these fuel concepts is the axially varying enrichment in plutonium which is, in this work, recycled from spent nuclear fuel and shows a high fission fraction of the absorption cross section for fast incident neutron energies. The potential of balancing the overall fuel utilization by an increase of the fission rate in the upper part of the active height with a combination of the harder spectrum and the higher fission fraction of the absorption cross section in the BWR core is studied. The three particular calculational models for thermal hydraulics, neutronics, and fuel burnup provide results at fuel assembly and/or at core level. In the former case, the main focus lies on the thermal hydraulics analysis, fuel burnup, and activity evolution after unloading from the core and, in the latter case, special attention is paid to reactivity safety coefficients (feedback effects) and the optimization of the operational behavior. At both levels (assembly and core), the isotopic buildup and depletion rates as a function of the active height are analyzed. In addition, a comparison between the use of conventional fuel types with homogeneous enrichments and the use of the innovative fuel types is made. In the framework of the simulations, the ThPu and the MOX

  15. Advanced analysis of thermal data observed in subsurface wells unmasks the ancient climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Kutasov, Izzy

    2014-05-01

    temperature at the moment of time t = 0 years; z is the vertical depth and Γ is the geothermal gradient. It is also assumed that the host medium is homogeneous with constant thermal properties. Now the current (t = tx) subsurface temperature is (in case of warming): Tc(z,t = tx) = T0c +f (z), (2) where T0c is the current (at the time (date) of temperature logging) mean ground surface temperature; and f(z) is a function of depth that could be obtained from the field data. In some cases the value of T0c can be obtained by extrapolation of the function Tc to z = 0. However, in most cases, the value T0c can be estimated by trial and error method: Assuming an interval of values for T0c, calculating for each T0c value of the temperature profiles Tcfor various models of change in the ground surface temperature (GST) with time and, finally, finding a best match between calculated and field measured Tc profiles. In our study we found that a quadratic regression can be utilized to estimate the value of T0c = a0 (Kutasov et al., 2000): Tc(z,t = tx) = a0 + a1z +a2z2, (3) where a0, a1, and a2 are the coefficients. We will consider four different models (Eppelbaum et al., 2006). Apparently each of these models is more suitable (applicable) under concrete physical-geological conditions. In the first model we assumed that txC years ago the GSTvalue suddenly changed from T0 to T0c. The current temperature anomaly (the reduced temperature) is TR (z) = T0c + f(z) - T0 - Γ z (4) and the solution is ( ) TRC = TR = ΔT0Φ *(x) -;z- ,t = txC, 2 at (5) ΔT0 = T0c - T0, (6)

  16. Stable and self-adaptive performance of mechanically pumped CO2 two-phase loops for AMS-02 tracker thermal control in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Sun, X.-H.; Tong, G.-N.; Huang, Z.-C.; He, Z.-H.; Pauw, A.; Es, J. van; Battiston, R.; Borsini, S.; Laudi, E.; Verlaat, B.; Gargiulo, C.

    2011-01-01

    A mechanically pumped CO 2 two-phase loop cooling system was developed for the temperature control of the silicon tracker of AMS-02, a cosmic particle detector to work in the International Space Station. The cooling system (called TTCS, or Tracker Thermal Control System), consists of two evaporators in parallel to collect heat from the tracker's front-end electronics, two radiators in parallel to emit the heat into space, and a centrifugal pump that circulates the CO 2 fluid that carries the heat to the radiators, and an accumulator that controls the pressure, and thus the temperature of the evaporators. Thermal vacuum tests were performed to check and qualify the system operation in simulated space thermal environment. In this paper, we reported the test results which show that the TTCS exhibited excellent temperature control ability, including temperature homogeneity and stability, and self-adaptive ability to the various external heat flux to the radiators. Highlights: → The active-pumped CO 2 two-phase cooling loop passed the thermal vacuum test. → It provides high temperature homogeneity and stability thermal boundaries. → Its working temperature is controllable in vacuum environment. → It possesses self-adaptive ability to imbalanced external heat fluxes.

  17. Preliminary Thermo-hydraulic Core Design Analysis of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket for Space Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Lee, Jeong Ik; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Nclear rockets improve the propellant efficiency more than twice compared to CRs and thus significantly reduce the propellant requirement. The superior efficiency of nuclear rockets is due to the combination of the huge energy density and a single low molecular weight propellant utilization. Nuclear Thermal Rockets (NTRs) are particularly suitable for manned missions to Mars because it satisfies a relatively high thrust as well as a high propellant efficiency. NTRs use thermal energy released from a nuclear fission reactor to heat a single low molecular weight propellant, i. e., Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and then exhausted the extremely heated propellant through a thermodynamic nozzle to produce thrust. A propellant efficiency parameter of rocket engines is specific impulse (I{sub sp}) which represents the ratio of the thrust over the rate of propellant consumption. The difference of I{sub sp} makes over three times propellant savings of NTRs for a manned Mars mission compared to CRs. NTRs can also be configured to operate bimodally by converting the surplus nuclear energy to auxiliary electric power required for the operation of a spacecraft. Moreover, the concept and technology of NTRs are very simple, already proven, and safe. Thus, NTRs can be applied to various space missions such as solar system exploration, International Space Station (ISS) transport support, Near Earth Objects (NEOs) interception, etc. Nuclear propulsion is the most promising and viable option to achieve challenging deep space missions. Particularly, the attractions of a NTR include excellent thrust and propellant efficiency, bimodal capability, proven technology, and safe and reliable performance. The ROK has also begun the research for space nuclear systems as a volunteer of the international space race and a major world nuclear energy country. KANUTER is one of the advanced NTR engines currently under development at KAIST. This bimodal engine is operated in two modes of propulsion with 100 MW

  18. Unpredictably Stable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2014-01-01

    Is entrepreneurship a more stable career choice for high employment turnover individuals? We find that a transition to entrepreneurship induces a shift towards stayer behavior and identify job matching, job satisfaction and lock-in effects as main drivers. These findings have major implications...

  19. Stable angina

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HDL cholesterol Sedentary lifestyle Smoking Advancing age Male gender Anything that makes the heart muscle need more ... it is not steady (regular) You are having trouble taking your heart medicines You have any other ...

  20. Form-stable LiNO_3–NaNO_3–KNO_3–Ca(NO_3)_2/calcium silicate composite phase change material (PCM) for mid-low temperature thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Zhu; Leng, Guanghui; Ye, Feng; Ge, Zhiwei; Liu, Chuanping; Wang, Li; Huang, Yun; Ding, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The figure (a) displays the microstructure of calcium silicate and the inset figure is the LiNO_3–NaNO_3–KNO_3–Ca(NO_3)_2/calcium silicate composite PCM. Calcium silicate is used as a porous skeleton material which could absorb large amounts of the nitrate PCM in voids and prevent the PCM from leakage during phase change process. Figure (b) shows the heat capacity of the composite PCM and the inset figure is the DSC curve of the composite. It indicates that this composite has a low melting point (103.5 °C) and good energy storage property. Based on the novel LiNO_3–NaNO_3–KNO_3–Ca(NO_3)_2/calcium silicate composite PCM, this work involves fabrication process, thermal and microstructural characterization, and chemical and physical stability measurements. - Highlights: • A novel LiNO_3–NaNO_3–KNO_3–Ca(NO_3)_2/calcium silicate composite PCM was prepared. • It has a low melting point (103.5 °C) and could remain stable until 585.5 °C. • It could keep form-stable without leakage during phase change process. • Thermal conductivity of the composite PCM reaches up to 1.177 W m"−"1 K"−"1. • It shows good thermal reliability after 1000 times heating and cooling cycling. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel form-stable LiNO_3–NaNO_3–KNO_3–Ca(NO_3)_2/calcium silicate composite PCM was developed by cold compression and sintering. The eutectic quaternary nitrate is used as PCM, while calcium silicate is used as structural supporting material. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) shows the PCM and the supporting material have good chemical compatibility. This composite PCM has a low melting point (103.5 °C) and remain stable without decomposition until 585.5 °C. Moreover, this composite shows excellent long term stability after 1000 melting and freezing cycles. Thermal conductivity of the composite was measured to be 1.177 W m"−"1 K"−"1, and that could be increased by adding thermal conductivity enhancers into the composite

  1. International benchmark study of advanced thermal hydraulic safety analysis codes against measurements on IEA-R1 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hainoun, A., E-mail: pscientific2@aec.org.sy [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), Nuclear Engineering Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Doval, A. [Nuclear Engineering Department, Av. Cmdt. Luis Piedrabuena 4950, C.P. 8400 S.C de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Umbehaun, P. [Centro de Engenharia Nuclear – CEN, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242-Cidade Universitaria, CEP-05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chatzidakis, S. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Ghazi, N. [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), Nuclear Engineering Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Park, S. [Research Reactor Design and Engineering Division, Basic Science Project Operation Dept., Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Mladin, M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Campului Street No. 1, P.O. Box 78, 115400 Mioveni, Arges (Romania); Shokr, A. [Division of Nuclear Installation Safety, Research Reactor Safety Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A set of advanced system thermal hydraulic codes are benchmarked against IFA of IEA-R1. • Comparative safety analysis of IEA-R1 reactor during LOFA by 7 working teams. • This work covers both experimental and calculation effort and presents new out findings on TH of RR that have not been reported before. • LOFA results discrepancies from 7% to 20% for coolant and peak clad temperatures are predicted conservatively. - Abstract: In the framework of the IAEA Coordination Research Project on “Innovative methods in research reactor analysis: Benchmark against experimental data on neutronics and thermal hydraulic computational methods and tools for operation and safety analysis of research reactors” the Brazilian research reactor IEA-R1 has been selected as reference facility to perform benchmark calculations for a set of thermal hydraulic codes being widely used by international teams in the field of research reactor (RR) deterministic safety analysis. The goal of the conducted benchmark is to demonstrate the application of innovative reactor analysis tools in the research reactor community, validation of the applied codes and application of the validated codes to perform comprehensive safety analysis of RR. The IEA-R1 is equipped with an Instrumented Fuel Assembly (IFA) which provided measurements for normal operation and loss of flow transient. The measurements comprised coolant and cladding temperatures, reactor power and flow rate. Temperatures are measured at three different radial and axial positions of IFA summing up to 12 measuring points in addition to the coolant inlet and outlet temperatures. The considered benchmark deals with the loss of reactor flow and the subsequent flow reversal from downward forced to upward natural circulation and presents therefore relevant phenomena for the RR safety analysis. The benchmark calculations were performed independently by the participating teams using different thermal hydraulic and safety

  2. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  3. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  4. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree; Heuser, Alexander; Wombacher, Frank; Dietzel, Martin; Tipper, Edward; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  5. Highly transparent and thermal-stable silver nanowire conductive film covered with ZnMgO by atomic-layer-deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Dongchen; Li, Min; Xu, Hua; Zou, Jianhua; Tao, Hong; Peng, Junbiao; Xu, Miao

    2017-12-01

    Solution-processed silver nanowires (AgNWs) have been considered as a promising material for next generation flexible transparent conductive electrodes. However AgNWs films have several intrinsic drawbacks, such as thermal stability and storage stability. Herein, we demonstrate a laminated ZnO/MgO (ZnMgO, ZMO) as a protective layer on the AgNWs films using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The fabricated films exhibited a low sheet resistance of 16 Ω/sq with high transmittance of 91% at 550 nm, an excellent thermal stability and bending property. The ZMO film grows perpendicularly on the surface of the AgNWs, making a perfect coverage of bulk silver nanowires and junction, which can effectively prompt the electrical transport behavior and enhance stability of the silver nanowires network.

  6. Stable and Variable Parts of Microbial Community in Siberian Deep Subsurface Thermal Aquifer System Revealed in a Long-Term Monitoring Study

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Yulia A.; Kadnikov, Vitaly V.; Gavrilov, Sergey N.; Banks, David; Gerasimchuk, Anna L.; Podosokorskaya, Olga A.; Merkel, Alexander Y.; Chernyh, Nikolai A.; Mardanov, Andrey V.; Ravin, Nikolai V.; Karnachuk, Olga V.; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study the diversity of microorganisms inhabiting a deep subsurface aquifer system in order to understand their functional roles and interspecies relations formed in the course of buried organic matter degradation. A microbial community of a deep subsurface thermal aquifer in the Tomsk Region, Western Siberia was monitored over the course of five years via a 2.7 km deep borehole 3P, drilled down to a Palaeozoic basement. The borehole water discharges with a tempera...

  7. Changes in reactivity and in the margins to thermal limits by the inclusion of control rods of advanced type in the Laguna Verde Power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J.L.; Perusquia, R.; Montes, J.L.; Ortiz, J.J.; Ramirez, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The obtained results are presented when simulating with CM-PRESTO code the cycle 10 of the unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Central, using two advanced types of control bars, besides the originally loaded ones. The two advanced types, to those that are denominated 1AV and 2AV in this work, are of different design, however both have in some place of the bar, a section with hafnium like neutron absorber material. They thought about three different scenarios, in the first one, used as reference, is simulated the cycle 10 using the original control bars, while in the other two cases the advanced types are used. The values of the reactivity were compared and of some margins to the thermal limits obtained when using the bars of advanced type, with those obtained in the case in that alone they are considered those original bars. It was found that in condition of power both advanced types present bigger absorber power of neutrons that the original bars, being quantified in average this bigger power in 0.22 pcm/notch for the type 1AV and in 0.51 pcm/notch for the type 2AV. The affectation of the margins to the observed thermal limits is minimum. (Author)

  8. Uses of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, Damian

    1998-01-01

    The most important fields of stable isotope use with examples are presented. These are: 1. Isotope dilution analysis: trace analysis, measurements of volumes and masses; 2. Stable isotopes as tracers: transport phenomena, environmental studies, agricultural research, authentication of products and objects, archaeometry, studies of reaction mechanisms, structure and function determination of complex biological entities, studies of metabolism, breath test for diagnostic; 3. Isotope equilibrium effects: measurement of equilibrium effects, investigation of equilibrium conditions, mechanism of drug action, study of natural processes, water cycle, temperature measurements; 4. Stable isotope for advanced nuclear reactors: uranium nitride with 15 N as nuclear fuel, 157 Gd for reactor control. In spite of some difficulties of stable isotope use, particularly related to the analytical techniques, which are slow and expensive, the number of papers reporting on this subject is steadily growing as well as the number of scientific meetings organized by International Isotope Section and IAEA, Gordon Conferences, and regional meeting in Germany, France, etc. Stable isotope application development on large scale is determined by improving their production technologies as well as those of labeled compound and the analytical techniques. (author)

  9. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazier, J.L.; Guinamant, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    According to the progress which has been realised in the technology of separating and measuring isotopes, the stable isotopes are used as preferable 'labelling elements' for big number of applications. The isotopic composition of natural products shows significant variations as a result of different reasons like the climate, the seasons, or their geographic origins. So, it was proved that the same product has a different isotopic composition of alimentary and agriculture products. It is also important in detecting the pharmacological and medical chemicals. This review article deals with the technology, like chromatography and spectrophotometry, adapted to this aim, and some important applications. 17 refs. 6 figs

  10. Stable Tetraquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris [Fermilab

    2018-04-13

    For very heavy quarks, relations derived from heavy-quark symmetry imply novel narrow doubly heavy tetraquark states containing two heavy quarks and two light antiquarks. We predict that double-beauty states will be stable against strong decays, whereas the double-charm states and mixed beauty+charm states will dissociate into pairs of heavy-light mesons. Observing a new double-beauty state through its weak decays would establish the existence of tetraquarks and illuminate the role of heavy color-antitriplet diquarks as hadron constituents.

  11. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  12. Increasing Heavy Oil in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies. Annual Report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, Edith

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs

  13. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibility problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and evaluate the

  14. Advanced windows Information System (WIS): A uniform European tool to calculate the thermal and solar properties of windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.G.; Dijk, H.A.L. van

    1996-01-01

    WIS is a uniform, user friendly, PC-based, European software tool to determine the thermal and solar character-istics of window systems (glazing, frames, solar shading, etc.) and window components. WIS includes databases with component properties and routines for calculation of the thermal-optical

  15. The effect of low temperature neutron irradiation and annealing on the thermal conductivity of advanced carbon-based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabash, V.; Mazul, I.; Latypov, R.; Pokrovsky, A.; Wu, C.H.

    2002-01-01

    Several carbon-based materials (carbon fibre composites NB 31, NS 31 and UAM-92, doped graphite RGTi-91), were irradiated at about 90 deg. C in the damage dose range 0.0021-0.13 dpa. Significant reduction of the thermal conductivity of all materials was observed (e.g. at damage dose of ∼0.13 dpa the thermal conductivity degraded up to level of ∼2-3% of the initial values). However, saturation of this effect was observed starting at a dose of ∼0.06 dpa. The effect of annealing at 250 and 350 deg. C on the recovery of thermal conductivity of NB 31 and NS 31 was studied and it was shown this annealing can significantly improve thermal conductivity (∼2.5-3 times). The data on the degradation of the thermal conductivity after additional irradiation after annealing is also reported

  16. Development of an Advanced Two-Dimensional Thermal Model for Large size Lithium-ion Pouch Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samba, Ahmadou; Omar, Noshin; Gualous, Hamid; Firouz, Youssef; Van den Bossche, Peter; Van Mierlo, Joeri; Boubekeur, Tala Ighil

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a LiFePO4/graphite lithium-ion pouch cell with a rated capacity of 45Ah has been used and a two dimensional thermal model is developed to predict the cell temperature distribution over the surface of the battery, this model requires less input parameters and still has high accuracy. The used input parameters are the heat generation and thermal properties. The ANSYS FLUENT software has been used to solve the models. In addition, a new estimation tool has been developed for estimation of the thermal model parameters. Furthermore, the thermal behavior of the proposed battery has been investigated at different environmental conditions as well as during the abuse conditions. Thermal runaway is investigated in depth by the model

  17. Synthesis and characterization of thermally stable poly(amide-imide-montmorillonite nanocomposites based on bis(4-carboxyphenyl-N,N'-pyromellitimide acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hajibeygi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new poly(amide-imide-montmorillonite reinforced nanocomposites containing bis(4-carboxyphenyl-N,N'-pyromellitimide acid moiety in the main chain were synthesized by a convenient solution intercalation technique. Poly(amide-imide (PAI as a source of polymer matrix was synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of bis(4-carboxyphenyl-N,N'-pyromellitimide acid with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl sulfone in the presence of triphenyl phosphite (TPP, CaCl2, pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP. Morphology and structure of the resulting PAI-nanocomposite films with 10 and 20% silicate particles were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The effect of clay dispersion and the interaction between clay and polymeric chains on the properties of nanocomposites films were investigated by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA and water uptake measurements.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v27i1.10

  18. Efficient and thermally stable red luminescence from nano-sized phosphor of Gd{sub 6}MoO{sub 12}:Eu{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Lin [Soochow University, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (China); Wei, Donglei [Pukyong National University, Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Biomedical Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Huang, Yanlin [Soochow University, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (China); Kim, Sun Il [Pukyong National University, Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Biomedical Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Young Moon [Pukyong National University, LED-Marin Convergence Technology R and BD Center (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyo Jin, E-mail: hjseo@pknu.ac.kr [Pukyong National University, Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Biomedical Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    A novel red-emitting nano-phosphor of Eu{sup 3+}-doped Gd{sub 6}MoO{sub 12} was successfully synthesized by the Pechini method. The crystalline phase was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The morphology of the nano-phosphor was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, indicating a good crystallization with particles smaller than 500 nm. The luminescence properties such as photoluminescence spectra and decay curves were investigated. The phosphors can be efficiently excited by near-ultraviolet (near-UV) light and exhibit a bright red luminescence around 613 nm ascribed to the forced electric dipole transition {sup 5}D{sub 0}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub 2} of Eu{sup 3+} ions. The thermal stabilities were investigated from the temperature-dependent luminescence decay curves (lifetimes) and spectra intensities. The luminescence properties in relation to applications in white light-emitting diodes (W-LEDs) such as the absolute luminescence quantum efficiency, excitation wavelength, and color coordinates were discussed. The Gd{sub 6}MoO{sub 12}:Eu{sup 3+} nano-phosphor is a promising red-emitting candidate for the fabrication of W-LEDs with near-UV chips.

  19. Concentration quenching of Eu2+ in a thermal-stable yellow phosphor Ca2BO3Cl:Eu2+ for LED application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinguo; Zhang Jilin; Dong Zhiyue; Shi Jianxin; Gong Menglian

    2012-01-01

    A piece-shaped phosphor Ca 2 BO 3 Cl: Eu 2+ was synthesized by solid-state reaction method. This phosphor exhibited wide absorption in ultra-violet and visible range, and bright yellow emission band centering at 570 nm. The concentration quenching mechanism was verified to be a dipole–dipole interaction, and its critical transfer distance was about 17 Å by both calculated crystal structural method and experimental spectral method. This phosphor has a good thermal stability with a quenching temperature (T 1/2 ) of 200 °C. Yellow and white LEDs were fabricated with this phosphor and near UV chips, and the yellow LED has a high color purity of 97.0% and promising current tolerant property, while the white LED shows a luminous efficiency of 11.68 lm/W. - Highlights: ► Broadband excitable and strong yellow-emitting Ca 2 BO 3 Cl: Eu 2+ phosphor is obtained by solid state reaction. ► Concentration quenching mechanism of Ca 2 BO 3 Cl: Eu 2+ is dipole–dipole interaction. ► Quenching temperature (T 1/2 ) of Ca 2 BO 3 Cl: Eu 2+ is at 200 °C. ► As synthesized material can be used for LED phosphor application.

  20. Easy Fabrication of Highly Thermal-Stable Cellulose Nanocrystals Using Cr(NO33 Catalytic Hydrolysis System: A Feasibility Study from Macro- to Nano-Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Wei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reported on the feasibility and practicability of Cr(NO33 hydrolysis to isolate cellulose nanocrystals (CNCCr(NO33 from native cellulosic feedstock. The physicochemical properties of CNCCr(NO33 were compared with nanocellulose isolated using sulfuric acid hydrolysis (CNCH2SO4. In optimum hydrolysis conditions, 80 °C, 1.5 h, 0.8 M Cr(NO33 metal salt and solid–liquid ratio of 1:30, the CNCCr(NO33 exhibited a network-like long fibrous structure with the aspect ratio of 15.7, while the CNCH2SO4 showed rice-shape structure with an aspect ratio of 3.5. Additionally, Cr(NO33-treated CNC rendered a higher crystallinity (86.5% ± 0.3% with high yield (83.6% ± 0.6% as compared to the H2SO4-treated CNC (81.4% ± 0.1% and 54.7% ± 0.3%, respectively. Furthermore, better thermal stability of CNCCr(NO33 (344 °C compared to CNCH2SO4 (273 °C rendered a high potential for nanocomposite application. This comparable effectiveness of Cr(NO33 metal salt provides milder hydrolysis conditions for highly selective depolymerization of cellulosic fiber into value-added cellulose nanomaterial, or useful chemicals and fuels in the future.

  1. Recent advances in the management of chronic stable angina II. Anti-ischemic therapy, options for refractory angina, risk factor reduction, and revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kones

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Richard KonesThe Cardiometabolic Research Institute, Houston, Texas, USAAbstract: The objectives in treating angina are relief of pain and prevention of disease ­progression through risk reduction. Mechanisms, indications, clinical forms, doses, and side effects of the traditional antianginal agents – nitrates, ß-blockers, and calcium channel ­blockers – are reviewed. A number of patients have contraindications or remain unrelieved from anginal discomfort with these drugs. Among newer alternatives, ranolazine, recently approved in the United States, indirectly prevents the intracellular calcium overload involved in cardiac ischemia and is a welcome addition to available treatments. None, however, are disease-modifying agents. Two options for refractory angina, enhanced external counterpulsation and spinal cord stimulation (SCS, are presented in detail. They are both well-studied and are effective means of treating at least some patients with this perplexing form of angina. Traditional modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD – smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, ­diabetes, and obesity – account for most of the population-attributable risk. Individual therapy of high-risk patients differs from population-wide efforts to prevent risk factors from appearing or reducing their severity, in order to lower the national burden of disease. Current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines to lower risk in patients with chronic angina are reviewed. The Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation (COURAGE trial showed that in patients with stable angina, optimal medical therapy alone and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI with medical therapy were equal in preventing myocardial infarction and death. The integration of COURAGE results into current practice is discussed. For patients who are unstable, with very high risk, with left main coronary artery lesions, in

  2. Heavy stable charged tracks as signatures of non-thermal dark matter at the LHC: a study in some non-supersymmetric scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Avirup; Mondal, Tanmoy; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup

    2017-12-01

    We consider two theoretical scenarios, each including a ℤ 2-odd sector and leading to an elementary dark matter candidate. The first one is a variant of the Type-III seesaw model where one lepton triplet is ℤ 2-odd, together with a heavy sterile neutrino. It leads to a fermionic dark matter, together with the charged component of the triplet being a quasi-stable particle which decays only via a higher-dimensional operator suppressed by a high scale. The second model consists of an inert scalar doublet together with a ℤ 2-odd right-handed Majorana neutrino dark matter. A tiny Yukawa coupling delays the decay of the charged component of the inert doublet into the dark matter candidate, making the former long-lived on the scale of collider detectors. The parameter space of each model has been constrained by big-bang nucleosynthesis constraints, and also by estimating the contribution to the relic density through freeze-out of the long-lived charged particle as well the freeze-in production of the dark matter candidate. We consider two kinds of signals at the Large Hadron Collider for each case. For the first kind of models, namely two charged tracks and single track [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] and for the second kind, the characteristic signals are opposite as well as same-sign charged track pairs. We perform a detailed analysis using event selection criteria consistent with the current experimental programmes. It is found that the scenario with a lepton triplet can be probed upto 960 (1190) GeV with an integrated luminosity of 300 (3000) fb-1, while the corresponding numbers for the inert doublet scenario are 630 (800) GeV. Furthermore, the second kind of signal mentioned in each case allows us to differentiate different dark matter scenarios from each other.

  3. Characteristic and Mixing Mechanisms of Thermal Fluid at the Tampomas Volcano, West Java, Using Hydrogeochemistry, Stable Isotope and 222Rn Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Iskandar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Tampomas Volcano is a Quaternary volcano located on Java Island and controlled by a west-northwest–east-southeast (WNW-ESE regional fault trend. This regional structure acts as conduits for the hydrothermal fluids to ascend from a deeper system toward the surface and, in the end, mix with groundwater. In this research, water geochemistry, gas chemistry and isotopes 2H, 18O and 13C were used to explore the subsurface fluid characteristics and mixing mechanisms of the hydrothermal fluids with groundwater. In addition to those geochemical methods, soil-gas and dissolved 222Rn observations were performed to understand the geological control of fluid chemistry. Based on the analytical results, the hydrothermal system of Tampomas is only developed at the northeastern flank of the volcano, which is mainly controlled by NE-SW structures as deep fluid conduits, while the Cimalaka Caldera Rim around Sekarwangi act as the boundary flow of the system. This system is also categorized as an “intermediate temperature system” wherein fluid is derived from the interaction between the volcanic host-rock at 170 ± 10 °C mixed with trace organic gas input from sedimentary formation; afterwards, the fluid flows laterally and is diluted with groundwater near the surface. Soil-gas and dissolved 222Rn confirm that these permeable zones are effective conduits for the ascending thermal fluids. It is found that NE faults carry higher trace elements from the deeper system, while the circular feature of the Caldera Rim acts as the boundary of the hydrothermal system.

  4. Thermal hydraulic test of advanced fuel bundle with spectral shift rod (SSR) for BWR. Effect of thermal hydraulic parameters on steady state characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Takao; Kitou, Kazuaki; Chaki, Masao; Ohga, Yukiharu; Makigami, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Japanese national project of next generation light water reactor (LWR) development started in 2008. Under this project, spectral shift rod (SSR) is being developed. SSR, which replaces conventional water rod (WR) of boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel bundle, was invented to enhance the BWR's merit, spectral shift effect for uranium saving. In SSR, water boils by neutron and gamma-ray direct heating and water level is formed as a boundary of the upper steam region and the lower water region. This SSR water level can be controlled by core flow rate, which amplifies the change of average core void fraction, resulting in the amplified spectral shift effect. This paper presents the steady state test results of the base geometry case in SSR thermal hydraulic test, which was conducted under the national project of next generation LWR. In the test, thermal hydraulic parameters, such as flow rate, pressure, inlet subcooling and heater rod power are changed to evaluate these effects on SSR water level and other SSR characteristics. In the test results, SSR water level rose as flow rate rose, which showed controllability of SSR water level by flow rate. The sensitivities of other thermal hydraulic parameters on SSR water level were also evaluated. The obtained data of parameter's sensitivities is various enough for the further analytical evaluation. The fluctuation of SSR water level was also measured to be small enough. As a result, it was confirmed that SSR's steady state performance was as planned and that SSR design concept is feasible. (author)

  5. Recent advances in the management of chronic stable angina I: Approach to the patient, diagnosis, pathophysiology, risk stratification, and gender disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kones, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The potential importance of both prevention and personal responsibility in controlling heart disease, the leading cause of death in the USA and elsewhere, has attracted renewed attention. Coronary artery disease is preventable, using relatively simple and inexpensive lifestyle changes. The inexorable rise in the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, often in the risk cluster known as the metabolic syndrome, drives the ever-increasing incidence of heart disease. Population-wide improvements in personal health habits appear to be a fundamental, evidence based public health measure, yet numerous barriers prevent implementation. A common symptom in patients with coronary artery disease, classical angina refers to the typical chest pressure or discomfort that results when myocardial oxygen demand rises and coronary blood flow is reduced by fixed, atherosclerotic, obstructive lesions. Different forms of angina and diagnosis, with a short description of the significance of pain and silent ischemia, are discussed in this review. The well accepted concept of myocardial oxygen imbalance in the genesis of angina is presented with new data about clinical pathology of stable angina and acute coronary syndromes. The roles of stress electrocardiography and stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphic imaging are reviewed, along with the information these tests provide about risk and prognosis. Finally, the current status of gender disparities in heart disease is summarized. Enhanced risk stratification and identification of patients in whom procedures will meaningfully change management is an ongoing quest. Current guidelines emphasize efficient triage of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Many experts believe the predictive value of current decision protocols for coronary artery disease still needs improvement in order to optimize outcomes, yet avoid unnecessary coronary angiograms and radiation exposure. Coronary angiography remains the

  6. Recent advances in the management of chronic stable angina I: approach to the patient, diagnosis, pathophysiology, risk stratification, and gender disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kones, Richard

    2010-08-09

    The potential importance of both prevention and personal responsibility in controlling heart disease, the leading cause of death in the USA and elsewhere, has attracted renewed attention. Coronary artery disease is preventable, using relatively simple and inexpensive lifestyle changes. The inexorable rise in the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, often in the risk cluster known as the metabolic syndrome, drives the ever-increasing incidence of heart disease. Population-wide improvements in personal health habits appear to be a fundamental, evidence based public health measure, yet numerous barriers prevent implementation. A common symptom in patients with coronary artery disease, classical angina refers to the typical chest pressure or discomfort that results when myocardial oxygen demand rises and coronary blood flow is reduced by fixed, atherosclerotic, obstructive lesions. Different forms of angina and diagnosis, with a short description of the significance of pain and silent ischemia, are discussed in this review. The well accepted concept of myocardial oxygen imbalance in the genesis of angina is presented with new data about clinical pathology of stable angina and acute coronary syndromes. The roles of stress electrocardiography and stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphic imaging are reviewed, along with the information these tests provide about risk and prognosis. Finally, the current status of gender disparities in heart disease is summarized. Enhanced risk stratification and identification of patients in whom procedures will meaningfully change management is an ongoing quest. Current guidelines emphasize efficient triage of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Many experts believe the predictive value of current decision protocols for coronary artery disease still needs improvement in order to optimize outcomes, yet avoid unnecessary coronary angiograms and radiation exposure. Coronary angiography remains the

  7. Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Annual report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The project involves implementing thermal recovery in the southern half of the Fault Block II-A Tar zone. The existing steamflood in Fault Block II-A has been relatively inefficient due to several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery efficiency and reduce operating costs.

  8. Development of Stable Isotope Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Do Young; Kim, Cheol Jung; Han, Jae Min

    2009-03-01

    KAERI has obtained an advanced technology with singular originality for laser stable isotope separation. Objectives for this project are to get production technology of Tl-203 stable isotope used for medical application and are to establish the foundation of the pilot system, while we are taking aim at 'Laser Isotope Separation Technology to make resistance to the nuclear proliferation'. And we will contribute to ensuring a nuclear transparency in the world society by taking part in a practical group of NSG and being collaboration with various international groups related to stable isotope separation technology

  9. A New Way of Doing Business: Reusable Launch Vehicle Advanced Thermal Protection Systems Technology Development: NASA Ames and Rockwell International Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carol W.; Fleming, Mary; Hogenson, Pete; Green, Michael J.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and Rockwell International are partners in a Cooperative Agreement (CA) for the development of Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) for the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Technology Program. This Cooperative Agreement is a 30 month effort focused on transferring NASA innovations to Rockwell and working as partners to advance the state-of-the-art in several TPS areas. The use of a Cooperative Agreement is a new way of doing business for NASA and Industry which eliminates the traditional customer/contractor relationship and replaces it with a NASA/Industry partnership.

  10. Sensitivity Evaluation of the Daily Thermal Predictions of the AGR-1 Experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Hawkes; James Sterbentz; John Maki

    2011-05-01

    A temperature sensitivity evaluation has been performed for the AGR-1 fuel experiment on an individual capsule. A series of cases were compared to a base case by varying different input parameters into the ABAQUS finite element thermal model. These input parameters were varied by ±10% to show the temperature sensitivity to each parameter. The most sensitive parameters are the outer control gap distance, heat rate in the fuel compacts, and neon gas fraction. Thermal conductivity of the compacts and graphite holder were in the middle of the list for sensitivity. The smallest effects were for the emissivities of the stainless steel, graphite, and thru tubes. Sensitivity calculations were also performed varying with fluence. These calculations showed a general temperature rise with an increase in fluence. This is a result of the thermal conductivity of the fuel compacts and graphite holder decreasing with fluence.

  11. Water experiments on thermal striping in reactor vessel of advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor. Influence of flow collector of backup CR guide tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Jun; Ezure, Toshiki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Kamide, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Design study of an advanced large-scale sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) has been conducted in JAEA. In the region between the bottom of the Upper Internal Structure (UIS) and the core outlet, the hot sodium from the fuel subassembly mixes with the cold sodium from the neighbor control rod (CR) channel. Therefore, temperature fluctuation due to mixing fluids at different temperatures may cause high cycle thermal fatigue at the bottom of the UIS. In the advanced design, installation of a flow guide structure named Flow-Collector (FC) to the backup control rod (BCR) guide tube is considered to enhance reliable operation of self-actuated shutdown system (SASS) and to ensure reactor shutdown operation. Previously, water experiments without the FC model had been examined in JAEA to investigate effective countermeasures to the significant temperature fluctuation generation at the bottom of the UIS. Since the FC may affect the thermal mixing behavior at the bottom of the UIS, influence of the FC on characteristics of the temperature fluctuation around the BCR channels was investigated using a water experimental facility with structure model of the FC. Through the experiment, small influence of the FC on the temperature fluctuation distribution at the bottom of the UIS was indicated. (author)

  12. TITAN: an advanced three-dimensional neutronics/thermal-hydraulics code for light water reactor safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griggs, D.P.; Kazimi, M.S.; Henry, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    The initial development of TITAN, a three-dimensional coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics code for LWR safety analysis, has been completed. The transient neutronics code QUANDRY has been joined to the two-fluid thermal-hydraulics code THERMIT with the appropriate feedback mechanisms modeled. A detailed steady-state and transient coupling scheme based on the tandem technique was implemented in accordance with the important structural and operational characteristics of QUANDRY and THERMIT. A two channel sample problem formed the basis for steady-state and transient analyses performed with TITAN. TITAN steady-state results were compared with those obtained with MEKIN and showed good agreement. Null transients, simulated turbine trip transients, and a rod withdrawal transient were analyzed with TITAN and reasonable results were obtained

  13. Advances in the valorization of waste and by-product materials as thermal energy storage (TES) materials

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Andrea; Miró, Laia; Gil, Antoni; Rodríguez Aseguinolaza, Javier; Barreneche Güerisoli, Camila; Calvet, Nicolas; Py, Xavier; Fernández Renna, Ana Inés; Grágeda, Mario; Ushak, Svetlana; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Today, one of the biggest challenges our society must face is the satisfactory supply, dispatchability and management of the energy. Thermal Energy Storage (TES) has been identified as a breakthrough concept in industrial heat recovery applications and development of renewable technologies such as concentrated solar power (CSP) plants or compressed air energy storage (CAES). A wide variety of potential heat storage materials has been identified depending on the implemented TES method: sensibl...

  14. Investigations on highly stable thermal characteristics of a dilute In0.2Ga0.8AsSb/GaAs doped-channel field-effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Ke-Hua; Hsu, Wei-Chou; Hu, Po-Jung; Lee, Ching-Sung; Wu, Yue-Han; Chang, Li; Hsiao, Ru-Shang; Chen, Jenn-Fang; Chi, Tung-Wei

    2008-01-01

    This work reports for the first time a novel In 0.2 Ga 0.8 AsSb/GaAs heterostructure doped-channel field-effect transistor (DCFET) grown by the molecular beam epitaxy system. The interfacial quality within the InGaAsSb/GaAs quantum well of the DCFET device has been effectively improved by introducing surfactant-like Sb atoms during the growth of the Si-doped InGaAs channel layer. The improved device characteristics include the peak extrinsic transconductance (g m,max ) of 161.5 mS mm −1 , the peak drain–source saturation current density (I DSS,max ) of 230 mA mm −1 , the gate–voltage swing (GVS) of 1.65 V, the cutoff frequency (f T ) of 12.5 GHz and the maximum oscillation frequency (f max ) of 25 GHz at 300 K with the gate dimensions of 1.2 × 200 µm 2 . The proposed design has also shown a stable thermal threshold coefficient (∂V th /∂T) of −0.7 mV K −1

  15. Highly active thermally stable nanoporous gold catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biener, Juergen; Wittstock, Arne; Biener, Monika M.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Baeumer, Marcus; Wichmann, Andre; Neuman, Bjoern

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, a system includes a nanoporous gold structure and a plurality of oxide particles deposited on the nanoporous gold structure; the oxide particles are characterized by a crystalline phase. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing oxide nanoparticles on a nanoporous gold support to form an active structure and functionalizing the deposited oxide nanoparticles.

  16. SYNTHESIS OF THERMALLY STABLE METAL SUBSTITUTED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Opre et al. [22, 23] also studied the selective oxidation of alcohols with oxygen on cobalt promoted ruthenium-hydroxyapatite. Earlier, hydroxyapatites were used as supports in a many studies [24-28]. Recently, our group has also successfully used cobalt, iridium and platinum hydroxyapatites as catalysts for solvent-free.

  17. Argonne Liquid-Metal Advanced Burner Reactor : components and in-vessel system thermal-hydraulic research and testing experience - pathway forward.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K.; Grandy, C.; Chang, Y.; Khalil, H.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-06-30

    This white paper provides an overview and status report of the thermal-hydraulic nuclear research and development, both experimental and computational, conducted predominantly at Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne from the early 1970s through the early 1990s was the Department of Energy's (DOE's) lead lab for thermal-hydraulic development of Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs). During the 1970s and into the mid-1980s, Argonne conducted thermal-hydraulic studies and experiments on individual reactor components supporting the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR). From the mid-1980s and into the early 1990s, Argonne conducted studies on phenomena related to forced- and natural-convection thermal buoyancy in complete in-vessel models of the General Electric (GE) Prototype Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) and Rockwell International (RI) Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR). These two reactor initiatives involved Argonne working closely with U.S. industry and DOE. This paper describes the very important impact of thermal hydraulics dominated by thermal buoyancy forces on reactor global operation and on the behavior/performance of individual components during postulated off-normal accident events with low flow. Utilizing Argonne's LMR expertise and design knowledge is vital to the further development of safe, reliable, and high-performance LMRs. Argonne believes there remains an important need for continued research and development on thermal-hydraulic design in support of DOE's and the international community's renewed thrust for developing and demonstrating the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) reactor(s) and the associated Argonne Liquid Metal-Advanced Burner Reactor (LM-ABR). This white paper highlights that further understanding is needed regarding reactor design under coolant low-flow events. These safety-related events are associated with the transition

  18. Chemical and nanometer-scale structure of kerogen and its change during thermal maturation investigated by advanced solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Fang, X.; Lan, Y.; Schimmelmann, A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Xu, L.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2010-01-01

    We have used advanced and quantitative solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to investigate structural changes in a series of type II kerogen samples from the New Albany Shale across a range of maturity (vitrinite reflectance R0 from 0.29% to 1.27%). Specific functional groups such as CH3, CH2, alkyl CH, aromatic CH, aromatic C-O, and other nonprotonated aromatics, as well as "oil prone" and "gas prone" carbons, have been quantified by 13C NMR; atomic H/C and O/C ratios calculated from the NMR data agree with elemental analysis. Relationships between NMR structural parameters and vitrinite reflectance, a proxy for thermal maturity, were evaluated. The aromatic cluster size is probed in terms of the fraction of aromatic carbons that are protonated (???30%) and the average distance of aromatic C from the nearest protons in long-range H-C dephasing, both of which do not increase much with maturation, in spite of a great increase in aromaticity. The aromatic clusters in the most mature sample consist of ???30 carbons, and of ???20 carbons in the least mature samples. Proof of many links between alkyl chains and aromatic rings is provided by short-range and long-range 1H-13C correlation NMR. The alkyl segments provide most H in the samples; even at a carbon aromaticity of 83%, the fraction of aromatic H is only 38%. While aromaticity increases with thermal maturity, most other NMR structural parameters, including the aromatic C-O fractions, decrease. Aromaticity is confirmed as an excellent NMR structural parameter for assessing thermal maturity. In this series of samples, thermal maturation mostly increases aromaticity by reducing the length of the alkyl chains attached to the aromatic cores, not by pronounced growth of the size of the fused aromatic ring clusters. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Advanced infrared optically black baffle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seals, R.D.; Egert, C.M.; Allred, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    Infrared optically black baffle surfaces are an essential component of many advanced optical systems. All internal surfaces in advanced infrared optical sensors that require stray light management to achieve resolution are of primary concern in baffle design. Current industrial materials need improvements to meet advanced optical sensor systems requirements for optical, survivability, and endurability. Baffles are required to survive and operate in potentially severe environments. Robust diffuse-absorptive black surfaces, which are thermally and mechanically stable to threats of x-ray, launch, and in-flight maneuver conditions, with specific densities to allow an acceptable weight load, handleable during assembly, cleanable, and adaptive to affordable manufacturing, are required as optical baffle materials. In this paper an overview of recently developed advanced infrared optical baffle materials, requirements, manufacturing strategies, and the Optics MODIL (Manufacturing Operations Development and Integration Laboratory) Advanced Baffle Program are discussed

  20. Advanced designs for highly stable superconductor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, J.W.; Miller, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental evidence is mounting for enhanced stability against pulsed heat loads in cable-in-conduit conductors brought about by transient pressure waves in helium. It has been suggested that this enhancement derives from improved heat transfer caused by pressure induced flow and from extra heat absorption capability due to the thermodynamic path followed by helium in the course of pressure rise and release. A basic conductor design is given to take advantage of these phenomena yet avoiding the difficulties encountered in the force-cooled conductor presently under development. The design is discussed in terms of manufacturability, performance, and applicability in large fusion magnets. A few small scale test conductors have been constructed. Preliminary test results on the performance of one of them is included. Possible variations offered by the flexibility of the basic design is also discussed

  1. Thermal analysis of a coaxial helium panel of a cryogenic vacuum pump for advanced divertor of DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxi, C.B.; Langhorn, A.; Schaubel, K.; Smith, J.

    1991-08-01

    It is planned to install a 50,000 1/s cryogenic pump for particle removal in the D3-D tokamak. A critical component of this cryogenic pump will be a helium panel which has to be maintained at a liquid helium temperature. The outer surface area of the helium panel has an area of 1 m 2 and consists of a 2.5 cm diameter, 10 m long tube. From design considerations, a coaxial geometry is preferable since it requires a minimum number of welds. However, the coaxial geometry also results in a counter flow heat exchanger arrangement, where the outgoing warm fluid will exchange heat with incoming cold fluid. This is of concern since the helium panel must be cooled from liquid nitrogen temperature to liquid helium temperature in less than 5 minutes for successful operation of the cryogenic pump. In order to analyze the thermal performance of the coaxial helium panel, a finite difference computer model of the geometry was prepared. The governing equations took into account axial as well as radial conduction through the tube walls. The variation of thermal properties was modeled. The results of the analysis showed that although the coaxial geometry behaves like a counter flow heat exchanger, within the operating range of the cryogenic pump a rapid cooldown of the helium panel from liquid nitrogen temperature to the operating temperature is feasible. A prototypical experiment was also performed at General Atomics (GA) which verified the concept and the analysis. 4 refs., 8 figs

  2. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  3. Application of advanced validation concepts to oxide fuel performance codes: LIFE-4 fast-reactor and FRAPCON thermal-reactor fuel performance codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, C., E-mail: cu@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Williams, B.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Yacout, A. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Higdon, D.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The application of advanced validation techniques (sensitivity, calibration and prediction) to nuclear performance codes FRAPCON and LIFE-4 is the focus of the paper. ► A sensitivity ranking methodology narrows down the number of selected modeling parameters from 61 to 24 for FRAPCON and from 69 to 35 for LIFE-4. ► Fuel creep, fuel thermal conductivity, fission gas transport/release, crack/boundary, and fuel gap conductivity models of LIFE-4 are identified for improvements. ► FRAPCON sensitivity results indicated the importance of the fuel thermal conduction and the fission gas release models. -- Abstract: Evolving nuclear energy programs expect to use enhanced modeling and simulation (M and S) capabilities, using multiscale, multiphysics modeling approaches, to reduce both cost and time from the design through the licensing phases. Interest in the development of the multiscale, multiphysics approach has increased in the last decade because of the need for predictive tools for complex interacting processes as a means of eliminating the limited use of empirically based model development. Complex interacting processes cannot be predicted by analyzing each individual component in isolation. In most cases, the mathematical models of complex processes and their boundary conditions are nonlinear. As a result, the solutions of these mathematical models often require high-performance computing capabilities and resources. The use of multiscale, multiphysics (MS/MP) models in conjunction with high-performance computational software and hardware introduces challenges in validating these predictive tools—traditional methodologies will have to be modified to address these challenges. The advanced MS/MP codes for nuclear fuels and reactors are being developed within the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) – Nuclear Energy (NE). This paper does not directly address challenges in calibration

  4. Hydrothermal alteration maps of the central and southern Basin and Range province of the United States compiled from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and geographic information systems shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided in this study.

  5. Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitters for Deep Blue Organic Light Emitting Diodes: A Review of Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Tuân Bui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic light-emitting diodes offer attractive perspectives for the next generation display and lighting technologies. The potential is huge and the list of potential applications is almost endless. So far, blue emitters still suffer from noticeably inferior electroluminescence performances in terms of efficiency, lifespan, color quality, and charge injection/transport when compared to that of the other colors. Emitting materials matching the NTSC standard blue of coordinates (0.14, 0.08 are extremely rare and still constitutes the focus of numerous academic and industrial researches. In this context, we review herein the recent developments on highly emissive deep-blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitters that constitute the third-generation electroluminescent materials.

  6. TITAN: an advanced three-dimensional coupled neutronic/thermal-hydraulics code for light water nuclear reactor core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griggs, D.P.; Kazimi, M.S.; Henry, A.F.

    1984-06-01

    The three-dimensional nodal neutronics code QUANDRY and the three-dimensional two-fluid thermal-hydraulics code THERMIT are combined into TITAN. Steady-state and transient coupling methodologies based upon a tandem structure were devised and implemented. Additional models for nuclear feedback, equilibrium xenon and direct moderator heating were added. TITAN was tested using a boiling water two channel problem and the coupling methodologies were shown to be effective. Simulated turbine trip transients and several control rod withdrawal transients were analyzed with good results. Sensitivity studies indicated that the time-step size can affect transient results significantly. TITAN was also applied to a quarter core PWR problem based on a real reactor geometry. The steady-state results were compared to a solution produced by MEKIN-B and poor agreement between the horizontal power shapes was found. Calculations with various mesh spacings showed that the mesh spacings in the MEKIN-B analysis were too large to produce accurate results with a finite difference method. The TITAN results were shown to be reasonable. A pair of control rod ejection accidents were also analyzed with TITAN. A comparison of the TITAN PWR control rod ejection results with results from coupled point kinetics/thermal-hydraulics analyses showed that the point kinetics method used (adiabatic method for control rod reactivities, steady-state flux shape for core-averaged reactivity feedback) underpredicted the power excursion in one case and overpredicted it in the other. It was therefore concluded that point kinetics methods should be used with caution and that three-dimensional codes like TITAN are superior for analyzing PWR control rod ejection transients

  7. Using SpaceClaimTD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabanich, William A., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractor's thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces/solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing/repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the "mark-up" of that geometry. These so-called "mark-ups" control how finite element (FE) meshes are to be generated through the "tagging" of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. "Domain-tags" were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine the objects each time as one would if using TDMesher. The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct helps simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It also saves time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  8. Using SpaceClaim/TD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabanich, William

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractors thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the mark-up of that geometry. These so-called mark-ups control how finite element (FE) meshes were generated and allowed the tagging of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. Domain-tags were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine these objects each time as one would if using TD Mesher.The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct has helped simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It has also saved time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  9. Advanced treatment technique for swine wastewater using two agents: Thermally polymerized amorphous silica and hydrated lime for color and phosphorus removal and sulfur for nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Teruaki; Kurose, Yohei; Tanaka, Yasuo

    2017-10-01

    The efficacy of advanced treatment of swine wastewater using thermally polymerized, modified amorphous silica and hydrated lime (M-CSH-lime) for color and phosphorus removal and sulfur for nitrogen removal was examined with a demonstration-scale treatment plant. The color removal rate was approximately 78% at M-CSH-lime addition rates of > 0.055 wt/v%. The PO43--P removal rate exceeded 99.9% with > 0.023 wt/v%. pH of the effluent from the M-CSH-lime reactor increased with the addition rate till a maximum value of 12.7, which was effective in disinfection. The recovered M-CSH-lime would be suitable as a phosphorus fertilizer because the total P 2 O 5 content was approximately 10%. The nitrogen oxide (NOx-N) removal rate by sulfur denitrification increased to approximately 80% when the NOx-N loading rate was around 0.1 kg-N/ton-S/day. It was suggested that the combination of the two processes would be effective in the advanced treatment of swine wastewater. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Process performance assessment of advanced anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge including sequential ultrasound-thermal (55 °C) pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Patricio; Barriga, Felipe; Álvarez, Claudia; González, Zenón; Vidal, Gladys

    2018-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance and digestate quality of advanced anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge including sequential ultrasound-thermal (55 °C) pre-treatment. Both stages of pre-treatment contributed to chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, with an overall factor of 11.4 ± 2.2%. Pre-treatment led to 19.1, 24.0 and 29.9% increased methane yields at 30, 15 and 7.5 days solid retention times (SRT), respectively, without affecting process stability or accumulation of intermediates. Pre-treatment decreased up to 4.2% water recovery from the digestate, but SRT was a more relevant factor controlling dewatering. Advanced digestion showed 2.4-3.1 and 1.5 logarithmic removals of coliforms and coliphages, respectively, and up to a 58% increase in the concentration of inorganics in the digestate solids compared to conventional digestion. The COD balance of the process showed that the observed increase in methane production was proportional to the pre-treatment solubilization efficiency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Advanced instrumentation and analysis methods for in-pile thermal and nuclear measurements: from out-of-pile studies to irradiation campaigns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynard-Carette, C.; Lyoussi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Research and development on nuclear fuel behavior under irradiations and accelerated ageing of structure materials is a key issue for sustainable nuclear energy in order to meet specific needs by keeping the best level of safety. A new Material Testing Reactor (MTR), the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) currently under construction in the South of France in the CEA Cadarache research centre will offer a real opportunity to perform R and D programs and hence will crucially contribute to the selection, optimization and qualification of innovative materials and fuels. To perform such programs advanced accurate and innovative experiments, irradiation devices that contain material and fuel samples are required to be set up inside or beside the reactor core. These experiments needs beforehand in situ and on line sophisticated measurements to accurately reach specific and determining parameters such as thermal and fast neutron fluxes, nuclear heating and temperature conditions to precisely monitor and control the conducted assays. Consequently, since 2009 CEA and Aix-Marseille University collaborate in order to design and develop a new multi-sensor device which will be dedicated to measuring profiles of such conditions inside the experimental channels of the JHR. These works are performed in the framework of two complementary joint research programs called MAHRI-BETHY and INCORE. These programs couple experimental studies carried out both out-of nuclear fluxes (in laboratory) and under irradiation conditions (in OSIRIS MTR reactor in France and MARIA MTR reactor in Poland) with numerical works realized by thermal simulations (CAST3M code) and Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP code). These programs deal with three main aims. The first one corresponds to the design and/or the test of new in-pile instrumentation. The second one concerns the development of advanced calibration procedures in particular in the case of one specific sensor: a differential calorimeter used to quantify

  12. Advanced instrumentation and analysis methods for in-pile thermal and nuclear measurements: from out-of-pile studies to irradiation campaigns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynard-Carette, C. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, Universite de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397, Marseille (France); Lyoussi, A. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 (France)

    2015-07-01

    Research and development on nuclear fuel behavior under irradiations and accelerated ageing of structure materials is a key issue for sustainable nuclear energy in order to meet specific needs by keeping the best level of safety. A new Material Testing Reactor (MTR), the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) currently under construction in the South of France in the CEA Cadarache research centre will offer a real opportunity to perform R and D programs and hence will crucially contribute to the selection, optimization and qualification of innovative materials and fuels. To perform such programs advanced accurate and innovative experiments, irradiation devices that contain material and fuel samples are required to be set up inside or beside the reactor core. These experiments needs beforehand in situ and on line sophisticated measurements to accurately reach specific and determining parameters such as thermal and fast neutron fluxes, nuclear heating and temperature conditions to precisely monitor and control the conducted assays. Consequently, since 2009 CEA and Aix-Marseille University collaborate in order to design and develop a new multi-sensor device which will be dedicated to measuring profiles of such conditions inside the experimental channels of the JHR. These works are performed in the framework of two complementary joint research programs called MAHRI-BETHY and INCORE. These programs couple experimental studies carried out both out-of nuclear fluxes (in laboratory) and under irradiation conditions (in OSIRIS MTR reactor in France and MARIA MTR reactor in Poland) with numerical works realized by thermal simulations (CAST3M code) and Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP code). These programs deal with three main aims. The first one corresponds to the design and/or the test of new in-pile instrumentation. The second one concerns the development of advanced calibration procedures in particular in the case of one specific sensor: a differential calorimeter used to quantify

  13. Identification of salt-alloy combinations for thermal energy storage applications in advanced solar dynamic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Misra, A. K.

    1987-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculations based on the available data for flouride salt systems reveal that a number of congruently melting compositions and eutectics exist which have the potential to meet the lightweight, high energy storage requirements imposed for advanced solar dynamic systems operating between about 1000 and 1400 K. Compatibility studies to determine suitable containment alloys to be used with NaF-22CaF2-13MgF2, NaF-32CaF2, and NaF-23MgF2 have been conducted at the eutectic temperature + 25 K for each system. For these three NaF-based eutectics, none of the common, commercially available high temperature alloys appear to offer adequate corrosion resistance for a long lifetime; however mild steel, pure nickel and Nb-1Zr could prove useful. These latter materials suggest the possibility that a strong, corrosion resistant, nonrefractory, elevated temperature alloy based on the Ni-Ni3Nb system could be developed.

  14. Thermally stable green Ba(3)Y(PO(4))3:Ce(3+),Tb(3+) and red Ca(3)Y(AlO)(3)(BO(3))4:Eu(3+) phosphors for white-light fluorescent lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hao; Kuo, Te-Wen; Chen, Teng-Ming

    2011-01-03

    A class of thermal stable of green-emitting phosphors Ba(3)Y(PO(4))(3):Ce(3+),Tb(3+) (BYP:Ce(3+),Tb(3+)) and red-emitting phosphors Ca(3)Y(AlO)(3)(BO(3))(4):Eu(3+) (CYAB:Eu(3+)) for white-light fluorescent lamps were synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction. We observed a decay of only 3% at 150 °C for BYP:0.25Ce3+,0.25Tb3+ (3% for LaPO4:Ce(3+),Tb(3+)), and a decay of 4% for CYAB:0.5Eu(3+) (7% for Y(2)O(3):Eu(3+), 24% for Y(2)O(2)S:Eu(3+)). The emission intensity of composition-optimized Ba(3)(Y(0.5)Ce(0.25)Tb(0.25))(PO(4))(3) is 70% of that of commercial LaPO(4):Ce(3+),Tb(3+) phosphors, and the CIE chromaticity coordinates are found to be (0.323, 0.534). The emission intensity of Ca(3)(Y(0.5)Eu(0.5))(AlO)(3)(BO(3))(4) is 70% and 83% of those of Y(2)O(3):Eu(3+) and Y(2)O(2)S:Eu(3+) phosphors, respectively, and the CIE chromaticity coordinates are redder (0.652, 0.342) than those of Y(2)O(3):Eu(3+) (0.645, 0.347) and Y(2)O(2)S:Eu(3+) (0.647, 0.343). A white-light fluorescent lamp is fabricated using composition-optimized Ba(3)(Y(0.5)Ce(0.25)Tb(0.25))(PO(4))(3) and Ca(3)(Y(0.5)Eu(0.5))(AlO)(3)(BO(3))(4) phosphors and matching blue-emitting phosphors. The results indicate that the quality of the brightness and color reproduction is suitable for application in shortwave UV fluorescent lamps. The white-light fluorescent lamp displays CIE chromaticity coordinates of x = 0.33, y = 0.35, a warm white light with a correlated color temperature of 5646 K, and a color-rendering index of Ra = 70.

  15. Statistically based uncertainty analysis for ranking of component importance in the thermal-hydraulic safety analysis of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has been used to help determine the importance of components and phenomena in thermal-hydraulic safety analyses of nuclear reactors. The AHP results are based, in part on expert opinion. Therefore, it is prudent to evaluate the uncertainty of the AHP ranks of importance. Prior applications have addressed uncertainty with experimental data comparisons and bounding sensitivity calculations. These methods work well when a sufficient experimental data base exists to justify the comparisons. However, in the case of limited or no experimental data the size of the uncertainty is normally made conservatively large. Accordingly, the author has taken another approach, that of performing a statistically based uncertainty analysis. The new work is based on prior evaluations of the importance of components and phenomena in the thermal-hydraulic safety analysis of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR), a new facility now in the design phase. The uncertainty during large break loss of coolant, and decay heat removal scenarios is estimated by assigning a probability distribution function (pdf) to the potential error in the initial expert estimates of pair-wise importance between the components. Using a Monte Carlo sampling technique, the error pdfs are propagated through the AHP software solutions to determine a pdf of uncertainty in the system wide importance of each component. To enhance the generality of the results, study of one other problem having different number of elements is reported, as are the effects of a larger assumed pdf error in the expert ranks. Validation of the Monte Carlo sample size and repeatability are also documented

  16. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  17. Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina) Updated:Aug 21,2017 You may have heard the term “angina pectoris” or “stable angina” in your doctor’s office, ...

  18. Thermal-hydraulic-geochemical coupled processes around disposed high level nuclear waste in deep granite hosted geological repositories: frontier areas of advanced groundwater research in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Indian policy for permanent disposal of high level nuclear wastes with radionuclide having very long half lives include their immobilization in a stable matrix i.e. glasses of suitable composition, its storage in high integrity steel canisters and subsequent disposal in suitable host rock like granites at a depth of 400-500m in stable geological set up. The site for such disposal facilities are selected after vigorous assessment of their stability implying an exhaustive site selection methodology based on a large number of criteria and attributes. In India, an area of about 70000 square kilometers occupied by granites has been subjected to such evaluation for generating comprehensive database on host rock parameters. The sites selected after such intensive analysis are expected to remain immune to processes like seismicity, volcanism, faulting, uplift, erosion, flooding etc. even in distant future spanning over tens of thousands of years. Nevertheless, groundwater has emerged as the only credible pathway through which disposed waste can eventually find its way to accessible biosphere. Hence groundwater research constitutes one of the most important aspects in demonstration of safety of such disposal. The disposed waste due to continuous emission of decay heat creates high temperature field around them with resultant increase in groundwater temperature in the vicinity. Hot groundwater on reacting with steel canisters, backfill clays and cement used around the disposed canister, produces geochemical environment characterized by altered Ph, Eh and groundwater compositions. Acceleration in geochemical interaction among waste-groundwater-clay-cement-granite often results in dissolution or precipitation reactions along the groundwater flow paths i.e. fractures with resultant increase or decrease in their permeability. Thus thermal, hydraulic and geochemical processes work interdependently around the disposed waste. These coupled processes also control the release and

  19. Proceedings of the Recycling Council of Ontario's energy from waste forum : is there a role for advanced thermal technologies in effective waste management?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The lack of landfill capacity in Ontario and the threat of United States border closures to Canadian waste exportation has led to an increased interest in the viability of advanced thermal technologies for the management of waste residuals. Rising energy costs have also led governments and industries to examine the cost benefits of producing energy from waste (EFW) and using waste as a fuel replacement. This forum was held by the Recycling Council of Ontario to investigate the environmental and economic impacts of investing in EFW technologies. The forum was divided into 4 focus areas: (1) a comparison of the environmental and economic implications of landfilling and EFW technology; (2) an overview of facilities currently operating in Europe which included a policy and regulation background and an outline of technologies used; (3) an overview of EFW technologies currently used in Canada; (4) and an outline of municipal and privately-owned EFW pilot plants and proposed facilities in Ontario. Descriptions of facilities were provided, as well as a history of the policy decisions and processes needed to include EFW as a waste management tool. Issues concerning public consultation practices and the impact of EFW on waste diversion activities were reviewed, and a descriptions of EFW technologies were provided. Eleven presentations were given at the forum, 3 of which were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Research and development for solar thermal energy system. Research on advanced solar component; Taiyonetsu energy system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Kiki no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T; Doi, T; Takashima, T; Ando, Y; Masuda, T; Fujii, T [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for research on advanced solar components as part of research and development of solar thermal energy. The catalyst for liquid-film reactions is prepared, and the flask tests are conducted as the preliminary experiments for development of the reactor in which 2-propanol is fallen in liquid film over the catalyst dispersed to accelerate its decomposition. It is decomposable when fallen in liquid film even in the presence of 35% of acetone. The catalyst of ruthenium carried by activated coal is used to produce 2-propanol under an exothermic condition from acetone and hydrogen. Diisopropyl ether and 4-methyl-2-pentanone are produced as by-products, when the reactor tube is kept at 140 to 200{degree}C at the external wall, diminishing as temperature is increased. There is a temperature differential of 20 to 30{degree}C in the reactor tube between the center axis and external wall. 3 figs.

  1. TRAC-PF1/MOD1: an advanced best-estimate computer program for pressurized water reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liles, D.R.; Mahaffy, J.H.

    1986-07-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) to provide advanced best-estimate predictions of postulated accidents in light-water reactors. The TRAC-PF1/MOD1 program provides this capability for pressurized water reactors and for many thermal-hydraulic test facilities. The code features either a one- or a three-dimensional treatment of the pressure vessel and its associated internals, a two-fluid nonequilibrium hydrodynamics model with a noncondensable gas field and solute tracking, flow-regime-dependent constitutive equation treatment, optional reflood tracking capability for bottom-flood and falling-film quench fronts, and consistent treatment of entire accident sequences including the generation of consistent initial conditions. The stability-enhancing two-step (SETS) numerical algorithm is used in the one-dimensional hydrodynamics and permits this portion of the fluid dynamics to violate the material Courant condition. This technique permits large time steps and, hence, reduced running time for slow transients

  2. An analysis of uncertainty and of dependence on season of year of ingestion population dose arising from design basis accidents in advanced thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.; Ponting, A.C.

    1985-03-01

    The results of a detailed study of ingestion collective dose from five limiting PWR design basis releases are presented, the PWR being chosen as being typical of an advanced thermal reactor for which source terms are readily available. The ingestion collective dose was calculated for a range of wind direction/weather scenarios for releases from a typical U.K. rural and a U.K. semi-urban site and scenarios identified where the ingestion pathway was of potential significance. The dependence of the ingestion collective dose for these cases on the season of year when the release occurs was investigated. An analysis was carried out of the uncertainty in the ''worst case'' ingestion calculations arising from uncertainties in foodchain input parameters. An efficient but comprehensive set of dynamic foodchain computer models was produced and the literature surveyed to produce probability distribution functions (PDF's) for all relevant independent input data items. These were used to produce output PDF's for food contamination levels and for ingestion collective dose from the five releases. Finally, the study has highlighted several areas central to ingestion collective dose assessments where the available data are inadequate. This led to the formulation of a set of future research requirements which will need to be met both to obtain a better fundamental understanding of foodchain transfer and to reduce uncertainties in ingestion collective dose assessments. (author)

  3. TRAC-PF1/MOD1: an advanced best-estimate computer program for pressurized water reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liles, D.R.; Mahaffy, J.H.

    1986-07-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) to provide advanced best-estimate predictions of postulated accidents in light-water reactors. The TRAC-PF1/MOD1 program provides this capability for pressurized water reactors and for many thermal-hydraulic test facilities. The code features either a one- or a three-dimensional treatment of the pressure vessel and its associated internals, a two-fluid nonequilibrium hydrodynamics model with a noncondensable gas field and solute tracking, flow-regime-dependent constitutive equation treatment, optional reflood tracking capability for bottom-flood and falling-film quench fronts, and consistent treatment of entire accident sequences including the generation of consistent initial conditions. The stability-enhancing two-step (SETS) numerical algorithm is used in the one-dimensional hydrodynamics and permits this portion of the fluid dynamics to violate the material Courant condition. This technique permits large time steps and, hence, reduced running time for slow transients.

  4. Ballooning stable high beta tokamak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuda, Takashi; Azumi, Masafumi; Kurita, Gen-ichi; Takizuka, Tomonori; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1981-04-01

    The second stable regime of ballooning modes is numerically studied by using the two-dimensional tokamak transport code with the ballooning stability code. Using the simple FCT heating scheme, we find that the plasma can locally enter this second stable regime. And we obtained equilibria with fairly high beta (β -- 23%) stable against ballooning modes in a whole plasma region, by taking into account of finite thermal diffusion due to unstable ballooning modes. These results show that a tokamak fusion reactor can operate in a high beta state, which is economically favourable. (author)

  5. Proceedings of the ANS/ASME/NRC international topical meeting on nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulics: LMFBR and HTGR advanced reactor concepts and analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning the thermal-hydraulics of LMFBR type reactors; mathematical methods in nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulics; heat transfer in gas-cooled reactors; and thermal-hydraulics of pebble-bed reactors. Two papers have been previously abstracted and input to the data base

  6. Overview of the ANL advanced LMR system thermal-hydraulic test program supporting both GE/PRISM and RI/SAFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oras, J.J.; Kuzay, T.M.; Kasza, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    Descriptions of the ANL thermal-hydraulic water models of both the PRISM and SAFR reactors are presented, together with results from Phases I and II of the thermal-hydraulic test program. Phenomena discovered during these tests and modeling results are presented. Overall, these efforts demonstrate the acceptable thermal-hydraulic performance of both the PRISM and SAFR concepts

  7. Thermal management for LED applications

    CERN Document Server

    Poppe, András

    2014-01-01

    Thermal Management for LED Applications provides state-of-the-art information on recent developments in thermal management as it relates to LEDs and LED-based systems and their applications. Coverage begins with an overview of the basics of thermal management including thermal design for LEDs, thermal characterization and testing of LEDs, and issues related to failure mechanisms and reliability and performance in harsh environments. Advances and recent developments in thermal management round out the book with discussions on advances in TIMs (thermal interface materials) for LED applications, advances in forced convection cooling of LEDs, and advances in heat sinks for LED assemblies. This book also: Presents a comprehensive overview of the basics of thermal management as it relates to LEDs and LED-based systems Discusses both design and thermal management considerations when manufacturing LEDs and LED-based systems Covers reliability and performance of LEDs in harsh environments Has a hands-on applications a...

  8. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  9. Alteration, slope-classified alteration, and potential lahar inundation maps of volcanoes for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Volcano Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John C.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Pieri, David; Linick, Justin

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies areas prone to lahars from hydrothermally altered volcanic edifices on a global scale, using visible and near infrared (VNIR) and short wavelength infrared (SWIR) reflectance data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and digital elevation data from the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) dataset. This is the first study to create a global database of hydrothermally altered volcanoes showing quantitatively compiled alteration maps and potentially affected drainages, as well as drainage-specific maps illustrating modeled lahars and their potential inundation zones. We (1) identified and prioritized 720 volcanoes based on population density surrounding the volcanoes using the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program database (GVP) and LandScan™ digital population dataset; (2) validated ASTER hydrothermal alteration mapping techniques using Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and ASTER data for Mount Shasta, California, and Pico de Orizaba (Citlaltépetl), Mexico; (3) mapped and slope-classified hydrothermal alteration using ASTER VNIR-SWIR reflectance data on 100 of the most densely populated volcanoes; (4) delineated drainages using ASTER GDEM data that show potential flow paths of possible lahars for the 100 mapped volcanoes; (5) produced potential alteration-related lahar inundation maps using the LAHARZ GIS code for Iztaccíhuatl, Mexico, and Mount Hood and Mount Shasta in the United States that illustrate areas likely to be affected based on DEM-derived volume estimates of hydrothermally altered rocks and the ~2x uncertainty factor inherent within a statistically-based lahar model; and (6) saved all image and vector data for 3D and 2D display in Google Earth™, ArcGIS® and other graphics display programs. In addition, these data are available from the ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA) for distribution (available at http://ava.jpl.nasa.gov/recent_alteration_zones.php).

  10. Advanced Best-Estimate Methodologies for Thermal-Hydraulics Stability Analyses with TRACG code and Improvements on Operating Boiling Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedovi, J.; Trueba, M.; Ibarra, L; Espino, M.; Hoang, H.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years GE Hitachi has introduced two advanced methodologies to address the thermal-hydraulics instabilities in Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs); the “Detect and Suppress Solution - Confirmation Density (DSS-CD)” and the “GEH Simplified Stability Solution (GS3).” These two methodologies are based on Best-Estimate Plus Uncertainty (BEPU) analyses and provide significant improvement on safety, plant maneuvering and fuel economics with respect to existing solutions. DSS-CD and GS3 solutions have been recently approved by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper describes the main characteristics of these two stability methodologies and shares the experience of their recent implementation in operating BWRs. The BEPU approach provided a much deeper understanding of the parameters affecting instabilities in operating BWRs and allowed for better calculation of plant setpoints by improving plant manoeuvring restrictions and reducing manual operator actions. DSS-CD and GS3 methodologies are both based on safety analyses performed with the best-estimate system code TRACG. The assessment of uncertainty is performed following the Code Scaling, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) methodology documented in NUREG/CR-5249. The two solutions have been already implemented in a combined 18 BWR units with 7 more units in the process of transitioning. The main results demonstrate a significant decrease (>0.1) in the stability based Operating Limit Minimum Critical Power Ratio (OLMCPR), which possibly results in significant fuel savings and the increase in allowable stability plant setpoints that address instability events such as the one occurred at the Fermi 2 plant in 2015 and can help prevent unnecessary Scrams. The paper also describes the advantages of reduced plant manoeuvring as a result to transitioning to these solutions; in particular the history of a BWR/6 transition to DSS-CD is discussed.

  11. Thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the indoor environmental quality due to its effects on well-being, people's performance and building energy requirements. Its attainment is not an easy task requiring advanced design and operation of building and HVAC systems, taking...... into account all parameters involved. Even though thermal comfort fundamentals are consolidated topics for more than forty years, often designers seem to ignore or apply them in a wrong way. Design input values from standards are often considered as universal values rather than recommended values to be used...... under specific conditions. At operation level, only few variables are taken into account with unpredictable effects on the assessment of comfort indices. In this paper, the main criteria for the design and assessment of thermal comfort are discussed in order to help building and HVAC systems designers...

  12. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  13. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General Article Volume 21 Issue 9 September 2016 pp 803- ... Keywords. Evolutionary game theory, evolutionary stable state, conflict, cooperation, biological games.

  14. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  15. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  16. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  17. Mapping hydrothermally altered rocks at Cuprite, Nevada, using the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (Aster), a new satellite-imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, L.C.; Hook, S.J.; Abrams, M.J.; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a 14-band multispectral instrument on board the Earth Observing System (EOS), TERRA. The three bands between 0.52 and 0.86 ??m and the six bands from 1.60 and 2.43 ??m, which have 15- and 30-m spatial resolution, respectively, were selected primarily for making remote mineralogical determinations. The Cuprite, Nevada, mining district comprises two hydrothermal alteration centers where Tertiary volcanic rocks have been hydrothermally altered mainly to bleached silicified rocks and opalized rocks, with a marginal zone of limonitic argilized rocks. Country rocks are mainly Cambrian phyllitic siltstone and limestone. Evaluation of an ASTER image of the Cuprite district shows that spectral reflectance differences in the nine bands in the 0.52 to 2.43 ??m region provide a basis for identifying and mapping mineralogical components which characterize the main hydrothermal alteration zones: opal is the spectrally dominant mineral in the silicified zone; whereas, alunite and kaolinite are dominant in the opalized zone. In addition, the distribution of unaltered country rocks was mapped because of the presence of spectrally dominant muscovite in the siltstone and calcite in limestone, and the tuffaceous rocks and playa deposits were distinguishable due to their relatively flat spectra and weak absorption features at 2.33 and 2.20 ??m, respectively. An Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) image of the study area was processed using a similar methodology used with the ASTER data. Comparison of the ASTER and AVIRIS results shows that the results are generally similar, but the higher spectral resolution of AVIRIS (224 bands) permits identification of more individual minerals, including certain polymorphs. However, ASTER has recorded images of more than 90 percent of the Earth's land surface with less than 20 percent cloud cover, and these data are available at nominal or no cost

  18. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  19. Compliant thermal microactuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsmann, Jacques; Sigmund, Ole; Bouwstra, Siebe

    1999-01-01

    Two dimensional compliant metallic thermal microactuators are designed using topology optimisation, and microfabricated using rapid prototyping techniques. Structures are characterised using advanced image analysis, yielding a very high precision. Characterised structures behave in accordance...

  20. Dynamic thermal environment and thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Ouyang, Q; Cao, B; Zhou, X; Yu, J

    2016-02-01

    Research has shown that a stable thermal environment with tight temperature control cannot bring occupants more thermal comfort. Instead, such an environment will incur higher energy costs and produce greater CO2 emissions. Furthermore, this may lead to the degeneration of occupants' inherent ability to combat thermal stress, thereby weakening thermal adaptability. Measured data from many field investigations have shown that the human body has a higher acceptance to the thermal environment in free-running buildings than to that in air-conditioned buildings with similar average parameters. In naturally ventilated environments, occupants have reported superior thermal comfort votes and much greater thermal comfort temperature ranges compared to air-conditioned environments. This phenomenon is an integral part of the adaptive thermal comfort model. In addition, climate chamber experiments have proven that people prefer natural wind to mechanical wind in warm conditions; in other words, dynamic airflow can provide a superior cooling effect. However, these findings also indicate that significant questions related to thermal comfort remain unanswered. For example, what is the cause of these phenomena? How we can build a comfortable and healthy indoor environment for human beings? This article summarizes a series of research achievements in recent decades, tries to address some of these unanswered questions, and attempts to summarize certain problems for future research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Advanced Welding Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  2. An inexpensive and simple method for thermally stable immobilization of DNA on an unmodified glass surface: UV linking of poly(T)10-poly(C)10-tagged DNA probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðnason, Haukur; Dufva, Hans Martin; Bang, Dang Duong

    2008-01-01

    be linked by UV light irradiation onto a plain, unmodified glass surface. Probes immobilized onto unmodified glass microscope slides performed similarly to probes bound to commercial amino-silane-coated slides and had comparable detection limits. The TC-tagged probes linked to unmodified glass did not show...... any significant decrease in hybridization performance after a 20 min incubation in water at 100 degrees C prior to rehybridization, indicating a covalent bond between the TC tag and unmodified glass. The probes were used in thermal minisequencing cycling reactions. Furthermore, the TC tag improved...

  3. Stable States of Biological Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

  4. The second advanced lead lithium blanket concept using ODS steel as structural material and SiCf/SiC flow channel inserts as electrical and thermal insulators (Task PPA 2.5). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norajitra, P.; Buehler, L.; Fischer, U.

    1999-12-01

    Preparatory work on the advanced dual coolant (A-DCL) blanket concept using SiC f /SiC flow channel inserts as electrical and thermal insulators has been carried out at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in co-operation with CEA as a conceptual design proposal to the EU fusion power plant study planned to be launched in 2000 within the framework of the EU fusion programme with the main objective of specifying the characteristics of an attractive and viable commercial D-T fusion power plant. The basic principles and design characteristics of this A-DCL blanket concept are presented and its potential with regard to performance (neutron wall load, lifetime, availability) is discussed in this report. The results of this study show that the A-DCL blanket concept has a high potential for further development due to its high thermal efficiency and its simple concept solution. (orig.) [de

  5. Composition Screening in Blue-Emitting Li4Sr1+xCa0.97-x(SiO4)2:Ce3+ Phosphors for High Quantum Efficiency and Thermally Stable Photoluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingchen; Zhang, Jilin; Zhou, Wenli; Ji, Xiaoyu; Ma, Wentao; Qiu, Zhongxian; Yu, Liping; Li, Chengzhi; Xia, Zhiguo; Wang, Zhengliang; Lian, Shixun

    2017-09-13

    Photoluminescence quantum efficiency (QE) and thermal stability are important for phosphors used in phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes (pc-LEDs). Li 4 Sr 1+x Ca 0.97-x (SiO 4 ) 2 :0.03Ce 3+ (-0.7 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) phosphors were designed from the initial model of Li 4 SrCa(SiO 4 ) 2 :Ce 3+ , and their single-phased crystal structures were found to be located in the composition range of -0.4 ≤ x ≤ 0.7. Depending on the substitution of Sr 2+ for Ca 2+ ions, the absolute QE value of blue-emitting composition-optimized Li 4 Sr 1.4 Ca 0.57 (SiO 4 ) 2 :0.03Ce 3+ reaches ∼94%, and the emission intensity at 200 °C remains 95% of that at room temperature. Rietveld refinements and Raman spectral analyses suggest the increase of crystal rigidity, increase of force constant in CeO 6 , and decrease of vibrational frequency by increasing Sr 2+ content, which are responsible for the enhanced quantum efficiency and thermal stability. The present study points to a new strategy for future development of the pc-LEDs phosphors based on local structures correlation via composition screening.

  6. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  7. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  8. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  9. Stable radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Stable compositions which are useful in the preparation of Technetium-99m-based scintigraphic agents are discussed. They are comprised of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in oxidized pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcO 4 - ) solution

  10. Some stable hydromagnetic equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J L; Oberman, C R; Kulsrud, R M; Frieman, E A [Project Matterhorn, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1958-07-01

    We have been able to find and investigate the properties of equilibria which are hydromagnetically stable. These equilibria can be obtained, for example, by wrapping conductors helically around the stellarator tube. Systems with I = 3 or 4 are indicated to be optimum for stability purposes. In some cases an admixture of I = 2 fields can be advantageous for achieving equilibrium. (author)

  11. Mapping stable direct and retrograde orbits around the triple system of asteroids (45) Eugenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, R. A. N.; Moraes, R. V.; Prado, A. F. B. A.; Winter, O. C.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely accepted that knowing the composition and the orbital evolution of asteroids might help us to understand the process of formation of the Solar system. It is also known that asteroids can represent a threat to our planet. Such an important role has made space missions to asteroids a very popular topic in current astrodynamics and astronomy studies. Taking into account the increasing interest in space missions to asteroids, especially to multiple systems, we present a study that aims to characterize the stable and unstable regions around the triple system of asteroids (45) Eugenia. The goal is to characterize the unstable and stable regions of this system and to make a comparison with the system 2001 SN263, which is the target of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) mission. A new concept was used for mapping orbits, by considering the disturbance received by the spacecraft from all perturbing forces individually. This method has also been applied to (45) Eugenia. We present the stable and unstable regions for particles with relative inclination between 0° and 180°. We found that (45) Eugenia presents larger stable regions for both prograde and retrograde cases. This is mainly because the satellites of this system are small when compared to the primary body, and because they are not close to each other. We also present a comparison between these two triple systems, and we discuss how these results can guide us in the planning of future missions.

  12. Investigation of the mechanism responsible for the photoluminescence enhancement with Li+ co-doping in highly thermally stable white-emitting Sr8ZnSc(PO4)7:Dy3+ phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, Jing; Fan, Jingyan; Luo, Meng; Zuo, Shengnan

    2017-01-01

    The strategy of co-doping Li + was used with the aim of enhancing the emission intensities of Sr 8 ZnSc(PO 4 ) 7 under near ultraviolet excitation. The luminescence enhancement was related to the deep defects V O ¨ which were produced by the introduction of Li + ion. Furthermore, much deep V O ¨ were produced with the incorporation amount of Li + ion increasing. As the sensitizer, the produced deep V O ¨ can effectively tunnelling transfer energy to the nearby activator Dy 3+ resulting in the photoluminescence enhancement in SZSPO:1.5%Dy 3+ ,5%Li + . In addition, its yellow/blue emitting ratio and photoluminescent quantum yields both were improved under longer wavelength excitation. Furthermore, the excellent thermal stability of optimal SZSPO:1.5%Dy 3+ ,5%Li + excelled over commercial phosphor DS-200 below 225 °C. The electroluminescence properties of fabricated ABPD-WLED reach the optimum with V=10 V and I=800 mA (λ ex =365 nm) or 700 mA (λ ex =388 nm), then the bright white luminescence can be obviously observed. These photoluminescence, electroluminescence and thermal properties testified the potential application of Sr 8 ZnSc(PO 4 ) 7 :1.5%Dy 3+ ,5%Li + as a new-style warm-white emitting LEDs phosphor. - Graphical abstract: The mechanism of the luminescence enhancement is consider as that a little amount introduction of Li + ion can produce defects Li Zn ′ and oxygen vacancies V O ¨, and with the incorporation amount of Li + increasing, the more deep V O ¨ are produced. As sensitizer, the productive deeper V O ¨ can effectively tunneling transfer energy to nearby activator Dy 3+ inducing its photoluminescence enhancement.

  13. Air Stable Photovoltaic Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    O; (d) heating the bulk heterojunction layer to cleave the thermally cleavable groups to produce an insoluble hole containing polymer; (e) providing the bulk heterojunction layer with a hole transporting layer; and (f) providing the hole transporting layer with a second electrode. Also a conducting...

  14. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  15. New optically active and thermally stable poly(amide-imide)s containing N,N'-(Bicyclo[2,2,2]oct-7-ene-2,3,5,6-tetracarboxylic)-bis-L-alanine and aromatic diamines: synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, Khalil; Absalar, Morteza; Hajibeygi, Mohsen [Arak University (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Science. Organic Polymer Chemistry Research Lab.

    2009-07-01

    Five new optically active poly(amide-imide)s (PAIs) 6a-e were prepared by direct polycondensation reaction of the newly synthesized N,N'-(bicyclo[2,2,2]oct-7-ene-2,3,5,6-tetra carboxylic)-bis-L-alanine 4 with various aromatic diamines 5a-e using polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). In this technique triphenyl phosphite (TPP) and pyridine were used as condensing agents to form poly(amide-imide)s through the N-phosphonium salts of pyridine. All of the polymers were obtained in quantitative yields with inherent viscosities between 0.29-0.46 dL g{sup -1} and were highly soluble in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMAc), N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N-methyl- 2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and solvents such as sulfuric acid. They were fully characterized by means of {sup 1}H NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analyses, inherent viscosity, solubility test, specific rotation and thermal properties of these polymers were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis techniques (TGA and DTG). (author)

  16. New optically active and thermally stable poly(amide-imide)s containing N,N'-(Bicyclo[2,2,2]oct-7-ene-2,3,5,6-tetracarboxylic)-bis-L-alanine and aromatic diamines: synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, Khalil; Absalar, Morteza; Hajibeygi, Mohsen

    2009-01-01

    Five new optically active poly(amide-imide)s (PAIs) 6a-e were prepared by direct polycondensation reaction of the newly synthesized N,N'-(bicyclo[2,2,2]oct-7-ene-2,3,5,6-tetra carboxylic)-bis-L-alanine 4 with various aromatic diamines 5a-e using polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). In this technique triphenyl phosphite (TPP) and pyridine were used as condensing agents to form poly(amide-imide)s through the N-phosphonium salts of pyridine. All of the polymers were obtained in quantitative yields with inherent viscosities between 0.29-0.46 dL g -1 and were highly soluble in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMAc), N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N-methyl- 2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and solvents such as sulfuric acid. They were fully characterized by means of 1 H NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analyses, inherent viscosity, solubility test, specific rotation and thermal properties of these polymers were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis techniques (TGA and DTG). (author)

  17. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  18. Advanced fuels safety comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grolmes, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The safety considerations of advanced fuels are described relative to the present understanding of the safety of oxide fueled Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). Safety considerations important for the successful implementation of advanced fueled reactors must early on focus on the accident energetics issues of fuel coolant interactions and recriticality associated with core disruptive accidents. It is in these areas where the thermal physical property differences of the advanced fuel have the greatest significance

  19. Concentration quenching of Eu{sup 2+} in a thermal-stable yellow phosphor Ca{sub 2}BO{sub 3}Cl:Eu{sup 2+} for LED application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xinguo; Zhang Jilin; Dong Zhiyue; Shi Jianxin [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Ministry of Education Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Gong Menglian, E-mail: cesgml@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Ministry of Education Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2012-04-15

    A piece-shaped phosphor Ca{sub 2}BO{sub 3}Cl: Eu{sup 2+} was synthesized by solid-state reaction method. This phosphor exhibited wide absorption in ultra-violet and visible range, and bright yellow emission band centering at 570 nm. The concentration quenching mechanism was verified to be a dipole-dipole interaction, and its critical transfer distance was about 17 A by both calculated crystal structural method and experimental spectral method. This phosphor has a good thermal stability with a quenching temperature (T{sub 1/2}) of 200 Degree-Sign C. Yellow and white LEDs were fabricated with this phosphor and near UV chips, and the yellow LED has a high color purity of 97.0% and promising current tolerant property, while the white LED shows a luminous efficiency of 11.68 lm/W. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Broadband excitable and strong yellow-emitting Ca{sub 2}BO{sub 3}Cl: Eu{sup 2+} phosphor is obtained by solid state reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concentration quenching mechanism of Ca{sub 2}BO{sub 3}Cl: Eu{sup 2+} is dipole-dipole interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quenching temperature (T{sub 1/2}) of Ca{sub 2}BO{sub 3}Cl: Eu{sup 2+} is at 200 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As synthesized material can be used for LED phosphor application.

  20. Scientific and Technical Challenges in Thermal Transport and Thermoelectric Materials and Devices

    KAUST Repository

    O'Dwyer, Colm

    2017-01-19

    This paper considers the state-of-the-art and open scientific and technological questions in thermoelectric materials and devices, from phonon engineering and scattering methods, to new and complex materials and their thermoelectric behavior. The paper also describes recent approaches to create structural and compositional material systems designed to enhance the thermoelectric figure of merit and power factors. We also summarize and contextualize recent advances in the use of superlattice structures and porosity or roughness to influence phonon scattering mechanisms and detail some advances in integrated thermoelectric materials for generators and coolers for thermally stable photonic devices.

  1. Scientific and Technical Challenges in Thermal Transport and Thermoelectric Materials and Devices

    KAUST Repository

    O'Dwyer, Colm; Chen, Renkun; He, Jr-Hau; Lee, Jaeho; Razeeb, Kafil M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the state-of-the-art and open scientific and technological questions in thermoelectric materials and devices, from phonon engineering and scattering methods, to new and complex materials and their thermoelectric behavior. The paper also describes recent approaches to create structural and compositional material systems designed to enhance the thermoelectric figure of merit and power factors. We also summarize and contextualize recent advances in the use of superlattice structures and porosity or roughness to influence phonon scattering mechanisms and detail some advances in integrated thermoelectric materials for generators and coolers for thermally stable photonic devices.

  2. Stability study of MMC tubes and advanced assemblies for telescope structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivet-Lutz, Martine; Pommatau, Gilles

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents new advances concerning the development of an Aluminum Matrix Composite for dimensionally stable satellite structures. Feasibility of thermally stable thin-walled tubes have been acquired through microstructure observation and Coefficient of Thermal Expansion measurement. In order to fit the thermo-mechanical stability domain of tubes on specifications, 3 thermal cycles have been tested, regarding to relaxation of internal stress and changes in macroscopic thermo-mechanical properties. Experimental expansion curves and microstructure observation show that thermal treatments permitts such a good fitting. For a better understanding of physical internal phenomena, internal stress has been measured by neutron diffraction on tube samples after each thermal treatment. Results show a significant decrease of stress due to cycling in cold temperature. In order to decrease the absolute value of CTE of assemblies, a new concept of thermo-mechanical stable linkage has been developped, which consists in a common alumlinum infiltration of superposed carbon preforms. Structural bonding, which usually affects stability properties and impose surface treatments and polymerization, can so be avoided. The study has been achieved through CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and French Ministry of Defense (DGA) supports.

  3. Thermal analysis simulation for a spin-motor used in the advanced main combustion chamber vacuum plasma spray project using the SINDA computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Gary H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the many design challenges of this project is predicting the thermal effects due to the environment inside the vacuum chamber on the turntable and spin motor spindle assembly. The objective of the study is to model the spin motor using the computer program System Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA). By formulating the appropriate input information concerning the motor's geometry, coolant flow path, material composition, and bearing and motor winding characteristics, SINDA should predict temperatures at various predefined nodes. From these temperatures, hopefully, one can predict if the coolant flow rate is sufficient or if certain mechanical elements such as bearings, O ring seals, or motor windings will exceed maximum design temperatures.

  4. Theory of stable allocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Born in 1923 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Shapley defended his doctoral thesis at Princeton University in 1953. For many years he worked at RAND, and for more than thirty years he was a professor at UCLA University. He published numerous scientific papers, either by himself or in cooperation with other economists.

  5. Bi-stable optical actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a bi-stable optical actuator device that is depowered in both stable positions. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition from one state to another. The optical actuator device may be maintained in a stable position either by gravity or a restraining device.

  6. The production of stable isotopes in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgel, M; Iglesias, J; Casas, J; Saviron, J M; Quintanilla, M

    1965-07-01

    The activities developed in the field of the production of stable isotopes by means of ion-exchange chromatography and thermal diffusion techniques are reported. The first method was used to study the separation of the nitrogen and boron isotopes, whereby the separation factor was determined by the break through method. Values ranging from 1,028 to 1,022 were obtained for the separation factor of nitrogen by using ammonium hydroxide solutions while the corresponding values as obtained for boron amounted to 1,035-1,027 using boric acid solutions. Using ammonium chloride or acetate and sodium borate, respectively, resulted in the obtention of values for the separation factor approaching unity. The isotopic separation has been carried out according to the method of development by displacement. The separation of the isotopes of the noble gases, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon has been accomplished resorting to the method of thermal diffusion. (Author) 16 refs.

  7. Lunar mission design using nuclear thermal rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancati, M.L.; Collins, J.T.; Borowski, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The NERVA-class Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR), with performance nearly double that of advanced chemical engines, has long been considered an enabling technology for human missions to Mars. NTR engines address the demanding trip time and payload delivery needs of both cargo-only and piloted flights. But NTR can also reduce the Earth launch requirements for manned lunar missions. First use of NTR for the Moon would be less demanding and would provide a test-bed for early operations experience with this powerful technology. Study of application and design options indicates that NTR propulsion can be integrated with the Space Exploration Initiative scenarios to deliver performance gains while managing controlled, long-term disposal of spent reactors to highly stable orbits

  8. Influence of precipitating light elements on stable stratification below the core/mantle boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, J. G.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Stable stratification below the core/mantle boundary is often invoked to explain anomalously low seismic velocities in this region. Diffusion of light elements like oxygen or, more slowly, silicon could create a stabilizing chemical gradient in the outermost core. Heat flow less than that conducted along the adiabatic gradient may also produce thermal stratification. However, reconciling either origin with the apparent longevity (>3.45 billion years) of Earth's magnetic field remains difficult. Sub-isentropic heat flow would not drive a dynamo by thermal convection before the nucleation of the inner core, which likely occurred less than one billion years ago and did not instantly change the heat flow. Moreover, an oxygen-enriched layer below the core/mantle boundary—the source of thermal buoyancy—could establish double-diffusive convection where motion in the bulk fluid is suppressed below a slowly advancing interface. Here we present new models that explain both stable stratification and a long-lived dynamo by considering ongoing precipitation of magnesium oxide and/or silicon dioxide from the core. Lithophile elements may partition into iron alloys under extreme pressure and temperature during Earth's formation, especially after giant impacts. Modest core/mantle heat flow then drives compositional convection—regardless of thermal conductivity—since their solubility is strongly temperature-dependent. Our models begin with bulk abundances for the mantle and core determined by the redox conditions during accretion. We then track equilibration between the core and a primordial basal magma ocean followed by downward diffusion of light elements. Precipitation begins at a depth that is most sensitive to temperature and oxygen abundance and then creates feedbacks with the radial thermal and chemical profiles. Successful models feature a stable layer with low seismic velocity (which mandates multi-component evolution since a single light element typically

  9. Single- and two-phase flow modeling for coupled neutronics / thermal-hydraulics transient analysis of advanced sodium-cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenu, A.

    2011-10-01

    Nuclear power is nowadays in the front rank as regards helping to meet the growing worldwide energy demand while avoiding an excessive increase in greenhouse gas emissions. However, the operating nuclear power plants are mainly thermal-neutron reactors and, as such, can not be maintained on the basis of the currently identified uranium resources beyond one century at the present consumption rate. Sustainability of nuclear power thus involves closure of the fuel cycle through breeding. With a uranium-based fuel, breeding can only be achieved using a fast-neutron reactor. Sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) technology benefits from 400 reactor-years of accumulated experience and is thus a prime candidate for the implementation of so-called Generation-IV nuclear energy systems. In this context, the safety demonstration of SFRs remains a major Research and Development related issue. The current research aims at the development of a computational tool for the in-depth understanding of SFR core behaviour during accidental transients, particularly those including boiling of the coolant. An accurate modelling of the core physics during such transients requires the coupling between 3D neutron kinetics and thermal-hydraulics in the core, to account for the strong interactions between the two-phase coolant flow and power variations caused by the sodium void effect. The present study is specifically focused upon models for the representation of sodium two-phase flow. The extension of the thermal-hydraulics TRACE code, previously limited to the simulation of single-phase sodium flow, has been carried out through the implementation of equations-of-state and closure relations specific to sodium. The different correlations have then been implemented as options. From the validation study carried out, it has been possible to recommend a set of models which provide satisfactory results, while considering annular flow as the dominant regime up to dryout and a smooth breakdown of the

  10. Engineering product storage under the advanced fuel cycle initiative. Part I: An iterative thermal transport modeling scheme for high-heat-generating radioactive storage forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an integrated nuclear fuel cycle technology under its Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Under the AFCI, waste minimization is stressed. Engineered product storage materials will be required to store concentrated radioactive cesium, strontium, americium, and curium for periods of tens to hundreds of years. The fabrication of such engineered products has some precedence but the concept is largely novel. We thus present a theoretical model used to calculate the maximum radial dimensions of right cylinder storage forms under several scenarios. Maximum dimensions are small, comparable to nuclear fuel pins in some cases, to avoid centerline melting temperatures; this highlights the need for a careful strategy for engineered product storage fabrication and storage

  11. Thermal performance of a closed advanced two-phase thermosyphon loop for cooling of radio base stations at different operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation an advanced thermosyphon loop with extended evaporator and condenser surfaces has been tested at high heat fluxes. The thermosyphon investigated is designed for the cooling of three parallel high heat flux electronic components. The tested evaporators were made from small blocks of copper in which five vertical channels with a diameter of 1.5 mm and length of 14.6 mm were drilled. The riser and downcomer connected the evaporators to the condenser, which is an air-cooled roll-bond type with a total surface area of 1.5 m 2 on the airside. Tests were done with Isobutane (R600a) at heat loads in the range of 10-90 W/cm 2 to each of the components with forced convection condenser cooling and with natural convection with heat loads of 10-70 W

  12. Fundamental Thermal Fluid Physics of High Temperature Flows in Advanced Reactor Systems. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Program Interoffice Work Order (IWO) MSF99-0254 Final Report for Period 1 August 1999 to 31 December 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEligot, D.M.; Condie, K.G.; Foust, T.D.; McCreery, G.E.; Pink, R.J.; Stacey, D.E.; Shenoy, A.; Baccaglini, G.; Pletcher, R.H.; Wallace, J.M.; Vukoslavcevic, P.; Jackson, J.D.; Kunugi, T.; Satake, S.-I.

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the study is the improvement of predictive methods for safety analyses and design of advanced reactors for higher efficiency and enhanced safety and for deployable reactors for electrical power generation, process heat utilization and hydrogen generation. While key applications would be advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGCRs) using the closed Brayton cycle (CBC) for higher efficiency (such as the proposed Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) of General Atomics [Neylan and Simon, 1996]), results of the proposed research should also be valuable in reactor systems with supercritical flow or superheated vapors, e.g., steam. Higher efficiency leads to lower cost/kwh and reduces life-cycle impacts of radioactive waste (by reducing waters/kwh). The outcome will also be useful for some space power and propulsion concepts and for some fusion reactor concepts as side benefits, but they are not the thrusts of the investigation. The objective of the project is to provide fundamental thermal fluid physics knowledge and measurements necessary for the development of the improved methods for the applications

  13. Thermal fluid dynamics study of nuclear advanced reactors of high temperature using RELAP5-3D; Estudo termofluidodinâmico de reatores nucleares avançados de alta temperatura utilizando o RELAP5-3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scari, Maria Elizabeth

    2017-07-01

    Fourth Generation nuclear reactors (GEN-IV) are being designed with special features such as intrinsic safety, reduction of isotopic inventory and use of fuel in proliferation-resistant cycles. Therefore, the investigation and evaluation of operational and safety aspects of the GEN-IV reactors have been the subject of numerous studies by the international community and also in Brazil. In 2008, in Brazil, was created the National Institute of Science and Technology of Innovative Nuclear Reactors, focusing on studies of projects and systems of new generation reactors, which included GEN-IV reactors as well as advanced PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) concepts. The Department of Nuclear Engineering of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (DEN-UFMG) is a partner of this Institute, having started studies on the GEN-IV reactors in the year 2007. Therefore, in order to add knowledge to these studies, in this work, three projects of advanced reactors were considered to verify the simulation capability of the thermo-hydraulic RELAP5-3D code for these systems, either in stationary operation or in transient situations. The addition of new working fluids such as ammonia, carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, various types of liquid salts, among them Flibe, lead, lithium-bismuth, lithium-lead, was a major breakthrough in this version of the code, allowing also the simulation of GEN-IV reactors. The modeling of the respective core of an HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor), HTR-10 (High Temperature Test Module Reactor) and LS-VHTR (Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very-High-Temperature Reactor) were developed and verified in steady state comparing the values found through the calculations with reference data from other simulations, when it is possible. The first two reactors use helium gas as coolant and the LS-VHTR uses a mixture of 66% LiF and 34% of BeF{sub 2}, the LiF-BeF{sub 2}, also know as Flibe. All the studied reactors use enriched uranium as fuel, in form of TRISO

  14. Advanced STEM/EDX investigation on an oxide scale thermally grown on a high-chromium iron–nickel alloy under very low oxygen partial pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latu-Romain, L.; Madi, Y.; Mathieu, S.; Robaut, F.; Petit, J.-P.; Wouters, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A scale grown on a high-chromium iron–nickel alloy under low oxygen partial pressure was studied. • STEM-EDX maps at high resolution on a transversal thin lamella have been conducted. • The real complexity of the oxide layer has been highlighted. • These results explain the elevated number of semiconducting contributions. - Abstract: A thermal oxide scale has been grown on a high-chromium iron-nickel alloy under very low oxygen partial pressure (1050 °C, 10"−"1"0 Pa). In this paper, a special attention has been paid to morphological and chemical characterizations of the scale by scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis at high resolution on a cross-section thin lamella beforehand prepared by using a combined focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope instrument. The complexity of the oxide layer is highlighted, and the correlation between the prese