Reactor assessments of advanced bumpy torus configurations
Uckan, N.A.; Owen, L.W.; Spong, D.A.; Miller, R.L.; Ard, W.B.; Pipkins, J.F.; Schmitt, R.J.
1984-02-01
Recently, several innovative approaches were introduced for enhancing the performance of the basic ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) concept and for improving its reactor potential. These include planar racetrack and square geometries, Andreoletti coil systems, and bumpy torus-stellarator hybrids (which include twisted racetrack and helical axis stellarator - snakey torus). Preliminary evaluations of reactor implications of each approach have been carried out based on magnetics (vacuum) calculations, transport and scaling relationships, and stability properties deduced from provisional configurations that implement the approach but are not necessarily optimized. Further optimization is needed in all cases to evaluate the full potential of each approach. Results of these studies indicate favorable reactor projections with a significant reduction in reactor physical size as compared to conventional EBT reactor designs carried out in the past.
Reactor assessments of advanced bumpy torus configurations
Uckan, N.A.; Owen, L.W.; Spong, D.A.; Miller, R.L.; Ard, W.B.; Pipkins, J.F.; Schmitt, R.J.
1983-01-01
Recently, several configurational approaches and concept improvement schemes were introduced for enhancing the performance of the basic ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) concept and for improving its reactor potential. These configurations include planar racetrack and square geometries, Andreoletti coil systems, and bumpy torus-stellarator hybrids (which include twisted racetrack and helical axis stellarator-snakey torus). Preliminary evaluations of reactor implications of each of these configurations have been carried out based on magnetics (vacuum) calculations, transport and scaling relationships, and stability properties. Results indicate favorable reactor projections with a significant reduction in reactor physical size as compared to conventional EBT reactor designs carried out in the past.
Studies of accelerated compact toruses
Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.; Hammer, J.H.
1983-01-04
In an earlier publication we considered acceleration of plasma rings (Compact Torus). Several possible accelerator configurations were suggested and the possibility of focusing the accelerated rings was discussed. In this paper we consider one scheme, acceleration of a ring between coaxial electrodes by a B/sub theta/ field as in a coaxial rail-gun. If the electrodes are conical, a ring accelerated towards the apex of the cone undergoes self-similar compression (focusing) during acceleration. Because the allowable acceleration force, F/sub a/ = kappaU/sub m//R where (kappa < 1), increases as R/sup -2/, the accelerating distance for conical electrodes is considerably shortened over that required for coaxial electrodes. In either case, however, since the accelerating flux can expand as the ring moves, most of the accelerating field energy can be converted into kinetic energy of the ring leading to high efficiency.
Advanced tokamak reactors based on the spherical torus (ATR/ST). Preliminary design considerations
Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Copenhaver, C.; Schnurr, N.M.; Engelhardt, A.G.; Seed, T.J.; Zubrin, R.M.
1986-06-01
Preliminary design results relating to an advanced magnetic fusion reactor concept based on the high-beta, low-aspect-ratio, spherical-torus tokamak are summarized. The concept includes resistive (demountable) toroidal-field coils, magnetic-divertor impurity control, oscillating-field current drive, and a flowing liquid-metal breeding blanket. Results of parametric tradeoff studies, plasma engineering modeling, fusion-power-core mechanical design, neutronics analyses, and blanket thermalhydraulics studies are described. The approach, models, and interim results described here provide a basis for a more detailed design. Key issues quantified for the spherical-torus reactor center on the need for an efficient drive for this high-current (approx.40 MA) device as well as the economic desirability to increase the net electrical power from the nominal 500-MWe(net) value adopted for the baseline system. Although a direct extension of present tokamak scaling, the stablity and transport of this high-beta (approx.0.3) plasma is a key unknown that is resoluble only by experiment. The spherical torus generally provides a route to improved tokamak reactors as measured by considerably simplified coil technology in a configuration that allows a realistic magnetic divertor design, both leading to increased mass power density and reduced cost.
Studying uniform thickness II: Transversely nonsimple iterated torus knots
LaFountain, Douglas
2011-01-01
We prove that an iterated torus knot type in the standard contact 3-sphere fails the uniform thickness property (UTP) if and only if it is formed from repeated positive cablings, which is precisely when an iterated torus knot supports the standard contact structure. This is the first complete UTP...... classification for a large class of knots. We also show that all iterated torus knots that fail the UTP support cabling knot types that are transversely non-simple....
Studying uniform thickness II: Transversely nonsimple iterated torus knots
LaFountain, Douglas
2011-01-01
We prove that an iterated torus knot type in the standard contact 3-sphere fails the uniform thickness property (UTP) if and only if it is formed from repeated positive cablings, which is precisely when an iterated torus knot supports the standard contact structure. This is the first complete UTP...
Vo, Theodore
2017-10-01
Torus canards are special solutions of fast/slow systems that alternate between attracting and repelling manifolds of limit cycles of the fast subsystem. A relatively new dynamic phenomenon, torus canards have been found in neural applications to mediate the transition from tonic spiking to bursting via amplitude-modulated spiking. In R3, torus canards are degenerate: they require one-parameter families of 2-fast/1-slow systems in order to be observed and even then, they only occur on exponentially thin parameter intervals. The addition of a second slow variable unfolds the torus canard phenomenon, making it generic and robust. That is, torus canards in fast/slow systems with (at least) two slow variables occur on open parameter sets. So far, generic torus canards have only been studied numerically, and their behaviour has been inferred based on averaging and canard theory. This approach, however, has not been rigorously justified since the averaging method breaks down near a fold of periodics, which is exactly where torus canards originate. In this work, we combine techniques from Floquet theory, averaging theory, and geometric singular perturbation theory to show that the average of a torus canard is a folded singularity canard. In so doing, we devise an analytic scheme for the identification and topological classification of torus canards in fast/slow systems with two fast variables and k slow variables, for any positive integer k. We demonstrate the predictive power of our results in a model for intracellular calcium dynamics, where we explain the mechanisms underlying a novel class of elliptic bursting rhythms, called amplitude-modulated bursting, by constructing the torus canard analogues of mixed-mode oscillations. We also make explicit the connection between our results here with prior studies of torus canards and torus canard explosion in R3, and discuss how our methods can be extended to fast/slow systems of arbitrary (finite) dimension.
Cobble, James Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-06-09
This document summarizes the Bumpy Torus Experiment as a viable fusion reactor concept. Conclusions reached include the following: In 30 years, order-of-magnitude technological advances have occurred in multiple areas of plasma heating and confinement. The ORNL bumpy torus of the 1970s was technology limited. Now that ITER is technology limited, an alternate concept is needed. A device built on such a concept should be current free, CW, modular, have a gentle shutdown, and demonstrable stability. The bumpy torus meets or has the potential to meet all of these criteria. Earlier, stability was not possible due to power limits; it has not been fully tested. It is time to revisit the bumpy-torus concept with a modest new machine.
Gravesen, Jens; Willatzen, Morten; Voon, L.C. Lew Yan
2005-01-01
The theory of a quantum-mechanical particle confined to a surface of revolution is described using differential geometry methods including the derivation of a general set of three ordinary differential equations in curved coordinates. The problem is shown to be completely separable with the prese...... hard-wall boundary conditions. Two case studies of recent experimental interest. the nanocone and torus-shaped nanoring structures. are analyzed in terms of eigenstates, energies. and symmetry characteristics based on the theory presented....
Principal noncommutative torus bundles
Echterhoff, Siegfried; Nest, Ryszard; Oyono-Oyono, Herve
2008-01-01
In this paper we study continuous bundles of C*-algebras which are non-commutative analogues of principal torus bundles. We show that all such bundles, although in general being very far away from being locally trivial bundles, are at least locally trivial with respect to a suitable bundle version...... of bivariant K-theory (denoted RKK-theory) due to Kasparov. Using earlier results of Echterhoff and Williams, we shall give a complete classification of principal non-commutative torus bundles up to equivariant Morita equivalence. We then study these bundles as topological fibrations (forgetting the group...... action) and give necessary and sufficient conditions for any non-commutative principal torus bundle being RKK-equivalent to a commutative one. As an application of our methods we shall also give a K-theoretic characterization of those principal torus-bundles with H-flux, as studied by Mathai...
Recent progress towards an advanced spherical torus operating point in NSTX
Gerhardt, S. P.; Gates, D. A.; Kaye, S. M.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J. E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Canik, J. M.; Fredrickson, E.; Kaita, R.; Kolemen, E.; Kugel, H.; Le Blanc, B. P.; Mastrovito, D.; Mueller, D.; Yuh, H.
2011-07-01
Progress in the development of integrated advanced ST plasma scenarios in NSTX (Ono et al 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557) is reported. Recent high-performance plasmas in NSTX following lithium coating of the plasma facing surfaces have achieved higher elongation and lower internal inductance than previously. Analysis of the thermal confinement in these lithiumized discharges shows a stronger plasma current and weaker toroidal field dependence than in previous ST confinement scaling studies; the ITER-98(y, 2) scaling expression describes these scenarios reasonably well. Analysis during periods free of MHD activity has shown that the reconstructed current profile can be understood as the sum of pressure driven, inductive and neutral beam driven currents, without requiring any anomalous fast-ion transport. Non-inductive fractions of 65-70%, and βP > 2, have been achieved at lower plasma current. Some of these low-inductance discharges have a significantly reduced no-wall βN limit, and often have βN at or near the with-wall limit. Coupled m/n = 1/1 + 2/1 kink/tearing modes can limit the sustained β values when rapidly growing ideal modes are avoided. A βN controller has been commissioned and utilized in sustaining high-performance plasmas. 'Snowflake' divertors compatible with high-performance plasmas have been developed. Scenarios with significantly larger aspect ratios have also been developed, in support of next-step ST devices. Overall, these NSTX plasmas have many characteristics required for next-step ST devices.
Nolte, A; Schirren, C G
1997-06-01
Solitary or bilateral, symptomless exostoses on the lingual surface of the mandibule are called mandibular torus. It is mainly seen in young males and has a benign clinical course. The etiopathology is not known. Both genetic and environmental factors such as the anatomy of the lower jaw are considered. Syndromes associated with facial exostoses such as Proteus syndrome or Gardner's syndrome should be clinically excluded. A 40-year-old man with exostoses of the jaw is reported. With this case report we would like to draw attention to a disease which has rarely been described in the German dermatological literature.
Schmieding, Lasse C.; Lauga, Eric; Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas D.
2017-03-01
Phoretic swimmers provide new avenues to study nonequilibrium statistical physics and are also hailed as a promising technology for bioengineering at the cellular scale. Exact solutions for the locomotion of such swimmers have been restricted so far to spheroidal shapes. In this paper we solve for the flow induced by the canonical nonsimply connected shape, namely an axisymmetric phoretic torus. The analytical solution takes the form of an infinite series solution, which we validate against boundary element computations. For a torus of uniform chemical activity, confinement effects in the hole allow the torus to act as a pump, which we optimize subject to fixed particle surface area. Under the same constraint, we next characterize the fastest swimming Janus torus for a variety of assumptions on the surface chemistry. Perhaps surprisingly, none of the optimal tori occur in the limit where the central hole vanishes.
Mesh sensitivity study and optimization of fixed support for ITER torus and cryostat cryoline
Badgujar, S.; Vaghela, H.; Shah, N.; Bhattacharya, R.; Sarkar, B.
2010-02-01
The torus & cryostat cryoline of ITER cryodistribution system has been designed as per the process specifications. The cryoline is an ensemble of six process pipes, thermal shield, fixed, sliding support and outer jacket. The fixed support (FS), which also acts as the anchor for the bellows, is one of the most important part of the cryoline. The FS has to withstand the static weight of pipes as well as the spring and thrust forces arising from the bellows. The FS design has been optimized for the thermal, structural and for combined loads with thermal optimization criteria; less than 8 Watt at 100 K and less than 1.5 Watt at 4.5 K. ANSYS 10.0 has been used for the analysis and CATIA V5 R16 has been used for the modelling as well as geometry optimization. In order to bring the Von-Mises stress within the acceptable limit of 115 MPa, a detailed mesh sensitivity study has been carried out along with design optimization. The iterative process of mesh refinement continued till stress convergence is achieved. The stress analysis has been carried out for optimized mesh size. The paper will present the design methodology, construction details and the results of the analysis.
Mesh sensitivity study and optimization of fixed support for ITER torus and cryostat cryoline
Badgujar, S; Vaghela, H; Shah, N; Bhattacharya, R; Sarkar, B, E-mail: satishrb@ipr.res.i [ITER-INDIA, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar - 382428 (India)
2010-02-01
The torus and cryostat cryoline of ITER cryodistribution system has been designed as per the process specifications. The cryoline is an ensemble of six process pipes, thermal shield, fixed, sliding support and outer jacket. The fixed support (FS), which also acts as the anchor for the bellows, is one of the most important part of the cryoline. The FS has to withstand the static weight of pipes as well as the spring and thrust forces arising from the bellows. The FS design has been optimized for the thermal, structural and for combined loads with thermal optimization criteria; less than 8 Watt at 100 K and less than 1.5 Watt at 4.5 K. ANSYS 10.0 has been used for the analysis and CATIA V5 R16 has been used for the modelling as well as geometry optimization. In order to bring the Von-Mises stress within the acceptable limit of 115 MPa, a detailed mesh sensitivity study has been carried out along with design optimization. The iterative process of mesh refinement continued till stress convergence is achieved. The stress analysis has been carried out for optimized mesh size. The paper will present the design methodology, construction details and the results of the analysis.
Momentum-transport studies in high E x B shear plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment.
Solomon, W M; Kaye, S M; Bell, R E; Leblanc, B P; Menard, J E; Rewoldt, G; Wang, W; Levinton, F M; Yuh, H; Sabbagh, S A
2008-08-08
Experiments have been conducted at the National Sperical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to study both steady state and perturbative momentum transport. These studies are unique in their parameter space under investigation, where the low aspect ratio of NSTX results in rapid plasma rotation with ExB shearing rates high enough to suppress low-k turbulence. In some cases, the ratio of momentum to energy confinement time is found to exceed five. Momentum pinch velocities of order 10-40 m/s are inferred from the measured angular momentum flux evolution after nonresonant magnetic perturbations are applied to brake the plasma.
Modeling the Europa plasma torus
Schreier, Ron; Eviatar, Aharon; Vasyliunas, Vytenis M.; Richardson, John D.
1993-12-01
The existence of a torus of plasma generated by sputtering from Jupiter's satellite Europa has long been suspected but never yet convincingly demonstrated. Temperature profiles from Voyager plasma observations indicate the presence of hot, possibly freshly picked-up ions in the general vicinity of the orbit of Europa, which may be interpreted as evidence for a local plasma torus. Studies of ion partitioning in the outer regions of the Io torus reveal that the oxygen to sulfur mixing ratio varies with radial distance; this may indicates that oxygen-rich matter is injected from a non-Io source, most probably Europa. We have constructed a quantitative model of a plasma torus near the orbit of Europa which takes into account plasma input from the Io torus, sputtering from the surface of Europa, a great number of ionization and charge exchange processes, and plasma loss by diffusive transport. When the transport time is chosen so that the model's total number density in consistent with the observed total plasma density, the contribution from Europa is found to be significant although not dominant. The model predicts in detail the ion composition, charge states, and the relative fractions of hot Europa-generated and (presumed) cold Io-generated ions. The results are generally consistent with observations from Voyager and can in principle (subject to limitations of data coverage) be confirmed in more detail by Ulysses.
Renormalization on noncommutative torus
D'Ascanio, D; Vassilevich, D V
2016-01-01
We study a self-interacting scalar $\\varphi^4$ theory on the $d$-dimensional noncommutative torus. We determine, for the particular cases $d=2$ and $d=4$, the nonlocal counterterms required by one-loop renormalization. We discuss higher loops in two dimensions and two-loop contributions to the self-energy in four dimensions. Our analysis points towards the absence of any problems related to the UV/IR mixing and thus to renormalizability of the theory. However, we find another potentially troubling phenomenon which is a wild behavior of the two-point amplitude as a function of the noncommutativity matrix $\\theta$.
Torus Bifurcation Under Discretization
邹永魁; 黄明游
2002-01-01
Parameterized dynamical systems with a simple zero eigenvalue and a couple of purely imaginary eigenvalues are considered. It is proved that this type of eigen-structure leads to torns bifurcation under certain nondegenerate conditions. We show that the discrete systems, obtained by discretizing the ODEs using symmetric, eigen-structure preserving schemes, inherit the similar torus bifurcation properties. Fredholm theory in Banach spaces is applied to obtain the global torns bifurcation. Our results complement those on the study of discretization effects of global bifurcation.
Renormalization on noncommutative torus
D' Ascanio, D.; Pisani, P. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Fisica La Plata-CONICET, La Plata (Argentina); Vassilevich, D.V. [Universidade Federal do ABC, CMCC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)
2016-04-15
We study a self-interacting scalar φ{sup 4} theory on the d-dimensional noncommutative torus. We determine, for the particular cases d = 2 and d = 4, the counterterms required by one-loop renormalization. We discuss higher loops in two dimensions and two-loop contributions to the self-energy in four dimensions. Our analysis points toward the absence of any problems related to the ultraviolet/infrared mixing and thus to renormalizability of the theory. However, we find another potentially troubling phenomenon which is a wild behavior of the two-point amplitude as a function of the noncommutativity matrix θ. (orig.)
Renormalization on noncommutative torus
D'Ascanio, D.; Pisani, P.; Vassilevich, D. V.
2016-04-01
We study a self-interacting scalar \\varphi ^4 theory on the d-dimensional noncommutative torus. We determine, for the particular cases d=2 and d=4, the counterterms required by one-loop renormalization. We discuss higher loops in two dimensions and two-loop contributions to the self-energy in four dimensions. Our analysis points toward the absence of any problems related to the ultraviolet/infrared mixing and thus to renormalizability of the theory. However, we find another potentially troubling phenomenon which is a wild behavior of the two-point amplitude as a function of the noncommutativity matrix θ.
Torus palatino, torus mandibular y exostosis maxilares
Ivan Alberto Manotas Arevalo
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Los huesos maxilares son parte de la estructura esquelética corporal por lo cual no son ajenos a las patologías que se presentan en ella. Algunas guardan semejanza entre sí, otras son muy singulares por sus características patognomónicas, por ejemplo, los torus palatinos, los torus mandibulares y las exostosis de los maxilares. Sin embargo, existen ideas especulativas acerca de su etiopatogenía, de los factores asociados, de su incidencia y prevalencia, de su necesidad de tratamiento, entre otras. El propósito de esta revisión es presentar la información existente sobre estas patologías en textos usados para la formación de profesionales de salud en nuestro medio y en el ámbito universal, y en otras publicaciones que hayan servido de soporte a las ideas concebidas acerca de los torus y las exostosis, haciendo énfasis en los aspectos diagnósticos. Se pretende que esta información sirva de orientación para investigaciones futuras.
Loop Quantum Cosmology on a Torus
Lamon, Raphael
2009-01-01
In this paper we study the effect of a torus topology on Loop Quantum Cosmology. We first derive the Teichmueller space parametrizing all possible tori using Thurston's theorem and construct a Hamiltonian describing the dynamics of these torus universes. We then compute the Ashtekar variables for a slightly simplified torus such that the Gauss constraint can be solved easily. We perform a canonical transformation so that the holomies along the edges of the torus reduce to a product between almost and strictly periodic functions of the new variables. The drawback of this transformation is that the components of the densitized triad become complicated functions of these variables. Nevertheless we find two ways of quantizing these components, which in both cases leads surprisingly to a continuous spectrum.
E.D. Fredrickson; N. Gorelenkov; C.Z. Cheng; R. Bell; D. Darrow, D. Gates; D. Johnson; S. Kaye; B. LeBlanc; D. McCune; J. Menard; L. Roquemore
2002-02-25
With the first injection of neutral beams into the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [Ono, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557] a broad spectrum of fluctuations consisting of nearly equally spaced peaks in the frequency range from about 0.2 to 1.2 times the ion cyclotron frequency was observed. The frequencies scale with toroidal field and plasma density consistently with Alfvin waves. From these and other observations, the modes have been identified as Compressional Alfvin Eigenmodes (CAE). It has also recently been found that the ratio of the measured ion and electron temperatures in NSTX during neutral-beam heating is anomalously high [Bell, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 46 (2001) 206]. To explain the anomaly in the ratio of ion to electron temperature, it has been suggested that the CAE, driven by the beam ions, stochastically heat the thermal ions [Gates, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 205003]. In this paper, it is shown through studies of the power balance that stochastic heating of the thermal ions by the observed CAE alone is not solely responsible for the anomaly in the ion to electron temperature ratio.
An Asymmetric Noncommutative Torus
Dąbrowski, Ludwik; Sitarz, Andrzej
2015-09-01
We introduce a family of spectral triples that describe the curved noncommutative two-torus. The relevant family of new Dirac operators is given by rescaling one of two terms in the flat Dirac operator. We compute the dressed scalar curvature and show that the Gauss-Bonnet theorem holds (which is not covered by the general result of Connes and Moscovici).
On some Closed Magnetic Curves on a 3-torus
Munteanu, Marian Ioan, E-mail: marian.ioan.munteanu@gmail.com [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iaşi, Faculty of Mathematics (Romania); Nistor, Ana Irina, E-mail: ana.irina.nistor@gmail.com [Gh. Asachi Technical University of Iaşi, Department of Mathematics and Informatics (Romania)
2017-06-15
We consider two magnetic fields on the 3-torus obtained from two different contact forms on the Euclidean 3-space and we study when their corresponding normal magnetic curves are closed. We obtain periodicity conditions analogues to those for the closed geodesics on the torus.
Linear Parabolic Maps on the Torus
Zyczkowski, K; Zyczkowski, Karol; Nishikawa, Takashi
1999-01-01
We investigate linear parabolic maps on the torus. In a generic case these maps are non-invertible and discontinuous. Although the metric entropy of these systems is equal to zero, their dynamics is non-trivial due to folding of the image of the unit square into the torus. We study the structure of the maximal invariant set, and in a generic case we prove the sensitive dependence on the initial conditions. We study the decay of correlations and the diffusion in the corresponding system on the plane. We also demonstrate how the rationality of the real numbers defining the map influences the dynamical properties of the system.
Complex Dynamics Caused by Torus Bifurcation in Power Systems
YU Xiaodan; JIA Hongjie; DONG Cun
2006-01-01
Torus bifurcation is a relatively complicated bifurcation caused by a pair of complex conjuployed to reveal the relationship between torus bifurcation and some complex dynamics.Based on theoretical analysis and simulation studies, it is found that torus bifurcation is a typical route to chaos in power system.Some complex dynamics usually occur after a torus bifurcation, such as self-organization, deep bifurcations, exquisite structure, coexistence of chaos and divergence.It is also found that chaos has close relationship with various instability scenarios of power systems.Studies of this paper are helpful to understand the mechanism of torus bifurcation in power system and relationship of chaos and power system instabilities.
Saturn in hot water: viscous evolution of the Enceladus torus
Farmer, Alison J
2008-01-01
The detection of outgassing water vapor from Enceladus is one of the great breakthroughs of the Cassini mission. The fate of this water once ionized has been widely studied; here we investigate the effects of purely neutral-neutral interactions within the Enceladus torus. We find that, thanks in part to the polar nature of the water molecule, a cold (~180 K) neutral torus would undergo rapid viscous heating and spread to the extent of the observed hydroxyl cloud, before plasma effects become important. We investigate the physics behind the spreading of the torus, paying particular attention to the competition between heating and rotational line cooling. A steady-state torus model is constructed, and it is demonstrated that the torus will be observable in the millimeter band with the upcoming Herschel satellite. The relative strength of rotational lines could be used to distinguish between physical models for the neutral cloud.
Resistive Drift Waves in a Bumpy Torus
J.L.V. Lewandowski
2004-01-12
A computational study of resistive drift waves in the edge plasma of a bumpy torus is presented. The magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium is obtained from a three-dimensional local equilibrium model. The use of a local magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium model allows for a computationally efficient systematic study of the impact of the magnetic field structure on drift wave stability.
Vazquez, Billy
The dusty torus is the key component in the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) Unification Scheme that explains the spectroscopic differences between Seyfert galaxies of types 1 and 2. The torus dust is heated by the nuclear source and emits the absorbed energy in the infrared (IR); but because of light travel times, the torus IR emission responds to variations of the nuclear ultraviolet/optical continuum with a delay that corresponds to the size of the emitting region. The results from a mid-infrared (MIR) monitoring campaign using the Spitzer Space Telescope and optical ground-based telescopes (B and V band imaging), which spanned over 2 years and covered a sample of 12 Seyfert galaxies, are presented. The aim was to constrain the distances from the nucleus to the regions in the torus emitting at wavelengths of 3.6 microm and 4.5 microm. MIR light curves showing the variability characteristics of these AGN are presented and the effects of photometric uncertainties on the time-series analysis of the light curves are discussed. Significant variability was observed in the IR light curves of 10 of 12 objects, with relative amplitudes ranging from ˜10% to ˜100% from their mean flux. The "reverberation lags" between the 3.6 microm and 4.5 microm IR bands were determined for the entire sample and between the optical and MIR bands for NGC6418. In NGC6418, the 3.6 microm and 4.5 microm fluxes lagged behind those of the optical continuum by 47.5+2.0-1.9) days and 62.5+2.5-2.9 days, respectively. This is consistent with the inferred lower limit to the sublimation radius for pure graphite grains at T=1800 K but smaller by a factor of 2 than the lower limit for dust grains with a "standard" interstellar medium (ISM) composition. There is evidence that the lags increased following approximately by a factor of 2 increase in luminosity, consistent with an increase in the sublimation radius.
Refined large N duality for torus knots
Nawata, Satoshi; Kameyama, Masaya
We formulate large N duality of U(N) refined Chern-Simons theory with a torus knot/link in S³. By studying refined BPS states in M-theory, we provide the explicit form of low-energy effective actions of Type IIA string theory with D4-branes on the Ω-background. This form enables us to relate...
Refined large N duality for torus knots
Nawata, Satoshi; Kameyama, Masaya
We formulate large N duality of U(N) refined Chern-Simons theory with a torus knot/link in S³. By studying refined BPS states in M-theory, we provide the explicit form of low-energy effective actions of Type IIA string theory with D4-branes on the Ω-background. This form enables us to relate...
The nature of the torus in the heavily obscured AGN Markarian 3: an X-ray study
Guainazzi, M.; Risaliti, G.; Awaki, H.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we report the results of an X-ray monitoring campaign on the heavily obscured Seyfert galaxy, Markarian 3, carried out between the fall of 2014 and the spring of 2015 with NuSTAR, Suzaku and XMM–Newton. The hard X-ray spectrum of Markarian 3 is variable on all the time-scales probed...... the discovery of an ionized absorber, characterized by variable resonant absorption lines due to He- and H-like iron. This discovery lends support to the idea that moderate column density absorbers could be due to clouds evaporated at the outer surface of the torus, possibly accelerated by the radiation...... pressure due to the central AGN emission leaking through the patchy absorber....
Kraft, Ralph; Kimura, Tomoki; Elsner, Ronald; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Gladstone, Randy; Badman, Sarah Victoria; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Murakami, Go; Murray, Stephen S.; Roediger, Elke; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Yoshioka, Kazuo
2014-01-01
We present preliminary results from a coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton observational campaign of the Jovian aurora and Io plasma torus. The data were taken over a three week period in April, 2014. Jupiter was observed continuously with Hisaki, six times with the Chandra/HRC instrument for roughly 12 hours per observation, and twice by XMM-Newton. The goal of this observational campaign was to understand how energy and matter are exchanged between the Jovian aurora, the IPT, and the Solar wind. X-ray observations provide key diagnostics on highly stripped ions and keV electrons in the Jovian magnetosphere. We use the temporal, spatial, and spectral capabilities of the three instruments to search for correlated variability between the Solar wind, the EUV-emitting plasma of the IPT and UV aurora, and the ions responsible for the X-ray aurora. Preliminary analysis suggests a strong 45 min periodicity in the EUV emission from the electron aurora. There is some evidence for complex variability of the X-ray auroras on scales of tens of minutes. There is also clear morphological changes in the X-ray aurora that do not appear to be correlated with either variations in the IPT or Solar wind.
Matesz, C; Kulik, A
1996-01-01
The afferent and efferent connections of the frog principal nucleus (TP) of torus semicircularis (TOS) and superior olive (SO) were examined by employing the anterograde and retrograde transport patterns of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L). After injecting the tracer into these nuclei it was found that the TP projected to the ipsilateral posterior and central thalamic nuclei, all subdivisions of the bilateral TDS and the ipsilateral nucleus isthmi (NI). In the rhombencephalon the projection was restricted mainly to the contralateral SO and the cochlear nucleus (CN). Retrogradely labeled cells were found in most of the areas that contained anterogradely labeled terminals. The termination areas of the SO fibers were similar to the projections of fibers of TP origin in the diencephalic and in the mesencephalic auditory centers. A strong projection was followed into the contralateral SO; the CNs received fibers at both sides. Caudally to the SO the reticular formation, the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, the solitary nucleus and the dorsal column nuclei were supplied by the fibers of the SO origin. Retrogradely labeled cells were found in the TOS, tegmental nuclei, solitary nucleus, dorsal column nuclei and in the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. Our results indicate that the frog auditory pathway is more complex at the level of the secondary and tertiary fiber projections than has been previously recognized.
The nature of the torus in the heavily obscured AGN Markarian 3: an X-ray study
Guainazzi, M; Awaki, H; Arevalo, P; Bauer, F E; Bianchi, S; Boggs, S E; Brandt, W N; Brightman, M; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Forster, K; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F; Koss, M; Longinotti, A; Markwardt, C; Marinucci, A; Matt, G; Reynolds, C S; Ricci, C; Stern, D; Svoboda, J; Walton, D; Zhang, W
2016-01-01
In this paper we report the results of an X-ray monitoring campaign on the heavily obscured Seyfert galaxy Markarian 3 carried out between the fall of 2014 and the spring of 2015 with NuSTAR, Suzaku and XMM-Newton. The hard X-ray spectrum of Markarian 3 is variable on all the time scales probed by our campaign, down to a few days. The observed continuum variability is due to an intrinsically variable primary continuum seen in transmission through a large, but still Compton-thin column density (N_H~0.8-1.1$\\times$10$^{24}$ cm$^{-2}$). If arranged in a spherical-toroidal geometry, the Compton scattering matter has an opening angle ~66 degrees and is seen at a grazing angle through its upper rim (inclination angle ~70 degrees). We report a possible occultation event during the 2014 campaign. If the torus is constituted by a system of clouds sharing the same column density, this event allows us to constrain their number (17$\\pm$5) and individual column density, [~(4.9$\\pm$1.5)$\\times$10$^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$]. The com...
Advanced drilling systems study.
Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe; Finger, John Travis (Livesay Consultants, Encintas, CA)
1996-05-01
This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.
Theoretical analysis of a parabolic torus reflector antenna with multibeam
杜彪; 杨可忠; 钟顺时
1995-01-01
The parametric equations and the formulas of unit normal vector and surface element for aparabolic torus reflector antenna are derived and the mechanism of producing multibeam is proposed, Based on physical optics, the radiation pattern formulas for the antenna are given, with which the effects of geometric parameters on the antenna are studied. The good agreement between the calculated patterns and the measured ones shows that the theory is helpful for designing parabolic torus antennas.
Gallagher, S C; Everett, J E; Keating, S; Deo, R P
2013-01-01
Mass ejection in the form of winds or jets appears to be as fundamental to quasar activity as accretion, and can be directly observed in many objects with broadened and blue-shifted UV absorption features. A convincing argument for radiation pressure driving this ionized outflow can be made within the dust sublimation radius. Beyond, radiation pressure is even more important, as high energy photons from the central engine can now push on dust grains. This physics underlies the dusty-wind model for the putative obscuring torus. Specifically, the dusty wind in our model is first launched from the outer accretion disk as a magneto-centrifugal wind and then accelerated and shaped by radiation pressure from the central continuum. Such a wind can plausibly account for both the necessary obscuring medium to explain the ratio of broad-to-narrow-line objects and the mid-infrared emission commonly seen in quasar spectral energy distributions. A convincing demonstration that large-scale, organized magnetic fields are pr...
ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY
Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco
1999-10-15
This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.
ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY
Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou
2002-07-30
This is the fourth quarterly progress report for Year-3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between April 1, 2002 and June 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)''; (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions''; (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''; (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.
Energy cascades for NLS on the torus
Carles, Remi
2010-01-01
We consider the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with cubic (focusing or defocusing) nonlinearity on the multidimensional torus. For special small initial data containing only five modes, we exhibit a countable set of time layers in which arbitrarily large modes are created. The proof relies on a reduction to multiphase weakly nonlinear geometric optics, and on the study of a particular two-dimensional discrete dynamical system.
Exploring Torus Universes in Causal Dynamical Triangulations
Budd, T G
2013-01-01
Motivated by the search for new observables in nonperturbative quantum gravity, we consider Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) in 2+1 dimensions with the spatial topology of a torus. This system is of particular interest, because one can study not only the global scale factor, but also global shape variables in the presence of arbitrary quantum fluctuations of the geometry. Our initial investigation focusses on the dynamics of the scale factor and uncovers a qualitatively new behaviour, which leads us to investigate a novel type of boundary conditions for the path integral. Comparing large-scale features of the emergent quantum geometry in numerical simulations with a classical minisuperspace formulation, we find partial agreement. By measuring the correlation matrix of volume fluctuations we succeed in reconstructing the effective action for the scale factor directly from the simulation data. Apart from setting the stage for the analysis of shape dynamics on the torus, the new set-up highlights the role o...
ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY
Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington
2003-01-30
This is the second quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between October 1, 2002 and December 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks. (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System. (b) New research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions''. (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) New Research project (Task 13): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (g) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (h) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.
ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY
Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou
2000-01-30
This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.
ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY
Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira
2000-10-30
This is the first quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between July 14, 2000 and September 30, 2000. This report presents information on the following specific tasks: (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development (Task 2), (b) Progress on research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress on research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress on research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress on research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Initiate research on project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Progress on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution (Tasks 11), and Foam properties (Task 12), (h) Initiate a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. Since the previous Task 1 has been completed, we will now designate this new task as: (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.
Er:YAG Laser: A New Technical Approach to Remove Torus Palatinus and Torus Mandibularis
J. P. Rocca
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of Er:YAG laser to remove by excision torus mandibularis and to smooth torus palatinus exostosis. Materials and Methods. Torus mandibularis (TM and torus palatinus (TP were surgically eliminated via the Er:YAG laser using the following parameters: TM: output power ranging from 500 to 1000 mJ, frequency from 20 to 30 Hz, sapphire tips (diameter 0.8 mm, air-water spray (ratio 5/5, pulse duration 150 μsec, fluence ranging from 99592 J/cm2 to 199044,586 J/cm2. TP: a peeling technique was used to eliminate TP, as excision by slicing being impossible here. Results. TM: excision was obtained after 12730 pulses. TP: smoothing technique took more time compared with excision. Once peeling was considered to be accomplished, the use of a surgical rasp was necessary to eliminate bone spicules that could delay the wound to heal in good conditions. Conclusion. Er:YAG excision (TM or Er:YAG peeling (TP are safe clinical techniques easy to practice even if the time required for excision or surface smoothing is more than the time required with bony burs and high speed instruments.
Er:YAG Laser: A New Technical Approach to Remove Torus Palatinus and Torus Mandibularis
Rocca, J. P.; Raybaud, H.; Merigo, E.; Vescovi, P.; Fornaini, C.
2012-01-01
Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of Er:YAG laser to remove by excision torus mandibularis and to smooth torus palatinus exostosis. Materials and Methods. Torus mandibularis (TM) and torus palatinus (TP) were surgically eliminated via the Er:YAG laser using the following parameters: TM: output power ranging from 500 to 1000 mJ, frequency from 20 to 30 Hz, sapphire tips (diameter 0.8 mm), air-water spray (ratio 5/5), pulse duration 150 μsec, fluence ranging from 99592 J/cm2 to 199044,586 J/cm2. TP: a peeling technique was used to eliminate TP, as excision by slicing being impossible here. Results. TM: excision was obtained after 12730 pulses. TP: smoothing technique took more time compared with excision. Once peeling was considered to be accomplished, the use of a surgical rasp was necessary to eliminate bone spicules that could delay the wound to heal in good conditions. Conclusion. Er:YAG excision (TM) or Er:YAG peeling (TP) are safe clinical techniques easy to practice even if the time required for excision or surface smoothing is more than the time required with bony burs and high speed instruments. PMID:22792500
ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY
Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk, Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington
2002-10-30
This is the first quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between July 1, 2002 and Sept. 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System, (b) New Research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings (Task 12), Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.
Constraining the Europa Neutral Torus
Smith, Howard T.; Mitchell, Donald; mauk, Barry; Johnson, Robert E.; clark, george
2016-10-01
"Neutral tori" consist of neutral particles that usually co-orbit along with their source forming a toroidal (or partial toroidal) feature around the planet. The distribution and composition of these features can often provide important, if not unique, insight into magnetospheric particles sources, mechanisms and dynamics. However, these features can often be difficult to directly detect. One innovative method for detecting neutral tori is by observing Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) that are generally considered produced as a result of charge exchange interactions between charged and neutral particles.Mauk et al. (2003) reported the detection of a Europa neutral particle torus using ENA observations. The presence of a Europa torus has extremely large implications for upcoming missions to Jupiter as well as understanding possible activity at this moon and providing critical insight into what lies beneath the surface of this icy ocean world. However, ENAs can also be produced as a result of charge exchange interactions between two ionized particles and in that case cannot be used to infer the presence of neutral particle population. Thus, a detailed examination of all possible source interactions must be considered before one can confirm that likely original source population of these ENA images is actually a Europa neutral particle torus. For this talk, we examine the viability that the Mauk et al. (2003) observations were actually generated from a neutral torus emanating from Europa as opposed to charge particle interactions with plasma originating from Io. These results help constrain such a torus as well as Europa source processes.
Compact magnetic confinement fusion: Spherical torus and compact torus
Zhe Gao
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The spherical torus (ST and compact torus (CT are two kinds of alternative magnetic confinement fusion concepts with compact geometry. The ST is actually a sub-category of tokamak with a low aspect ratio; while the CT is a toroidal magnetic configuration with a simply-connected geometry including spheromak and field reversed pinch. The ST and CT have potential advantages for ultimate fusion reactor; while at present they can also provide unique fusion science and technology contributions for mainstream fusion research. However, some critical scientific and technology issues should be extensively investigated.
Torus Knots and the Topological Vertex
Jockers, Hans; Soroush, Masoud
2012-01-01
We propose a class of toric Lagrangian A-branes on the resolved conifold that is suitable to describe torus knots on S^3. The key role is played by the SL(2,Z) transformation, which generates a general torus knot from the unknot. Applying the topological vertex to the proposed A-branes, we rederive the colored HOMFLY polynomials for torus knots, in agreement with the Rosso and Jones formula. We show that our A-model construction is mirror symmetric to the B-model analysis of Brini, Eynard and Marino. Comparing to the recent proposal by Aganagic and Vafa for knots on S^3, we demonstrate that the disk amplitude of the A-brane associated to any knot is sufficient to reconstruct the entire B-model spectral curve. Finally, the construction of toric Lagrangian A-branes is generalized to other local toric Calabi-Yau geometries, which paves the road to study knots in other three-manifolds such as lens spaces.
Ho, Choon-Lin; Hosotani, Yutaka
Starting from the quantum field theory of nonrelativistic matter on a torus interacting with Chern-Simons gauge fields, we derive the Schrödinger equation for an anyon system. The nonintegrable phases of the Wilson line integrals on a torus play an essential role. In addition to generating degenerate vacua, they enter in the definition of a many-body Schrödinger wave function in quantum mechanics, which can be defined as a regular function of the coordinates of anyons. It obeys a non-Abelian representation of the braid group algebra, being related to Einarsson’s wave function by a singular gauge transformation.
ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY
Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru
2004-09-30
The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a
Rigidity theorems of Clifford Torus
SOUSA JR. LUIZ A. M.
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Let M be an n-dimensional closed minimally immersed hypersurface in the unit sphere Sn + 1. Assume in addition that M has constant scalar curvature or constant Gauss-Kronecker curvature. In this note we announce that if M has (n - 1 principal curvatures with the same sign everywhere, then M is isometric to a Clifford Torus .
Recent Progress on Spherical Torus Research
Ono, Masayuki [PPPL; Kaita, Robert [PPPL
2014-01-01
The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R0/a) reduced to A ~ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ≥ 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta β (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as β ~ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation κ, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two megaampere class ST facilities in 2000, National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) in the US and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than sixteen ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all of fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.
Torus palatinus. Report of two cases
María Lorena Re Domínguez
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The torus is a non-neoplastic slow growing bone protuberance, which is usually manifested before the age of 30; Set in the hard palate is called “Torus Palatinus”, and located in the lower jaw – “Torus mandibularis”. In most cases, the diagnosis is usually incidental, during clinical examination, due to other reasons. The reason is that they are usually asymptomatic and patients are not aware of carrying a torus; hence the conservation treatment, unless it poses problems for the patient. We report two cases of incidental detected palatal torus in women.
Mantica, P.; Tala, T.; Ferreira, J.S.
2010-01-01
Perturbative experiments have been carried out in the Joint European Torus [Fusion Sci. Technol. 53(4) (2008)] in order to identify the diffusive and convective components of toroidal momentum transport. The torque source was modulated either by modulating tangential neutral beam power or by modu...
Orndoff, Evelyne; Poritz, Darwin
2014-01-01
All human space missions require significant logistical mass and volume that add an unprecedented burden on longduration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. For these missions with limited cleaning resources, a new wardrobe must be developed to reduce this logistical burden by reducing clothing mass and extending clothing wear. The present studies have been undertaken, for the first time, to measure length of wear and to assess the acceptance of such extended wear. Garments in these studies are commercially available exercise T-shirts and shorts, routine-wear T-shirts, and longsleeved pullover shirts. Fabric composition (cotton, polyester, light-weight, superfine Merino wool, modacrylic, cotton/rayon, polyester/Cocona, modacrylic/Xstatic, modacrylic/rayon, modacrylic/lyocell/aramid), construction (open knit, tight knit, open weave, tight weave), and finishing treatment (none, quaternary ammonium salt) are the independent variables. Eleven studies are reported here: five studies of exercise T-shirts, three of exercise shorts, two of routine wear Tshirts, and one of shirts used as sleep-wear. All studies are conducted in a climate-controlled environment, similar to a space vehicle's. For exercise clothing, study participants wear the garments during aerobic exercise. For routine wear clothing, study participants wear the T-shirts daily in an office or laboratory. Daily questionnaires collected data on ordinal preferences of nine sensory elements and on reason for retiring a used garment. Study 1 compares knitted cotton, polyester, and Merino exercise T-shirts (61 participants), study 2, knitted polyester, modacrylic, and polyester/Cocona exercise T-shirts (40 participants), study 3, cotton and polyester exercise shorts, knitted and woven (70 participants), all three using factorial experimental designs with and without a finishing treatment, conducted at the Johnson Space Center, sharing study participants. Study 4 compares knitted polyester and ZQ Merino exercise T
Steady-State Plasmas in KT5D Magnetized Torus
ZHU Zhenhua; LIU Wandong; WAN Baonian; ZHAO Yanping; LI Jiangang; YAN Longwen; YANG Qingwei; DING Xuantong; XU Min; YU Yi; WANG Zhijiang; LU Ronghua; WEN Yizhi; YU Changxuan; MA Jinxiu; WAN Shude
2007-01-01
Steady-state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) wave in the KT5D magnetized torus was studied using a fast high-resolution camera and Langmuir probes. It was found that both the discharge patterns taken by the camera and the plasma parameters measured by the probes were very sensitive to the working gas pressure and the magnetic configuration of the torus both without and with vertical fields. There existed fast vertical motion of the plasma. Tentative discussion is presented about the observed phenomena such as the bright resonance layer at a high gas pressure and the wave absorption mechanism at a low pressure. Further explanations should be found.
Comments on a full quantization of the torus
Velhinho, J M
1998-01-01
Gotay showed that a representation of the whole Poisson algebra of the torus given by geometric quantization is irreducible with respect to the most natural overcomplete set of observables. We study this representation and argue that it cannot be considered as physically acceptable, since classically bounded observables are quantized by operators with unbounded spectrum. This in turn can be traced back to the non implementation of functional relations among observables. Effectively, the latter amounts to lifting the constraints that compactify both directions in the torus.
ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY
Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington
2003-04-30
Experiments on the flow loop are continuing. Improvements to the software for data acquisition are being made as additional experience with three-phase flow is gained. Modifications are being made to the Cuttings Injection System in order to improve control and the precision of cuttings injection. The design details for a drill-pipe Rotation System have been completed. A US Patent was filed on October 28, 2002 for a new design for an instrument that can generate a variety of foams under elevated pressures and temperatures and then transfer the test foam to a viscometer for measurements of viscosity. Theoretical analyses of cuttings transport phenomena based on a layered model is under development. Calibrations of two nuclear densitometers have been completed. Baseline tests have been run to determine wall roughness in the 4 different tests sections (i.e. 2-in, 3-in, 4-in pipes and 5.76-in by 3.5-in annulus) of the flow loop. Tests have also been conducted with aerated fluids at EPET conditions. Preliminary experiments on the two candidate aqueous foam formulations were conducted which included rheological tests of the base fluid and foam stability reports. These were conducted after acceptance of the proposal on the Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature Conditions. Preparation of a test matrix for cuttings-transport experiments with foam in the ACTF is also under way. A controller for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration and distribution has been designed that can control four transceivers at a time. A prototype of the control circuit board was built and tested. Tests showed that there was a problem with radiated noise. AN improved circuit board was designed and sent to an external expert to verify the new design. The new board is being fabricated and will first be tested with static water and gravel in an annulus at elevated temperatures. A series of viscometer tests to measure foam properties have
Holographic torus entanglement and its RG flow
Bueno, Pablo
2016-01-01
We study the universal contributions to the entanglement entropy (EE) of 2+1d and 3+1d holographic conformal field theories (CFTs) on topologically non-trivial manifolds, focusing on tori. The holographic bulk corresponds to AdS-soliton geometries. We characterize the properties of these regulator-independent EE terms as a function of both the size of the cylindrical entangling region, and the shape of the torus. In 2+1d, in the simple limit where the torus becomes a thin 1d ring, the EE reduces to a shape-independent constant $2\\gamma$. This is twice the EE obtained by bipartitioning an infinite cylinder into equal halves. We study the RG flow of $\\gamma$ by defining a renormalized EE that 1) is applicable to general QFTs, 2) resolves the failure of the area law subtraction, and 3) is inspired by the F-theorem. We find that the renormalized $\\gamma$ decreases monotonically when the holographic CFT is deformed by a relevant operator for all allowed scaling dimensions. We also discuss the question of non-uniqu...
Torus hyperplasia of the pyloric antrum.
Kim, Chi-Hun; Han, Hye Seung; Lee, Sun-Young; Kim, Byung Kook; Sung, In-Kyung; Seong, Moo Kyung; Lee, Kyung Yung
2010-01-01
Primary or idiopathic hypertrophy of the pyloric muscle in adult, so called torus hyperplasia, is an infrequent but an established entity. It is caused by a circular muscle hypertrophy affecting the lesser curvature near the pylorus. Since most of the lesions are difficult to differentiate from tumor, distal gastrectomy is usually preformed to rule out most causes of pyloric lesions including neoplastic ones through a pathological study. A 56-yr-old man with a family history of gastric cancer presented with abdominal discomfort of 1 month duration. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a 1.0 cm sized irregular submucosal lesion proximal to the pylorus to the distal antrum on the lesser curvature. On colonoscopy examination, a 1.5 cm sized protruding mass was noticed on the appendiceal orifice. Gastrectomy and cecectomy were done, and histological section revealed marked hypertrophy of the distal circular pyloric musculature and an appendiceal mucocele. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of torus hyperplasia with appendiceal mucocele which is found incidentally.
Theoretical Advanced Study Institute: 2014
DeGrand, Thomas [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
2016-08-17
The Theoretical Advanced Study Institute was held at the University of Colorado, Boulder, during June 2-27, 2014. The topic was "Journeys through the Precision Frontier: Amplitudes for Colliders." The organizers were Professors Lance Dixon (SLAC) and Frank Petriello (Northwestern and Argonne). There were fifty one students. Nineteen lecturers gave sixty seventy five minute lectures. A Proceedings was published.
Rigid body dynamics on the Poisson torus
Richter, Peter H.
2008-11-01
The theory of rigid body motion with emphasis on the modifications introduced by a Cardan suspension is outlined. The configuration space is no longer SO(3) but a 3-torus; the equivalent of the Poisson sphere, after separation of an angular variable, is a Poisson torus. Iso-energy surfaces and their bifurcations are discussed. A universal Poincaré section method is proposed.
Bifurcation structure of successive torus doubling
Sekikawa, Munehisa [Department of Information Science, Faculty of Engineering, Utsunomiya University (Japan)]. E-mail: muse@aihara.jst.go.jp; Inaba, Naohiko [Department of Information Science, Faculty of Engineering, Utsunomiya University (Japan)]. E-mail: inaba@is.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp; Yoshinaga, Tetsuya [Department of Radiologic Science and Engineering, School of Health Sciences, The University of Tokushima (Japan)]. E-mail: yosinaga@medsci.tokushima-u.ac.jp; Tsubouchi, Takashi [Institute of Engineering Mechanics and Systems, University of Tsukuba (Japan)]. E-mail: tsubo@esys.tsukuba.ac.jp
2006-01-02
The authors discuss the 'embryology' of successive torus doubling via the bifurcation theory, and assert that the coupled map of a logistic map and a circle map has a structure capable of generating infinite number of torus doublings.
Exploring Torus Universes in Causal Dynamical Triangulations
Budd, Timothy George; Loll, R.
2013-01-01
Motivated by the search for new observables in nonperturbative quantum gravity, we consider Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) in 2+1 dimensions with the spatial topology of a torus. This system is of particular interest, because one can study not only the global scale factor, but also global...... shape variables in the presence of arbitrary quantum fluctuations of the geometry. Our initial investigation focusses on the dynamics of the scale factor and uncovers a qualitatively new behaviour, which leads us to investigate a novel type of boundary conditions for the path integral. Comparing large......-scale features of the emergent quantum geometry in numerical simulations with a classical minisuperspace formulation, we find partial agreement. By measuring the correlation matrix of volume fluctuations we succeed in reconstructing the effective action for the scale factor directly from the simulation data...
Acoustic propagation in a rigid torus
El-Raheb, M.; Wagner, P.
1982-01-01
The acoustic propagation in a rigid torus is analyzed using a Green's function method. Three types of surface elements are developed; a flat quadrilateral element used in modeling polygonal cavities, a curved conical element appropriate for surfaces with one curvature, and a toroidal element developed for such doubly curved surfaces as the torus. Curved elements are necessary since the acoustic pressure is sensitive to slope discontinuities between consecutive surface elements especially near cavity resonances. The acoustic characteristics of the torus are compared to those of a bend of square cross section for a frequency range that includes the transverse acoustic resonance. Two equivalences between the different sections are tested; the first conserves curvature and cross-sectional dimension while the second matches transverse resonance and duct volume. The second equivalence accurately matches the acoustic characteristics of the torus up to the cutoff frequency corresponding to a mode with two circumferential waves.
Scoping studies: advancing the methodology
O'Brien Kelly K
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Scoping studies are an increasingly popular approach to reviewing health research evidence. In 2005, Arksey and O'Malley published the first methodological framework for conducting scoping studies. While this framework provides an excellent foundation for scoping study methodology, further clarifying and enhancing this framework will help support the consistency with which authors undertake and report scoping studies and may encourage researchers and clinicians to engage in this process. Discussion We build upon our experiences conducting three scoping studies using the Arksey and O'Malley methodology to propose recommendations that clarify and enhance each stage of the framework. Recommendations include: clarifying and linking the purpose and research question (stage one; balancing feasibility with breadth and comprehensiveness of the scoping process (stage two; using an iterative team approach to selecting studies (stage three and extracting data (stage four; incorporating a numerical summary and qualitative thematic analysis, reporting results, and considering the implications of study findings to policy, practice, or research (stage five; and incorporating consultation with stakeholders as a required knowledge translation component of scoping study methodology (stage six. Lastly, we propose additional considerations for scoping study methodology in order to support the advancement, application and relevance of scoping studies in health research. Summary Specific recommendations to clarify and enhance this methodology are outlined for each stage of the Arksey and O'Malley framework. Continued debate and development about scoping study methodology will help to maximize the usefulness and rigor of scoping study findings within healthcare research and practice.
Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)
Greenbaum, Daniel; Costantini, Maria; Van Erp, Annemoon; Shaikh, Rashid; Bailey, Brent; Tennant, Chris; Khalek, Imad; Mauderly, Joe; McDonald, Jacob; Zielinska, Barbara; Bemis, Jeffrey; Storey, John; Hallberg, Lance; Clark, Nigel
2013-12-31
The objective of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was to determine before widespread commercial deployment whether or not the new, energy-efficient, heavy duty diesel engines (2007 and 2010 EPA Emissions Standards Compliant) may generate anticipated toxic emissions that could adversely affect the environment and human health. ACES was planned to take place in three phases. In Phase 1, extensive emissions characterization of four production-intent prototype engine and control systems designed to meet 2007 standards for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was conducted at an existing emissions characterization facility: Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). One of the tested engines was selected (at random, after careful comparison of results) for health testing in Phase 3. In Phase 2, extensive emission characterization of three production-intent prototype engine and control systems meeting the 2010 standards (including more advanced NOx controls to meet the more stringent 2010 NOx standards) was conducted at the same test facility. In Phase 3, one engine/aftertreatment system selected from Phase 1 was further characterized during health effects studies (at an existing inhalation toxicology laboratory: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, [LRRI]) to form the basis of the ACES safety assessment. The Department of Energy (DOE) award provided funding for emissions characterization in Phases 1 and 2 as well as exposure characterization in Phase 3. The main health analyses in Phase 3 were funded separately and are not reported here.
Torus bifurcations in multilevel converter systems
Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai T.; Mosekilde, Erik; Yanochkina, Olga O.
2011-01-01
embedded one into the other and with their basins of attraction delineated by intervening repelling tori. The paper illustrates the coexistence of three stable tori with different resonance behaviors and shows how reconstruction of these tori takes place across the borders of different dynamical regimes....... The paper also demonstrates how pairs of attracting and repelling tori emerge through border-collision torus-birth and border-collision torus-fold bifurcations. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company....
TORUS: Theory of Reactions for Unstable iSotopes - Year 1 Continuation and Progress Report
Arbanas, G; Elster, C; Escher, J; Mukhamedzhanov, A; Nunes, F; Thompson, I J
2011-02-24
The TORUS collaboration derives its name from the research it focuses on, namely the Theory of Reactions for Unstable iSotopes. It is a Topical Collaboration in Nuclear Theory, and funded by the Nuclear Theory Division of the Office of Nuclear Physics in the Office of Science of the Department of Energy. The funding started on June 1, 2010, it will have been running for nine months by the date of submission of this Annual Continuation and Progress Report on March 1, 2011. The extent of funding was reduced from the original application, and now supports one postdoctoral researcher for the years 1 through 3. The collaboration brings together as Principal Investigators a large fraction of the nuclear reaction theorists currently active within the USA. The mission of the TORUS Topical Collaboration is to develop new methods that will advance nuclear reaction theory for unstable isotopes by using three-body techniques to improve direct-reaction calculations, and, by using a new partial-fusion theory, to integrate descriptions of direct and compound-nucleus reactions. This multi-institution collaborative effort is directly relevant to three areas of interest: the properties of nuclei far from stability; microscopic studies of nuclear input parameters for astrophysics, and microscopic nuclear reaction theory.
Theoretical Advanced Study Institute: 2014
DeGrand, Thomas [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
2016-08-17
The Theoretical Advanced Study Institute (TASI) was held at the University of Colorado, Boulder, during June 2-27, 2014. The topic was "Journeys through the Precision Frontier: Amplitudes for Colliders." The organizers were Professors Lance Dixon (SLAC) and Frank Petriello (Northwestern and Argonne). There were fifty-one students. Nineteen lecturers gave sixty seventy-five minute lectures. A Proceedings was published. This TASI was unique for its large emphasis on methods for calculating amplitudes. This was embedded in a program describing recent theoretical and phenomenological developments in particle physics. Topics included introductions to the Standard Model, to QCD (both in a collider context and on the lattice), effective field theories, Higgs physics, neutrino interactions, an introduction to experimental techniques, and cosmology.
Arbanas, Goran [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Elster, Charlotte [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Escher, Jutta [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nunes, Filomena [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thompson, Ian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-08-28
The work of this collaboration during its existence is summarized. The mission of the TORUS Topical Collaboration was to develop new methods that advance nuclear reaction theory for unstable isotopes by using three-body techniques to improve direct reaction calculations. This multi-institution collaborative effort was and remains directly relevant to three areas of interest: the properties of nuclei far from stability, microscopic studies of nuclear input parameters for astrophysics, and microscopic nuclear reaction theory. The TORUS project focused on understanding the details of (d,p) reactions for neutron transfer to heavier nuclei. The bulk of the work fell into three areas: coupled channel theory, modeling (d,p) reactions with a Faddeev-AGS approach, and capture reactions.
Particle on a torus knot: Constrained dynamics and semi-classical quantization in a magnetic field
Das, Praloy; Pramanik, Souvik; Ghosh, Subir
2016-11-01
Kinematics and dynamics of a particle moving on a torus knot poses an interesting problem as a constrained system. In the first part of the paper we have derived the modified symplectic structure or Dirac brackets of the above model in Dirac's Hamiltonian framework, both in toroidal and Cartesian coordinate systems. This algebra has been used to study the dynamics, in particular small fluctuations in motion around a specific torus. The spatial symmetries of the system have also been studied. In the second part of the paper we have considered the quantum theory of a charge moving in a torus knot in the presence of a uniform magnetic field along the axis of the torus in a semiclassical quantization framework. We exploit the Einstein-Brillouin-Keller (EBK) scheme of quantization that is appropriate for multidimensional systems. Embedding of the knot on a specific torus is inherently two dimensional that gives rise to two quantization conditions. This shows that although the system, after imposing the knot condition reduces to a one dimensional system, even then it has manifested non-planar features which shows up again in the study of fractional angular momentum. Finally we compare the results obtained from EBK (multi-dimensional) and Bohr-Sommerfeld (single dimensional) schemes. The energy levels and fractional spin depend on the torus knot parameters that specifies its non-planar features. Interestingly, we show that there can be non-planar corrections to the planar anyon-like fractional spin.
Rotation Sets of Billiards with N Obstacles on a Torus
Alsheekhhussain, Zainab
2016-01-01
For billiards with $N$ obstacles on a torus, we study the behavior of specific kind of its trajectories, \\emph{the so called admissible trajectories}. Using the methods developed in \\cite{1}, we prove that the \\emph{admissible rotation set} is convex, and the periodic trajectories of admissible type are dense in the admissible rotation set. In addition, we show that the admissible rotation set is a proper subset of the general rotation set.
Recent results in the Los Alamos compact torus program
Tuszewski, M.; Armstrong, W.T.; Barnes, C.W.
1983-01-01
A Compact Toroid is a toroidal magnetic-plasma-containment geometry in which no conductors or vacuum-chamber walls pass through the hole in the torus. Two types of compact toroids are studied experimentally and theoretically at Los Alamos: spheromaks that are oblate in shape and contain both toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields, and field-reversed configurations (FRC) that are very prolate and contain poloidal field only.
Almeyda, Triana; Robinson, Andrew; Richmond, Michael; Vazquez, Billy; Nikutta, Robert
2017-07-01
The obscuring circumnuclear torus of dusty molecular gas is one of the major components of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The torus can be studied by analyzing the time response of its infrared (IR) dust emission to variations in the AGN continuum luminosity, a technique known as reverberation mapping. The IR response is the convolution of the AGN ultraviolet/optical light curve with a transfer function that contains information about the size, geometry, and structure of the torus. Here, we describe a new computer model that simulates the reverberation response of a clumpy torus. Given an input optical light curve, the code computes the emission of a 3D ensemble of dust clouds as a function of time at selected IR wavelengths, taking into account light travel delays. We present simulated dust emission responses at 3.6, 4.5, and 30 μm that explore the effects of various geometrical and structural properties, dust cloud orientation, and anisotropy of the illuminating radiation field. We also briefly explore the effects of cloud shadowing (clouds are shielded from the AGN continuum source). Example synthetic light curves have also been generated, using the observed optical light curve of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 6418 as input. The torus response is strongly wavelength-dependent, due to the gradient in cloud surface temperature within the torus, and because the cloud emission is strongly anisotropic at shorter wavelengths. Anisotropic illumination of the torus also significantly modifies the torus response, reducing the lag between the IR and optical variations.
Particle Distribution Of A Moon-Fed Dust Torus
Jamrath, E.; Makuch, M.; Spahn, F.
2008-09-01
Enceladus' south-polar gey- sers support a huge gas-dust plume towering the south pole of the moon. It is considered to be the main source Saturns E-ring, the largest dust complex of the solar system. Contrary to the spherically sym- metric impactor ejecta dust cre- ation, the dust plume provides a directed particle outflow from the moon. Using a simple probabilistic model, we study the effects of this asymmetric dust ejection on Enceladus' dust torus. Dust con- figurations are described by par- ticle distribution functions and the dynamical properties of the system are adressed through a set of transformations. The re- sulting distribution function of orbital elements describes the unperturbed dust torus. We showcase the differences in the resulting particle distributions between impactor ejecta pro- cesses and dust production by Enceladus plume, modeled by a directed point-sized source. The obtained orbital element distri- bution is compared to the results of numerical simulations of the problem.
Initial Diagnostics for the National Spherical Torus Experiment
A.L. Roquemore; B. McCormack; D. Johnson; H. Kugel; R. Kaita; and the NSTX Team
1999-06-01
The spherical torus (ST) approach to magnetic confinement has many attractive features as both a fusion reactor concept and a volume neutron source. The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is under construction at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), and it is designed to achieve plasma parameters needed for a proof-of-principle test of the ST concept. Discharges with magnetic fields of 2.3 kG on axis and plasma currents of 1 MA will be heated with 6 MW of radio frequency (RF) power and 5 MW of neutral beams, and pulse lengths up to 5 seconds are planned. Central electron temperatures of about 4 keV are expected with RF heating, and theoretical studies show that high values of b and b{sub n} can be achieved.
Short interval expansion of R\\'enyi entropy on torus
Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jia-ju
2016-01-01
We investigate the short interval expansion of the R\\'enyi entropy for two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) on a torus. We require the length of the interval $\\ell$ to be small with respect to the spatial and temporal sizes of the torus. The operator product expansion of the twist operators allows us to compute the short interval expansion of the R\\'enyi entropy at any temperature. In particular, we pay special attention to the large $c$ CFTs dual to the AdS$_3$ gravity and its cousins. At both low and high temperature limits, we read the R\\'enyi entropies to order $\\ell^6$, and find good agreements with holographic results. Moreover, the expansion allows us to read $1/c$ contribution, which is hard to get by expanding the thermal density matrix. We generalize the study to the case with the chemical potential as well.
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advances in Chemical Reaction Dynamics
Capellos, Christos
1986-01-01
This book contains the formal lectures and contributed papers presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on. the Advances in Chemical Reaction Dynamics. The meeting convened at the city of Iraklion, Crete, Greece on 25 August 1985 and continued to 7 September 1985. The material presented describes the fundamental and recent advances in experimental and theoretical aspects of, reaction dynamics. A large section is devoted to electronically excited states, ionic species, and free radicals, relevant to chemical sys tems. In addition recent advances in gas phase polymerization, formation of clusters, and energy release processes in energetic materials were presented. Selected papers deal with topics such as the dynamics of electric field effects in low polar solutions, high electric field perturbations and relaxation of dipole equilibria, correlation in picosecond/laser pulse scattering, and applications to fast reaction dynamics. Picosecond transient Raman spectroscopy which has been used for the elucidati...
Probing the active galactic nucleus unified model torus properties in Seyfert galaxies
Audibert, Anelise; Riffel, Rogério; Sales, Dinalva A.; Pastoriza, Miriani G.; Ruschel-Dutra, Daniel
2017-01-01
We studied the physical parameters of a sample comprising of all Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph public spectra of Seyfert galaxies in the mid-infrared (5.2-38 μm range) under the active galactic nucleus (AGN) unified model. We compare the observed spectra with ˜106 CLUMPY model spectral energy distributions, which consider a torus composed of dusty clouds. We find a slight difference in the distribution of line-of-sight inclination angle, i, requiring larger angles for Seyfert 2 (Sy 2) and a broader distribution for Seyfert 1 (Sy 1). We found small differences in the torus angular width, σ, indicating that Sy 1 may host a slightly narrower torus than Sy 2. The torus thickness, together with the bolometric luminosities derived, suggests a very compact torus up to ˜6 pc from the central AGN. The number of clouds along the equatorial plane, N, as well the index of the radial profile, q, is nearly the same for both types. These results imply that the torus cloud distribution is nearly the same for type 1 and type 2 objects. The torus mass is almost the same for both types of activity, with values in the range of Mtor ˜ 104-107 M⊙. The main difference appears to be related to the clouds' intrinsic properties: type 2 sources present higher optical depths τV. The results presented here reinforce the suggestion that the classification of a galaxy may also depend on the intrinsic properties of the torus clouds rather than simply on their inclination. This is in contradiction with the simple geometric idea of the unification model.
Probing the Active Galactic Nuclei Unified Model Torus Properties in Seyfert Galaxies
Audibert, Anelise; Sales, Dinalva A; Pastoriza, Miriani G; Ruschel-Dutra, Daniel
2016-01-01
We studied the physical parameters of a sample comprising of all Spitzer/IRS public spectra of Seyfert galaxies in the mid-infrared (5.2-38$\\mu$m range) under the active galactic nuclei (AGN) unified model. We compare the observed spectra with $\\sim10^6$ CLUMPY model spectral energy distributions, which consider a torus composed of dusty clouds. We find a slight difference in the distribution of line-of-sight inclination angle, $i$, requiring larger angles for Seyfert 2 (Sy2) and a broader distribution for Seyfert 1 (Sy1). We found small differences in the torus angular width, $\\sigma$, indicating that Sy1 may host a slightly narrower torus than Sy2. The torus thickness, together with the bolometric luminosities derived, suggest a very compact torus up to $\\sim$6 pc from the central AGN. The number of clouds along the equatorial plane, $N$, as well the index of the radial profile, $q$, are nearly the same for both types. These results imply that the torus cloud distribution is nearly the same for type 1 and t...
Haugedé-Carré, F
1983-05-23
The connections of the medio-dorsal nucleus (nMD) were established with the HRP tracing method in two mormyrid species, Brienomyrus niger and Gnathonemus petersii. The medio-dorsal nucleus (nMD) is the second largest nucleus of the mormyrid torus semicircularis which comprises 7 nuclei. According to our histological observations, the nMD is composed of three regions: anterior (a), medialis (m) and posterior (p), each has distinct connections. The nMD receives medullary, rhombencephalic inputs, and mesencephalic inputs. The rhombencephalic afferents arising from the acoustico-lateral area constitute the most extensive projection: they arise from nucleus octavius, nuclear anterior and a 'crest cell layer'. The largest part of these rhombo-mesencephalic connections is bilateral. The bifurcated axons are gathered in the pars medialis of the lemnisci laterales and end, respectively, in the three subdivisions--pars posterior, pars medialis, pars anterior--of the nMD. The contralateral projections are larger than the ipsilateral ones except for the octavo-mesencephalic projection, where the ipsilateral is predominant. Collaterals of these axons end bilaterally in the mesencephalic paralemniscal nuclei (nPL). The mesencephalic afferents originate in the contralateral nPL, while medullary afferents arise in the contralateral nucleus subfunicularis (nSF). None of these projections show topological specificity within the nMD. Concerning the efferent connections, the nMD projects to the ipsilateral tectum opticum and valvula cerebelli.
Masahiro Nakamura
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the following sliding puzzle called torus puzzle. In an m by n board, there are mn pieces numbered from 1 to mn. Initially, the pieces are placed in ascending order. Then they are scrambled by rotating the rows and columns without the player’s knowledge. The objective of the torus puzzle is to rearrange the pieces in ascending order by rotating the rows and columns. We provide a solution to this puzzle. In addition, we provide lower and upper bounds on the number of steps for solving the puzzle. Moreover, we consider a variant of the torus puzzle in which each piece is colored either black or white, and we present a hardness result for solving it.
Diffusion on the torus for Hamiltonian maps
Siboni, S. (Istituto di Fisica dell' Universita Bologna (Italy) Centre de Physique Theorique, Marseille (France)); Turchetti, G. (Istituto di Fisica dell' Universita Bologna (Italy)); Vaienti, S. (Centre de Physique Theorique, Marseille (France) Universite de Toulon et du Var (France))
1994-04-01
For a mapping of the torus T[sup 2] the authors propose a definition of the diffusion coefficient D suggested by the solution of the diffusion equation on T[sup 2]. The definition of D, based on the limit of moments of the invariant measure, depends on the set [Omega] where an initial uniform distribution is assigned. For the algebraic automorphism of the torus the limit is proved to exist and to have the same value for almost all initial sets [Omega] in the subfamily of parallelograms. Numerical results show that it has the same value for arbitrary polygons [Omega] and for arbitrary moments. 13 refs., 3 figs.
Equilibrium-torus bifurcation in nonsmooth systems
Zhusubahyev, Z.T.; Mosekilde, Erik
2008-01-01
Considering a set of two coupled nonautonomous differential equations with discontinuous right-hand sides describing the behavior of a DC/DC power converter, we discuss a border-collision bifurcation that can lead to the birth of a two-dimensional invariant torus from a stable node equilibrium...... linear approximation to our system in the neighbourhood of the border. We determine the functional relationships between the parameters of the normal form map and the actual system and illustrate how the normal form theory can predict the bifurcation behaviour along the border-collision equilibrium......-torus bifurcation curve....
On Chebyshev polynomials and torus knots
Gavrilik, A. M.; Pavlyuk, A. M.
2009-01-01
In this work we demonstrate that the q-numbers and their two-parameter generalization, the q,p-numbers, can be used to obtain some polynomial invariants for torus knots and links. First, we show that the q-numbers, which are closely connected with the Chebyshev polynomials, can also be related with the Alexander polynomials for the class T(s,2) of torus knots, s being an odd integer, and used for finding the corresponding skein relation. Then, we develop this procedure in order to obtain, wit...
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advanced Physical Oceanographic Numerical Modelling
1986-01-01
This book is a direct result of the NATO Advanced Study Institute held in Banyuls-sur-mer, France, June 1985. The Institute had the same title as this book. It was held at Laboratoire Arago. Eighty lecturers and students from almost all NATO countries attended. The purpose was to review the state of the art of physical oceanographic numerical modelling including the parameterization of physical processes. This book represents a cross-section of the lectures presented at the ASI. It covers elementary mathematical aspects through large scale practical aspects of ocean circulation calculations. It does not encompass every facet of the science of oceanographic modelling. We have, however, captured most of the essence of mesoscale and large-scale ocean modelling for blue water and shallow seas. There have been considerable advances in modelling coastal circulation which are not included. The methods section does not include important material on phase and group velocity errors, selection of grid structures, advanc...
Manuel Ramon Osorio Castillo
2014-06-01
Full Text Available ResumenLos huesos maxilares no son ajenos a las patologías que se pueden presentar en el sistema esquelético. Algunas de esas condiciones y patologías son singulares por sus características clínicas, su distribución y prevalencia. Los torus palatinos, los torus mandibulares (TM y las exostosis de los maxilares son un claro ejemplo de ellos. Hasta la presente existen ideas especulativas acerca de su etiopatogenia, de los factores asociados, de su incidencia y prevalencia, de su necesidad de tratamiento, lo que puede crear confusión entre los clínicos tanto en diagnóstico como en el manejo.El torus como tumor óseo benigno puede localizarse en el maxilar a nivel del paladar, o en la mandíbula a nivel de las tablas internas; o puede aparecer en cualquier parte del esqueleto. El TM es una exostosis o crecimiento óseo en la superficie lingual de la mandíbula. Este crecimiento ocurre generalmente cerca de la línea milohioidea, opuesto a los premolares, pero se puede extender del canino al primer molar. La mucosa que los recubre tiende a ser fina y no tolera por lo general las fuerzas de las prótesis que se colocan encima de ellos. La incidencia del torus de la mandíbula es baja en el 6% a 12.5% entre caucásicos y en los habitantes de la llanura africana. De manera contraria, algunos autores reportan una prevalencia mucho más elevada en la Costa Atlántica Colombiana.Se presenta el caso de un paciente con torus mandibulares bilaterales, con muchos años de crecimiento, hasta que por situaciones tanto fonéticas como de ulceraciones repetitivas decidió someterse al acto quirúrgico de forma bilateral. Se presentan algunas consideraciones para el manejo de esta. (Duazary 2008; 111-114AbstractThe jawbone is not a strange to the pathologies that can occur in the skeletal system. Some of these terms and conditions are unique for their clinical features, distribution and prevalence. The torus palate, jawbone torus (TM in spanish and
Advanced wind turbine design studies: Advanced conceptual study. Final report
Hughes, P; Sherwin, R [Atlantic Orient Corp., Norwich, VT (United States)
1994-08-01
In conjunction with the US Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s Advanced Wind Turbine Program, the Atlantic Orient Corporation developed preliminary designs for the next generation of wind turbines. These 50 kW and 350 kW turbines are based upon the concept of simplicity. By adhering to a design philosophy that emphasizes simplicity, we project that these turbines will produce energy at extremely competitive rates which will unlock the potential of wind energy domestically and internationally. The program consisted of three distinct phases. First, we evaluated the operational history of the Enertech 44 series wind turbines. As a result of this evaluation, we developed, in the second phase, a preliminary design for a new 50 kW turbine for the near-term market. In the third phase, we took a clean-sheet-of-paper approach to designing a 350 kW turbine focused on the mid-1990s utility market that incorporated past experience and advanced technology.
2001 Industry Studies: Advanced Manufacturing
2007-11-02
markets, production and innovation. After encountering growing international competition in the 1970’s and 1980’s, U.S. manufacturers sought new and better...competitive advantages and better performance in world markets. Importantly, advanced manufacturing involves the innovative integration of new technology...the traditional parameters of mass production, giving rise to a new era in manufacturing in which manufacturers are increasing the speed and
Surgical management of palatine Torus - case series
Thaís Sumie Nozu Imada
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Torus palatinus is a specific name to identify exostoses developed in the hard palate along the median palatine suture. Despite of not being a pathological condition, its presence requires attention and knowledge regarding its management. Surgical removal of exostoses is indicated when the patient frequently traumatizes the area of palatine torus during mastication and speech or when it is necessary for the rehabilitation of the upper arcade with complete dentures. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to present three cases of Torus palatinus and to discuss the management of them. CASE REPORT: In the first case, a 57-year-old Caucasian man sought oral rehabilitation of his edentulous maxilla but presented a hard nodules in the hard palate; in the second case, a 40-year-old Caucasian woman was referred for frequent trauma of palatal mucosa during mastication, aesthetic complaint, and discomfort caused by the trauma of her tongue in this area; and in the third case, a 45-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a lesion on the palate that caused difficulty swallowing. When the Torus palatinus was impairing the basic physiological functions of the patients, all cases were surgically treated, improving the patients' quality of life. FINAL CONSIDERATION: The dentist should be properly prepared to choose the best from among the existing surgical approaches for each individual lesion in order to improve the results and avoid possible complications.
Large N reduction on a twisted torus
González-Arroyo, A; Neuberger, H
2005-01-01
We consider SU(N) lattice gauge theory at infinite N defined on a torus with a CP invariant twist. Massless fermions are incorporated in an elegant way, while keeping them quenched. We present some numerical results which suggest that twisting can make numerical simulations of planar QCD more efficient.
Magnetostatics of the uniformly polarized torus
Beleggia, Marco; De Graef, Marc; Millev, Yonko
2009-01-01
We provide an exhaustive description of the magnetostatics of the uniformly polarized torus and its derivative self-intersecting (spindle) shapes. In the process, two complementary approaches have been implemented, position-space analysis of the Laplace equation with inhomogeneous boundary...
Induction effects of torus knots and unknots
Oberti, Chiara; Ricca, Renzo L.
2017-09-01
Geometric and topological aspects associated with induction effects of field lines in the shape of torus knots/unknots are examined and discussed in detail. Knots are assumed to lie on a mathematical torus of circular cross-section and are parametrized by standard equations. The induced field is computed by direct integration of the Biot-Savart law. Field line patterns of the induced field are obtained and several properties are examined for a large family of knots/unknots up to 51 crossings. The intensity of the induced field at the origin of the reference system (center of the torus) is found to depend linearly on the number of toroidal coils and reaches maximum values near the boundary of the mathematical torus. New analytical estimates and bounds on energy and helicity are established in terms of winding number and minimum crossing number. These results find useful applications in several contexts when the source field is either vorticity, electric current or magnetic field, from vortex dynamics to astrophysics and plasma physics, where highly braided magnetic fields and currents are present.
Chong Qing CHENG
2011-01-01
Given an integrable Hamiltonian ho with n-degrees of freedom and a Diophantine frequency w, then, arbitrarily close to ho in the Cr topology with r ＜ 2n, there exists an analytical Hamiltonian h∈ with no KAM torus of rotation vector w. In contrast with it, KAM tori exist if perturbations are small in Cr topology with r ＞ 2n.
Vertex Algebra Sheaf Structure on Torus
SUN Yuan-yuan
2016-01-01
In this paper, we first give a 1-1 corresponds between torus C/Λand cubic curve C in P2C. As complex manifold, they are isomorphic, therefore we can treat C/Λas a variety and construction a vertex algebra sheaf on it.
Electrostatic confinement in a bumpy torus
El Nadi, A.M.
1984-11-01
In a closed-field-line device such as a bumpy torus, the combined E x B and del B drifts lead to charge separation that is balanced by the ion polarization drift. In this work, we determine self-consistent potential and density profiles and the condition for electric island formation.
Free compact boson on branched covering of the torus
Feihu Liu
2017-08-01
Full Text Available We have studied the partition function of a free compact boson on a n-sheeted covering of torus gluing along m branch cuts. It is interesting because when the branched cuts are chosen to be real, the partition function is related to the n-th Rényi entanglement entropy of m disjoint intervals in a finite system at finite temperature. After proposing a canonical homology basis and its dual basis of the covering surface, we find that the partition function can be written in terms of theta functions.
Punctured torus groups and 2-bridge knot groups
Akiyoshi, Hirotaka; Wada, Masaaki; Yamashita, Yasushi
2007-01-01
This monograph is Part 1 of a book project intended to give a full account of Jorgensen's theory of punctured torus Kleinian groups and its generalization, with application to knot theory. Although Jorgensen's original work was not published in complete form, it has been a source of inspiration. In particular, it has motivated and guided Thurston's revolutionary study of low-dimensional geometric topology. In this monograph, we give an elementary and self-contained description of Jorgensen's theory with a complete proof. Through various informative illustrations, readers are naturally led to an intuitive, synthetic grasp of the theory, which clarifies how a very simple fuchsian group evolves into complicated Kleinian groups.
Legendrian and transverse cables of positive torus knots
Etnyre, John; LaFountain, Douglas; Tosun, Bülent
2012-01-01
In this paper we classify Legendrian and transverse knots in the knot types obtained from positive torus knots by cabling. This classification allows us to demonstrate several new phenomena. Specifically, we show there are knot types that have non-destabilizable Legendrian representatives whose...... Thurston-Bennequin invariant is arbitrarily far from maximal. We also exhibit Legendrian knots requiring arbitrarily many stabilizations before they become Legendrian isotopic. Similar new phenomena are observed for transverse knots. To achieve these results we define and study "partially thickenable" tori...
Stability of small-amplitude torus knot solutions of the localized induction approximation
Calini, Annalisa; Ivey, Thomas, E-mail: calinia@cofc.edu [Department of Mathematics, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States)
2011-08-19
We study the linear stability of small-amplitude torus knot solutions of the localized induction approximation equation for the motion of a thin vortex filament in an ideal fluid. Such solutions can be constructed analytically through the connection with the focusing nonlinear Schroedinger equation using the method of isoperiodic deformations. We show that these (p, q) torus knots are generically linearly unstable for p < q, while we provide examples of neutrally stable (p, q) torus knots with p > q, in contrast with an earlier linear stability study by Ricca (1993 Chaos 3 83-95; 1995 Chaos 5 346; 1995 Small-scale Structures in Three-dimensional Hydro and Magneto-dynamics Turbulence (Lecture Notes in Physics vol 462) (Berlin: Springer)). We also provide an interpretation of the original perturbative calculation in Ricca (1995), and an explanation of the numerical experiments performed by Ricca et al (1999 J. Fluid Mech. 391 29-44), in light of our results.
On Chebyshev polynomials and torus knots
Gavrilik, A M
2009-01-01
In this work we demonstrate that the q-numbers and their two-parameter generalization, the q,p-numbers, can be used to obtain some polynomial invariants for torus knots and links. First, we show that the q-numbers, which are closely connected with the Chebyshev polynomials, can also be related with the Alexander polynomials for the class T(s,2) of torus knots, s being an odd integer, and used for finding the corresponding skein relation. Then, we develop this procedure in order to obtain, with the help of q,p-numbers, the generalized two-variable Alexander polynomials, and prove their direct connection with the HOMFLY polynomials and the skein relation of the latter.
Observational Constraints on a Pluto Torus of Circumsolar Neutral Gas
Hill, M. E.; Kollmann, P.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Smith, H. T.; Bagenal, F.; Brown, L. E.; Elliott, H. A.; Haggerty, D. K.; Horanyi, M.; Krimigis, S. M.; Kusterer, M. B.; Lisse, C. M.; McComas, D. J.; Piquette, M. R.; Sidrow, E. J.; Strobel, D. F.; Szalay, J.; Vandegriff, J. D.; Zirnstein, E.; Ennico Smith, K.; Olkin, C.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Young, L. A.; Stern, S. A.
2015-12-01
We present the concept of a neutral gas torus surrounding the Sun, aligned with Pluto's orbit, and place observational constraints based primarily on comparison of New Horizons (NH) measurements with a 3-D Monte Carlo model adapted from analogous satellite tori surrounding Saturn and Jupiter. Such a torus, or perhaps partial torus, should result from neutral N2 escaping from Pluto's exosphere. Unlike other more massive planets closer to the Sun, neutrals escape Pluto readily owing, e.g., to the high thermal speed relative to the escape velocity. Importantly, escaped neutrals have a long lifetime due to the great distance from the Sun, ~100 years for photoionization of N2 and ~180 years for photoionization of N, which results from disassociated N2. Despite the lengthy 248-year orbit, these long e-folding lifetimes may allow an enhanced neutral population to form an extended gas cloud that modifies the N2 spatial profile near Pluto. These neutrals are not directly observable by NH but once ionized N2+ or N+ are picked up by the solar wind, reaching ~50 keV, making these pickup ions (PUIs) detectable by NH's Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI) instrument. PEPSSI observations analyzed to date may constrain the N2 density; the remaining ~95% of the encounter data, scheduled for downlink in August along with similarly anticipated data from the Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) experiment, should help determine the Pluto outgassing rates. Measurements from SWAP include the solar wind speed, a quantity that greatly enhances PUI studies by enabling us to directly account for the PUI distribution's sensitive dependence on plasma speed. Note that anomalous cosmic ray Si observed at Voyager is overabundant by a factor of ~3000 relative to interstellar composition. This might be related to "outer source" PUIs, but the fact that N2 and Si are indistinguishable in many instruments could mean that N2 is actually driving this apparent Si discrepancy.
Phases of planar QCD on the torus
Narayanan, R; Narayanan, Rajamani; Neuberger, Herbert
2005-01-01
At infinite N, continuum Euclidean SU(N) gauge theory defined on a symmetrical four torus has a rich phase structure with phases where the finite volume system behaves as if it had infinite extent in some or all of the directions. In addition, fermions are automatically quenched, so planar QCD should be cheaper to solve numerically that full QCD. Large N is a relatively unexplored and worthwhile direction of research in lattice field theory.
Universal Behaviour on the Break-up of the Spiral Mean Torus
周济林; 胡斑比; 孙义燧
2001-01-01
We study numerically the critical behaviour during the break-up of the spiral mean torus in a four-dimensional symplectic map. At each point of the parameter space, the stability indices of a serial of periodic orbits are calculated with their winding numbers approaching the spiral mean torus. The critical values of the parameters when the torus breaks are determined by the criterion that the variance of the distribution on the indices reaches a minimum. Some evidence is revealed about the possible existence of a universal distribution on the stability indices of the periodic orbits at the critical This confirms the picture given by the approximate renormalization theory of the Hamiltonian systems with three degrees of freedom.
The Advanced Study of Gymnastics.
Salmela, John H., Ed.
The sport of artistic gymnastics is viewed from a multidisciplinary point of view. The training, performance, and judgment of the sport undergo specialized study of interest to sport scientists, teachers, coaches, and athletes. Organized into five major sections, the book presents such themes as the psychological, physiological, biomechanical,…
A new equilibrium torus solution and GRMHD initial conditions
Penna, Robert F; Narayan, Ramesh
2013-01-01
General relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations are providing influential models for black hole spin measurements, gamma ray bursts, and supermassive black hole feedback. Many of these simulations use the same initial condition: a rotating torus of fluid in hydrostatic equilibrium. A persistent concern is that simulation results sometimes depend on arbitrary features of the initial torus. For example, the Bernoulli parameter (which is related to outflows), appears to be controlled by the Bernoulli parameter of the initial torus. In this paper, we give a new equilibrium torus solution and describe two applications for the future. First, it can be used as a more physical initial condition for GRMHD simulations than earlier torus solutions. Second, it can be used in conjunction with earlier torus solutions to isolate the simulation results that depend on initial conditions. We assume axisymmetry, an ideal gas equation of state, constant entropy, and ignore self-gravity. We fix an angular momentum di...
Zeros of the Jones Polynomial for Torus Knots and 2-bridge Knots
HAN You-fa; ZHANG Rong-wei; WANG Lin-lin; MA Xiao-sha
2014-01-01
We study zeros of the Jones polynomial and their distributions for torus knots and 2-bridge knots. We prove that e(2m+1)πi/2 and e(2m+1)πi/4(m is a positive integer) can not be the zeros of Jones polynomial for torus knots Tp,q by the knowledge of the trigonometric function. We elicit the normal form of Jones polynomials of the 2-bridge knot C (−2, 2, · · · , (−1)r 2) by the recursive form and discuss the distribution of their zeros.
Circuit-Switched Gossiping in the 3-Dimensional Torus Networks
Delmas, Olivier; Pérennes, Stéphane
1996-01-01
In this paper we describe, in the case of short messages, an efficient gossiping algorithm for 3-dimensional torus networks (wrap-around or toroidal meshes) that uses synchronous circuit-switched routing. The algorithm is based on a recursive decomposition of a torus. The algorithm requires an optimal number of rounds and a quasi-optimal number of intermediate switch settings to gossip in an $7^i \\times 7^i \\times 7^i$ torus.
Dispersionless and multicomponent BKP hierarchies with quantum torus symmetries
Li, Chuanzhong
2017-09-01
In this article, we will construct the additional perturbative quantum torus symmetry of the dispersionless BKP hierarchy based on the W∞ infinite dimensional Lie symmetry. These results show that the complete quantum torus symmetry is broken from the BKP hierarchy to its dispersionless hierarchies. Further a series of additional flows of the multicomponent BKP hierarchy will be defined and these flows constitute an N-folds direct product of the positive half of the quantum torus symmetries.
Overview of Results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)
Gates, D; Ahn, J; Allain, J; Andre, R; Bastasz, R; Bell, M; Bell, R; Belova, E; Berkery, J; Betti, R; Bialek, J; Biewer, T; Bigelow, T; Bitter, M; Boedo, J; Bonoli, P; Bozzer, A; Brennan, D; Breslau, J; Brower, D; Bush, C; Canik, J; Caravelli, G; Carter, M; Caughman, J; Chang, C; Choe, W; Crocker, N; Darrow, D; Delgado-Aparicio, L; Diem, S; D' Ippolito, D; Domier, C; Dorland, W; Efthimion, P; Ejiri, A; Ershov, N; Evans, T; Feibush, E; Fenstermacher, M; Ferron, J; Finkenthal, M; Foley, J; Frazin, R; Fredrickson, E; Fu, G; Funaba, H; Gerhardt, S; Glasser, A; Gorelenkov, N; Grisham, L; Hahm, T; Harvey, R; Hassanein, A; Heidbrink, W; Hill, K; Hillesheim, J; Hillis, D; Hirooka, Y; Hosea, J; Hu, B; Humphreys, D; Idehara, T; Indireshkumar, K; Ishida, A; Jaeger, F; Jarboe, T; Jardin, S; Jaworski, M; Ji, H; Jung, H; Kaita, R; Kallman, J; Katsuro-Hopkins, O; Kawahata, K; Kawamori, E; Kaye, S; Kessel, C; Kim, J; Kimura, H; Kolemen, E; Krasheninnikov, S; Krstic, P; Ku, S; Kubota, S; Kugel, H; La Haye, R; Lao, L; LeBlanc, B; Lee, W; Lee, K; Leuer, J; Levinton, F; Liang, Y; Liu, D; Luhmann, N; Maingi, R; Majeski, R; Manickam, J; Mansfield, D; Maqueda, R; Mazzucato, E; McCune, D; McGeehan, B; McKee, G; Medley, S; Menard, J; Menon, M; Meyer, H; Mikkelsen, D; Miloshevsky, G; Mitarai, O; Mueller, D; Mueller, S; Munsat, T; Myra, J; Nagayama, Y; Nelson, B; Nguyen, X; Nishino, N; Nishiura, M; Nygren, R; Ono, M; Osborne, T; Pacella, D; Park, H; Park, J; Paul, S; Peebles, W; Penaflor, B; Peng, M; Phillips, C; Pigarov, A; Podesta, M; Preinhaelter, J; Ram, A; Raman, R; Rasmussen, D; Redd, A; Reimerdes, H; Rewoldt, G; Ross, P; Rowley, C; Ruskov, E; Russell, D; Ruzic, D; Ryan, P; Sabbagh, S; Schaffer, M; Schuster, E; Scott, S; Shaing, K; Sharpe, P; Shevchenko, V; Shinohara, K; Sizyuk, V; Skinner, C; Smirnov, A; Smith, D; Smith, S; Snyder, P; Soloman, W; Sontag, A; Soukhanovskii, V; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T; Stotler, D; Strait, T; Stratton, B; Stutman, D; Takahashi, R; Takase, Y; Tamura, N; Tang, X; Taylor, G; Taylor, C; Ticos, C; Tritz, K; Tsarouhas, D; Turrnbull, A; Tynan, G; Ulrickson, M; Umansky, M; Urban, J; Utergberg, E; Walker, M; Wampler, W; Wang, J; Wang, W; Weland, A
2009-01-05
The mission of NSTX is the demonstration of the physics basis required to extrapolate to the next steps for the spherical torus (ST), such as a plasma facing component test facility (NHTX) or an ST based component test facility (ST-CTF), and to support ITER. Key issues for the ST are transport, and steady state high {beta} operation. To better understand electron transport, a new high-k scattering diagnostic was used extensively to investigate electron gyro-scale fluctuations with varying electron temperature gradient scale-length. Results from n = 3 braking studies confirm the flow shear dependence of ion transport. New results from electron Bernstein wave emission measurements from plasmas with lithium wall coating applied indicate transmission efficiencies near 70% in H-mode as a result of reduced collisionality. Improved coupling of High Harmonic Fast-Waves has been achieved by reducing the edge density relative to the critical density for surface wave coupling. In order to achieve high bootstrap fraction, future ST designs envision running at very high elongation. Plasmas have been maintained on NSTX at very low internal inductance l{sub i} {approx} 0.4 with strong shaping ({kappa} {approx} 2.7, {delta} {approx} 0.8) with {beta}{sub N} approaching the with-wall beta limit for several energy confinement times. By operating at lower collisionality in this regime, NSTX has achieved record non-inductive current drive fraction f{sub NI} {approx} 71%. Instabilities driven by super-Alfvenic ions are an important issue for all burning plasmas, including ITER. Fast ions from NBI on NSTX are super-Alfvenic. Linear TAE thresholds and appreciable fast-ion loss during multi-mode bursts are measured and these results are compared to theory. RWM/RFA feedback combined with n = 3 error field control was used on NSTX to maintain plasma rotation with {beta} above the no-wall limit. The impact of n > 1 error fields on stability is a important result for ITER. Other highlights are
Overview of Results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)
Gates, D. A.; Ahn, J.; Allain, J.; Andre, R.; Bastasz, R.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; Belova, E.; Berkery, J.; Betti, R.; Bialek, J.; Biewer, T.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Choe, W.; Crocker, N.; Darrow, D.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Diem, S.; D’Ippolito, D.; Domier, C.; Dorland, W.; Efthimion, P.; Ejiri, A.; Ershov, N.; Evans, T.; Feibush, E.; Fenstermacher, M.; Ferron, J.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Frazin, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.; Funaba, H.; Gerhardt, S.; Glasser, A.; Gorelenkov, N.; Grisham, L.; Hahm, T.; Harvey, R.; Hassanein, A.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.; Hillesheim, J.; Hillis, D.; Hirooka, Y.; Hu, B.; Humphreys, D.; Idehara, T.; Indireshkumar, K.; Ishida, A.; Jaeger, F.; Jarboe, T.; Jardin, S.; Jaworski, M.; Ji, H.; Jung, H.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Katsuro-Hopkins, O.; Kawahata, K.; Kawamori, E.; Kaye, S.; Kessel, C.; Kim, J.; Kimura, H.; Kolemen, E.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Krstic, P.; Ku, S.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.; La Haye, R.; Lao, L.; LeBlanc, B.; Lee, W.; Lee, K.; Leuer, J.; Levinton, F.; Liang, Y.; Liu, D.; Luhmann, Jr., N.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Mansfield, D.; Maqueda, R.; Mazzucato, E.; McCune, D.; McGeehan, B.; McKee, G.; Medley, S.; Menard, J.; Menon, M.; Meyer, H.; Mikkelsen, D.; Miloshevsky, G.; Mitarai, O.; Mueller, D.; Mueller, S.; Munsat, T.; Myra, J.; Nagayama, Y.; Nelson, B.; Nguyen, X.; Nishino, N.; Nishiura, M.; Nygren, R.; Ono, M.; Osborne, T.; Pacella, D.; Park, H.; Park, J.; Paul, S.; Peebles, W.; Penaflor, B.; Peng, M.; Phillips, C.; Pigarov, A.; Podesta, M.; Preinhaelter, J.; Ram, A.; Raman, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Redd, A.; Reimerdes, H.; Rewo, G.; Ross, P.; Rowley, C.; Ruskov, E.; Russell, D.; Ruzic, D.; Ryan, P.; Sabbagh, S.; Schaffer, M.; Schuster, E.; Scott, S.; Shaing, K.; Sharpe, P.; Shevchenko, V.; Shinohara, K.; Sizyuk, V.; Skinner, C.; Smirnov, A.; Smith, D.; Smith, S.; Snyder, P.; Solomon, W.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Stotler, D.; Strait, T.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Takahashi, R.; Takase, Y.; Tamura, N.; Tang, X.; Taylor, G.; Taylor, C.; Ticos, C.; Tritz, K.; Tsarouhas, D.; Turrnbull, A.; Tynan, G.; Ulrickson, M.; Umansky, M.; Urban, J.; Utergberg, E.; Walker, M.; Wampler, W.; Wang, J.; Wang, W.; Welander, A.; Whaley, J.; White, R.; Wilgen, J.; Wilson, R.; Wong, K.; Wright, J.; Xia, Z.; Xu, X.; Youchison, D.; Yu, G.; Yuh, H.; Zakharov, L.; Zemlyanov, D.; Zweben, S.
2009-03-24
The mission of NSTX is the demonstration of the physics basis required to extrapolate to the next steps for the spherical torus (ST), such as a plasma facing component test facility (NHTX) or an ST based component test facility (ST-CTF), and to support ITER. Key issues for the ST are transport, and steady state high β operation. To better understand electron transport, a new high-k scattering diagnostic was used extensively to investigate electron gyro-scale fluctuations with varying electron temperature gradient scale-length. Results from n = 3 braking studies are consistent with the flow shear dependence of ion transport. New results from electron Bernstein wave emission measurements from plasmas with lithium wall coating applied indicate transmission efficiencies near 70% in H-mode as a result of reduced collisionality. Improved coupling of High Harmonic Fast-Waves has been achieved by reducing the edge density relative to the critical density for surface wave coupling. In order to achieve high bootstrap current fraction, future ST designs envision running at very high elongation. Plasmas have been maintained on NSTX at very low internal inductance l_{i} ~0.4 with strong shaping (κ ~ 2.7, δ ~ 0.8) with β_{N} approaching the with-wall beta limit for several energy confinement times. By operating at lower collisionality in this regime, NSTX has achieved record non-inductive current drive fraction f_{NI} ~71%. Instabilities driven by super-Alfv´enic ions will be an important issue for all burning plasmas, including ITER. Fast ions from NBI on NSTX are super-Alfv´enic. Linear TAE thresholds and appreciable fast-ion loss during multi-mode bursts are measured and these results are compared to theory. The impact of n > 1 error fields on stability is a important result for ITER. RWM/RFA feedback combined with n=3 error field control was used on NSTX to maintain plasma rotation with β above the no-wall limit. Other highlights are: results
Magalhaes, F. P.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Rathbun, J. A.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Morgenthaler, J. P.; Echer, E.; Echer, M. P. D. S.
2015-12-01
Io, the innermost of the Jupiter's four Galilean moons, is a remarkable object in the Solar System, due to its intense and energetic volcanic activity. The volcanic sulfur and oxygen in Io's tenuous atmosphere escapes forming an extended neutral cloud around Io and Jupiter. Subsequently, by ionization and pickup ions, a ring of charged particles encircling Jupiter is created, forming the Io plasma torus. Considering this scenario, it is reasonable to expect that the Io plasma torus should be affected by changes in Io's volcanism. Interactions between Io and the Jovian environment is unique and yet not very well understood. Here we present two sets of observations. One from the Galileo Near-Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (NIMS) instrument, which obtained spectral image cubes between 0.7 and 5.2 microns. The other dataset is from ground-based observations of the [SII] 6731 Å emission lines from the Io plasma torus, obtained at McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope, at Kitt Peak. Our dataset from the [SII] 6731 Å emission lines cover more years than the one from the NIMS data. The years presented in this work for a comparative study are from 1998 through 2001. Using the NIMS instrument we were able to identify which volcanoes were active and measure their level of activity. From the [SII] 6731 Å emission lines we were able to trace the densest part of the torus and also the brightness of both ansa. By comparing the results from the Galileo instrument and the ground-based observations, we are exploring how the Io plasma torus responds to large eruptions from Io. We aim with this study to help improve our understanding of this complex coupled system, Jupiter-Io.
Advanced Demonstration and Test Reactor Options Study
Petti, David Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gehin, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kinsey, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qualls, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Croson, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2017-01-01
Global efforts to address climate change will require large-scale decarbonization of energy production in the United States and elsewhere. Nuclear power already provides 20% of electricity production in the United States (U.S.) and is increasing in countries undergoing rapid growth around the world. Because reliable, grid-stabilizing, low emission electricity generation, energy security, and energy resource diversity will be increasingly valued, nuclear power’s share of electricity production has a potential to grow. In addition, there are non electricity applications (e.g., process heat, desalination, hydrogen production) that could be better served by advanced nuclear systems. Thus, the timely development, demonstration, and commercialization of advanced nuclear reactors could diversify the nuclear technologies available and offer attractive technology options to expand the impact of nuclear energy for electricity generation and non-electricity missions. The purpose of this planning study is to provide transparent and defensible technology options for a test and/or demonstration reactor(s) to be built to support public policy, innovation and long term commercialization within the context of the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) broader commitment to pursuing an “all of the above” clean energy strategy and associated time lines. This planning study includes identification of the key features and timing needed for advanced test or demonstration reactors to support research, development, and technology demonstration leading to the commercialization of power plants built upon these advanced reactor platforms. This planning study is consistent with the Congressional language contained within the fiscal year 2015 appropriation that directed the DOE to conduct a planning study to evaluate “advanced reactor technology options, capabilities, and requirements within the context of national needs and public policy to support innovation in nuclear energy
Holographic torus entanglement and its renormalization group flow
Bueno, Pablo; Witczak-Krempa, William
2017-03-01
We study the universal contributions to the entanglement entropy (EE) of 2 +1 -dimensional and 3 +1 -dimensional holographic conformal field theories (CFTs) on topologically nontrivial manifolds, focusing on tori. The holographic bulk corresponds to anti-de Sitter-soliton geometries. We characterize the properties of these regulator-independent EE terms as a function of both the size of the cylindrical entangling region, and the shape of the torus. In 2 +1 dimensions, in the simple limit where the torus becomes a thin one-dimensional ring, the EE reduces to a shape-independent constant 2 γ . This is twice the EE obtained by bipartitioning an infinite cylinder into equal halves. We study the renormalization group flow of γ by defining a renormalized EE that (1) is applicable to general QFTs, (2) resolves the failure of the area law subtraction, and (3) is inspired by the F-theorem. We find that the renormalized γ decreases monotonically at small coupling when the holographic CFT is deformed by a relevant operator for all allowed scaling dimensions. We also discuss the question of nonuniqueness of such renormalized EEs both in 2 +1 dimensions and 3 +1 dimensions.
Fabricating of full denture acrylic protheses with palatine torus
Ima Hariyati
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Full denture acrylic protheses can substitute all maxillary or mandibulary teeth naturally. The objective of fabricating full denture protheses is to substitute the tissue lost that was occupied by teeth or connective tissue before ward. This is a case of a 43 year old female with lost of all her upper and lower teeth. At the maxilla there is a palatine torus spreading along the midline with 25 mm length, 10 mm width and 6mm height. She has never worn prothese before. The process of full denture protheses fabrication were carried out in several steps, starting from making anatomical impression to get study model, making of individual stock tray, making functional impression to get working model, choosing the design, making of midline, making of bite rim, inserting the model on articulator, preparing artificial teeth arrangement, fitting the wax, countoring wax, flasking, boiling out, packing, curing, deflasking, finishing, polishing and inserting the protheses. The process of this full denture protheses fabrication used tin foil as reducer to prevent overpressure of the tissue around the thin torus area so the prothesis will be more comfortable for the patient. The result was the protheses can be used by the patient, nicely and comfortably.
Fouchard, S
2006-04-15
Considering the recent increase in energy consumption. aide associated environmental risks, new trails are followed today to develop the use of clean and renewable alternative energies. In this context hydrogen seems to be a serious solution and this study, based on micro-algae photosynthetic capacities exploitation, will allow to devise a process for hydrogen production from only water and solar energy without greenhouse gas release. The sulphur deprivation protocol on TAP medium, known to lead to hydrogen production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii species was particularly studied. At the metabolic level, two important phenomena are induced under these conditions: an over-accumulation of the intracellular starch reserves and a simultaneous alteration of the PsII activity which leads to anoxia and Fe-hydrogenase induction, an enzyme with a strong specific activity responsible for the hydrogen production. The contribution of the two electron transfer pathways implied in the hydrogen production process (PsII-dependent and PSII-independent) as well as the importance of the previously accumulated starch were highlighted here. We also investigated the potential for designing autotrophic protocols for hydrogen photoproduction. Various protocols, considered to be relevant, were then transposed on a torus photo-bioreactor, specifically developed in this study and which allows the control of culture parameters as well as the precise measurement of gas release kinetics, in order to obtain first estimates of productivity of the system. Integration of the physical; aspects of the pilot and biological aspects of the process in a model, finally opens new prospects for subject development, in particular for a reasoned optimization of hydrogen production via this double physiology/process approach. (author)
Advanced Cogeneration Technology Economic Optimization Study (ACTEOS)
Nanda, P.; Ansu, Y.; Manuel, E. H., Jr.; Price, W. G., Jr.
1980-01-01
The advanced cogeneration technology economic optimization study (ACTEOS) was undertaken to extend the results of the cogeneration technology alternatives study (CTAS). Cost comparisons were made between designs involving advanced cogeneration technologies and designs involving either conventional cogeneration technologies or not involving cogeneration. For the specific equipment cost and fuel price assumptions made, it was found that: (1) coal based cogeneration systems offered appreciable cost savings over the no cogeneration case, while systems using coal derived liquids offered no costs savings; and (2) the advanced cogeneration systems provided somewhat larger cost savings than the conventional systems. Among the issues considered in the study included: (1) temporal variations in steam and electric demands; (2) requirements for reliability/standby capacity; (3) availability of discrete equipment sizes; (4) regional variations in fuel and electricity prices; (5) off design system performance; and (6) separate demand and energy charges for purchased electricity.
A principle for ideal torus knots
Olsen, Kasper Wibeck; Bohr, Jakob
2013-01-01
Using bent-helix embeddings, we investigate simple and knotted torus windings that are made of tubes of finite thickness. Knots which have the shortest rope length are often denoted as ideal structures. Conventionally, the ideal structures are found by rope shortening routines. It is shown...... that alternatively they can be directly determined as maximally twisted structures. In many cases these structures are also structures with zero strain-twist coupling, i.e. structures that neither rotate one or the other way under strain. We use this principle to implement rapid numerical calculations of the ideal...
Torus knots and the rational DAHA
Gorsky, Eugene; Rasmussen, Jacob; Shende, Vivek
2012-01-01
We conjecturally extract the triply graded Khovanov-Rozansky homology of the (m, n) torus knot from the unique finite dimensional simple representation of the rational DAHA of type A, rank n - 1, and central character m/n. The conjectural differentials of Gukov, Dunfield and the third author receive an explicit algebraic expression in this picture, yielding a prescription for the doubly graded Khovanov-Rozansky homologies. We match our conjecture to previous conjectures of the first author relating knot homology to q, t-Catalan numbers, and of the last three authors relating knot homology to Hilbert schemes on singular curves.
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advances in Microlocal Analysis
1986-01-01
The 1985 Castel vecchio-Pas coli NATO Advanced Study Institute is aimed to complete the trilogy with the two former institutes I organized : "Boundary Value Problem for Evolution Partial Differential Operators", Liege, 1976 and "Singularities in Boundary Value Problems", Maratea, 1980. It was indeed necessary to record the considerable progress realized in the field of the propagation of singularities of Schwartz Distri butions which led recently to the birth of a new branch of Mathema tical Analysis called Microlocal Analysis. Most of this theory was mainly built to be applied to distribution solutions of linear partial differential problems. A large part of this institute still went in this direction. But, on the other hand, it was also time to explore the new trend to use microlocal analysis In non linear differential problems. I hope that the Castelvecchio NATO ASI reached its purposes with the help of the more famous authorities in the field. The meeting was held in Tuscany (Italy) at Castelvecchio-P...
The bounded isometry conjecture for the Kodaira-Thurston manifold and 4-Torus
Han, Zhigang
2007-01-01
The purpose of this note is to study the bounded isometry conjecture proposed by Lalonde and Polterovich. In particular, we show that the conjecture holds for the Kodaira-Thurston manifold with the standard symplectic form and for the 4-torus with all linear symplectic forms.
Cristofano, Gerardo E-mail: gerardo.cristofano@na.infn.it; Maiella, Giuseppe E-mail: giuseppe.maiella@na.infn.it; Marotta, Vincenzo E-mail: vincenzo.marotta@na.infn.it; Niccoli, Giuliano E-mail: giuliano.niccoli@na.infn.it
2002-10-14
We analyze the modular properties of the effective CFT description for paired states, proposed in G. Cristofano, G. Maiella, V. Marrota, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 15 (2000) 1679, corresponding to the non-standard filling {nu}=((1)/(p+1)). We construct its characters for the twisted and the untwisted sector and the diagonal partition function. We show that the degrees of freedom entering our partition function naturally go to complete a Z{sub 2}-orbifold construction of the CFT for the Halperin state. Different behaviours for the p even and p odd cases are also studied. Finally it is shown that the tunneling phenomenon selects out a twist invariant CFT which is identified with the Moore-Read model.
A METHOD FOR STIFFNESS MATRIX OF TRIANGULAR TORUS ELEMENT
Durmuş GÜNAY
1996-01-01
Full Text Available The matrices of constants for the stiffness matrices of triangular torus elements family are generated on computer by using the expression given in literature. After the matrices are generated once, it is easy to obtain the stiffness matrices for all member of family of triangular torus elements without need for numerical integration.
Direct detection of the Enceladus water torus with Herschel
Hartogh, P.; Lellouch, E.; Moreno, R.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Biver, N.; Cassidy, T.; Rengel, M.; Jarchow, C.; Cavalie, T.; Crovisier, J.; Helmich, F. P.; Kidger, M.
Cryovolcanic activity near the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus produces plumes of H2O-dominated gases and ice particles, which escape and populate a torus-shaped cloud. Using submillimeter spectroscopy with Herschel, we report the direct detection of the Enceladus water vapor torus in four
Direct detection of the Enceladus water torus with Herschel
Hartogh, P.; Lellouch, E.; Moreno, R.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Biver, N.; Cassidy, T.; Rengel, M.; Jarchow, C.; Cavalie, T.; Crovisier, J.; Helmich, F. P.; Kidger, M.
2011-01-01
Cryovolcanic activity near the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus produces plumes of H2O-dominated gases and ice particles, which escape and populate a torus-shaped cloud. Using submillimeter spectroscopy with Herschel, we report the direct detection of the Enceladus water vapor torus in four rot
Arithmetic functions in torus and tree networks
Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Vranas, Pavlos M.
2007-12-25
Methods and systems for performing arithmetic functions. In accordance with a first aspect of the invention, methods and apparatus are provided, working in conjunction of software algorithms and hardware implementation of class network routing, to achieve a very significant reduction in the time required for global arithmetic operation on the torus. Therefore, it leads to greater scalability of applications running on large parallel machines. The invention involves three steps in improving the efficiency and accuracy of global operations: (1) Ensuring, when necessary, that all the nodes do the global operation on the data in the same order and so obtain a unique answer, independent of roundoff error; (2) Using the topology of the torus to minimize the number of hops and the bidirectional capabilities of the network to reduce the number of time steps in the data transfer operation to an absolute minimum; and (3) Using class function routing to reduce latency in the data transfer. With the method of this invention, every single element is injected into the network only once and it will be stored and forwarded without any further software overhead. In accordance with a second aspect of the invention, methods and systems are provided to efficiently implement global arithmetic operations on a network that supports the global combining operations. The latency of doing such global operations are greatly reduced by using these methods.
One-to-one embedding between honeycomb mesh and Petersen-Torus networks.
Seo, Jung-Hyun; Sim, Hyun; Park, Dae-Heon; Park, Jang-Woo; Lee, Yang-Sun
2011-01-01
As wireless mobile telecommunication bases organize their structure using a honeycomb-mesh algorithm, there are many studies about parallel processing algorithms like the honeycomb mesh in Wireless Sensor Networks. This paper aims to study the Peterson-Torus graph algorithm in regard to the continuity with honeycomb-mesh algorithm in order to apply the algorithm to sensor networks. Once a new interconnection network is designed, parallel algorithms are developed with huge research costs to use such networks. If the old network is embedded in a newly designed network, a developed algorithm in the old network is reusable in a newly designed network. Petersen-Torus has been designed recently, and the honeycomb mesh has already been designed as a well-known interconnection network. In this paper, we propose a one-to-one embedding algorithm for the honeycomb mesh (HMn) in the Petersen-Torus PT(n,n), and prove that dilation of the algorithm is 5, congestion is 2, and expansion is 5/3. The proposed one-to-one embedding is applied so that processor throughput can be minimized when the honeycomb mesh algorithm runs in the Petersen-Torus.
Microstructural studies of advanced austenitic steels
Todd, J. A.; Ren, Jyh-Ching [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (USA). Dept. of Materials Science
1989-11-15
This report presents the first complete microstructural and analytical electron microscopy study of Alloy AX5, one of a series of advanced austenitic steels developed by Maziasz and co-workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for their potential application as reheater and superheater materials in power plants that will reach the end of their design lives in the 1990's. The advanced steels are modified with carbide forming elements such as titanium, niobium and vanadium. When combined with optimized thermo-mechanical treatments, the advanced steels exhibit significantly improved creep rupture properties compared to commercially available 316 stainless steels, 17--14 Cu--Mo and 800 H steels. The importance of microstructure in controlling these improvements has been demonstrated for selected alloys, using stress relaxation testing as an accelerated test method. The microstructural features responsible for the improved creep strengths have been identified by studying the thermal aging kinetics of one of the 16Ni--14Cr advanced steels, Alloy AX5, in both the solution annealed and the solution annealed plus cold worked conditions. Time-temperature-precipitation diagrams have been developed for the temperature range 600 C to 900 C and for times from 1 h to 3000 h. 226 refs., 88 figs., 10 tabs.
Ardema, Mark D.
1995-01-01
This report summarizes the work entitled 'Advances in Hypersonic Vehicle Synthesis with Application to Studies of Advanced Thermal Protection Systems.' The effort was in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of trajectory and propulsion system optimization; and (2) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation. The majority of the effort was spent in the trajectory area.
Effect of plasma torus density variations on the morphology and brightness of the Io footprint
Payan, A. P.; Rajendar, A.; Paty, C. S.; Crary, F.
2014-05-01
We develop a 2-D-layered model of the Io plasma torus to study the apparent "shutoff" of the Io footprint in 2007, when it disappeared beneath a region of diffuse emissions, roughly coincident with a massive eruption of Tvashtar Paterae. First, we investigate the effects of Io's location in the plasma torus and validate our model results against Hubble UV observations of the Io footprint. We are able to qualitatively reproduce variations in the morphology of the footprint due to Io's changing latitudinal location with respect to the center of the plasma torus, capturing the bright leading spot and the dimmer tail. Then, we consider the effects of an increase in the local plasma density on the brightness and morphology of the Io footprint. Our results show a correlation between a local density increase in the plasma torus and the dimming of the Io footprint as observed in 2007. In particular, we find that a local density enhancement at Io of fivefold compared to the nominal value is sufficient to produce the observed shutoff of the footprint.
Observations of the He+ pickup ion torus velocity distribution function with SOHO/CELIAS/CTOF
Taut, Andreas; Berger, Lars; Bochsler, Peter; Drews, Christian; Klecker, Berndt; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.
2016-03-01
Interstellar PickUp Ions (PUIs) are created from neutrals coming from the interstellar medium that get ionized inside the heliosphere. Once ionized, the freshly created ions are injected into the magnetized solar wind plasma with a highly anisotropic torus-shaped Velocity Distribution Function (VDF). It has been commonly assumed that wave-particle interactions rapidly destroy this torus by isotropizing the distribution in one hemisphere of velocity space. However, recent observations of a He+ torus distribution using PLASTIC on STEREO showed that the assumption of a rapid isotropization is oversimplified. The aim of this work is to complement these studies. Using He+ data from the Charge Time-Of-Flight (CTOF) sensor of the Charge, ELement, and Isotope Analysis System (CELIAS) on-board the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and magnetic field data from the Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) magnetometer of the WIND spacecraft, we derive the projected 1-D VDF of He+ for different magnetic field configurations. Depending on the magnetic field direction, the initial torus VDF lies inside CTOF's aperture or not. By comparing the VDFs derived under different magnetic field directions with each other we reveal an anisotropic signature of the He+ VDF.
Payan, A. P.; Rajendar, A.; Paty, C. S.; Bonfond, B.; Crary, F.
2012-12-01
Io is the primary source of plasma in the Jovian magnetosphere, continuously releasing approximately 1 ton/s of SO2 from volcanic eruptions. The interaction of Io with Jupiter's magnetosphere is strongly influenced by the density structure of the resulting plasma torus and the position of Io relative to the center of the torus [Bonfond et al. 2008]. This unusual interaction produces a complex auroral feature on Jupiter's ionosphere known as the Io footprint. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of Jupiter's far-UV aurora during spring 2007 showed an increased number of isolated auroral blobs along with a continuous expansion of Jupiter's main auroral oval over a few months. These blobs were associated with several large injections of hot plasma between 9 and 27 Jovian radii. These events coincided with a large volcanic eruption of the Tvashtar Paterae on Io, as observed by the New Horizons spacecraft [Spencer et al., 2007]. This, in turn, may have resulted in a significant increase in the plasma torus density. Besides, on June 7th, 2007, the Io footprint momentarily became so faint that it disappeared under a diffuse patch of emission remaining from an injection blob [Bonfond et al., 2012]. The goal of the present study is to examine the relationship between the increased density of the plasma torus and the dimming of the Io footprint. We implement a 2D model of the Io plasma torus that treats the variable-density torus as being composed of discrete layers of uniform density. As the co-rotating plasma in the plasma torus impinges on Io, Alfvén waves are launched at a pushback angle obtained from Gurnett and Goertz [1981]. The waves propagate inside the plasma torus through reflection and refraction at density discontinuities where they lose some of their initial energy. Using the above model, we can track the Alfvén wave fronts in the plasma torus and determine the longitude at which they exit the torus along with the corresponding remaining energy. Since
Advanced Cell Development and Degradation Studies
J. E. O' Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; R. C. O' Brien; K. G. Condie; M. Sohal; G. K. Housley; J. J. Hartvigsen; D. Larsen; G. Tao; B. Yildiz; V. Sharma; P. Singh; N. Petigny; T. L. Cable
2010-09-01
The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cells for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. From 2003 – 2009, this work was sponsored by the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). Starting in 2010, the HTE research program has been sponsored by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program. HTSE research priorities in FY10 are centered on understanding and reducing cell and stack performance degradation to an acceptable level to advance the technology readiness level of HTSE and to justify further large-scale demonstration activities. This report provides a summary of our FY10 experimental program, which has been focused on advanced cell and stack development and degradation studies. Advanced cell and stack development activities are under way at five technology partners: MSRI, Versa Power, Ceramatec, NASA Glenn, and St. Gobain. Performance evaluation of the advanced technology cells and stacks has been performed by the technology partners, by MIT and the University of Connecticut and at the INL HTE Laboratory. Summaries of these development activities and test results are presented.
Balokovic, Mislav; Harrison, Fiona; Brightman, Murray
2017-08-01
The obscuring torus is one of the main components of the basic unified model of active galactic nuclei (AGN), needed to create anisotropy in obscuration as a function of the viewing angle. We present the first study of the geometrical properties of the AGN torus in a large and representative sample of type II Seyfert nuclei. The sample consists of 124 AGN selected in the hard X-ray band from the Swift/BAT 70-month catalog and observed simultaneously with NuSTAR and Swift/XRT. These data enable us to explore the constraints that observed spectra place on the properties of the obscuring torus in individual AGN and in the local population of Seyfert II nuclei. We make use of empirically motivated spectral models for X-ray reprocessing in approximately toroidal geometry for constraining the distribution of the average column density of the torus, and the distribution of the torus covering factor within this sample. We find that the torus-averaged column density is independent of the line-of-sight column density, with typical column density that is borderline Compton-thick, i.e., around the unity optical depth for Compton scattering. The distribution of torus covering factors is broad but shows a preference for high covering, peaking around the covering factor of 90%, with the median at 70%, in agreement with recent sample studies in the infrared band. We also examine the dependence of the covering factor on intrinsic luminosity, finding that the median covering factor peaks around the intrinsic X-ray luminosity of 10^42.5 erg/s and decreases toward both lower and higher luminosities.
Cassini-plasma interactions in the Enceladus torus
Yaroshenko, V. V.; Miloch, W. J.; Morfill, G. E.
2012-04-01
This study reports the results of the first simulations of spacecraft-plasma interactions within the proposed Enceladus torus, a radially narrow toroidal region surrounding Saturn that contains a high density of water-group neutrals. Charge exchange collisions scatter these neutrals and replace a fraction of the co-rotating ions with a new and slower-moving ion population. The newly-created ions are moving near the local Keplerian speed, slower than the co-rotation speed, and are ''picked-up'' by Saturn's magnetic field. These water-group ions are detected throughout the Enceladus torus including regions far from Enceladus [1,2]. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell self-consistent code is applied to find the potential and plasma distributions around the spherical model of Cassini in a complicated plasma environment of the Enceladus torus. The modeling includes two types of water group ions (co-rotating, and non-thermalized pick-up ions), plasma flows, photoemission due to solar UV radiation, and flyby geometry. As input data the parameters derived from the Cassini plasma spectrometer measurements obtained in 2005 on Oct. 11, and 29, Nov. 27, and Dec. 24 [1] are employed. The numerical simulations show that the pick-up ions significantly modify the spatial structure of the plasma perturbations, arising in the vicinity of the orbiter in comparison to that obtained for only co-rotating ions [3]. The plasma species produce a specific strongly inhomogeneous configuration with a self-consistent charge separation between the different plasma components in the electric field of the orbiter. The highly energetic co-rotating water group ions are mainly responsible for the configuration of the plasma wake. The region extending up to a few electron Debye lengths downstream of the spacecraft reveals negative potentials that are a significant fraction of the thermal electron energy. Arising wake electric fields capture the cold, pick-up ions and lead to a strong enhancement of
Pressure Safety: Advanced Self-Study 30120
Glass, George [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-02-29
Pressure Safety Advance Self-Study (Course 30120) consists of an introduction, five modules, and a quiz. To receive credit in UTrain for completing this course, you must score 80% or better on the 15-question quiz (check UTrain). Directions for initiating the quiz are appended to the end of this training manual. This course contains several links to LANL websites. UTrain might not support active links, so please copy links into the address line in your browser.
[Advances in the studies of concealed penis].
Fan, Sheng-hai; Li, Xue-de
2015-09-01
Concealed penis is usually found in children, which affects the patients both physiologically and psychologically. Some of the patients are wrongly treated by circumcision, which may bring about serious consequences to the sexual life of the patients in their adulthood. In the recent years, this disease has been receiving more and more attention from both doctors and parents. However, controversies remain as to its classification, pathogenesis, pathology, and treatment. This paper focuses on the understanding and advances in the studies of concealed penis.
Cornering Gapless Quantum States via Their Torus Entanglement
Witczak-Krempa, William; Hayward Sierens, Lauren E.; Melko, Roger G.
2017-02-01
The entanglement entropy (EE) has emerged as an important window into the structure of complex quantum states of matter. We analyze the universal part of the EE for gapless systems on tori in 2D and 3D, denoted by χ . Focusing on scale-invariant systems, we derive general nonperturbative properties for the shape dependence of χ and reveal surprising relations to the EE associated with corners in the entangling surface. We obtain closed-form expressions for χ in 2D and 3D within a model that arises in the study of conformal field theories (CFTs), and we use them to obtain Ansätze without fitting parameters for the 2D and 3D free boson CFTs. Our numerical lattice calculations show that the Ansätze are highly accurate. Finally, we discuss how the torus EE can act as a fingerprint of exotic states such as gapless quantum spin liquids, e.g., Kitaev's honeycomb model.
Quantum entanglement in topological phases on a torus
Luo, Zhu-Xi; Hu, Yu-Ting; Wu, Yong-Shi
2016-08-01
In this paper, we study the effect of nontrivial spatial topology on quantum entanglement by examining the degenerate ground states of a topologically ordered system on a torus. Using the string-net (fixed-point) wave function, we propose a general formula of the reduced density matrix when the system is partitioned into two cylinders. The cylindrical topology of the subsystems makes a significant difference in regard to entanglement: a global quantum number for the many-body states comes into play, together with a decomposition matrix M which describes how topological charges of the ground states decompose into boundary degrees of freedom. We obtain a general formula for entanglement entropy and generalize the concept of minimally entangled states to minimally entangled sectors. Concrete examples are demonstrated with data from both finite groups and modular tensor categories (i.e., Fibonacci, Ising, etc.), supported by numerical verification.
Recent Advances in Study of Oceanic Vortex
FU Gang; LI Li; LIU Qinyu
2002-01-01
In this paper, the recent advances in the study of oceanic vortex are outlined. Firstly, the previous studies on oceanic vortex are reviewed. Secondly, some prominent features of oceanic vortex in the Gulf Stream, the Kuroshio, the South China Sea and the Japan Sea regions are depicted based upon the observations and numerical modeling results. Generally, the lifetime of these oceanic vortices ranges from several weeks to several months, and their horizontal scales vary from tens of kilometers to hundreds of kilometers. Their vertical scales are on the order of thousands of meters. Finally, some theoretical studies, mainly on the splitting of a cyclonic vortex and the merging of anticyclonic vortices, are introduced.
Scalar Curvature for the Noncommutative Two Torus
Fathizadeh, Farzad
2011-01-01
We give a local expression for the {\\it scalar curvature} of the noncommutative two torus $ A_{\\theta} = C(\\mathbb{T}_{\\theta}^2)$ equipped with an arbitrary translation invariant complex structure and Weyl factor. This is achieved by evaluating the value of the (analytic continuation of the) {\\it spectral zeta functional} $\\zeta_a(s): = \\text{Trace}(a \\triangle^{-s})$ at $s=0$ as a linear functional in $a \\in C^{\\infty}(\\mathbb{T}_{\\theta}^2)$. A new, purely noncommutative, feature here is the appearance of the {\\it modular automorphism group} from the theory of type III factors and quantum statistical mechanics in the final formula for the curvature. This formula coincides with the formula that was recently obtained independently by Connes and Moscovici in their recent paper.
Torus CLAS12-Superconducting Magnet Quench Analysis
Kashikhin, V S; Elouadhiri, L; Ghoshal, P K; Kashy, D; Makarov, A; Pastor, O; Quettier, L; Velev, G; Wiseman, M
2014-06-01
The JLAB Torus magnet system consists of six superconducting trapezoidal racetrack-type coils assembled in a toroidal configuration. These coils are wound with SSC-36 Nb-Ti superconductor and have the peak magnetic field of 3.6 T. The first coil manufacturing based on the JLAB design began at FNAL. The large magnet system dimensions (8 m diameter and 14 MJ of stored energy) dictate the need for quench protection. Each coil is placed in an aluminum case mounted inside a cryostat and cooled by 4.6 K supercritical helium gas flowing through a copper tube attached to the coil ID. The large coil dimensions and small cryostat thickness drove the design to challenging technical solutions, suggesting that Lorentz forces due to transport currents and eddy currents during quench and various failure scenarios are analyzed. The paper covers the magnet system quench analysis using the OPERA3d Quench code.
An FPGA-based Torus Communication Network
Pivanti, Marcello; Simma, Hubert
2010-01-01
We describe the design and FPGA implementation of a 3D torus network (TNW) to provide nearest-neighbor communications between commodity multi-core processors. The aim of this project is to build up tightly interconnected and scalable parallel systems for scientific computing. The design includes the VHDL code to implement on latest FPGA devices a network processor, which can be accessed by the CPU through a PCIe interface and which controls the external PHYs of the physical links. Moreover, a Linux driver and a library implementing custom communication APIs are provided. The TNW has been successfully integrated in two recent parallel machine projects, QPACE and AuroraScience. We describe some details of the porting of the TNW for the AuroraScience system and report performance results.
An FPGA-based torus communication network
Pivanti, Marcello; Schifano, Sebastiano Fabio [INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Ferrara Univ. (Italy); Simma, Hubert [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC
2011-02-15
We describe the design and FPGA implementation of a 3D torus network (TNW) to provide nearest-neighbor communications between commodity multi-core processors. The aim of this project is to build up tightly interconnected and scalable parallel systems for scientific computing. The design includes the VHDL code to implement on latest FPGA devices a network processor, which can be accessed by the CPU through a PCIe interface and which controls the external PHYs of the physical links. Moreover, a Linux driver and a library implementing custom communication APIs are provided. The TNW has been successfully integrated in two recent parallel machine projects, QPACE and AuroraScience. We describe some details of the porting of the TNW for the AuroraScience system and report performance results. (orig.)
On the Torus Cobordant Cohomology Spheres
Ali Özkurt; Doğan Dönmez
2009-02-01
Let be a compact Lie group. In 1960, P A Smith asked the following question: ``Is it true that for any smooth action of on a homotopy sphere with exactly two fixed points, the tangent -modules at these two points are isomorphic?" A result due to Atiyah and Bott proves that the answer is `yes’ for $\\mathbb{Z}_p$ and it is also known to be the same for connected Lie groups. In this work, we prove that two linear torus actions on $S^n$ which are -cobordant (cobordism in which inclusion of each boundary component induces isomorphisms in $\\mathbb{Z}$-cohomology) must be linearly equivalent. As a corollary, for connected case, we prove a variant of Smith’s question.
Center for Advanced Energy Studies Program Plan
Kevin Kostelnik
2005-09-01
The world is facing critical energy-related challenges regarding world and national energy demands, advanced science and energy technology delivery, nuclear engineering educational shortfalls, and adequately trained technical staff. Resolution of these issues is important for the United States to ensure a secure and affordable energy supply, which is essential for maintaining U.S. national security, continued economic prosperity, and future sustainable development. One way that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is addressing these challenges is by tasking the Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) with developing the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). By 2015, CAES will be a self-sustaining, world-class, academic and research institution where the INL; DOE; Idaho, regional, and other national universities; and the international community will cooperate to conduct critical energy-related research, classroom instruction, technical training, policy conceptualization, public dialogue, and other events.
Multiple Beam Torus Antenna Study. Volume 2
1977-03-01
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Diez-Jimenez, Efren, E-mail: ediez@ing.uc3m.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Butarque, 15, E28911 Leganes (Spain); Sander, Berit; Timm, Lauri; Perez-Diaz, Jose-Luis [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Butarque, 15, E28911 Leganes (Spain)
2011-04-15
Research highlights: {yields} A local model is used to demonstrate a flip effect in the orientation of a magnet over a superconductor. {yields} A superconducting torus shape is studied. {yields} Increasing the inner radius of the torus elevates the flip effect point. {yields} There are linear piecewises in the geometrical dependency functions that help to fit the flip effect point. - Abstract: In a previous study, a general local model was used in order to demonstrate the apparition of a flip effect in the equilibrium orientation of a magnet when it is over a superconducting torus. This effect can be easily used in devices such as binary position detectors for magneto-microscopy, contactless sieves or magnetic levels amongst others. We present an initial study useful to design devices based on the flip effect between magnets and torus superconductors. It demonstrates that varying different geometrical parameters the flip effect point can be fixed. Also, it can be observed that increasing the inner radius of the torus elevates the flip effect point. A magneto-mechanical explanation of this phenomenon is exposed. For an increment of cross-section diameter occurs the same behavior. There are linear piecewises in the geometrical dependency functions that can be used for a more accurate fitting of the flip effect point.
Acetylation of pea isolate in a torus microreactor.
Legrand, J; Guéguen, J; Berot, S; Popineau, Y; Nouri, L
1997-02-20
Acetylation, which acts on the amino groups of proteins, allows to increase the solubility and the emulsifying properties of pea isolate. Acetylation by acetic anhydride was carried out in a torus microreactor in semibatch and continuous conditions. The mixing characteristics, obtained by a residence time distribution (RTD) method, are the same in batch and continuous processes. The maximum acetylation degree reached by the torus reactor is higher than with the stirred reactor. Torus reactors are more efficient than stirred ones as shown by a conversion efficiency, defined by the quantity of modified lysine groups by consumed acetic anhydride. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 53: 409-414, 1997.
A study of factors influencing advanced puberty
Yong Jun Park
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.
Progress towards high performance plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)
Kaye, S. M.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Bernabei, S; Bialek, J.; Biewer, T.; Blanchard, W.; Boedo, J.; Bush, C.; Carter, M. D.; Choe, W.; Crocker, N.; Darrow, D. S.; Davis, W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Diem, S.; Ferron, J.; Field, A.; Foley, J.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gates, D. A.; Gibney, T.; Harvey, R.; Hatcher, R. E.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.; Hosea, J. C.; Jarboe, T. R.; Johnson, D. W.; Kaita, R.; Kessel, C.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H. W.; Lawson, J.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lee, K. C.; Levinton, F.; Maingi, R.; Manickam, J.; Maqueda, R.; Marsala, R.; Mastrovito, D.; Mau, T. K.; Medley, S. S.; Menard, J.; Meyer, H.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Mueller, D.; Munsat, T.; Nelson, B. A.; Neumeyer, C.; Nishino, N.; Ono, M.; Park, H.; Park, W.; Paul, S.; Peebles, T.; Peng, M.; Phillips, C.; Pigarov, A.; Pinsker, R.; Ram, A.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Redi, M.; Rensink, M.; Rewoldt, G; Robinson, J.; Roney, P.; Roquemore, A. L.; Ruskov, E; Ryan, P.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Schneider, H.; Skinner, C. H.; Smith, D. R.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stevenson, T.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Taylor, G.; Tritz, K.; Halle, A. von; Wade, M.; White, R.; Wilgen, J.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Zhu, W.; Zweben, S. J.; Akers, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Betti, R.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Bonoli, P.; Bourdelle, C.; Chang, C. S.; Chrzanowski, J.; Domier, C.; Dudek, L.; Efthimion, P. C.; Finkenthal, M.; Fredd, E.; Fu, G. Y.; Glasser, A.; Goldston, R. J.; Greenough, N. L.; Grisham, L. R.; Gorelenkov, N.; Guazzotto, L.; Hawryluk, R. J.; Hogan, J.; Houlberg, W.; Humphreys, D.; Jaeger, F.; Kalish, M.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Lao, L. L.; Lawrence, J.; Leuer, J.; Liu, D.; Luhmann, N. C.; Mazzucato, E.; Oliaro, G.; Pacella, D.; Parsells, R.; Schaffer, M.; Semenov, I.; Shaing, K. C.; Shapiro, M. A.; Shinohara, K.; Sichta, P.; Tang, X.; Vero, R.; Walker, D.; Wampler, W.
2005-10-01
The major objective of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to understand basic toroidal confinement physics at low aspect ratio and high β_{T} in order to advance the spherical torus (ST) concept. In order to do this, NSTX utilizes up to 7.5 MW of neutral beam injection, up to 6 MW of high harmonic fast waves (HHFWs), and it operates with plasma currents up to 1.5 MA and elongations of up to 2.6 at a toroidal field up to 0.45 T. New facility, and diagnostic and modeling capabilities developed over the past two years have enabled the NSTX research team to make significant progress towards establishing this physics basis for future ST devices. Improvements in plasma control have led to more routine operation at high elongation and high β_{T} (up to ~40%) lasting for many energy confinement times. β_{T} can be limited by either internal or external modes. The installation of an active error field (EF) correction coil pair has expanded the operating regime at low density and has allowed for initial resonant EF amplification experiments. The determination of the confinement and transport properties of NSTX plasmas has benefited greatly from the implementation of higher spatial resolution kinetic diagnostics. The parametric variation of confinement is similar to that at conventional aspect ratio but with values enhanced relative to those determined from conventional aspect ratio scalings and with a β_{T} dependence. The transport is highly dependent on details of both the flow and magnetic shear. Core turbulence was measured for the first time in an ST through correlation reflectometry. Non-inductive start-up has been explored using PF-only and transient co-axial helicity injection techniques, resulting in up to 140 kA of toroidal current generated by the latter technique. Calculated bootstrap and beam-driven currents have sustained up to 60% of the flat-top plasma current in NBI discharges. Studies of HHFW absorption
Topological Strings, Two-Dimensional Yang-Mills Theory and Chern-Simons Theory on Torus Bundles
Caporaso, N; Griguolo, L; Pasquetti, S; Seminara, D; Szabó, R J
2006-01-01
We study the relations between two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory on the torus, topological string theory on a Calabi-Yau threefold whose local geometry is the sum of two line bundles over the torus, and Chern-Simons theory on torus bundles. The chiral partition function of the Yang-Mills gauge theory in the large N limit is shown to coincide with the topological string amplitude computed by topological vertex techniques. We use Yang-Mills theory as an efficient tool for the computation of Gromov-Witten invariants and derive explicitly their relation with Hurwitz numbers of the torus. We calculate the Gopakumar-Vafa invariants, whose integrality gives a non-trivial confirmation of the conjectured nonperturbative relation between two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory and topological string theory. We also demonstrate how the gauge theory leads to a simple combinatorial solution for the Donaldson-Thomas theory of the Calabi-Yau background. We match the instanton representation of Yang-Mills theory on the torus with ...
A geometric approach to noncommutative principal torus bundles
Wagner, Stefan
2013-01-01
for noncommutative algebras and say that a dynamical system (A, 핋n,α) is called a noncommutative principal 핋n-bundle, if localization leads to a trivial noncommutative principal 핋n-bundle. We prove that this approach extends the classical theory of principal torus bundles and present a bunch of (nontrivial......A (smooth) dynamical system with transformation group 핋n is a triple (A, 핋n,α), consisting of a unital locally convex algebra A, the n-torus 핋n and a group homomorphism α:핋n→Aut(A), which induces a (smooth) continuous action of 핋n on A. In this paper, we present a new, geometrically oriented...... approach to the noncommutative geometry of principal torus bundles based on such dynamical systems. Our approach is inspired by the classical setting: In fact, after recalling the definition of a trivial noncommutative principal torus bundle, we introduce a convenient (smooth) localization method...
Chern-Simons Invariants of Torus Knots and Links
Stevan, Sébastien
2010-01-01
We compute the vacuum expectation values of torus knot operators in Chern-Simons theory, and we obtain explicit formulae for all classical gauge groups and for arbitrary representations. We reproduce a known formula for the HOMFLY invariants of torus links and we obtain an analogous formula for Kauffman invariants. We also derive a formula for cable knots. We use our results to test a recently proposed conjecture that relates HOMFLY and Kauffman invariants.
Torus as phase space: Weyl quantization, dequantization, and Wigner formalism
Ligabò, Marilena, E-mail: marilena.ligabo@uniba.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy)
2016-08-15
The Weyl quantization of classical observables on the torus (as phase space) without regularity assumptions is explicitly computed. The equivalence class of symbols yielding the same Weyl operator is characterized. The Heisenberg equation for the dynamics of general quantum observables is written through the Moyal brackets on the torus and the support of the Wigner transform is characterized. Finally, a dequantization procedure is introduced that applies, for instance, to the Pauli matrices. As a result we obtain the corresponding classical symbols.
A torus patch approximation approach for point projection on surfaces
Liu, Xiao-ming; Yang, Lei; Yong, Jun-Hai; Gu, He-Jin; Sun, Jia-Guang
2009-01-01
International audience; This paper proposes a second order geometric iteration algorithm for point projection and inversion on parametric surfaces. The iteration starts from an initial projection estimation. In each iteration, we construct a second order osculating torus patch to the parametric surface at the previous projection. Then we project the test point onto the torus patch to compute the next projection and its parameter. This iterative process is terminated when the parameter satisfi...
Kiso, Atsushi; Seki, Hirokazu
This paper describes an optimal mapping of the torus self-organizing map for a human forearm motion discrimination on the basis of the myoelectric signals. This study uses the torus self-organizing map (Torus-SOM) for the motion discrimination. The normal SOM identify input data into the same feature group by using the all units of map. Then there is a possibility of the misrecognition motion around the boundary lines of the motion groups. Therefore, this study proposes the mapping method of SOM that the learning units of the same motion concentrate on one local range and the learning unit groups of each motion separates enough. As a result, the variance in the same motion group becomes small and the variance between each motion groups becomes big. Some experiments on the myoelectric hand simulator show the effectiveness of the proposed motion discrimination method.
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Metal Hydrides
1981-01-01
In the last five years, the study of metal hydrides has ex panded enormously due to the potential technological importance of this class of materials in hydrogen based energy conversion schemes. The scope of this activity has been worldwide among the industrially advanced nations. There has been a consensus among researchers in both fundamental and applied areas that a more basic understanding of the properties of metal/hydrogen syster;,s is required in order to provide a rational basis for the selection of materials for specific applications. The current worldwide need for and interest in research in metal hydrides indicated the timeliness of an Advanced Study Insti tute to provide an in-depth view of the field for those active in its various aspects. The inclusion of speakers from non-NATO coun tries provided the opportunity for cross-fertilization of ideas for future research. While the emphasis of the Institute was on basic properties, there was a conscious effort to stimulate interest in the applic...
Advanced turbine systems: Studies and conceptual design
van der Linden, S.; Gnaedig, G.; Kreitmeier, F.
1993-11-01
The ABB selection for the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) includes advanced developments especially in the hot gas path of the combustion turbine and new state-of-the-art units such as the steam turbine and the HRSG. The increase in efficiency by more than 10% multiplicative compared to current designs will be based on: (1) Turbine Inlet Temperature Increase; (2) New Cooling Techniques for Stationary and Rotating Parts; and New Materials. Present, projected component improvements that will be introduced with the above mentioned issues will yield improved CCSC turbine performance, which will drive the ATS selected gas-fired reference CC power plant to 6 % LHV or better. The decrease in emission levels requires a careful optimization of the cycle design, where cooling air consumption has to be minimized. All interfaces of the individual systems in the complete CC Plant need careful checks, especially to avoid unnecessary margins in the individual designs. This study is an important step pointing out the feasibility of the ATS program with realistic goals set by DOE, which, however, will present challenges for Phase II time schedule of 18 months. With the approach outlined in this study and close cooperation with DOE, ATS program success can be achieved to deliver low emissions and low cost of electricity by the year 2002. The ABB conceptual design and step approach will lead to early component demonstration which will help accelerate the overall program objectives.
Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report
1983-04-01
The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.
Arbanas, G; Elster, C; Escher, J; Mukhamedzanov, A; Nunes, F; Thompson, I J
2012-02-24
The TORUS collaboration derives its name from the research it focuses on, namely the Theory of Reactions for Unstable iSotopes. It is a Topical Collaboration in Nuclear Theory, and funded by the Nuclear Theory Division of the Office of Nuclear Physics in the Office of Science of the Department of Energy. The funding supports one postdoctoral researcher for the years 1 through 3. The collaboration brings together as Principal Investigators a large fraction of the nuclear reaction theorists currently active within the USA. The mission of the TORUS Topical Collaboration is to develop new methods that will advance nuclear reaction theory for unstable isotopes by using three-body techniques to improve direct-reaction calculations, and, by using a new partial-fusion theory, to integrate descriptions of direct and compound-nucleus reactions. This multi-institution collaborative effort is directly relevant to three areas of interest: the properties of nuclei far from stability; microscopic studies of nuclear input parameters for astrophysics, and microscopic nuclear reaction theory.
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Superconducting Electronics
Nisenhoff, Martin; Superconducting Electronics
1989-01-01
The genesis of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) upon which this volume is based, occurred during the summer of 1986 when we came to the realization that there had been significant progress during the early 1980's in the field of superconducting electronics and in applications of this technology. Despite this progress, there was a perception among many engineers and scientists that, with the possible exception of a limited number of esoteric fundamental studies and applications (e.g., the Josephson voltage standard or the SQUID magnetometer), there was no significant future for electronic systems incorporating superconducting elements. One of the major reasons for this perception was the aversion to handling liquid helium or including a closed-cycle helium liquefier. In addition, many critics felt that IBM's cancellation of its superconducting computer project in 1983 was "proof" that superconductors could not possibly compete with semiconductors in high-speed signal processing. From our persp...
The New Center for Advanced Energy Studies
L.J. Bond; K. Kostelnik; R.A. Wharton; A. Kadak
2006-06-01
A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundation to enable future economic growth. The next generation energy workforce in the U.S. is a critical element in meeting both national and global energy needs. The Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) was established in 2005 in response to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. CAES, located at the new Idaho National Laboratory (INL), will address critical energy education, research, policy study and training needs. CAES is a unique joint partnership between the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA), the State of Idaho, an Idaho University Consortium (IUC), and a National University Consortium (NUC). CAES will be based in a new facility that will foster collaborative academic and research efforts among participating institutions.
Repellin, Cécile; Neupert, Titus; Bernevig, B. Andrei; Regnault, Nicolas
2015-09-01
Multilayer fractional quantum Hall wave functions can be used to construct the non-Abelian states of the Zk Read-Rezayi series upon symmetrization over the layer index. Unfortunately, this construction does not yield the complete set of Zk ground states on the torus. We develop an alternative projective construction of Zk Read-Rezayi states that complements the existing one. On the multilayer torus geometry, our construction consists of introducing twisted boundary conditions connecting the layers before performing the symmetrization. We give a comprehensive account of this construction for bosonic states, and numerically show that the full ground state and quasihole manifolds are recovered for all computationally accessible system sizes. Furthermore, we analyze the neutral excitation modes above the Moore-Read on the torus through an extensive exact diagonalization study. We show numerically that our construction can be used to obtain excellent approximations to these modes. Finally, we extend our symmetrization scheme to the plane and sphere geometries.
Development of a repetitive compact torus injector
Onchi, Takumi; McColl, David; Dreval, Mykola; Rohollahi, Akbar; Xiao, Chijin; Hirose, Akira; Zushi, Hideki
2013-10-01
A system for Repetitive Compact Torus Injection (RCTI) has been developed at the University of Saskatchewan. CTI is a promising fuelling technology to directly fuel the core region of tokamak reactors. In addition to fuelling, CTI has also the potential for (a) optimization of density profile and thus bootstrap current and (b) momentum injection. For steady-state reactor operation, RCTI is necessary. The approach to RCTI is to charge a storage capacitor bank with a large capacitance and quickly charge the CT capacitor bank through a stack of integrated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). When the CT bank is fully charged, the IGBT stack will be turned off to isolate banks, and CT formation/acceleration sequence will start. After formation of each CT, the fast bank will be replenished and a new CT will be formed and accelerated. Circuits for the formation and the acceleration in University of Saskatchewan CT Injector (USCTI) have been modified. Three CT shots at 10 Hz or eight shots at 1.7 Hz have been achieved. This work has been sponsored by the CRC and NSERC, Canada.
Gauge Theory On The Fuzzy Torus
Bigatti, D
2001-01-01
In this paper a formulation of U(1) gauge theory on a fuzzy torus is discussed. The theory is regulated in both the infrared and ultraviolet. It can be thought of as a non-commutative version of lattice gauge theory on a periodic lattice. The construction of Wilson loops is particularly transparent in this formulation. Following Ishibashi, Iso, Kawai and Kitazawa, we show that certain Fourier modes of open Wilson lines are gauge invariant. We also introduce charged matter fields which can be thought of as fundamentals of the gauge group. These particles behave like charges in a strong magnetic field and are frozen into the lowest Landau levels. The resulting system is a simple matrix quantum mechanics which should reflect much of the physics of charged particles in strong magnetic fields. The present results were first presented as a talk at the Institute for Mathematical Science, Chennai, India; the author wishes to thank Prof. T. R. Govindarajan and the IMS for hospitality and financial support, and the aud...
Stability of small-amplitude torus knot solutions of the localized induction approximation
Calini, Annalisa; Ivey, Thomas
2011-08-01
We study the linear stability of small-amplitude torus knot solutions of the localized induction approximation equation for the motion of a thin vortex filament in an ideal fluid. Such solutions can be constructed analytically through the connection with the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation using the method of isoperiodic deformations. We show that these (p, q) torus knots are generically linearly unstable for p q, in contrast with an earlier linear stability study by Ricca (1993 Chaos 3 83-95 1995 Chaos 5 346; 1995 Small-scale Structures in Three-dimensional Hydro and Magneto-dynamics Turbulence (Lecture Notes in Physics vol 462) (Berlin: Springer)). We also provide an interpretation of the original perturbative calculation in Ricca (1995), and an explanation of the numerical experiments performed by Ricca et al (1999 J. Fluid Mech. 391 29-44), in light of our results.
The Pan American Advanced Studies Institute
Arous, Gérard; Ferrari, Pablo; Newman, Charles; Sidoravicius, Vladas; Vares, Maria
2014-01-01
This volume features selected and peer-reviewed articles from the Pan-American Advanced Studies Institute (PASI). The chapters are written by international specialists who participated in the conference. Topics include developments based on breakthroughs in the mathematical understanding of phenomena describing systems in highly inhomogeneous and disordered media, including the KPZ universality class (describing the evolution of interfaces in two dimensions), spin glasses, random walks in random environment, and percolative systems. PASI fosters a collaboration between North American and Latin American researchers and students. The conference that inspired this volume took place in January 2012 in both Santiago de Chile and Buenos Aires. Researchers and graduate students will find timely research in probability theory, statistical physics and related disciplines.
Advanced automotive diesel engine system study
1983-01-01
A conceptual study of an advanced automotive diesel engine is discussed. The engine concept selected for vehicle installation was a supercharged 1.4 liter, 4 cylinder spark assisted diesel of 14:1 compression ratio. A compounding unit consisting of a Lysholm compressor and expander is connected to the engine crankshaft by a belt drive. The inlet air charge is heated by the expander exhaust gas via a heat exchanger. Four levels of technology achievement on the selected engine concept were evaluated, from state-of-the-art to the ideal case. This resulted in the fuel economy increasing from 53.2 mpg to 81.7 mpg, and the 0-60 mph time decreasing from 17.6 seconds to 10.9 seconds.
Classification Studies in an Advanced Air Classifier
Routray, Sunita; Bhima Rao, R.
2016-10-01
In the present paper, experiments are carried out using VSK separator which is an advanced air classifier to recover heavy minerals from beach sand. In classification experiments the cage wheel speed and the feed rate are set and the material is fed to the air cyclone and split into fine and coarse particles which are collected in separate bags. The size distribution of each fraction was measured by sieve analysis. A model is developed to predict the performance of the air classifier. The objective of the present model is to predict the grade efficiency curve for a given set of operating parameters such as cage wheel speed and feed rate. The overall experimental data with all variables studied in this investigation is fitted to several models. It is found that the present model is fitting good to the logistic model.
Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study
Schwarz, R.
1982-01-01
Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.
Superpolynomials for torus knots from evolution induced by cut-and-join operators
Dunin-Barkowski, P.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.; Sleptsov, A.; Smirnov, A.
2013-03-01
The colored HOMFLY polynomials, which describe Wilson loop averages in Chern-Simons theory, possess an especially simple representation for torus knots, which begins from quantum R-matrix and ends up with a trivially-looking split W representation familiar from character calculus applications to matrix models and Hurwitz theory. Substitution of MacDonald polynomials for characters in these formulas provides a very simple description of "superpolynomials", much simpler than the recently studied alternative which deforms relation to the WZNW theory and explicitly involves the Littlewood-Richardson coefficients. A lot of explicit expressions are presented for different representations (Young diagrams), many of them new. In particular, we provide the superpolynomial {P}_{{[ 1 ]}}^{{[ {m,km± 1} ]}} for arbitrary m and k. The procedure is not restricted to the fundamental (all antisymmetric) representations and the torus knots.
Magnetized plasma flow injection into tokamak and high-beta compact torus plasmas
Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Komoriya, Yuuki; Tazawa, Hiroyasu; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Steinhauer, Loren; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Onchi, Takumi; Hirose, Akira
2010-11-01
As an application of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), magnetic helicity injection via injection of a highly elongated compact torus (magnetized plasma flow: MPF) has been conducted on both tokamak and field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. The injected plasmoid has significant amounts of helicity and particle contents and has been proposed as a fueling and a current drive method for various torus systems. In the FRC, MPF is expected to generate partially spherical tokamak like FRC equilibrium by injecting a significant amount of magnetic helicity. As a circumstantial evidence of the modified equilibrium, suppressed rotational instability with toroidal mode number n = 2. MPF injection experiments have also been applied to the STOR-M tokamak as a start-up and current drive method. Differences in the responses of targets especially relation with beta value and the self-organization feature will be studied.
Conceptual study of advanced PWR core design
Kim, Young Jin; Chang, Moon Hee; Kim, Keung Ku; Joo, Hyung Kuk; Kim, Young Il; Noh, Jae Man; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Kim, Taek Kyum; Yoo, Yon Jong
1997-09-01
The purpose of this project is for developing and verifying the core design concepts with enhanced safety and economy, and associated methodologies for core analyses. From the study of the sate-of-art of foreign advanced reactor cores, we developed core concepts such as soluble boron free, high convertible and enhanced safety core loaded semi-tight lattice hexagonal fuel assemblies. To analyze this hexagonal core, we have developed and verified some neutronic and T/H analysis methodologies. HELIOS code was adopted as the assembly code and HEXFEM code was developed for hexagonal core analysis. Based on experimental data in hexagonal lattices and the COBRA-IV-I code, we developed a thermal-hydraulic analysis code for hexagonal lattices. Using the core analysis code systems developed in this project, we designed a 600 MWe core and studied the feasibility of the core concepts. Two additional scopes were performed in this project : study on the operational strategies of soluble boron free core and conceptual design of large scale passive core. By using the axial BP zoning concept and suitable design of control rods, this project showed that it was possible to design a soluble boron free core in 600 MWe PWR. The results of large scale core design showed that passive concepts and daily load follow operation could be practiced. (author). 15 refs., 52 tabs., 101 figs.
The narrow Fe K$\\alpha$ line and the molecular torus in active galactic nuclei - an IR/X-ray view
Ricci, Claudio; Ichikawa, Kohei; Paltani, Stephane; Boissay, Rozenn; Gandhi, Poshak; Stalevski, Marko; Awaki, Hisamitsu
2014-01-01
The narrow component of the iron K$\\alpha$ is an almost ubiquitous feature in the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and is believed to originate in neutral material, possibly located in the molecular torus. This would imply a tight connection between the Fe K$\\alpha$ equivalent width (EW) and the physical properties of the torus. In a recent work we have shown that the decrease of the covering factor of the torus with the luminosity, as expected by luminosity-dependent unification models, would be able to explain the decrease of Fe K$\\alpha$ EW with the luminosity (i.e., the X-ray Baldwin effect). Recent developments in the study of the mid-IR (MIR) spectrum of AGN allow important parameters of the torus to be deduced, such as its covering factor ($f_{\\rm\\,obs}$) and equatorial column density ($N_{\\rm\\,H}^{\\rm\\,T}$), by applying clumpy torus models. Using XMM-Newton/EPIC observations of a sample of 24 type-I AGN, we investigate the relation between the physical parameters of the torus obtained by ...
The impact of the dusty torus on obscured quasar halo mass measurements
DiPompeo, M. A.; Runnoe, J. C.; Hickox, R. C.; Myers, A. D.; Geach, J. E.
2016-07-01
Recent studies have found that obscured quasars cluster more strongly and are thus hosted by dark matter haloes of larger mass than their unobscured counterparts. These results pose a challenge for the simplest unification models, in which obscured objects are intrinsically the same as unobscured sources but seen through a dusty line of sight. There is general consensus that a structure like a `dusty torus' exists, meaning that this intrinsic similarity is likely the case for at least some subset of obscured quasars. However, the larger host halo masses of obscured quasars imply that there is a second obscured population that has an even higher clustering amplitude and typical halo mass. Here, we use simple assumptions about the host halo mass distributions of quasars, along with analytical methods and cosmological N-body simulations to isolate the signal from this population. We provide values for the bias and halo mass as a function of the fraction of the `non-torus-obscured' population. Adopting a reasonable value for this fraction of ˜25 per cent implies a non-torus-obscured-quasar bias that is much higher than the observed obscured quasar bias, because a large fraction of the obscured population shares the same clustering strength as the unobscured objects. For this non-torus-obscured population, we derive a bias of ˜3, and typical halo masses of ˜3 × 1013 M⊙ h-1 at z = 1. These massive haloes are likely the descendants of high-mass unobscured quasars at high redshift, and will evolve into members of galaxy groups at z = 0.
Survey of cogeneration: Advanced cogeneration research study
Slonski, M. L.
1983-01-01
The consumption of electricity, natural gas, or fuel oil was surveyed. The potential electricity that could be generated in the SCE service territory using cogeneration technology was estimated. It was found that an estimated 3700 MWe could potentially be generated in Southern California using cogenerated technology. It is suggested that current technology could provide 2600 MWe and advanced technology could provide 1100 MWe. Approximately 1600 MWt is considered not feasible to produce electricity with either current or advanced cogeneration technology.
Conceptual study on advanced PWR system
Bae, Yoon Young; Chang, M. H.; Yu, K. J.; Lee, D. J.; Cho, B. H.; Kim, H. Y.; Yoon, J. H.; Lee, Y. J.; Kim, J. P.; Park, C. T.; Seo, J. K.; Kang, H. S.; Kim, J. I.; Kim, Y. W.; Kim, Y. H.
1997-07-01
In this study, the adoptable essential technologies and reference design concept of the advanced reactor were developed and related basic experiments were performed. (1) Once-through Helical Steam Generator: a performance analysis computer code for heli-coiled steam generator was developed for thermal sizing of steam generator and determination of thermal-hydraulic parameters. (2) Self-pressurizing pressurizer : a performance analysis computer code for cold pressurizer was developed. (3) Control rod drive mechanism for fine control : type and function were surveyed. (4) CHF in passive PWR condition : development of the prediction model bundle CHF by introducing the correction factor from the data base. (5) Passive cooling concepts for concrete containment systems: development of the PCCS heat transfer coefficient. (6) Steam injector concepts: analysis and experiment were conducted. (7) Fluidic diode concepts : analysis and experiment were conducted. (8) Wet thermal insulator : tests for thin steel layers and assessment of materials. (9) Passive residual heat removal system : a performance analysis computer code for PRHRS was developed and the conformance to EPRI requirement was checked. (author). 18 refs., 55 tabs., 137 figs.
[Advances in the study of the nucleolus].
Feng, Jin-Mei; Sun, Jun; Wen, Jian-Fan
2012-12-01
As the most prominent sub-nuclear compartment in the interphase nucleus and the site of ribosome biogenesis, the nucleolus synthesizes and processes rRNA and also assembles ribosomal subunits. Though several lines of research in recent years have indicated that the nucleolus might have additional functions-such as the assembling of signal recognition particles, the processing of mRNA, tRNA and telomerase activities, and regulating the cell cycle-proteomic analyses of the nucleolus in three representative eukaryotic species has shown that a plethora of proteins either have no association with ribosome biogenesis or are of presently unknown function. This phenomenon further indicates that the composition and function of the nucleolus is far more complicated than previously thought. Meanwhile, the available nucleolar proteome databases has provided new approaches and led to remarkable progress in understanding the nucleolus. Here, we have summarized recent advances in the study of the nucleolus, including new discoveries of its structure, function, genomics/proteomics as well as its origin and evolution. Moreover, we highlight several of the important unresolved issues in this field.
Recent advances in human viruses imaging studies.
Florian, Paula Ecaterina; Rouillé, Yves; Ruta, Simona; Nichita, Norica; Roseanu, Anca
2016-06-01
Microscopy techniques are often exploited by virologists to investigate molecular details of critical steps in viruses' life cycles such as host cell recognition and entry, genome replication, intracellular trafficking, and release of mature virions. Fluorescence microscopy is the most attractive tool employed to detect intracellular localizations of various stages of the viral infection and monitor the pathogen-host interactions associated with them. Super-resolution microscopy techniques have overcome the technical limitations of conventional microscopy and offered new exciting insights into the formation and trafficking of human viruses. In addition, the development of state-of-the art electron microscopy techniques has become particularly important in studying virus morphogenesis by revealing ground-braking ultrastructural details of this process. This review provides recent advances in human viruses imaging in both, in vitro cell culture systems and in vivo, in the animal models recently developed. The newly available imaging technologies bring a major contribution to our understanding of virus pathogenesis and will become an important tool in early diagnosis of viral infection and the development of novel therapeutics to combat the disease.
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Spectroscopy
DiBartolo, Baldassare; Barnes, James (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This booklet presents an account of the course 'Spectroscopy of Systems with Spatially Confined Structures' held in Erice-Sicily, Italy, from June 15 to June 30, 2001. This meeting was organized by the International School of Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy of the 'Ettore Majorana' Centre for Scientific Culture. The purpose of this course was to present and discuss nanometer-scale physics, a rapidly progressing field. The top-down approach of semiconductor technology will soon meet the scales of the bottom-up approaches of supramolecular chemistry and of spatially localized excitations in ionic crystals. This course dealt with the fabrication, measurement and understanding of the relevant structures and brought together the scientific communities responsible for these development. The advances in this area of physics have already let to applications in optoelectronics and will likely lead to many more. The subjects of the course included spatially resolved structures such as quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots, single atoms and molecules, clusters, fractal systems, and the development of related techniques like near-field spectroscopy and confocal microscopy to study such systems.
Inayat-Hussain, Jawaid I. [School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, No. 2, Jalan Kolej, Bandar Sunway, 46150 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)]. E-mail: jawaid.inayat-hussain@eng.monash.edu.my
2007-02-15
This work reports on a numerical study undertaken to investigate the response of an imbalanced rigid rotor supported by active magnetic bearings. The mathematical model of the rotor-bearing system used in this study incorporates nonlinearity arising from the electromagnetic force-coil current-air gap relationship, and the effects of geometrical cross-coupling. The response of the rotor is observed to exhibit a rich variety of dynamical behavior including synchronous, sub-synchronous, quasi-periodic and chaotic vibrations. The transition from synchronous rotor response to chaos is via the torus breakdown route. As the rotor imbalance magnitude is increased, the synchronous rotor response undergoes a secondary Hopf bifurcation resulting in quasi-periodic vibration, which is characterized by a torus attractor. With further increase in the rotor imbalance magnitude, this attractor is seen to develop wrinkles and becomes unstable resulting in a fractal torus attractor. The fractal torus is eventually destroyed as the rotor imbalance magnitude is further increased. Quasi-periodic and frequency-locked sub-synchronous vibrations are seen to appear and disappear alternately before the emergence of chaos in the response of the rotor. The magnitude of rotor imbalance where sub-synchronous, quasi-periodic and chaotic vibrations are observed in this study, albeit being higher than the specified imbalance level for rotating machinery, may possibly occur due to a gradual degradation of the rotor balance quality during operation.
An approach to renormalization on the n-torus.
Rockmore, Daniel; Siegel, Ralph; Tongring, Nils; Tresser, Charles
1991-07-01
The coding theory of rotations (by inspecting closely their relation to flows) and the continued fractions algorithm (by considering even two-coloring of the integers with a given proportion of, say, blue and red) are revisited. Then, even n-coloring of the integers is defined. This allows one to code rotations on the (n-1)-torus by considering linear flows on the n-torus and yields a simple geometric approach to renormalization on tori by first return maps on the coding regions.
The CLAS12 Torus Detector Magnet at Jefferson Laboratory
Luongo, Cesar [Jefferson Lab; Ballard, Joshua [Jefferson Lab; Biallas, George [Jefferson Lab; Elouadrhiri, Latifa [Jefferson Lab; Fair, Ruben [Jefferson Lab; Ghoshal, Probir [Jefferson Lab; Kashy, Dave [Jefferson Lab; Legg, Robert [Jefferson Lab; Pastor, Orlando [Jefferson Lab; Rajput-Ghoshal, Renuka [Jefferson Lab; Rode, Claus [Jefferson Lab; Wiseman, Mark [Jefferson Lab; Young, Glenn [Jefferson Lab; Elementi, Luciano [Fermilab; Krave, Steven [Fermilab; Makarov, Alexander [Fermilab; Nobrega, Fred [Fermilab; Velev, George [Fermilab
2015-12-17
The CLAS12 Torus is a toroidal superconducting magnet, which is part of the detector for the 12-GeV accelerator upgrade at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The coils were wound/fabricated by Fermilab, with JLab responsible for all other parts of the project scope, including design, integration, cryostating the individual coils, installation, cryogenics, I&C, etc. This paper provides an overview of the CLAS12 Torus magnet features and serves as a status report of its installation in the experimental hall. Completion and commissioning of the magnet is expected in 2016.
Ideal magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium in a non-symmetric topological torus
Weitzner, Harold [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States)
2014-02-15
An alternative representation of an ideal magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium is developed. The representation is a variation of one given by A. Salat, Phys. Plasmas 2, 1652 (1995). The system of equations is used to study the possibility of non-symmetric equilibria in a topological torus, here an approximate rectangular parallelopiped, with periodicity in two of the three rectangular coordinates. An expansion is carried out in the deviation of pressure surfaces from planes. Resonances are manifest in the process. Nonetheless, provided the magnetic shear is small, it is shown that it is possible to select the magnetic fields and flux surfaces in such a manner that no singularities appear on resonant surfaces. One boundary surface of the parallelopiped is not arbitrary but is dependent on the equilibrium in question. A comparison of the solution sets of axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric equilibria suggests that the latter have a wider class of possible boundary shapes but more restrictive rotational transform profiles. No proof of convergence of the series is given.
Strike Point Control for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)
Kolemen, E.; Gates, D. A.; Rowley, C. W.; Kasdin, N. J.; Kallman, J.; Gerhardt, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Mueller, D.
2010-07-09
This paper presents the first control algorithm for the inner and outer strike point position for a Spherical Torus (ST) fusion experiment and the performance analysis of the controller. A liquid lithium divertor (LLD) will be installed on NSTX which is believed to provide better pumping than lithium coatings on carbon PFCs. The shape of the plasma dictates the pumping rate of the lithium by channeling the plasma to LLD, where strike point location is the most important shape parameter. Simulations show that the density reduction depends on the proximity of strike point to LLD. Experiments were performed to study the dynamics of the strike point, design a new controller to change the location of the strike point to desired location and stabilize it. The most effective PF coils in changing inner and outer strike points were identified using equilibrium code. The PF coil inputs were changed in a step fashion between various set points and the step response of the strike point position was obtained. From the analysis of the step responses, PID controllers for the strike points were obtained and the controller was tuned experimentally for better performance. The strike controller was extended to include the outer-strike point on the inner plate to accommodate the desired low outer-strike points for the experiment with the aim of achieving "snowflake" divertor configuration in NSTX.
Current drive experiments in the Helicity Injected Torus - II
Hamp, W. T.; Redd, A. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; O'Neill, R. G.; Raman, R.; Sieck, P. E.; Smith, R. J.; Mueller, D.
2006-10-01
The HIT-II spherical torus (ST) device has demonstrated four toroidal plasma current drive configurations to form and sustain a tokamak: 1) inductive (ohmic) current drive, 2) coaxial helicity injection (CHI) current drive, 3) CHI initiated plasmas with ohmic sustainment (CHI+OH), and 4) ohmically initiated plasmas with CHI edge current drive (OH+ECD). CHI discharges with a sufficiently high ratio of injector current to toroidal field current form a closed flux core, and amplify the injector poloidal flux through magnetic reconnection. CHI+OH plasmas are more robust than unassisted ohmic discharges, with a wider operating space and more efficient use of the transformer Volt-seconds. Finally, edge CHI can enhance the plasma current of an ohmic discharge without significantly degrading the quality of the discharge. Results will be presented for each HIT-II operating regime, including empirical performance scalings, applicable parametric operating spaces, and requirements to produce these discharges. Thomson scattering measurements and EFIT simulations are used to evaluate confinement in several representative plasmas. Finally, we outline extensions to the HIT-II CHI studies that could be performed with NSTX, SUNIST, or other ST devices.
From Canards of Folded Singularities to Torus Canards in a Forced van der Pol Equation
Burke, John; Desroches, Mathieu; Granados, Albert; Kaper, Tasso J.; Krupa, Martin; Vo, Theodore
2016-04-01
In this article, we study canard solutions of the forced van der Pol equation in the relaxation limit for low-, intermediate-, and high-frequency periodic forcing. A central numerical observation made herein is that there are two branches of canards in parameter space which extend across all positive forcing frequencies. In the low-frequency forcing regime, we demonstrate the existence of primary maximal canards induced by folded saddle nodes of type I and establish explicit formulas for the parameter values at which the primary maximal canards and their folds exist. Then, we turn to the intermediate- and high-frequency forcing regimes and show that the forced van der Pol possesses torus canards instead. These torus canards consist of long segments near families of attracting and repelling limit cycles of the fast system, in alternation. We also derive explicit formulas for the parameter values at which the maximal torus canards and their folds exist. Primary maximal canards and maximal torus canards correspond geometrically to the situation in which the persistent manifolds near the family of attracting limit cycles coincide to all orders with the persistent manifolds that lie near the family of repelling limit cycles. The formulas derived for the folds of maximal canards in all three frequency regimes turn out to be representations of a single formula in the appropriate parameter regimes, and this unification confirms the central numerical observation that the folds of the maximal canards created in the low-frequency regime continue directly into the folds of the maximal torus canards that exist in the intermediate- and high-frequency regimes. In addition, we study the secondary canards induced by the folded singularities in the low-frequency regime and find that the fold curves of the secondary canards turn around in the intermediate-frequency regime, instead of continuing into the high-frequency regime. Also, we identify the mechanism responsible for this
Quasiperiodicity and Torus Breakdown in a Power Electronic DC/DC Converter
Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai; Soukhoterin, Evgeniy; Mosekilde, Erik
2007-01-01
This paper discusses the mechanisms of torus formation and torus destruction in a dc/dc converter with relay control and hysteresis. We establish a chart of the dynamical modes in the input voltage versus load resistance parameter plane. This chart displays several different torus bifurcations...
Advancing the Theory of Nuclear Reactions with Rare Isotopes. From the Laboratory to the Cosmos
Nunes, Filomena [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
2015-06-01
The mission of the Topical Collaboration on the Theory of Reactions for Unstable iSotopes (TORUS) was to develop new methods to advance nuclear reaction theory for unstable isotopes—particularly the (d,p) reaction in which a deuteron, composed of a proton and a neutron, transfers its neutron to an unstable nucleus. After benchmarking the state-of-the-art theories, the TORUS collaboration found that there were no exact methods to study (d,p) reactions involving heavy targets; the difficulty arising from the long-range nature of the well known, yet subtle, Coulomb force. To overcome this challenge, the TORUS collaboration developed a new theory where the complexity of treating the long-range Coulomb interaction is shifted to the calculation of so-called form-factors. An efficient implementation for the computation of these form factors was a major achievement of the TORUS collaboration. All the new machinery developed are essential ingredients to analyse (d,p) reactions involving heavy nuclei relevant for astrophysics, energy production, and stockpile stewardship.
Juárez, Rafael, E-mail: rjuarez@ind.uned.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Pampin, Raul [F4E, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Levesy, Bruno [ITER Organization, 13115 Route de Vinon sur Verdon, St Paul Lez Durance (France); Moro, Fabio [ENEA, Via Enrico Fermi 45, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Suarez, Alejandro [ITER Organization, 13115 Route de Vinon sur Verdon, St Paul Lez Durance (France); Sanz, Javier [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain)
2015-11-15
Shutdown dose rates for planned maintenance purposes is an active research field in ITER. In this work the radiation (neutron and gamma) cross-talk between ports in the most conservative case foreseen in ITER is investigated: the presence of a torus cryopump lower port, mostly empty for pumping efficiency reasons. There will be six of those ports: #4, #6, #10, #12, #16 and #18. The equatorial ports placed above them will receive a significant amount of additional radiation affecting the shutdown dose rates during in situ maintenance activities inside the cryostat, and particularly in the port interspace area. In this study a general situation to all the equatorial ports placed above torus cryopump lower ports is considered: a generic diagnostics equatorial port placed above the torus cryopump lower port (LP#4). In terms of shutdown dose rates at equatorial port interspace after 10{sup 6} s of cooling time, 405 μSv/h has been obtained, of which 160 μSv/h (40%) are exclusively due to radiation cross-talk from a torus cryopump lower port. Equatorial port activation due to only “local neutrons” contributes 166 μSv/h at port interspace, showing that radiation cross-talk from such a lower port is a phenomenon comparable in magnitude to the neutron leakage though the equatorial port plug.
Pro-Torus Actions on Poincaré Duality Spaces
Ali Özkurt; Doğan Dönmez
2006-08-01
In this paper, it is shown that some of the results of torus actions on Poincaré duality spaces, Borel’s dimension formula and topological splitting principle to local weights, hold if `torus’ is replaced by `pro-torus’.
Recursive representation of the torus 1-point conformal block
Hadasz, Leszek; Suchanek, Paulina
2009-01-01
The recursive relation for the 1-point conformal block on a torus is derived and used to prove the identities between conformal blocks recently conjectured by R. Poghossian. As an illustration of the efficiency of the recurrence method the modular invariance of the 1-point Liouville correlation function is numerically analyzed.
Photodisintegration of a Bound State on the Torus
Meyer, Harvey B
2012-01-01
In this article the cross-section for the photodisintegration of a bound state is expressed, order by order in the multipole expansion, in terms of matrix elements between states living on the three-dimensional torus. The motivation is to make the process amenable to Monte-Carlo simulations. The case of the deuteron is discussed.
On projections in the noncommutative 2-torus algebra
Eckstein, Michał
2011-01-01
We investigate a set of functional equations defining an arbitrary projection in the noncommutative 2-torus algebra A_{\\theta}. The exact solutions of those provide various generalisations of the Power-Rieffel projection. By identifying the corresponding K_0 classes we get an insight into the general structure of projections in A_{\\theta}.
On Projections in the Noncommutative 2-Torus Algebra
Eckstein, Michał
2014-03-01
We investigate a set of functional equations defining a projection in the noncommutative 2-torus algebra A_{θ}. The exact solutions of these provide various generalisations of the Powers-Rieffel projection. By identifying the corresponding K_0(A_{θ}) classes we get an insight into the structure of projections in A_{θ}.
Complete spectral data for analytic Anosov maps of the torus
Slipantschuk, J.; Bandtlow, O. F.; Just, W.
2017-07-01
Using analytic properties of Blaschke factors we construct a family of analytic hyperbolic diffeomorphisms of the torus for which the spectra of the associated transfer operator acting on a suitable Hilbert space can be computed explicitly. As a result, we obtain expressions for the decay of correlations of analytic observables without resorting to any kind of perturbation argument.
Atomic force microscopy of torus-bearing pit membranes
Roland R. Dute; Thomas Elder
2011-01-01
Atomic force microscopy was used to compare the structures of dried, torus-bearing pit membranes from four woody species, three angiosperms and one gymnosperm. Tori of Osmanthus armatus are bipartite consisting of a pustular zone overlying parallel sets of microfibrils that form a peripheral corona. Microfibrils of the corona form radial spokes as they traverse the...
Io Plasma Torus Ion Composition: Voyager, Galileo, Cassini
Bagenal, Fran; Nerney, Edward; Steffl, Andrew Joseph
2016-10-01
With JAXA's Hisaki spacecraft in orbit around Earth gathering information on the Io plasma torus and NASA's Juno mission measuring plasma conditions in the jovian magnetosphere, the time is ripe for a re-evaluation of earlier observations of the plasma torus to assess evidence for temporal variations. In particular, we are interested in exploring the ion composition of the torus and whether there is evidence of the ultimate source – the volcanic gases from Io – have deviated from SO2. We use the latest CHIANTI 8.0 atomic database to analyze UV spectra of the torus from Voyager, Galileo and Cassini as well as with the physical chemistry model of Delamere, Steffl and Bagenal (2005). We find that contrary to earlier analyses of Voyager data (e.g. Shemansky 1987; 1988) that produced a composition requiring a neutral source of O/S~4, we find an ion composition that is consistent with the Cassini UVIS data (Steffl et al. 2004) and a neutral O/S~2, consistent with SO2.
Advanced nuclear systems. Review study; Fortgeschrittene Nuklearsysteme. Review Study
Liebert, Wolfgang; Glaser, Alexander; Pistner, Christoph [Interdisziplinaere Arbeitsgruppe Naturwissenschaft, Technik und Sicherheit (IANUS), Darmstadt University of Technology, Hochschulstrasse 10, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Baehr, Roland; Hahn, Lothar [Institute for applied ecology (Oeko-Institut), Elisabethenstrasse 55-57, D-64283 Darmstadt (Germany)
1999-04-01
The task of this review study is to from provide an overview of the developments in the field of the various advanced nuclear systems, and to create the basis for more comprehensive studies of technology assessment. In an overview the concepts for advanced nuclear systems pursued worldwide are subdivided into eight subgroups. A coarse examination raster (set pattern) is developed to enable a detailed examination of the selected systems. In addition to a focus on enhanced safety features, further aspects are also taken into consideration, like the lowering of the proliferation risk, the enhancement of the economic competitiveness of the facilities and new usage possibilities (for instance concerning the relaxation of the waste disposal problem or the usage of alternative fuels to uranium). The question about the expected time span for realization and the discussion about the obstacles on the way to a commercially usable reactor also play a substantial role as well as disposal requirements as far as they can be presently recognized. In the central chapter of this study, the documentation of the representatively selected concepts is evaluated as well as existing technology assessment studies and expert opinions. In a few cases where this appears to be necessary, according technical literature, further policy advisory reports, expert statements as well as other relevant sources are taken into account. Contradictions, different assessments and dissents in the literature as well as a few unsettled questions are thus indicated. The potential of advanced nuclear systems with respect to economical and societal as well as environmental objectives cannot exclusively be measured by the corresponding intrinsic or in comparison remarkable technical improvements. The acceptability of novel or improved systems in nuclear technology will have to be judged by their convincing solutions for the crucial questions of safety, nuclear waste and risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons
Study of IMT-advanced heterogeneous network
Qin Fei; Peng Ying; Sun Shaohui; Wang Yingmin
2011-01-01
Referring to research on the Heterogeneous Network （Het-Net） application scenario and technique characters in IMT-Advaneed （The 4th Generation Mobile Communications） cellular system, this paper provides further analysis on main technique aspects of Heterogeneous Network, discussion on interference issue due to multi-layer building by access points and their corresponding solutions from standardization and engineering implementation. The proposed solution can effectively solve the interference problem in IMT-advanced Het-Net, and also improves the networking performance dramaticaUy for future mobile communication systems.
Advanced General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE) study
Smith, R.; Benstein, E. H.
1979-01-01
The small engine technology requirements suitable for general aviation service in the 1987 to 1988 time frame were defined. The market analysis showed potential United States engines sales of 31,500 per year providing that the turbine engine sales price approaches current reciprocating engine prices. An optimum engine design was prepared for four categories of fixed wing aircraft and for rotary wing applications. A common core approach was derived from the optimum engines that maximizes engine commonality over the power spectrum with a projected price competitive with reciprocating piston engines. The advanced technology features reduced engine cost, approximately 50 percent compared with current technology.
Recent advances in the study of the Equivariant Brauer Group
Bouwknegt, Peter; Ratnam, Rishni
2011-01-01
In this paper we outline a recent construction of a Chern-Weil isomorphism for the equivariant Brauer group of $\\mathbb R^n$ actions on a principal torus bundle, where the target for this isomorphism is a "dimensionally reduced" \\vCech cohomology group. Using this latter group, we demonstrate how to extend the induced algebra construction to algebras with a non-trivial bundle as their spectrum.
Skills Required for Nursing Career Advancement: A Qualitative Study
Sheikhi
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Background Nurses require certain skills for progression in their field. Identifying these skills can provide the context for nursing career advancement. Objectives This study aimed to identify the skills needed for nurses’ career advancement. Materials and Methods A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted to study a purposive sample of eighteen nurses working in teaching hospitals affiliated with the Qazvin, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using conventional content analysis. Results The three themes extracted from the data included interpersonal capabilities, competency for career success, and personal capacities. The results showed that acquiring a variety of skills is essential for career advancement. Conclusions The findings showed that personal, interpersonal, and functional skills can facilitate nurses’ career advancement. The effects of these skills on career advancement depend on a variety of conditions that require further studies.
Coincidence Properties for Maps from the Torus to the Klein Bottle
Daciberg L. GON(C)ALVES; Michael R. KELLY
2008-01-01
The authors study the coincidence theory for pairs of maps from the Torus to the Klein bottle. Reidemeister classes and the Nielsen number are computed, and it is shown that any given pair of maps satisfies the Wecken property. The 1-parameter Wecken property is studied and a partial negative answer is derived. That is for all pairs of coincidence free maps a countable family of pairs of maps in the homotopy class is constructed such that no two members may be joined by a coincidence free homotopy.
Kroll, Juidith A.
2012-01-01
The inaugural Advancement Investment Metrics Study, or AIMS, benchmarked investments and staffing in each of the advancement disciplines (advancement services, alumni relations, communications and marketing, fundraising and advancement management) as well as the return on the investment in fundraising specifically. This white paper reports on the…
Advanced Burner Reactor Preliminary NEPA Data Study.
Briggs, L. L.; Cahalan, J. E.; Deitrich, L. W.; Fanning, T. H.; Grandy, C.; Kellogg, R.; Kim, T. K.; Yang, W. S.; Nuclear Engineering Division
2007-10-15
The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is a new nuclear fuel cycle paradigm with the goals of expanding the use of nuclear power both domestically and internationally, addressing nuclear waste management concerns, and promoting nonproliferation. A key aspect of this program is fast reactor transmutation, in which transuranics recovered from light water reactor spent fuel are to be recycled to create fast reactor transmutation fuels. The benefits of these fuels are to be demonstrated in an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), which will provide a representative environment for recycle fuel testing, safety testing, and modern fast reactor design and safeguard features. Because the GNEP programs will require facilities which may have an impact upon the environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), preparation of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for GNEP is being undertaken by Tetra Tech, Inc. The PEIS will include a section on the ABR. In support of the PEIS, the Nuclear Engineering Division of Argonne National Laboratory has been asked to provide a description of the ABR alternative, including graphics, plus estimates of construction and operations data for an ABR plant. The compilation of this information is presented in the remainder of this report. Currently, DOE has started the process of engaging industry on the design of an Advanced Burner Reactor. Therefore, there is no specific, current, vendor-produced ABR design that could be used for this PEIS datacall package. In addition, candidate sites for the ABR vary widely as to available water, geography, etc. Therefore, ANL has based its estimates for construction and operations data largely on generalization of available information from existing plants and from the environmental report assembled for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design [CRBRP, 1977]. The CRBRP environmental report was chosen as a resource because it thoroughly
Direct torus venting analysis for Chinshan BWR-4 plant with MARK-I containment
Yuann, Yng-Ruey, E-mail: ryyuann@iner.gov.tw
2017-03-15
Highlights: • Study the effectiveness of Direct Torus Venting System (DTVS) during extended SBO of 24 h for Chinshan MARK-I plant. • Containment response is analyzed by GOTHIC based on boundary conditions from RETRAN calculation. • Analyses are performed with and without DTVS, respectively. • Suppression pool is sub-divided and thermal stratification is observed. - Abstract: The Chinshan plant, owned by Taiwan Power Company, has twin units of BWR-4 reactor and MARK-I containment. Both units have been operating at rated core thermal power of 1840 MWt. The existing Direct Torus Venting System (DTVS) is the main system used for venting the containment during the extended station blackout event. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of the DTVS venting on the response of the containment pressure and temperature. The reactor is depressurized by manually opening the safety relief valves (SRVs) during the SBO, which causes the mass and energy to be discharged into and heat up the suppression pool. The RETRAN model is used to calculate the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) response and generate the SRV blowdown conditions, including SRV pressure, enthalpy, and mass flow rate. These conditions are then used as the time-dependent boundary conditions for the GOTHIC code to calculate the containment pressure and temperature response. The DTVS model is established in the GOTHIC model based on the venting size, venting piping loss, venting initiation time, and venting source. The lumped volume model, 1-D coarse-mesh model, and 3-D coarse-mesh model are considered in the torus volume. The calculation is first done without DTVS venting to establish a reference basis. Then a case with DTVS available is performed. Comparison of the two cases shows that the existing DTVS design is effective in mitigating the severity of the containment pressure and temperature transients. The results also show that the 1-D coarse-mesh model may not be appropriate since a
The Gauss-Bonnet Theorem for the noncommutative two torus
Connes, Alain
2009-01-01
In this paper we show that the value at zero of the zeta function of the Laplacian on the non-commutative two torus, endowed with its canonical conformal structure, is independent of the choice of the volume element (Weyl factor) given by a (non-unimodular) state. We had obtained, in the late eighties, in an unpublished computation, a general formula for this value at zero involving modified logarithms of the modular operator of the state. We give here the detailed computation and prove that the result is independent of the Weyl factor as in the classical case, thus proving the analogue of the Gauss-Bonnet theorem for the noncommutative two torus.
Fukaya categories of the torus and Dehn surgery.
Lekili, Yanki; Perutz, Timothy
2011-05-17
This paper is a companion to the authors' forthcoming work extending Heegaard Floer theory from closed 3-manifolds to compact 3-manifolds with two boundary components via quilted Floer cohomology. We describe the first interesting case of this theory: the invariants of 3-manifolds bounding S(2) [symbol: see text] T(2), regarded as modules over the Fukaya category of the punctured 2-torus. We extract a short proof of exactness of the Dehn surgery triangle in Heegaard Floer homology. We show that A(∞)-structures on the graded algebra A formed by the cohomology of two basic objects in the Fukaya category of the punctured 2-torus are governed by just two parameters (m(6), m(8)), extracted from the Hochschild cohomology of A. For the Fukaya category itself, m(6) ≠ 0.
Combinatorial realizations of crystals via torus actions on quiver varieties
Sam, Steven V
2012-01-01
Consider Kashiwara's crystal associated to a highest weight representation of a symmetric Kac--Moody algebra. There is a geometric realization of this object using Nakajima's quiver varieties. In many particular cases it can also be realized by elementary combinatorial methods. Here we propose a framework for extracting combinatorial realizations from the geometric picture: we construct certain torus actions on the quiver varieties and use Morse theory to index the irreducible components by connected components of the subvariety of torus fixed points. We then discuss the case of affine sl(n). There the fixed point components are just points, and are naturally indexed by multi-partitions. There is some choice in our construction, leading to a family of combinatorial realizations for each highest weight crystal. In the case of the crystal of the fundamental representation we recover a family of realizations which was recently constructed by Fayers. This gives a more conceptual proof of Fayers' result as well as...
A Riemann-Roch theorem for the noncommutative two torus
Khalkhali, Masoud; Moatadelro, Ali
2014-12-01
We prove the analogue of the Riemann-Roch formula for the noncommutative two torus Aθ = C(Tθ2)equipped with an arbitrary translation invariant complex structure and a Weyl factor represented by a positive element k ∈C∞(Tθ2). We consider a topologically trivial line bundle equipped with a general holomorphic structure and the corresponding twisted Dolbeault Laplacians. We define a spectral triple (Aθ , H , D) that encodes the twisted Dolbeault complex of Aθ and whose index gives the left hand side of the Riemann-Roch formula. Using Connes' pseudodifferential calculus and heat equation techniques, we explicitly compute the b2 terms of the asymptotic expansion of Tr(e-tD2) . We find that the curvature term on the right hand side of the Riemann-Roch formula coincides with the scalar curvature of the noncommutative torus recently defined and computed in Connes and Moscovici (2014) and independently computed in Fathizadeh and Khalkhali (2014).
Fuzzy Torus and q-Deformed Lie Algebra
Nakayama, R
2006-01-01
It will be shown that the defining relations for fuzzy torus and deformed (squashed) sphere proposed by J. Arnlind, et al (hep-th/0602290) can be rewriten as a new algebra which contains q-deformed commutators. The quantum parameter q (|q|=1) is a function of \\hbar. It is shown that the q --> 1 limit of the algebra with the parameter \\mu <0 describes fuzzy S^2 and that the squashed S^2 with q \
Exact solution of an su(n) spin torus
Hao, Kun; Li, Guang-Liang; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng
2016-01-01
The trigonometric su(n) spin chain with anti-periodic boundary condition (su(n) spin torus) is demonstrated to be Yang-Baxter integrable. Based on some intrinsic properties of the R-matrix, certain operator product identities of the transfer matrix are derived. These identities and the asymptotic behavior of the transfer matrix together allow us to obtain the exact eigenvalues in terms of an inhomogeneous T-Q relation via the off-diagonal Bethe Ansatz.
Exact solution of an su(n) spin torus
Hao, Kun; Cao, Junpeng; Li, Guang-Liang; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng
2016-07-01
The trigonometric su(n) spin chain with anti-periodic boundary condition (su(n) spin torus) is demonstrated to be Yang-Baxter integrable. Based on some intrinsic properties of the R-matrix, certain operator product identities of the transfer matrix are derived. These identities and the asymptotic behavior of the transfer matrix together allow us to obtain the exact eigenvalues in terms of an inhomogeneous T - Q relation via the off-diagonal Bethe Ansatz.
Gastric pseudo-ulcers: membrana angularis and pyloric torus defects.
Peavy, P W; Clements, J L; Weens, H S
1975-03-01
The membrana angularis and pyloric torus defects are two physiologic bulges which can simulate ulcerations along the lesser curvature of the stomach. The muscular anatomy of the stomach and the mechanism which produces these pseudo-ulcers are discussed. Both pseudoniches can be seen transiently in normal individuals but occasionally are such prominence as to become diagnostic pitfalls. The features and significance of each pseudo-ulcer are reviewed in an attempt to facilitate recognition on the upper gastrointestinal barium examination.
Gauge Fields on Torus and Partition Function of Strings
Nakamula, Atsushi
2014-01-01
In this paper we consider the interrelation between compactified string theories on torus and gauge fields on it. We start from open string theories with background gauge fields and derive partition functions by path integral. Since the effects of background fields and compactification correlate only through string zero modes, we investigate these zero modes. From this point of view, we discuss the Wilson loop mechanism at finite temperature. For the closed string, only a few comments are mentioned.
Torsion Points on an Algebraic Subset of an Affine Torus
Hironaka, E
1996-01-01
Work of Laurent and Sarnak, following a conjecture of Lang, shows that the number of torsion points of order n on an algebraic subset of an affine complex torus is polynomial periodic. In this paper, we find bounds on the degree and period of this number as a function of n. Some examples, including the number of n torsion points on Fermat curves, are computed to illustrate the methods.
The torus and the Klein Bottle amplitude of permutation orbifolds
Kadar, Z
2000-01-01
The torus and the Klein bottle amplitude coefficients are computed in permutation orbifolds of RCFT-s in terms of the same quantities in the original theory and the twist group. An explicit expression is presented for the number of self conjugate primaries in the orbifold as a polynomial of the total number of primaries and the number of self conjugate ones in the parent theory. The formulae in the $Z_2$ orbifold illustrate the general results.
Io plasma torus ion composition: Voyager, Galileo, and Cassini
Nerney, Edward G.; Bagenal, Fran; Steffl, Andrew J.
2017-01-01
The Io torus produces ultraviolet emissions diagnostic of plasma conditions. We revisit data sets obtained by the Voyager 1, Galileo, and Cassini missions at Jupiter. With the latest version (8.0) of the CHIANTI atomic database we analyze UV spectra to determine ion composition. We compare ion composition obtained from observations from these three missions with a theoretical model of the physical chemistry of the torus by Delamere et al. (2005). We find ion abundances from the Voyager data similar to the Cassini epoch, consistent with the dissociation and ionization of SO2, but with a slightly higher average ionization state for sulfur, consistent with the higher electron temperature measured by Voyager. This reanalysis of the Voyager data produces a much lower oxygen:sulfur ratio than earlier analysis by Shemansky (1988), which was also reported by Bagenal (1994). We derive fractional ion compositions in the center of the torus to be S+/Ne 5%, S++/Ne 20%, S+++/Ne 5%, O+/Ne 20%, O++/Ne 3%, and Σ(On+)/Σ(Sn+) 0.8, leaving about 10-15% of the charge as protons. The radial profile of ion composition indicates a slightly higher average ionization state, a modest loss of sulfur relative to oxygen, and Σ(On+)/Σ(Sn+) 1.2 at about 8 RJ, beyond which the composition is basically frozen in. The Galileo observations of UV emissions from the torus suggest that the composition in June 1996 may have comprised a lower abundance of oxygen than usual, consistent with observations made at the same time by the EUVE satellite.
Gauge Theory of the Generalized Symmetry on the Torus Membrane
ZHAO WeiZhong; WANG Hong; ZHANG Jun
2001-01-01
The SDIFF(T2)local-generalized Kac-Moody G(T2) symmetry is an infinite-dimensional group on the torus membrane, whose Lie algebra is the semi-direct sum of the SDIFF(T2)local algebra and the generalized KacMoody algebra g(T2). In this paper, we construct the linearly realized gauge theory of the SDIFF(T2)loc1al-generalized Kac-Moody G(T2) symmetry.``
Drug Extends Lives of Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer: Studies
... for all the advanced prostate cancer patients, James said. "We think this is one of the biggest survival gains ever reported in a trial in adults with solid tumor," he said. Both studies reported side effects in abiraterone similar ...
Advances in Sleep Studies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine
... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Advances in Sleep Studies Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table ... waste products that contribute to the risk of Alzheimer's and other neurological disorders. New evidence indicates that ...
Growth And Characterization Studies Of Advanced Infrared Heterostructures
2015-06-30
AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0126 AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0126 GROWTH AND CHARACTERIZATION STUDIES OF ADVANCED INFRARED HETEROSTRUCTURES Sanjay Krishna...To) 15 Feb 2013 – 09 May 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Growth And Characterization Studies Of Advanced Infrared Heterostructures 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...DISCUSSION After growth , the epitaxial wafers were characterized by x-ray diffraction to monitor crystal quality and layer thicknesses. The
Cosmos, an international center for advanced studies
Ryzhov, Iurii; Alifanov, Oleg; Sadin, Stanley; Coleman, Paul
1990-01-01
The concept of Cosmos, a Soviet operating center for aerospace activities, is presented. The main Cosmos participants are the Institute for Aerospace Education, the Institute for Research and Commercial Development, and the Department of Space Policy and Socio-Economic Studies. Cosmos sponsors a number of educational programs, basic research, and studies of the social impact of space-related technologies.
Recent advances in the study of electroreception.
Heiligenberg, W
1991-08-01
Recent studies on electroreception in fish have focused on the structure and function of recurrent descending pathways, efference copy mechanisms, and multiple neuronal maps involved in the processing of sensory information. Studies on a neuronal oscillator have revealed that different neuronal inputs modulate the pattern of oscillations to produce different forms of behavioral output.
Advanced Hydraulic Studies on Enhancing Particle Removal
He, Cheng
The removal of suspended solids and attached pollutants is one of the main treatment processes in wastewater treatment. This thesis presents studies on the hydraulic conditions of various particle removal facilities for possible ways to increase their treatment capacity and performance by utilizing...... and improving hydraulic conditions. Unlike most traditional theses which usually focus only on one particular subject of study, this thesis contains four relatively independent studies which cover the following topics: a newly proposed particle settling enhancement plate, the redesign of the inlet zone......, introduction and conclusions as well as the study results. All studies were carried out with a combination of numerical model and measurements. In the first part of the thesis a new concept of using a vortex to increase particle removal from liquid was proposed and the new particle settling enhancement plates...
Advances in phylogenetic studies of Nematoda
无
2002-01-01
Nematoda is a metazoan group with extremely high diversity only next to Insecta. Caenorhabditis elegans is now a favorable experimental model animal in modern developmental biology, genetics and genomics studies. However, the phylogeny of Nematoda and the phylogenetic position of the phylum within animal kingdom have long been in debate. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies gave great challenges to the traditional nematode classification. The new phylogenies not only placed the Nematoda in the Ecdysozoan and divided the phylum into five clades, but also provided new insights into animal molecular identification and phylogenetic biodiversity studies. The present paper reviews major progress and remaining problems in the current molecular phylogenetic studies of Nematoda, and prospects the developmental tendencies of this field.
Pre-Flight Advanced Clothing Study
Orndoff, Evelyne; Poritz, Darwin; Schlesinger, Thilini; Byme, Vicky
2014-01-01
All human space missions require significant logistical mass and volume that will become an excessive burden for long duration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The current International Space Station (ISS) crew wardrobe has already evolved not only to reduce some of the logistical burden but also to address crew preference. The present study was undertaken to find ways further to reduce this logistical burden while examining human response to different types of clothes. The primary objective of the study is to measure how long people can wear the same exercise garment, depending on the type of fabric and the presence of antimicrobial treatment. The secondary objective is to assess the reasons for length of wear from perceptions of clothing characteristics, including nine ordinal scales. Cardiovascular exercise was chosen as the activity in this experiment for its profuse sweating effect and because it is considered a more severe treatment applied to the clothes than every-day usage. Study garments were exercise T-shirts and shorts purchased from various vendors. Fabric construction, fabric composition, and finishing treatment were defined as the key variables. A web-based questionnaire was used for self-reported data collection. The study was divided in three balanced experiments: a cotton-polyester-wool (CPW) T-shirts study with 61 participants, a polyester-modacrylic-polyester/cocona (PMC) T-shirts study with 40 participants, and a shorts study with 70 participants. In the CPW study, the T-shirts were made of 100% cotton, or of 100% polyester or of 100% wool, and categorized into open and tight knit constructions. In the PMC study, the T-shirts were made of 100% polyester, or of 82% modacrylic, or of 95% polyester with 5% cocona fiber, without construction distinction. The shorts were made either of 100% cotton or of 100% polyester, and were knitted or woven. Some garments were treated with Bio-Protect 500 antimicrobial finish according the experimental design
Advanced Multiple Processor Configuration Study. Final Report.
Clymer, S. J.
This summary of a study on multiple processor configurations includes the objectives, background, approach, and results of research undertaken to provide the Air Force with a generalized model of computer processor combinations for use in the evaluation of proposed flight training simulator computational designs. An analysis of a real-time flight…
Initial assessments of ignition spherical torus
Peng, Y.K.M.; Borowski, S.K.; Bussell, G.T.; Dalton, G.R.; Gorker, G.E.; Haines, J.R.; Hamilton, W.R.; Kalsi, S.S.; Lee, V.D.; Miller, J.B.
1985-12-01
Initial assessments of ignition spherical tori suggest that they can be highly cost effective and exceptionally small in unit size. Assuming advanced methods of current drive to ramp up the plasma current (e.g., via lower hybrid wave at modest plasma densities and temperatures), the inductive solenoid can largely be eliminated. Given the uncertainties in plasma energy confinement times and the effects of strong paramagnetism on plasma pressure, and allowing for the possible use of high-strength copper alloys (e.g., C-17510, Cu-Ni-Be alloy), ignition spherical tori with a 50-s burn are estimated to have major radii ranging from 1.0 to 1.6 m, aspect ratios from 1.4 to 1.7, vacuum toroidal fields from 2 to 3 T, plasma currents from 10 to 19 MA, and fusion power from 50 to 300 MW. Because of its modest field strength and simple poloidal field coil configuration, only conventional engineering approaches are needed in the design. A free-standing toroidal field coil/vacuum vessel structure is assessed to be feasible and relatively independent of the shield structure and the poloidal field coils. This exceptionally simple configuration depends significantly, however, on practical fabrication approaches of the center conductor post, about which there is presently little experience. 19 refs.
Effects of Air Drag and Lunar Third-Body Perturbations on Motion Near a Reference KAM Torus
2011-03-01
δz difference in z coordinate, between reference torus and perturbed motion states H hamiltonian L lagrangian µ gravitational parameter µ3...velocities, L is the Lagrangian , and H is the Hamiltonian . The Lagrangian is calculated by subtracting a system’s potential energy from a term representing...Introduction Though ancient peoples have been watching the nighttime sky for millennia, the study of orbital mechanics as we know it began with such giants as
Advanced studies on human gene ZNF322
LI Yongqing; WANG Yuequn; YUAN Wuzhou; DENG Yun; ZHU Chuanbing; WU Xiushan
2007-01-01
The human novel gene of ZNF322 is cloned from human fetal eDNA library using the primers on the basis of the ZNF322 sequence analyzed with computer.The gene is located on Chromosome 6p22.1,and encodes a protein consisting of 402 amino acid residues and containing nine tandem C2H2-type zinc-finger motifs.Northern blot result shows that the gene is expressed in all examined adult tissues.Subcellular location study indicates that ZNF322-EGFP fusion protein is distributed in the nucleus and cytoplasm.Reporter gene assays show that ZNF322 is a potential transcriptional activator.
System identification advances and case studies
Mehra, Raman K
1976-01-01
In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat
Recent Advances in the Studies on Luotonins
Yurngdong Jahng
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Luotonins are alkaloids from the aerial parts of Peganum nigellastrum Bunge. that display three major skeleton types. Luotonins A, B, and E are pyrroloquinazolino-quinoline alkaloids, luotonins C and D are canthin-6-one alkaloids, and luotonin F is a 4(3H-quinazolinone alkaloid. All six luotonins have shown promising cytotoxicities towards selected human cancer cell lines, especially against leukemia P-388 cells. Luotonin A is the most active one, with its activity stemming from topoisomerase I-dependent DNA-cleavage. Such intriguing biological activities and unique structures have led not only to the development of synthetic methods for the efficient synthesis of these compounds, but also to interest in structural modifications for improving the biological properties. Recent progress in the study of luotonins is covered.
The Lack of Torus Emission from BL Lacertae Objects: An Infrared View of Unification with WISE
Plotkin, Richard M; Brandt, W N; Markoff, Sera; Shemmer, Ohad; Wu, Jianfeng
2011-01-01
We use data from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to perform a statistical study on the mid-infrared (IR) properties of a large number ($\\sim10^2$) of BL Lac objects --- low-luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) with a jet beamed toward the Earth. As expected, many BL Lac objects are so highly beamed that their jet synchrotron emission dominates their IR spectral energy distributions. In other BL Lac objects, however, the jet is not strong enough to completely dilute the rest of the AGN emission. We do not see observational signatures of the dusty torus from these weakly beamed BL Lac objects. The lack of observable torus emission is consistent with suggestions that BL Lac objects are fed by radiatively inefficient accretion disks. Implications for the "nature vs. nurture" debate for FR I and FR II radio galaxies are briefly discussed. Our study supports the notion that, beyond orientation, accretion rate plays an important role in AGN unification.
Topological order and Berry connection for the Maxwell Vacuum on a four-torus
Zhitnitsky, Ariel
2014-01-01
We study novel type of contributions to the partition function of the Maxwell system defined on a small compact manifold such as torus. These new terms can not be described in terms of the physical propagating photons with two transverse polarizations. Rather, these novel contributions emerge as a result of tunnelling events when transitions occur between topologically different but physically identical vacuum winding states. These new terms give an extra contribution to the Casimir pressure. The infrared physics in the system can be described in terms of the topological auxiliary non-propagating fields $a_i(\\mathbf{k})$ governed by Chern-Simons -like action. The system can be studied in terms of these auxiliary fields precisely in the same way as a topological insulator can be analyzed in terms of Berry's connection ${\\cal{A}}_i(\\mathbf{k})$. We also argue that the Maxwell vacuum defined on a small 4-torus behaves very much in the same way as a topological insulator with $\\theta\
X-Ray Probes of Jupiter's Auroral Zones, Galilean Moons, and the Io Plasma Torus
Elsner, R. F.; Ramsey, B. D.; Swartz, D. A.; Rehak, P.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Cooper, J. F.; Johnson, R. E.
2005-01-01
Remote observations from the Earth orbiting Chandra X-ray Observatory and the XMM-Newton Observatory have shown the the Jovian system is a rich and complex source of x-ray emission. The planet's auroral zones and its disk are powerful sources of x-ray emission, though with different origins. Chandra observations discovered x-ray emission from the Io plasma torus and from the Galilean moons Io, Europa, and possibly Ganymede. The emission from the moons is due to bombardment of their surfaces by highly energetic magnetospheric protons, and oxygen and sulfur ions, producing fluorescent x-ray emission lines from the elements in their surfaces against an intense background continuum. Although very faint when observed from Earth orbit, an imaging x-ray spectrometer in orbit around the icy Galilean moons would provide a detail mapping of the elemental composition in their surfaces. Here we review the results of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the Jovian system and describe the characteristics of X-MIME, an imaging x-ray spectrometer undergoing study for possible application to future missions to Jupiter such as JIMO. X-MIME has the ultimate goal of providing detailed high-resolution maps of the elemental abundances of the surfaces of Jupiter's icy moons and Io, as well as detailed study of the x-ray mission from the Io plasma torus, Jupiter's auroral zones, and the planetary disk.
The Geometry of the Semiclassical Wave Front Set for Schrödinger Eigenfunctions on the Torus
Cardin, Franco, E-mail: cardin@math.unipd.it; Zanelli, Lorenzo, E-mail: lzanelli@math.unipd.it [University of Padova, Department of Mathematics “Tullio Levi Civita” (Italy)
2017-06-15
This paper deals with the phase space analysis for a family of Schrödinger eigenfunctions ψ{sub ℏ} on the flat torus #Mathematical Double-Struck Capital T#{sup n} = (ℝ/2πℤ){sup n} by the semiclassical Wave Front Set. We study those ψ{sub ℏ} such that WF{sub ℏ}(ψ{sub ℏ}) is contained in the graph of the gradient of some viscosity solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. It turns out that the semiclassical Wave Front Set of such Schrödinger eigenfunctions is stable under viscous perturbations of Mean Field Game kind. These results provide a further viewpoint, and in a wider setting, of the link between the smooth invariant tori of Liouville integrable Hamiltonian systems and the semiclassical localization of Schrödinger eigenfunctions on the torus.
Study and Implementation of Advanced Neuroergonomic Techniques
B.F.Momin
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Research in the area of neuroergonomics has blossomed in recent years with the emergence of noninvasive techniques for monitoring human brain function that can be used to study various aspects of human behavior in relation to technology and work, including mental workload, visual attention, working memory, motor control, human-automation interaction, and adaptive automation. Consequently, this interdisciplinary field is concerned with investigations of the neural bases of human perception,cognition, and performance in relation to systems and technologies in the real world -- for example, in the use of computers and various other machines at home or in the workplace, and in operating vehiclessuch as aircraft, cars, trains, and ships. We will look at recent trends in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, with a special focus on the questions that have been addressed. This focus is particularly important for functional neuroimaging, whose contributions will be measured by the depth of the questions asked. The ever-increasing understanding of the brain and behavior at work in the real world, the development of theoretical underpinnings, and the relentless spread of facilitative technology in the West and abroad are inexorably broadening the substrates for this interdisciplinary area of research and practice. Neuroergonomics blends neuroscience and ergonomics to the mutual benefit of both fields, and extends the study of brain structure and function beyond the contrived laboratory settings often used in neuropsychological, psychophysical, cognitive science, and other neurosciencerelated fields. Neuroergonomics is providing rich observations of the brain and behavior at work, at home, in transportation, and in other everyday environments in human operators who see, hear, feel, attend, remember, decide, plan, act, move, or manipulate objects among other people and technology in diverse,real-world settings. The neuroergonomics approach is
Recent Advance in Studies on Angelica sinensis
FANG Ling; XIAO Xue-feng; LIU Chang-xiao; HE Xin
2012-01-01
Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) is the root of Angelica sinensis which is a fragrant and perennial herb native to China,Japan,and Korea.In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM),the plant is useful for replenishing and invigorating blood,relieving pain,and moistening the intestines,resulting in its application for the treatment of menstrual disorders,and as an emollient and laxative for chronic constipation of the aged and debilitated.An in-depth review of the literature brings to light a great number of chemical constituents that have been isolated from ASR as well as both preclinical (in vivo and in vitro) and clinical studies,which over the years,have sought to investigate the medicinal relevance of some of these phytoconstituents and/or extract(s) prepared from ASR.The purpose of this review is therefore to present some major pharmacological and pharmacokinetic research findings on some selected phytoconstituents of ASR with emphasis on the current trends in terms of research techniques or design.This review would also provide a wealth of information for users/practitioners of TCM regarding the use of ASR or its products for maximum efficiency and minimal toxicity or side effects.
Bisbas, T G; Barlow, M J; Viti, S; Harries, T J; Bell, T; Yates, J A
2015-01-01
The interaction of ionizing and far-ultraviolet radiation with the interstellar medium is of great importance. It results in the formation of regions in which the gas is ionized, beyond which are photodissociation regions (PDRs) in which the gas transitions to its atomic and molecular form. Several numerical codes have been implemented to study these two main phases of the interstellar medium either dynamically or chemically. In this paper we present TORUS-3DPDR, a new self-consistent code for treating the chemistry of three-dimensional photoionization and photodissociation regions. It is an integrated code coupling the two codes TORUS, a hydrodynamics and Monte Carlo radiation transport code, and 3D-PDR, a photodissociation regions code. The new code uses a Monte Carlo radiative transfer scheme to account for the propagation of the ionizing radiation including the diffusive component as well as a ray-tracing scheme based on the HEALPix package in order to account for the escape probability and column density...
Revisiting the Infrared Spectra of Active Galactic Nuclei with a New Torus Emission Model
Fritz, J; Hatziminaoglou, E
2006-01-01
We describe improved modelling of the emission by dust in a toroidal--like structure heated by a central illuminating source within Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We chose a simple but realistic torus geometry, a flared disc, and a dust grain distribution function including a full range of grain sizes. The optical depth within the torus is computed in detail taking into account the different sublimation temperatures of the silicate and graphite grains, which solves previously reported inconsistencies in the silicate emission feature in type-1 AGN. We exploit this model to study the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 58 extragalactic (both type-1 and type-2) sources using archival optical and infrared (IR) data. We find that both AGN and starburst contributions are often required to reproduce the observed SEDs, although in a few cases they are very well fitted by a pure AGN component. The AGN contribution to the far-IR luminosity is found to be higher in type-1 sources, with all the type-2 requiring a subs...
The Impact of the Dusty Torus on Obscured Quasar Halo Mass Measurements
DiPompeo, Michael A; Hickox, Ryan C; Myers, Adam D; Geach, James E
2016-01-01
Recent studies have found that obscured quasars cluster more strongly and are thus hosted by dark matter haloes of larger mass than their unobscured counterparts. These results pose a challenge for the simplest unification models, in which obscured objects are intrinsically the same as unobscured sources but seen through a dusty line of sight. There is general consensus that a structure like a "dusty torus" exists, meaning that this intrinsic similarity is likely the case for at least some subset of obscured quasars. However, the larger host halo masses of obscured quasars implies that there is a second obscured population that has an even higher clustering amplitude and typical halo mass. Here, we use simple assumptions about the host halo mass distributions of quasars, along with analytical methods and cosmological $N$-body simulations to isolate the signal from this population. We provide values for the bias and halo mass as a function of the fraction of the "non-torus obscured" population. Adopting a reas...
Advanced Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) study
Oglevie, R. E.; Eisenhaure, D. B.
1985-01-01
Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) studies performed over a decade ago established the feasibility of simultaneously satisfying the demands of energy storage and attitude control through the use of rotating flywheels. It was demonstrated that, for a wide spectrum of applications, such a system possessed many advantages over contemporary energy storage and attitude control approaches. More recent technology advances in composite material rotors, magnetic suspension systems, and power control electronics have triggered new optimism regarding the applicability and merits of this concept. This study is undertaken to define an advanced IPACS and to evaluate its merits for a space station application. System and component designs are developed to establish the performance of this concept and system trade studies conducted to examine the viability of this approach relative to conventional candidate systems. It is clearly demonstrated that an advanced IPACS concept is not only feasible, but also offers substantial savings in mass and life-cycle cost for the space station mission.
Conditional Inference and Advanced Mathematical Study: Further Evidence
Inglis, Matthew; Simpson, Adrian
2009-01-01
In this paper, we examine the support given for the "theory of formal discipline" by Inglis and Simpson (Educational Studies Mathematics 67:187-204, "2008"). This theory, which is widely accepted by mathematicians and curriculum bodies, suggests that the study of advanced mathematics develops general thinking skills and, in particular, conditional…
Gan, K F; Ahn, J-W; Park, J-W; Maingi, R; McLean, A G; Gray, T K; Gong, X; Zhang, X D
2013-02-01
The divertor heat flux footprint in tokamaks is often observed to be non-axisymmetric due to intrinsic error fields, applied 3D magnetic fields or during transients such as edge localized modes. Typically, only 1D radial heat flux profiles are analyzed; however, analysis of the full 2D divertor measurements provides opportunities to study the asymmetric nature of the deposited heat flux. To accomplish this an improved 3D Fourier analysis method has been successfully applied in a heat conduction solver (TACO) to determine the 2D heat flux distribution at the lower divertor surface in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) tokamak. This advance enables study of helical heat deposition onto the divertor. In order to account for heat transmission through poorly adhered surface layers on the divertor plate, a heat transmission coefficient, defined as the surface layer thermal conductivity divided by the thickness of the layer, was introduced to the solution of heat conduction equation. This coefficient is denoted as α and a range of values were tested in the model to ensure a reliable heat flux calculation until a specific value of α led to the constant total deposited energy in the numerical solution after the end of discharge. A comparison between 1D heat flux profiles from TACO and from a 2D heat flux calculation code, THEODOR, shows good agreement. Advantages of 2D heat flux distribution over the conventional 1D heat flux profile are also discussed, and examples of 2D data analysis in the study of striated heat deposition pattern as well as the toroidal degree of asymmetry of peak heat flux and heat flux width are demonstrated.
Combustion and Heat Transfer Studies Utilizing Advanced Diagnostics: Combustion Studies
1992-11-01
Appendices D, E, and F). The two main modeling approaches that enabled the calculation of stability from thermochemistry considera- tions are those of...Parallel TEACH -1Te Code Using an Approximately Implicit Algorithm." Proc. Tie prime authors of this report (G. Sturgess, D. Ballal S"ym Recem Advances and
Chunbao Liu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Passenger car torque converters have been designed with an increasingly flatter profile in recent years for the purpose of achieving a weight saving and more compact size. However, a flatter design tends to result in the reduced hydrodynamic performance. To improve its performance, a new flat torus of elliptic type method concentrating on the solution to flat TC was put forward, and four torque converters of different flatness ratios were designed to judge the superiority of the flat torus design method. The internal flow characteristics were numerically investigated using CFD codes and resulted in good agreement with experimental data. The results indicate that the main cause of this performance degradation can be attributed to deterioration of the velocity fields of the pump, and a case of flatness ratio 0.8 illustrates the reason that the performance designed by the flat torus design method based on the elliptic shape is more excellent than that of the traditional one. Furthermore, this study proposed a structure of removal of inner ring to improve the performance of torque converter.
Configuration spaces of an embedding torus and cubical spaces
Jourdan, Jean-Philippe
2006-01-01
For a smooth manifold M obtained as an embedding torus, A U Cx[-1,1], we consider the ordered configuration space F_k(M) of k distinct points in M. We show that there is a homotopical cubical resolution of F_k(M) defined from the configuration spaces of A and C. From it, we deduce a universal method for the computation of the pure braid groups of a manifold. We illustrate the method in the case of the Mobius band.
Multiple Chern-Simons fields on a torus
Wesolowski, D J; Ho, C L
1994-01-01
Intertwined multiple Chern-Simons gauge fields induce matrix statistics among particles. We analyse this theory on a torus, focusing on the vacuum structure and the Hilbert space. The theory can be mimicked, although not completely, by an effective theory with one Chern-Simons gauge field. The correspondence between the Wilson line integrals, vacuum degeneracy and wave functions for these two theories are discussed. Further, it is obtained in both of these cases that the two total momenta and Hamiltonian commute only in the physical Hilbert space.
General Equilibrium Property of Spherical Torus Configurations with Large Triangularity
SHIBingren
2003-01-01
In magnetic fusion research, two sorts of axi-symmetric toroidal equilibrium configuration are mostly interested. One is the conventional tokamak that has an aspect ratio 2. 8torus (the ST configuration) with A≤1.4.For tokamaks, it is generally observed that equilibrium configurations with large triangular deformation usually has the merit of stabilizing higher beta plasma and better confinement scaling so that higher βN/li value can be attained. This was also verified theoretically in the ballooning mode analysis.
The torus parametrization of quasiperiodic LI-classes
Baake, M; Pleasants, P A B
2002-01-01
The torus parametrization of quasiperiodic local isomorphism classes is introduced and used to determine the number of elements in such a class with special symmetries or inflation properties. The method is explained in an illustrative fashion for some widely used tiling classes with golden mean rescaling, namely for the Fibonacci chain (1D), the triangle and Penrose patterns (2D) and for Kramer's and Danzer's icosahedral tilings (3D). We obtain a rather complete picture of the orbit structure within these classes, but discuss also various general results.
Invariant sets for discontinuous parabolic area-preserving torus maps
Ashwin, P; Nishikawa, T; Zyczkowski, K; Ashwin, Peter; Fu, Xin-Chu; Nishikawa, Takashi; Zyczkowski, Karol
1999-01-01
We analyze a class of piecewise linear parabolic maps on the torus, namely those obtained by considering a linear map with double eigenvalue one and taking modulo one in both components. We show that within this two parameter family of maps, the set of noninvertible maps is open and dense. For certain cases (where the entries in the matrix are rational) we show that the maximal invariant set has positive Lebesgue measure and give bounds on the measure. For certain examples we find expressions for the measure of the invariant set.
Final report on the LLNL compact torus acceleration project
Eddleman, J.; Hammer, J.; Hartman, C.; McLean, H.; Molvik, A.
1995-03-19
In this report, we summarize recent work at LLNL on the compact torus (CT) acceleration project. The CT accelerator is a novel technique for projecting plasmas to high velocities and reaching high energy density states. The accelerator exploits magnetic confinement in the CT to stably transport plasma over large distances and to directed kinetic energies large in comparison with the CT internal and magnetic energy. Applications range from heating and fueling magnetic fusion devices, generation of intense pulses of x-rays or neutrons for weapons effects and high energy-density fusion concepts.
p-adic string compactified on a torus
Chekhov, L.; Zinoviev, Yu. (Steklov (V.A.) Inst. of Mathematics, Moscow (USSR))
1990-10-01
The open p-adic string world sheet is a coset space F = T/{Gamma}, where T is the Bruhat-Tits tree for the p-adic linear group GL(2,Q{sub p}) and c PGL(2,Q{sub p})is some Schottky group. The string dynamics is governed by the local action on F, with the fields taking values in a compact groupg G. We find the correlation functions and partition functions for the p-adic string surfaces of arbitrary genus and G = U(1){sup xD} (D-dimensional torus). (orig.).
Cardona, Carlos; Gomez, Humberto
2016-10-01
Recently, we proposed a new approach using a punctured Elliptic curve in the CHY framework in order to compute one-loop scattering amplitudes. In this note, we further develop this approach by introducing a set of connectors, which become the main ingredient to build integrands on {M}_{1,n} , the moduli space of n-punctured Elliptic curves. As a particular application, we study the Φ3 bi-adjoint scalar theory. We propose a set of rules to construct integrands on {M}_{1,n} from Φ3 integrands on {M}_{0,n} , the moduli space of n-punctured spheres. We illustrate these rules by computing a variety of Φ3 one-loop Feynman diagrams. Conversely, we also provide another set of rules to compute the corresponding CHY-integrand on {M}_{1,n} by starting instead from a given Φ3 one-loop Feynman diagram. In addition, our results can easily be extended to higher loops.
Intervascular pit membranes with a torus in the wood of Ulmus (Ulmaceae) and related genera
Jansen, S.; Choat, B.; Vinckier, S.; Lens, F.; Schols, P.; Smets, E.
2004-01-01
• The distribution of intervascular pit membranes with a torus was investigated in juvenile wood samples of 19 species of Ulmus and seven related genera. • A staining solution of safranin and alcian blue (35 : 65) was recommended to distinguish torus-bearing pit membranes using light microscopy. • I
Modeling physical chemistry of the Io plasma torus in two dimensions
Copper, M.; Delamere, P. A.; Overcast-Howe, K.
2016-07-01
Periodicities in the Io plasma illustrate the rich complexity of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling in space plasmas. The confounding System IV period (slower than the rotation of Jupiter's magnetic field ≡ System III) remains a mystery of the torus. Common to both System III and IV are modulations of the superthermal electron population. The small fraction (<1%) of hot electrons plays a vital role in torus physical and chemical properties, modulating the abundance and temperature of ion species. Building on previous models of torus physical chemistry, we have developed a two-dimensional model that includes azimuthal and radial transport (diffusion equation) while averaging chemical processes in latitude. This paper presents initial results of the model, demonstrating the role of hot electrons in forming a single-peaked torus structure. The effect of azimuthal shear is investigated as plasma is transported radially outward, showing how the torus properties evolve during transport from a chemically dominated regime (inner torus) to a transport dominated regime (outer torus). Surprisingly, we find that hot electron populations influence torus properties at all radial distances. While many of our results are preliminary, suggestions for future modeling experiments are suggested to provide additional insight into the origin of the ubiquitous superthermal electrons.
Cardona, Carlos
2016-01-01
Recently, we proposed a new approach using a punctured Elliptic curve in the CHY framework in order to compute one-loop scattering amplitudes. In this note, we further develop this approach by introducing a set of connectors, which become the main ingredient to build integrands on $\\mathfrak{M}_{1,n}$, the moduli space of n-punctured Elliptic curves. As a particular application, we study the $\\Phi^3$ bi-adjoint scalar theory. We propose a set of rules to construct integrands on $\\mathfrak{M}_{1,n}$ from $\\Phi^ 3$ integrands on $\\mathfrak{M}_{0,n}$, the moduli space of n-punctured spheres. We illustrate these rules by computing a variety of $\\Phi^3$ one-loop Feynman diagrams. Conversely, we also provide another set of rules to compute the corresponding CHY-integrand on $\\mathfrak{M}_{1,n}$ by starting instead from a given $\\Phi^ 3$ one-loop Feynman diagram. In addition, our results can easily be extended to higher loops.
Cardona, Carlos [Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Tsing-Hua University,Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (China); Gomez, Humberto [Instituto de Fisica - Universidade de São Paulo,Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Facultad de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Santiago de Cali,Calle 5 62-00 Barrio Pampalinda, Cali, Valle (Colombia)
2016-10-21
Recently, we proposed a new approach using a punctured Elliptic curve in the CHY framework in order to compute one-loop scattering amplitudes. In this note, we further develop this approach by introducing a set of connectors, which become the main ingredient to build integrands on M{sub 1,n}, the moduli space of n-punctured Elliptic curves. As a particular application, we study the Φ{sup 3} bi-adjoint scalar theory. We propose a set of rules to construct integrands on M{sub 1,n} from Φ{sup 3} integrands on M{sub 0,n}, the moduli space of n-punctured spheres. We illustrate these rules by computing a variety of Φ{sup 3} one-loop Feynman diagrams. Conversely, we also provide another set of rules to compute the corresponding CHY-integrand on M{sub 1,n} by starting instead from a given Φ{sup 3} one-loop Feynman diagram. In addition, our results can easily be extended to higher loops.
Advanced language modeling approaches, case study: Expert search
Hiemstra, Djoerd
2008-01-01
This tutorial gives a clear and detailed overview of advanced language modeling approaches and tools, including the use of document priors, translation models, relevance models, parsimonious models and expectation maximization training. Expert search will be used as a case study to explain the
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Recent Advances in the Modeling of Hydrologic Systems
O’Connell, P
1991-01-01
Modeling of the rainfall-runoff process is of both scientific and practical significance. Many of the currently used mathematical models of hydrologic systems were developed a genera tion ago. Much of the effort since then has focused on refining these models rather than on developing new models based on improved scientific understanding. In the past few years, however, a renewed effort has been made to improve both our fundamental understanding of hydrologic processes and to exploit technological advances in computing and remote sensing. It is against this background that the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Recent Advances in the Modeling of Hydrologic Systems was organized. The idea for holding a NATO ASI on this topic grew out of an informal discussion between one of the co-directors and Professor Francisco Nunes-Correia at a previous NATO ASI held at Tucson, Arizona in 1985. The Special Program Panel on Global Transport Mechanisms in the Geo-Sciences of the NATO Scientific Affairs Division agreed to sp...
Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in the National Spherical Torus Experiment
Soukhanovskii, V A; Maingi, R; Gates, D A; Menard, J E; Paul, S F; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Bell, M G; Bell, R E; Boedo, J A; Bush, C E; Kaita, R; Kugel, H W; LeBlanc, B P; Mueller, D
2008-08-04
Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for both ITER and spherical torus-based devices with compact high power density divertors. Significant reduction of heat flux to the divertor plate has been achieved simultaneously with favorable core and pedestal confinement and stability properties in a highly-shaped lower single null configuration in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 2000] using high magnetic flux expansion at the divertor strike point and the radiative divertor technique. A partial detachment of the outer strike point was achieved with divertor deuterium injection leading to peak flux reduction from 4-6 MW m{sup -2} to 0.5-2 MW m{sup -2} in small-ELM 0.8-1.0 MA, 4-6 MW neutral beam injection-heated H-mode discharges. A self-consistent picture of outer strike point partial detachment was evident from divertor heat flux profiles and recombination, particle flux and neutral pressure measurements. Analytic scrape-off layer parallel transport models were used for interpretation of NSTX detachment experiments. The modeling showed that the observed peak heat flux reduction and detachment are possible with high radiated power and momentum loss fractions, achievable with divertor gas injection, and nearly impossible to achieve with main electron density, divertor neutral density or recombination increases alone.
Variation of Inner Radius of Dust Torus in NGC4151
Koshida, Shintaro; Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Minezaki, Takeo; Sakata, Yu; Sugawara, Shota; Enya, Keigo; Suganuma, Masahiro; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Tsutomu; Peterson, Bruce A
2009-01-01
The long-term optical and near infrared monitoring observations for a type 1 act ive galactic nucleus NGC 4151 were carried out for six years from 2001 to 2006 b y using the MAGNUM telescope, and delayed response of flux variations in the $K(2.2\\mu m)$ band to those in the $V(0.55\\mu m)$ band was clearly detected. Based on cross correlation analysis, we precisely measured a lag time $\\Delta t$ for eight separate periods, and we found that $\\Delta t$ is not constant changing be tween 30 and 70 days during the monitoring period. Since $\\Delta t$ is the ligh t travel time from the central energy source out to the surrounding dust torus, this is the first convincing evidence that the inner radius of dust torus did ch ange in an individual AGN. In order to relate such a change of $\\Delta t$ with a change of AGN luminosity $L$, we presented a method of taking an average of th e observed $V$-band fluxes that corresponds to the measured value of $\\Delta t$, and we found that the time-changing track of NGC 4151 in the...
Solitons on Noncommutative Torus as Elliptic Algebras and Elliptic Models
Hou, B Y; Shi, K J; Yue, R H; Hou, Bo-Yu; Peng, Dan-tao; Shi, Kang-Jie; Yue, Rui-Hong
2001-01-01
For the noncommutative torus ${\\cal T}$, in case of the N.C. parameter $\\theta = \\frac{Z}{n}$ and the area of ${\\cal T}$ is an integer, we construct the basis of Hilbert space ${\\cal H}_n$ in terms of $\\theta$ functions of the positions of $n$ solitons. The Wilson loop wrapping the solitons around the torus generates the algebra ${\\cal A}_n$. We find that ${\\cal A}_n$ is isomorphic to the $Z_n \\times Z_n$ Heisenberg group on $\\theta$ functions. We find the explicit form for the solitons local translation operators, show that it is the generators $g$ of an elliptic $su(n)$, which transform covariantly by the global gauge transformation of the Wilson loop in ${\\cal A}_n$. Then by acting on ${\\cal H}_n$ we establish the isomorphism of ${\\cal A}_n$ and $g$. Then it is easy to give the projection operators corresponding to the solitons and the ABS construction for generating solitons. We embed this $g$ into elliptic Gaudin and C.M. models to give the dynamics. For $\\theta$ generic case, we introduce the crossing p...
Engineering design of the National Spherical Torus Experiment
C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; J. Spitzer, J. Chrzanowski; et al
2000-05-11
NSTX is a proof-of-principle experiment aimed at exploring the physics of the ``spherical torus'' (ST) configuration, which is predicted to exhibit more efficient magnetic confinement than conventional large aspect ratio tokamaks, amongst other advantages. The low aspect ratio (R/a, typically 1.2--2 in ST designs compared to 4--5 in conventional tokamaks) decreases the available cross sectional area through the center of the torus for toroidal and poloidal field coil conductors, vacuum vessel wall, plasma facing components, etc., thus increasing the need to deploy all components within the so-called ``center stack'' in the most efficient manner possible. Several unique design features have been developed for the NSTX center stack, and careful engineering of this region of the machine, utilizing materials up to their engineering allowables, has been key to meeting the desired objectives. The design and construction of the machine has been accomplished in a rapid and cost effective manner thanks to the availability of extensive facilities, a strong experience base from the TFTR era, and good cooperation between institutions.
Superconformal index and 3d-3d correspondence for mapping cylinder/torus
Gang, Dongmin; Koh, Eunkyung [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,85 Hoegiro, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangmin [Center for Theoretical Physics, Seoul National University,1 Gwanak-ro, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University,1 Gwanak-ro, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); College of Liberal Studies, Seoul National University,1 Gwanak-ro, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jaemo [Department of Physics, POSTECH,77 Cheongam-Ro, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Postech Center for Theoretical Physics (PCTP), Postech,77 Cheongam-Ro, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-01-15
We probe the 3d-3d correspondence for mapping cylinder/torus using the superconformal index. We focus on the case when the fiber is a once-punctured torus (Σ{sub 1,1}). The corresponding 3d field theories can be realized using duality domain wall theories in 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory. We show that the superconformal indices of the 3d theories are the SL(2,ℂ) Chern-Simons partition function on the mapping cylinder/torus. For the mapping torus, we also consider another realization of the corresponding 3d theory associated with ideal triangulation. The equality between the indices from the two descriptions for the mapping torus theory is reduced to a simple basis change of the Hilbert space for the SL(2,ℂ) Chern-Simons theory on ℝ×Σ{sub 1,1}.
Advance elements of optoisolation circuits nonlinearity applications in engineering
Aluf, Ofer
2017-01-01
This book on advanced optoisolation circuits for nonlinearity applications in engineering addresses two separate engineering and scientific areas, and presents advanced analysis methods for optoisolation circuits that cover a broad range of engineering applications. The book analyzes optoisolation circuits as linear and nonlinear dynamical systems and their limit cycles, bifurcation, and limit cycle stability by using Floquet theory. Further, it discusses a broad range of bifurcations related to optoisolation systems: cusp-catastrophe, Bautin bifurcation, Andronov-Hopf bifurcation, Bogdanov-Takens (BT) bifurcation, fold Hopf bifurcation, Hopf-Hopf bifurcation, Torus bifurcation (Neimark-Sacker bifurcation), and Saddle-loop or Homoclinic bifurcation. Floquet theory helps as to analyze advance optoisolation systems. Floquet theory is the study of the stability of linear periodic systems in continuous time. Another way to describe Floquet theory, it is the study of linear systems of differential equations with p...
Advanced turbine systems study system scoping and feasibility study
1993-04-01
United Technologies Research Center, Pratt Whitney Commercial Engine Business, And Pratt Whitney Government Engine and Space Propulsion has performed a preliminary analysis of an Advanced Turbine System (ATS) under Contract DE-AC21-92MC29247 with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The natural gas-fired reference system identified by the UTC team is the Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle in which the gas turbine exhaust heat and heat rejected from the intercooler is used in a saturator to humidify the high pressure compressor discharge air. This results in a significant increase in flow through the turbine at no increase in compressor power. Using technology based on the PW FT4000, the industrial engine derivative of the PW4000, currently under development by PW, the system would have an output of approximately 209 MW and an efficiency of 55.3%. Through use of advanced cooling and materials technologies similar to those currently in the newest generation military aircraft engines, a growth version of this engine could attain approximately 295 MW output at an efficiency of 61.5%. There is the potential for even higher performance in the future as technology from aerospace R D programs is adapted to aero-derivative industrial engines.
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Methods in Computational Molecular Physics
Diercksen, Geerd
1992-01-01
This volume records the lectures given at a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Methods in Computational Molecular Physics held in Bad Windsheim, Germany, from 22nd July until 2nd. August, 1991. This NATO Advanced Study Institute sought to bridge the quite considerable gap which exist between the presentation of molecular electronic structure theory found in contemporary monographs such as, for example, McWeeny's Methods 0/ Molecular Quantum Mechanics (Academic Press, London, 1989) or Wilson's Electron correlation in moleeules (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1984) and the realization of the sophisticated computational algorithms required for their practical application. It sought to underline the relation between the electronic structure problem and the study of nuc1ear motion. Software for performing molecular electronic structure calculations is now being applied in an increasingly wide range of fields in both the academic and the commercial sectors. Numerous applications are reported in areas as diverse as catalysi...
Finite element analysis of an inflatable torus considering air mass structural element
Gajbhiye, S. C.; Upadhyay, S. H.; Harsha, S. P.
2014-01-01
Inflatable structures, also known as gossamer structures, are at high boom in the current space technology due to their low mass and compact size comparing to the traditional spacecraft designing. Internal pressure becomes the major source of strength and rigidity, essentially stiffen the structure. However, inflatable space based membrane structure are at high risk to the vibration disturbance due to their low structural stiffness and material damping. Hence, the vibration modes of the structure should be known to a high degree of accuracy in order to provide better control authority. In the past, most of the studies conducted on the vibration analysis of gossamer structures used inaccurate or approximate theories in modeling the internal pressure. The toroidal shaped structure is one of the important key element in space application, helps to support the reflector in space application. This paper discusses the finite-element analysis of an inflated torus. The eigen-frequencies are obtained via three-dimensional small-strain elasticity theory, based on extremum energy principle. The two finite-element model (model-1 and model-2) have cases have been generated using a commercial finite-element package. The structure model-1 with shell element and model-2 with the combination of the mass of enclosed fluid (air) added to the shell elements have been taken for the study. The model-1 is computed with present analytical approach to understand the convergence rate and the accuracy. The convergence study is made available for the symmetric modes and anti-symmetric modes about the centroidal-axis plane, meeting the eigen-frequencies of an inflatable torus with the circular cross section. The structural model-2 is introduced with air mass element and analyzed its eigen-frequency with different aspect ratio and mode shape response using in-plane and out-plane loading condition are studied.
Advances of Studies on the Viral Proteins of PRRSV
Cao; Zongxi; Shi; Zhihai; Lin; Zhemin; Jiao; Peirong; Zhang; Guihong
2014-01-01
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome( PRRS) is one of viral diseases with severe reproductive obstacle of pregnant sows and respiratory tract symptoms and higher mortality of piglets as characteristics,which is caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus( PRRSV). PRRS has brought great threats to swine industry in the world. The advances of studies on the viral proteins of PRRSV were reviewed from the genome,non-structural proteins and structural proteins of PRRSV.
Cassini UVIS observations of the Io plasma torus. II. Radial variations
Steffl, Andrew J; Stewart, A Ian F; 10.1016/j.icarus.2004.04.016
2013-01-01
On January 14, 2001, shortly after the Cassini spacecraft's closest approach to Jupiter, the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (UVIS) made a radial scan through the midnight sector of Io plasma torus. The Io torus has not been previously observed at this local time. The UVIS data consist of 2-D spectrally dispersed images of the Io plasma torus in the wavelength range of 561{\\AA}-1912{\\AA}. We developed a spectral emissions model that incorporates the latest atomic physics data contained in the CHIANTI database in order to derive the composition of the torus plasma as a function of radial distance. Electron temperatures derived from the UVIS torus spectra are generally less than those observed during the Voyager era. We find the torus ion composition derived from the UVIS spectra to be significantly different from the composition during the Voyager era. Notably, the torus contains substantially less oxygen, with a total oxygen-to-sulfur ion ratio of 0.9. The average ion charge state has increased to 1.7. We de...
Cartolano, M. S.; Craig, D., E-mail: darren.craig@wheaton.edu [Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois 60187 (United States); Den Hartog, D. J.; Kumar, S. T. A.; Nornberg, M. D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2014-01-15
The connection between impurity ion heating and other physical processes in the plasma is evaluated by studying variations in the amount of ion heating at reconnection events in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST). Correlation of the change in ion temperature with individual tearing mode amplitudes indicates that the edge-resonant modes are better predictors for the amount of global ion heating than the core-resonant modes. There is also a strong correlation between ion heating and current profile relaxation. Simultaneous measurements of the ion temperature at different toroidal locations reveal, for the first time, a toroidal asymmetry to the ion heating in MST. These results present challenges for existing heating theories and suggest a stronger connection between edge-resonant tearing modes, current profile relaxation, and ion heating than has been previously thought.
Jaworski, M A; Gray, T K; Kaita, R; Kallman, J; Kugel, H; LeBlanc, B; McLean, A; Sabbagh, S A; Soukanovskii, V; Stotler, D P
2011-06-03
The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has recently studied the use of a liquid lithium divertor (LLD). Divertor Langmuir probes have also been installed for making measurements of the local plasma conditions. A non-local probe interpretation method is used to supplement the classical probe interpretation and obtain measurements of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) which show the occurrence of a hot-electron component. Analysis is made of two discharges within a sequence that exhibited changes in plasma fueling efficiency. It is found that the local electron temperature increases and that this increase is most strongly correlated with the energy contained within the hot-electron population. Preliminary interpretative modeling indicates that kinetic effects are likely in the NSTX.
Progress towards Steady State at Low Aspect Ratio on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)
D.A. Gates, J. Menard, R. Maingi, S. Kaye, S.A. Sabbagh, S. Diem, J.R.Wilson, M.G. Bell, R.E. Bell, J. Ferron, E.D. Fredrickson, C.E. Kessel, B.P. LeBlanc, F. Levinton, J. Manickam, D. Mueller, R. Raman, T. Stevenson, D. Stutman, G. Taylor, K. Tritz, H. Yu, and the NSTX Research Team
2007-11-08
Modifications to the plasma control capabilities and poloidal field coils of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have enabled a significant enhancement in shaping capability which has led to the transient achievement of a record shape factor (S ≡ q95 (Iρ/αΒτ)) of ~41 (MA m-1 Τ-1) simultaneous with a record plasma elongation of κ ≡ β /α ~ 3. This result was obtained using isoflux control and real-time equilibrium reconstruction. Achieving high shape factor together with tolerable divertor loading is an important result for future ST burning plasma experiments as exemplified by studies for future ST reactor concepts, as well as neutron producing devices, which rely on achieving high shape factors in order to achieve steady state operation while maintaining MHD stability. Statistical evidence is presented which demonstrates the expected correlation between increased shaping and improved plasma performance.
Fajardo, Laura Garcia, E-mail: laura.gf@cern.ch [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). Technology Department; Hernandez, Carlos Garcia; Mazaira, Leorlen Rojas, E-mail: cgh@instec.cu, E-mail: irojas@instec.cu [Higher Institute of Technologies and Applied Sciences (INSTEC), Habana (Cuba); Castells, Facundo Alberto Escriva, E-mail: aescriva@iqn.upv.es [University of Valencia (UV), Valencia (Spain). Energetic Engineering Institute; Lira, Carlos Brayner de Olivera, E-mail: cabol@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (BRazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear
2013-07-01
The Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) is a pebble-bed Accelerator Driven System (ADS) with a graphite-gas configuration, designed for nuclear waste trans- mutation and for obtaining heat at very high temperatures to produce hydrogen. In previous work, the TADSEA's nuclear core was considered as a porous medium performed with a CFD code and thermal-hydraulic studies of the nuclear core were presented. In this paper, the heat transfer from the fuel to the coolant was analyzed for three core states during normal operation. The heat transfer inside the spherical fuel elements was also studied. Three critical fuel elements groups were defined regarding their position inside the core. Results were compared with a realistic CFD model of the critical fuel elements groups. During the steady state, no critical elements reached the limit temperature of this type of fuel. (author)
Vector-valued Jack polynomials and wavefunctions on the torus
Dunkl, Charles F.
2017-06-01
The Hamiltonian of the quantum Calogero-Sutherland model of N identical particles on the circle with 1/r 2 interactions has eigenfunctions consisting of Jack polynomials times the base state. By use of the generalized Jack polynomials taking values in modules of the symmetric group and the matrix solution of a system of linear differential equations one constructs novel eigenfunctions of the Hamiltonian. Like the usual wavefunctions each eigenfunction determines a symmetric probability density on the N-torus. The construction applies to any irreducible representation of the symmetric group. The methods depend on the theory of generalized Jack polynomials due to Griffeth, and the Yang-Baxter graph approach of Luque and the author.
High-velocity Bipolar Molecular Emission from an AGN Torus
Gallimore, Jack F.; Elitzur, Moshe; Maiolino, Roberto; Marconi, Alessandro; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Lutz, Dieter; Baum, Stefi A.; Nikutta, Robert; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Davies, Richard; Kimball, Amy E.; Sani, Eleonora
2016-09-01
We have detected in ALMA observations CO J=6\\to 5 emission from the nucleus of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068. The low-velocity (up to ±70 km s-1 relative to systemic) CO emission resolves into a 12 × 7 pc structure, roughly aligned with the nuclear radio source. Higher-velocity emission (up to ±400 km s-1) is consistent with a bipolar outflow in a direction nearly perpendicular (≃80°) to the nuclear disk. The position-velocity diagram shows that in addition to the outflow, the velocity field may also contain rotation about the disk axis. These observations provide compelling evidence in support of the disk-wind scenario for the active galactic nucleus obscuring torus.
The Picard Group of a Noncommutative Algebraic Torus
Berest, Yuri; Tang, Xiang
2010-01-01
We compute the Picard group $ Pic(A_q) $ of the noncommutative algebraic 2-torus $A_q$, describe its action on the space $ R(A_q) $ of isomorphism classes of rk 1 projective modules and classify the algebras Morita equivalent to $ A_q $. Our computations are based on a quantum version of the Calogero-Moser correspondence relating projective $A_q$-modules to irreducible representations of the double affine Hecke algebras (DAHA) $ H_{t, q^{-1/2}}(S_n) $ at $ t = 1 $. We show that, under this correspondence, the action of $ Pic(A_q) $ on $ R(A_q) $ agrees with the action of $ SL_2(Z) $ on $ H_{t, q^{-1/2}}(S_n) $ constructed by I.Cherednik. We compare our results with smooth and analytic cases. In particular, when $ |q| \
High-Velocity Bipolar Molecular Emission from an AGN Torus
Gallimore, Jack F; Maiolino, Roberto; Marconi, Alessandro; O'Dea, Christopher P; Lutz, Dieter; Baum, Stefi A; Nikutta, Robert; Impellizzeri, C M V; Davies, Richard; Kimball, Amy E; Sani, Eleonora
2016-01-01
We have detected in ALMA observations CO J = 6 - 5 emission from the nucleus of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068. The low-velocity (up to +/- 70 km/s relative to systemic) CO emission resolves into a 12x7 pc structure, roughly aligned with the nuclear radio source. Higher-velocity emission (up to +/- 400 km/s) is consistent with a bipolar outflow in a direction nearly perpendicular (roughly 80 degrees) to the nuclear disk. The position-velocity diagram shows that in addition to the outflow, the velocity field may also contain rotation about the disk axis. These observations provide compelling evidence in support of the disk-wind scenario for the AGN obscuring torus.
I/O routing in a multidimensional torus network
Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A.; Heidelberger, Philip
2017-02-07
A method, system and computer program product are disclosed for routing data packet in a computing system comprising a multidimensional torus compute node network including a multitude of compute nodes, and an I/O node network including a plurality of I/O nodes. In one embodiment, the method comprises assigning to each of the data packets a destination address identifying one of the compute nodes; providing each of the data packets with a toio value; routing the data packets through the compute node network to the destination addresses of the data packets; and when each of the data packets reaches the destination address assigned to said each data packet, routing said each data packet to one of the I/O nodes if the toio value of said each data packet is a specified value. In one embodiment, each of the data packets is also provided with an ioreturn value used to route the data packets through the compute node network.
A negative mass theorem for the 2-Torus
Okikiolu, Kate
2007-01-01
For a closed surface M with metric g, the Robin mass m(p) at the point p is the value of the Green function G(p,q) at p=q after the logarithmic singularity has been removed. The Laplacian mass is the average value of the Robin mass, minus the value of the Robin mass for the round sphere of the same area. The Laplacian mass is a spectral invariant which is a natural analog of the ADM mass for asymptotically flat manifolds. We show that if M is a torus, then the minimum value of the Laplacian mass on the conformal class of g is negative. It is attained by a (smooth) metric for which one gets a sharp logarithmic Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev inequality and Onofri-type inequality.
Measurement of Poloidal Velocity on the National Spherical Torus Experiment
Ronald E. Bell and Russell Feder
2010-06-04
A diagnostic suite has been developed to measure impurity poloidal flow using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Toroidal and poloidal viewing systems measure all quantities required to determine the radial electric field. Two sets of up/down symmetric poloidal views are used to measure both active emission in the plane of the neutral heating beams and background emission in a radial plane away from the neutral beams. Differential velocity measurements isolate the line-integrated poloidal velocity from apparent flows due to the energy-dependent chargeexchange cross section. Six f/1.8 spectrometers measure 276 spectra to obtain 75 active and 63 background channels every 10 ms. Local measurements from a similar midplane toroidal viewing system are mapped into two dimensions to allow the inversion of poloidal line-integrated measurements to obtain local poloidal velocity profiles. Radial resolution after inversion is 0.6-1.8 cm from the plasma edge to the center.
Physics Basis for a Spherical Torus Power Plant
C.E. Kessel; J. Menard; S.C. Jardin; T.K. Mau; et al
1999-11-01
The spherical torus, or low-aspect-ratio tokamak, is considered as the basis for a fusion power plant. A special class of wall-stabilized high-beta high-bootstrap fraction low-aspect-ratio tokamak equilibrium are analyzed with respect to MHD stability, bootstrap current and external current drive, poloidal field system requirements, power and particle exhaust and plasma operating regime. Overall systems optimization leads to a choice of aspect ratio A = 1:6, plasma elongation kappa = 3:4, and triangularity delta = 0:64. The design value for the plasma toroidal beta is 50%, corresponding to beta N = 7:4, which is 10% below the ideal stability limit. The bootstrap fraction of 99% greatly alleviates the current drive requirements, which are met by tangential neutral beam injection. The design is such that 45% of the thermal power is radiated in the plasma by Bremsstrahlung and trace Krypton, with Neon in the scrapeoff layer radiating the remainder.
ALMA Resolves the Torus of NGC 1068: Continuum and Molecular Line Emission
García-Burillo, S.; Combes, F.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Usero, A.; Krips, M.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Aalto, S.; Casasola, V.; Hunt, L. K.; Martín, S.; Viti, S.; Colina, L.; Costagliola, F.; Eckart, A.; Fuente, A.; Henkel, C.; Márquez, I.; Neri, R.; Schinnerer, E.; Tacconi, L. J.; van der Werf, P. P.
2016-05-01
We used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to map the emission of the CO(6-5) molecular line and the 432 μm continuum emission from the 300 pc sized circumnuclear disk (CND) of the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 with a spatial resolution of ˜4 pc. These observations spatially resolve the CND and, for the first time, image the dust emission, the molecular gas distribution, and the kinematics from a 7-10 pc diameter disk that represents the submillimeter counterpart of the putative torus of NGC 1068. We fitted the nuclear spectral energy distribution of the torus using ALMA and near- and mid-infrared (NIR/MIR) data with CLUMPY torus models. The mass and radius of the best-fit solution for the torus are both consistent with the values derived from the ALMA data alone: {M}{{gas}}{{torus}}=(1+/- 0.3)× {10}5 {M}⊙ and R torus = 3.5 ± 0.5 pc. The dynamics of the molecular gas in the torus show strong non-circular motions and enhanced turbulence superposed on a surprisingly slow rotation pattern of the disk. By contrast with the nearly edge-on orientation of the H2O megamaser disk, we found evidence suggesting that the molecular torus is less inclined (i = 34°-66°) at larger radii. The lopsided morphology and complex kinematics of the torus could be the signature of the Papaloizou-Pringle instability, long predicted to likely drive the dynamical evolution of active galactic nuclei tori.
Tuan, P H; Yu, Y T; Chiang, P Y; Liang, H C; Huang, K F; Chen, Y F
2012-02-01
We thoroughly analyze the level statistics and eigenfunctions in concentric as well as nonconcentric square torus billiards. We confirm the characteristics of quantum and classical correspondence and the existence of scarred and superscarred modes in concentric square torus billiards. Furthermore, we not only verify that the transition from regular to chaotic behaviors can be manifested in nonconcentric square torus billiards, but also develop an analytical distribution to excellently fit the numerical level statistics. Finally, we intriguingly observe that numerous eigenstates commonly exhibit the wave patterns to be an ensemble of classical diamond trajectories, as the effective wavelengths are considerably shorter than the size of internal hole.
Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for advanced cervical cancer. A pilot study
Kodama, Junichi; Hashimoto, Ichiro; Seki, Noriko; Hongo, Atsushi; Mizutani, Yasushi; Miyagi, Yasunari; Yoshinouchi, Mitsuo; Kudo, Takafumi [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine
2001-03-01
Recently, attempts have made to use radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy in various solid tumors including cervical cancer. Twenty-four patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were treated with concurrent Carboplatin (16-24 mg/m{sup 2}/day) or Nedaplatin (20 mg/m{sup 2}/week) and conventional radiotherapy. Of 13 evaluable patients, there were nine complete responders and four partial responders. There was no renal damage or grade 4 hematological toxicity. Gastrointestinal adverse reactions were mild. One patient had grade 3 dermatologic toxicity after delayed radiation therapy. This pilot study suggests that daily Carboplatin or weekly Nedaplatin administered with standard radiation therapy is safe, well-tolerated, and thus may be useful as a radiation sensitizer in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. (author)
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Low Temperature Molecular Spectroscopy
1996-01-01
Molecular spectroscopy has achieved rapid and significant progress in recent years, the low temperature techniques in particular having proved very useful for the study of reactive species, phase transitions, molecular clusters and crystals, superconductors and semiconductors, biochemical systems, astrophysical problems, etc. The widening range of applications has been accompanied by significant improvements in experimental methods, and low temperature molecular spectroscopy has been revealed as the best technique, in many cases, to establish the connection between experiment and theoretical calculations. This, in turn, has led to a rapidly increasing ability to predict molecular spectroscopic properties. The combination of an advanced tutorial standpoint with an emphasis on recent advances and new perspectives in both experimental and theoretical molecular spectroscopy contained in this book offers the reader insight into a wide range of techniques, particular emphasis being given to supersonic jet and matri...
On the Structure of the AGN Torus through the Fraction of Optically Selected Type 1 AGNs
Khim, Honggeun; Yi, Sukyoung K.
2017-09-01
The ratio in number between unobscured (type 1) and obscured (type 2) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is often used to explore the structure of the torus in the unified scheme for AGNs. Oh et al. (2015) investigated the type 1 AGN fraction on two-dimensional space in terms of black hole mass ({M}{BH}) and bolometric luminosity ({L}{bol}) and found that the fraction changes depending on both {M}{BH} and {L}{bol}, forming a ridge-shaped distribution. In this study, based on the up-to-date type 1 AGN catalog of Oh et al. (2015), we examine how the trend of the type 1 AGN fraction in the {M}{BH}–{L}{bol} plane is affected by the different methods used to derive {M}{BH} and {L}{bol}, and suggest an analytic model to explain the observations. We use galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 in the redshift range 0.01≤slant z≤slant 0.2. In estimating {L}{bol}, we employ two different methods using [{{O}} {{III}}] and/or [{{O}} {{I}}] emission lines, and find that the {L}{bol} values obtained from the two methods agree well. We consider the {M}{BH}{--}{σ }* relation, the {{M}}{{BH}}–L bulge relation, and the single-epoch Hα-based {M}{BH} estimate in calculating {M}{BH}. We find that the trends of the type 1 AGN fraction with respect to {M}{BH} and {L}{bol} are similar for the different methods of deriving {L}{bol} but different when using different methods to derive {M}{BH}. We present a model based on the clumpy-torus scheme that reproduces the ridge-shaped distribution of the fraction parallel to the iso-Eddington ratio lines.
New advances in pollination biology and the studies in China
无
2000-01-01
Pollination biology is the study of the various biological features in relation to the event of pollen transfer. It is one of the central concerns of plant reproductive ecology and evolutionary biology. In this paper, we attempt to introduce the main advances and some new interests in pollination biology and make a brief review of the research work that has been done in China in recent years. We also give some insights into the study that we intend to carry out in this field in the future.
Advances in molecular genetic studies of primary dystonia
MA Ling-yan
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Dystonias are heterogeneous hyperkinetic movement disorders characterized by involuntary muscle contractions which result in twisting, repetitive movements and abnormal postures. In recent years, there was a great advance in molecular genetic studies of primary dystonia. This paper will review the clinical characteristics and molecular genetic studies of primary dystonia, including early-onset generalized torsion dystonia (DYT1, whispering dysphonia (DYT4, dopa-responsive dystonia (DYT5, mixed-type dystonia (DYT6, paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (DYT10, myoclonus-dystonia syndrome (DYT11, rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (DYT12, adult-onset cervical dystonia (DYT23, craniocervical dystonia (DYT24 and primary torsion dystonia (DYT25.
Wave Energy Study in China: Advancements and Perspectives
游亚戈; 郑永红; 沈永明; 吴必军; 刘荣
2003-01-01
The history and current status of research and development of wave energy in the world is briefly introduced. The main problems existing in these studies are pointed out. The description is focused on the current status and the advancements achieved in China. After analysis of the wave energy resources and practical situations in China, it is pointed out that the studies on wave energy should be not only concentrated on the conversion efficiency and costs of wave energy devices, but also focused on the technology of independent operation and stable output of electricity. Finally, the perspectives of application of wave energy in China are discussed.
Influence of self-gravity on the runaway instability of black-hole-torus systems.
Montero, Pedro J; Font, José A; Shibata, Masaru
2010-05-14
Results from the first fully general relativistic numerical simulations in axisymmetry of a system formed by a black hole surrounded by a self-gravitating torus in equilibrium are presented, aiming to assess the influence of the torus self-gravity on the onset of the runaway instability. We consider several models with varying torus-to-black-hole mass ratio and angular momentum distribution orbiting in equilibrium around a nonrotating black hole. The tori are perturbed to induce the mass transfer towards the black hole. Our numerical simulations show that all models exhibit a persistent phase of axisymmetric oscillations around their equilibria for several dynamical time scales without the appearance of the runaway instability, indicating that the self-gravity of the torus does not play a critical role favoring the onset of the instability, at least during the first few dynamical time scales.
Cassini UVIS Observations of the Io Plasma Torus. IV. Modeling Temporal and Azimuthal Variability
Steffl, A J; Bagenal, F
2007-01-01
In this fourth paper in a series, we present the results of our efforts to model the remarkable temporal and azimuthal variability of the Io plasma torus during the Cassini encounter with Jupiter. The long-term (months) temporal variation in the average torus composition observed by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) can be modeled by supposing a factor of ~4 increase in the amount of material supplied to the extended neutral clouds that are the source of torus plasma, followed by a gradual decay to more "typical" values. On shorter timescales, the observed 10.07-hour torus periodicity and azimuthal variation in plasma composition, including its surprising modulation with System III longitude, is reproduced by our model using the superposition of two azimuthal variations of suprathermal electrons: a primary hot electron variation that slips 12.5 degrees/day relative to the Jovian magnetic field and a secondary variation that remains fixed in System III longitude.
Torus-invariant prime ideals in quantum matrices, totally nonnegative cells and symplectic leaves
Goodearl, K R; Lenagan, T H
2009-01-01
The algebra of quantum matrices of a given size supports a rational torus action by automorphisms. It follows from work of Letzter and the first named author that to understand the prime and primitive spectra of this algebra, the first step is to understand the prime ideals that are invariant under the torus action. In this paper, we prove that a family of quantum minors is the set of all quantum minors that belong to a given torus-invariant prime ideal of a quantum matrix algebra if and only if the corresponding family of minors defines a non-empty totally nonnegative cell in the space of totally nonnegative real matrices of the appropriate size. As a corollary, we obtain explicit generating sets of quantum minors for the torus-invariant prime ideals of quantum matrices in the case where the quantisation parameter $q$ is transcendental over $\\mathbb{Q}$.
The vertical thickness of Jupiter's Europa gas torus from charged particle measurements
Kollmann, P.; Paranicas, C.; Clark, G.; Roussos, E.; Lagg, A.; Krupp, N.
2016-09-01
Measurements and modeling suggest the presence of a neutral gas torus collocated with the orbit of Jupiter's moon Europa. Here we use data from the CMS instrument that is part of the Energetic Particles Detector (EPD) on board the Galileo spacecraft to characterize the distribution of 130 keV protons. Near the orbit of Europa this distribution has a minimum around 70° in equatorial pitch angle. We reproduce this with a model assuming that the protons are lost via charge exchange with a gas torus. Since the pitch angle characterizes whether the protons remain mostly in the dense center of the torus or continuously bounce through it, we can determine the latitudinal extent of the torus. We find that the full thickness where its density falls to 1/e of its maximum has to be ≲2RJ and is closer to ≈1RJ.
Real Baum-Connes assembly and T-duality for torus orientifolds
Rosenberg, Jonathan
2015-03-01
We show that the real Baum-Connes conjecture for abelian groups, possibly twisted by a cocycle, explains the isomorphisms of (twisted) KR-groups that underlie all T-dualities of torus orientifold string theories.
OPTIMIZATION STUDIES FOR THE ADVANCED PHOTOINJECTOR EXPERIMENT (APEX)
Lidia, S.M.
2009-04-30
The Advanced Photoinjector Experiment (APEX) seeks to validate the design of a proposed high-brightness, normal conducting RF photoinjector gun and bunching cavity feeding a superconducting RF linac to produce nC-scale electron bunches with sub-micron normalized emittances at MHz-scale repetition rates. The beamline design seeks to optimize the slice averaged 6D brightness of the beam prior to injection into a high gradient linac for further manipulation and delivery to an FEL undulator. Details of the proposed beamline layout and electron beam dynamics studies are presented.
Chemical Reactivity Theory Study of Advanced Glycation Endproduct Inhibitors.
Frau, Juan; Glossman-Mitnik, Daniel
2017-02-02
Several compounds with the known ability to perform as inhibitors of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) have been studied with Density Functional Theory (DFT) through the use of anumberofdensityfunctionalswhoseaccuracyhasbeentestedacrossabroadspectrumofdatabases in Chemistry and Physics. The chemical reactivity descriptors for these systems have been calculated through Conceptual DFT in an attempt to relate their intrinsic chemical reactivity with the ability to inhibit the action of glycating carbonyl compounds on amino acids and proteins. This knowledge could be useful in the design and development of new drugs which can be potential medicines for diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.
Creating Educational Technology Curricula for Advanced Studies in Learning Technology
Minoru Nakayama
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Curriculum design and content are key factors in the area of human resource development. To examine the possibility of using a collaboration of Human Computer Interaction (HCI and Educational Technology (ET to develop innovative improvements to the education system, the curricula of these two areas of study were lexically analyzed and compared. As a further example, the curriculum of a joint course in HCI and ET was also lexically analyzed and the contents were examined. These analyses can be used as references in the development of human resources for use in advanced learning environments.
Free compact boson on branched covering of $\\mathbb{CP}^1$ and on branched covering of the torus
Liu, Feihu
2016-01-01
We have studied free compact boson on two special kinds of Riemann surfaces: One is branched covering of $\\mathbb{CP}^1$, and the other one is branched covering of the torus. We obtain the partition function for arbitrary higher genus by directly constructing the period matrix, which can be expressed in terms of simple contour integrals. The partition function is interesting because it is related to the \\emph{product} of correlation functions of twist fields in different sectors. Also, when the branched cuts are chosen to be real, it is related to the R\\'enyi entanglement entropy of multiple intervals in a infinite (finite) system at zero (finite) temperature.
10D massive type IIA supergravities as the uplift of parabolic M2-brane torus bundles
Garcia del Moral, Maria Pilar [Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Restuccia, Alvaro [Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Dept. de Fisica
2016-04-15
We remark that the two 10D massive deformations of the N = 2 maximal type IIA supergravity (Romans and HLW supergravity) are associated to the low energy limit of the uplift to 10D of M2-brane torus bundles with parabolic monodromy linearly and non-linearly realized respectively. Romans supergravity corresponds to M2-brane compactified on a twice-punctured torus bundle. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
SDN Data Center Performance Evaluation of Torus and Hypercube Interconnecting Schemes
Andrus, Bogdan-Mihai; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Mehmeri, Victor;
2015-01-01
— By measuring throughput, delay, loss-rate and jitter, we present how SDN framework yields a 45% performance increase in highly interconnected topologies like torus and hypercube compared to current Layer2 switching technologies, applied to data center architectures......— By measuring throughput, delay, loss-rate and jitter, we present how SDN framework yields a 45% performance increase in highly interconnected topologies like torus and hypercube compared to current Layer2 switching technologies, applied to data center architectures...
The massive expanding molecular torus in the planetary nebula NGC 6302
Peretto, N; Zijlstra, A A; Patel, N A
2007-01-01
We measure the mass and kinematics of the massive molecular torus in the planetary nebula NGC 6302. The nebula is the proto-typical butterfly nebula. The origin of the wing-like morphology is disputed: determining the mass-loss history of the confining torus is an important step in understanding the formation of this structure. We performed submillimeter observations with JCMT and the SMA interferometer. The continuum emission as well as the J=2-1 and 3-2 transitions of 12CO and 13CO are analysed at arcsecond resolution. The CO emission indicates a mass of the torus of ~ 2Msun +/- 1Msun. The 12CO and 13CO emission matches the dark lane seen in absorption in the Halpha image of the object. The CO torus is expanding with a velocity of ~ 8 km/s, centred at Vlsr=-31.5 km/s. The size and expansion velocity of the torus indicates that the torus was ejected from ~ 7500 yr to 2900 yr ago, with a mass-loss rate of 5x10^{-4}Msun/yr. We also see a ballistic component in the CO images with a velocity gradient of 140 km/s...
ALMA resolves the torus of NGC 1068: continuum and molecular line emission
Garcia-Burillo, S; Almeida, C Ramos; Usero, A; Krips, M; Alonso-Herrero, A; Aalto, S; Casasola, V; Hunt, L K; Martin, S; Viti, S; Colina, L; Costagliola, F; Eckart, A; Fuente, A; Henkel, C; Marquez, I; Neri, R; Schinnerer, E; Tacconi, L J; van der Werf, P P
2016-01-01
We have used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to map the emission of the CO(6-5) molecular line and the 432 {\\mu}m continuum emission from the 300 pc-sized circumnuclear disk (CND) of the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 with a spatial resolution of ~4 pc. These observations spatially resolve the CND and image, for the first time, the dust emission and the molecular gas distribution and kinematics from a 7-10 pc-diameter disk that represents the submillimeter counterpart of the putative torus of NGC 1068. We fitted the nuclear spectral energy distribution of the torus using ALMA and near and mid-infrared (NIR/MIR) data with CLUMPY models. The mass and radius of the best-fit solution for the torus are both consistent with the values derived from the ALMA data alone: Mgas_torus=(1+-0.3)x10^5 Msun and Rtorus=3.5+-0.5 pc. The dynamics of the molecular gas in the torus show non-circular motions and enhanced turbulence superposed on the rotating pattern of the disk. The kinematic major axis of the CO torus...
Recognising advancing nursing practice: evidence from two observational studies.
Wilson-Barnett, J; Barriball, K L; Reynolds, H; Jowett, S; Ryrie, I
2000-10-01
Debates over title, grades and relationships across the profession has tended to dominate the literature in advancing nursing practice. Fewer research projects have attempted to study the activities of nurses who are designated as undertaking advancing nursing roles. One study evaluating Masters courses for Clinical Nursing Practice and a second addressing the impact of the 'Scope of Professional Practice' (United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery & Health Visiting, 1992) document by this team of authors afforded these research opportunities. In this paper empirical data from 'reflective' observation with 19 nurses (including midwives and health visitors) are presented to illustrate the range and type of functions undertaken by a small group of practitioners developing their practice. A number of characteristic features emerged. Assessment of individual and group needs, positive motivation to constantly improve practice, inter-disciplinary and cross agency working for planned change and an ability to identify and prioritize service requirements were recognised in these nurses' roles. Certain personal attributes were seen to be essential for successful role development such as confidence, commitment and problem solving powers combined with a positive working environment and supportive managers.
Recent advances in studies of meteorites using cosmogenic radionuclides
Reedy, Robert C. E-mail: rreedy@unm.edu
2004-08-01
The use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to measure cosmogenic radionuclides in meteorites has greatly enabled studies of cosmic-ray exposure histories. The high sensitivity of AMS has allowed measurements of samples that are very small or have very low activities. AMS measurements have much better accuracy and precision than usually possible with decay counting. AMS allows the routine measurements of many long-lived radionuclides, including some with half-lives not regularly measured previously or some made by neutron-capture reactions (such as {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca and {sup 59}Ni). These advancements have enabled many meteorite studies that previously were not often done, such as terrestrial ages. All aspects of a meteorite's cosmic-ray exposure history, its ages and geometries, now can be better studied.
Fraissard, Jacques
1984-01-01
This volume contains the lectures presented at an Advanced Study Institute on "Magnetic Resonance Techniques in Fossil Energy Problems," which was held at the village of Maleme, Crete, in July of 1983. As of this writing, a different popular attitude prevails from that when the ASI was proposed as far as how critical the world energy picture is. In the popular press, a panglossian attitude (the "petroleum glut" of the 80's) has replaced the jeremiads of the 70's ( a catastrophic "energy crisis"). Yet, there are certain important constants: (a) for the foreseeable future, fossil energy sources (petroleum, coal, oil shale, etc. ) will continue to be of paramount importance; and (b) science and technology of the highest order are needed to extend the fossil ener~y resource base and to utilize it in a cost-effective manner that is also environmentally acceptable. It is precisely this second item that this volume addresses. The volume introduces the phenomenology of magnetic resonance ~n a unified and detailed man...
Snowflake divertor configuration studies in National Spherical Torus Experiment
Soukhanovskii, V. A.; McLean, A. G.; Rognlien, T. D.; Ryutov, D. D.; Umansky, M. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaye, S.; Kolemen, E.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Menard, J. E.; Paul, S. F.; Podesta, M.; Roquemore, A. L.; Scotti, F.; Battaglia, D.; Bell, M. G.; Gates, D. A.; Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); and others
2012-08-15
Experimental results from NSTX indicate that the snowflake divertor (D. Ryutov, Phys. Plasmas 14, 064502 (2007)) may be a viable solution for outstanding tokamak plasma-material interface issues. Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux and divertor plate erosion remains to be critical issues for ITER and future concept devices based on conventional and spherical tokamak geometry with high power density divertors. Experiments conducted in 4-6 MW NBI-heated H-mode plasmas in NSTX demonstrated that the snowflake divertor is compatible with high-confinement core plasma operation, while being very effective in steady-state divertor heat flux mitigation and impurity reduction. A steady-state snowflake divertor was obtained in recent NSTX experiments for up to 600 ms using three divertor magnetic coils. The high magnetic flux expansion region of the scrape-off layer (SOL) spanning up to 50% of the SOL width {lambda}{sub q} was partially detached in the snowflake divertor. In the detached zone, the heat flux profile flattened and decreased to 0.5-1 MW/m{sup 2} (from 4-7 MW/m{sup 2} in the standard divertor) indicative of radiative heating. An up to 50% increase in divertor, P{sub rad} in the snowflake divertor was accompanied by broadening of the intrinsic C III and C IV radiation zones, and a nearly order of magnitude increase in divertor high-n Balmer line emission indicative of volumetric recombination onset. Magnetic reconstructions showed that the x-point connection length, divertor plasma-wetted area and divertor volume, all critical parameters for geometric reduction of deposited heat flux, and increased volumetric divertor losses were significantly increased in the snowflake divertor, as expected from theory.
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Buoyant Convection in Geophysical Flows
Fedorovich, E; Viegas, D; Wyngaard, J
1998-01-01
Studies of convection in geophysical flows constitute an advanced and rapidly developing area of research that is relevant to problems of the natural environment. During the last decade, significant progress has been achieved in the field as a result of both experimental studies and numerical modelling. This led to the principal revision of the widely held view on buoyancy-driven turbulent flows comprising an organised mean component with superimposed chaotic turbulence. An intermediate type of motion, represented by coherent structures, has been found to play a key role in geophysical boundary layers and in larger scale atmospheric and hydrospheric circulations driven by buoyant forcing. New aspects of the interaction between convective motions and rotation have recently been discovered and investigated. Extensive experimental data have also been collected on the role of convection in cloud dynamics and microphysics. New theoretical concepts and approaches have been outlined regarding scaling and parameteriz...
Beyond descriptive research: advancing the study of spirituality and health.
Rosmarin, David H; Wachholtz, Amy; Ai, Amy
2011-12-01
The past three decades have witnessed a surge in research on spirituality and health. This growing body of literature has linked many aspects of spirituality as well as religion to both positive and negative indices of human functioning. However, studies have primarily been descriptive, focusing on identifying associations between spirituality and health, rather than explanatory, focusing on identifying mechanisms underlying observed relationships. Earlier research is also limited by failure to control for salient covariates, apply prospective design, and use sophisticated measurements with well defined and empirically-validated factors. Recent research, however, is advancing the study of spirituality and health by examining not only whether religious factors are relevant to human health, but also how spirituality may functionally impact medical and psychological wellbeing and illness. This article introduces a special issue on Spirituality and Health containing 12 full-length research reports to further this welcomed, emerging trend.
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Nonequilibrium Phonon Dynamics
1985-01-01
Phonons are always present in the solid state even at an absolute temperature of 0 K where zero point vibrations still abound. Moreover, phonons interact with all other excitations of the solid state and, thereby, influence most of its properties. Historically experimental information on phonon transport came from measurements of thermal conductivity. Over the past two decades much more, and much more detailed, information on phonon transport and on many of the inherent phonon interaction processes have come to light from experiments which use nonequilibrium phonons to study their dynamics. The resultant research field has most recently blossomed with the development of ever more sophisticated experimental and theoretical methods which can be applied to it. In fact, the field is moving so rapidly that new members of the research community have difficulties in keeping up to date. This NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) was organized with the objective of overcoming the information barrier between those expert...
Study on advancement of in vivo counting using mathematical simulation
Kinase, S
2003-01-01
To obtain an assessment of the committed effective dose, individual monitoring for the estimation of intakes of radionuclides is required. For individual monitoring of exposure to intakes of radionuclides, direct measurement of radionuclides in the body - in vivo counting- is very useful. To advance in a precision in vivo counting which fulfills the requirements of ICRP 1990 recommendations, some problems, such as the investigation of uncertainties in estimates of body burdens by in vivo counting, and the selection of the way to improve the precision, have been studied. In the present study, a calibration technique for in vivo counting application using Monte Carlo simulation was developed. The advantage of the technique is that counting efficiency can be obtained for various shapes and sizes that are very difficult to change for phantoms. To validate the calibration technique, the response functions and counting efficiencies of a whole-body counter installed in JAERI were evaluated using the simulation and m...
Design of the new magnetic sensors for Joint European Torus
Coccorese, V.; Albanese, R.; Altmann, H.; Cramp, S.; Edlington, T.; Fullard, K.; Gerasimov, S.; Huntley, S.; Lam, N.; Loving, A.; Riccardo, V.; Sartori, F.; Marren, C.; McCarron, E.; Sowden, C.; Tidmarsh, J.; Basso, F.; Cenedese, A.; Chitarin, G.; DegliAgostini, F.; Grando, L.; Marcuzzi, D.; Peruzzo, S.; Pomaro, N.; Solano, E. R.
2004-10-01
A new magnetic diagnostics system has been designed for the 2005 Joint European Torus (JET) experimental campaigns onward. The new system, which adds to the existing sensors, aims to improve the JET safety, reliability, and performance, with respect to: (i) equilibrium reconstruction; (ii) plasma shape control; (iii) coil failures; (iv) VDEs; (v) iron modeling; and (vi) magnetohydrodynamics poloidal mode analysis. The system consists of in-vessel and ex-vessel sensors. The former are a set of 38 coil pairs (normal and tangential), located as near as possible to the plasma. Coils are generally grouped in rails, in order to ease remote handling in-vessel installation. The system includes: (i) two outer poloidal limiter arrays (2×7 coil pairs); (ii) two divertor region arrays (2×7 coil pairs); and (iii) two top coil arrays (2×5 coil pairs). Ex-vessel sensors, including discrete coils, Hall probes, and flux loops (26 in total) will be installed on the iron limbs, in order to provide experimental data for the treatment of iron in equilibrium codes. The design is accompanied by a software analysis, aiming to predict the expected improvement.
On the dynamics of tilted black hole-torus systems
Mewes, Vassilios; Font, José A; Montero, Pedro J; Stergioulas, Nikolaos
2016-01-01
We present results from three-dimensional, numerical relativity simulations of a tilted black hole-thick accretion disc system. The simulations are analysed using tracer particles in the disc which are advected with the flow. Such tracers, which we employ in these new simulations for the first time, provide a powerful means to analyse in detail the complex dynamics of tilted black hole-torus systems. We show how its use helps to gain insight in the overall dynamics of the system, discussing the origin of the observed black hole precession and the development of a global non-axisymmetric $m=1$ mode in the disc. Our three-dimensional simulations show the presence of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the instantaneous accretion rate, with frequencies in a range compatible with those observed in low mass X-ray binaries with either a black hole or a neutron star component. The frequency ratio of the dominant low frequency peak and the first overtone is $o_1/f \\sim 1.9$, a frequency ratio not attainable when mo...
Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) Strategic Plan
Kevin Kostelnik; Keith Perry
2007-07-01
Twenty-first century energy challenges include demand growth, national energy security, and global climate protection. The Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) is a public/private partnership between the State of Idaho and its academic research institutions, the federal government through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) managed by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). CAES serves to advance energy security for our nation by expanding the educational opportunities at the Idaho universities in energy-related areas, creating new capabilities within its member institutions, and delivering technological innovations leading to technology-based economic development for the intermountain region. CAES has developed this strategic plan based on the Balanced Scorecard approach. A Strategy Map (Section 7) summarizes the CAES vision, mission, customers, and strategic objectives. Identified strategic objectives encompass specific outcomes related to three main areas: Research, Education, and Policy. Technical capabilities and critical enablers needed to support these objectives are also identified. This CAES strategic plan aligns with and supports the strategic objectives of the four CAES institutions. Implementation actions are also presented which will be used to monitor progress towards fulfilling these objectives.
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Physics of New Laser Sources
Arecchi, F; Mooradian, Aram; Sona, Alberto
1985-01-01
This volume contains the lectures and seminars presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Physics of New Laser Sources", the twelfth course of the Europhysics School of Quantum Electronics, held under the supervision of the Quantum Electronics Division of the European Physical Society. The Institute was held at Centro "I Cappuccini" San Miniato, Tuscany, July 11-21, 1984. The Europhysics School of Quantum Electronics was started in 1970 with the aim of providing instruction for young researchers and advanced students already engaged in the area of quantum electronics or for those wishing to switch into this area after working previously in other areas. From the outset, the School has been under the direction of Prof. F. T. Arecchi, then at the University of Pavia, now at the University of Florence, and Dr. D. Roess of Heraeus, Hanau. In 1981, Prof. H. Walther, University of Munich and Max-Planck Institut fur Quantenoptik joined as co-director. Each year the Directors choose a subj~ct of particular int...
Conceptual design study of advanced acoustic-composite nacelles
Nordstrom, K. E.; Marsh, A. H.; Sargisson, D. F.
1975-01-01
Conceptual studies were conducted to assess the impact of incorporating advanced technologies in the nacelles of a current wide-bodied transport and an advanced technology transport. The improvement possible in the areas of fuel consumption, flyover noise levels, airplane weight, manufacturing costs, and airplane operating cost were evaluated for short and long-duct nacelles. Use of composite structures for acoustic duct linings in the fan inlet and exhaust ducts was considered as well as for other nacelle components. For the wide-bodied transport, the use of a long-duct nacelle with an internal mixer nozzle in the primary exhaust showed significant improvement in installed specific fuel consumption and airplane direct operating costs compared to the current short-duct nacelle. The long-duct mixed-flow nacelle is expected to achieve significant reductions in jet noise during takeoff and in turbo-machinery noise during landing approach. Recommendations were made of the technology development needed to achieve the potential fuel conservation and noise reduction benefits.
Byrne, Vicky; Orndoff, Evelyne; Poritz, Darwin; Schlesinger, Thilini
2013-01-01
All human space missions require significant logistical mass and volume that will become an excessive burden for long duration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The goal of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction & Repurposing (LRR) project is to bring new ideas and technologies that will enable human presence in farther regions of space. The LRR project has five tasks: 1) Advanced Clothing System (ACS) to reduce clothing mass and volume, 2) Logistics to Living (L2L) to repurpose existing cargo, 3) Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) to reprocess materials in space, 4) Trash to Gas (TTG) to extract useful gases from trash, and 5) Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) to integrate these logistical components. The current International Space Station (ISS) crew wardrobe has already evolved not only to reduce some of the logistical burden but also to address crew preference. The ACS task is to find ways to further reduce this logistical burden while examining human response to different types of clothes. The ACS task has been broken into a series of studies on length of wear of various garments: 1) three small studies conducted through other NASA projects (MMSEV, DSH, HI-SEAS) focusing on length of wear of garments treated with an antimicrobial finish; 2) a ground study, which is the subject of this report, addressing both length of wear and subject perception of various types of garments worn during aerobic exercise; and 3) an ISS study replicating the ground study, and including every day clothing to collect information on perception in reduced gravity in which humans experience physiological changes. The goal of the ground study is first to measure how long people can wear the same exercise garment, depending on the type of fabric and the presence of antimicrobial treatment, and second to learn why. Human factors considerations included in the study consist of the Institutional Review Board approval, test protocol and participants' training, and a web
Kim, Chang Hyo; Kim, Seung Cho; Kim, Taek Kyum; Cho, Jin Young; Lee, Hyun Cheol; Lee, Jung Hun; Jung, Gu Young [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
1995-08-01
The neutronics design system of the advanced PWR consists of (i) hexagonal cell and fuel assembly code for generation of homogenized few-group cross sections and (ii) global core neutronics analysis code for computations of steady-state pin-wise or assembly-wise core power distribution, core reactivity with fuel burnup, control rod worth and reactivity coefficients, transient core power, etc.. The major research target of the first year is to establish the numerical method and solution of multi-group diffusion equations for neutronics code development. Specifically, the following studies are planned; (i) Formulation of various numerical methods such as finite element method(FEM), analytical nodal method(ANM), analytic function expansion nodal(AFEN) method, polynomial expansion nodal(PEN) method that can be applicable for the hexagonal core geometry. (ii) Comparative evaluation of the numerical effectiveness of these methods based on numerical solutions to various hexagonal core neutronics benchmark problems. Results are follows: (i) Formulation of numerical solutions to multi-group diffusion equations based on numerical methods. (ii) Numerical computations by above methods for the hexagonal neutronics benchmark problems such as -VVER-1000 Problem Without Reflector -VVER-440 Problem I With Reflector -Modified IAEA PWR Problem Without Reflector -Modified IAEA PWR Problem With Reflector -ANL Large Heavy Water Reactor Problem -Small HTGR Problem -VVER-440 Problem II With Reactor (iii) Comparative evaluation on the numerical effectiveness of various numerical methods. (iv) Development of HEXFEM code, a multi-dimensional hexagonal core neutronics analysis code based on FEM. In the target year of this research, the spatial neutronics analysis code for hexagonal core geometry(called NEMSNAP-H temporarily) will be completed. Combination of NEMSNAP-H with hexagonal cell and assembly code will then equip us with hexagonal core neutronics design system. (Abstract Truncated)
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Hamiltonian Dynamical Systems and Applications
2008-01-01
Physical laws are for the most part expressed in terms of differential equations, and natural classes of these are in the form of conservation laws or of problems of the calculus of variations for an action functional. These problems can generally be posed as Hamiltonian systems, whether dynamical systems on finite dimensional phase space as in classical mechanics, or partial differential equations (PDE) which are naturally of infinitely many degrees of freedom. This volume is the collected and extended notes from the lectures on Hamiltonian dynamical systems and their applications that were given at the NATO Advanced Study Institute in Montreal in 2007. Many aspects of the modern theory of the subject were covered at this event, including low dimensional problems as well as the theory of Hamiltonian systems in infinite dimensional phase space; these are described in depth in this volume. Applications are also presented to several important areas of research, including problems in classical mechanics, continu...
Advances in Studies of Increase of Farmers’ Income
Hua; LIANG; Zhongming; SHEN
2015-01-01
The issue concerning increase of farmers’ income is always a hot spot from central to local areas. Scholars of economics,sociology,and history have made extensive theoretical and empirical studies on this and relevant achievements are abundant. This paper firstly summarized relevant literature research achievements of domestic and foreign scholars. From various agricultural supporting and benefiting policies of central and local government in recent years,it found out major factors restricting growth of farmers’ income. From economic development rules,combining theories of regional comparative advantages,agricultural development and regional economic development,it is expected to solve problems in increase of farmers’ income,and realize scientific policies and management,accurate strategies,advanced and feasible decisions. Finally,it came up with pertinent recommendations for increasing farmers’ income.
Study of nanoscale structural biology using advanced particle beam microscopy
Boseman, Adam J.
This work investigates developmental and structural biology at the nanoscale using current advancements in particle beam microscopy. Typically the examination of micro- and nanoscale features is performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but in order to decrease surface charging, and increase resolution, an obscuring conductive layer is applied to the sample surface. As magnification increases, this layer begins to limit the ability to identify nanoscale surface structures. A new technology, Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), is used to examine uncoated surface structures on the cuticle of wild type and mutant fruit flies. Corneal nanostructures observed with HIM are further investigated by FIB/SEM to provide detailed three dimensional information about internal events occurring during early structural development. These techniques are also used to reconstruct a mosquito germarium in order to characterize unknown events in early oogenesis. Findings from these studies, and many more like them, will soon unravel many of the mysteries surrounding the world of developmental biology.
Advanced studies on Simulation Methodologies for very Complicated Fracture Phenomena
Nishioka, Toshihisa
2010-06-01
Although nowadays, computational techniques are well developed, for Extremely Complicated Fracture Phenomena, they are still very difficult to simulate, for general engineers, researchers. To overcome many difficulties in those simulations, we have developed not only Simulation Methodologies but also theoretical basis and concepts. We sometimes observe extremely complicated fracture patterns, especially in dynamic fracture phenomena such as dynamic crack branching, kinking, curving, etc. For examples, although the humankind, from primitive men to modern scientists such as Albert Einstein had watched the post-mortem patterns of dynamic crack branching, the governing condition for the onset of the phenomena had been unsolved until our experimental study. From in these studies, we found the governing condition of dynamic crack bifurcation, as follows. When the total energy flux per unit time into a propagating crack tip reaches the material crack resistance, the crack braches into two cracks [total energy flux criterion]. The crack branches many times whenever the criterion is satisfied. Furthermore, the complexities also arise due to their time-dependence and/or their-deformation dependence. In order to make it possible to simulate such extremely complicated fracture phenomena, we developed many original advanced computational methods and technologies. These are (i)moving finite element method based on Delaunay automatic triangulation (MFEMBOAT), path independent,(ii) equivalent domain integral expression of the dynamic J integral associated with a continuous auxiliary function,(iii) Mixed phase path-prediction mode simulation, (iv) implicit path prediction criterion. In this paper, these advanced computational methods are thoroughly explained together with successful comparison with the experimental results. Since multiple dynamic crack branching phenomena may be most complicated fracture due to complicated fracture paths, and its time dependence (transient), this
Thermoluminescence measurements of neutron streaming through JET Torus Hall ducts
Obryk, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.obryk@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Batistoni, Paola [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); EURATOM–CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Conroy, Sean [EURATOM-VR Association, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); EURATOM–CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Syme, Brian D.; Popovichev, Sergey [EURATOM–CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Stamatelatos, Ion E.; Vasilopoulou, Theodora [Institute of Nuclear and Radiological Sciences, Energy, Technology and Safety, NCSR “Demokritos”, Athens (Greece); Bilski, Paweł [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland)
2014-10-15
Highlights: •Thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) were used for dose measurements at JET. •Pairs of {sup 6}LiF/{sup 7}LiF TLDs allow to measure thermal neutron component of a radiation field. •For detection of neutrons of higher energy, polyethylene (PE-300) moderators were used. •TLDs were installed at eleven positions in the JET hall and the hall labyrinth. •The experimental results are compared with calculations using the MCNP code. -- Abstract: Thermoluminescence detectors (TLD) were used for dose measurements at JET. Several hundreds of LiF detectors of various types, standard LiF:Mg,Ti and highly sensitive LiF:Mg,Cu,P were produced. LiF detectors consisting of natural lithium are sensitive to slow neutrons, their response to neutrons being enhanced by {sup 6}Li-enriched lithium or suppressed by using lithium consisting entirely of {sup 7}Li. Pairs of {sup 6}LiF/{sup 7}LiF detectors allow distinguishing between neutron/non-neutron components of a radiation field. For detection of neutrons of higher energy, polyethylene (PE-300) moderators were used. TLDs, located in the centre of cylindrical moderators, were installed at eleven positions in the JET hall and the hall labyrinth in July 2012, and exposure took place during the last two weeks of the experimental campaign. Measurements of the gamma dose were obtained for all positions over a range of about five orders of magnitude variation. As the TLDs were also calibrated in a thermal neutron field, the neutron fluence at the experimental position could be derived. The experimental results are compared with calculations using the MCNP code. The results confirm that the TLD technology can be usefully applied to measurements of neutron streaming through JET Torus Hall ducts.
Collinson, James S.; Ward, Martin J.; Landt, Hermine; Done, Chris; Elvis, Martin; McDowell, Jonathan C.
2017-02-01
We continue our study of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 11 active galactic nuclei (AGN) at 1.5 maximal spin (a* = 0.998) can only describe the data if the accretion disc is face-on. The outer accretion disc radii are well constrained in 8/11 objects and are found to be a factor ˜5 smaller than the self-gravity radii. We then extend our modelling campaign into the mid-IR regime with Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry, adding components for the host galaxy and dusty torus. Our estimates of the host galaxy luminosities are consistent with the MBH-bulge relationship, and the measured torus properties (covering factor and temperature) are in agreement with earlier work, suggesting a predominantly silicate-based grain composition. Finally, we deconvolve the optical-NIR spectra using our SED continuum model. We claim that this is a more physically motivated approach than using empirical descriptions of the continuum such as broken power laws. For our small sample, we verify previously noted correlations between emission linewidths and luminosities commonly used for single-epoch MBH estimates, and observe a statistically significant anticorrelation between [O III] equivalent width and AGN luminosity.
Advance study of fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete
Mironova, M., E-mail: mirona@imbm.bas.bg; Ivanova, M., E-mail: magdalena.ivanova@imbm.bas.bg; Naidenov, V., E-mail: valna53@mail.bg [Institute of Mechanics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., bl. 4, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Georgiev, I., E-mail: ivan.georgiev@parallel.bas.bg [Institute of Information and Communication Technologies & Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Stary, J., E-mail: stary@ugn.cas.cz [Institute of Geonics Czech Academy of Sciences, Studentska str., Ostrava 1768 (Czech Republic)
2015-10-28
Incorporation in concrete composition of steel macro- and micro – fiber reinforcement with structural function increases the degree of ductility of typically brittle cement-containing composites, which in some cases can replace completely or partially conventional steel reinforcement in the form of rods and meshes. Thus, that can reduce manufacturing, detailing and placement of conventional reinforcement, which enhances productivity and economic efficiency of the building process. In this paper, six fiber-reinforced with different amounts of steel fiber cement-containing self-compacting compositions are investigated. The results of some of their main strength-deformation characteristics are presented. Advance approach for the study of structural and material properties of these type composites is proposed by using the methods of industrial computed tomography. The obtained original tomography results about the microstructure and characteristics of individual structural components make it possible to analyze the effective macro-characteristics of the studied composites. The resulting analytical data are relevant for the purposes of multi-dimensional modeling of these systems. Multifactor structure-mechanical analysis of the obtained with different methods original scientific results is proposed. It is presented a conclusion of the capabilities and effectiveness of complex analysis in the studies to characterize the properties of self-compacting fiber-reinforced concrete.
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Atoms in Strong Fields
Clark, Charles; Nayfeh, Munir
1990-01-01
This book collects the lectures given at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Atoms in Strong Fields", which took place on the island of Kos, Greece, during the two weeks of October 9-21,1988. The designation "strong field" applies here to an external electromagnetic field that is sufficiently strong to cause highly nonlinear alterations in atomic or molecular struc ture and dynamics. The specific topics treated in this volume fall into two general cater gories, which are those for which strong field effects can be studied in detail in terrestrial laboratories: the dynamics of excited states in static or quasi-static electric and magnetic fields; and the interaction of atoms and molecules with intense laser radiation. In both areas there exist promising opportunities for research of a fundamental nature. An electric field of even a few volts per centimeter can be very strong on the atom ic scale, if it acts upon a weakly bound state. The study of Rydberg states with high reso lution laser spectroscop...
Advanced mathematical study and the development of conditional reasoning skills.
Nina Attridge
Full Text Available Since the time of Plato, philosophers and educational policy-makers have assumed that the study of mathematics improves one's general 'thinking skills'. Today, this argument, known as the 'Theory of Formal Discipline' is used in policy debates to prioritize mathematics in school curricula. But there is no strong research evidence which justifies it. We tested the Theory of Formal Discipline by tracking the development of conditional reasoning behavior in students studying post-compulsory mathematics compared to post-compulsory English literature. In line with the Theory of Formal Discipline, the mathematics students did develop their conditional reasoning to a greater extent than the literature students, despite them having received no explicit tuition in conditional logic. However, this development appeared to be towards the so-called defective conditional understanding, rather than the logically normative material conditional understanding. We conclude by arguing that Plato may have been correct to claim that studying advanced mathematics is associated with the development of logical reasoning skills, but that the nature of this development may be more complex than previously thought.
Advanced mathematical study and the development of conditional reasoning skills.
Attridge, Nina; Inglis, Matthew
2013-01-01
Since the time of Plato, philosophers and educational policy-makers have assumed that the study of mathematics improves one's general 'thinking skills'. Today, this argument, known as the 'Theory of Formal Discipline' is used in policy debates to prioritize mathematics in school curricula. But there is no strong research evidence which justifies it. We tested the Theory of Formal Discipline by tracking the development of conditional reasoning behavior in students studying post-compulsory mathematics compared to post-compulsory English literature. In line with the Theory of Formal Discipline, the mathematics students did develop their conditional reasoning to a greater extent than the literature students, despite them having received no explicit tuition in conditional logic. However, this development appeared to be towards the so-called defective conditional understanding, rather than the logically normative material conditional understanding. We conclude by arguing that Plato may have been correct to claim that studying advanced mathematics is associated with the development of logical reasoning skills, but that the nature of this development may be more complex than previously thought.
New advances in the study of Alpine glaciations
ShangZhe Zhou
2014-01-01
The European Alps is the birthplace of glaciology and in particular Quaternary glaciology and for over one hundred years has been a model region for studying mountain glaciations. In this paper, we review the achievements from this region, which will benefit glaciological studies of the Tibetan Plateau, China. According to new evidences of glaciofluvial de-posits discovered in valleys and forelands of the Alps, researchers have progressed from an original four Pleistocene gla-ciations to seven glaciations:Biber, Donua, Günz, Haslach, Mindel, Riss and Würm. The earliest one Biber possibly oc-curred between the Pliocene and Pleistocene, but the chronology before Riss is still in doubt. Recent years, Riss and Würm glaciations have been supported by a large numbers of cosmogenic exposure dating. In particular, cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating has been carried out for different moraine boulders in numerous valleys, which reveals a series of climatic change events, and they are comparable to post-glacial age records of northern Europe. The advancement of glaciological studies in the Alps is important in promoting glaciological research in the Tibetan Plateau.
Advance study of fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete
Mironova, M.; Ivanova, M.; Naidenov, V.; Georgiev, I.; Stary, J.
2015-10-01
Incorporation in concrete composition of steel macro- and micro - fiber reinforcement with structural function increases the degree of ductility of typically brittle cement-containing composites, which in some cases can replace completely or partially conventional steel reinforcement in the form of rods and meshes. Thus, that can reduce manufacturing, detailing and placement of conventional reinforcement, which enhances productivity and economic efficiency of the building process. In this paper, six fiber-reinforced with different amounts of steel fiber cement-containing self-compacting compositions are investigated. The results of some of their main strength-deformation characteristics are presented. Advance approach for the study of structural and material properties of these type composites is proposed by using the methods of industrial computed tomography. The obtained original tomography results about the microstructure and characteristics of individual structural components make it possible to analyze the effective macro-characteristics of the studied composites. The resulting analytical data are relevant for the purposes of multi-dimensional modeling of these systems. Multifactor structure-mechanical analysis of the obtained with different methods original scientific results is proposed. It is presented a conclusion of the capabilities and effectiveness of complex analysis in the studies to characterize the properties of self-compacting fiber-reinforced concrete.
Cassini capturing of freshly-produced water-group ions in the Enceladus torus
Yaroshenko, V. V.; Miloch, W. J.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.
2012-09-01
The water vapor plume on the geological-active south-polar region of the moon Enceladus is recognized as the main source of Saturn's neutral torus centered on the Enceladus orbit. The composition of the torus is dominated by water group species. Recent in situ Cassini plasma spectrometer measurements indicate the existence of freshly produced, slow and non-thermalized water group ions throughout the Enceladus torus including regions far from the moon. We report the results of modeling spacecraft-plasma interactions in the environment relevant for the Enceladus torus to show that new-born non-thermalized ions will inevitably be captured by the electric fields arising around the charged spacecraft. The associated plasma configuration can directly impact the plasma measurements and thus is important for reliable interpretation of data obtained by Cassini instruments in the Enceladus torus. The simulation results appear to be partially supported by Cassini observations and can provide new insights into intricate process of Enceladus-plasma interactions.
Li, Zhenzhen; Zhou, Hongyan; Wang, Huiyuan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Wen-Juan; Pan, Xiang; Jiang, Peng [Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hao, Lei [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ji, Tuo; Shi, Xiheng; Zhang, Shaohua, E-mail: lizz08@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: zhouhongyan@pric.org.cn, E-mail: haol@shao.ac.cn [Polar Research Institute of China, Jinqiao Rd. 451, Shanghai, 200136 (China)
2015-10-20
The existence of intermediate-width emission line regions (IELRs) in active galactic nuclei has been discussed for over two decades. A consensus, however, is yet to be arrived at due to the lack of convincing evidence for their detection. We present a detailed analysis of the broadband spectrophotometry of the partially obscured quasar OI 287. The ultraviolet intermediate-width emission lines (IELs) are very prominent, in high contrast to the corresponding broad emission lines (BELs) which are heavily suppressed by dust reddening. Assuming that the IELR is virialized, we estimated its distance to the central black hole to be ∼2.9 pc, similar to the dust sublimation radius of ∼1.3 pc. Photo-ionization calculations suggest that the IELR has a hydrogen density of ∼10{sup 8.8}–10{sup 9.4} cm{sup −3}, within the range of values quoted for the dusty torus near the sublimation radius. Both its inferred location and physical conditions suggest that the IELR originates from the inner surface of the dusty torus. In the spectrum of this quasar, we identified only one narrow absorption-line system associated with the dusty material. With the aid of photo-ionization model calculations, we found that the obscuring material might originate from an outer region of the dusty torus. We speculate that the dusty torus, which is exposed to the central ionizing source, may produce IELs through photo-ionization processes, as well as obscure BELs as a natural “coronagraph.” Such a “coronagraph” could be found in a large number of partially obscured quasars and may be a useful tool to study IELRs.
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Chemical Transport in Melasomatic Processes
1987-01-01
As indicated on the title page, this book is an outgrowth of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on Chemical Transport in Metasomatic Processes, which was held in Greece, June 3-16, 1985. The ASI consisted of five days of invited lectures, poster sessions, and discussion at the Club Poseidon near Loutraki, Corinthia, followed by a two-day field trip in Corinthia and Attica. The second week of the ASI consisted of an excursion aboard M/S Zeus, M/Y Dimitrios II, and the M/S Irini to four of the Cycladic Islands to visit, study, and sample outstanding exposures of metasomatic activity on Syros, Siphnos, Seriphos, and Naxos. Nine teen invited lectures and 10 session chairmen/discussion leaders participated in the ASI, which was attended by a total of 92 professional scientists and graduate stu dents from 15 countries. Seventeen of the invited lectures and the Field Excursion Guide are included in this volume, together with 10 papers and six abstracts representing contributed poster sessions. Although more...
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Turbulence, Weak and Strong
Cardoso, O
1994-01-01
The present volume comprises the contributions of some of the participants of the NATO Advance Studies Institute "Turbulence, Weak and Strong", held in Cargese, in August 1994. More than 70 scientists, from seniors to young students, have joined to gether to discuss and review new (and not so new) ideas and developments in the study of turbulence. One of the objectives of the School was to incorporate, in the same meeting, two aspects of turbulence, which are obviously linked, and which are often treated sep arately: fully developed turbulence (in two and three dimensions) and weak turbulence (essentially one and two-dimensional systems). The idea of preparing a dictionary rather than ordinary proceedings started from the feeling that the terminology of turbulence includes many long, technical, poorly evocative words, which are usually not understood by people exterior to the field, and which might be worth explaining. Students who start working in the field of turbulence face a sort of curious situation:...
Fast-ion Energy Loss During TAE Avalanches in the National Spherical Torus Experiment
Fredrickson, E D; Darrow, D S; Gorelenkov, N N; Kramer, G J; Kubota, S; Podesta, M; White, R B; Bortolon, A; Gerhardt, S P; Bell, R E; Diallo, A; LeBlanc, B; Levinton, F M
2012-07-11
Strong TAE avalanches on NSTX, the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557] are typically correlated with drops in the neutron rate in the range of 5% - 15%. In previous studies of avalanches in L-mode plasmas, these neutron drops were found to be consistent with modeled losses of fast ions. Here we expand the study to TAE avalanches in NSTX H-mode plasmas with improved analysis techniques. At the measured TAE mode amplitudes, simulations with the ORBIT code predict that fast ion losses are negligible. However, the simulations predict that the TAE scatter the fast ions in energy, resulting in a small (≈ 6%) drop in fast ion β. The net decrease in energy of the fast ions is sufficient to account for the bulk of the drop in neutron rate, even in the absence of fast ion losses. This loss of energy from the fast ion population is comparable to the estimated energy lost by damping from the Alfven wave during the burst. The previously studied TAE avalanches in L-mode are re-evaluated using an improved calculation of the potential fluctuations in the ORBIT code.
Feasibility study on the development of advanced LWR fuel technology
Jung, Youn Ho; Sohn, D. S.; Jeong, Y. H.; Song, K. W.; Song, K. N.; Chun, T. H.; Bang, J. G.; Bae, K. K.; Kim, D. H. and others
1997-07-01
Worldwide R and D trends related to core technology of LWR fuels and status of patents have been surveyed for the feasibility study. In addition, various fuel cycle schemes have been studied to establish the target performance parameters. For the development of cladding material, establishment of long-term research plan for alloy development and optimization of melting process and manufacturing technology were conducted. A work which could characterize the effect of sintering additives on the microstructure of UO{sub 2} pellet has been experimentally undertaken, and major sintering variables and their ranges have been found in the sintering process of UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} burnable absorber pellet. The analysis of state of the art technology related to flow mixing device for spacer grid and debris filtering device for bottom nozzle and the investigation of the physical phenomena related to CHF enhancement and the establishment of the data base for thermal-hydraulic performance tests has been done in this study. In addition, survey on the documents of the up-to-date PWR fuel assemblies developed by foreign vendors have been carried out to understand their R and D trends and establish the direction of R and D for these structural components. And, to set the performance target of the new fuel, to be developed, fuel burnup and economy under the extended fuel cycle length scheme were estimated. A preliminary study on the failure mechanism of CANDU fuel, key technology and advanced coating has been performed. (author). 190 refs., 31 tabs., 129 figs.
Conceptual design study of advanced fuel fabrication systems
Ken-ya, Tanaka; Shusaku, Kono; Kiyoshi, Ono [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development JNC, Fuel Fabrication System Group, O-Arai Engineering Center, Ibaraki (Japan)
2001-07-01
The fuel fabrication plant images based on the advanced equipment with availability to operate in hot-cell facility are constructed. The characteristics of each fuel fabrication system for economical and environmental are evaluated roughly. The advanced fuel fabrication routes such as simplified pelletizing, vibration compaction and casting process would have the potential for reducing plant construction cost and minimizing the radioactive waste generated from fuel fabrication process. (author)
On the nature of S II emission from Jupiter's hot plasma torus
Brown, R. A.; Shemansky, D. E.
1982-01-01
An effective electron temperature T(e) of 80,000 K is indicated by the Voyager 1 encounter Jupiter hot torus emission rates in the 6731, 1256, 911 and reclassified 765 A transitions of S II. A set of 53 measurements of the S II red line doublet obtained at 5.9 Jupiter radii shows strong, irregular fluctuations in intensity, but no variation in the line ratio. At this distance from Jupiter, the torus is found to be longitudinally uniform in density; this is consonant with Voyager UVS findings, but contrary to magnetic anomaly model predictions. It is suggested that presently unidentified ion-ion and/or iron-atom reactions are responsible for the S II component irregular variations, in view of the fact that electron properties are regular and variable only over a small range in the hot torus at 5.9 Jupiter radii.
Piatek, Marcin
2014-01-01
In this work the correspondence between the semiclassical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory on the torus and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the N=2* (Omega-deformed) U(2) super-Yang-Mills theory is exploited to propose new formulae for the accessory parameter of the Lame equation. It has been found that the Lame accessory parameter is determined by the classical Liouville action on the one-punctured torus or more concretely by the torus classical block evaluated on the saddle point intermediate classical weight. Moreover, as an implication of the aforementioned correspondence it has been obtained that the accessory parameter is related to the sum of all rescaled column lengths of the so-called "critical" Young diagrams extremizing the instanton "free energy". Finally, it has been pointed out that the sum over the "critical" column lengths can be rewritten in terms of a contour integral in which the integrand is built out of certain special functions.
Effect of enclosed fluid on the dynamic response of inflated torus
Srivastava, Ashish; Mishra, B. K.; Jain, S. C.
2008-01-01
Large inflatable structures have been the subject of renewed interest for scientists/engineers in recent years due to their potential space applications such as communication antennas, solar thermal propulsion and space solar power. The major advantages of using inflatable structures in space are their extremely low-weight, on-orbit deployability and inherent low launch volume. An inflated torus is a key component of many inflated space structures such as a thin membrane reflector. In view of their importance, structural static and dynamic behavior of inflated torus need to be investigated. In order to develop a more realistic model, dynamic interaction between the enclosed fluid and the torus has been included in the present work. An appreciable decrease in the modal frequencies is observed when fluid-structure interaction is taken into account. Some additional modes are also obtained. It is concluded that fluid-structure interaction significantly affects the dynamic behavior of inflatable space structures.
Embedding global and collective in a torus network with message class map based tree path selection
Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Eisley, Noel A.; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Senger, Robert M; Salapura, Valentina; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Sugawara, Yutaka; Takken, Todd E.
2016-06-21
Embodiments of the invention provide a method, system and computer program product for embedding a global barrier and global interrupt network in a parallel computer system organized as a torus network. The computer system includes a multitude of nodes. In one embodiment, the method comprises taking inputs from a set of receivers of the nodes, dividing the inputs from the receivers into a plurality of classes, combining the inputs of each of the classes to obtain a result, and sending said result to a set of senders of the nodes. Embodiments of the invention provide a method, system and computer program product for embedding a collective network in a parallel computer system organized as a torus network. In one embodiment, the method comprises adding to a torus network a central collective logic to route messages among at least a group of nodes in a tree structure.
On families of differential equations on two-torus with all phase-lock areas
Glutsyuk, Alexey; Rybnikov, Leonid
2017-01-01
We consider two-parametric families of non-autonomous ordinary differential equations on the two-torus with coordinates (x, t) of the type \\overset{\\centerdot}{{x}} =v(x)+A+Bf(t) . We study its rotation number as a function of the parameters (A, B). The phase-lock areas are those level sets of the rotation number function ρ =ρ (A,B) that have non-empty interiors. Buchstaber, Karpov and Tertychnyi studied the case when v(x)=\\sin x in their joint paper. They observed the quantization effect: for every smooth periodic function f(t) the family of equations may have phase-lock areas only for integer rotation numbers. Another proof of this quantization statement was later obtained in a joint paper by Ilyashenko, Filimonov and Ryzhov. This implies a similar quantization effect for every v(x)=a\\sin (mx)+b\\cos (mx)+c and rotation numbers that are multiples of \\frac{1}{m} . We show that for every other analytic vector field v(x) (i.e. having at least two Fourier harmonics with non-zero non-opposite degrees and nonzero coefficients) there exists an analytic periodic function f(t) such that the corresponding family of equations has phase-lock areas for all the rational values of the rotation number.
Study of an advanced General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE)
Gill, J. C.; Short, F. R.; Staton, D. V.; Zolezzi, B. A.; Curry, C. E.; Orelup, M. J.; Vaught, J. M.; Humphrey, J. M.
1979-01-01
The best technology program for a small, economically viable gas turbine engine applicable to the general aviation helicopter and aircraft market for 1985-1990 was studied. Turboshaft and turboprop engines in the 112 to 746 kW (150 to 1000 hp) range and turbofan engines up to 6672 N (1500 lbf) thrust were considered. A good market for new turbine engines was predicted for 1988 providing aircraft are designed to capitalize on the advantages of the turbine engine. Parametric engine families were defined in terms of design and off-design performance, mass, and cost. These were evaluated in aircraft design missions selected to represent important market segments for fixed and rotary-wing applications. Payoff parameters influenced by engine cycle and configuration changes were aircraft gross mass, acquisition cost, total cost of ownership, and cash flow. Significant advantage over a current technology, small gas turbine engines was found especially in cost of ownership and fuel economy for airframes incorporating an air-cooled high-pressure ratio engine. A power class of 373 kW (500 hp) was recommended as the next frontier for technology advance where large improvements in fuel economy and engine mass appear possible through component research and development.
Implementation of Advanced Warehouses in a Hospital Environment - Case study
Costa, J.; Sameiro Carvalho, M.; Nobre, A.
2015-05-01
In Portugal, there is an increase of costs in the healthcare sector due to several factors such as the aging of the population, the increased demand for health care services and the increasing investment in new technologies. Thus, there is a need to reduce costs, by presenting the effective and efficient management of logistics supply systems with enormous potential to achieve savings in health care organizations without compromising the quality of the provided service, which is a critical factor, in this type of sector. In this research project the implementation of Advanced Warehouses has been studied, in the Hospital de Braga patient care units, based in a mix of replenishment systems approaches: the par level system, the two bin system and the consignment model. The logistics supply process is supported by information technology (IT), allowing a proactive replacement of products, based on the hospital services consumption records. The case study was developed in two patient care units, in order to study the impact of the operation of the three replenishment systems. Results showed that an important inventory holding costs reduction can be achieved in the patient care unit warehouses while increasing the service level and increasing control of incoming and stored materials with less human resources. The main conclusion of this work illustrates the possibility of operating multiple replenishment models, according to the types of materials that healthcare organizations deal with, so that they are able to provide quality health care services at a reduced cost and economically sustainable. The adoption of adequate IT has been shown critical for the success of the project.
Ichikawa, Kohei; Ueda, Yoshihiro [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Packham, Christopher; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; Alsip, Crystal D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Almeida, Cristina Ramos; Ramos, Andrés Asensio; González-Martín, Omaira [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/Vía Láctea, s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Alonso-Herrero, Almudena [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Díaz-Santos, Tanio [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Elitzur, Moshe [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Hönig, Sebastian F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Imanishi, Masatoshi [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Levenson, Nancy A. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Mason, Rachel E. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Perlman, Eric S., E-mail: ichikawa@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, 150 W. University Blvd., Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)
2015-04-20
We present results from the fitting of infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions of 21 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with clumpy torus models. We compiled high spatial resolution (∼0.3–0.7 arcsec) mid-IR (MIR) N-band spectroscopy, Q-band imaging, and nuclear near- and MIR photometry from the literature. Combining these nuclear near- and MIR observations, far-IR photometry, and clumpy torus models enables us to put constraints on the torus properties and geometry. We divide the sample into three types according to the broad line region (BLR) properties: type-1s, type-2s with scattered or hidden broad line region (HBLR) previously observed, and type-2s without any published HBLR signature (NHBLR). Comparing the torus model parameters gives us the first quantitative torus geometrical view for each subgroup. We find that NHBLR AGNs have smaller torus opening angles and larger covering factors than HBLR AGNs. This suggests that the chance to observe scattered (polarized) flux from the BLR in NHBLR could be reduced by the dual effects of (a) less scattering medium due to the reduced scattering volume given the small torus opening angle and (b) the increased torus obscuration between the observer and the scattering region. These effects give a reasonable explanation for the lack of observed HBLR in some type-2 AGNs.
Holzenspies, P.K.F.; Schepers, Erik; Bach, Wouter; Jonker, Mischa; Sikkes, Bart; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Havinga, Paul J.M.
2003-01-01
Routing on a two-dimensional torus architecture by means of the wormhole routing algorithm is introduced and extended to an n-dimensional torus model. To prevent blocking deadlocks caused by this algorithm, a multiple virtual channel solution is introduced. An implementation of virtual channels is
Study on advancement of in vivo counting using mathematical simulation
Kinase, Sakae [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
2003-05-01
To obtain an assessment of the committed effective dose, individual monitoring for the estimation of intakes of radionuclides is required. For individual monitoring of exposure to intakes of radionuclides, direct measurement of radionuclides in the body - in vivo counting- is very useful. To advance in a precision in vivo counting which fulfills the requirements of ICRP 1990 recommendations, some problems, such as the investigation of uncertainties in estimates of body burdens by in vivo counting, and the selection of the way to improve the precision, have been studied. In the present study, a calibration technique for in vivo counting application using Monte Carlo simulation was developed. The advantage of the technique is that counting efficiency can be obtained for various shapes and sizes that are very difficult to change for phantoms. To validate the calibration technique, the response functions and counting efficiencies of a whole-body counter installed in JAERI were evaluated using the simulation and measurements. Consequently, the calculations are in good agreement with the measurements. The method for the determination of counting efficiency curves as a function of energy was developed using the present technique and a physiques correction equation was derived from the relationship between parameters of correction factor and counting efficiencies of the JAERI whole-body counter. The uncertainties in body burdens of {sup 137}Cs estimated with the JAERI whole-body counter were also investigated using the Monte Carlo simulation and measurements. It was found that the uncertainties of body burdens estimated with the whole-body counter are strongly dependent on various sources of uncertainty such as radioactivity distribution within the body and counting statistics. Furthermore, the evaluation method of the peak efficiencies of a Ge semi-conductor detector was developed by Monte Carlo simulation for optimum arrangement of Ge semi-conductor detectors for
From Canards of Folded Singularities to Torus Canards in a Forced van der Pol Equation
Burke, John; Desroches, Mathieu; Granados, Albert;
2016-01-01
to the intermediate- and high-frequency forcing regimes and show that the forced van der Pol possesses torus canards instead. These torus canards consist of long segments near families of attracting and repelling limit cycles of the fast system, in alternation. We also derive explicit formulas for the parameter......-frequency periodically driven slow/fast systems with two fast variables and one slow variable which possess a non-degenerate fold of limit cycles. The analytic techniques used herein rely on geometric desingularisation, invariant manifold theory, Melnikov theory, and normal form methods. The numerical methods used...
S S Kannan; S K Pattanayak
2009-09-01
In this paper, for any simple, simply connected algebraic group of type , or and for any maximal parabolic subgroup of , we describe all minimal dimensional Schubert varieties in $G/P$ admitting semistable points for the action of a maximal torus with respect to an ample line bundle on $G/P$. We also describe, for any semi-simple simply connected algebraic group and for any Borel subgroup of , all Coxeter elements for which the Schubert variety () admits a semistable point for the action of the torus with respect to a non-trivial line bundle on / .
The Coulomb gas representation of critical RSOS models on the sphere and the torus
Foda, O. (Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Inst. voor Theoretische Fysica); Nienhuis, B. (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Inst. Lorentz voor Theoretische Natuurkunde)
1989-10-02
We derive the Coulomb gas formulation of the c<1 discrete unitary series, on the sphere and the torus, starting from the corresponding regime-III RSOS models on a square lattice with appropriate topology. We clarify the origin of the background charge, the screening charges, and the choice of operator representations in a correlation function. In the scaling limit, we obtain a bosonic action coupled to the background curvature in addition to topological terms that vanish on the Riemann sphere. Its Virasoro algebra has the central charge expected on the basis of comparing conformal dimensions. As an application, we derive general expressions for the correlation functions on the torus. (orig.).
Influence of globalmagnetic perturbations on plasma behavior in Elmo Bumpy Torus
Quon, B.H.; Dandl, R.A.; Colestock, P.L.; :Bieniosek, F.M.; Ikegami, H.
1979-02-01
The sensitivity of plasma confinement to magnetic field error effects has been tested experimentally using externally introduced global field errors on the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT). Below a critical error field (deltaB/sub r//B)/sub cr/ of approx. = to 0.6-1 x 10/sup -3/ the plasma was observed to be essentially free from convective cells, toroidal currents, and instabilities. This observed critical value is comparable to a neoclassical critical field error (deltaB/sub r//B)/sub cr/ approx. = rho/R, the ratio of the ion Larmor radius to the major radius of the torus.
Progress of the Keda Torus eXperiment Project in China: design and mission
Liu, Wandong; Mao, Wenzhe; Li, Hong; Xie, Jinlin; Lan, Tao; Liu, Ahdi; Wan, Shude; Wang, Hai; Zheng, Jian; Wen, Xiaohui; Zhou, Haiyang; You, Wei; Li, Chenguang; Bai, Wei; Tu, Cui; Tan, Mingsheng; Luo, Bing; Fu, Chenshuo; Huang, Fangcheng; Xiao, Bingjia; Luo, Zhengping; Shen, Biao; Fu, Peng; Yang, Lei; Song, Yuntao; Yang, Qingxi; Zheng, Jinxing; Xu, Hao; Zhang, Ping; Xiao, Chijin; Ding, Weixing
2014-09-01
The Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX) is a medium-sized reversed field pinch (RFP) device under construction at the University of Science and Technology of China. The KTX has a major radius of 1.4 m and a minor radius of 0.4 m with an Ohmic discharge current up to 1 MA. The expected electron density and temperature are, respectively, 2 × 1019 m-3 and 800 eV. A combination of a stainless steel vacuum chamber and a thin copper shell (with a penetration time of 20 ms) surrounding the plasma provides an opportunity for studying resistive wall mode instabilities. The unique double-C design of the KTX vacuum vessel allows access to the interior of the KTX for easy first-wall modifications and investigations of power and particle handling, a largely unexplored territory in RFP research leading to demonstration of the fusion potential of the RFP concept. An active feedback mode control system is designed and will be implemented in the second phase of the KTX program. The recent progress of this program will be presented, including the design of the vacuum vessel, magnet systems and power supplies.
Gerhardt, S.P., Menard, J.E., and the NSTX Research Team
2008-12-17
A detailed analysis of the plasma current quench in the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M.Ono, et al Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] is presented. The fastest current quenches are fit better by a linear waveform than an exponential one. Area-normalized current quench times down to .4 msec/m2 have been observed, compared to the minimum of 1.7 msec/m2 recommendation based on conventional aspect ratio tokamaks; as noted in previous ITPA studies, the difference can be explained by the reduced self-inductance at low aspect ratio and high-elongation. The maximum instantaneous dIp/dt is often many times larger than the mean quench rate, and the plasma current before the disruption is often substantially less than the flat-top value. The poloidal field time-derivative during the disruption, which is directly responsible for driving eddy currents, has been recorded at various locations around the vessel. The Ip quench rate, plasma motion, and magnetic geometry all play important roles in determining the rate of poloidal field change.
A high time resolution x-ray diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus
DuBois, Ami M.; Lee, John David; Almagri, Abdulgadar F.
2015-07-01
A new high time resolution x-ray detector has been installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) to make measurements around sawtooth events. The detector system is comprised of a silicon avalanche photodiode, a 20 ns Gaussian shaping amplifier, and a 500 MHz digitizer with 14-bit sampling resolution. The fast shaping time diminishes the need to restrict the amount of x-ray flux reaching the detector, limiting the system dead-time. With a much higher time resolution than systems currently in use in high temperature plasma physics experiments, this new detector has the versatility to be used in a variety of discharges with varying flux and the ability to study dynamics on both slow and fast time scales. This paper discusses the new fast x-ray detector recently installed on MST and the improved time resolution capabilities compared to the existing soft and hard x-ray diagnostics. In addition to the detector hardware, improvements to the detector calibration and x-ray pulse identification software, such as additional fitting parameters and a more sophisticated fitting routine are discussed. Finally, initial data taken in both high confinement and standard reversed-field pinch plasma discharges are compared.
Black Hole Search with Finite Automata Scattered in a Synchronous Torus
Chalopin, Jérémie; Labourel, Arnaud; Markou, Euripides
2011-01-01
We consider the problem of locating a black hole in synchronous anonymous networks using finite state agents. A black hole is a harmful node in the network that destroys any agent visiting that node without leaving any trace. The objective is to locate the black hole without destroying too many agents. This is difficult to achieve when the agents are initially scattered in the network and are unaware of the location of each other. Previous studies for black hole search used more powerful models where the agents had non-constant memory, were labelled with distinct identifiers and could either write messages on the nodes of the network or mark the edges of the network. In contrast, we solve the problem using a small team of finite-state agents each carrying a constant number of identical tokens that could be placed on the nodes of the network. Thus, all resources used in our algorithms are independent of the network size. We restrict our attention to oriented torus networks and first show that no finite team of...
Penna, M; Lin, W Y; Feng, A S
2001-12-01
We investigated the response selectivities of single auditory neurons in the torus semicircularis of Batrachyla antartandica (a leptodactylid from southern Chile) to synthetic stimuli having diverse temporal structures. The advertisement call for this species is characterized by a long sequence of brief sound pulses having a dominant frequency of about 2000 Hz. We constructed five different series of synthetic stimuli in which the following acoustic parameters were systematically modified, one at a time: pulse rate, pulse duration, pulse rise time, pulse fall time, and train duration. The carrier frequency of these stimuli was fixed at the characteristic frequency of the units under study (n=44). Response patterns of TS units to these synthetic call variants revealed different degrees of selectivity for each of the temporal variables. A substantial number of neurons showed preference for pulse rates below 2 pulses s(-1), approximating the values found in natural advertisement calls. Tonic neurons generally showed preferences for long pulse durations, long rise and fall times, and long train durations. In contrast, phasic and phasic-burst neurons preferred stimuli with short duration, short rise and fall times and short train durations.
Advanced cogeneration research study. Survey of cogeneration potential
Slonski, M. L.
1983-01-01
Fifty-five facilities that consumed substantial amounts of electricity, natural gas, or fuel oil were surveyed by telephone in 1983. The primary objective of the survey was to estimate the potential electricity that could be generated in the SCE service territory using cogeneration technology. An estimated 3667 MW sub e could potentially be generated using cogenerated technology. Of this total, current technology could provide 2569 MW sub p and advanced technology could provide 1098 MW sub e. Approximately 1611 MW sub t was considered not feasible to produce electricity with either current or advanced cogeneration technology.
The circular loxodromic lines of the torus – Brunelleschi's constructive principle?
Nevena Radojevic
2015-07-01
-dimensional transformation of a toric surface (the outer sail we suddenly arrive at a hypothetical torus with the major diameter of exact 10 Florentine braccia and the minore one that measures exactly 2 braccia and a half. This form has been verified by overlaying the thus constructed NURBS 3d model to the point cloud MESH model, and the result was very satisfactory (of course for the inner sail because the outer one is not visible at this time.A further study, of this "hypothetical" torus, and in order to make a purely constructive hypothesis, made us understand how it would also be possible to build by using only chords, because it has some very special features. The ribs of the dome present the Villarceau's circumferences of the toric sail, which are also the rhumb lines of the torus. As we know, a rhumb line is described by a constant step (in the ratio between length and height on any surface. Translated in the "standard" size of bricks, these curves may have the slope of 1:2 or 1: 4 (the brick put crosswise, while it is particularly complex to achieve different gradients.In our case, of sail built onto a dodecagon's side, the slope of the circular rhumb line is given by half the internal angle (360°/12/2=15°, which corresponds to the slope of 1: 3.73 ratio. By making the slope of 1: 4 ratio - from the center of the polygon, we reach a point on its side that is located0.19 braccia of its vertex. That measure corresponds exactly to the size of the detected rib's width of 0.38 braccia (2x0.19.This particular circular rhumb line, might have given the enormous constructive advantages in phase of realization. In fact it allows (in theory to determine, all the points in the space that belong to the toric surface, by using only a cord attached in the center of the related circumference and the correct position of bricks. So, that way, the construction place becomes a research site on these particular curves, that produced particular knowledge that might be used later during the construction
Advanced control of a water supply system: a case study
Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.
2014-01-01
Conventional automatic production flow control and pump pressure control of water supply systems are robust and simple: production flow is controlled based on the level in the clear water reservoir and pump pressure is controlled on a static set-point. Recently, more advanced computer-based control
Christophorou, L; Luessen, L
1988-01-01
As the various disciplines of science advance, they proliferate and tend to become more esoteric. Barriers of specialized terminologies form, which cause scientists to lose contact with their colleagues, and differences in points-of-view emerge which hinder the unification of knowledge among the various disciplines, and even within a given discipline. As a result, the scientist, and especially the student, is in many instances offered fragmented glimpses of subjects that are funda mentally synthetic and that should be treated in their own right. Such seems to be the case of the liquid state. Unlike the other states of matter -- gases, solids, and plasmas -- the liquid state has not yet received unified treatment, probably because it has been the least explored and remains the least understood state of matter. Occasionally, events occur which help remove some of the barriers that separate scientists and disciplines alike. Such an event was the ASI on The Liquid State held this past July at the lovely Hotel T...
Phases of three dimensional large N QCD on a continuum torus
Narayanan, R; Reynoso, F
2007-01-01
It is established by numerical means that continuum large N QCD defined on a three dimensional torus can exist in four different phases. They are (i) confined phase; (ii) deconfined phase; (iii) small box at zero temperature and (iv) small box at high temperatures.
THE FUNDAMENTAL GROUP OF THE AUTOMORPHISM GROUP OF A NONCOMMUTATIVE TORUS
无
2000-01-01
Assume that each completely irrational noncommutative torus is realized as an inductive limit of circle algebras, and that for a completely irrational noncommutative torus Aω of rank m there are a completely irrational noncommutative torus Aρ of rank m and a positive integer d such that tr(Aω) = 1/d. tr(Aρ). It is proved that the set of all C*-algebras of sections of locally trivial C*-algebra bundles over S2 with fibres Aω has a group structure, denoted by πs1(Aut(Aω)), which is isomorphic to Z. if d > 1 and {0} if d > 1. Let Bcd be a cd-homogeneous C*-algebra over S2 × T2 of which no non-trivial matrix algebra can be factored out. The spherical noncommutative torus Scdρ is defined by twisting C*(T2 × Zm-2) in Bcd C*(Zm-2) by a totally skew multiplier ρ on T2 × Zm-2. It is shown that Scdρ Mp∞ is isomorphic to C(S2) C*(T2 × Zm-2,ρ) Mcd(C) Mp∞ if and only if the set of prime factors of cd is a subset of the set of prime factors of p.
Design and simulation of a Torus topology for network on chip
Wu Chang; Li Yubai; Chai Song
2008-01-01
Aiming at the applications of NOC(network on chip)technology in rising scale and complexity on chip systems,a Torus structure and corresponding route algorithm for NOC is proposed.This Torus structure improves traditional Torus topology and redefines the denotations of the routers.Through redefining the router denotations and changing the origihal router locations,the Torns structure for NOC application is reconstructed.On the basis of this structure.a dead-lock and live-lock free route algorithm is designed according to dimension increase.System C is used to implement this structure and the route algorithm is simulated.In the four different traffic patterns.average,hotspot 13%,hotspot 67% and transpose,the average delay and normalization throughput of this Torus structure are evaluated.Then,the performance of delay and throughput between this Torns and Mesh structure is compared.The results indicate that this Torns structure is more suitable for NOC applications.
Condensates and instanton - torus knot duality. Hidden Physics at UV scale
Gorsky, A
2014-01-01
We establish the duality between the torus knot superpolynomials or the Poincare polynomials of the Khovanov homology and particular condensates in Omega-deformed 5D supersymmetric QED compactified on a circle with 5d Chern-Simons(CS) term. This is the generalization of the Witten's recipe of the evaluation of the knot polynomials via Wilson loops in 3d CS theory for case of the torus knots. It is explicitly shown that $n$-instanton contribution to the condensate of the massless flavor in the background of four-observable, which can be associated with some composite defect, exactly coincides with the superpolynomial of the T(n,nk+1) torus knot where k - is the level of CS term. In contrast to the previously known results, the particular torus knot corresponds not to the partition function of the gauge theory but to the particular instanton contribution and summation over the knots has to be performed in order to obtain the complete answer. The instantons are sitting almost at the top of each other and the phy...
On the hyperbolic automorphisms of the 2-torus and their Markov partitions
Anosov, Dmitry V.; Alexey V. Klimenko; Kolutsky, Grisha
2008-01-01
In the paper we give an introduction to Anosov diffeomorphisms, ways to represent their chaotic properties and some historical remarks on this subject. A complete classification of hyperbolic linear automorphisms of 2-torus is presented. We introduce a notion of pre-Markov partition for such automorphisms and give their classification and an algorithm for their construction.
Reverberation Response Models of the Infrared Dust Emission from a Clumpy Torus
Almeyda, Triana
2016-08-01
The obscuring circum-nuclear dusty torus is a major component of AGN and yet, thus far, its shape, composition, and structure have not been well constrained by observations. However, using indirect methods such as reverberation mapping, the size and structure of the torus can be estimated through the time variability of the dusty torus emission in response to changes in the AGN luminosity. I will discuss the computer simulation that I have developed in order to extract structural information from the infrared light curves of 12 Type 1 AGN, obtained during a 2.5 year monitoring campaign using the Spitzer Space Telescope and several ground-based optical telescopes. Given an input optical light curve, the code computes the temporal response of the infrared emission spectrum of a 3D ensemble of dust clouds as a function of time. I will present simulations exploring the effects of various geometrical and structural properties, dust cloud orientation, and anisotropy of the illuminating radiation field on the dusty torus response at selected infrared wavelengths. I will also compare model infrared light curves to those observed for the recently discovered changing-look AGN, NGC 6418.
On the existence of star products on quotient spaces of linear Hamiltonian torus actions
Herbig, Hans-Christian; Iyengar, Srikanth B.; Pflaum, Markus J.
2009-01-01
We discuss BFV deformation quantization (Bordemann et al. in A homological approach to singular reduction in deformation quantization, singularity theory, pp. 443–461. World Scientific, Hackensack, 2007) in the special case of a linear Hamiltonian torus action. In particular, we show that the Kos...
Computation-free presentation of the fundamental group of generic $(p,q)$-torus curves
Bartolo, Enrique Artal; Ortigas-Galindo, Jorge
2012-01-01
In this note, we present a new method for computing fundamental groups of curve complements using a variation of the Zariski-Van Kampen method on general ruled surfaces. As an application we give an alternative (computation-free) proof for the fundamental group of generic $(p,q)$-torus curves.
Investigating the dusty torus of Seyfert galaxies using SOFIA/FORCAST photometry
Fuller, Lindsay; Packham, Chris; Ramos-Almeida, Cristina; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Levenson, Nancy; Radomski, James; Ichikawa, Kohei; Garcia-Bernete, Ismael; Gonzalez-Martin, Omaira; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Martinez-Parades, Mariela
2016-01-01
We present 31.5 micron imaging photometry of 11 nearby Seyfert galaxies observed from the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) using the Faint Object infraRed CAmera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST). We tentatively detect extended 31 micron emission for the first time in our sample. In combination with this new data set, subarcsecond resolution 1-18 micron imaging and 7.5-13 micron spectroscopic observations were used to compute the nuclear spectral energy distribution (SED) of each galaxy. We found that the turnover of the torus emission does not occur at wavelengths <31.5 micron, which we interpret as a lower-limit for the wavelength of peak emission. We used CLUMPY torus models to fit the nuclear infrared (IR) SED and infer trends in the physical parameters of the AGN torus for the galaxies in the sample. Including the 31.5 micron nuclear flux in the SED 1) reduces the number of clumpy torus models compatible with the data, and 2) modifies the model output for the outer radial exten...
Topological Representations of $U_q(sl_2)$ on the Torus and the Mapping Class Group
Crivelli, M; Wieczerkowski, C; Felder, Giovanni
1993-01-01
We compute the mapping class group action on cycles on the configuration space of the torus with one puncture, with coefficients in a local system arising in conformal field theory. This action commutes with the topological action of the quantum group $U_q(sl_2)$, and is given in vertex form.
The spectrum of the torus profile to a geometric variational problem with long range interaction
Ren, Xiaofeng; Wei, Juncheng
2017-08-01
The profile problem for the Ohta-Kawasaki diblock copolymer theory is a geometric variational problem. The energy functional is defined on sets in R3 of prescribed volume and the energy of an admissible set is its perimeter plus a long range interaction term related to the Newtonian potential of the set. This problem admits a solution, called a torus profile, that is a set enclosed by an approximate torus of the major radius 1 and the minor radius q. The torus profile is both axially symmetric about the z axis and reflexively symmetric about the xy-plane. There is a way to set up the profile problem in a function space as a partial differential-integro equation. The linearized operator L of the problem at the torus profile is decomposed into a family of linear ordinary differential-integro operators Lm where the index m = 0 , 1 , 2 , … is called a mode. The spectrum of L is the union of the spectra of the Lm's. It is proved that for each m, when q is sufficiently small, Lm is positive definite. (0 is an eigenvalue for both L0 and L1, due to the translation and rotation invariance.) As q tends to 0, more and more Lm's become positive definite. However no matter how small q is, there is always a mode m of which Lm has a negative eigenvalue. This mode grows to infinity like q - 3 / 4 as q → 0.
REPRESENTATIONS OF A CLASS OF ASSOCIATIVE ALGEBRAS ON THE QUANTUM TORUS OF RANK n
Lin Shangyuan; You Zhefeng
2008-01-01
In this paper,we present three types of representations over Anq defined based on the quantum torus of rank n,which are closely related to modules over some vertex algebras. The isomorphism classes among these modules are also determined.
Degree-Regular Triangulations of Torus and Klein Bottle-Erratum
Basudeb Datta; Ashish Kumar Upadhyay
2005-08-01
A triangulation of a connected closed surface is called weakly regular if the action of its automorphism group on its vertices is transitive. A triangulation of a connected closed surface is called degree-regular if each of its vertices have the same degree. Clearly, a weakly regular triangulation is degree-regular. In [8], Lutz has classified all the weakly regular triangulations on at most 15 vertices. In [5], Datta and Nilakantan have classified all the degree-regular triangulations of closed surfaces on at most 11 vertices. In this article, we have proved that any degree-regular triangulation of the torus is weakly regular. We have shown that there exists an -vertex degree-regular triangulation of the Klein bottle if and only if is a composite number ≥ 9. We have constructed two distinct -vertex weakly regular triangulations of the torus for each ≥ 12 and a (4+2)-vertex weakly regular triangulation of the Klein bottle for each ≥ 2. For 12 ≤ ≤ 15, we have classified all the -vertex degree-regular triangulations of the torus and the Klein bottle. There are exactly 19 such triangulations, 12 of which are triangulations of the torus and remaining 7 are triangulations of the Klein bottle. Among the last 7, only one is weakly regular.
Renewable Energy Laboratory Development for Biofuels Advanced Combustion Studies
Soloiu, Valentin A. [Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro, GA (United States)
2012-03-31
The research advanced fundamental science and applied engineering for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines and meeting emissions regulations with biofuels. The project developed a laboratory with new experiments and allowed investigation of new fuels and their combustion and emissions. This project supports a sustainable domestic biofuels and automotive industry creating economic opportunities across the nation, reducing the dependence on foreign oil, and enhancing U.S. energy security. The one year period of research developed fundamental knowledge and applied technology in advanced combustion, emissions and biofuels formulation to increase vehicle's efficiency. Biofuels combustion was investigated in a Compression Ignition Direct Injection (DI) to develop idling strategies with biofuels and an Indirect Diesel Injection (IDI) intended for auxiliary power unit.
Renewable Energy Laboratory Development for Biofuels Advanced Combustion Studies
Soloiu, Valentin [Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro, GA (United States)
2012-03-31
The research advanced fundamental science and applied engineering for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines and meeting emissions regulations with biofuels. The project developed a laboratory with new experiments and allowed investigation of new fuels and their combustion and emissions. This project supports a sustainable domestic biofuels and automotive industry creating economic opportunities across the nation, reducing the dependence on foreign oil, and enhancing U.S. energy security. The one year period of research developed fundamental knowledge and applied technology in advanced combustion, emissions and biofuels formulation to increase vehicle's efficiency. Biofuels combustion was investigated in a Compression Ignition Direct Injection (DI) to develop idling strategies with biofuels and an Indirect Diesel Injection (IDI) intended for auxiliary power unit.
Advanced Multispectral Scanner (AMS) study. [aircraft remote sensing
1978-01-01
The status of aircraft multispectral scanner technology was accessed in order to develop preliminary design specifications for an advanced instrument to be used for remote sensing data collection by aircraft in the 1980 time frame. The system designed provides a no-moving parts multispectral scanning capability through the exploitation of linear array charge coupled device technology and advanced electronic signal processing techniques. Major advantages include: 10:1 V/H rate capability; 120 deg FOV at V/H = 0.25 rad/sec; 1 to 2 rad resolution; high sensitivity; large dynamic range capability; geometric fidelity; roll compensation; modularity; long life; and 24 channel data acquisition capability. The field flattening techniques of the optical design allow wide field view to be achieved at fast f/nos for both the long and short wavelength regions. The digital signal averaging technique permits maximization of signal to noise performance over the entire V/H rate range.
Coal and char studies by advanced EMR techniques
Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.; Odintsov, B.M.
1999-03-31
Advanced magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During this grant period, further progress was made on proton NMR and low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to examine the interaction between fluids such as water and the surface of suspended char particles. Effects of char particle size and type on water nuclear spin relaxation, T2, were measured and modeled.
Advances in the study of hybrid finite elements
无
2000-01-01
Some new concepts and research progress in hybrid finite elements advanced in recent years are in troduced. On the basis of incompatible energy consistency analysis, the optimal condition of hybrid elements is derived and the formulation for fulfilling this condition is given. A post-processing penalty equilibrium optimization technique of hybrid element is presented to create high quality hybrid model. For incompressible problems, a method of deviatoric hybrid element is proposed and unification of computation between compressible and incompressible media is achieved.
Tool-path planning for free-form surface high-speed high-resolution machining using torus cutter
WANG Yu-han; LI Ru-qiong; WU Zu-yu; CHEN Zhao-neng
2006-01-01
In CNC machining, two essential components decide the accuracy and machining time for a sculptured surface: one is the step-size interval, the other is the tool-path interval. Due to the limitation of the conventional method for calculating the tool-path interval, it cannot satisfy the machining requirement for highspeed and high-resolution machining. Accordingly, for high-speed and high-resolution machining, the current study proposes a new tool-path interval algorithm, plus a variable step-size algorithm for NURBS. Furthermore,a new type cutter, which can improve the cutting efficiency, is investigated in the paper. The transversal equation of the torus cutter onto the flat plan is given in this paper. The tool-path interval is calculated with the transversal equation and the proposed algorithm. The illustrated example shows that the redundant tool paths can be reduced because an accurate tool-path interval could be calculated.
Roth, J. R.
1976-01-01
Parametric variation of independent variables which may affect the characteristics of bumpy torus plasma have identified those which have a significant effect on the plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density, and those which do not. Empirical power law correlations of the plasma current, and the ion kinetic temperature and number density were obtained as functions of potential applied to the midplane electrode rings, the background neutral gas pressure, and the magnetic field strength. Additional parameters studied included the type of gas, the polarity of the midplane electrode rings, the mode of plasma operation, and the method of measuring the plasma number density. No significant departures from the scaling laws appear to occur at the highest ion kinetic temperatures or number densities obtained to date.
Stearns, M.; Wilbers, L.
1982-01-01
Cost benefit studies were conducted on six advanced materials and processes technologies applicable to commercial engines planned for production in the 1985 to 1990 time frame. These technologies consisted of thermal barrier coatings for combustor and high pressure turbine airfoils, directionally solidified eutectic high pressure turbine blades, (both cast and fabricated), and mixers, tail cones, and piping made of titanium-aluminum alloys. A fabricated titanium fan blisk, an advanced turbine disk alloy with improved low cycle fatigue life, and a long-life high pressure turbine blade abrasive tip and ceramic shroud system were also analyzed. Technologies showing considerable promise as to benefits, low development costs, and high probability of success were thermal barrier coating, directionally solidified eutectic turbine blades, and abrasive-tip blades/ceramic-shroud turbine systems.
Elsner, R. F.; Ramsey, B. D.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Rehak, P.; Johnson, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Swartz, D. A.
2004-01-01
Remote observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the XMM-Newton Observatory have shown that the Jovian system is a source of x-rays with a rich and complicated structure. The planet's polar auroral zones and its disk are powerful sources of x-ray emission. Chandra observations revealed x-ray emission from the Io Plasma Torus and from the Galilean moons Io, Europa, and possibly Ganymede. The emission from these moons is certainly due to bombardment of their surfaces of highly energetic protons, oxygen and sulfur ions from the region near the Torus exciting atoms in their surfaces and leading to fluorescent x-ray emission lines. Although the x-ray emission from the Galilean moons is faint when observed fiom Earth orbit, an imaging x-ray spectrometer in orbit around these moons, operating at 200 eV and above with 150 eV energy resolution, would provide a detailed mapping (down to 40 m spatial resolution) of the elemental composition in their surfaces. Here we describe the physical processes leading to x-ray emission fiom the surfaces of Jupiter's moons and the instrumental properties, as well as energetic ion flux models or measurements, required to map the elemental composition of their surfaces. We discuss the proposed scenarios leading to possible surface compositions. For Europa, the two most extreme are (1) a patina produced by exogenic processes such as meteoroid bombardment and ion implantation, and (2) upwelling of material fiom the subsurface ocean. We also describe the characteristics of X - m , an imaging x-ray spectrometer under going a feasibility study for the JIM0 mission, with the ultimate goal of providing unprecedented x-ray studies of the elemental composition of the surfaces of Jupiter's icy moons and Io, as well as of Jupiter's auroral x-ray emission.
A Feasibility Study for Advanced Technology Integration for General Aviation.
1980-05-01
a homogeneou-.i 13- --iar-e agn.an :o’ner L-.-nit is a:a6L’-.ed ’-1- ---el oc:an~e nune .?rasent -2nqiaes :)!era::a a.- -’, or. --he orfer ~ 3. :1 3I...Exposition, Wichita, Kansas. April 3-6, 1979. Society of Automotive Engineers. inc., Warrendale, ?ennsy . vania . ,G. Church, George W. Advances...ics and Astronautics, New York, N. Y. -L. le Silva , 3. M. E- and R. T. MIedan. "Cana rd-wAing ’:ortex 7-ffects in Subonic Flow." Journal of kircraft
Casini, G.
1988-05-01
A review of the breeding blankets under study in Europe for testing in the Next European Torus is presented. In many concepts, the breeder modules are enclosed in boxes whose side walls in front of the plasma act as the first wall of the machine. Various types of breeder modules are investigated, involving both liquid and solid breeders, namely: - Pb-17Li liquid breeder concepts, the coolant being either water or Pb-17Li itself; - solid (ceramic) breeder concepts, the coolant being in all cases helium. The various ceramic concepts differ in the breeder/coolant arrangement (breeder-out-of-tube and breeder-in-tube), the orientation of the coolant tubes (poloidal or toroidal) and the breeder geometry (rods, plates or pebble bed). For each of these concepts the main design features are shown and the thermomechanical problems are discussed. The problems related to a coolant tube rupture are in many cases the most severe from the structural design point of view. The first wall box enclosing the breeder modules appears to be a weak secondary containment barrier. The liquid breeder-water cooled concept looks manageable from the thermal and structural design of point view. In the case of the self-cooled liquid breeder concept, the main problems are related to the magnetohydrodynamic effects. Solutions are envisaged to overcome these difficulties. In the case of ceramic breeders, the use of plates implies small dimensions in order to limit the thermal stresses and a poor exploitation of the permitted temperature operation window. Solutions involving rods associated with a multipass cooling scheme or pebble bed enable achievement of better thermomechanical conditions and, therefore, are preferred in the current investigations. However, they lead to design complications and require experimental verification which is in progress at the European laboratories.
Magnetic suspension and balance system advanced study, phase 2
Boom, R. W.; Abdelsalam, M. K.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Mcintosh, G. E.
1990-01-01
The design improvements for the system encompass 14 or 18 external superconductive coils mounted on a 8 x 8 foot wind tunnel, a superconductive model core magnet on a holmium mandrel to fit an F-16 model, model wings of permanent magnet material Nd2Fe14B, and fiber glass epoxy structure. The Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS) advanced design is confirmed by the successful construction and test of a full size superconductive model core solenoid with holmium mandrel. The solenoid is 75 cm long and 12.6 cm in diameter and produces 6.1 tesla for a hold time of 47 minutes. An integrated coil system design of a new compact configuration without specific coils for roll or pitch shows promise of simplicity; magnet reductions of 30 percent compared to the most recent 1985 design are possible.
Theoretical Advanced Study Institute in Elementary Particle Physics
2017-01-01
The program will consist of a pedagogical series of lectures and seminars. Lectures will be given over a four-week period, three or four lectures per day, Monday through Friday. The audience will be composed primarily of advanced theoretical graduate students. Experimentalists with a strong background in theory are also encouraged to apply. Some post-doctoral fellows will be admitted, but preference will be given to applicants who will not have received their Ph.D. before 2017. The minimum background needed to get full benefit of TASI is a knowledge of quantum field theory (including RGEs) and familiarity with the Standard Model. Some familiarity with SUSY would be helpful. We hope to provide some subsidy, but students will need partial support from other sources. Rooms, meals, and access to all facilities will be provided at reasonable rates in beautifully located dormitories at the University of Colorado.
The variation of Io's auroral footprint brightness with the location of Io in the plasma torus
Serio, Andrew W.; Clarke, John T.
2008-09-01
-20236], however the data were not of sufficient quality to determine functional relationships. In this paper we report the results from a second, more thorough study, using a series of higher resolution and sensitivity HST STIS observations and a model for the center to limb dependence of the optically thin auroral emission brightness based on measurements of the auroral curtain emission distribution with altitude. A search for correlations between numerous parameters has revealed a strong dependence between Io's position in the plasma torus and the resulting footprint brightness that persists over several years of observations. The local magnetic field strength near Jupiter (i.e. the size of the loss cone) and the expected north/south asymmetry in auroral brightness related to the path of currents generated near Io through the plasma torus en route to Jupiter appear to be less important than the total plasma density near Io. This is consistent with the near-Io interaction being dominated by collisions of corotating plasma and mass pickup, a long-standing view which has been subject to considerable debate. The brightness of the auroral footprint emissions, however, does not appear to be proportional to the incident plasma density or energy, and the interpretation of this result will require detailed modeling of the interaction near Io.
Rodent-repellent studies. III. Advanced studies in the evaluation of chemical repellents
Bellack, E.; DeWitt, J.B.
1949-01-01
In order to bridge the gap between preliminary screening of chemicals for potential rodent repellency and the application ofthese compounds to paper cartons, more advanced studies in the evaluation ofpromising materials have been carried out. These studies have resulted in: (1) a modification of the food acceptance technique which eliminates doubtful compounds and also provides a closer analogy to the ultimate goal, and (2) a method for rapidly testing chemicals incorporated in paper. When the results of these latter tests are expressed as a function of time, it can be shown that a distinct correlation exists between the deterrency exhibited by treated paper and the repellency of treated food.
Creating an advance-care-planning decision aid for high-risk surgery: a qualitative study.
Schuster, Anne Lr; Aslakson, Rebecca A; Bridges, John Fp
2014-01-01
High-risk surgery patients may lose decision-making capacity as a result of surgical complications. Advance care planning prior to surgery may be beneficial, but remains controversial and is hindered by a lack of appropriate decision aids. This study sought to examine stakeholders' views on the appropriateness of using decision aids, in general, to support advance care planning among high-risk surgery populations and the design of such a decision aid. Key informants were recruited through purposive and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted by phone until data collected reached theoretical saturation. Key informants were asked to discuss their thoughts about advance care planning and interventions to support advance care planning, particularly for this population. Researchers took de-identified notes that were analyzed for emerging concordant, discordant, and recurrent themes using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Key informants described the importance of initiating advance care planning preoperatively, despite potential challenges present in surgical settings. In general, decision aids were viewed as an appropriate approach to support advance care planning for this population. A recipe emerged from the data that outlines tools, ingredients, and tips for success that are needed to design an advance care planning decision aid for high-risk surgical settings. Stakeholders supported incorporating advance care planning in high-risk surgical settings and endorsed the appropriateness of using decision aids to do so. Findings will inform the next stages of developing the first advance care planning decision aid for high-risk surgery patients.
Masters Study in Advanced Energy and Fuels Management
Mondal, Kanchan [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)
2014-12-08
There are currently three key drivers for the US energy sector a) increasing energy demand and b) environmental stewardship in energy production for sustainability and c) general public and governmental desire for domestic resources. These drivers are also true for energy nation globally. As a result, this sector is rapidly diversifying to alternate sources that would supplement or replace fossil fuels. These changes have created a need for a highly trained workforce with a the understanding of both conventional and emerging energy resources and technology to lead and facilitate the reinvention of the US energy production, rational deployment of alternate energy technologies based on scientific and business criteria while invigorating the overall economy. In addition, the current trends focus on the the need of Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) graduate education to move beyond academia and be more responsive to the workforce needs of businesses and the industry. The SIUC PSM in Advanced Energy and Fuels Management (AEFM) program was developed in response to the industries stated need for employees who combine technical competencies and workforce skills similar to all PSM degree programs. The SIUC AEFM program was designed to provide the STEM graduates with advanced technical training in energy resources and technology while simultaneously equipping them with the business management skills required by professional employers in the energy sector. Technical training include core skills in energy resources, technology and management for both conventional and emerging energy technologies. Business skills training include financial, personnel and project management. A capstone internship is also built into the program to train students such that they are acclimatized to the real world scenarios in research laboratories, in energy companies and in government agencies. The current curriculum in the SIUC AEFM will help fill the need for training both recent
Ghoshal, Probir K. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Fair, Ruben J. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Kashy, David H. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Legg, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Rajput-Ghoshal, Renuka [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Hampshire, Damian; Tsui, Yeekin; Haden-Gates, Virginia
2016-06-01
The Hall B 3.6-T superconducting torus magnet is being designed and built as part of the Jefferson Lab 12-GeV upgrade. The magnet consists of six trapezoidal coils connected in series, with an operating current of 3770 A. The magnet and the joints (or splices) connecting the coils are all conduction cooled by supercritical 4.6-K helium. This paper studies the design and manufacturing process of the splices made between two SSC Rutherford-type cables and discusses the tests performed to evaluate the performance of the splices under varying incident magnetic fields.
Gerhardt, S. P.; Brennan, D. P.; Buttery, R.; La Haye, R. J.; Sabbagh, S.; Strait, E.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Gates, D.; LeBlanc, B.; Menard, J.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Yuh, H.
2009-02-24
The onset conditions for the m/n=2/1 neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) are studied in terms of neoclassical drive, triggering instabilities, and toroidal rotation or rotation shear, in the spherical torus NSTX [M. Ono, et al., Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. There are three typical onset conditions for these modes, given in order of increasing neoclassical drive required for mode onset: triggering by energetic particle modes, triggering by edge localized modes, and cases where the modes appear to grow without a trigger. In all cases, the required drive increases with toroidal rotation shear, implying a stabilizing effect from the shear.
Conceptual design study advanced concepts test (ACT) facility
Zaloudek, F.R.
1978-09-01
The Advanced Concepts Test (ACT) Project is part of program for developing improved power plant dry cooling systems in which ammonia is used as a heat transfer fluid between the power plant and the heat rejection tower. The test facility will be designed to condense 60,000 lb/hr of exhaust steam from the No. 1 turbine in the Kern Power Plant at Bakersfield, CA, transport the heat of condensation from the condenser to the cooling tower by an ammonia phase-change heat transport system, and dissipate this heat to the environs by a dry/wet deluge tower. The design and construction of the test facility will be the responsibility of the Electric Power Research Institute. The DOE, UCC/Linde, and the Pacific Northwest Laboratories will be involved in other phases of the project. The planned test facilities, its structures, mechanical and electrical equipment, control systems, codes and standards, decommissioning requirements, safety and environmental aspects, and energy impact are described. Six appendices of related information are included. (LCL)
Advanced simulation study on bunch gap transient effect
Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Akai, Kazunori
2016-06-01
Bunch phase shift along the train due to a bunch gap transient is a concern in high-current colliders. In KEKB operation, the measured phase shift along the train agreed well with a simulation and a simple analytical form in most part of the train. However, a rapid phase change was observed at the leading part of the train, which was not predicted by the simulation or by the analytical form. In order to understand the cause of this observation, we have developed an advanced simulation, which treats the transient loading in each of the cavities of the three-cavity system of the accelerator resonantly coupled with energy storage (ARES) instead of the equivalent single cavities used in the previous simulation, operating in the accelerating mode. In this paper, we show that the new simulation reproduces the observation, and clarify that the rapid phase change at the leading part of the train is caused by a transient loading in the three-cavity system of ARES. KEKB is being upgraded to SuperKEKB, which is aiming at 40 times higher luminosity than KEKB. The gap transient in SuperKEKB is investigated using the new simulation, and the result shows that the rapid phase change at the leading part of the train is much larger due to higher beam currents. We will also present measures to mitigate possible luminosity reduction or beam performance deterioration due to the rapid phase change caused by the gap transient.
Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis Subsystem: Pressure Transducer Trade Study
Kang, Edward Shinuk
2017-01-01
In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is a key factor in paving the way for the future of human space exploration. The ability to harvest resources on foreign astronomical objects to produce consumables and propellant offers potential reduction in mission cost and risk. Through previous missions, the existence of water ice at the poles of the moon has been identified, however the feasibility of water extraction for resources remains unanswered. The Resource Prospector (RP) mission is currently in development to provide ground truth, and will enable us to characterize the distribution of water at one of the lunar poles. Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) is the primary payload on RP that will be used in conjunction with a rover. RESOLVE contains multiple instruments for systematically identifying the presence of water. The main process involves the use of two systems within RESOLVE: the Oxygen Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) and Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA). Within the LAVA subsystem, there are multiple calculations that depend on accurate pressure readings. One of the most important instances where pressure transducers (PT) are used is for calculating the number of moles in a gas transfer from the OVEN subsystem. As a critical component of the main process, a mixture of custom and commercial off the shelf (COTS) PTs are currently being tested in the expected operating environment to eventually down select an option for integrated testing in the LAVA engineering test unit (ETU).
2013-01-01
ABSTRACT Objectives The present retrospective study analyzes sagittal cephalometric changes in patients affected by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome submitted to maxillomandubular advancement. Material and Methods 15 adult sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients diagnosed by polysomnography (PSG) and treated with maxillomandubular advancement (MMA) were included in this study. Pre- (T1) and postsurgical (T2) PSG studies assessing the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) and the lowest oxygen saturation (L...
Novel routes to chaos through torus breakdown in non-invertible maps
Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai; Mosekilde, Erik
2009-01-01
The paper describes a number of new scenarios for the transition to chaos through the formation and destruction of multilayered tori in non-invertible maps. By means of detailed, numerically calculated phase portraits we first describe how three- and five-layered tori arise through period......-doubling and/or pitchfork bifurcations of the saddle cycle on an ordinary resonance torus. We then describe several different mechanisms for the destruction of five-layered tori in a system of two linearly coupled logistic maps. One of these scenarios involves the destruction of the two intermediate layers...... of the five-layered torus through the transformation of two unstable node cycles into unstable focus cycles, followed by a saddle-node bifurcation that destroys the middle layer and a pair of simultaneous homoclinic bifurcations that produce two invariant closed curves with quasiperiodic dynamics along...
Torus breakdown in the symmetry-reduced state space of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky system
Budanur, Nazmi Burak
2015-01-01
Systems such as fluid flows in channels and pipes or the complex Ginzburg-Landau system, defined over periodic domains, exhibit both continuous symmetries, translational and rotational, as well as discrete symmetries under spatial reflections or complex conjugation. The simplest, and very common symmetry of this type is the equivariance of the defining equations under the orthogonal group O(2). We formulate a novel symmetry-reduction scheme for such systems by combining the method of slices with invariant polynomial methods, and show how it works by applying it to the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky system in one spatial dimension. As an example, we track a relative periodic orbit through a sequence of bifurcation to the onset of chaos. Within the symmetry-reduced state space we are able to compute and visualize the unstable manifolds of relative periodic orbits, their torus bifurcations, a transition to chaos via torus breakdown, and heteroclinic connections between various relative periodic orbits. It would be very ha...
Research on Next-Generation Scalable Routers Implemented with H-Torus Topology
You-Jian Zhao; Zu-Hui Yue; Jian-Ping Wu
2008-01-01
The exponential growth of user traffic has been driving routers to run at higher capacity. In a traditional router, the centralized switching fabric is becoming the bottleneck for its limited number of ports and complicated scheduling algorithms. Direct networks, such as 3-D Torus topology, have been successfully applied to the design of scalable routers.They show good scalability and fault tolerance. Unfortunately, its scalability is limited in practice. In this paper, we introduce another type of direct network, called H-Torus. This network shows excellent topological properties. On its basis,the designs of line card and routing algorithms are introduced. Extensive simulations show that the routing algorithm is very important in such a system and results in low latency with high throughpnt.
Smith, D. R.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Thompson, D. S. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podesta, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2013-05-15
The spherical torus edge region is among the most challenging regimes for plasma turbulence simulations. Here, we measure the spatial and temporal properties of ion-scale turbulence in the steep gradient region of H-mode pedestals during edge localized mode-free, MHD quiescent periods in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Poloidal correlation lengths are about 10 ρ{sub i}, and decorrelation times are about 5 a/c{sub s}. Next, we introduce a model aggregation technique to identify parametric dependencies among turbulence quantities and transport-relevant plasma parameters. The parametric dependencies show the most agreement with transport driven by trapped-electron mode, kinetic ballooning mode, and microtearing mode turbulence, and the least agreement with ion temperature gradient turbulence. In addition, the parametric dependencies are consistent with turbulence regulation by flow shear and the empirical relationship between wider pedestals and larger turbulent structures.
Bilateral Mandibular Torus and an Ankylosed Third Molar: A Case Report
Hasan Onur Şimşek
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Environmental factors, genetic heritage, increased biting function and nutrition are some of the reason for intraoral exostosis to get developed. Torus mandibularis is one of the types of exostosis in the oral region, which is unilaterally or bilaterally located in the lingual aspect of the body of the mandible above the mylohyoid line. There is usually no need for biopsy for the diagnosis of tori. In symptomatic cases, excision is the treatment of choice. In this paper, a 65-year-old man with a wide bilateral mandibular torus and an ankylosed mandibular right third molar tooth with mucosal retention is presented and general information was given about tori. In relation with this case, it was thought that dental ankylosis and tori may occur together because of similar etiological factors.
Spectrum in the presence of brane-localized mass on torus extra dimensions
Sakamura, Yutaka
2016-01-01
The lightest mass eigenvalue of a six-dimensional theory compactified on a torus is numerically evaluated in the presence of the brane-localized mass term. The dependence on the cutoff scale $\\Lambda$ is non-negligible even when $\\Lambda$ is two orders of magnitude above the compactification scale, which indicates that the mass eigenvalue is sensitive to the size of the brane, in contrast to five-dimensional theories. We obtain an approximate expression of the lightest mass in the thin brane limit, which well fits the numerical calculations, and clarifies its dependence on the torus moduli parameter $\\tau$. We found that the lightest mass is typically much lighter than the compactification scale by an order of magnitude even in the limit of a large brane mass.
Quintilio, R.; Viegas, S. M.
1997-01-01
Theoretical emission-line profiles are obtained for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) taking into account the presence of an obscuring torus around the central energy source. For the sake of simplicity, the torus is represented by a cylindrical shell characterized by the inner and outer radius and the opening angle. In this paper we discuss the results with angle of sight equal to 0, i.e., for a face-on torus. Different line profiles are obtained following the torus parameters. The line profiles may show more than one peak and bumps, depending on the torus dimensions. The main parameter determining the number of peaks or bumps is the opening angle. Thus, the observed line shape may be a good indicator of the torus characteristics. As an example, the fit to the observed [O III] λ5007 emission line of NGC 4151 is presented. The model reproduces the FWHM and the asymmetrical bumps observed. Partially supported by the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) under Grant 92/4335-9.
Hierarchical Cantor set in the large scale structure with torus geometry
Murdzek, R. [Physics Department, ' Al. I. Cuza' University, Blvd. Carol I, Nr. 11, Iassy 700506 (Romania)], E-mail: rmurdzek@yahoo.com
2008-12-15
The formation of large scale structures is considered within a model with string on toroidal space-time. Firstly, the space-time geometry is presented. In this geometry, the Universe is represented by a string describing a torus surface. Thereafter, the large scale structure of the Universe is derived from the string oscillations. The results are in agreement with the cellular structure of the large scale distribution and with the theory of a Cantorian space-time.
THE SCENERY FLOW FOR GEOMETRIC STRUCTURES ON THE TORUS: THE LINEAR SETTING
无
2001-01-01
The authors define the scenery flow of the torus. The flow space is the union of all flat 2- dimensional tori of area 1 with a marked direction (or equivalently, the union of all tori with a quadratic differential of norm 1). This is a 5-dimensional space, and the flow acts by following individual points under an extremal deformation of the quadratic differential. The authors define associated horocycle and translation flows; the latter preserve each torus and are the horizontal and vertical flows of the corresponding quadratic differential. The scenery flow projects to the geodesic flow on the modular surface, and admits, for each orientation preserving hyperbolic toral automorphism, an invariant 3-dimensional subset on which it is the suspension flow of that map. The authors first give a simple algebraic definition in terms of the group of affine maps of the plane, and prove that the flow is Anosov. They give an explicit formula for the first-return map of the flow on convenient cross-sections. Then, in the main part of the paper, the authors give several different models for the flow and its cross-sections, in terms of: ● stacking and rescaling periodic tilings of the plane; ● symbolic dynamics: the natural extension of the recoding of Sturmian sequences, or the S-adic system generated by two substitutions; ● zooming and subdividing quasi-periodic tilings of the real line, or aperiodic quasicrystals of minimal complexity; ● the natural extension of two-dimensional continued fractions; ● induction on exchanges of three intervals; ● rescaling on pairs of transverse measure foliations on the torus, or the Teichmiiller flow on the twice-punctured torus.
Algebraic K-theory and derived equivalences suggested by T-duality for torus orientifolds
Rosenberg, Jonathan
2016-01-01
We show that certain isomorphisms of (twisted) KR-groups that underlie T-dualities of torus orientifold string theories have purely algebraic analogues in terms of algebraic K-theory of real varieties and equivalences of derived categories of (twisted) coherent sheaves. The most interesting conclusion is a kind of Mukai duality in which the "dual abelian variety" to a smooth projective genus-1 curve over R with no real points is (mildly) noncommutative.
Indecomposable representations of the Lie algebra of derivations for d-torus
无
2010-01-01
Let DerA be the Lie algebra of derivations of the d-torus A = C[t1± 1, . . . , td±1]. By applying Shen-Larsson’s functors we get a class of indecomposable DerA-modules from finite-dimensional indecomposable gld-modules. We also give a complete description of the submodules of these indecomposable DerA-modules. Our results generalize those obtained by Rao.
Quantization of a class of piecewise affine transformations on the torus
De Bièvre, S; De Bievre, S; Giachetti, R
1995-01-01
We present a unified framework for the quantization of a family of discrete dynamical systems of varying degrees of ``chaoticity". The systems to be quantized are piecewise affine maps on the two-torus, viewed as phase space, and include the automorphisms, translations and skew translations. We then treat some discontinuous transformations such as the Baker map and the sawtooth-like maps. Our approach extends some ideas from geometric quantization and it is both conceptually and calculationally simple.
Creation of a dense torus in the coalescence of a black hole with a neutron star
1999-01-01
We used a newtonian SPH (smooth-particle hydrodynamics) code to follow the final stages of evolution of a coalescing binary system of a neutron star and a black hole. We find that the outcome of the "merger" is very sensitive to the equation of state describing the neutron star. A neutron star with a soft equation of state (polytrope with index Gamma=5/3) is completely disrupted, and a fairly large and long-lived accretion torus is formed.
Quantum revivals in two degrees of freedom integrable systems : the torus case
Lablée, Olivier
2010-01-01
The paper deals with the semi-classical behaviour of quantum dynamics for a semi-classical completely integrable system with two degrees of freedom near Liouville regular torus. The phenomomenon of wave packet revivals is demonstrated in this article. The framework of this paper is semi-classical analysis (limit :). For the proofs we use standard tools of real analysis, Fourier analysis and basic analytic number theory.
Determining the torus covering factors for a sample of type 1 AGN in the local Universe
Ezhikode, Savithri H; Done, Chris; Ward, Martin; Dewangan, Gulab C; Misra, Ranjeev; Philip, Ninan Sajeeth
2016-01-01
The unification scheme of active galactic nuclei (AGN) proposes the presence of a dusty torus around the central source, governing the differences between AGN spectral properties. A fraction of the AGN luminosity is absorbed by the dusty torus and is re-radiated in the infrared (IR) band. Thus the fraction of the sky covered by the torus as seen from the central source, known as the covering factor f_c, can be obtained from the ratio of the IR to the bolometric luminosities of the source. However, because of the uncertainty in determining bolometric luminosities, the estimation of covering factors has proven difficult, especially in the local Universe where the peak of the observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) lie in the ultraviolet. In this work, we determine the covering factors of an X-ray/optically selected sample of 51 type 1 AGN analysed by Jin et al. The bolometric luminosities of these sources can be derived using a self-consistent, energy-conserving model that estimates the contribution in th...
A mid-infrared statistical investigation of clumpy torus model predictions
García-González, J.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Hönig, S. F.; Hernán-Caballero, A.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Levenson, N. A.; Roche, P. F.; González-Martín, O.; Packham, C.; Kishimoto, M.
2017-09-01
We present new calculations of the Clumpy AGN Tori in a 3D geometry (CAT3D) clumpy torus models, which now include a more physical dust sublimation model as well as active galactic nucleus (AGN) anisotropic emission. These new models allow graphite grains to persist at temperatures higher than the silicate dust sublimation temperature. This produces stronger near-infrared emission and bluer mid-infrared (MIR) spectral slopes. We make a statistical comparison of the CAT3D model MIR predictions with a compilation of sub-arcsecond resolution ground-based MIR spectroscopy of 52 nearby Seyfert galaxies (median distance of 36 Mpc) and 10 quasars. We focus on the AGN MIR spectral index αMIR and the strength of the 9.7 μm silicate feature SSil. As with other clumpy torus models, the new CAT3D models do not reproduce the Seyfert galaxies with deep silicate absorption (SSil low photon escape probabilities, while the quasars and the Seyfert 1-1.5 require generally models with higher photon escape probabilities. Quasars and Seyfert 1-1.5 tend to show steeper radial cloud distributions and fewer clouds along an equatorial line of sight than Seyfert 2. Introducing AGN anisotropic emission besides the more physical dust sublimation models alleviates the problem of requiring inverted radial cloud distributions (i.e. more clouds towards the outer parts of the torus) to explain the MIR spectral indices of type 2 Seyferts.
Condensates and instanton – torus knot duality. Hidden Physics at UV scale
A. Gorsky
2015-11-01
Full Text Available We establish the duality between the torus knot superpolynomials or the Poincaré polynomials of the Khovanov homology and particular condensates in Ω-deformed 5D supersymmetric QED compactified on a circle with 5d Chern–Simons (CS term. It is explicitly shown that n-instanton contribution to the condensate of the massless flavor in the background of four-observable exactly coincides with the superpolynomial of the T(n,nk+1 torus knot where k is the level of CS term. In contrast to the previously known results, the particular torus knot corresponds not to the partition function of the gauge theory but to the particular instanton contribution and summation over the knots has to be performed in order to obtain the complete answer. The instantons are sitting almost at the top of each other and the physics of the “fat point” where the UV degrees of freedom are slaved with point-like instantons turns out to be quite rich. Also we see knot polynomials in the quantum mechanics on the instanton moduli space. We consider the different limits of this correspondence focusing at their physical interpretation and compare the algebraic structures at the both sides of the correspondence. Using the AGT correspondence, we establish a connection between superpolynomials for unknots and q-deformed DOZZ factors.
C, Subba Rami Reddy; M, Surya Kalavathi
2011-01-01
This paper introduces an Integrated fuzzy logic controller (IFLC) for brushless dc (BLDC) motor drives using advanced simulation model and presents a comparative study of performances of PID controller and IFLC...
Studies, Summary Tables, and Data Related to the Advancing Sustainable Materials Management Report
This webpage provides further information about how EPA measures data for the annual Advancing Materials Management Report. Researchers can use the tables and studies to better understand how waste in managed in America
Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.
1979-01-01
An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines were also analyzed in versions typical of today's commercially available technology to provide a base against which to measure the advanced systems. Cogeneration applications in the major energy consuming manufacturing industries were considered. Results of the study in terms of plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings and economic attractiveness are presented for the various energy conversion systems considered.
Vocabulary Materials and Study Strategies at Advanced Level
Pauwels, Paul
2012-01-01
This paper reports on a quasi-experimental study of the effect of different vocabulary study materials and strategies used by upper-intermediate English as a foreign language students in higher education. Students were assigned a selection of 163 words from the Academic Word List and were provided with different types of study materials. They were…
A prospective study of the incidence of falls in patients with advanced cancer.
Stone, Carol
2011-10-01
The association between aging and falls risk, and the morbidity and mortality resulting from falls in older persons, is well documented. Results from a small number of studies of patients with cancer in inpatient settings suggest that patients with advanced cancer may be at high risk of falling. We present preliminary results pertaining to the incidence of falls in patients with advanced cancer from an ongoing study of risk factors for falls.
Andersen, Kristian; Nørholt, Sven Erik; Küseler, Annelise
2012-01-01
A Retrospective Study of Cleft lip and palate Patients' Satisfaction after Maxillary Distraction or Traditional Advancement of the Maxilla......A Retrospective Study of Cleft lip and palate Patients' Satisfaction after Maxillary Distraction or Traditional Advancement of the Maxilla...
Summary of recent design studies of advanced acoustic-composite nacelles
Norton, H. T., Jr.
1975-01-01
The results are summarized of recent NASA-sponsored studies of advanced acoustic-composite nacelles. Conceptual nacelle designs for current wide-bodied transports and for advanced technology transports, intended for operational use in the mid-1980's, were studied by Lockheed-California Company and the Douglas Aircraft Company. These studies were conducted with the objective of achieving significant reductions in community noise and/or fuel consumption with minimum penalties in airplane weights, cost, and operating expense. The results indicate that the use of advanced composite materials offer significant potential weight and cost savings and result in reduced fuel consumption and noise when applied to nacelles. The most promising concept for realizing all of these benefits was a long duct, mixed flow acoustic composite nacelle with advanced acoustic liners.
Achieving the Advanced Oral Proficiency in Arabic: A Case Study
Samimy, Keiko K.
2008-01-01
This article is based on a case study of a white American graduate student, Mark, who achieved "Superior" oral proficiency in Arabic according to the ACTFIi Oral Proficiency Scale. Based on multiple data sources (e.g., interviews, observation, document analysis), the study highlights Mark's multiple identities as a language learner, language…
Grid Integration Studies: Advancing Clean Energy Planning and Deployment
Katz, Jessica [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2016-07-01
Integrating significant variable renewable energy (VRE) into the grid requires an evolution in power system planning and operation. To plan for this evolution, power system stakeholders can undertake grid integration studies. This Greening the Grid document reviews grid integration studies, common elements, questions, and guidance for system planners.
Io's volcanic influence on the Io plasma torus: HISAKI observation in 2015
Tsuchiya, F.; Yoshioka, K.; Kimura, T.; Murakami, G.; Yoneda, M.; Koga, R.; Kagitani, M.; Sakanoi, T.; Kasaba, Y.; Yamazaki, A.; Yoshikawa, I.
2015-12-01
The satellite Io which has many active volcanos supplies volcanic gases to the Jovian magnetosphere with typical rate of 1 ton/sec and has been known be a primary source of plasmas in the magnetosphere. Change in the volcanic activity on Io should cause change of the supply rate and could affect structure of the magnetosphere and dynamics occurs in it. However, responses of the magnetosphere to the volcanic activity is still not fully understood; one of the reasons is lack of continuous and long term observations of Io' volcanic gas extended around Io, plasmas in the Io torus, and activity of the magnetosphere. The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscope, EXCEED, onboard the HISAKI satellite has capability to measure ion and atomic emission lines in EUV range (55-145nm) and is dedicated to observing solar system planets. The satellite has been successfully launched on Sep. 2013 and 2nd campaign of Io plasma torus and Jovian northern EUV aurora observation has been done from the end of Nov. 2014 to middle of May 2015. On middle of Jan. 2015, HISAKI detected gradual increase in intensity of S+ emission lines and decrease of S3+ ones in the plasma torus. The S+ intensity showed a maximum around the end of Feb. and S++ and S3+ intensities also showed maxima subsequently. Simultaneous ground based observation of the sodium nebula showed increase of the emission intensity from the middle of Jan. to the beginning of Mar. These observations suggest that the volcanic activity began at the middle of Jan. and increase neutral atom and ion densities in the Io torus. The intensities of S+ and S2+ ions returned to the pre-increase level by the middle of May 2015. S3+ had still been in the decay phase at the end of the observation. Change in radial structure of the plasma torus was also found during the volcanic event. The intensity of S+ ion began to increase around the orbit of Io (6 Jovian radii). The brightened region propagated outward and reached at 8.5 Jovian radii from
Recent advances in human gene-longevity association studies
De Benedictis, G; Tan, Q; Jeune, B;
2001-01-01
% of the variation in life span is genetically determined. Taking advantage of recent developments in molecular biology, researchers are now searching for candidate genes that might have an influence on life span. The data on unrelated individuals emerging from an ever-increasing number of centenarian studies makes......This paper reviews the recent literature on genes and longevity. The influence of genes on human life span has been confirmed in studies of life span correlation between related individuals based on family and twin data. Results from major twin studies indicate that approximately 25...
CASP CompTIA Advanced Security Practitioner Study Guide Exam CAS-001
Gregg, Michael
2012-01-01
Get Prepared for CompTIA Advanced Security Practitioner (CASP) Exam Targeting security professionals who either have their CompTIA Security+ certification or are looking to achieve a more advanced security certification, this CompTIA Authorized study guide is focused on the new CompTIA Advanced Security Practitioner (CASP) Exam CAS-001. Veteran IT security expert and author Michael Gregg details the technical knowledge and skills you need to conceptualize, design, and engineer secure solutions across complex enterprise environments. He prepares you for aspects of the certification test that as
Implementing common data elements across studies to advance research.
Cohen, Marlene Z; Thompson, Cheryl Bagley; Yates, Bernice; Zimmerman, Lani; Pullen, Carol H
2015-01-01
Challenges arise in building the knowledge needed for evidence-based practice partially because obtaining clinical research data is expensive and complicated, and many studies have small sample sizes. Combining data from several studies may have the advantage of increasing the impact of the findings or expanding the population to which findings may be generalized. The use of common data elements will allow this combining and, in turn, create big data, which is an important approach that may accelerate knowledge development. This article discusses the philosophy of using common data elements across research studies and illustrates their use by the processes in a developmental center grant funded by the National Institutes of Health. The researchers identified a set of data elements and used them across several pilot studies. Issues that need to be considered in the adoption and implementation of common data elements across pilot studies include theoretical framework, purpose of the common measures, respondent burden, teamwork, managing large data sets, grant writing, and unintended consequences. We describe these challenges and solutions that can be implemented to manage them.
Northall, Tiffany; Ramjan, Lucie M; Everett, Bronwyn; Salamonson, Yenna
2016-04-01
Undergraduate nursing students enter university through a variety of pathways. For some students, this includes the granting of advanced standing based on recognition of prior qualifications. The impact of advanced standing on nursing students' transition, retention and success at university is not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the retention, academic success and experiences of students who commenced their undergraduate nursing studies with advanced standing. A sequential exploratory mixed-methods design was used in this study, which involved undergraduate nursing students enrolled at a multi-campus university in Australia. Nursing students who enrolled in 2014 and did not opt out of program level research were included in the study. Students with advanced standing were older (mean 31.6 versus 25.8 years, ppredictor of low GPA [OR: 1.69 (95% CI: 1.06 to 2.69]. Most students with advanced standing commenced directly into second year (45%) missing first year student connections and programs. Students reported feeling apprehensive, forgotten and ill-prepared for the expectations of university. Some showed significant strength and resilience while others were struggling to cope with the workload with minimal knowledge or understanding of supports available to them. The widening participation agenda is a commendable strategy; however, students who enter university with advanced standing need targeted support to promote their transition, retention and success at university. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
RFX machine and power supply improvements for RFP advanced studies
Piovan, R. E-mail: piovan@igi.pd.cnr.it; Gnesotto, F.; Ortolani, S.; Baker, W.; Barana, O.; Bettini, P.; Cavazzana, R.; Chitarin, G.; Dal Bello, S.; De Lorenzi, A.; Fiorentin, P.; Gaio, E.; Grando, L.; Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Marchiori, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Masiello, A.; Milani, F.; Peruzzo, S.; Pomaro, N.; Sonato, P.; Taliercio, C.; Toigo, V.; Zaccaria, P.; Zanotto, L.; Zollino, G
2001-10-01
Experimental results and theoretical studies call for Reversed Field Experiment (RFX) machine and power supply improvements to allow studies that go beyond those of a conventional Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) with passively stabilized turbulent MHD dynamo. The new paths opened by recent results in RFX and other RFP machines are introduced; then the goals and the design lines of the technical modifications of RFX, mainly addressed to improve the first wall, the plasma magnetic boundaries and to increase the operational flexibility of the toroidal field circuit power supply, are reported.
Isolated heart models: cardiovascular system studies and technological advances.
Olejnickova, Veronika; Novakova, Marie; Provaznik, Ivo
2015-07-01
Isolated heart model is a relevant tool for cardiovascular system studies. It represents a highly reproducible model for studying broad spectrum of biochemical, physiological, morphological, and pharmaceutical parameters, including analysis of intrinsic heart mechanics, metabolism, and coronary vascular response. Results obtained in this model are under no influence of other organ systems, plasma concentration of hormones or ions and influence of autonomic nervous system. The review describes various isolated heart models, the modes of heart perfusion, and advantages and limitations of various experimental setups. It reports the improvements of perfusion setup according to Langendorff introduced by the authors.
Advances and expectations of study on wood rheology
马远荣; 罗迎社; 李贤军
2008-01-01
By studying and summarizing the characteristics of wood rheology,the mathematic models of creep and mechano-sorptive creep of wood were analyzed.Rheology behaviors in process,especially drying stress and deformation set were discussed.Application of wood rheology in woodcraft process was elaborated and the research prospects and orientation were forecasted.
Advances in the study of drawing and handwriting [guest editorial
Meulenbroek, R.G.J.; Gemmert, A.W.A. van
2003-01-01
Since the early 1980s the study of drawing and handwriting movements has come to be known as the field of graphonomics". The term graphonomics intends to capture the multi-disciplinary scientific effort involved in identifying lawful relationships between the planning and generation of drawing and h
Advances in genetic studies of substance abuse in China
Yan SUN; Shiqiu MENG; Jiali LI; Jie SHI; Lin LU
2013-01-01
Summary:The importance of genetic factors in substance addiction has long been established. The rationale for this work is that understanding of the function of addiction genes and delineation of the key molecular pathways of these genes would enhance the development of novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers that could be used in the prevention and management of substance abuse. Over the past few years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of genetic studies conducted on addiction in China;these studies have primarily focused on heroin, alcohol, and nicotine dependence. Most studies of candidate genes have concentrated on the dopamine, opioid, and serotonin systems. A number of genes associated with substance abuse in Caucasians are also risk factors in Chinese, but several novel genes and genetic risk factors associated with substance abuse in Chinese subjects have also been identified. This paper reviews the genetic studies of substance abuse performed by Chinese researchers. Genotypes and alleles related to addictive behavior in Chinese individuals are discussed and the contributions of Chinese researchers to the international corpus of knowledge about the genetic understanding of substance abuse are described.
Feasibility Study for an Advanced Lighted Aid to Navigation.
1981-09-01
This network, comprised of some 15,000 fixed and moored (buoy) aids, supplies position information to mariners via visual markers and flashing lights...and moored (buoy) aids, supplies position information to mari- ners via visual markers and flashing lights. The Coast Guard is studying the use of
Advancing Entrepreneurship in an Elementary School: A Case Study
Heilbrunn, Sibylle
2010-01-01
The aim of the paper is to introduce an experimental entrepreneurial elementary school in Israel. In addition to describing the organizational process of transformation from a conventional elementary school to an entrepreneurial school, the paper attempts to assess the impact of the process on teachers and pupils. The study investigates…
2016-08-24
decades, however methods of measurably controlling -reducing jet noise in an efficient and robust manner remain evasive. Previous research has shown...2016 1-May-2013 30-Apr-2016 High Temperature Supersonic Jet Noise - Fundamental Studies and Control using Advanced Actuation Methods The views...and Control using Advanced Actuation Methods Report Title Understanding and controlling jet noise has been the focus of analytical, computational and
2012-01-01
textabstractBACKGROUND: Inflammation may underlie cancer-related fatigue; however, there are no studies that assess the relation between fatigue and cytokines in patients with advanced disease versus patients without disease activity. Furthermore, the relation between cytokines and the separate dimensions of fatigue is unknown. Here, association of plasma levels of inflammatory markers with physical fatigue and mental fatigue was explored in advanced cancer patients and cancer survivors. METH...
Advances in the study on induced pluripotent stem cells
LIU Shuang; DUAN EnKui
2008-01-01
Recently, the study on "induced pluripotent stem cells" (iPS cells) has made a great breakthrough, and it is considered as a new milestone in the history of life science. This progress has updated our traditional concepts about pluripotency control, and provided people with a brand-new strategy for somatic cell nuclear reprogramming. In virtue of its availability and stability, this method holds great potential in both biological and clinical research. In order to introduce this rising field of study, this paper starts with an overview of the development of iPS cell establishment, describes the key steps in generating iPS cells, elaborates several relevant scientific issues, and evaluates its current restrictions and promises in future research.
[Management of psychiatric inpatients with advanced cancer: a pilot study].
Rhondali, Wadih; Ledoux, Mathilde; Sahraoui, Fatma; Marotta, Juliette; Sanchez, Vincent; Filbet, Marilène
2013-09-01
The prevalence of cancer is not well established and probably underestimated in long-stay psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric patients do not have the same access for cancer screening and care. Therapeutic decision-making is a real ethical problem. In this context, access to medical care should be provided by the establishment of guidelines and/or recommendations for this specific population. The aim of our study was to assess how cancer was managed among long term psychiatric inpatients. For this pilot study, we used a mixed methodology: a quantitative part with a retrospective chart review of cancer patients in a psychiatric institution and a qualitative part based on semi-structured interviews with psychiatrists with discourse analysis. Delay in cancer diagnosis can be explained by communication and behavior disorders, inadequate screening, and additional tests often refused by patients. Compliance and ethical issues (i.e. obtaining informed consent) are many pitfalls to optimal cancer care that should be explored in further research.
Recent advances in maize nuclear proteomic studies reveal histone modifications.
Casati, Paula
2012-01-01
The nucleus of eukaryotic organisms is highly dynamic and complex, containing different types of macromolecules including DNA, RNA, and a wide range of proteins. Novel proteomic applications have led to a better overall determination of nucleus protein content. Although nuclear plant proteomics is only at the initial phase, several studies have been reported and are summarized in this review using different plants species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, cowpea, onion, garden cress, and barrel clover. These include the description of the total nuclear or phospho-proteome (i.e., Arabidopsis, cowpea, onion), or the analysis of the differential nuclear proteome under different growth environments (i.e., Arabidopsis, rice, cowpea, onion, garden cress, and barrel clover). However, only few reports exist on the analysis of the maize nuclear proteome or its changes under various conditions. This review will present recent data on the study of the nuclear maize proteome, including the analysis of changes in posttranslational modifications in histone proteins.
Comparative study of various PKINIT methods used in Advanced Kerberos
Shital S. Thorat,
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Traditional authentication method is password, but it cannot resist dictionary and playback attack. Thus, applications, which send an unencrypted password over the network, are extremely vulnerable. Kerberos can be used as a solution to these network security problems. The Kerberos protocol with public key cryptography may help client to prove its identity to a server (and vice-versa across an insecurenetwork connection. This paper shows comparative study of various PKINIT methods used in Kerberos with their results.
Advances in the study of the systematics of Actinidia Lindley
Xinwei LI; Jianqiang LI; Djaja Djendoel SOEJARTO
2009-01-01
Actinidia (Actinidiaceae) is of economic importance for its edible fruits.Traditional taxonomy divided the genus into four sections,Leiocarpae Dunn,Maculatae Dunn,Strigosae Li,and Stellatae Li.However,phylogenetic studies based on morphology and molecular markers have posed challenges to the four-section scheme.It appears that the natural classification of the genus points to the existence of two groups,one comprising Leiocarpae,and the other Maculatae,Strigosae,and Stellatae.Single- or low-copy genes would probably be useful in untangling the perplexity andthe reticulate evolution of the genus.However,any phylogenetic studies must be firmly based on sound taxonomy and identification.Population sampling throughout the distribution range of the taxa should be carried out in order to study the variation pattern of the morphology and,ultimately,to clarify the confusion existing in some taxa.A combination of morphometrics and molecular data is highly desirable for resolving the uncertainty in Actinidia taxonomy.
Advanced Weapon System (AWS) Sensor Prediction Techniques Study. Volume I
1981-09-01
Week& • ,I I vetrn•rept Rho ar) Same W SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES RADC Project Engineer: Robert H. LaSalle (URRP) It. KEY WORDS (C..w on roveree eoi nolese Nem...languages and structured according to good software engineering principles . One of the most significant conclusions of this study is that the direct...depends only on (x-y), i.e., C(xy) = C(x-y), p(x,y):= p(x-y), and V(x,y) - V(x-y). In terms of Euclidean motions, stationarity implies invariance under
ADVANCES OF STUDIES ON ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT OF INSULIN RESISTANCE
PENG Yan; HOU Li-hui; WU Xiao-ke
2006-01-01
Insulin resistance (IR) is referred to decrease or loss of reactivity of the insulin target organs and tissues to biological effects of insulin. It has been proved that IR is a common attack basis for diabetes,hypertension, obesity, cerebrovascular diseases, atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The unique therapeutic effects of acupuncture and moxibustion on IR are paid great attention to at home and abroad day by day. In this paper, the survey of studies on interfering action of acupuncture on IR diseases, the mechanisms of acupuncture and moxibustion in treatment of IR, and effects of acupuncture and moxibustion on energy metabolism is reviewed.
Advanced vehicle concepts systems and design analysis studies
Waters, Mark H.; Huynh, Loc C.
1994-01-01
The work conducted by the ELORET Institute under this Cooperative Agreement includes the modeling of hypersonic propulsion systems and the evaluation of hypersonic vehicles in general and most recently hypersonic waverider vehicles. This work in hypersonics was applied to the design of a two-stage to orbit launch vehicle which was included in the NASA Access to Space Project. Additional research regarded the Oblique All-Wing (OAW) Project at NASA ARC and included detailed configuration studies of OAW transport aircraft. Finally, work on the modeling of subsonic and supersonic turbofan engines was conducted under this research program.
Advanced far infrared detector and double donor studies in Ge
Olsen, C.S.
1994-12-01
This has application to astronomy and astrophysics. Selenium in Ge has been studied with a doping technique which limits complex formation. Only one ionization level has been found to correspond to selenium, which presumably occupies a substitutional site. This level is extremely unstable and its concentration decreases after annealing at 400C. Future work is planned to anneal the fast neutron damage before much selenium has formed in the {sup 74/76}Ge samples. It is expected that the observed selenium level can be better characterized and the missing selenium level is more likely to be discovered if other defects are removed before {sup 77}Se formation.
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Insurance and Risk Theory
Vylder, F; Haezendonck, J
1986-01-01
Canadian financial institutions have been in rapid change in the past five years. In response to these changes, the Department of Finance issued a discussion paper: The Regulation of Canadian Financial Institutions, in April 1985, and the government intends to introduce legislation in the fall. This paper studi.es the combinantion of financial institutions from the viewpoint of ruin probability. In risk theory developed to describe insurance companies [1,2,3,4,5J, the ruin probability of a company with initial reserve (capital) u is 6 1 -:;-7;;f3 u 1jJ(u) = H6 e H6 (1) Here,we assume that claims arrive as a Poisson process, and the claim amount is distributed as exponential distribution with expectation liS. 6 is the loading, i.e., premium charged is (1+6) times expected claims. Financial institutions are treated as "insurance companies": the difference between interest charged and interest paid is regarded as premiums, loan defaults are treated as claims.
[Advances of Epigenetic Studies on Mechanisms of Paramutation].
Cheng, Shan; Wang, Xiao-Rong; Ding, Wei
2016-02-01
Studies in traditional genetics have revealed the molecular causes of many genetic diseases and provided direct clues for their prevention, diagnosis and treatments, as well as for various disorders with genetic background. However, the genetic profiles of most human diseases could not be fully explained with the canonical laws of genetics. Paramutation is one of non-Mendelian inheritance phenomenon, which was found in maize first in 1950s. The absence of alteration in nucleotide sequences in the gene-coding alleles suggested that paramutations might involve epigenetic mechanisms to transmit heritable changes in gene expression and determination of phenotypes. Recently, a novel epigenetic mechanism has been found in paramutation researches, emphasized the importance of DNA methyltransferase II mediated RNA (primarily non-coding RNAs) methylation in the occurrence and maintenance of paramutations. Researches on paramutations and their epigenetic mechnisms will not only expand our understanding in the genetic principles of life, but also help to develop new ideas for bioengineer and disease treatments. The present article reviewed the research highlights on molecular mechanisms of paramutation and discussed the prospects in disease study and therapy.
Current Advances in the Metabolomics Study on Lotus Seeds.
Zhu, Mingzhi; Liu, Ting; Guo, Mingquan
2016-01-01
Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), which is distributed widely throughout Asia, Australia and North America, is an aquatic perennial that has been cultivated for over 2,000 years. It is very stimulating that almost all parts of lotus have been consumed as vegetable as well as food, especially the seeds. Except for the nutritive values of lotus, there has been increasing interest in its potential as functional food due to its rich secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids and alkaloids. Not only have these metabolites greatly contributed to the biological process of lotus seeds, but also have been reported to possess multiple health-promoting effects, including antioxidant, anti-amnesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities. Thus, comprehensive metabolomic profiling of these metabolites is of key importance to help understand their biological activities, and other chemical biology features. In this context, this review will provide an update on the current technological platforms, and workflow associated with metabolomic studies on lotus seeds, as well as insights into the application of metabolomics for the improvement of food safety and quality, assisting breeding, and promotion of the study of metabolism and pharmacokinetics of lotus seeds; meanwhile it will also help explore new perspectives and outline future challenges in this fast-growing research subject.
Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies
Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others
1995-12-31
The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.
Recent advances in maize nuclear proteomic studies reveal histone modifications
Paula eCasati
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The nucleus of eukaryotic organisms is highly dynamic and complex, containing different types of macromolecules including DNA, RNA, and a wide range of proteins. Novel proteomic applications have led to a better overall determination of nucleus protein content. Although nuclear plant proteomics is only at the initial phase, several studies have been reported and are summarized in this review using different plants species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, cowpea, onion, garden cress, and barrel clover. These include the description of the total nuclear or phospho-proteome (i.e. Arabidopsis, cowpea, onion, or the analysis of the differential nuclear proteome under different growth environments (i.e. Arabidopsis, rice, cowpea, onion, garden cress and barrel clover. However, only few reports exist on the analysis of the maize nuclear proteome or its changes under various conditions. This review will present recent data on the study of the nuclear maize proteome, including the analysis of changes in posttranslational modifications in histone proteins.
Identification of Enhancers In Human: Advances In Computational Studies
Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.
2016-03-24
Roughly ~50% of the human genome, contains noncoding sequences serving as regulatory elements responsible for the diverse gene expression of the cells in the body. One very well studied category of regulatory elements is the category of enhancers. Enhancers increase the transcriptional output in cells through chromatin remodeling or recruitment of complexes of binding proteins. Identification of enhancer using computational techniques is an interesting area of research and up to now several approaches have been proposed. However, the current state-of-the-art methods face limitations since the function of enhancers is clarified, but their mechanism of function is not well understood. This PhD thesis presents a bioinformatics/computer science study that focuses on the problem of identifying enhancers in different human cells using computational techniques. The dissertation is decomposed into four main tasks that we present in different chapters. First, since many of the enhancer’s functions are not well understood, we study the basic biological models by which enhancers trigger transcriptional functions and we survey comprehensively over 30 bioinformatics approaches for identifying enhancers. Next, we elaborate more on the availability of enhancer data as produced by different enhancer identification methods and experimental procedures. In particular, we analyze advantages and disadvantages of existing solutions and we report obstacles that require further consideration. To mitigate these problems we developed the Database of Integrated Human Enhancers (DENdb), a centralized online repository that archives enhancer data from 16 ENCODE cell-lines. The integrated enhancer data are also combined with many other experimental data that can be used to interpret the enhancers content and generate a novel enhancer annotation that complements the existing integrative annotation proposed by the ENCODE consortium. Next, we propose the first deep-learning computational
Studies on Slurry Design Fundamentals for Advanced CMP Applications
Basim, G. B.
2013-06-14
New developments and device performance requirements in microelectronics industry add to the challenges in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. One of the recently introduced materials is germanium which enables improved performance through better channel mobility in shallow trench isolation (STI) applications. This paper reports on the slurry design alternatives for Ge CMP with surfactant mediation to improve on the silica/germanium selectivity using colloidal silica slurry. In addition to the standard CMP tests to evaluate the material removal rates, atomic force microscopy (AFM) based wear tests were also conducted to evaluate single particle-surface interaction of the polishing system. Furthermore, nature of the surface oxide film of germanium was studied through contact angle measurements and surface roughness tested by AFM. It was observed that the CMP selectivity of the silica/germanium system and defectivity control were possible with a reasonable material removal rate value by using self-assembled structures of cationic surfactants.
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Molecular Physics and Hypersonic Flows
1996-01-01
Molecular Physics and Hypersonic Flows bridges the gap between the fluid dynamics and molecular physics communities, emphasizing the role played by elementary processes in hypersonic flows. In particular, the work is primarily dedicated to filling the gap between microscopic and macroscopic treatments of the source terms to be inserted in the fluid dynamics codes. The first part of the book describes the molecular dynamics of elementary processes both in the gas phase and in the interaction with surfaces by using quantum mechanical and phenomenological approaches. A second group of contributions describes thermodynamics and transport properties of air components, with special attention to the transport of internal energy. A series of papers is devoted to the experimental and theoretical study of the flow of partially ionized gases. Subsequent contributions treat modern computational techniques for 3-D hypersonic flow. Non-equilibrium vibrational kinetics are then described, together with the coupling of vibra...
Advances of nanotechnology in agro-environmental studies
Stefania Mura
2013-09-01
Full Text Available With the increase in the world population and the demand for food, new agricultural practices have been developed to improve food production through the use of more effective pesticides and fertilisers. These technologies can lead to an uncontrolled release of undesired substances into the environment, with the potential to contaminate soil and groundwater. Today, nanotechnology represents a promising approach to improve agricultural production and remediate polluted sites. This paper reviews the recent applications of nanotechnologies in agro-environmental studies with particular attention to the fate of nanomaterials once introduced in water and soil, to the advantages of their use and their possible toxicology. Findings show that the use of nanomaterials can improve the quality of the environment and help detect and remediate polluted sites. Only a small number of nanomaterials demonstrated potential toxic effects. These are discussed in detail.
[Advances in the study of virtual channels of cochlear implant].
Zhu, Ziyan; Guan, Tian; Ye, Datian
2009-12-01
This paper discusses virtual channels of cochlear implant, which is produced by simultaneous or sequential activation of adjacent cochlear implant electrodes. Virtual channels create and transfer more available spectral pitch information with the limited number of fixed electrodes, which can be recognized as pitch percepts intermediate to those produced by each electrode separately. This technique not only utilizes the interaction of electrodes but also increases the number of place-pitch steps available to cochlear implant listeners. Virtual channels could be used to realize speech recognition in noisy environment, in enjoying music, and in understanding Chinese language. The study of virtual channels would significantly enhance the traditional cochlear implant therapy and benefit people suffering severe to profound hearing loss.
NEW ADVANCES IN THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF TEXT COMPREHENSION
FERNANDO MARMOLEJO-RAMOS
2007-08-01
Full Text Available Text comprehension is a psychological activity that has attracted the interest of cognitive science for a long time.Nevertheless, just recently, neuroscientific studies have emerged in order to unveil the neural machinery behind thisactivity. This paper reviews some of the classical and, particularly, current works in cognitive science and new advancesin the neuroscience of text comprehension. Later on, a potential neurocognitive model for text comprehension basedon the core concepts of the cognitive and neuroscientific approaches is presented. This model preserves the predictionsmade by cognitive models as regards comprehension and the architecture of the new neuropsychological models asregards neurocognitive development. Finally, questions for future research in both domains and some general conclusionsare offered.
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Sonochemistry and Sonoluminescence
Mason, Timothy; Reisse, Jacques; Suslick, Kenneth
1999-01-01
Sonochemistry is studied primarily by chemists and sonoluminescence mainly by physicists, but a single physical phenomenon - acoustic cavitation - unites the two areas. The physics of cavitation bubble collapse, is relatively well understood by acoustical physicists but remains practically unknown to the chemists. By contrast, the chemistry that gives rise to electromagnetic emissions and the acceleration of chemical reactions is familiar to chemists, but practically unknown to acoustical physicists. It is just this knowledge gap that the present volume addresses. The first section of the book addresses the fundamentals of cavitation, leading to a more extensive discussion of the fundamentals of cavitation bubble dynamics in section two. A section on single bubble sonoluminescence follows. The two following sections address the new scientific discipline of sonochemistry, and the volume concludes with a section giving detailed descriptions of the applications of sonochemistry. The mixture of tutorial lectures ...
Stephens, Hillary Dianne
Tearing mode induced magnetic islands have a significant impact on the thermal characteristics of magnetically confined plasmas such as those in the reversed-field-pinch. Using a state-of-the-art Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic, electron temperature fluctuations correlated with magnetic tearing modes have been observed on the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field-pinch. The TS diagnostic consists of two independently triggerable Nd:YAG lasers that can each pulse up to 15 times each plasma discharge and 21 General Atomics polchromators equipped with avalanche photodiode modules. Detailed calibrations focusing on accuracy, ease of use and repeatability and in-situ measurements have been performed on the system. Electron temperature (Te) profiles are acquired at 25 kHz with 2 cm or less resolution along the minor radius, sufficient to measure the effect of an island on the profile as the island rotates by the measurement point. Bayesian data analysis techniques are developed and used to detect fluctuations over an ensemble of shots. Four cases are studied; standard plasmas in quiescent periods, through sawteeth, through core reconnection events and in plasmas where the tearing mode activity is decreased. With a spectrum of unstable tearing modes, remnant islands that tend to flatten the temperature profile are present in the core between sawtooth-like reconnection events. This flattening is characteristic of rapid parallel heat conduction along helical magnetic field lines. The spatial structure of the temperature fluctuations show that the location of the rational surface of the m/n = 1/6 tearing mode is significantly further in than equilibrium suggestions predict. The fluctuations also provide a measurement of the remnant island width which is significantly smaller than the predicted full island width. These correlated fluctuations disappear during both global and core reconnection events. In striking contrast to temperature flattening, a temperature gradient
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Optics in Astrophysics
Foy, Renaud
2005-01-01
Astrophysics is facing challenging aims such as deep cosmology at redshift higher than 10 to constrain cosmology models, or the detection of exoplanets, and possibly terrestrial exoplanets, and several others. It requires unprecedented ambitious R&D programs, which have definitely to rely on a tight cooperation between astrophysics and optics communities. The book addresses most of the most critical interdisciplinary domains where they interact, or where they will do. A first need is to collect more light, i.e. telescopes still larger than the current 8-10 meter class ones. Decametric, and even hectometric, optical (from UV to IR wavelengths) telescopes are being studied. Whereas up to now the light collecting surface of new telescopes was approximately 4 times that of the previous generation, now this factor is growing to 10 to 100. This quantum leap urges to implement new methods or technologies developed in the optics community, both in academic labs and in the industry. Given the astrophysical goals a...
Chen, Sibo
2012-01-01
Among various study topics of advanced second language (L2) learners, mental lexicon shares a unique significance. This paper will introduce a comparative experiment between advanced Chinese English as a Second Language (CESL) learners and English as first language (EL1) speakers. The research question of the study is whether advanced CESL…
Who Studies Religion at Advanced Level: Why and to What Effect?
Francis, Leslie J.; Astley, Jeff; Parker, Stephen G.
2016-01-01
This study was established to profile students currently studying religion at Advanced level (A level) in terms of their demography, motivation, experience and attitudes. Eight specific areas were identified for examination: their personal motivation to study religion at A level, the personal challenges posed by the subject, their personal…
Who Studies Religion at Advanced Level: Why and to What Effect?
Francis, Leslie J.; Astley, Jeff; Parker, Stephen G.
2016-01-01
This study was established to profile students currently studying religion at Advanced level (A level) in terms of their demography, motivation, experience and attitudes. Eight specific areas were identified for examination: their personal motivation to study religion at A level, the personal challenges posed by the subject, their personal…
Advancing Collaborative Climate Studies through Globally Distributed Geospatial Analysis
Singh, R.; Percivall, G.
2009-12-01
(note: acronym glossary at end of abstract) For scientists to have confidence in the veracity of data sets and computational processes not under their control, operational transparency must be much greater than previously required. Being able to have a universally understood and machine-readable language for describing such things as the completeness of metadata, data provenance and uncertainty, and the discrete computational steps in a complex process take on increased importance. OGC has been involved with technological issues associated with climate change since 2005 when we, along with the IEEE Committee on Earth Observation, began a close working relationship with GEO and GEOSS (http://earthobservations.org). GEO/GEOS provide the technology platform to GCOS who in turn represents the earth observation community to UNFCCC. OGC and IEEE are the organizers of the GEO/GEOSS Architecture Implementation Pilot (see http://www.ogcnetwork.net/AIpilot). This continuing work involves closely working with GOOS (Global Ocean Observing System) and WMO (World Meteorological Organization). This session reports on the findings of recent work within the OGC’s community of software developers and users to apply geospatial web services to the climate studies domain. The value of this work is to evolve OGC web services, moving from data access and query to geo-processing and workflows. Two projects will be described, the GEOSS API-2 and the CCIP. AIP is a task of the GEOSS Architecture and Data Committee. During its duration, two GEO Tasks defined the project: AIP-2 began as GEO Task AR-07-02, to lead the incorporation of contributed components consistent with the GEOSS Architecture using a GEO Web Portal and a Clearinghouse search facility to access services through GEOSS Interoperability Arrangements in support of the GEOSS Societal Benefit Areas. AIP-2 concluded as GEOS Task AR-09-01b, to develop and pilot new process and infrastructure components for the GEOSS Common
X-ray imaging in advanced studies of ophthalmic diseases.
Antunes, Andrea; Safatle, Angélica M V; Barros, Paulo S M; Morelhão, Sérgio L
2006-07-01
Microscopic characterization of pathological tissues has one major intrinsic limitation, the small sampling areas with respect to the extension of the tissues. Mapping possible changes on vast tissues and correlating them with large ensembles of clinical cases is not a feasible procedure for studying most diseases, as for instance vision loss related diseases and, in particular, the cataract. Although intraocular lens implants are successful treatments, cataract still is a leading public-health issue that grows in importance as the population increases and life expectancy is extended worldwide. In this work we have exploited the radiation-tissue interaction properties of hard x-rays--very low absorption and scattering--to map distinct lesions on entire eye lenses. At the used synchrotron x-ray photon energy of 20 keV (wavelength lambda=0.062 nm), scattering and refraction are angular resolved effects. It allows the employed x-ray image technique to efficiently characterize two types of lesions in eye lenses under cataractogenesis: distributions of tiny scattering centers and extended areas of fiber cell compaction. The data collection procedure is relatively fast; allowing dozens of samples to be totally imaged (scattering, refraction, and mass absorption images) in a single day of synchrotron beam time. More than 60 cases of canine cataract, not correlated to specific causes, were investigated in this first application of x-rays to image entire lenses. Cortical opacity cases, or partial opacity, could be related to the presence of calcificated tissues at the cortical areas, clearly visible in the images, whose elemental contents were verified by micro x-ray fluorescence as very rich in calcium. Calcificated tissues were also observed at nuclear areas in some cases of hypermature cataract. Total opacity cases without distinguishable amount of scattering centers consist in 70% of the analyzed cases, where remarkable fissure marks owing to extended areas of fiber
Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; Rothpletz Puglia, Pamela; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie
2014-05-01
Activities performed by advanced-practice registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) have yet to be clearly elucidated. The study aimed to gain consensus on the practice activities of advanced-practice RDNs who provide direct clinical nutrition care. A three-round Delphi study was conducted. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDN experts working as clinicians and/or managers in direct care settings that met inclusion criteria for advanced-level practice. In Round 1, 85 experts provided open-ended advanced-level practice activities linked to the Nutrition Care Process sections. Using content analysis, the responses were coded into activity statements. In Round 2, experts rated the essentiality of these activities. In Round 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus while viewing their previous rating, the group median, and comments. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 were neither essential nor nonessential, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to each question was <2.0. Seventy-six (89.4%) experts completed all rounds. From 770 comments, 129 activity statements were generated. All statements reached consensus: 97.7% as essential; 0.8% as nonessential; and 1.5% as neither. Of essential activities, 67.5% were highly essential with limited variability (median=1.0; interquartile range≤2.0). Advanced-practice RDNs' tasks are patient-centered and reflect complex care; involve a comprehensive and discriminating approach; are grounded in advanced knowledge and expertise in clinical nutrition; include use of advanced interviewing, education, and counseling strategies; and require communication with patient, families, and the health care team. The high-level of consensus from experts suggest advanced-level clinical nutrition practice exists and can be defined.
Zhang, Shaohua; Zhou, Hongyan; Shi, Xiheng; Pan, Xiang; Wang, Ji; Jiang, Ning; Ji, Tuo; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Wenjuan; Wang, Huiyuan
2017-02-01
Broad emission line outflows of active galactic nuclei have been proposed for many years but are very difficult to quantitatively study because of the coexistence of the gravitationally bound and outflow emission. We present detailed analysis of a heavily reddened quasar, SDSS J000610.67+121501.2, whose normal ultraviolet broad emission lines (BELs) are heavily suppressed by the dusty torus as a natural “coronagraph,” and thus the blueshifted BELs (BBELs) can be reliably measured. The physical properties of the emission-line outflows are derived as follows: ionization parameter U∼ {10}-0.5, column density {N}{{H}}∼ {10}22.0 cm‑2, covering fraction of ∼0.1, and upper limit density of {n}{{H}}∼ {10}5.8 cm‑3. The outflow gases are located at least 41 pc away from the central engine, which suggests that they have expanded to the scale of the dust torus or beyond. Besides, Lyα shows a narrow symmetric component, to our surprise, which is undetected in any other lines. After inspecting the narrow emission line region and the star-forming region as the origin of the Lyα narrow line, we propose that the end result of outflows, diffusing gases in the larger region, acts as the screen of Lyα photons. Future high spatial resolution spectrometry and/or spectropolarimetric observations are needed to make a final clarification.
Yoshioka, K.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kimura, T.; Kagitani, M.; Murakami, G.; Yamazaki, A.; Kuwabara, M.; Suzuki, F.; Hikida, R.; Yoshikawa, I.; Bagenal, F.; Fujimoto, M.
2017-03-01
The Io plasma torus, situated in the Jovian inner magnetosphere (6-8 Jovian radii from the planet) is filled with heavy ions and electrons, a large part of which are derived from Io's volcanos. The torus is the key area connecting the primary source of plasma (Io) with the midmagnetosphere (>10 Jovian radii), where highly dynamic phenomena are taking place. Revealing the plasma behavior of the torus is a key factor in elucidating Jovian magnetospheric dynamics. A global picture of the Io plasma torus can be obtained via spectral diagnosis of remotely sensed ion emissions generated via electron impact excitation. Hisaki, an Earth-orbiting spacecraft equipped with an extreme ultraviolet spectrograph Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscope for Exospheric Dynamics, has observed the torus at moderate spectral resolution. The data have been submitted to spectral analysis and physical chemistry modeling under the assumption of axial symmetry. Results from the investigation are radial profiles of several important parameters including electron density and temperature as well as ion abundances. The inward transport timescale of midmagnetospheric plasma is obtained to be 2-40 h from the derived radial profile for the abundance of suprathermal electrons. The physical chemistry modeling results in a timescale for the outward transport of Io-derived plasma of around 30 days. The ratio between inward and outward plasma speed ( 1%) is consistent with the occurrence rate of depleted flux tubes determined using in situ observations by instruments on the Galileo spacecraft.
Characteristics of first-time fathers of advanced age: a Norwegian population-based study
Nilsen Anne Britt Vika
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The modern phenomenon of delayed parenthood applies not only to women but also to men, but less is known about what characterises men who are expecting their first child at an advanced age. This study investigates the sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviour, health problems, social relationships and timing of pregnancy in older first-time fathers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of 14 832 men who were expecting their first child, based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa carried out by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data were collected in 2005–2008 by means of a questionnaire in gestational week 17–18 of their partner’s pregnancy, and from the Norwegian Medical Birth Register. The distribution of background variables was investigated across the age span of 25 years and above. Men of advanced age (35–39 years and very advanced age (40 years or more were compared with men aged 25–34 years by means of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The following factors were found to be associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age: being unmarried or non-cohabitant, negative health behaviour (overweight, obesity, smoking, frequent alcohol intake, physical and mental health problems (lower back pain, cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, sleeping problems, previous depressive symptoms, few social contacts and dissatisfaction with partner relationship. There were mixed associations for socioeconomic status: several proxy measures of high socioeconomic status (e.g. income >65 000 €, self-employment were associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age, as were several other proxy measures of low socioeconomic status (e.g. unemployment, low level of education, immigrant background.The odds of the child being conceived after in vitro fertilisation were threefold in men aged 34
Active galactic nucleus torus models and the puzzling infrared spectrum of IRAS F10214+4724
Efstathiou, A.; Christopher, N.; Verma, A.; Siebenmorgen, R.
2013-12-01
We present a revised model for the infrared emission of the hyperluminous infrared galaxy IRAS F10214+4724 which takes into account recent photometric data from Spitzer and Herschel that sample the peak of its spectral energy distribution. We first present and discuss a grid of smooth active galactic nucleus (AGN) torus models computed with the method of Efstathiou & Rowan-Robinson and demonstrate that the combination of these models and the starburst models of Efstathiou and coworkers, while able to give an excellent fit to the average spectrum of Seyfert 2s and spectra of individual type 2 quasars measured by Spitzer, fails to match the spectral energy distribution of IRAS F10214+4724. This is mainly due to the fact that the νSν distribution of the galaxy falls very steeply with increasing frequency (a characteristic that is usually indicative of heavy absorption by dust) but shows a silicate feature in emission. Such emission features are not expected in sources with optical/near-infrared type 2 AGN spectral signatures. The Herschel data show that there is more power emitted in the rest-frame 20-50 μm wavelength range compared with the model presented by Efstathiou which assumes three components of emission: an edge-on torus, clouds (at a temperature of 610 and 200 K) that are associated with the narrow-line region (NLR) and a highly obscured starburst that dominates in the submillimetre. We present a revised version of that model that assumes an additional component of emission which we associate with NLR clouds at a temperature of 100 K. The 100 K dust component could also be explained by a highly obscured hot starburst. The model suggests that the NLR of IRAS F10214+4724 has an unusually high covering factor (≥17 per cent) or more likely the magnification of the emission from the NLR clouds is significantly higher than that of the emission from the torus.
Kulisevsky, Jaime; Tolosa, Eduardo S.
2017-01-01
To date, no consensus exists on the key factors for diagnosing advanced Parkinson disease (APD). To obtain consensus on the definition of APD, we performed a prospective, multicenter, Spanish nationwide, 3-round Delphi study (CEPA study). An ad hoc questionnaire was designed with 33 questions concerning the relevance of several clinical features for APD diagnosis. In the first-round, 240 neurologists of the Spanish Movement Disorders Group participated in the study. The results obtained were incorporated into the questionnaire and both, results and questionnaire, were sent out to and fulfilled by 26 experts in Movement Disorders. Review of results from the second-round led to a classification of symptoms as indicative of “definitive,” “probable,” and “possible” APD. This classification was confirmed by 149 previous participating neurologists in a third-round, where 92% completely or very much agreed with the classification. Definitive symptoms of APD included disability requiring help for the activities of daily living, presence of motor fluctuations with limitations to perform basic activities of daily living without help, severe dysphagia, recurrent falls, and dementia. These results will help neurologists to identify some key factors in APD diagnosis, thus allowing users to categorize the patients for a homogeneous recognition of this condition. PMID:28239501
Ampe, Sophie; Sevenants, Aline; Coppens, Evelien; Spruytte, Nele; Smets, Tinne; Declercq, Anja; van Audenhove, Chantal
2015-05-01
To evaluate the effects of 'we DECide', an educational intervention for nursing home staff on shared decision-making in the context of advance care planning for residents with dementia. Advance care planning (preparing care choices for when persons no longer have decision-making capacity) is of utmost importance for nursing home residents with dementia, but is mostly not realized for this group. Advance care planning consists of discussing care choices and making decisions and corresponds to shared decision-making (the involvement of persons and their families in care and treatment decisions). This quasi-experimental pre-test-post-test study is conducted in 19 nursing homes (Belgium). Participants are nursing home staff. 'We DECide' focuses on three crucial moments for discussing advance care planning: the time of admission, crisis situations and everyday conversations. The 'ACP-audit' assesses participants' views on the organization of advance care planning (organizational level), the 'OPTION scale' evaluates the degree of shared decision-making in individual conversations (clinical level) and the 'IFC-SDM Questionnaire' assesses participants' views on Importance, Frequency and Competence of realizing shared decision-making (clinical level). (Project funded: July 2010). The study hypothesis is that 'we DECide' results in a higher realization of shared decision-making in individual conversations on advance care planning. A better implementation of advance care planning will lead to a higher quality of end-of-life care and more person-centred care. We believe our study will be of interest to researchers and to professional nursing home caregivers and policy-makers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
First observation of ELM pacing with vertical jogs in a spherical torus
Gerhardt, S.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ahn, Joon-Wook [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Canik, John [ORNL; Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Bell, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Gates, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Goldston, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Hawryluk, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Le Blanc, B. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Menard, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Sontag, Aaron C [ORNL; Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia University; Tritz, K. [Johns Hopkins University
2010-01-01
Experiments in a number of conventional aspect ratio tokamaks have been successful in pacing edge localized modes (ELMs) by rapid vertical jogging of the plasma. This paper demonstrates the first pacing of ELMs in a spherical torus plasma. Applied 30 Hz vertical jogs synchronized the ELMs with the upward motion of the plasma. 45 Hz jogs also lead to an increase in the ELM frequency, though the synchronization of the ELMs and jogs was unclear. A reduction in the ELM energy was observed at the higher driven ELM frequencies.
First observation of ELM pacing with vertical jogs in a spherical torus
Gerhardt, S. P.; Ahn, J.-W.; Canik, J. M.; Maingi, R.; Bell, R.; Gates, D.; Goldston, R.; Hawryluk, R.; Le Blanc, B. P.; Menard, J.; Sontag, A. C.; Sabbagh, S.; Tritz, K.
2010-06-01
Experiments in a number of conventional aspect ratio tokamaks have been successful in pacing edge localized modes (ELMs) by rapid vertical jogging of the plasma. This paper demonstrates the first pacing of ELMs in a spherical torus plasma. Applied 30 Hz vertical jogs synchronized the ELMs with the upward motion of the plasma. 45 Hz jogs also lead to an increase in the ELM frequency, though the synchronization of the ELMs and jogs was unclear. A reduction in the ELM energy was observed at the higher driven ELM frequencies.
Análise da máquina Torus sob frenagem eletrodinâmica
Jonas Obert Martins Osório
2011-01-01
Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar a aplicação, para sistema de frenagem veicular, de uma máquina elétrica sem escovas, de armadura toroidal, e fluxo magnético axial produzido por ímãs permanentes de terras raras, a chamada máquina Torus. A máquina foi construída no LMEAE e estudada inicialmente como motor em outro trabalho. Mas, para que se possa avaliar seu funcionamento em sistema de frenagem, o foco é do ponto de vista da máquina como gerador. São realizados testes d...
The non-Maxwellian energy distribution of ions in the warm Io torus
Richardson, J. D.; Siscoe, G. L.
1983-01-01
Observations of Io's torus indicate that the majority of ions have energies of 55-75 eV, with a high-energy tail extending up to the corotation energy. It was found that such a distribution can be established via the Coulomb cooling of ions heated at the corotation energy onto the cold 5-eV electrons. The energy E(asterisk) of the main body of the ions and the shape of the energy distribution are functions of the transport loss time. Matching E(asterisk) with the data (E/asterisk/ = 55-75 eV) requires transport loss times in the range 25-1000 days.
First Observation Of ELM Pacing With Vertical Jogs In A Spherical Torus
Gerhardt, S P; Canik, J M; Maingi, R; Bell, R; Gates, d; Goldston, R; Hawryluk, R; Le Blanc, B P; Menard, J; Sontag, A C; Sabbagh, S
2010-07-15
Experiments in a number of conventional aspect ratio tokamaks have been successful in pacing edge localized modes (ELMs) by rapid vertical jogging of the plasma. This paper demonstrates the first pacing of ELMs in a spherical torus plasma. Applied 30 Hz vertical jogs synchronized the ELMs with the upward motion of the plasma. 45 Hz jogs also lead to an increase in the ELM frequency, though the synchronization of the ELMs and jogs was unclear. A reduction in the ELM energy was observed at the higher driven ELM frequencies. __________________________________________________
Roth, J. R.; Gerdin, G. A.
1976-01-01
The toroidal ring of plasma contained in the NASA Lewis bumpy-torus superconducting magnet facility may be biased to positive or negative potentials approaching 50 kilovolts by applying direct-current voltages of the respective polarity to 12 or fewer of the midplane electrode rings. The electric fields which are responsible for heating the ions by E/B drift then point radially outward or inward. The low-frequency fluctuations below the ion cyclotron frequency appeared to be dominated by rotating spokes.
Efthimion, P.C.; Arunasalam, V.; Hosea, J.C.
1979-11-01
Fundamental electron cyclotron resonance damping for 4 mm waves with ordinary polarization is measured for propagation along the major radius traversing the midplane of the plasma in the Princeton Large Torus (PLT). Optical depths obtained from the data are in good agreement with those predicted by the relativistic hot plasma theory. Near blackbody emission over much of the plasma midplane is obtained and, in conjunction with the damping measurements, indicates that the vessel reflectivity is high. The practical use of ordinary mode fundamental electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in existing and future toroidal devices is supported by these results.
Tangential and Vertical Compact Torus Injection Experiments on the STOR-M Tokamak
Xiao Chijin; Liu D.; S. Livingstone; A. K. Singh; E. Zhang; A. Hirose
2005-01-01
This paper describes the setup and results of compact torus (CT) injection experiments on the STOR-M tokamak. Tangential CT injection into STOR-M induced H-mode-like phenomena including doubling the electron density, reduction in the Ha radiation level, suppression of the floating potential fluctuations, suppression of the m = 2 Mirnov oscillations, and increase in the global energy confinement time. Experimental setup, bench-test results, and some preliminary injection data for vertical CT injection experiments on STOR-M will be shown. In addition, numerical simulations of the CT trajectories in tokamak discharges for both tangential and vertical injection geometries will be discussed.
Position-dependent mass approach and quantization for a torus Lagrangian
Yeşiltaş, Özlem
2016-09-01
We have shown that a Lagrangian for a torus surface can yield second-order nonlinear differential equations using the Euler-Lagrange formulation. It is seen that these second-order nonlinear differential equations can be transformed into the nonlinear quadratic and Mathews-Lakshmanan equations using the position-dependent mass approach developed by Mustafa (J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 48, 225206 (2015)) for the classical systems. Then, we have applied the quantization procedure to the nonlinear quadratic and Mathews-Lakshmanan equations and found their exact solutions.
Structure and deformations of strongly magnetized neutron stars with twisted torus configurations
Ciolfi, R; Gualtieri, L
2010-01-01
We construct general relativistic models of stationary, strongly magnetized neutron stars. The magnetic field configuration, obtained by solving the relativistic Grad-Shafranov equation, is a generalization of the twisted torus model recently proposed in the literature; the stellar deformations induced by the magnetic field are computed by solving the perturbed Einstein's equations; stellar matter is modeled using realistic equations of state. We find that in these configurations the poloidal field dominates over the toroidal field and that, if the magnetic field is sufficiently strong during the first phases of the stellar life, it can produce large deformations.
Smith, D. R.; Mazzucato, E.; Lee, W.; Park, H. K.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, Jr., N. C.
2009-02-13
A collective scattering system has been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to measure electron gyroscale fluctuations in NSTX plasmas. Up to five distinct wavenumbers are measured simultaneously, and the large toroidal curvature of NSTX plasmas provides enhanced spatial localization. Steerable optics can position the scattering volume throughout the plasma from the magnetic axis to the outboard edge. Initial measurements indicate rich turbulent dynamics on the electron gyroscale. The system will be a valuable tool for investigating the connection between electron temperature gradient turbulence and electron thermal transport in NSTX plasmas.
Initial Results from the Lost Alpha Diagnostics on Joint European Torus
Darrow, Doug; Cecil, Ed; Ellis, Bob; Fullard, Keith; Hill, Ken; Horton, Alan; Kiptily, Vasily; Pedrick, Les; Reich, Matthias
2007-07-25
Two devices have been installed in the Joint European Torus (JET) vacuum vessel near the plasma boundary to investigate the loss of energetic ions and fusion products in general and alpha particles in particular during the upcoming JET experiments. These devices are (i) a set of multichannel thin foil Faraday collectors, and (ii) a well collimated scintillator which is optically connected to a charge-coupled device. Initial results, including the radial energy and poloidal dependence of lost ions from hydrogen and deuterium plasmas during the 2005–06 JET restart campaign, will be presented.
Legendrian and transverse cables of positive torus knots
B. Etnyre, John; la Fountain, Douglas James; Tosun, Bulent
Thurston-Bennequin invariant is arbitrarily far from maximal. We also exhibit Legendrian knots requiring arbitrarily many stabilizations before they become Legendrian isotopic. Similar new phenomena are observed for transverse knots. To achieve these results we define and study "partially thickenable" tori...
Legendrian and transverse cables of positive torus knots
Etnyre, John; LaFountain, Douglas; Tosun, Bülent
2012-01-01
Thurston-Bennequin invariant is arbitrarily far from maximal. We also exhibit Legendrian knots requiring arbitrarily many stabilizations before they become Legendrian isotopic. Similar new phenomena are observed for transverse knots. To achieve these results we define and study "partially thickenable" tori...
Advancing Sexuality Studies: A Short Course on Sexuality Theory and Research Methodologies
Fletcher, Gillian; Dowsett, Gary W.; Duncan, Duane; Slavin, Sean; Corboz, Julienne
2013-01-01
Critical Sexuality Studies is an emerging field of academic enquiry linked to an international network of advocacy agencies, activists, and political issues. This paper reports on the development of an advanced short course in sexuality theory and research, drawing on Critical Sexuality Studies and aiming directly at academics in developing…
Analyzing Idioms and Their Frequency in Three Advanced ILI Textbooks: A Corpus-Based Study
Alavi, Sepideh; Rajabpoor, Aboozar
2015-01-01
The present study aimed at identifying and quantifying the idioms used in three ILI "Advanced" level textbooks based on three different English corpora; MICASE, BNC and the Brown Corpus, and comparing the frequencies of the idioms across the three corpora. The first step of the study involved searching the books to find multi-word…
Advancing Sexuality Studies: A Short Course on Sexuality Theory and Research Methodologies
Fletcher, Gillian; Dowsett, Gary W.; Duncan, Duane; Slavin, Sean; Corboz, Julienne
2013-01-01
Critical Sexuality Studies is an emerging field of academic enquiry linked to an international network of advocacy agencies, activists, and political issues. This paper reports on the development of an advanced short course in sexuality theory and research, drawing on Critical Sexuality Studies and aiming directly at academics in developing…
RECENT ADVANCES IN STUDIES ON MULTIPHASE AND REACTING FLOWS IN CHINA
周力行
2002-01-01
The recent developments and advances of studies on multiphase and reacting flows, including gas-solid, gas-liquid, liquid-solid and reacting flows, in China are reviewed. Special emphasis is laid on the fundamental studies and numerical models. Some important experimental results are also reported. But measurement techniques are not covered.
Advances in studies of the tribological behavior of molecular deposition films
Xiao Yuqi; Zhang Siwei; Wang Deguo; Gao Manglai
2008-01-01
An overview of the advances in studies on tribology of molecular deposition (MD) films is presented here to summarize the studies of nanofrictional properties, adhesion, wear and mechanical behavior, as well as the molecular dynamics simulation of nanotribological properties of the film in the last decade. Some key research topics which need to be investigate further are addressed.