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Sample records for advanced stage diffuse

  1. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for interim response assessment of advanced-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terasawa, T.; Lau, J.; Bardet, S.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To systematically review the prognostic accuracy of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for interim response assessment of patients with untreated advanced-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE......-stage HL, FDG-PET performed after a few cycles of standard chemotherapy seems to be a reliable prognostic test to identify poor responders, warranting prospective studies to assess PET-based treatment strategies. For DLBCL, no reliable conclusions can be drawn due to heterogeneity. Interim PET remains...

  2. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  3. Advanced diffusion processes and phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; Belova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    This topical volume on Advanced Diffusion Processes and Phenomena addresses diffusion in a wider sense of not only mass diffusion but also heat diffusion in fluids and solids. Both diffusion phenomena play an important role in the characterization of engineering materials and corresponding structures. Understanding these different transport phenomena at many levels, from atomistic to macro, has therefore long attracted the attention of many researchers in materials science and engineering and related disciplines. The present topical volume captures a representative cross-section of some of the

  4. Diffusion in advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Murch, Graeme; Belova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    In the first chapter Prof. Kozubski and colleagues present atomisticsimulations of superstructure transformations of intermetallic nanolayers.In Chapter 2, Prof. Danielewski and colleagues discuss a formalism for themorphology of the diffusion zone in ternary alloys. In Chapter 3, ProfessorsSprengel and Koiwa discuss the classical contributions of Boltzmann andMatano for the analysis of concentration-dependent diffusion. This isfollowed by Chapter 4 by Professor Cserháti and colleagues on the use of Kirkendall porosity for fabricating hollow hemispheres. In Chapter 5,Professor Morton-Blake rep

  5. Advances in diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan D. Yan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive neoplasm. The incidence of malignant mesothelioma is increasing worldwide. Diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM represents one-fourth of all mesotheliomas. Association of asbestos exposure with DMPM has been observed, especially in males. A great majority of patients present with abdominal pain and distension, caused by accumulation of tumors and ascitic fluid. In the past, DMPM was considered a pre-terminal condition; therefore attracted little attention. Patients invariably died from their disease within a year. Recently, several prospective trials have demonstrated median survival of 40 to 90 months and 5-year survival of 30% to 60% after the combined treatment using cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This improvement in survival has prompted new searches into the medical science related to DMPM, a disease previously ignored as uninteresting. This review article focuses on the key advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, treatments and prognosis of DMPM that have occurred in the past decade.

  6. Patterns of Failure in Advanced Stage Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patients After Complete Response to R-CHOP Immunochemotherapy and the Emerging Role of Consolidative Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Das, Satya; Okwan-Duodu, Derick [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Esiashvili, Natia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Flowers, Christopher [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Medical Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Chen, Zhengjia; Wang, Xiaojing [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Jiang, Kun [Department of Pathology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Nastoupil, Loretta J. [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Medical Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Khan, Mohammad K., E-mail: drkhurram2000@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: The role of consolidative radiation therapy (RT) after complete response (CR) to rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) for stage III-IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients is unclear. We aimed to evaluate our institutional experience when consolidative RT is delivered to initial presenting sites or bulky sites in these patients. Methods and Materials: We identified 211 histologically confirmed stage III-IV DLBCL patients who received R-CHOP from January 2000 to May 2012 at our institution. Patterns of failure for patients who achieved CR to R-CHOP were analyzed. Local control (LC), distant control (DC), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method and compared between patients who received R-CHOP alone versus R-CHOP plus consolidative RT using the log–rank test. Multivariate analyses were also performed using Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Detailed treatment records were available for 163 patients. After a median 6 cycles of R-CHOP, 110 patients (67.5%) achieved CR and were entered for analysis. Fourteen patients (12.7%) received consolidative RT. After median follow-up of 32.9 months, 43.8% of patients who received R-CHOP alone failed at the initial sites with or without distant recurrence (DR), whereas isolated DR only occurred in 3.7% of these patients. Consolidative RT was associated with significantly improved LC (91.7% vs 48.8%), DC (92.9% vs 71.9%), PFS (85.1% vs 44.2%), and OS (92.3% vs 68.5%; all Ps<.0001) at 5 years compared with patients with R-CHOP alone. On multivariate analysis, consolidative RT and nonbulky disease were predictive of increased LC and PFS, whereas bone marrow involvement was associated with increased risk of DR and worse OS. Consolidative RT was also associated with marginal improved OS. Conclusions: Forty-four percent of patients with advanced stage DLBCL failed at initial presenting sites after

  7. FEASIBILITY OF DIAGNOSING AND STAGING LIVER FIBROSIS WITH DIFFUSION WEIGHTED IMAGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nai-yi Zhu; Ke-min Chen; Wei-min Chai; Wei-xia Li; Lian-jun Du

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinical feasibility of diagnosing and staging liver fibrosis by apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Methods Totally, 43 patients (mean age 29.3 years) with chronic hepatitis by liver biopsy and 7 healthy controls (mean age 39.9 years) underwent liver diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) with four b values: 0, 200, 500, and 1000 s/mm2 respectively. The liver fibrosis was staged according to Ishak fibrosis stage. The ADC value of liver fibrosis patients and healthy controls was compared. The correlation of ADC value and liver fibrosis staging was analyzed.Result The histological staging showed 8 stage 1 patients, 10 stage 2 patients, 6 stage 3 patients, 9 stage 4 patients, 8 stage 5 patients and 2 stage 6 patients. The mean ADC value of liver fibrosis patients was significantly lower than that of healthy controls except for stage 1 group (P < 0.05). There was a negative correlation between liver fibrosis staging and ADC value (r = -0.697 with b=500 s/mm2, P < 0.01). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of ADC value of advanced liver fibrosis (Ishak stage F3 and higher) showed that area under curve = 0.913, 0.825, and 0.794 with b=500, 1000, and 200 s/mm2, respectively (95% confidence interval: 83.6%-99.0%, 70.7%-94.3%, 66.50%-92.4%; P < 0.05). When b value was 500 s/mm2, the sensitivity (84%) and specificity (800%) of DWI for diagnosis of advanced liver fibrosis were the highest.Conclusion DWI is proved to be a useful clinical tool in the quantitative evaluation of liver fibrosis and in the prediction of the process of liver fibrosis with the recommendable b value (500 s/mm2).

  8. CT perfusion at early stage of hepatic diffuse disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Guan; Wei-Dong Zhao; Kang-Rong Zhou; Wei-Jun Peng; Jian Mao; Feng Tang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the validity of the non-invasive method of CT perfusion (CTP) in rat model of hepatic diffuse disease. METHODS: Twenty-eight Wistar rats were divided into two groups. Liver diffuse lesions were induced by dietthylnitrosamine in 14 rats of test group. Rats in control groupwere bred with pure water. From the 1st to 12th wk after the test group was intervened, both groups were studied every week with CTP. CTP parameters of liver parenchymain different periods and pathologic changes in two groups were compared and analyzed.RESULTS: The process of hepatic diffuse lesions in test groups was dassified into three stages or periods according to the pathologic alterations, namely hepattitis, hepatic fibrosis, and cirrhosis. During this period, hepatic artery flow (HAF)of control group declined slightly, mean transit time (MTT),blood flow (BF) and volume (BV) increased, but there wereno significant differences between different periods. Tntest group, HAF tended to increase gradually, MTT prolonged obviously, BV and BF decreased at the same time. The results of statistical analysis revealed that the difference in the HAF ratio of test group to control group was significant.The ratio of BV and BF in test group to control group in stageof hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis, hepatic fibrosis and early stage of hepatic cirrhosis was significantly different, but there was no significant difference between hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis. The main pathological changes in stage of hepatitis were swelling of hepatic cells, while sinusoid capillarization and deposition of collagen aggravated gradually in the extravascular Disse's spaces in stage of fibrosis and early stage of cirrhosis.CONCLUSION: The technique could reflect some early changes of hepatic blood perfusion in rat with liver diffuse disease and is valuable for their early diagnosis.

  9. Diffusion-weighted MRI of epithelial ovarian cancers: Correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient values with histologic grade and surgical stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Ji-Won, E-mail: fromentin@naver.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Rha, Sung Eun, E-mail: serha@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Soon Nam, E-mail: hiohsn@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Michael Yong, E-mail: digirave@kmle.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Young, E-mail: jybyun@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ahwon, E-mail: klee@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Hospital Pathology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •The solid component of all invasive epithelial cancers showed high b{sub 1000} signal intensity. •ADCs can predict the histologic grade of epithelial ovarian cancer. •ADCs correlate negatively to the surgical stage of epithelial ovarian cancer. •ADCs may be useful imaging biomarkers to assess epithelial ovarian cancer. -- Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this article is to correlate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of epithelial ovarian cancers with histologic grade and surgical stage. Materials and methods: We enrolled 43 patients with pathologically proven epithelial ovarian cancers for this retrospective study. All patients underwent preoperative pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted images with b value of 0 and 1000 s/mm{sup 2} at 3.0-T unit. The mean ADC values of the solid portion of the tumor were measured and compared among different histologic grades and surgical stages. Results: The mean ADC values of epithelial ovarian cancers differed significantly between grade 1 (well-differentiated) and grade 2 (moderately-differentiated) (P = 0.013) as well as between grade 1 and grade 3 (poorly-differentiated) (P = 0.01); however, no statistically significant difference existed between grade 2 and grade 3 (P = 0.737). The receiver-operating characteristic analysis indicated that a cutoff ADC value of less than or equal to 1.09 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s was associated with 94.4% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity in distinguishing grade 1 and grade 2/3 cancer. The difference in mean ADC values was statistically significant for early stage (FIGO stage I) and advanced stage (FIGO stage II-IV) cancer (P = 0.011). The interobserver agreement for the mean ADC values of epithelial ovarian cancers was excellent. Conclusion: The mean ADC values of the solid portion of epithelial ovarian cancers negatively correlated to histologic grade and surgical stage. The mean ADC values may be useful imaging

  10. Investigation of the Stage Performance and Flow Fields in a Centrifugal Compressor with a Vaneless Diffuser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahti Jaatinen-Värri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the width of the vaneless diffuser on the stage performance and flow fields of a centrifugal compressor is studied numerically and experimentally. The diffuser width is varied by reducing the diffuser flow area from the shroud side (i.e., pinching the diffuser. Seven different diffuser widths are studied with numerical simulation. In the modeling, the diffuser width b/b2 is varied within the range 1.00 to 0.50. The numerical results are compared with results obtained in previous studies. In addition, two of the diffusers are further investigated with experimental measurement. The main finding of the work is that the pinch reduces losses in the impeller associated with the tip-clearance flow. Furthermore, it is shown that a too large width reduction causes the flow to accelerate excessively, resulting in a highly nonuniform flow field and flow separation near the shroud.

  11. Cyberknife treatment for advanced or terminal stage hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Hideo; Taniguch, Hiroyoshi; Nomura, Ryutaro; Sato, Kengo; Suzuki, Ichiro; Nakata, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety and efficacy of the Cyberknife treatment for patients with advanced or terminal stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Patients with HCC with extrahepatic metastasis or vascular or bile duct invasion were enrolled between May 2011 and June 2015. The Cyberknife was used to treat each lesion. Treatment response scores were based on Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.1. The trends of tumor markers, including alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and proteins induced by vitamin K absence II (PIVKA II) were assessed. Prognostic factors for tumor response and tumor markers were evaluated with Fisher’s exact test and a logistic regression model. Survival was evaluated with the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Sixty-five patients with 95 lesions were enrolled. Based on the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer classification, all patients were either in the advanced or terminal stage of the disease. The target lesions were as follows: 52 were bone metastasis; 9, lung metastasis; 7, brain metastasis; 9, portal vein invasion; 4, hepatic vein invasion; 4, bile duct invasion; and 10 other lesion types. The response rate and disease control rate were 34% and 53%, respectively. None of the clinical factors correlated significantly with tumor response. Fiducial marker implantation was associated with better control of both AFP (HR = 0.152; 95%CI: 0.026-0.887; P = 0.036) and PIVKA II (HR = 0.035; 95%CI: 0.003-0.342; P = 0.004). The median survival time was 9 mo (95%CI: 5-15 mo). Terminal stage disease (HR = 9.809; 95%CI: 2.589-37.17, P < 0.001) and an AFP of more than 400 ng/mL (HR = 2.548; 95%CI: 1.070-6.068, P = 0.035) were associated with worse survival. A radiation dose higher than 30 Gy (HR = 0.274; 95%CI: 0.093-0.7541, P = 0.012) was associated with better survival. In the 52 cases of bone metastasis, 36 patients (69%) achieved pain relief. One patient had cerebral

  12. An Effective Technique for Endoscopic Resection of Advanced Stage Angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mohammadi Ardehali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, the surgical management of angiofibroma has been greatly influenced by the use of endoscopic techniques. However, large tumors that extend into difficult anatomic sites present major challenges for management by either endoscopy or an open-surgery approach which needs new technique for the complete en block resection.   Materials and Methods: In a prospective observational study we developed an endoscopic transnasal technique for the resection of angiofibroma via pushing and pulling the mass with 1/100000 soaked adrenalin tampons. Thirty two patients were treated using this endoscopic technique over 7 years. The mean follow-up period was 36 months. The main outcomes measured were tumor staging, average blood loss, complications, length of hospitalization, and residual and/or recurrence rate of the tumor.   Results: According to the Radkowski staging, 23,5, and 4 patients were at stage IIC, IIIA, and IIIB, respectively. Twenty five patients were operated on exclusively via transnasal endoscopy while 7 patients were managed using endoscopy-assisted open-surgery techniques. Mean blood loss in patients was 1261± 893 cc. The recurrence rate was 21.88% (7 cases at two years following surgery. Mean hospitalization time was 3.56 ± 0.6 days.   Conclusion:  Using this effective technique, endoscopic removal of more highly advanced angiofibroma is possible. Better visualization, less intraoperative blood loss, lower rates of complication and recurrence, and shorter hospitalization time are some of the advantages.

  13. Advances in Medical Management of Early Stage and Advanced Breast Cancer: 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherby, Sabrina; Rizack, Tina; Sakr, Bachir J; Legare, Robert D; Sikov, William M

    2016-01-01

    Standard management of early stage and advanced breast cancer has been improved over the past few years by knowledge gained about the biology of the disease, results from a number of eagerly anticipated clinical trials and the development of novel agents that offer our patients options for improved outcomes or reduced toxicity or both. This review highlights recent major developments affecting the systemic therapy of breast cancer, broken down by clinically relevant patient subgroups and disease stage, and briefly discusses some of the ongoing controversies in the treatment of breast cancer and promising therapies on the horizon.

  14. Cochliomyia Homnivorax in an advanced stage in the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Gomes

    Full Text Available Myiasis is characterized by the invasion of body or cavity tissues of live animals by larva. It is most frequently observed in underdeveloped and tropical countries, but there are cases described worldwide. Conventional treatment consists of mechanical removal of the larvae, one by one, which is a painful, embarrassing and repugnant process, both for the professional and patient. Although it is not considered rare, it has been observed that the dental professional has little knowledge for the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology. For this reason, this study reports a case of oral myiasis at an advanced stage, which affected a nine-year-old patient, treated at a medical-dental clinic. Diagnosis was based on the visual presence of Cochliomyia homnivorax larvae, diptera of the Calliphoridae family, which were between the second and third stages of development. Predisposing factors, such as the lack of information, malnutrition, poor oral hygiene, preexistenceof oral lesions and severe halitosis have a decisive influence in the appearance and progression of oral myiasis. A brief literaturereview was also conducted, in which this pathology was discussed, including the importance of early clinical diagnosis, its etiology, possible associations with other pathologies, and different types of treatment.

  15. Staged Mucosal Advancement Flap versus Staged Fibrin Sealant in the Treatment of Complex Perianal Fistulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. van der Hagen

    2011-01-01

    Methods. All patients with high complex cryptoglandular fistulas were randomised to closure of the internal opening by a mucosal advancement flap (MF or injection with fibrin sealant (FS after treatment with setons. Recurrence rate and incontinence disorders were explored. Results. The MF group (5 females and 10 males with a median age of 51 years and a median followup of 52 months. The FS group (4 females and 11 males with a median age of 45 years and a median followup of 49 months. Three (20% patients of the MF group had a recurrent fistula compared to 9 (60% of the FS group (P=0.03. No new continence disorders developed. Conclusion. Staged FS injection has a much lower success rate compared to MF.

  16. Evolving molecularly targeted therapies for advanced-stage thyroid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Keith C; Ryder, Mabel

    2016-07-01

    Increased understanding of disease-specific molecular targets of therapy has led to the regulatory approval of two drugs (vandetanib and cabozantinib) for the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), and two agents (sorafenib and lenvatinib) for the treatment of radioactive- iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in both the USA and in the EU. The effects of these and other therapies on overall survival and quality of life among patients with thyroid cancer, however, remain to be more-clearly defined. When applied early in the disease course, intensive multimodality therapy seems to improve the survival outcomes of patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), but salvage therapies for ATC are of uncertain benefit. Additional innovative, rationally designed therapeutic strategies are under active development both for patients with DTC and for patients with ATC, with multiple phase II and phase III randomized clinical trials currently ongoing. Continued effort is being made to identify further signalling pathways with potential therapeutic relevance in thyroid cancers, as well as to elaborate on the complex interactions between signalling pathways, with the intention of translating these discoveries into effective and personalized therapies. Herein, we summarize the progress made in molecular medicine for advanced-stage thyroid cancers of different histotypes, analyse how these developments have altered - and might further refine - patient care, and identify open questions for future research.

  17. Effect of the Unsteadiness on the Diffuser Flow in a Transonic Centrifugal Compressor Stage

    OpenAIRE

    N. Bulot; I. Trébinjac

    2009-01-01

    The study is focused on the analysis of the flow structure within the vaned diffuser of a transonic high-pressure centrifugal compressor stage. The analyzed time-dependent flow field comes from unsteady computations of the stage using a 3D Navier-Stokes code with a phase-lagged technique, at an operating point close to the design point. A good comparison with available experimental data allowed the use of CFD for investigating the details of the flow in order to assess the effect of the unste...

  18. Unusual fatty metamorphosis observed in diffuse liver metastases of stage 4S neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazoe, Jun; Okuyama, Chio; Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto City (Japan); Iehara, Tomoko; Hosoi, Hajime [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto City (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    We report a case of stage 4S neuroblastoma in which CT showed diffuse liver metastases containing a geographical fatty area in the periportal region. MRI showed this abnormality to correspond to an area with an unusual pattern of fatty change. {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy demonstrated increased accumulation throughout the liver, except for the region showing fatty change. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of liver metastases from neuroblastoma with geographical fatty infiltration. (orig.)

  19. Response evaluation after chemoradiotherapy for advanced nodal disease in head and neck cancer using diffusion-weighted MRI and 18F-FDG-PET-CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, C.S.; de Graaf, P.; Alberts, F.M.; Hoekstra, O.S.; Comans, E.F.I.; Bloemena, E.; Witte, B.I.; Sanchez, E.; Leemans, C.R.; Castelijns, J.A.; de Bree, R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Evaluation of accuracy and interobserver variation of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18F-FDGPET-CT) to detect residual lymph node metastases after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in advanced stage

  20. Bladder tumour staging: comparison of diffusion- and T{sub 2}-weighted MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Assmy, Ahmed [Mansoura University, Department of Urology, Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura (Egypt); Mansoura University, Department of Radiology, Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura (Egypt); Abou-El-Ghar, Mohamed E.; Refaie, Huda F.; El-Diasty, Tarek [Mansoura University, Department of Radiology, Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura (Egypt); Mosbah, Ahmed; El-Nahas, Ahmed R.; Hekal, Ihab A.; Ibrahiem, El Housseiny [Mansoura University, Department of Urology, Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2009-07-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the clinical feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI in detection and staging of urinary bladder tumour and to compare DW MRI with the T{sub 2}-weighted technique. One hundred and six patients with bladder tumour were prospectively included in our study. All patients were evaluated with MR imaging. We started with axial T{sub 2}-weighted high resolution MR of the urinary bladder, then DW MRI. Two radiologists independently interpreted the MR images, and discrepancies were resolved by consensus. The accuracy of DW MRI in staging of bladder tumour was evaluated using the final histopathological findings. In DW imaging (DWI) staging accuracy was 63.6% and 69.6% in differentiating superficial from invasive tumours and organ-confined from non-organ-confined tumours, respectively. On a stage by a stage basis, DWI accuracy was 63.6% (21/33), 75.7% (25/33), 93.7% (30/32) and 87.5% (7/8) for stages T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. In the T{sub 2}-weighted technique, the overall staging accuracy was only 39.6% and accuracy for differentiating superficial from invasive tumours and organ-confined from non-organ-confined tumours was 6.1% and 15.1%, respectively. DW is superior to T{sub 2}-weighted MRI in staging of organ-confined tumours ({<=}T2) and both techniques are comparable in the evaluation of higher-stage tumours. (orig.)

  1. Diffusion and Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging:Fundamentals and Advances

    CERN Document Server

    Assili, Sanam

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, magnetic resonance imaging has been utilized as a powerful imaging modality to evaluate the structure and function of various organs in the human body,such as the brain. Additionally, diffusion and perfusion MR imaging have been increasingly used in neurovascular clinical applications. In diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, the mobility of water molecules is explored in order to obtain information about the microscopic behavior of the tissues. In contrast, perfusion weighted imaging uses tracers to exploit hemodynamic status, which enables researchers and clinicians to consider this imaging modality as an early biomarker of certain brain diseases. In this review, the fundamentals of physics for diffusion and perfusion MR imaging both of which are highly sensitive to microenvironmental alterations at the cellular level as well as their application in the treatment of aging, Alzheimer's disease, brain tumors and cerebral ischemic injury were discussed.

  2. Effect of the Unsteadiness on the Diffuser Flow in a Transonic Centrifugal Compressor Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bulot

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is focused on the analysis of the flow structure within the vaned diffuser of a transonic high-pressure centrifugal compressor stage. The analyzed time-dependent flow field comes from unsteady computations of the stage using a 3D Navier-Stokes code with a phase-lagged technique, at an operating point close to the design point. A good comparison with available experimental data allowed the use of CFD for investigating the details of the flow in order to assess the effect of the unsteadiness in the diffuser flow development. Applying various data processing techniques, it is shown that the unsteadiness is due to the jet and wake flow structure emerging from the radial impeller and to the pressure waves brought about by the interaction between the vane bow shock wave and the impeller blade. The interaction between the pressure waves and the vane pressure side boundary layer leads to a pulsating behavior of separated bubbles within the diffuser. The pressure waves are similar in shape and strength whatever the blade height. The observed change in the flow field from hub to tip is due to migration of the low momentum fluid contained in the wake toward the pressure side/hub corner.

  3. Technical advancements and protocol optimization of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ping; Lin, Yuning; Zhong, Qun; Chen, Ziqian; Sandrasegaran, Kumar; Lin, Chen

    2016-01-01

    An area of rapid advancement in abdominal MRI is diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). By measuring diffusion properties of water molecules, DWI is capable of non-invasively probing tissue properties and physiology at cellular and macromolecular level. The integration of DWI as part of abdominal MRI exam allows better lesion characterization and therefore more accurate initial diagnosis and treatment monitoring. One of the most technical challenging, but also most useful abdominal DWI applications is in liver and therefore requires special attention and careful optimization. In this article, the latest technical developments of DWI and its liver applications are reviewed with the explanations of the technical principles, recommendations of the imaging parameters, and examples of clinical applications. More advanced DWI techniques, including Intra-Voxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) diffusion imaging, anomalous diffusion imaging, and Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) are discussed.

  4. Two-Stage Bulk Electron Heating in the Diffusion Region of Anti-Parallel Symmetric Reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Ari; Daughton, William

    2016-01-01

    Electron bulk energization in the diffusion region during anti-parallel symmetric reconnection entails two stages. First, the inflowing electrons are adiabatically trapped and energized by an ambipolar parallel electric field. Next, the electrons gain energy from the reconnection electric field as they undergo meandering motion. These collisionless mechanisms have been decribed previously, and they lead to highly-structured electron velocity distributions. Nevertheless, a simplified control-volume analysis gives estimates for how the net effective heating scales with the upstream plasma conditions in agreement with fully kinetic simulations and spacecraft observations.

  5. Travelling wave and convergence in stage-structured reaction-diffusion competitive models with nonlocal delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Rui [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)]. E-mail: rxu88@yahoo.com.cn; Chaplain, M.A.J. [Department of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Davidson, F.A. [Department of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-15

    In this paper, we first investigate a stage-structured competitive model with time delays, harvesting, and nonlocal spatial effect. By using an iterative technique recently developed by Wu and Zou (Wu J, Zou X. Travelling wave fronts of reaction-diffusion systems with delay. J Dynam Differen Equat 2001;13:651-87), sufficient conditions are established for the existence of travelling front solution connecting the two boundary equilibria in the case when there is no positive equilibrium. The travelling wave front corresponds to an invasion by a stronger species which drives the weaker species to extinction. Secondly, we consider a stage-structured competitive model with time delays and nonlocal spatial effect when the domain is finite. We prove the global stability of each of the nonnegative equilibria and demonstrate that the more complex model studied here admits three possible long term behaviors: coexistence, bistability and dominance as is the case for the standard Lotka-Voltera competitive model.

  6. Influence of Dupree diffusivity on the occurrence scattering time advance in turbulent plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae [Department of Physics and Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 15588, South Korea and Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The influence of Dupree diffusivity on the occurrence scattering time advance for the electron-ion collision is investigated in turbulent plasmas. The second-order eikonal method and the effective Dupree potential term associated with the plasma turbulence are employed to obtain the occurrence scattering time as a function of the diffusion coefficient, impact parameter, collision energy, thermal energy, and Debye length. The result shows that the occurrence scattering time advance decreases with an increase of the Dupree diffusivity. Hence, we have found that the influence of plasma turbulence diminishes the occurrence time advance in forward electron-ion collisions in thermal turbulent plasmas. The occurrence time advance shows that the propensity of the occurrence time advance increases with increasing scattering angle. It is also found that the effect of turbulence due to the Dupree diffusivity on the occurrence scattering time advance decreases with an increase of the thermal energy. In addition, the variation of the plasma turbulence on the occurrence scattering time advance due to the plasma parameters is also discussed.

  7. APPLICATION OF WHOLE BODY DIFFUSION WEIGHTED MR IMAGING FOR DIAGNOSIS AND STAGING OF MALIGNANT LYMPHOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo Li; Hua-dan Xue; Jian Li; Fei Sun; Bo Jiang; Dong Liu; Hong-yi Sun; Zheng-yu Jin

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical impact of whole body diffusion weighted imaging (WB-DWI) on diagnosis and staging of malignant lymphoma. Methods Thirty-one patients with suspected iymphadenopathy were enrolled. WB-DWI was performed by using short TI inversion recovery echo-planar imaging sequence with free breathing and built-in body coil. Axial T2-weighted imaging images of the same location were used as reference. The results of WB-DWI were compared with pathological results and other imaging modalities. The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of different kinds of lymph nodes were compared. Results WB-DWI was positive in all 18 cases with lymphoma, 5 cases with metastatic lymph nodes and 4 of 8 cases with benign lymphadenopathy. The mean ADC value of lymphomatous, metastatic and benign lymph nodes was (0.87±0.17) × 10-3, (0.98 ± 0.09) × 10-3 and (1.20 ± 0.10) × 10-3 mm2/s. There was significant difference in ADC value between benign lymph nodes and other two groups (P < 0.01). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of WB-DWI in diagnosis of lymphoma were 100% (18/18), 30.8% (4/13) and 71.0% (22/31). When an ADC value of 1.08 × 10-3 mm2/s was used as the threshold value for differentiating malignant from benign lymph nodes, the best results were obtained with sensitivity of 87.8% and specificity of 91.3%. Sixteen of eighteen cases (88.9%) of lymphoma were accurately staged in accordance with clinical staging. Conclusions WB-DWI is a sensitive, but less specific technique for diagnosis of lymphoma. It is difficult to differentiate lymphomatous from metastatic lymph nodes using WB-DWI. However, it is a valuable imaging modality for staging of patients with malignant lymphoma.

  8. A Two-Stage Process Model of Sensory Discrimination: An Alternative to Drift-Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Landy, Michael S

    2016-11-02

    Discrimination of the direction of motion of a noisy stimulus is an example of sensory discrimination under uncertainty. For stimuli that are extended in time, reaction time is quicker for larger signal values (e.g., discrimination of opposite directions of motion compared with neighboring orientations) and larger signal strength (e.g., stimuli with higher contrast or motion coherence, that is, lower noise). The standard model of neural responses (e.g., in lateral intraparietal cortex) and reaction time for discrimination is drift-diffusion. This model makes two clear predictions. (1) The effects of signal strength and value on reaction time should interact multiplicatively because the diffusion process depends on the signal-to-noise ratio. (2) If the diffusion process is interrupted, as in a cued-response task, the time to decision after the cue should be independent of the strength of accumulated sensory evidence. In two experiments with human participants, we show that neither prediction holds. A simple alternative model is developed that is consistent with the results. In this estimate-then-decide model, evidence is accumulated until estimation precision reaches a threshold value. Then, a decision is made with duration that depends on the signal-to-noise ratio achieved by the first stage.

  9. Nutrition Intervention for Advanced Stages of Diabetic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein-Fuchs, Jordi; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2015-08-01

    IN BRIEF For the goals of reducing diabetic kidney disease (DKD) onset and progression, approaches to nutritional therapy are a subject of much debate. This article discusses selected nutrients that have a role in affecting DKD outcomes and introduces application of newer, individualized concepts for healthful eating, as supported by clinical evidence relevant to patients with DKD. Selected aspects of management of advanced DKD are also reviewed.

  10. Systemic chemo-immunotherapy for advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yu Yin; Ming-De Lü; Li-Jian Liang; Jia-Ming Lai; Dong-Ming Li; Ming Kuang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of systemic chemo-immunotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: Twenty-six patients with advanced HCC were treated by using systemic chemo-immunotherapy (PIAF regimen), which consisted of cisplatin (20 mg/m2) intravenously daily for 4 consecutive day, doxorubicin (40 mg/m2)intravenously on day 1, 5-fiuorouracil (400 mg/m2)intravenously daily for 4 consecutive day, and human recombinant α-interferon-2a (5 Mu/m2) subcutaneous injection daily for 4 consecutive day. The treatment was repeated every 3 wk, with a maximum of six cycles.RESULTS: A total of 90 cycles of PIAF treatment were administered, with a mean number of 3.9 cycles per patient.Eight patients received six cycles of treatment (group A),and the remaining 18 were subjected to two to five cycles (group B). There were 0 complete response, 4 partial responses, 9 static diseases and 13 progressive diseases,with a disease control rate of 50% (13/26). The 1-year survival rate was 24.3%, with a median survival time of 6.0 mo. Group A had a remarkably better survival as compared with group B, the 1- and 2-year survival rates were 62.5% vs 6.1% and 32.3% vs 0%, and a median survival time was 12.5 mo vs 5.0 mo (P = 0.001).CONCLUSION: Systemic chemo-immunotherapy using PIAF regimen represented an effective treatment and could improve the survival rate and prolong the survival time in selected patients with advanced HCC.

  11. Supportive care in early rehabilitation for advanced-stage radiated head and neck cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, J.A.M. de; Berg, M.G. van den; Achterberg, T. van; Merkx, M.A.W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and supportive follow-up care needs 1 month posttreatment for patients with advanced-stage (stage III or IV) radiated head and neck cancer (HNC) who were treated with curative intent. Study Design An exploratory, descriptive analysi

  12. Predictors of cervical cancer being at an advanced stage at diagnosis in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero

    2011-01-01

    of this cancer, but other factors potentially associated with advanced stages of cervical cancer at diagnosis are unknown. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between age, marital status, ethnicity, health insurance coverage, residence in an urban vs a rural setting, and stage (at...

  13. Pretreatment Retroperitoneal Para-aortic Lymph Node Staging in Advanced Cervical Cancer: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, R.M.; Zusterzeel, P.L.M.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to evaluate the safety and impact of pretreatment surgical para-aortic lymph node staging (PALNS) in advanced cervical cancer (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB2-IVA) and to evaluate the preoperative imaging of PALNs. METHODS: We se

  14. Serum adiponectin levels in advanced-stage Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassani, Erica; Cancello, Raffaella; Cavanna, Ferruccio; Maestrini, Sabrina; Di Blasio, Anna Maria; Liuzzi, Antonio; Pezzoli, Gianni; Barichella, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) experience body weight loss and reductions in the most common cardiovascular risk factors. At present, the pathogenetic mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. Increased serum concentrations of adiponectin, which possesses antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties, are associated with a reduction in cardiovascular risk. The objective of this study was to determine adiponectin serum concentrations in PD patients. Thirty PD patients underwent a full nutritional status assessment, including the determination of adiponectin serum concentrations. Mean ± SD adiponectin concentrations were 9.59 ± 5.9 μg/mL (interquartile range: 5.92-12.9 μg/mL). In PD patients, adiponectin serum levels were similar to those in normal-weight, healthy, young subjects and significantly higher than that in an aged-matched group of morbidly obese subjects. Further studies are warranted to establish the role of adiponectin in the management of PD patients.

  15. The value of 3.0Tesla diffusion-weighted MRI for pelvic nodal staging in patients with early stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerkx, W.M.; Veldhuis, W.B.; Spijkerboer, A.M.; Bosch, M.A. van den; Mali, W.P.Th.; Heintz, A.P.; Bipat, S.; Sie-Go, D.M.; Velden, J.; Schreuder, H.W.B.; Stoker, J.; Peeters, P.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of 3.0Tesla (3T) diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in addition to conventional MRI for the detection of lymphadenopathy in patients with early stage cervical cancer compared to histopathological evaluati

  16. Experimental Results of the First Two Stages of an Advanced Transonic Core Compressor Under Isolated and Multi-Stage Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahst, Patricia S.; Kulkarni, Sameer; Sohn, Ki H.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program calls for investigation of the technology barriers associated with improved fuel efficiency of large gas turbine engines. Under ERA the task for a High Pressure Ratio Core Technology program calls for a higher overall pressure ratio of 60 to 70. This mean that the HPC would have to almost double in pressure ratio and keep its high level of efficiency. The challenge is how to match the corrected mass flow rate of the front two supersonic high reaction and high corrected tip speed stages with a total pressure ratio of 3.5. NASA and GE teamed to address this challenge by using the initial geometry of an advanced GE compressor design to meet the requirements of the first 2 stages of the very high pressure ratio core compressor. The rig was configured to run as a 2 stage machine, with Strut and IGV, Rotor 1 and Stator 1 run as independent tests which were then followed by adding the second stage. The goal is to fully understand the stage performances under isolated and multi-stage conditions and fully understand any differences and provide a detailed aerodynamic data set for CFD validation. Full use was made of steady and unsteady measurement methods to isolate fluid dynamics loss source mechanisms due to interaction and endwalls. The paper will present the description of the compressor test article, its predicted performance and operability, and the experimental results for both the single stage and two stage configurations. We focus the detailed measurements on 97 and 100 of design speed at 3 vane setting angles.

  17. Diffusion Weighted MRI as a predictive tool for effect of radiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Søren; Tanderup, Kari; Fokdal, Lars;

    Diffusion weighted MRI has shown great potential in diagnostic cancer imaging and may also have value for monitoring tumor response during radiotherapy. Patients with advanced cervical cancer are treated with external beam radiotherapy followed by brachytherapy. This study evaluates the value of ...

  18. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: comparison of diffusion and perfusion characteristics between different tumour stages using intravoxel incoherent motion MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Vincent; Li, Xiao; Huang, Bingsheng; Khong, Pek Lan [University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong (China); Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Lam, Ka On [University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Department of Clinical Oncology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong (China); Fong, Daniel Yee Tak [University of Hong Kong, School of Nursing, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong (China); Chan, Queenie [Philips Healthcare, Hong Kong, New Territories (China)

    2014-01-15

    To explore intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) characteristics of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and relationships with different tumour stages. We prospectively recruited 80 patients with newly diagnosed undifferentiated NPC. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging was performed and IVIM parameters (D, pure diffusion; f, perfusion fraction; D*, pseudodiffusion coefficient) were calculated. Patients were stratified into low and high tumour stage groups based on American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and TNM staging for determination of the predictive powers of IVIM parameters using t test, multiple logistic regression and ROC curve analyses. D, f and D* were all statistically significantly lower in high-stage groups in AJCC, T and N staging. D, f and D* were all independent predictors of AJCC staging, f and D* were independent predictors of T staging, and D was an independent predictor of N staging. D was most powerful for AJCC and N staging, whereas f was most powerful for T staging. Optimal cut-off values (area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio) were as follows: AJCC stage, D = 0.782 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s (0.915, 93.3 %, 76.2 %, 3.92, 0.09); T staging, f = 0.133 (0.905, 80.5 %, 92.5 %, 10.73, 0.21); N staging, D = 0.761 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s (0.848, 87.5 %, 66.7 %, 2.62, 0.19). Multivariate analysis showed no diagnostic improvement. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma has distinctive intravoxel incoherent motion characteristics parameters in different tumour staging, potentially helping pretreatment staging. (orig.)

  19. Separation of advanced from mild fibrosis in diffuse liver disease using {sup 31}P magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noren, Bengt [Department of Radiology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Dahlqvist, Olof [Department of Radiation Physics, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Lundberg, Peter [Department of Radiology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Department of Radiation Physics, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden)], E-mail: Peter.Lundberg@imv.liu.se; Almer, Sven [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Kechagias, Stergios [Department of Internal Medicine, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Ekstedt, Mattias [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Franzen, Lennart [Medilab, SE-183 53 Taeby Sweden (Sweden); Wirell, Staffan [Department of Radiology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Smedby, Orjan [Department of Radiology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2008-05-15

    {sup 31}P-MRS using DRESS was used to compare absolute liver metabolite concentrations (PME, Pi, PDE, {gamma}ATP, {alpha}ATP, {beta}ATP) in two distinct groups of patients with chronic diffuse liver disorders, one group with steatosis (NAFLD) and none to moderate inflammation (n = 13), and one group with severe fibrosis or cirrhosis (n = 16). All patients underwent liver biopsy and extensive biochemical evaluation. A control group (n = 13) was also included. Absolute concentrations and the anabolic charge, AC = {l_brace}PME{r_brace}/({l_brace}PME{r_brace} + {l_brace}PDE{r_brace}), were calculated. Comparing the control and cirrhosis groups, lower concentrations of PDE (p = 0.025) and a higher AC (p < 0.001) were found in the cirrhosis group. Also compared to the NAFLD group, the cirrhosis group had lower concentrations of PDE (p = 0.01) and a higher AC (p = 0.009). No significant differences were found between the control and NAFLD group. When the MRS findings were related to the fibrosis stage obtained at biopsy, there were significant differences in PDE between stage F0-1 and stage F4 and in AC between stage F0-1 and stage F2-3. Using a PDE concentration of 10.5 mM as a cut-off value to discriminate between mild, F0-2, and advanced, F3-4, fibrosis the sensitivity and specificity were 81% and 69%, respectively. An AC cut-off value of 0.27 showed a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 54%. In conclusion, the results suggest that PDE is a marker of liver fibrosis, and that AC is a potentially clinically useful parameter in discriminating mild fibrosis from advanced.

  20. BRAF Mutation Is Rare in Advanced-Stage Low-Grade Ovarian Serous Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Tsang, Yvonne T.M.; Deavers, Michael T.; Mok, Samuel C.; Zu, Zhifei; Sun, Charlotte; Malpica, Anais; Wolf, Judith K.; Lu, Karen H.; Gershenson, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas are believed to arise via an adenoma-serous borderline tumor-serous carcinoma sequence. In this study, we found that advanced-stage, low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas both with and without adjacent serous borderline tumor shared similar regions of loss of heterozygosity. We then analyzed 91 ovarian tumor samples for mutations in TP53, BRAF, and KRAS. TP53 mutations were not detected in any serous borderline tumors (n = 30) or low-grade serous carcinomas (n = 43) but were found in 73% of high-grade serous carcinomas (n = 18). BRAF (n = 9) or KRAS (n = 5) mutation was detected in 47% of serous borderline tumors, but among the low-grade serous carcinomas (39 stage III, 2 stage II, and 2 stage I), only one (2%) had a BRAF mutation and eight (19%) had a KRAS mutation. The low frequency of BRAF mutations in advanced-stage, low-grade serous carcinomas, which contrasts with previous findings, suggests that aggressive, low-grade serous carcinomas are more likely derived from serous borderline tumors without BRAF mutation. In addition, advanced-stage, low-grade carcinoma patients with BRAF or KRAS mutation have a better apparent clinical outcome. However, further investigation is needed. PMID:20802181

  1. Nomogram for Suboptimal Cytoreduction at Primary Surgery for Advanced Stage Ovarian Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerestein, Cornelis G.; Eijkemans, Marinus J.; Bakker, Jeanette; Elgersma, Otto E.; Van der Burg, Maria E. L.; Kooi, Geertruida S.; Burger, Curt W.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Maximal cytoreduction to minimal residual tumor is the most important determinant of prognosis in patients with advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Preoperative prediction of suboptimal cytoreduction, defined as residual tumor >1 cm, could guide treatment decisions and improve couns

  2. Statin as a Combined Therapy for Advanced-Stage Ovarian Cancer: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yu Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite the great achievements in the treatment of advanced-stage ovarian cancer, it is still a severe condition with an unfavorable 5-year survival rate. Statins have been suggested to reduce the risk of several cancers beyond their cholesterol-lowing effects. However, the prognostic significance of statins in patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer remains controversial. Methods. A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the association between statin intake and overall survival (OS among patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer. Patients who underwent cytoreductive surgery followed by courses of intravenous chemotherapy were matched through a propensity score analysis. Results. A total of 60 propensity-matched patients were included. Women in statin group showed a similar OS than the nonstatin counterparts (P=0.966, whereas residual tumor was significantly associated with better OS (P=0.013 and was an independent factor that associated with OS (P=0.002, hazard ratio = 5.460, and 95% confidence interval: 1.894 to 15.742 in multivariable analysis. Conclusions. Our results suggested that statin usage was not associated with improved OS in patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer undergoing surgery and chemotherapy. Considering the retrospective nature and the relative small sample size of the study, further prospective studies and random control trials are needed.

  3. Dietary flavonoid intake, black tea consumption, and risk of overall and advanced stage prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geybels, Milan S; Verhage, Bas A J; Arts, Ilja C W; van Schooten, Frederik J; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2013-06-15

    Flavonoids are natural antioxidants found in various foods, and a major source is black tea. Some experimental evidence indicates that flavonoids could prevent prostate cancer. We investigated the associations between flavonoid intake, black tea consumption, and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort study, which includes 58,279 men who provided detailed baseline information on several cancer risk factors. From 1986 to 2003, 3,362 prostate cancers were identified, including 1,164 advanced (stage III/IV) cancers. Cox proportional hazards regression using the case-cohort approach was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Intake of total catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol, and myricetin and consumption of black tea were associated with a decreased risk of stage III/IV or stage IV prostate cancer. Hazard ratios of stage III/IV and stage IV prostate cancer for the highest versus the lowest category of black tea consumption (≥5 versus ≤1 cups/day) were 0.75 (95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.97) and 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.91), respectively. No associations were observed for overall and nonadvanced prostate cancer. In conclusion, dietary flavonoid intake and black tea consumption were associated with a decreased risk of advanced stage prostate cancer.

  4. Does Radiation Have a Role in Advanced Stage Hodgkin's or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena

    2016-01-01

    OPINION STATEMENT: Radiation therapy (RT) is one of the most effective agents available in the treatment of lymphomas. However, it is a local treatment, and today, with systemic treatments assuming a primary role for induction of response, RT is primarily used for consolidation. For advanced stage...... lymphomas, the indications for the use of RT have been questioned and debated, and proper randomized evidence is sparse. RT has significant long-term side effects, and the very extended RT fields of the past yielded unacceptable toxicity in many patients. Modern advanced imaging and conformal RT techniques....... In advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), RT to residual disease and/or initial bulk benefits some patients, depending on the chemotherapy regimen used. The more intensive the chemotherapy regimen, the fewer patients benefit from RT. In advanced aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), most of the evidence comes from...

  5. Diffusion of light gases in advanced nanoporous membranes and catalysts via NMR diffusometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert A.

    Diffusion in nanoporous gas separation membranes and catalysts plays an important role in their selectivity and performance. As a result, there is an intense effort towards development of novel membranes and catalysts with microstructures tailored for improved transport properties. Fundamental understanding and prediction of the mass transport properties of these materials can be obtained by studies of mass transport on a broad range of microscopic length scales. In this dissertation, a novel NMR diffusometry technique is employed to study the influence of the pore network properties on light gas diffusion for several nanoporous systems, which represent promising advanced gas separation membranes and catalysts. The following systems were investigated: (i) carbon molecular sieve membranes, (ii) mixed-matrix membranes and (iii) rare-earth aerogel catalysts. For carbon molecular sieve membranes, the self-diffusion properties of several light gases of industrial importance are characterized by investigating the dependences of the self diffusivity on displacement length scale, temperature, sorbate loading and composition. Analysis of these dependences and comparison of the measured microscopic transport data with the corresponding results of membrane permeation enabled the determination of membrane structural properties which lead to the remarkable diffusion selectivity of these membranes. For mixed-matrix membranes, detailed measurements of light gas sorbate diffusion over a broad range of microscopic length scales enables resolution of the different modes of sorbate self-diffusion inside mixed-matrix membranes. Finally for samaria-aerogel catalyst, the influence of catalyst packing is explored based on detailed microscopic diffusion measurements over a broad range of sorbate loading pressures and detailed data analysis. These studies were enabled by application of a novel pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance technique, developed in part by this work

  6. Updates in advanced diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging techniques in the evaluation of prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hebert; Alberto; Vargas; Edward; Malnor; Lawrence; Yousef; Mazaheri; Evis; Sala

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging(DWMRI) is considered part of the standard imaging protocol for the evaluation of patients with prostate cancer.It has been proven valuable as a functional tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of prostate cancer beyond anatomical MRI sequences such as T2-weighted imaging. This review discusses ongoing controversies in DW-MRI acquisition, including the optimal number of b-values to be used for prostate DWI, and summarizes the current literature on the use of advanced DWMRI techniques. These include intravoxel incoherent motion imaging, which better accounts for the nonmono-exponential behavior of the apparent diffusion coefficient as a function of b-value and the influence of perfusion at low b-values. Another technique is diffusion kurtosis imaging(DKI). Metrics from DKI reflect excess kurtosis of tissues, representing its deviation from Gaussian diffusion behavior. Preliminary results suggest that DKI findings may have more value than findings from conventional DW-MRI for the assessment of prostate cancer.

  7. Does the use of diagnostic PET/CT cause stage migration in patients with primary advanced ovarian cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, S; Høgdall, C; Loft, Annika

    2010-01-01

    To investigate if the use of diagnostic FDG-PET/CT leads to stage migration in patients with advanced ovarian cancer and to evaluate the prognostic significance of FDG-PET/CT.......To investigate if the use of diagnostic FDG-PET/CT leads to stage migration in patients with advanced ovarian cancer and to evaluate the prognostic significance of FDG-PET/CT....

  8. Prospects in cancer immunotherapy: treating advanced stage disease or preventing tumor recurrence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjili, Masoud H; Payne, Kyle K

    2015-06-01

    Human vaccines against infectious agents are often effective in a prophylactic setting. However, they are usually not effective when used post-exposure. Rabies vaccine is one of the exceptions, which can be used post-exposure, but is effective only when used in combination with other treatments. Similar results have been obtained with cancer vaccines and immunotherapies. Cancer immunotherapies generally prolong patients' survival when they are used during advanced stage disease. The potential of immunotherapy to cure cancer could be revealed when it is applied in a prophylactic setting. This article provides a brief overview of cancer immunotherapeutics and suggests that immunotherapy can cure cancer if used at the right time against the right target; we suggest that targeting cancer during dormancy in order to prevent tumor recurrence as advanced stage disease is potentially curative.

  9. R&D Advancement, Technology Diffusion, and Impact on Evaluation of Public R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, M. C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, D. J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Norland, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2005-01-01

    In a 2001 report titled "Research at DOE: Was It Worth It?", a National Research Council (NRC) committee defined a set of simplifying rules to estimate the net economic benefits from technologies supported by the Department of Energy (DOE). This NREL paper evaluates the efficacy of the NRC rules compared to published literature on acceleration of technology introduction into markets, technology diffusion, and infrastructure change. It also offers considerations for revisions of the rules that call for the use of technology and sector-specific data, advanced forecasting techniques, and sensitivity analysis to test the robustness of the methodology.

  10. Physical activity in patients with advanced-stage cancer: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Tara A; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2012-06-01

    The importance of physical activity for chronic disease prevention and management has become generally well accepted. The number of research interventions and publications examining the benefits of physical activity for patients with cancer has been rising steadily. However, much of that research has focused on the impact of physical activity either prior to or early in the cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship process. Research focusing on the effects of physical activity, specifically for patients with advanced-stage cancer and poorer prognostic outcomes, has been addressed only recently. The purpose of this article is to examine the state of the science for physical activity in the advanced-stage disease subset of the cancer population. Exercise in a variety of intensities and forms, including yoga, walking, biking, and swimming, has many health benefits for people, including those diagnosed with cancer. Research has shown that, for people with cancer (including advanced-stage cancer), exercise can decrease anxiety, stress, and depression while improving levels of pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, constipation, and insomnia. People diagnosed with cancer should discuss with their oncologist safe, easy ways they can incorporate exercise into their daily lives.

  11. Controversies on the prognostic value of interim FDG-PET in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Hugo J A; Kwee, Thomas C

    2016-12-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma, even in advanced-stage, is a highly curable malignancy, but treatment is associated with short-term toxicity and long-term side effects. Early predictive markers are required to identify those patients who do not require the full-length standard therapy (and thus qualify for therapy de-escalation) and those patients who will not be cured by standard therapy (and thus qualify for therapy escalation). Multiple trials have assessed the value of (18) F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) after a few cycles of chemotherapy (also known as 'interim FDG-PET') in predicting outcome in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma. Furthermore, multiple interim FDG-PET-adapted trials, in which patients with positive interim FDG-PET scans are assigned to escalated therapies, and patients with negative interim FDG-PET scans are assigned to de-escalated therapies, have recently been published or are currently ongoing, with generally heterogeneous results. The present article reports the currently available evidence (and controversies) on the prognostic value of interim FDG-PET in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma in patients with positive and negative interim FDG-PET findings following continuation of standard chemotherapy or escalated/de-escalated therapy.

  12. Cutaneous Lymphoma International Consortium Study of Outcome in Advanced Stages of Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarisbrick, Julia J; Prince, H Miles; Vermeer, Maarten H

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Advanced-stage mycosis fungoides (MF; stage IIB to IV) and Sézary syndrome (SS) are aggressive lymphomas with a median survival of 1 to 5 years. Clinical management is stage based; however, there is wide range of outcome within stages. Published prognostic studies in MF/SS have been single......, proliferation index, large-cell transformation, WBC/lymphocyte count, serum lactate dehydrogenase, and identical T-cell clone in blood and skin. Data were collected at specialist centers on patients diagnosed with advanced-stage MF/SS from 2007. Each parameter recorded at diagnosis was tested against overall...... survival (OS). RESULTS: Staging data on 1,275 patients with advanced MF/SS from 29 international sites were included for survival analysis. The median OS was 63 months, with 2- and 5-year survival rates of 77% and 52%, respectively. The median OS for patients with stage IIB disease was 68 months...

  13. Fertilizer-Induced Advances in Corn Growth Stage and Quantitative Definitions of Nitrogen Deficiencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Evidence that nitrogen(N)fertilization tends to accelerate maturation as well as increase rates of growth has received little attention when diagnosing N deficiencies in corn(Zea mays L.).Such a tendency could be a potential source of errors when the diagnosis is solely based on comparing plants with different rates of growth.Whether N fertilization could accelerate rates of growth and maturation was tested in a field study with 12 paired plots representing relatively large variability in soil properties and landscape positions.The plots were located under conditions where preplant N fertilization reduced or avoided temporary N shortages for some plants but did not reduce for other plants early in the season.We measured corn heights to the youngest leaf collar,stages of growth and chlorophyll meter readings(CMRs).The added N advanced growth stages as well as increased corn heights and CMRs at any given time.Fertilization effects on corn heights,growth stages and ear weights were statistically significant(P<0.05)despite substantial variability associated with landscape.Reductions in growth due to a temporary shortage of N within a growth stage might be partially offset by longer periods of growth within that stage to physiological maturity.Temporary shortages of N,therefore,may produce symptoms of N deficiency in situations where subsequent additions of N should not be expected to increase yields.Recognition of these two somewhat different effects(i.e.,increase growth rates and advance growth stages)on corn growth could help to define N deficiency more precisely and to improve the accuracy of diagnosing N status in production agriculture.

  14. Ares First Stage "Systemology" - Combining Advanced Systems Engineering and Planning Tools to Assure Mission Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, James; Brasfield, Fred; Cannon, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Ares is an integral part of NASA s Constellation architecture that will provide crew and cargo access to the International Space Station as well as low earth orbit support for lunar missions. Ares replaces the Space Shuttle in the post 2010 time frame. Ares I is an in-line, two-stage rocket topped by the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. The Ares I first stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster derived from the Space Shuttle Program's reusable solid rocket motor. The Ares second or upper stage is propelled by a J-2X main engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This paper describes the advanced systems engineering and planning tools being utilized for the design, test, and qualification of the Ares I first stage element. Included are descriptions of the current first stage design, the milestone schedule requirements, and the marriage of systems engineering, detailed planning efforts, and roadmapping employed to achieve these goals.

  15. Predictors of Local Recurrence After Rituximab-Based Chemotherapy Alone in Stage III and IV Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Guiding Decisions for Consolidative Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegadeesh, Naresh; Rajpara, Raj; Esiashvili, Natia; Shi, Zheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Liu, Yuan [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Shared Resource, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Okwan-Duodu, Derrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Flowers, Christopher R. [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Medical Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Khan, Mohammad K., E-mail: drkhurram2000@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: The role of consolidative radiation therapy (RT) for stage III and IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the era of rituximab is not well defined. There is evidence that some patients with bulky disease may benefit, but patient selection criteria are not well established. We sought to identify a subset of patients who experienced a high local failure rate after receiving rituximab-based chemotherapy alone and hence may benefit from the addition of consolidative RT. Methods and Materials: Two hundred eleven patients with stage III and IV DLBCL treated between August 1999 and January 2012 were reviewed. Of these, 89 had a complete response to systemic therapy including rituximab and received no initial RT. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression were performed, with local recurrence (LR) as the primary outcome. Results: The median follow-up time was 43.9 months. Fifty percent of patients experienced LR at 5 years. In multivariate analysis, tumor ≥5 cm and stage III disease were associated with increased risk of LR. The 5-year LR-free survival was 47.4% for patients with ≥5-cm lesions versus 74.7% for patients with <5-cm lesions (P=.01). In patients with <5-cm tumors, the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was ≥15 in all patients with LR. The 5-year LR-free survival was 100% in SUV<15 versus 68.8% in SUV≥15 (P=.10). Conclusions: Advanced-stage DLBCL patients with stage III disease or with disease ≥5 cm appear to be at an increased risk for LR. Patients with <5-cm disease and SUVmax ≥15 may be at higher risk for LR. These patients may benefit from consolidative RT after chemoimmunotherapy.

  16. Advanced-stage III/IV follicular lymphoma. Treatment strategies for individual patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzelmann, Frank; Bamberg, Michael; Weinmann, Martin [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Ottinger, Hellmut [Dept. of Bone Marrow Transplantation, Univ. of Essen (Germany); Engelhard, Marianne [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Essen (Germany); Soekler, Martin [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Background: in patients with advanced-stage III/IV follicular lymphoma (FL), there are many treatment options available. The current challenge is to choose the optimal strategy for the individual patient. Methods: the literature was reviewed with respect to treatment strategies in patients with advanced FL by screening the PubMed databank. Results: in advanced-stage III/IV FL, median survival may approach 8-10 years. Treatment strategies include a watch-and-wait strategy, chemoimmunotherapy, monotherapy with rituximab, and - as an experimental approach so far - radioimmunotherapy. The use of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for patients in first remission or chemosensitive relapse prolongs progression-free survival while the effect on overall survival remains unclear compared to standard chemotherapy. However, long-term results are flawed by high relapse rates and risk of secondary malignancies. In patients with relapsed/chemoresistant disease, allogeneic HSCT constitutes the only curative approach but is associated with high treatment-related mortality. In the palliative setting, low-dose involved-field irradiation constitutes an effective treatment option in order to control local symptoms with potential long-lasting response. Conclusion: in case of advanced-disease FL, asymptomatic patients can be managed expectantly. In symptomatic patients, chemoimmunotherapy is regarded as standard therapy. In symptomatic elderly patients with relevant comorbidities, rituximab {+-} single-agent chemotherapy, or low-dose involved-field radiotherapy might be appropriate. For younger patients with chemoresistant/relapsed disease, allogeneic HSCT might be considered, since advances in supportive care and better patient selection have resulted in improved outcomes. (orig.)

  17. Value of diffusion-weighted imaging in predicting parametrial invasion in stage IA2-IIA cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Jae; Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Sung Yoon; Park, Byung Kwan [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bohyun [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-05-15

    To investigate the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in evaluating parametrial invasion (PMI) in stage IA2-IIA cervical cancer. A total of 117 patients with stage IA2-IIA cervical cancer who underwent preoperative MRI and radical hysterectomy were included in this study. Preoperative clinical variables and MRI variables were analysed and compared between the groups with and without pathologically proven PMI. All variables except age were significantly different between patients with and without pathologic PMI (P < 0.05). All variables except squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen were also significantly correlated with pathologic PMI on univariate analysis (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that PMI on MRI (P < 0.001) and tumour apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) (P = 0.029) were independent predictors of pathologic PMI. Area under the curve of PMI on MRI increased significantly from 0.793 to 0.872 when combined with tumour ADC (P = 0.002). When PMI on MRI was further stratified by tumour ADC, the false negative rate was 2.0 % (1/49). In stage IA2-IIA cervical cancer, tumour ADC and PMI on MRI seem to be independent predictors of pathologic PMI. Combining the two predictors improved the diagnostic performance of identifying patients at low risk of pathologic PMI. (orig.)

  18. Post-operative radiation therapy for advanced-stage oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Eric; Panwala, Kathryn; Holland, John

    2002-11-01

    Between 1985 and 1999, 43 patients with locally-advanced, resectable oropharyngeal cancer were treated with combined surgery and post-operative radiation therapy (RT) at Oregon Health and Science University. Five patients (12 per cent) had Stage III disease and 38 patients (88 per cent) had Stage IV disease. All patients had gross total resections of the primary tumour. Thirty-seven patients had neck dissections for regional disease. RT consisted of a mean tumour-bed dose of 63.0 Gy delivered in 1.8-2.0 Gy fractions over a mean of 49 days. At three- and five-years, the actuarial local control was 96 per cent and the actuarial local/regional control was 80 per cent. The three- and five-year actuarial rates of distant metastases were 41 per cent and 46 per cent, respectively. The actuarial overall survival at three- and five-years was 41 per cent and 34 per cent, respectively. The actuarial rates of progression-free survival were 49 per cent at three-years and 45 per cent at five years. Combined surgery and post-operative RT for advanced-stage oropharyngeal cancer results in excellent local/regional control. This particular group of patients experienced a high-rate of developing distant metastases.

  19. Molecular targeted therapy in the treatment of advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarakulasinghe, Nesaretnam Barr; van Zanwijk, Nico; Soo, Ross A

    2015-04-01

    Historically, patients with advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were treated with chemotherapy alone, but a therapeutic plateau has been reached. Advances in the understanding of molecular genetics have led to the recognition of multiple molecularly distinct subsets of NSCLC. This in turn has led to the development of rationally directed molecular targeted therapy, leading to improved clinical outcomes. Tumour genotyping for EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangement has meant chemotherapy is no longer given automatically as first-line treatment but reserved for when patients do not have a 'druggable' driver oncogene. In this review, we will address the current status of clinically relevant driver mutations and emerging new molecular subsets in lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, and the role of targeted therapy and mechanisms of acquired resistance to targeted therapy.

  20. Global Attracting Behavior of Non-autonomous Stage-structured Population Dynamical System with Diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-hua Lu; Xue-bin Chi; Lan-sun Chen

    2003-01-01

    A non-autonomous single species dispersal model is considered, in which individual member of the population has a life history that goes through two stages, immature and mature. By applying the theory of monotone and concave operators to functional differential equations, we establish conditions under which the system admits a positive periodic solution which attracts all other positive solutions.

  1. Loss of SerpinA5 protein expression is associated with advanced-stage serous ovarian tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijsmans, Ingrid T. G. W.; Smits, Kim M.; de Graeff, Pauline; Wisman, G. Bea A.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; Slangen, Brigitte F.; de Bruine, Adriaan P.; van Engeland, Manon; Sieben, Nathalie L.; Van de Vijver, Koen K.

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer, the most lethal neoplasm of the female genital tract, is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage as obvious symptoms are absent at early stages. This disease is believed to originate from malignant transformation of the ovarian surface epithelium or fallopian tube. Histolog

  2. Routine use of ancillary investigations in staging diffuse large B-cell lymphoma improves the International Prognostic Index (IPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadbolt Bruce

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Prognostic Index (IPI is used to determine prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. One of the determinants of IPI is the stage of disease with bone marrow involvement being classified as stage IV. For the IPI, involvement on bone marrow is traditionally defined on the basis of histology with ancillary investigations used only in difficult cases to aid histological diagnosis. This study aimed to determine the effect of the routine use of flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and molecular studies in bone marrow staging upon the IPI. Results Bone marrow trephines of 156 histologically proven DLBCL cases at initial diagnosis were assessed on routine histology, and immunohistochemistry using two T-cell markers (CD45RO and CD3, two B-cell markers (CD20 and CD79a and kappa and lambda light chains. Raw flow cytometry data on all samples were reanalysed and reinterpreted blindly. DNA extracted from archived paraffin-embedded trephine biopsy samples was used for immunoglobulin heavy chain and light chain gene rearrangement analysis. Using immunophenotyping (flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, 30 (19.2% cases were upstaged to stage IV. A further 8 (5.1% cases were upstaged using molecular studies. A change in IPI was noted in 18 cases (11.5% on immunophenotyping alone, and 22 (14.1% cases on immunophenotyping and molecular testing. Comparison of two revised IPI models, 1 using immunophenotyping alone, and 2 using immunophenotyping with molecular studies, was performed with baseline IPI using a Cox regression model. It showed that the revised IPI model using immunophenotyping provides the best differentiation between the IPI categories. Conclusion Improved bone marrow staging using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry improves the predictive value of the IPI in patients with DLBCL and should be performed routinely in all cases.

  3. Lymphadenectomy in locally advanced cervical cancer study (LiLACS): Phase III clinical trial comparing surgical with radiologic staging in patients with stages IB2-IVA cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumovitz, Michael; Querleu, Denis; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; Morice, Philippe; Jhingran, Anuja; Munsell, Mark F; Macapinlac, Homer A; Leblanc, Eric; Martinez, Alejandra; Ramirez, Pedro T

    2014-01-01

    Radiation treatment planning for women with locally advanced cervical cancer (stages IB2-IVA) is often based on positron emission tomography (PET). PET, however, has poor sensitivity in detecting metastases in aortocaval nodes. We have initiated a study with the objective of determining whether pre-therapeutic laparoscopic surgical staging followed by tailored chemoradiation improves survival as compared with PET/computed tomography (CT) radiologic staging alone followed by chemoradiation. This international, multicenter phase III trial will enroll 600 women with stages IB2-IVA cervical cancer and PET/CT findings showing fluorodeoxyglucose-avid pelvic nodes and fluorodeoxyglucose-negative para-aortic nodes. Eligible patients will be randomized to undergo either pelvic radiotherapy with chemotherapy (standard-of-care arm) or surgical staging via a minimally invasive extraperitoneal approach followed by tailored radiotherapy with chemotherapy (experimental arm). The primary end point is overall survival. Secondary end points are disease-free survival, short- and long-term morbidity with pre-therapeutic surgical staging, and determination of anatomic locations of metastatic para-aortic nodes in relationship to the inferior mesenteric artery. We believe this study will show that tailored chemoradiation after pre-therapeutic surgical staging improves survival as compared with chemoradiation based on PET/CT in women with stages IB2-IVA cervical cancer.

  4. Advanced-Stage Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma Treated with Bexarotene and Denileukin Diftitox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Cervigón-González

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Advanced-stage primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma has an unfavorable prognosis and low survival rates. Aggressive treatment with chemotherapy is not curative and causes considerable side effects. The combination of bexarotene and denileukin diftitox is associated with an acceptable safety profile and a likely synergistic effect because bexarotene is capable of modulating expression of IL-2 receptor and enhance the susceptibility of T-cell leukemia cells to denileukin diftitox. In the case reported here, the response to this combined treatment was satisfactory and well tolerated. The patient showed a complete regression of pruritus, restlessness, and insomnia. Skin lesions improved partially, and lymphadenopathy was reduced and finally disappeared completely.

  5. Guidelines on chemotherapy in advanced stage gynecological malignancies: an evaluation of 224 professional societies and organizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos P Polyzos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines are important for guiding practice, but it is unclear if they are commensurate with the available evidence. METHODS: We examined guidelines produced by cancer and gynecological societies and organizations and evaluated their coverage of and stance towards chemotherapy for advanced stage disease among 4 gynecological malignancies (breast, ovarian, cervical, endometrial cancer where the evidence for the use of chemotherapy is very different (substantial and conclusive for breast and ovarian cancer, limited and suggesting no major benefit for cervical and endometrial cancer. Eligible societies and organizations were identified through systematic internet searches (last update June 2009. Pertinent websites were scrutinized for presence of clinical practice guidelines, and relative guidelines were analyzed. RESULTS: Among 224 identified eligible societies and organizations, 69 (31% provided any sort of guidelines, while recommendations for chemotherapy on advanced stage gynecological malignancies were available in 20 of them. Only 14 had developed their own guideline, and only 5 had developed guidelines for all 4 malignancies. Use of levels of evidence and grades of recommendations, and aspects of the production, implementation, and timeliness of the guidelines did not differ significantly across malignancies. Guidelines on breast and ovarian cancer utilized significantly more randomized trials and meta-analyses. Guidelines differed across malignancies on their coverage of disease-free survival (p = 0.033, response rates (p = 0.024, symptoms relief (p = 0.005, quality of life (p = 0.001 and toxicity (p = 0.039, with breast and ovarian cancer guidelines typically covering more frequently these outcomes. All guidelines explicitly or implicitly endorsed the use of chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical practice guidelines are provided by the minority of professional societies and organizations

  6. Conventional 3T brain MRI and diffusion tensor imaging in the diagnostic workup of early stage parkinsonism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijer, Frederick J.A. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Rumund, Anouke van; Tuladhar, Anil M.; Aerts, Marjolein B.; Titulaer, Imke; Esselink, Rianne A.J.; Bloem, Bastiaan R. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Verbeek, Marcel M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Goraj, Bozena [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Medical Center of Postgraduate Education, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the diagnostic accuracy of 3 T brain MRI is improved by region of interest (ROI) measures of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to differentiate between neurodegenerative atypical parkinsonism (AP) and Parkinson's disease (PD) in early stage parkinsonism. We performed a prospective observational cohort study of 60 patients presenting with early stage parkinsonism and initial uncertain diagnosis. At baseline, patients underwent a 3 T brain MRI including DTI. After clinical follow-up (mean 28.3 months), diagnoses could be made in 49 patients (30 PD and 19 AP). Conventional brain MRI was evaluated for regions of atrophy and signal intensity changes. Tract-based spatial statistics and ROI analyses of DTI were performed to analyze group differences in mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA), and diagnostic thresholds were determined. Diagnostic accuracy of conventional brain MRI and DTI was assessed with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). Significantly higher MD of the centrum semiovale, body corpus callosum, putamen, external capsule, midbrain, superior cerebellum, and superior cerebellar peduncles was found in AP. Significantly increased MD of the putamen was found in multiple system atrophy-parkinsonian form (MSA-P) and increased MD in the midbrain and superior cerebellar peduncles in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The diagnostic accuracy of brain MRI to identify AP as a group was not improved by ROI measures of MD, though the diagnostic accuracy to identify MSA-P was slightly increased (AUC 0.82 to 0.85). The diagnostic accuracy of brain MRI to identify AP as a group was not improved by the current analysis approach to DTI, though DTI measures could be of added value to identify AP subgroups. (orig.)

  7. A single centre experience with sequential and concomitant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced stage IV tonsillar cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coyle Catherine

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemo-radiotherapy offers an alternative to primary surgery and adjuvant therapy for the management of locally advanced stage IV squamous cell carcinomas of the tonsil. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed of the outcomes of 41 patients with locoregionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil treated non-surgically at the Yorkshire Cancer Centre between January 2004 and December 2005. Due to long radiotherapy waiting times, patients received induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil followed by either cisplatin concurrent chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone. Results Median age was 55 years (range 34-76 years and 28 (68% patients were male. 35/41 patients (85% received 2 or more cycles of induction chemotherapy. Following induction chemotherapy, 32/41 patients (78% had a clinical response. Concomitant chemotherapy was given to 30/41 (73%. All patients received the planned radiotherapy dose with no delays. There were no treatment related deaths. Six (15% patients had gastrostomy tubes placed before treatment, and 22 (54% required nasogastric tube placement during or after treatment for nutritional support. 17 patients required unplanned admissions during treatment for supportive care. At 4 months post treatment assessment 35 out of 41 (85% patients achieved complete clinical and radiographic response. Median follow-up is 38 months (8-61 months. Local and regional control rate in complete responders at 3 years was 91%. Distant metastases have been found in 4 (9.8% patients. Three year progression-free survival rate in all patients is 75%. The 3-year cause specific survival and overall survival are 75% and 66% respectively. Conclusion Cisplatin-based induction and concurrent chemoradiotherapy provides excellent tumour control with acceptable toxicity for patients with locally advanced tonsillar cancer.

  8. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein is associated with advanced-stage prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Fangning; Qin, Xiaojian; Zhang, Guiming; Lu, Xiaolin; Zhu, Yao; Zhang, Hailiang; Dai, Bo; Shi, Guohai; Ye, Dingwei

    2015-05-01

    Clinical and epidemiological data suggest coronary artery disease shares etiology with prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of this work was to assess the effects of several serum markers reported in cardiovascular disease on PCa. Serum markers (oxidized low-density lipoprotein [ox-LDL], apolipoprotein [apo] B100, and apoB48) in peripheral blood samples from 50 patients from Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC) with localized or lymph node metastatic PCa were investigated in this study. Twenty-five samples from normal individuals were set as controls. We first conducted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis to select candidate markers that were significantly different between these patients and controls. Then, the clinical relevance between OLR1 (the ox-LDL receptor) expression and PCa was analyzed in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort. We also investigated the function of ox-LDL in PCa cell lines in vitro. Phosphorylation protein chips were used to analyze cell signaling pathways in ox-LDL-treated PC-3 cells. The ox-LDL level was found to be significantly correlated with N stage of prostate cancer. OLR1 expression was correlated with lymph node metastasis in the TCGA cohort. In vitro, ox-LDL stimulated the proliferation, migration, and invasion of LNCaP and PC-3 in a dose-dependent manner. The results of phosphoprotein microarray illustrated that ox-LDL could influence multiple signaling pathways of PC-3. Activation of proliferation promoting signaling pathways (including β-catenin, cMyc, NF-κB, STAT1, STAT3) as well as apoptosis-associating signaling pathways (including p27, caspase-3) demonstrated that ox-LDL had complicated effects on prostate cancer. Increased serum ox-LDL level and OLR1 expression may indicate advanced-stage PCa and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, ox-LDL could stimulate PCa proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro.

  9. Comparison of dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance image in staging and grading of carcinoma bladder with histopathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetika Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bladder cancer is the second most common neoplasm of the urinary tract worldwide. Dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI has been introduced in clinical MRI protocols of bladder cancer because of its accuracy in staging and grading. Aim: To evaluate and compare accuracy of Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE and Diffusion weighted (DW MRI for preoperative T staging of urinary bladder cancer and find correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC and maximum enhancement with histological grade. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with bladder cancer were included in study. All patients underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI on a 1.5-T scanner with a phased-array pelvic coil. MR images were evaluated and assigned a stage which was compared with the histolopathological staging. ADC value and maximum enhancement curve were used based on previous studies. Subsequently histological grade was compared with MR characteristics. Results: The extent of agreement between the radiologic staging and histopathological staging was relatively greater with the DW-MRI (κ=0.669 than DCE-MRI (κ=0.619. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy are maximum and similar for stage T4 tumors in both DCEMRI (100.0, 96.2 and 96.7 and DW-MRI (100.0, 96.2 and 96.7 while minimum for stage T2 tumors - DCEMRI (83.3, 72.2, and 76.7 and DWI-MRI (91.7, 72.2, and 80. Conclusion: MRI is an effective tool for determining T stage and histological grade of urinary bladder cancers. Stage T2a and T2b can be differentiated only by DCE-MRI. Results were more accurate when both ADC and DCE-MRI were used together and hence a combined approach is suggested.

  10. New stage in the design of a Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Leorlen Y.; Rosales, Jesus; Castro, Landy Y.; Gamez, Abel; Gonzalez, Daniel; Garcia, Carlos, E-mail: leored1984@gmail.com, E-mail: jrosales@instec.cu, E-mail: lcastro@instec.cu, E-mail: agamezgmf@gmail.com, E-mail: danielgonro@gmail.com, E-mail: cgh@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Oliveira, Carlos Brayner de, E-mail: abol@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Dominguez, Dany S.; Silva, Alexandro S., E-mail: dsdominguez@gmail.com, E-mail: alexandrossilva@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional

    2015-07-01

    Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) is a pebble-bed Accelerator Driven System (ADS) with a graphite-gas configuration, designed for nuclear waste transmutation and obtaining heat at very high temperatures to produce hydrogen. In this new stage in the design of TADSEA, it was proposed and modelled a new burn-up strategy, simulating a multi-pass scheme of the pebbles through the core. In order to obtain the axial density power distribution more uniform, for more realistic thermal-hydraulic calculations. In the neutronic calculations it was considered the double heterogeneity of the fuel, by means of a detailed geometry modelling. In previous thermal-hydraulic studies of the TADSEA using CFD code, the pebble-bed nuclear core was considered as a porous medium. In this paper, the heat transfer from the fuel elements to the coolant was analysed using a realistic approach in ANSYS CFX 14. The maximum heat transfer inside the spherical fuel elements with a body centered cubic (BCC) cell and the entire height of core was studied. During the steady state, critical elements don't reached the limit temperature value for this type of fuel. (author)

  11. HLA-G Expression and Role in Advanced-Stage Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caocci, G.; Greco, M.; Fanni, D.; Senes, G.; Littera, R.; Lai, S.; Risso, P.; Carcassi, C.; Faa, G.; La Nasa, G.

    2016-01-01

    Non-classical human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-G class I molecules have an important role in tumor immune escape mechanisms. We investigated HLA-G expression in lymphonode biopsies taken from 8 controls and 20 patients with advanced-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), in relationship to clinical outcomes and the HLA-G 14-basepair (14-bp) deletion-insertion (del-ins) polymorphism. Lymphnode tissue sections were stained using a specific murine monoclonal HLA-G antibody. HLA-G protein expression was higher in cHL patients than controls. In the group of PET-2 positive (positron emission tomography carried out after 2 cycles of standard chemotherapy) patients with a 2-year progression-free survival rate (PFS) of 40%, we observed high HLA-G protein expression within the tumor microenvironment with low expression on Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells. Conversely, PET-2 negative patients with a PFS of 86% had higher HLA-G protein expression levels on HRS cells compared to the microenvironment. Lower expression on HRS cells was significantly associated with the HLA-G 14-bp ins/ins genotype. These preliminary data suggest that the immunohistochemical pattern of HLA-G protein expression may represent a useful tool for a tailored therapy in patients with cHL, based on the modulation of HLA-G expression in relation to achievement of negative PET-2. PMID:27349312

  12. Advanced Imaging and Receipt of Guideline Concordant Care in Women with Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Trice Loggers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. It is unknown whether advanced imaging (AI is associated with higher quality breast cancer (BC care. Materials and Methods. Claims and Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data were linked for women diagnosed with incident stage I-III BC between 2002 and 2008 in western Washington State. We examined receipt of preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or AI (defined as computed tomography [CT]/positron emission tomography [PET]/PET/CT versus mammogram and/or ultrasound (M-US alone and receipt of guideline concordant care (GCC using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Of 5247 women, 67% received M-US, 23% MRI, 8% CT, and 3% PET/PET-CT. In 2002, 5% received MRI and 5% AI compared to 45% and 12%, respectively, in 2008. 79% received GCC, but GCC declined over time and was associated with younger age, urban residence, less comorbidity, shorter time from diagnosis to surgery, and earlier year of diagnosis. Breast MRI was associated with GCC for lumpectomy plus radiation therapy (RT (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.08–2.26, and p=0.02 and AI was associated with GCC for adjuvant chemotherapy for estrogen-receptor positive (ER+ BC (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.59, and p=0.01. Conclusion. GCC was associated with prior receipt of breast MRI and AI for lumpectomy plus RT and adjuvant chemotherapy for ER+ BC, respectively.

  13. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaws in advanced stage breast cancer was detected from bone scan: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirappapha, Prakasit; Thongjood, Thanaporn; Aroonroch, Rangsima

    2017-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are indicated to treat skeletal-related events (SREs) for cancer patients with bone metastasis. We report a 79-year-old woman with advanced stage breast cancer with bone metastasis who was prescribed BPs (zoledronate), then developed osteonecrosis of jaw. We provide a brief review of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this complication. PMID:28210558

  14. Advanced renal disease, end-stage renal disease and renal death among HIV-positive individuals in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, L; Kirk, O; Lundgren, Jens;

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have focused on chronic kidney disease in HIV-positive individuals, but few have studied the less frequent events, advanced renal disease (ARD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The aim of this study was to investigate incidence, predictors and outcomes for ARD/ESRD and renal death...

  15. Predictors of advanced chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ryom; Mocroft, Amanda; Kirk, Ole;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Whilst several antiretroviral drugs have been associated with moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD), their contribution to advanced CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remain unknown. DESIGN: D:A:D participants with at least three estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) after...

  16. Response evaluation after chemoradiotherapy for advanced staged oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a nationwide survey in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, C.S.; Hoekstra, O.S.; Leemans, C.R.; Castelijns, J.A.; Bree, R. de

    2015-01-01

    Following failure of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for advanced staged oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC), residual tumor can often be treated successfully with salvage surgery, if detected early. Current clinical practice in the VU University Medical Center is to perform routine response eval

  17. Thermal diffusivity of periderm from tomatoes of different maturity stages as determined by the concept of the frequency-domain open photoacoustic cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velasco Soares, D.; Baesso Mauro, L.; Medina Neto, A.; Bicanic, D.D.; Koehorst, R.B.M.; Hooft, van der J.J.J.; Bento, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The frequency-domain open photoacoustic cell (OPC) approach was used to determine room temperature thermal diffusivity of skins (pericarps) from the raw tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculetum Mill.) characterized by the three different stages of ripeness (from immature-green to a mature-red). Periodically

  18. The value of routine bone marrow biopsy in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma staged with PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alzahrani, M; El-Galaly, T C; Hutchings, M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The added diagnostic and prognostic value of routine bone marrow biopsy (BMB) in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) undergoing positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) staging is controversial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with newly d...

  19. Complex ultrasound diagnostic assessment of the results of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer (Stages IIB–IIIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Ashrafyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Current complex ultrasound diagnosis using novel imaging techniques can assess, to a high accuracy, different tumor parameters during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT for locally advanced cervical cancer (CC (Stages IIB–IIB. This assessment is very important and necessary to define further treatment policy.Materials and methods. A total of 199 patients diagnosed with Stages IIB–IIIB CC, including 60 patients with Stage IIB (T2bN0M0, 4 with Stage IIIА (T3aN0M0, and 135 with Stage IIIВ (T2bN1M0, T3aN1M0, T3bN0–1M0 (according to the International Federationof Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO classification, who received NCT at Stage 1 of treatment, were examined. Complex ultrasound study was conducted before treatment initiation and after each NCT cycle. The therapeutic pathomorphism of a tumor was evaluated in surgically treated patients.Results. The criteria have been determined for evaluating the efficiency of NCT for locally advanced CC, which are based on current ultrasonographic techniques including B-mode, Doppler ultrasound (power, spectral, three-dimensional ones, as well as on the results of therapeutic pathomorphism.Conclusion. The criteria for evaluating the efficiency of NCT for CC should be based on current complex ultrasonographic techniques.

  20. HLA-G expression and role in advanced-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caocci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-classical human leucocyte antigen (HLA-G class I molecules have an important role in tumor immune escape mechanisms. We investigated HLA-G expression in lymphonode biopsies taken from 8 controls and 20 patients with advanced-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL, in relationship to clinical outcomes and the HLA-G 14-basepair (14-bp deletion-insertion (del-ins polymorphism. Lymphnode tissue sections were stained using a specific murine monoclonal HLA-G antibody. HLA-G protein expression was higher in cHL patients than controls. In the group of PET-2 positive (positron emission tomography carried out after 2 cycles of standard chemotherapy patients with a 2-year progression-free survival rate (PFS of 40%, we observed high HLA-G protein expression within the tumor microenvironment with low expression on Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS cells. Conversely, PET-2 negative patients with a PFS of 86% had higher HLA-G protein expression levels on HRS cells compared to the microenvironment. Lower expression on HRS cells was significantly associated with the HLA-G 14-bp ins/ins genotype. These preliminary data suggest that the immunohistochemical pattern of HLA-G protein expression may represent a useful tool for a tailored therapy in patients with cHL, based on the modulation of HLA-G expression in relation to achievement of negative PET-2.These preliminary data suggest that the immunohistochemical pattern of HLA-G protein expression may represent a useful tool for a tailored therapy in patients with cHL, based on the modulation of HLA-G expression in relation to achievement of negative PET-2.

  1. Roles of chemoradio therapy for stage III or IV advanced head and neck cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachikawa, Takuya; Iwai, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Minamino, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yukawa, Hisaya; Inoue, Toshiya; Yamashita, Toshio [Kansai Medical School, Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    The effectiveness of chemoradio therapy (CRT), which was performed on 31 patients with advanced head and neck cancers of stage III or IV at Kansai Medical University between September 1999 and December 2000, was examined. The CRT consisted of continuous infusion of 5FU (500 mg/m{sup 2}) for 120 hours, prior to drip infusion of CDDP (50 mg/m{sup 2}) for 2 hours and conventional radiotherapy (2 Gy/day, 5 days/w). The 31 patients with these cancers were divided into two groups; a non-operative group (16 patients) and an operative group (15 patients). The patients in the non-operative group (16 patients) and an operative group (15 patients). The patients in the non-operative group underwent CRT (60-70 Gy of total radiation dose and two courses of chemotherapy) without surgery. The patients in the operative group received surgical treatment followed by CRT (40 Gy of total radiation dose and one course of chemotherapy). The results of CRT indicated 87.1% of the response rate (RR), and 29.0% of the complete response rate (CR) in the group. The CR rate was lower than in other reports. However, the combination of CRT and the subsequent operation indicated a disease-free survival rate of 61.3% and reduction of the recurrence rate to 17.4%. Eight of 9 patients of CR after CRT without surgery revealed NED. On the other hand, the results indicated that all 10 patients of PR after CRT showed tumor residue, 9 of 10 patients of PR showed NED after additional surgery. Therefore, it is likely that the patients of CR do not need the additional surgery, however, the patients of PR are strongly recommended the surgery to improve the local control rate as well as survival rate. Although adverse reactions of CRT on patients included mucositis, leucopenia, thrombopenia and dermatitis, the symptoms ranged within grade 3. (author)

  2. Efficacy of short-term nivolumab treatment in a Chinese patient with relapsed advanced-stage lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Guoliang; He, Hanping; Bi, Jianping; Li, Ying; Li, Yanping; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Mingwei; Han, Guang; Lin, Chi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Currently, the options are limited for the treatment of patients who have failed 2 lines of chemotherapy for advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Recently, nivolumab, a fully human IgG4 programmed death 1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody, was approved to treat patients with advanced stage, relapsed/refractory lung SCC. Although nivolumab has demonstrated antitumor activity with survival benefit in Caucasian patients, its efficacy in Asian patients is unknown. Case Report: In this report, we describe a Chinese patient with relapsed advanced stage lung SCC who had an excellent response to nivolumab after only 2 doses without any adverse effects. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated the tumor was stained positive for programmed death-ligand 1. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report of satisfactory efficacy of short-term nivolumab treatment in a Chinese patient with relapsed advanced-stage lung SCC. Further clinical trials in Asian countries are needed to test whether nivolumab immunotherapy is a safe and effective treatment for Asian patients with lung SCC. PMID:27749580

  3. The diagnostic efficacy of quantitative liver MR imaging with diffusion-weighted, SWI, and hepato-specific contrast-enhanced sequences in staging liver fibrosis - a multiparametric approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feier, Diana [Medical University of Vienna, General Hospital of Vienna (AKH), Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Emergency County Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Balassy, Csilla; Bastati, Nina; Fragner, Romana; Ba-Ssalamah, Ahmed [Medical University of Vienna, General Hospital of Vienna (AKH), Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Wrba, Friedrich [Medical University of Vienna, General Hospital of Vienna (AKH), Department of Pathology, Vienna (Austria)

    2016-02-15

    To assess the diagnostic efficacy of multiparametric MRI using quantitative measurements of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the liver parenchyma on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), signal intensity (SI) on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), and gadoxetic acid-enhanced T1-weighted imaging during the hepatobiliary phase for the staging of liver fibrosis. Seventy-seven patients underwent a 3T MRI examination, including DWI/SWI sequences and gadoxetic acid-enhanced T1-weighted MRI. Liver fibrosis according to liver biopsy was staged using the Metavir fibrosis score: F0 (n = 21, 27.3 %); F1 (n = 7, 9.1 %); F2 (n = 8, 10.4 %); F3 (n = 12, 15.6 %); and F4 (n = 29, 37.7 %). SI of the liver was defined using region-of-interest measurements to calculate the ADC values, the relative enhancement (RE) in the hepatobiliary phase, and the liver-to-muscle ratio (LMR) measurements for SWI. The values of RE, LMR, and ADC measurements were statistically significantly different among the five fibrosis stages (p < 0.004). Combining the three parameters in a multiparametric approach, the AUC for detecting F1 stage or greater (≥ F1) was 94 %, for F2 or greater (≥F2) was 95 %, for F3 or greater (≥F3) was 90 %, and for stage F4 was 93 %. Multiparametric MRI is an efficient non-invasive diagnostic tool for the staging of liver fibrosis. (orig.)

  4. Development of advanced methods for analysis of experimental data in diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, Alonso V.

    There are numerous experimental configurations and data analysis techniques for the characterization of diffusion phenomena. However, the mathematical methods for estimating diffusivities traditionally do not take into account the effects of experimental errors in the data, and often require smooth, noiseless data sets to perform the necessary analysis steps. The current methods used for data smoothing require strong assumptions which can introduce numerical "artifacts" into the data, affecting confidence in the estimated parameters. The Boltzmann-Matano method is used extensively in the determination of concentration - dependent diffusivities, D(C), in alloys. In the course of analyzing experimental data, numerical integrations and differentiations of the concentration profile are performed. These methods require smoothing of the data prior to analysis. We present here an approach to the Boltzmann-Matano method that is based on a regularization method to estimate a differentiation operation on the data, i.e., estimate the concentration gradient term, which is important in the analysis process for determining the diffusivity. This approach, therefore, has the potential to be less subjective, and in numerical simulations shows an increased accuracy in the estimated diffusion coefficients. We present a regression approach to estimate linear multicomponent diffusion coefficients that eliminates the need pre-treat or pre-condition the concentration profile. This approach fits the data to a functional form of the mathematical expression for the concentration profile, and allows us to determine the diffusivity matrix directly from the fitted parameters. Reformulation of the equation for the analytical solution is done in order to reduce the size of the problem and accelerate the convergence. The objective function for the regression can incorporate point estimations for error in the concentration, improving the statistical confidence in the estimated diffusivity matrix

  5. Relationship of Clinical and Pathologic Nodal Staging in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer: Current Controversies in Daily Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Francesca; Musio, Daniela; Bulzonetti, Nadia; Raffetto, Nicola; Tombolini, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Systemic neo-adjuvant therapy plays a primary role in the management of locally advanced breast cancer. Without having any negative effect in overall survival, induction chemotherapy potentially assures a surgery approach in unresectable disease or a conservative treatment in technically resectable disease and acts on a well-vascularized tumor bed, without the modifications induced by surgery. A specific issue has a central function in the neo-adjuvant setting: lymph nodes status. It still represents one of the strongest predictors of long-term prognosis in breast cancer. The discussion of regional radiation therapy should be a matter of debate, especially in a pathological complete response. Currently, the indication for radiotherapy is based on the clinical stage before the surgery, even for the irradiation of the loco-regional lymph nodes. Regardless of pathological down-staging, radiation therapy is accepted as standard adjuvant treatment in locally advanced breast cancer. PMID:25247013

  6. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Surface Diffusion : Atomistic and Collective Processes

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The interest in the problem of surface diffusion has been steadily growing over the last fifteen years. This is clearly evident from the increase in the number of papers dealing with the problem, the development of new experimental techniques, and the specialized sessions focusing on diffusion in national and international meetings. Part of the driving force behind this increasing activity is our recently acquired ability to observe and possibly control atomic scale phenomena. It is now possible to look selectively at individual atomistic processes and to determine their relative importance during growth and reactions at surfaces. The number of researchers interested in this problem also has been growing steadily which generates the need for a good reference source to farniliarize newcomers to the problem. While the recent emphasis is on the role of diffusion during growth, there is also continuing progress on the more traditional aspects of the problem describing mass transport in an ensemble of particles. S...

  7. Concurrent Chemoradiation with Low-Dose Weekly Cisplatin in Locally Advanced Stage IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Myoung Hee; Kang, Jung Hun; Song, Haa-Na; Jeong, Bae Kwon; Chai, Gyu Young; Kang, Kimun; Woo, Seung Hoon; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) with 3-weekly doses of cisplatin is a standard treatment for loco-regionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, treatment with 3-weekly doses of cisplatin is often associated with several adverse events. Therefore, we conducted this retrospective analysis to determine the efficacy and tolerance of CRT with a low weekly dose of cisplatin in stage IV HNSCC patients. Materials and Methods Medical records of patients who were d...

  8. Optimization of two-stage production/inventory systems under order base stock policy with advance demand information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakade, Koichi; Yokozawa, Shiori

    2016-08-01

    It is important to share demand information among the members in supply chains. In recent years, production and inventory systems with advance demand information (ADI) have been discussed, where advance demand information means the information of demand which the decision maker obtains before the corresponding actual demand arrives. Appropriate production and inventory control using demand information leads to the decrease of inventory and backlog costs. For a single stage system, the optimal base stock and release lead time have been discussed in the literature. In practical production systems the manufacturing system has multiple processes. The multiple stage production and inventory system with ADI, however, has been analyzed by simulation or assuming exponential processing time. That is, their theoretical analysis and optimization of release lead time and base stock level have little been obtained because of its difficulty. In this paper, theoretical analysis of a two-stage production inventory system with advance demand information is developed, where the processing time is assumed deterministic and identical; demand arrival process is Poisson, and an order base stock policy is adopted. Using the analytical results, optimal release lead time and optimal base stock levels for minimizing the average cost on the holding and backlog costs are explicitly derived.

  9. Advanced chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease and renal death among HIV-positive individuals in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, L; Kirk, O; Lundgren, Jd;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Knowledge about advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in HIV-positive persons is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate incidence, predictors and outcomes for advanced CKD/ESRD and renal death. METHODS: Advanced CKD was defined as confirmed...... (two consecutive measurements ≥ 3 months apart) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≤ 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) using Cockcroft-Gault, and ESRD as haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis for ≥ 1 month or renal transplant. Renal death was death with renal disease as the underlying cause, using Coding...

  10. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion Development Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As manufacturing technologies have matured, it now appears possible to build all the major components and subsystems of an upper stage-class rocket engine for...

  11. Comparison of weight changes following unilateral and staged bilateral STN DBS for advanced PD

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eric M; Kurundkar, Ashish; Cutter, Gary R.; Huang, He; Guthrie, Barton L.; Watts, Ray L; Walker, Harrison C.

    2011-01-01

    Unilateral and bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) result in weight gain in the initial postoperative months, but little is known about the changes in weight following unilateral and staged bilateral STN DBS over longer time intervals. A case–control comparison evaluated weight changes over 2 years in 43 consecutive unilateral STN DBS patients, among whom 25 elected to undergo staged bilateral STN DBS, and 21 age-matched and disease sever...

  12. Chemical morphogenesis: recent experimental advances in reaction-diffusion system design and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalai, István; Cuiñas, Daniel; Takács, Nándor; Horváth, Judit; De Kepper, Patrick

    2012-08-06

    In his seminal 1952 paper, Alan Turing predicted that diffusion could spontaneously drive an initially uniform solution of reacting chemicals to develop stable spatially periodic concentration patterns. It took nearly 40 years before the first two unquestionable experimental demonstrations of such reaction-diffusion patterns could be made in isothermal single phase reaction systems. The number of these examples stagnated for nearly 20 years. We recently proposed a design method that made their number increase to six in less than 3 years. In this report, we formally justify our original semi-empirical method and support the approach with numerical simulations based on a simple but realistic kinetic model. To retain a number of basic properties of real spatial reactors but keep calculations to a minimal complexity, we introduce a new way to collapse the confined spatial direction of these reactors. Contrary to similar reduced descriptions, we take into account the effect of the geometric size in the confinement direction and the influence of the differences in the diffusion coefficient on exchange rates of species with their feed environment. We experimentally support the method by the observation of stationary patterns in red-ox reactions not based on oxihalogen chemistry. Emphasis is also brought on how one of these new systems can process different initial conditions and memorize them in the form of localized patterns of different geometries.

  13. Is thrombocytosis a valid indicator of advanced stage and high mortality of gynecological cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen Bertel L; Eskelund, Christian W.; Siersma, Volkert Dirk;

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Thrombocytosis has been associated with higher stage and mortality of cancer, however, the evidence is conflicting. We examined the stage distribution and prognosis of gynecologic cancer according to levels of prediagnostic platelet count. Methods: In a primary care resource with blood...... cell counts from more than 500,000 individuals, we identified 581 women with a primary diagnosis of gynecological cancer. We divided the pre-diagnostic mean platelet count derived from the 3-year period prior to cancer diagnosis into three categories of thrombocytosis (no, 150–400 × 109 /L; mild, N400......–550 × 109 /L; severe, N550 × 109 /L). Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the association of prediagnostic platelet counts with stage at diagnosis. Subsequently, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause or gynecological cancer-specific mortality by level...

  14. Contemporary surgical management of advanced end stage emphysema: an evidence based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachithanandan, Anand; Badmanaban, Balaji

    2012-06-01

    Emphysema is a progressive unrelenting component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a major source of mortality and morbidity globally. The prevalence of moderate to severe emphysema is approximately 5% in Malaysia and likely to increase in the future. Hence advanced emphysema will emerge as a leading cause of hospital admission and a major consumer of healthcare resources in this country in the future. Patients with advanced disease have a poor quality of life and reduced survival. Medical therapy has been largely ineffective for many patients however certain subgroups have disease amenable to surgical palliation. Effective surgical therapies include lung volume reduction surgery, lung transplantation and bullectomy. This article is a comprehensive evidence based review of the literature evaluating the rationale, efficacy, safety and limitations of surgery for advanced emphysema highlighting the importance of meticulous patient selection and local factors relevant to Malaysia.

  15. A population-based study of prognosis in advanced stage follicular lymphoma managed by watch and wait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Bilgrau, Anders E; de Nully Brown, Peter; Mylam, Karen J; Ahmad, Syed A; Pedersen, Lars M; Gang, Anne O; Bentzen, Hans H; Juul, Maja B; Bergmann, Olav J; Pedersen, Robert S; Nielsen, Berit J; Johnsen, Hans E; Dybkaer, Karen; Bøgsted, Martin; Hutchings, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Watch and wait (WAW) is a common approach for asymptomatic, advanced stage follicular lymphoma (FL), but single-agent rituximab is an alternative for these patients. In this nationwide study we describe the outcome of patients selected for WAW. A cohort of 286 out of 849 (34%) stage III-IVA FL patients seen between 2000 and 2011, were managed expectantly and included. The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 35% [95% confidence interval (CI) 29-42]. The 10-year overall survival (OS) was 65% (95%CI 54-78), and the cumulative risk of dying from lymphoma within 10 years of diagnosis was 13% (95%CI 7-20). Elevated lactate dehydrogenase and > four nodal regions involved were associated with a higher risk of lymphoma treatment and death from lymphoma. The WAW patients and a matched background population had similar OS during the first 50 months after diagnosis (P = 0·7), but WAW patients had increased risk of death after 50 months (P < 0·001). The estimated loss of residual life after 10 years was 6·8 months. The 10-year cumulative risk of histological transformation was 22% (95%CI 15-29) and the 3-year OS after transformation was 71% (95%CI 58-87%). In conclusion, advanced stage FL managed by WAW had a favourable outcome and abandoning this strategy could lead to overtreatment in some patients.

  16. Centralized treatment of advanced stages of ovarian cancer improves survival: a nationwide Danish survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Høgdall, Claus; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Objective. This retrospective, nationwide, observational study was designed to compare treatment in tertiary referral centers vs. regional hospitals on overall survival for patients with stage IIIC and IV ovarian cancer. Material and methods. The study took place in all gynecological departments ...

  17. Visual binding abilities in the initial and advanced stages of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, J; Vianin, P; Saebye, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study tests the hypothesis that intramodal visual binding is disturbed in schizophrenia and should be detectable in all illness stages as a stable trait marker. METHOD: Three groups of patients (rehospitalized chronic schizophrenic, first admitted schizophrenic and schizotypal pati...

  18. Advanced glycation end-products and skin autofluorescence in end-stage renal disease : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsov, Stefan; Graaff, Reindert; van Oeveren, Wim; Stegmayr, Bernd; Sikole, Aleksandar; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Smit, Andries J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in its end stage, is marked by extremely high cardiovascular rates of morbidity and mortality; hemodialysis patients have a five-fold shorter life expectancy than healthy subjects of the same age. In CKD the metabolic products that accumulate in the body are

  19. Comparison of weight changes following unilateral and staged bilateral STN DBS for advanced PD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eric M; Kurundkar, Ashish; Cutter, Gary R; Huang, He; Guthrie, Barton L; Watts, Ray L; Walker, Harrison C

    2011-09-01

    Unilateral and bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) result in weight gain in the initial postoperative months, but little is known about the changes in weight following unilateral and staged bilateral STN DBS over longer time intervals. A case-control comparison evaluated weight changes over 2 years in 43 consecutive unilateral STN DBS patients, among whom 25 elected to undergo staged bilateral STN DBS, and 21 age-matched and disease severity matched PD controls without DBS. Regression analyses incorporating age, gender, and baseline weight in case or control were conducted to assess weight changes 2 years after the initial unilateral surgery. Unilateral STN DBS and staged bilateral STN DBS patients gained 3.9 ± 2.0 kg and 5.6 ± 2.1 kg versus their preoperative baseline weight (P weight gain in staged bilateral STN DBS patients versus unilateral patients, we found no evidence for an equivalent or synergistic increase in body weight following placement of the second DBS electrode.

  20. Quantitation of oxidized triglyceride monomers and dimers as an useful measurement for early and advanced stages of oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez-Ruiz, G.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantitation of oxidized triglyceride monomers and dimers is reported as a good measurement for early and advanced stages of oxidation. Applicability of this approach to follow-up oxidation was tested in samples of trilinolein and methyl linoleate stored at either room temperature or 60°C for different periods of time. Oxidized monomers, dimers and polymers were determined in 50 mg-samples by adding monostearin as internal standard and applying a combination of adsorption chromatography, using silica cartridges, followed by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography. Additionally, peroxide values and tocopherol contents were measured. Results showed that a significant rise of dimeric compounds denoted the end of the induction period while oxidized monomers were the only group of compounds showing a progressive increase during the early stages of oxidation.

  1. What is the correct staging and treatment strategy for locally advanced prostate cancer extending to the bladder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Haki Yüksel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In locally advanced prostate cancer with bladder invasion, frequently encountered problems such as bleeding, urinary retention, hydronephrosis, and pain create distress for the patients. Therefore patients’ quality of life is disrupted and duration of hospitalization is prolonged. Relevant literature about accurate staging and treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer with bladder invasion was investigated. Locally advanced prostate cancer can present as a large-volume aggressive tumor extending beyond boundaries of prostate gland, and involving neighboring structures which can be involved as recurrence(s following initial local therapy. Survival times of these patients can range between 5 and 8 years. Their common characteristics are adverse and severe local symptoms unfavorably affecting quality of life Control of local symptoms and their effective palliation are independent clinical targets influencing survival outcomes of these patients. The treatment outcomes of locally advanced prostate cancer into the bladder are currently debatable. Although in the current TNM classification, it is defined in T4a, we think that this may be categorized as a subgroup of T3 and thus encourage surgeons for the indication of radical surgeries (radical prostatectomy, radical cystoprostatectomy in selected patient populations after discussing issues concerning consequences of the treatment alternatives, and expectations with the patients. Cystoprostatectomy followed by immediate androgen deprivation therapy may be a feasible option for selected patients with previously untreated prostate cancer involving the bladder neck because of excellent local control and long term survival.

  2. Study of advanced ion conducting polymers by relaxation, diffusion and spectroscopy NMR methods

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Jardón Álvarez

    2016-01-01

    Advances on secondary lithium ion batteries imply the use of solid polymer electrolytes, which represent a promising solution to improve safety issues in high energy density batteries. Through dissolution of lithium salts into a polymeric host, such as poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), ion conducting polymers are obtained. The Li+ ions will be localized in the proximity of the oxygen atoms in the PEO chains and thus, their motion strongly correlated with the segmental reorientation of the polymer. ...

  3. Global Existence and Convergence of Solutions to a Cross-Diffusion Cubic Predator-Prey System with Stage Structure for the Prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengmao Fu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a cubic predator-prey system with stage structure for the prey. This system is a generalization of the two-species Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model. Firstly, we consider the asymptotical stability of equilibrium points to the system of ordinary differential equations type. Then, the global existence of solutions and the stability of equilibrium points to the system of weakly coupled reaction-diffusion type are discussed. Finally, the existence of nonnegative classical global solutions to the system of strongly coupled reaction-diffusion type is investigated when the space dimension is less than 6, and the global asymptotic stability of unique positive equilibrium point of the system is proved by constructing Lyapunov functions.

  4. Proceedings of the diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) Toronto Think Tank: advancing basic and translational research and cooperation in DIPG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Ute; Hawkins, Cynthia; Vézina, Gilbert; Kun, Larry; Souweidane, Mark; Bouffet, Eric

    2011-10-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) nearly exclusively affects children. The prognosis of DIPGs has remained grim despite more than three decades of clinical research and numerous clinical trials. More than 90% of the children with DIPG will succumb within 2 years of diagnosis. The tumor's incidence is still undefined, but data suggest 100-150 affected children annually in the US. The single proven effective treatment modality in DIPG remains radiation therapy. For the majority of patients however this treatment is only of transient effectiveness. Recent breakthroughs in the understanding of the molecular biology of DIPG have raised new hope and opened new avenues for therapeutic options. The advancement of basic and translational research and cooperation was the objective of the Toronto Think Tank, as new approaches are urgently needed.

  5. Analysis of Outcome of Intraplueral Streptokinase in Pediatric Empyema Thoracis even in Advanced Stages: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallol Bose

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empyema thoracis in children causes significant morbidity. Standard treatment of Empyema thoracis includes tube drainage and antibiotics. But the tube drainage often fails. Intrapleural Streptokinase has been used in empyema thoracis with good success rate. Objectives: We evaluated the efficacy of intra-pleural Streptokinase in management of empyema thoracis even in advanced stages. Patients and Methods: A total of 28 patients with empyema thoracis requiring intercostal tube drainage aged zero to twelve years were included in the study who were admitted in Pediatric intensive care unit. 15,000 units/kg of Streptokinase was instilled into the pleural cavity. Response was assessed by clinical outcome, after unclamping and subsequent chest radiography and serial chest ultrasounds. Results: Streptokinase enhanced drainage in all patients with complete resolution of empyema thoracis in 26 patients. Two patients were referred for surgery. Only 7.2% required surgery. Streptokinase was equally effective if started before or after seven days. Conclusions: Intrapleural Streptokinase is the preferred treatment for treating pediatric empyema thoracis even in advanced stages and can avoid surgery.

  6. Advances of multidetector computed tomography in the characterization and staging of renal cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Athina; C; Tsili; Maria; I; Argyropoulou

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma(RCC) accounts for approximately 90%-95% of kidney tumors. With the widespread use of cross-sectional imaging modalities, more than half of RCCs are detected incidentally, often diagnosed at an early stage. This may allow the planning of more conservative treatment strategies. Computed tomography(CT) is considered the examination of choice for thedetection and staging of RCC. Multidetector CT(MDCT) with the improvement of spatial resolution and the ability to obtain multiphase imaging, multiplanar and threedimensional reconstructions in any desired plane brought about further improvement in the evaluation of RCC. Differentiation of RCC from benign renal tumors based on MDCT features is improved. Tumor enhancement characteristics on MDCT have been found closely to correlate with the histologic subtype of RCC, the nuclear grade and the cytogenetic characteristics of clear cell RCC. Important information, including tumor size, localization, and organ involvement, presence and extent of venous thrombus, possible invasion of adjacent organs or lymph nodes, and presence of distant metastases are provided by MDCT examination. The preoperative evaluation of patients with RCC was improved by depicting the presence or absence of renal pseudocapsule and by assessing the possible neoplastic infiltration of the perirenal fat tissue and/or renal sinus fat compartment.

  7. A Dual-Stage Hydrothermal Flow Reactor for Green and Sustainable Synthesis of Advanced Hybrid Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellstern, Henrik Christian Lund

    2016-01-01

    of differing morphologies: from smaller particles grafted on a larger particle for support, to spherical core-shell nanoparticles of 10-30 nm in diameter of a narrow size distribution. This is accomplished by synthesizing the core and shell in separate reactor zones to avoid a mixed product of ungrafted...... can be synthesized hydrothermally in a dual-stage flow reactor that is both environmentally benign and capable of producing high quantities which is a prerequisite for use in applications. A dual-stage hydrothermal flow reactor was developed for this purpose and used to produce hybrid nanomaterials...... a material is precipitated either as a nanoshell or as a free, ungrafted particle. The presence of core-particles has profound implications for the crystal size, structure and composition of the nucleating shell material as demonstrated by depositing 2 nm shells of CuO/Cu2O, NiOxLy and Zn6(OH)6(CO3)2 on a 20...

  8. Advanced LIGO Two-Stage Twelve-Axis Vibration Isolation and Positioning Platform. Part 1: Design and Production Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Matichard, Fabrice; Mason, Kenneth; Mittleman, Richard; Abbott, Benjamin; Abbott, Samuel; Allwine, Eric; Barnum, Samuel; Birch, Jeremy; Biscans, Sebastien; Clark, Daniel; Coyne, Dennis; DeBra, Dan; DeRosa, Ryan; Foley, Stephany; Fritschel, Peter; Giaime, Joseph A; Gray, Corey; Grabeel, Gregory; Hanson, Joe; Hillard, Michael; Kissel, Jeffrey; Kucharczyk, Christopher; Roux, Adrien Le; Lhuillier, Vincent; Macinnis, Myron; OReilly, Brian; Ottaway, David; Paris, Hugo; Puma, Michael; Radkins, Hugh; Ramet, Celine; Robinson, Mitchell; Ruet, Laurent; Sareen, Pradeep; Shoemaker, Daivid; Stein, Andy; Thomas, Jeremy; Vargas, Michael; Warner, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    New generations of gravity wave detectors require unprecedented levels of vibration isolation. This paper presents the final design of the vibration isolation and positioning platform used in Advanced LIGO to support the interferometers core optics. This five-ton two-and-half-meter wide system operates in ultra-high vacuum. It features two stages of isolation mounted in series. The stages are imbricated to reduce the overall height. Each stage provides isolation in all directions of translation and rotation. The system is instrumented with a unique combination of low noise relative and inertial sensors. The active control provides isolation from 0.1 Hz to 30 Hz. It brings the platform motion down to 10^(-11) m/Hz^(0.5) at 1 Hz. Active and passive isolation combine to bring the platform motion below 10^(-12) m/Hz^(0.5) at 10 Hz. The passive isolation lowers the motion below 10^(-13) m/Hz^(0.5) at 100 Hz. The paper describes how the platform has been engineered not only to meet the isolation requirements, but a...

  9. Theoretical comparison of single-stage and advanced absorption heat transformers used to increase solar pond's temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, W; Best, Roberto [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Mathematical models of single-stage and advanced absorption heat transformers operating with the water/Carrol{sup T}M mixture were developed to simulate the performance of these systems coupled to a solar pond in order to increase the temperature of the useful heat produced by solar ponds. The results showed that the single-stage and the double absorption heat transformer are the most promising configuration to be coupled to solar ponds. With single-stage heat transformers it is possible to increase solar pond's temperature until 50 Celsius degrees with coefficients of performance of about 0.48 and with double absorption heat transformers until 100 Celsius degrees with coefficients of performance of 0.33. [Spanish] Se desarrollaron modelos matematicos de una sola etapa y transformadores avanzados de absorcion de calor operando con la mezcla agua/Carrol{sup T}M para simular el rendimiento de estos sistemas acoplados a un estanque solar con el objeto de aumentar la temperatura del calor util producido por los estanques solares. Los resultados mostraron que la etapa sencilla y el transformador de calor de absorcion doble son la configuracion mas prometedora para ser acoplado a estanques solares. Con los transformadores de calor de una sola etapa es posible aumentar la temperatura del estanque solar hasta 50 grados Celsius con coeficientes de rendimiento de alrededor de 0.48 y con transformadores de calor de doble absorcion hasta 100 grados Celsius con coeficientes de rendimiento de 0.33.

  10. Sulfur removal in advanced two-staged pressurized fluidized-bed combustion; [Quarterly] report, September 1--November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.H.; Wangerow, J.R.; Rue, D.M.

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain data on the rates of reaction between hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents under operating conditions relevant to first stage (carbonizer) of Advanced Two-Stage Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustors (PFBC). In these systems the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the first stage generally exceeds the equilibrium value for calcium carbonate decomposition. Therefore, removal of sulfur compounds takes place through the reaction between H{sub 2}S and calcium carbonate. To achieve this objective, the rates of reaction between hydrogen sulfide and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents will be determined by conducting tests in pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and high-pressure/high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor (HPTR) units. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure, and CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S partial pressures on the sulfidation reaction rate will be determined. A pressurized TGA unit has been purchased by IGT for use in this project.

  11. Sulfur removal in advanced two-stage fluidized-bed combustion. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.H.; Wangerow, J.R.; Rue, D.M. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain data on the rates of reaction between, hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents under operating conditions relevant to first stage (carbonizer) of Advanced Two-Stage Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustors (PFBC). In these systems the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the first stage generally exceeds the equilibrium value for calcium carbonate decomposition. Therefore, removal of sulfur compounds takes place through the reaction between H{sub 2}S and calcium carbonate. To achieve this objective the rates of reaction between hydrogen sulfide and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents will be determined by conducting tests in pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and high-pressure/high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor (HPTR) units. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure, and CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S partial pressures on the sulfidation reaction rate will be determined. During this quarter, the high-pressure thermogravimetric analyzer (HPTGA) unit was installed and the shakedown process was completed. Several tests were conducted in the HPTGA unit to establish the operating procedure and the repeatability of the experimental results. Sulfidation by conducting the baseline sulfidation tests. The results are currently being analyzed.

  12. Diffusion, Thermal Properties and Chemical Compatibilities of Select MAX Phases with Materials For Advanced Nuclear Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsoum, Michel [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bentzel, Grady [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tallman, Darin J. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sindelar, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcia-Diaz, Brenda [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hoffman, Elizabeth [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-04

    The demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron irradiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ ºC) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the chemical compatibility of select MAX with potential materials that are important for nuclear energy, as well as to measure the thermal transport properties as a function of neutron irradiation. The chemical counterparts chosen for this work are: pyrolytic carbon, SiC, U, Pd, FLiBe, Pb-Bi and Na, the latter 3 in the molten state. The thermal conductivities and heat capacities of non-irradiated MAX phases will be measured.

  13. Staged Penetrating Sclerokeratoplasty and Penetrating Keratoplasty for Management of Advanced Acquired Anterior Staphyloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique de la Torre-Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we describe a staged surgical technique consisting of penetrating sclerokeratoplasty (PSKP followed by penetrating keratoplasty (PKP and present its clinical course and complications over two years of follow-up. A 23-year-old man presented with cosmetically unacceptable protrusion of the globe corresponding to the cornea and sclera. PSKP was performed transplanting a full-thickness beveled 13 mm corneoscleral tectonic graft. Hypotony developed subsequently and was successfully managed medically, however corneal graft failure occurred. After 15 months, a 7.5 mm PKP was performed for optical reasons, which subsequently remained clear with a healthy epithelium. In this particular case, cosmetic, tectonic, therapeutic, and optical requirements were met. PSKP is a surgical procedure which entails a high rate of complications but may be the only alternative when the main goal of intervention is restoration of the globe in complicated cases such as our patient.

  14. Topotecan Monotherapy in Heavily Pretreated Patients with Progressive Advanced Stage Neuroendocrine Carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ingrid Marie Holst; Knigge, Ulrich; Federspiel, Birgitte;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine carcinomas (WHO grade 3) are highly aggressive tumors with an immense tendency to metastasize and with a poor prognosis. In advanced disease, there is no standard treatment beyond first-line platin/etoposide-based chemotherapy. Topotecan is widely used as second......-line treatment in small cell lung cancer, which also responds markedly on first-line platin/etoposide. Hence, we investigated the feasibility of topotecan in previously treated patients with neuroendocrine carcinomas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 22 patients with disseminated and progressive...... neuroendocrine carcinomas (Ki67>20%, G3) successively treated with oral topotecan 2.3 mg/m(2) d1-5 every 3 weeks. All patients had previously received treatment with carboplatin/etoposide. Demographic, clinical and pathological features were recorded. CT-evaluations according to RECIST 1.1 were performed after...

  15. A complete response to S-1 plus cis-diamminedichloroplatinum in advanced-stage esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuno Yoritaka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete remission from advanced-stage synchronous double primary (SDP esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma by chemotherapy alone is rare. We report a case of advanced-stage SDP esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma in which a complete response to treatment was obtained with S-1 and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (CDDP. Case presentation The patient was a 74-year-old man referred to our hospital complaining of dysphagia. Gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed and advanced-stage SDP esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma diagnosed. Computed tomography revealed multiple regional lymph node metastases in the mediastinum. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 and CDDP for advanced esophageal and gastric cancer was planned. An endoscopy following two courses of chemotherapy revealed that the esophageal cancer had been replaced with a normal mucosal lesion and the gastric tumor with a scar lesion; the results of biopsies of both were negative for cancer. Computed tomography revealed that the multiple lymph node metastases had disappeared. We diagnosed a complete response to S-1 and CDDP in advanced-stage SDP esophageal and gastric cancer. The patient is still alive with no signs of recurrence 22 months after the disappearance of the original tumor and metastatic lesions without surgical treatment. Conclusion These results suggest that complete remission from advanced-stage esophageal and gastric cancer can be obtained with chemotherapy with S-1 plus CDDP.

  16. Are work-related stressors associated with diagnosis of more advanced stages of incident breast cancers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Stahlberg, Claudia; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between work-related stressors and breast cancer incidence and prognostic characteristics (estrogen receptor status, grade, lymph node status, size, stage) at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: The 18,932 women included in the Danish Nurse Cohort reported work......-related stressors in 1993 and again in 1999 and were followed until the end of 2003 in national registries. Prognostic characteristics were obtained from a clinical database and fewer than 0.1% were lost to follow up. RESULTS: During follow-up, 455 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. Neither women with high...... work pressure (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.73) nor women with self-reported low influence on work organization (0.98; 0.69, 1.39) or long working hours (0.93; 0.54, 1.58) were at higher risk of breast cancer than women with no such stressors. Women with high work tempo had a slightly higher risk...

  17. Response evaluation after chemoradiotherapy for advanced nodal disease in head and neck cancer using diffusion-weighted MRI and 18F-FDG-PET-CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, C.S.; Graaf, P. de; Alberts, F.M.; Hoekstra, O.S.; Comans, E.F.; Bloemena, E.; Witte, B.I.; Sanchez, E.; Leemans, C.R.; Castelijns, J.A.; Bree, R. de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of accuracy and interobserver variation of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18F-FDGPET-CT) to detect residual lymph node metastases after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in advanced stag

  18. End-of-life costs of medical care for advanced stage cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Cancer, one of the leading causes of mortality in the world, imposes a substantial economic burden on each society, including Serbia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the major cancer cost drivers in Serbia. Methods. A retrospective, indepth, bottom-up analysis of two combined databases was performed in order to quantify relevant costs. End-of-life data were obtained from patients with cancer, who deceased within the first year of the established diagnose, including basic demographics, diagnosis, tumour histology, medical resource use and related costs, time and cause of death. All costs were allocated to one of the three categories of cancer health care services: primary care (included home care, hospital outpatient and hospital inpatient care. Results. Exactly 114 patients were analyzed, out of whom a high percent (48.25% had distant metastases at the moment of establishing the diagnosis. Malignant neoplasms of respiratory and intrathoracic organs were leading causes of morbidity. The average costs per patient were significantly different according to the diagnosis, with the highest (13,114.10 EUR and the lowest (4.00 EUR ones observed in the breast cancer and melanoma, respectively. The greatest impact on total costs was observed concerning pharmaceuticals, with 42% of share (monoclonal antibodies amounted to 34% of all medicines and 14% of total costs, followed by oncology medical care (21%, radiation therapy and interventional radiology (11%, surgery (9%, imaging diagnostics (9% and laboratory costs (8%. Conclusion. Cancer treatment incurs high costs, especially for end-of-life pharmaceutical expenses, ensued from medical personnel tendency to improve such patients’ quality of life in spite of nearing the end of life. Reimbursement policy on monoclonal antibodies, in particular at end-stage disease, should rely on cost-effectiveness evidence as well as documented clinical efficiency. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke

  19. Limited genomic heterogeneity of circulating melanoma cells in advanced stage patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Carmen; Li, Julia; Luttgen, Madelyn S.; Kolatkar, Anand; Kendall, Jude T.; Flores, Edna; Topp, Zheng; Samlowski, Wolfram E.; McClay, Edward; Bethel, Kelly; Ferrone, Soldano; Hicks, James; Kuhn, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Purpose. Circulating melanoma cells (CMCs) constitute a potentially important representation of time-resolved tumor biology in patients. To date, genomic characterization of CMCs has been limited due to the lack of a robust methodology capable of identifying them in a format suitable for downstream characterization. Here, we have developed a methodology to detect intact CMCs that enables phenotypic, morphometric and genomic analysis at the single cell level. Experimental design. Blood samples from 40 metastatic melanoma patients and 10 normal blood donors were prospectively collected. A panel of 7 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was used to immunocytochemically label CMCs. Detection was performed by automated digital fluorescence microscopy and multi-parametric computational analysis. Individual CMCs were captured by micromanipulation for whole genome amplification and copy number variation (CNV) analysis. Results. Based on CSPG4 expression and nuclear size, 1-250 CMCs were detected in 22 (55%) of 40 metastatic melanoma patients (0.5-371.5 CMCs ml-1). Morphometric analysis revealed that CMCs have a broad spectrum of morphologies and sizes but exhibit a relatively homogeneous nuclear size that was on average 1.5-fold larger than that of surrounding PBMCs. CNV analysis of single CMCs identified deletions of CDKN2A and PTEN, and amplification(s) of TERT, BRAF, KRAS and MDM2. Furthermore, novel chromosomal amplifications in chr12, 17 and 19 were also found. Conclusions. Our findings show that CSPG4 expressing CMCs can be found in the majority of advanced melanoma patients. High content analysis of this cell population may contribute to the design of effective personalized therapies in patients with melanoma.

  20. Thermal diffusivity of periderm from tomatoes of different maturity stages as determined by the concept of the frequency-domain open photoacoustic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Daniel Soares; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Medina, Antonio Neto; Bicanic, Dane Danijel; Koehorst, Rob; van der Hooft, Justin Johan Jozias; Bento, Antonio Carlos

    2011-02-01

    The frequency-domain open photoacoustic cell (OPC) approach was used to determine room temperature thermal diffusivity of skins (pericarps) from the raw tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculetum Mill.) characterized by the three different stages of ripeness (from immature-green to a mature-red). Periodically interrupted 532 nm laser radiation was used to heat the dry tomato skins, typically 10 mm in diameter and up to 68 μm thick; the modulating frequency f varied from 8 to 150 Hz. Initially, a combined OPC-model that takes into account both, the thermoelastic bending and the effect of thermal diffusion (TD), has been applied. Preliminary results showed that until at least 40 Hz, the effect of TD dominates; above this value the combined model fits the experimental data only poorly. For this reason a less complex OPC-TD approach was applied to all investigated skins instead, which predicts an exponential decrease for the amplitude of measured photoacoustic signal S with increasing f. For a specimen that is simultaneously opaque and thermally thick, S depends on f as S˜exp(-b f1/2) where b is a fitting parameter. The S versus f plot enables one to deduce the numerical value for b which, on its turn allows for the assessment of skin's thermal diffusivity α. Thermal diffusivities obtained for the immature green, orange, and red skins (periderms) are 9.9×10-8 m2 s-1, 7.2×10-8 m2 s-1, and 4.6×10-8 m2 s-1, respectively; the uncertainty was typically 5% of the measured value.

  1. The Modern Role of Radiation Therapy in Treating Advanced-Stage Retinoblastoma: Long-Term Outcomes and Racial Differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orman, Amber [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Koru-Sengul, Tulay [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Miao, Feng [Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Markoe, Arnold [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Panoff, Joseph E., E-mail: jpanoff@med.miami.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To evaluate the effects of various patient characteristics and radiation therapy treatment variables on outcomes in advanced-stage retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective review of 41 eyes of 30 patients treated with external beam radiation therapy between June 1, 1992, and March 31, 2012, with a median follow-up time of 133 months (11 years). Outcome measures included overall survival, progression-free survival, local control, eye preservation rate, and toxicity. Results: Over 90% of the eyes were stage V. Definitive external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) was delivered in 43.9% of eyes, adjuvant EBRT in 22% of eyes, and second-line/salvage EBRT in 34.1% of eyes. A relative lens sparing (RLS) technique was used in 68.3% of eyes and modified lens sparing (MLS) in 24.4% of eyes. Three eyes were treated with other techniques. Doses ≥45 Gy were used in 68.3% of eyes. Chemotherapy was a component of treatment in 53.7% of eyes. The 10-year overall survival was 87.7%, progression-free survival was 80.5%, and local control was 87.8%. White patients had significantly better overall survival than did African-American patients in univariate analysis (hazard ratio 0.09; 95% confidence interval 0.01-0.84; P=.035). Toxicity was seen in 68.3% of eyes, including 24.3% with isolated acute dermatitis. Conclusions: External beam radiation therapy continues to be an effective treatment modality for advanced retinoblastoma, achieving excellent long-term local control and survival with low rates of treatment-related toxicity and secondary malignancy.

  2. Additional Survival Benefit of Involved-Lesion Radiation Therapy After R-CHOP Chemotherapy in Limited Stage Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jeanny [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il Han, E-mail: ihkim@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung Hyuck [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Min; Heo, Dae Seog [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of involved-lesion radiation therapy (ILRT) after rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy in limited stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by comparing outcomes of R-CHOP therapy alone with R-CHOP followed by ILRT. Methods and Materials: We identified 198 patients treated with R-CHOP (median, 6 cycles) for pathologically confirmed DLBCL of limited stage from July 2004 to December 2012. Clinical characteristics of these patients were 33% with stage I and 66.7% with stage II; 79.8% were in the low or low-intermediate risk group; 13.6% had B symptoms; 29.8% had bulky tumors (≥7 cm); and 75.3% underwent ≥6 cycles of R-CHOP therapy. RT was given to 43 patients (21.7%) using ILRT technique, which included the prechemotherapy tumor volume with a median margin of 2 cm (median RT dose: 36 Gy). Results: After a median follow-up of 40 months, 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 85.8% and 88.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed ≥6 cycles of R-CHOP (PFS, P=.004; OS, P=.004) and ILRT (PFS, P=.021; OS, P=.014) were favorable prognosticators of PFS and OS. A bulky tumor (P=.027) and response to R-CHOP (P=.012) were also found to be independent factors of OS. In subgroup analysis, the effect of ILRT was prominent in patients with a bulky tumor (PFS, P=.014; OS, P=.030) or an elevated level of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; PFS, P=.004; OS, P=.012). Conclusions: Our results suggest that ILRT after R-CHOP therapy improves PFS and OS in patients with limited stage DLBCL, especially in those with bulky disease or an elevated serum LDH level.

  3. The Clinical Research in Advanced Stage Gastric Cancer Accompanying Hemorrhage with EHLF Chemotherapy and Thrombin to Take Orally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Huoguo

    2003-01-01

    Purpose:Study therapeutic effectiveness about EHLF chemotherapy and thrombin to take orally in advanced stage gastriccancer accompanying hemorrhage.Methods:76 cases were divided into two groups at random,that were diagnosed by pathology andclinical. Research group included medicine:(etoposide)VP-16,100 mg intravenous drip,d1~3;(hydroxycamptothecin)HCPT, 10mg,ivtravenous drip,d1~5;(calciumfolinate)CF, 100 mg,intravenous drip,d1~5;(fluorouracil)5-Fu,0.5,intravenous drip,d1~5;thrombin,5oou,oral administration,three times in a day, d1~7.Matched control:normal regulation to medicine in gastric hemorrhye.Results:Effective rate in research group was 78.4%,obvious better than one in matched control 28.2%(P<0.01),bad reaction wasslight, life quantity was obvious exaltation.Conclusion:EHLF chemotherapy and thrombin to take orally was used as treatment project inadranced stage gastric cancer accompanying hemorrhage,good result in research group. It is worthy to deserve further reseach.

  4. Endoscopic ultrasound for the characterization and staging of rectal cancer. Current state of the method. Technological advances and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersak, Mariana M; Badea, Radu; Graur, Florin; Hajja, Nadim Al; Furcea, Luminita; Dudea, Sorin M

    2015-06-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound is the most accurate type of examination for the assessment of rectal tumors. Over the years, the method has advanced from gray-scale examination to intravenous contrast media administration and to different types of elastography. The multimodal approach of tumors (transrectal, transvaginal) is adapted to each case. 3D ultrasound is useful for spatial representation and precise measurement of tumor formations, using CT/MR image reconstruction; color elastography is useful for tumor characterization and staging; endoscopic ultrasound using intravenous contrast agents can help study the amount of contrast agent targeted at the level of the tumor formations and contrast wash-in/wash-out time, based on the curves displayed on the device. The transvaginal approach often allows better visualization of the tumor than the transrectal approach. Performing the procedure with the rectal ampulla distended with contrast agent may be seen as an optimization of the examination methodology. All these aspects are additional methods for gray-scale endoscopic ultrasound, capable of increasing diagnostic accuracy. This paper aims at reviewing the progress of transrectal and transvaginal ultrasound, generically called endoscopic ultrasound, for rectal tumor diagnosis and staging, with emphasis on the current state of the method and its development trends.

  5. Sulfur removal in advanced two stage pressurized fluidized bed combustion. Technical report, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain data on the rates and the extent of sulfation reactions involving partially sulfided calcium-based sorbents, and oxygen as well as sulfur dioxide, at operating conditions closely simulating those prevailing in the second stage (combustor) of Advanced Two-Stage Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustors (PFBC). In these systems the CO{sub 2} partial pressure generally exceeds the equilibrium value for calcium carbonate decomposition. Therefore, calcium sulfate is produced through the reactions between SO{sub 2} and calcium carbonate as well as the reaction between calcium sulfide and oxygen. To achieve this objective, the rates of reaction involving SO{sub 2} and oxygen (gaseous reactant); and calcium sulfide and calcium carbonate (solid reactants), will be determined by conducting tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (HPTGA) unit. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure; and O{sub 2} as well as SO{sub 2} partial pressures on the sulfation reactions rate will be determined. During this quarter, samples of the selected limestone and dolomite, sulfided in the fluidized-bed reactor during last quarter, were analyzed. The extent of sulfidation in these samples was in the range of 20 to 50%, which represent carbonizer discharge material at different operating conditions. The high pressure thermogravimetric analyzer (BPTGA) unit has been modified and a new pressure control system was installed to eliminate pressure fluctuation during the sulfation tests.

  6. Sulfur removal in advanced two stage pressurized fluidized bed combustion. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study is to obtain data on the rates and the extent of sulfation reactions involving partially sulfided calcium-based sorbents, and oxygen as well as sulfur dioxide, at operating conditions closely simulating those prevailing in the second stage (combustor) of Advanced Two-Stage Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustors. In these systems the CO{sub 2} partial pressure generally exceeds the equilibrium value for calcium carbonate decomposition. Therefore, calcium sulfate is produced through the reactions between SO{sub 2} and calcium carbonate as well as the reaction between calcium sulfide and oxygen. To achieve this objective, the rates of reaction involving SO{sub 2} and oxygen, calcium sulfide and calcium carbonate will be determined by conducting tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer unit. The sulfate tests conducted during this quarter, focused on the determination of the rate of sulfation reaction involving partially sulfided half-calcined dolomite and oxygen. The test parameters included CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} concentrations, reaction temperature and pressure, as well as the sorbent particle size. The results obtained during this quarter suggest that the rate of sulfation reaction involving partially sulfided half-calcined dolomite and oxygen is very fast at temperatures above 850 C which rapidly increases with increasing temperature, achieving more than 85% conversion in less than a few minutes. The reaction appears to continue to completion, however, above 85% conversion, the rate of reaction appears to be low, requiring long residence time to reach complete conversion.

  7. Sulfur removal in advanced two stage pressurized fluidized bed combustion. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.; Wangerow, J.R. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this study is to obtain data on the rates and the extent of sulfation reactions involving partially sulfided calcium-based sorbents, and oxygen as well as sulfur dioxide, at operating conditions closely simulating those prevailing in the second stage (combustor) of Advanced Two-Stage Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustors (PFBC). In these systems the CO{sub 2} partial pressure generally exceeds the equilibrium value for calcium carbonate decomposition. Therefore, calcium sulfate is produced through the reactions between SO{sub 2} and calcium carbonate as well as the reaction between calcium sulfide and oxygen. To achieve this objective, the rates of reaction involving SO{sub 2} and oxygen (gaseous reactant); and calcium sulfide and calcium carbonate (solid reactants), will be determined by conducting tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (HPTGA) unit. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure; and O{sub 2} as well as SO{sub 2} partial pressures on the sulfation reactions rate will be determined. During this quarter, samples of the selected limestone and dolomite were sulfided in the fluidized-bed reactor. These tests were conducted in both calcining and non-calcining operating conditions to produce partially-sulfided sorbents containing calcium oxide and calcium carbonate, respectively. These samples which represent the carbonizer discharge material, will be used as the feed material in the sulfation tests to be conducted in the HPTGA unit during the next quarter.

  8. Advanced LIGO Two-Stage Twelve-Axis Vibration Isolation and Positioning Platform. Part 2: Experimental Investigation and Tests Results

    CERN Document Server

    Matichard, Fabrice; Mason, Kenneth; Mittleman, Richard; Abbott, Benjamin; Abbott, Samuel; Allwine, Eric; Barnum, Samuel; Birch, Jeremy; Biscans, Sebastien; Clark, Daniel; Coyne, Dennis; DeBra, Dan; DeRosa, Ryan; Foley, Stephany; Fritschel, Peter; Giaime, Joseph A; Gray, Corey; Grabeel, Gregory; Hanson, Joe; Hillard, Michael; Kissel, Jeffrey; Kucharczyk, Christopher; Roux, Adrien Le; Lhuillier, Vincent; Macinnis, Myron; OReilly, Brian; Ottaway, David; Paris, Hugo; Puma, Michael; Radkins, Hugh; Ramet, Celine; Robinson, Mitchell; Ruet, Laurent; Sareen, Pradeep; Shoemaker, Daivid; Stein, Andy; Thomas, Jeremy; Vargas, Michael; Warner, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the past seven years of experimental investigation and testing done on the two-stage twelve-axis vibration isolation platform for Advanced LIGO gravity waves observatories. This five-ton two-and-half-meter wide system supports more than a 1000 kg of very sensitive equipment. It provides positioning capability and seismic isolation in all directions of translation and rotation. To meet the very stringent requirements of Advanced LIGO, the system must provide more than three orders of magnitude of isolation over a very large bandwidth. It must bring the motion below 10^(-11) m/(Hz)^0.5 at 1 Hz and 10^(-12) m/(Hz)^0.5 at 10 Hz. A prototype of this system has been built in 2006. It has been extensively tested and analyzed during the following two years. This paper shows how the experimental results obtained with the prototype were used to engineer the final design. It highlights how the engineering solutions implemented not only improved the isolation performance but also greatl...

  9. Sulfur removal in advanced two stage pressurized fluidized bed combustion. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Chowdiah, P.; Hill, A.H.; Rue, D.M. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain data on the rates of reaction between hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents under operating conditions relevant to first stage (carbonizer) of Advanced Two-Stage Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustors (PFBC). In these systems the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the first stage generally exceeds the equilibrium value for calcium carbonate decomposition. Therefore, removal of sulfur compounds takes place through the reaction between H{sub 2}S and calcium carbonate. To achieve this objective, the rates of reaction between hydrogen sulfide and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents will be determined by conducting tests in pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and high-pressure/high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor (HPTR) units. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure, and CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S partial pressures on the sulfidation reaction rate will be determined. During this quarter a series of sulfidation tests were conducted in the high-pressure/high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor (HPTR) units. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure, and CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S partial pressures on the sulfidation reaction rate will be determined. During this quarter a series of sulfidation tests were conducted in the high-pressure high-temperature thermogravimetric analyzer (HPTGA unit) using limestone and dolomite. The results suggest that half-calcined dolomite is much more reactive than uncalcined limestone. Also, temperature in the range of 800 to 950 C did not significantly affect the sulfidation reaction rates for both limestone and dolomite.

  10. Developmental stages and sex differences of white matter and behavioral development through adolescence: a longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Daniel J; Hallquist, Michael N; Asato, Miya; Luna, Beatriz

    2014-05-15

    White matter (WM) continues to mature through adolescence in parallel with gains in cognitive ability. To date, developmental changes in human WM microstructure have been inferred using analyses of cross-sectional or two time-point follow-up studies, limiting our understanding of individual developmental trajectories. The aims of the present longitudinal study were to characterize the timing of WM growth and investigate how sex and behavior are associated with different developmental trajectories. We utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 128 individuals aged 8-28, who received annual scans for up to 5 years and completed motor and cognitive tasks. Flexible nonlinear growth curves indicated a hierarchical pattern of WM development. By late childhood, posterior cortical-subcortical connections were similar to adults. During adolescence, WM microstructure reached adult levels, including frontocortical, frontosubcortical and cerebellar connections. Later to mature in adulthood were major corticolimbic association tracts and connections at terminal gray matter sites in cortical and basal ganglia regions. These patterns may reflect adolescent maturation of frontal connectivity supporting cognitive abilities, particularly the protracted refinement of corticolimbic connectivity underlying cognition-emotion interactions. Sex and behavior also played a large role. Males showed continuous WM growth from childhood through early adulthood, whereas females mainly showed growth during mid-adolescence. Further, earlier WM growth in adolescence was associated with faster and more efficient responding and better inhibitory control whereas later growth in adulthood was associated with poorer performance, suggesting that the timing of WM growth is important for cognitive development.

  11. Impact of Consolidation Radiation Therapy in Stage III-IV Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma With Negative Post-Chemotherapy Radiologic Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorth, Jennifer A., E-mail: jennifer.dorth@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Prosnitz, Leonard R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Broadwater, Gloria [Cancer Statistical Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Diehl, Louis F.; Beaven, Anne W. [Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Coleman, R. Edward [Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kelsey, Chris R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: While consolidation radiation therapy (i.e., RT administered after chemotherapy) is routine treatment for patients with early-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the role of consolidation RT in stage III-IV DLBCL is controversial. Methods and Materials: Cases of patients with stage III-IV DLBCL treated from 1991 to 2009 at Duke University, who achieved a complete response to chemotherapy were reviewed. Clinical outcomes were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and were compared between patients who did and did not receive RT, using the log-rank test. A multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Seventy-nine patients were identified. Chemotherapy (median, 6 cycles) consisted of anti-CD20 antibody rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP; 65%); cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP; 22%); or other (13%). Post-chemotherapy imaging consisted of positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) (73%); gallium with CT (14%); or CT only (13%). Consolidation RT (median, 25 Gy) was given to involved sites of disease in 38 (48%) patients. Receipt of consolidation RT was associated with improved in-field control (92% vs. 69%, respectively, p = 0.028) and event-free survival (85% vs. 65%, respectively, p = 0.014) but no difference in overall survival (85% vs. 78%, respectively, p = 0.15) when compared to patients who did not receive consolidation RT. On multivariate analysis, no RT was predictive of increased risk of in-field failure (hazard ratio [HR], 8.01, p = 0.014) and worse event-free survival (HR, 4.3, p = 0.014). Conclusions: Patients with stage III-IV DLBCL who achieve negative post-chemotherapy imaging have improved in-field control and event-free survival with low-dose consolidation RT.

  12. [Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: conservative therapy in the para-nephritic stage. Apropos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, S; Peracchia, G; Larosa, M; Cortellini, P

    1996-09-01

    Xantogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a rare disease, occuring most frequently in middle-aged woman. The patients usually present with recurrent fever, dysuria, renal colic or aspecific findings. We report a case of focal PXG (paranephric stage) treated with conservative surgery. Generally, treatment consists of nephrectomy for diffuse or advanced stage diseases, excision of the diseased renal segment for localized and low/high stage.

  13. Advanced glycation end products, carotid atherosclerosis, and circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiroki; Koyama, Hidenori; Fukumoto, Shinya; Tanaka, Shinji; Shoji, Takuhito; Shoji, Tetsuo; Emoto, Masanori; Tahara, Hideki; Inaba, Masaaki; Kakiya, Ryusuke; Tabata, Tsutomu; Miyata, Toshio; Nishizawa, Yoshiki

    2011-04-01

    Numbers of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been shown to be decreased in subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the mechanism of which remained poorly understood. In this study, mutual association among circulating EPC levels, carotid atherosclerosis, serum pentosidine, and skin autofluorescence, a recently established noninvasive measure of advanced glycation end products accumulation, was examined in 212 ESRD subjects undergoing hemodialysis. Numbers of circulating EPCs were measured as CD34+ CD133+ CD45(low) VEGFR2+ cells and progenitor cells as CD34+ CD133+ CD45(low) fraction by flow cytometry. Skin autofluorescence was assessed by the autofluorescence reader; and serum pentosidine, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Carotid atherosclerosis was determined as intimal-medial thickness (IMT) measured by ultrasound. Circulating EPCs were significantly and inversely correlated with skin autofluorescence in ESRD subjects (R = -0.216, P = .002), but not with serum pentosidine (R = -0.079, P = .25). Circulating EPCs tended to be inversely associated with IMT (R = -0.125, P = .069). Intimal-medial thickness was also tended to be correlated positively with skin autofluorescence (R = 0.133, P = .054) and significantly with serum pentosidine (R = 0.159, P = .019). Stepwise multiple regression analyses reveal that skin autofluorescence, but not serum pentosidine and IMT, was independently associated with low circulating EPCs. Of note, skin autofluorescence was also inversely and independently associated with circulating progenitor cells. Thus, tissue accumulated, but not circulating, advanced glycation end products may be a determinant of a decrease in circulating EPCs in ESRD subjects.

  14. Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals Distinct Molecular Characteristics of Hepatitis B-Related Hepatocellular Carcinomas from Very Early to Advanced Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Yun Kong

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCCis the fifth most common malignancy associated with high mortality. One of the risk factors for HCC is chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. The treatment strategy for the disease is dependent on the stage of HCC, and the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC staging system is used in most HCC cases. However, the molecular characteristics of HBV-related HCC in different BCLC stages are still unknown. Using GSE14520 microarray data from HBV-related HCC cases with BCLC stages from 0 (very early stage to C (advanced stage in the gene expression omnibus (GEO database, differentially expressed genes (DEGs, including common DEGs and unique DEGs in different BCLC stages, were identified. These DEGs were located on different chromosomes. The molecular functions and biology pathways of DEGs were identified by gene ontology (GO analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis, and the interactome networks of DEGs were constructed using the NetVenn online tool. The results revealed that both common DEGs and stage-specific DEGs were associated with various molecular functions and were involved in special biological pathways. In addition, several hub genes were found in the interactome networks of DEGs. The identified DEGs and hub genes promote our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of HBV-related HCC through the different BCLC stages, and might be used as staging biomarkers or molecular targets for the treatment of HCC with HBV infection.

  15. Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals Distinct Molecular Characteristics of Hepatitis B-Related Hepatocellular Carcinomas from Very Early to Advanced Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Kou, Yan-Bo; You, Hong-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Mei; Zheng, Kui-Yang; Tang, Ren-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)is the fifth most common malignancy associated with high mortality. One of the risk factors for HCC is chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The treatment strategy for the disease is dependent on the stage of HCC, and the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system is used in most HCC cases. However, the molecular characteristics of HBV-related HCC in different BCLC stages are still unknown. Using GSE14520 microarray data from HBV-related HCC cases with BCLC stages from 0 (very early stage) to C (advanced stage) in the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database, differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including common DEGs and unique DEGs in different BCLC stages, were identified. These DEGs were located on different chromosomes. The molecular functions and biology pathways of DEGs were identified by gene ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, and the interactome networks of DEGs were constructed using the NetVenn online tool. The results revealed that both common DEGs and stage-specific DEGs were associated with various molecular functions and were involved in special biological pathways. In addition, several hub genes were found in the interactome networks of DEGs. The identified DEGs and hub genes promote our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of HBV-related HCC through the different BCLC stages, and might be used as staging biomarkers or molecular targets for the treatment of HCC with HBV infection. PMID:27454179

  16. Evolution of a 3 \\msun star from the main sequence to the ZZ Ceti stage the role played by element diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Althaus, L G; Corsico, A H; Benvenuto, O G

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present new full evolutionary calculations for DA white dwarf stars with the major aim of providing a physically sound reference frame for exploring the pulsation properties of the resulting models in future communications. Here, white dwarf evolution is followed in a self-consistent way with the predictions of time dependent element diffusion and nuclear burning. In addition, full account is taken of the evolutionary stages prior to the white dwarf formation. In particular, we follow the evolution of a 3 \\msun model from the zero-age main sequence (the adopted metallicity is Z=0.02) all the way from the stages of hydrogen and helium burning in the core up to the thermally pulsing phase. After experiencing 11 thermal pulses, the model is forced to evolve towards its white dwarf configuration by invoking strong mass loss episodes. Further evolution is followed down to the domain of the ZZ Ceti stars on the white dwarf cooling branch. Emphasis is placed on the evolution of the ch...

  17. Progenitor Hematopoietic Cells Implantation Improves Functional Capacity of End Stage Coronary Artery Disease Patients with Advanced Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuniadi, Yoga; Kusnadi, Yuyus; Sandhow, Lakshmi; Erika, Rendra; Hanafy, Dicky A; Sardjono, Caroline; Kaligis, R W M; Kasim, Manoefris; Harimurti, Ganesja M

    2016-01-01

    Background. Proangiogenic Hematopoietic Cells (PHC) which comprise diverse mixture of cell types are able to secrete proangiogenic factors and interesting candidate for cell therapy. The aim of this study was to seek for benefit in implantation of PHC on functional improvement in end stage coronary artery disease patients with advanced heart failure. Methods. Patients with symptomatic heart failure despite guideline directed medical therapy and LVEF less than 35% were included. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated, cultivated for 5 days, and then harvested. Flow cytometry and cell surface markers were used to characterize PHC. The PHC were delivered retrogradely via sinus coronarius. Echocardiography, myocardial perfusion, and clinical and functional data were analyzed up to 1-year observation. Results. Of 30 patients (56.4 ± 7.40 yo) preimplant NT proBNP level is 5124.5 ± 4682.50 pmol/L. Harvested cells characterized with CD133, CD34, CD45, and KDR showed 0.87 ± 0.41, 0.63 ± 0.66, 99.00 ± 2.60, and 3.22 ± 3.79%, respectively. LVEF was improved (22 ± 5.68 versus 26.8 ± 7.93, p observation. Myocardial perfusion significantly improved 6 months after treatment. NYHA Class and six-minute walk test are improved during short term and long term follow-up. Conclusion. Expanded peripheral blood PHC implantation using retrograde delivery approach improved LV systolic function, myocardial perfusion, and functional capacity.

  18. Value of Surveillance Studies for Patients With Stage I to II Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in the Rituximab Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiniker, Susan M.; Pollom, Erqi L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Khodadoust, Michael S. [Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Kozak, Margaret M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Xu, Guofan; Quon, Andrew [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Advani, Ranjana H. [Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Hoppe, Richard T., E-mail: rhoppe@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Background: The role of surveillance studies in limited-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the rituximab era has not been well defined. We sought to evaluate the use of imaging (computed tomography [CT] and positron emission tomography [PET]-CT) scans and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in surveillance of patients with stage I to II DLBCL. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of patients who received definitive treatment between 2000 and 2013. Results: One hundred sixty-two consecutive patients with stage I to II DLBCL were treated with chemotherapy +/− rituximab, radiation, or combined modality therapy. The 5-year rates of overall survival (OS) and freedom from progression (FFP) were 81.2% and 80.8%, respectively. Of the 162 patients, 124 (77%) were followed up with at least 1 surveillance PET scan beyond end-of-treatment scans; of those, 94 of 124 (76%) achieved a complete metabolic response on PET scan after completion of chemotherapy, and this was associated with superior FFP (P=.01, HR=0.3) and OS (P=.01, HR 0.3). Eighteen patients experienced relapse after initial response to therapy. Nine relapses were initially suspected by surveillance imaging studies (8 PET, 1 CT), and 9 were suspected clinically (5 by patient-reported symptoms and 4 by symptoms and physical examination). No relapses were detected by surveillance LDH. The median duration from initiation of treatment to relapse was 14.3 months among patients with relapses suspected by imaging, and 59.8 months among patients with relapses suspected clinically (P=.077). There was no significant difference in OS from date of first therapy or OS after relapse between patients whose relapse was suspected by imaging versus clinically. Thirteen of 18 patients underwent successful salvage therapy after relapse. Conclusions: A complete response on PET scan immediately after initial chemotherapy is associated with superior FFP and OS in stage I to II DLBCL. The use of PET scans as

  19. Results of an Advanced Fan Stage Operating Over a Wide Range of Speed and Bypass Ratio. Part 1; Fan Stage Design and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suder, Kenneth L.; Prahst, Patricia S.; Thorp, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is investigating turbine-based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems for access to space because it provides the potential for aircraft-like, space-launch operations that may significantly reduce launch costs and improve safety. To this end, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and General Electric (GE) teamed to design a Mach 4 variable cycle turbofan/ramjet engine for access to space. To enable the wide operating range of a Mach 4+ variable cycle turbofan ramjet required the development of a unique fan stage design capable of multi-point operation to accommodate variations in bypass ratio (10 ), fan speed (7 ), inlet mass flow (3.5 ), inlet pressure (8 ), and inlet temperature (3 ). In this paper, NASA has set out to characterize a TBCC engine fan stage aerodynamic performance and stability limits over a wide operating range including power-on and hypersonic-unique "windmill" operation. Herein, we will present the fan stage design, and the experimental test results of the fan stage operating from 15 to 100 percent corrected design speed. Whereas, in the companion paper, we will provide an assessment of NASA s APNASA code s ability to predict the fan stage performance and operability over a wide range of speed and bypass ratio.

  20. Continuous and discreet methods in the aggregation and des fuzzy stages of a diffuse controller of neutron power; Metodos continuo y discreto en las etapas de agregacion y desdifusificacion de un controlador disfuso de potencia neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najera H, M.C.; Benitez R, J.S. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The results of a comparative study are presented of: to) A denominated diffuse controller 'exact', designed by means of an innovative method that determines analytically so much the group of exit resultant in the aggregation stage like the de fuzzy process, and b) a diffuse controller denominated 'discreet' based on the discretization of the variable of having left as much for the aggregation as for the de fuzzy. These stages incorporated to the control algorithms whose objective is the ascent and regulation of the neutron power, carrying out an analysis of its performance. (Author)

  1. Intrathecal Fentanyl for Labour Analgesia in a Patient with Severe Mitral Stenosis and Atrial Fibrillation in Advanced Stage of Labour-Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaijayanti Nitin Gadre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Labour is an intensely painful experience and puts considerable physiological stress on the circulation. A case of rheumatic valvular heart disease with severe mitral stenosis in atrial fibrillation is discussed here in which analgesia with intrathecal fentanyl proved beneficial given during the advanced first stage of labour.

  2. Identification of a potential ovarian cancer stem cell gene expression profile from advanced stage papillary serous ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Vathipadiekal

    Full Text Available Identification of gene expression profiles of cancer stem cells may have significant implications in the understanding of tumor biology and for the design of novel treatments targeted toward these cells. Here we report a potential ovarian cancer stem cell gene expression profile from isolated side population of fresh ascites obtained from women with high-grade advanced stage papillary serous ovarian adenocarcinoma. Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays were used to interrogate the differentially expressed genes between side population (SP and main population (MP, and the results were analyzed by paired T-test using BRB-ArrayTools. We identified 138 up-regulated and 302 down-regulated genes that were differentially expressed between all 10 SP/MP pairs. Microarray data was validated using qRT-PCR and17/19 (89.5% genes showed robust correlations between microarray and qRT-PCR expression data. The Pathway Studio analysis identified several genes involved in cell survival, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis which are unique to SP cells and a mechanism for the activation of Notch signaling is identified. To validate these findings, we have identified and isolated SP cells enriched for cancer stem cells from human ovarian cancer cell lines. The SP populations were having a higher colony forming efficiency in comparison to its MP counterpart and also capable of sustained expansion and differentiation in to SP and MP phenotypes. 50,000 SP cells produced tumor in nude mice whereas the same number of MP cells failed to give any tumor at 8 weeks after injection. The SP cells demonstrated a dose dependent sensitivity to specific γ-secretase inhibitors implicating the role of Notch signaling pathway in SP cell survival. Further the generated SP gene list was found to be enriched in recurrent ovarian cancer tumors.

  3. Impedance-matching hearing in Paleozoic reptiles: evidence of advanced sensory perception at an early stage of amniote evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Müller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insights into the onset of evolutionary novelties are key to the understanding of amniote origins and diversification. The possession of an impedance-matching tympanic middle ear is characteristic of all terrestrial vertebrates with a sophisticated hearing sense and an adaptively important feature of many modern terrestrial vertebrates. Whereas tympanic ears seem to have evolved multiple times within tetrapods, especially among crown-group members such as frogs, mammals, squamates, turtles, crocodiles, and birds, the presence of true tympanic ears has never been recorded in a Paleozoic amniote, suggesting they evolved fairly recently in amniote history. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we performed a morphological examination and a phylogenetic analysis of poorly known parareptiles from the Middle Permian of the Mezen River Basin in Russia. We recovered a well-supported clade that is characterized by a unique cheek morphology indicative of a tympanum stretching across large parts of the temporal region to an extent not seen in other amniotes, fossil or extant, and a braincase specialized in showing modifications clearly related to an increase in auditory function, unlike the braincase of any other Paleozoic tetrapod. In addition, we estimated the ratio of the tympanum area relative to the stapedial footplate for the basalmost taxon of the clade, which, at 23:1, is in close correspondence to that of modern amniotes capable of efficient impedance-matching hearing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using modern amniotes as analogues, the possession of an impedance-matching middle ear in these parareptiles suggests unique ecological adaptations potentially related to living in dim-light environments. More importantly, our results demonstrate that already at an early stage of amniote diversification, and prior to the Permo-Triassic extinction event, the complexity of terrestrial vertebrate ecosystems had reached a level that

  4. Progenitor Hematopoietic Cells Implantation Improves Functional Capacity of End Stage Coronary Artery Disease Patients with Advanced Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoga Yuniadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Proangiogenic Hematopoietic Cells (PHC which comprise diverse mixture of cell types are able to secrete proangiogenic factors and interesting candidate for cell therapy. The aim of this study was to seek for benefit in implantation of PHC on functional improvement in end stage coronary artery disease patients with advanced heart failure. Methods. Patients with symptomatic heart failure despite guideline directed medical therapy and LVEF less than 35% were included. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated, cultivated for 5 days, and then harvested. Flow cytometry and cell surface markers were used to characterize PHC. The PHC were delivered retrogradely via sinus coronarius. Echocardiography, myocardial perfusion, and clinical and functional data were analyzed up to 1-year observation. Results. Of 30 patients (56.4±7.40 yo preimplant NT proBNP level is 5124.5±4682.50 pmol/L. Harvested cells characterized with CD133, CD34, CD45, and KDR showed 0.87±0.41, 0.63±0.66, 99.00±2.60, and 3.22±3.79%, respectively. LVEF was improved (22±5.68 versus 26.8±7.93, p<0.001 during short and long term observation. Myocardial perfusion significantly improved 6 months after treatment. NYHA Class and six-minute walk test are improved during short term and long term follow-up. Conclusion. Expanded peripheral blood PHC implantation using retrograde delivery approach improved LV systolic function, myocardial perfusion, and functional capacity.

  5. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging during radiotherapy of locally advanced cervical cancer - treatment response assessment using different segmentation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Søren; Tanderup, Kari; Kallehauge, Jesper Folsted;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and the derived apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value has potential for monitoring tumor response to radiotherapy (RT). Method used for segmentation of volumes with reduced diffusion will influence both volume size and observed.......01), and the volumes changed significantly during treatment (p ....52 ± 0.3). There was no significant difference in mean ADC value compared at same treatment time. Mean tumor ADC value increased significantly (p treatment time. CONCLUSION: Among the three semi-automatic segmentations of hyper-intense intensities on DW-MR images...

  6. Early diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging can predict survival in women with locally advanced cancer of the cervix treated with combined chemo-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somoye, Gbolahan; Parkin, David [Ward 42, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Harry, Vanessa [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Semple, Scott [Queen' s Medical Research Institute, Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Clinical Research Imaging Centre, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Plataniotis, George [Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton and Somerset NHS Foundation, Taunton (United Kingdom); Scott, Neil [University of Aberdeen, Section of Population Health, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Gilbert, Fiona J. [University of Cambridge, Radiology Department, Box 218, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-15

    To assess the predictive value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) for survival in women treated for advanced cancer of the cervix with concurrent chemo-radiotherapy. Twenty women treated for advanced cancer of the cervix were recruited and followed up for a median of 26 (range <1 to 43) months. They each had DWI performed before treatment, 2 weeks after beginning therapy (midtreatment) and at the end of treatment. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated from regions of interest (ROI). All participants were reviewed for follow-up data. ADC values were compared with mortality status (Mann-Whitney test). Time to progression and overall survival were assessed (Kaplan-Meier survival graphs). There were 14 survivors. The median midtreatment ADC was statistically significantly higher in those alive compared to the non-survivors, 1.55 and 1.36 (x 10{sup -3}/mm{sup 2}/s), respectively, P = 0.02. The median change in ADC 14 days after treatment commencement was significantly higher in the alive group compared to non-survivors, 0.28 and 0.14 (x 10{sup -3}/mm{sup 2}/s), respectively, P = 0.02. There was no evidence of a difference between survivors and non-survivors for pretreatment baseline or post-therapy ADC values. Functional DWI early in the treatment of advanced cancer of the cervix may provide useful information in predicting survival. (orig.)

  7. Bmi-1 promotes invasion and metastasis, and its elevated expression is correlated with an advanced stage of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung Hsiang-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background B-lymphoma Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region-1 (Bmi-1 acts as an oncogene in various tumors, and its overexpression correlates with a poor outcome in several human cancers. Ectopic expression of Bmi-1 can induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and enhance the motility and invasiveness of human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NPECs, whereas silencing endogenous Bmi-1 expression can reverse EMT and reduce the metastatic potential of nasopharyngeal cancer cells (NPCs. Mouse xenograft studies indicate that coexpression of Bmi-1 and H-Ras in breast cancer cells can induce an aggressive and metastatic phenotype with an unusual occurrence of brain metastasis; although, Bmi-1 overexpression did not result in oncogenic transformation of MCF-10A cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of Bmi-1-mediated progression and the metastasis of breast cancer are not fully elucidated at this time. Results Bmi-1 expression is more pronouncedly increased in primary cancer tissues compared to matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues. High Bmi-1 expression is correlated with advanced clinicopathologic classifications (T, N, and M and clinical stages. Furthermore, a high level of Bmi-1 indicates an unfavorable overall survival and serves as a high risk marker for breast cancer. In addition, inverse transcriptional expression levels of Bmi-1 and E-cadherin are detected between the primary cancer tissues and the matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Higher Bmi-1 levels are found in the cancer tissue, whereas the paired adjacent non-cancer tissue shows higher E-cadherin levels. Overexpression of Bmi-1 increases the motility and invasive properties of immortalized human mammary epithelial cells, which is concurrent with the increased expression of mesenchymal markers, the decreased expression of epithelial markers, the stabilization of Snail and the dysregulation of the Akt/GSK3β pathway. Consistent with these

  8. Prospective international multicenter phase II trial of intravenous pegylated liposomal doxorubicin monochemotherapy in patients with stage IIB, IVA, or IVB advanced mycosis fungoides: final results from EORTC 21012

    OpenAIRE

    Dummer, Reinhard; Quaglino, Pietro; Jürgen C Becker; Hasan, Baktiar; Karrasch, Matthias; Whittaker, Sean; Morris, Stephen; Weichenthal, Michael; Stadler, Rudolf; Bagot, Martine; Cozzio, Antonio; Bernengo, Maria G; Knobler, Robert

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. There is a need for multicenter trials involving defined patient populations using rigorous assessment criteria. We have investigated pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in a clearly defined patient population with advanced MF. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had stage IIB, IVA, or IVB MF, refractory or recurrent after at least two previous systemic therapies. Patients were registered to receive...

  9. Effects and Safety of Linagliptin as an Add-on Therapy in Advanced-Stage Diabetic Nephropathy Patients Taking Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yuichiro; Ishii, Hiroki; Kitano, Taisuke; Shindo, Mitsutoshi; Miyazawa, Haruhisa; Ito, Kiyonori; Hirai, Keiji; Kaku, Yoshio; Mori, Honami; Hoshino, Taro; Ookawara, Susumu; Kakei, Masafumi; Tabei, Kaoru; Morishita, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We investigated the effects and safety of linagliptin as an add-on therapy in patients with advanced-stage diabetic nephropathy (DMN) taking renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers. METHOD Twenty advanced-stage DMN patients (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): 24.5 ± 13.4 mL/min/1.73 m2) taking RAAS blockers were administered 5 mg/day linagliptin for 52 weeks. Changes in glucose and lipid metabolism and renal function were evaluated. RESULTS Linagliptin decreased glycosylated hemoglobin levels (from 7.32 ± 0.77% to 6.85 ± 0.87%, P < 0.05) without changing fasting blood glucose levels, and significantly decreased total cholesterol levels (from 189.6 ± 49.0 to 170.2 ± 39.2 mg/dL, P < 0.05) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (from 107.1 ± 32.4 to 90.2 ± 31.0 mg/dL, P < 0.05) without changing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Urine protein/creatinine ratio and annual change in eGFR remained unchanged. No adverse effects were observed. CONCLUSION Linagliptin as an add-on therapy had beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism without impairment of renal function, and did not have any adverse effects in this population of patients with advanced-stage DMN taking RAAS blockers. PMID:27660406

  10. Brief cognitive assessment of Alzheimer's disease in advanced stages: Proposal for a Brazilian version of the Short Battery for Severe Impairment (SIB-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Wajman

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The measurement of cognitive abilities of patients with severe dementia can serve a wide range of methodological and clinical needs. Objective: To validate a proposed severe impairment battery SIB-8 for a Brazilian population sample as part of the neuropsychological assessment of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD in advanced stages. Methods: After a systematic process of translation and back-translation, the SIB-8 was applied to 95 patients with AD at different stages; moderate, moderately severe and severe according to FAST subdivisions (5, 6 and 7, with scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE of between 5 and 15 and followed by the Division of Behavioral Neurology and the Center for Aging Brain of the Federal University of São Paulo - UNIFESP. Results: Inferential data revealed that the SIB-8 instrument behaved differently at each stage of the disease with a statistical value of sensitivity p<0.001, gradually reflecting the expected course of the dementia, inherent with the decline of cognitive functions. Conclusion: Findings indicated that the SIB-8 is a useful tool for the evaluation and prospective comparison of AD patients in advanced stages, retaining its original characteristics in our population.

  11. Advances in the staging of renal cell carcinoma with high-resolution imaging; Fortschritte im Staging des Nierenzellkarzinoms mittels hochaufloesender Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallscheidt, P.; Noeldge, G.; Schawo, S.; Kauffmann, G.; Palmowski, M. [Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Radiologische Klinik, Univ. Heidelberg (Germany); Bartling, S. [Medizinische Physik, DKFZ Heidelberg (Germany); Pfitzenmaier, J. [Urologische Klinik, Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Modern imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow high-resolution imaging of the abdomen. Modern scanners made high temporal as well as high spatial resolution available. Therapeutic approaches to the treatment of renal cell carcinoma have been improved over the recent years. Besides conventional and open laparoscopic tumor nephrectomy and nephron sparing, surgical approaches such as local tumor cryotherapy and radiofrequency ablation (RF) are ablative modalities and are used increasingly. Improved anesthesiological methods and new surgical approaches also allow curative treatment in extended tumors. Prerequisites for preoperative imaging modalities include visualization of the kidney tumor as well as its staging. Tumor-related infiltration of the renal pelvis or invasion of the perinephric fat and the renal hilus has to be excluded prior to nephron sparing surgery. In cases with extended tumors with infiltration of the inferior vena cava, it is necessary to visualize the exact extension of the tumor growth towards the right atrium in the vena cava. The radiologist should be informed about the diagnostic possibilities and limitations of the imaging modalities of CT and MRI in order to support the urologist in the planning and performance of surgical therapeutical approaches. (orig.)

  12. Study of controlled diffusion stator blading. 1. Aerodynamic and mechanical design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, E.; Chisholm, B. C.; Lee, D.; Spear, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Aircraft is conducting a test program for NASA in order to demonstrate that a controlled-diffusion stator provides low losses at high loadings and Mach numbers. The technology has shown great promise in wind tunnel tests. Details of the design of the controlled diffusion stator vanes and the multiple-circular-arc rotor blades are presented. The stage, including stator and rotor, was designed to be suitable for the first-stage of an advanced multistage, high-pressure compressor.

  13. Advanced renal disease, end-stage renal disease and renal death among HIV-positive individuals in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryom L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on chronic kidney disease in HIV-positive individuals, but few have studied the less frequent events, advanced renal disease (ARD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD. The aim of this study was to investigate incidence, predictors and outcomes for ARD/ESRD and renal death in EuroSIDA. ARD was defined as confirmed eGFR < 30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (>3 months apart using Cockcroft-Gault. ESRD was defined as hemo- or peritoneal dialysis>1 month/renal transplant. Renal deaths were defined as renal failure as the underlying cause of death, using CoDe methodology. Patients were followed from baseline (first eGFR after 1/1/2004 until last eGFR, ARD/ESRD/renal death; whichever occurred first. Poisson regression was used to identify predictors. 8817 persons were included, the majority were white (87.3%, males (73.9% infected though homosexual contact (41.5% and with a median age of 42 years (IQR 36–49. 45 persons (0.5% developed the composite endpoint; ARD (24, ESRD (19 and renal death (2 during a median follow up (FU of 4.5 years (IQR 2.7–5.8, incidence rate (IR 1.21/1000 PYFU (95% CI 0.86–1.57. Of 312 persons (3.5% with baseline eGFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m2, 13.3% (7.5–18.9 are estimated to develop ARD/ESRD/renal death within 6 years after baseline compared to 0.86% (0.58–1.1 of all patients, using Kaplan-Meier methods. Predictors in multivariate analysis were older age (IRR 1.29 per 10 years [0.95–1.75] any cardiovascular risk (IRR 2.34 [1.23–4.45], CD4 count (IRR 0.76 per 2-fold higher [0.60–0.97] and eGFR (IRR 0.63 per 5 ml/min/1.73 m2 higher [0.58–0.69]. Ethnicity, gender, nadir CD4, VL, HBV and using potential nephrotoxic antiretrovirals were insignificant in uni- and multivariate analysis. At 1 year after ARD/ESRD, 23.3% (CI 9.8–36.8 were estimated to have died using Kaplan-Meier methods. The 11 deaths were from renal causes (2, non-AIDS-defining malignancies (2, hepatitis-associated liver failure (1, respiratory

  14. The additional utility of apparent diffusion coefficient values of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma for predicting metastasis during clinical staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizako, Takeshi; Hisatoshi, Araki; Mori, Hiroshi; Tamaki, Yukihisa; Ishikawa, Noriyoshi; Kitagaki, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    Background The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value is known to be an indicator of tumor activity. The ADC value of high-grade clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is significantly lower than that of low-grade clear-cell RCC. Purpose To investigate the utility of ADC values of clear-cell RCC by comparing ADC values between groups with T1a RCC (tumor size ≤ 4 cm) without metastasis and the group with metastasis. Material and Methods A retrospective review was performed on 51 patients with 51 RCCs who underwent 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluating a renal mass confirmed pathologically to be clear-cell RCC between January 2010 and August 2014. We compared ADC values between group A (T1a RCC without metastasis, T1aN0M0) and group B (RCC with metastasis) using the Mann–Whitney U test. Results The patients were divided into group A (n = 30; tumor size: median, 24.5 mm; range, 8–40 mm; ADC value [×10−3 mm2/s]: median, 1.71; range, 1.23–2.24) and group B (n = 21; tumor size: median, 87.5 mm; range, 18–150 mm; ADC value [×10−3 mm2/s]: median, 1.35; range, 0.91–1.94). The ADC value differed significantly between the two groups. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.869. Using the optimum cutoff value (1.552 × 10−3 mm2/s), ADC had a sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 81.0%. Conclusion There was a statistically significant difference in the ADC between group A (T1a clear-cell RCC without distant metastasis) and group B (advanced clear-cell RCC with lymph node metastasis or distant metastasis). PMID:28210496

  15. Long-term Survival of Personalized Surgical Treatment of Locally Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Based on Molecular Staging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua ZHOU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Approximately 35%-40% of patients with newly diagnosed non-small cell Lung cancer have locally advanced disease. The average survival time of these patients only have 6-8 months with chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to explore and summarize the probability of detection of micrometastasis in peripheral blood for molecular staging, and for selection of indication of surgical treatment, and beneficiary of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and postoperative adjuvant therapy in locally advanced lung cancer; to summarize the long-time survival result of personalized surgical treatment of 516 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer based on molecular staging methods. Methods CK19 mRNA expression of peripheral blood samples was detected in 516 lung cancer patients by RT-PCR before operation for molecular diagnosis of micrometastasis, personalized molecular staging, and for selection of indication of surgical treatment and the beneficiary of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and postoperative adjuvant therapy in patients with locally advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer invaded heart, great vessels or both. The long-term survival result of personalized surgical treatment was retrospectively analyzed in 516 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer based on molecular staging methods. Results There were 322 patients with squamous cell carcinoma and 194 cases with adenocarcinoma in the series of 516 patients with locally advanced lung cancer involved heart, great vessels or both. There were 112 patients with IIIA disease and 404 cases with IIIB disease according to P-TNM staging. There were 97 patients with M-IIIA disease, 278 cases with M-IIIB disease and 141 cases with III disease according to our personalized molecular staging. Of the 516 patients, bronchoplastic procedures and pulmonary artery reconstruction was carried out in 256 cases; lobectomy combined with resection and reconstruction of partial left

  16. Loss of heterozygosity on 10q and microsatellite instability in advanced stages of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and possible association with homozygous deletion of PTEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarisbrick, J J; Woolford, A J; Russell-Jones, R; Whittaker, S J

    2000-05-01

    Previous cytogenetic studies of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) were based on limited numbers of patients and seldom showed consistent nonrandom chromosomal abnormalities. In this study, 54 tumor DNA samples from patients with CTCL were analyzed for loss of heterozygosity on 10q. Allelic loss was identified in 10 samples, all of which were from the 44 patients with mycosis fungoides (10/44 patients; 23%). Of the patients with allelic loss, 3 were among the 29 patients with early-stage myosis fungoides (T(1) or T(2)) (3/29 patients; 10%), whereas the other 7 were among the 15 patients with advanced cutaneous disease (T(3) or T(4)) (7/15 patients; 47%). The overlapping region of deletion was between 10q23 and 10q24. In addition, microsatellite instability (MSI) was present in 13 of the 54 samples (24%), 12 from patients with mycosis fungoides and 1 from a patient with Sezary syndrome. There was also an association between MSI and disease progression in patients with mycosis fungoides, with 6 of 15 (40%) patients with MSI having advanced cutaneous disease and only 6 of 29 (21%) having early-stage disease. Samples with allelic loss on 10q were analyzed for abnormalities of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN (10q23.3). No tumor-specific mutations were detected, but homozygous deletion was found in 2 patients. Thus, we found loss of heterozygosity on 10q and MSI in advanced cutaneous stages of mycosis fungoides. These findings indicate that a tumor suppressor gene or genes in this region may be associated with disease progression. Furthermore, abnormalities of PTEN may be important in the pathogenesis of mycosis fungoides, but our data imply that this gene is rarely inactivated by small deletions or point mutations. (Blood. 2000;95:2937-2942)

  17. The Impact of a Multidimensional Exercise Intervention on Physical and Functional Capacity, Anxiety, and Depression in Patients With Advanced-Stage Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist, Morten; Adamsen, Lis; Rørth, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    of the present study was to investigate the benefits of a 6-week supervised group exercise intervention and to outline the effect on aerobic capacity, strength, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), anxiety, and depression. Methods: VO2peak was assessed using an incremental exercise test. Muscle strength......Introduction: Patients with advanced-stage lung cancer face poor survival and experience co-occurring chronic physical and psychosocial symptoms. Despite several years of research in exercise oncology, few exercise studies have targeted advanced lung cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The aim....... Forty-three patients dropped out. No serious adverse events were reported. Exercise adherence in the group training was 68%. Improvements in VO2peak (P

  18. [{sup 11}C]Choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography for staging and restaging of patients with advanced prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncel, Murat; Souvatzoglou, Michael; Herrmann, Ken [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der lsar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany); Stollfuss, Jens [Department of Radiology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany); Schuster, Tibor [Department of Statistics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany); Weirich, Gregor [Department of Pathology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany); Wester, Hans-Juergen; Schwaiger, Markus [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der lsar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany); Krause, Bernd J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der lsar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany)], E-mail: bernd-joachim.krause@tum.de

    2008-08-15

    Introduction: To evaluate [{sup 11}C]Choline positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for staging and restaging of patients with advanced prostate cancer and to compare the diagnostic performance of PET, CT and PET/CT. Methods: Forty-five consecutive patients with advanced prostate cancer underwent [{sup 11}C]Choline-PET/CT between 5/2004 and 2/2006. Results: Overall, 295 lesions were detected: PET alone, 178 lesions; diagnostic CT, 221 lesions; PET/CT (low-dose CT), 272 lesions; PET/CT (diagnostic CT), 295 lesions. Two thirds of the lesions were located in the bone; one third in the prostate, lymph nodes, periprostatic tissue and soft tissue (lung, liver). The use of diagnostic CT did not result in a statistically significant difference with respect to lesion localization certainty and lesion characterization (P=.063, P=.063). PET-negative but PET/CT-positive lesions were mostly localized in the bone (78%, 91/117) as were PET-positive and CT-negative lesions (72%, 53/74). Of the latter, 91% (48/53) represented bone marrow and 9% (5/53) cortical involvement. Conclusions: Staging and restaging with [{sup 11}C]Choline PET/CT in patients with advanced prostate cancer improve the assessment of local and regional recurrent as well as metastatic disease including skeletal manifestations. [{sup 11}C]Choline PET/CT (with a low-dose CT) results in improved localization and lesion characterization. [{sup 11}C]Choline PET/CT provides an added value for skeletal manifestations. [{sup 11}C]Choline PET/CT changed disease management in 11 (24%) of 45 patients with advanced prostate cancer.

  19. Advanced air staging techniques to improve fuel flexibility, reliability and emissions in fluidized bed co-combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aamand, Lars-Erik; Leckner, Bo [Chalmers Technical Univ., Goeteborg (Sweden); Luecke, Karsten; Werther, Joachim [Technical Univ. of Hamburg-Harburg (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    A joint research project between the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg and Chalmers Technical University. For operation under co-combustion the following results should be considered: The high ash content of the sewage sludge results in significantly increased ash flows. Although high alkali metal concentrations are found in the sewage sludge ash, no critical concentrations were reached and tendencies to fouling were not observed. The trace metal input rises with increased sludge fraction. However, emissions of metal compounds were well below legal limits. The trace metals tend to accumulate on the fly ash. In general, very low fuel nitrogen conversions to NO and N{sub 2}O of 2 - 4 % are achievable. With coal as a base fuel alternative air staging with secondary air supply after solids separation attains even lower NO emissions than normal staging without strongly affecting CO and SO{sub 2} emissions. Alternative staging also reduces N{sub 2}O emissions. An optimum for the excess air ratio in the riser of 1.05 was found for a total excess air ratio of 1.2. The higher the volatile content of the fuel is, the less effective the NO reduction due to air staging becomes. The measurements suggest that the optimum gas residence time regarding the emissions in CFB combustors is around 6 to 7 s. These times are achieved in commercial scale plants due to their large cyclones that perhaps partly can replace a large afterburner chamber. The circulating fluidized bed boiler can be operated in a very flexible way with various fuel mixtures up to an energy fraction of sludge of 25% without exceeding legal emission limits.

  20. A two stage launch vehicle for use as an advanced space transportation system for logistics support of the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the preliminary design specifications for an Advanced Space Transportation System consisting of a fully reusable flyback booster, an intermediate-orbit cargo vehicle, and a shuttle-type orbiter with an enlarged cargo bay. It provides a comprehensive overview of mission profile, aerodynamics, structural design, and cost analyses. These areas are related to the overall feasibility and usefullness of the proposed system.

  1. Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Tank Rapid Chill and Fill Testing for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachbart, R. H.; Hedayat, A.; Holt, K. A.; Sims, J.; Johnson, E. F.; Hastings, L. J.; Lak, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cryogenic upper stages in the Space Shuttle program were prohibited primarily due to a safety risk of a 'return to launch site' abort. An upper stage concept addressed this concern by proposing that the stage be launched empty and filled using shuttle external tank residuals after the atmospheric pressure could no longer sustain an explosion. However, only about 5 minutes was allowed for tank fill. Liquid hydrogen testing was conducted within a near-ambient environment using the multipurpose hydrogen test bed 638.5 ft3 (18m3) cylindrical tank with a spray bar mounted longitudinally inside. Although the tank was filled within 5 minutes, chilldown of the tank structure was incomplete, and excessive tank pressures occurred upon vent valve closure. Elevated tank wall temperatures below the liquid level were clearly characteristic of film boiling. The test results have substantial implications for on-orbit cryogen transfer since the formation of a vapor film would be much less inhibited due to the reduced gravity. However, the heavy tank walls could become an asset in normal gravity testing for on-orbit transfer, i.e., if film boiling in a nonflight weight tank can be inhibited in normal gravity, then analytical modeling anchored with the data could be applied to reduced gravity environments with increased confidence.

  2. Analysis of {sup 18}F-FDG PET diffuse bone marrow uptake and splenic uptake in staging of Hodgkin's lymphoma: a reflection of disease infiltration or just inflammation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salaun, Pierre Y. [University Hospital of Brest, Nuclear Medicine Department, Brest (France); Rene Gauducheau Cancer Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Nantes (France); Gastinne, Thomas [University Hospital of Nantes, Department of Haematology, Nantes (France); Bodet-Milin, Caroline [University Hospital of Nantes, Nuclear Medicine Department, Nantes (France); Campion, Loic [Rene Gauducheau Cancer Center, Biostatistics Unit, Nantes (France); INSERM UMR 892, CRCNA, Nantes (France); Cambefort, Pierre [University Hospital of Brest, Nuclear Medicine Department, Brest (France); Moreau, Anne [University Hospital of Nantes, Department of Histopathology, Nantes (France); Le Gouill, Steven; Moreau, Philippe [University Hospital of Nantes, Department of Haematology, Nantes (France); INSERM UMR 892, CRCNA, Nantes (France); Berthou, Christian [University Hospital of Brest, Department of Haematology, Brest (France); Kraeber-Bodere, Francoise [Rene Gauducheau Cancer Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Nantes (France); University Hospital of Nantes, Nuclear Medicine Department, Nantes (France); INSERM UMR 892, CRCNA, Nantes (France)

    2009-11-15

    {sup 18}F-FDG PET has been successfully evaluated in the management of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and the most recent international guidelines recommended {sup 18}F-FDG PET for initial staging and final therapeutic assessment. However, {sup 18}F-FDG PET diffuse bone marrow uptake (BMU) and splenic uptake (SU) are frequently observed at the initial imaging and remain difficult to analyse. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the significance of {sup 18}F-FDG diffuse BMU and SU in initial staging of HL. A total of 106 patients (median age: 31 years, range: 9-81, 51 female, 55 male) underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for initial staging of HL. BMU level was assessed visually according to liver uptake (1 = below liver uptake, 2 = corresponding to liver uptake, 3 = above liver uptake) and semi-quantitatively using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) measured in the sacral area. SU was assessed visually according to liver uptake (1 = below liver uptake, 2 = corresponding to liver uptake, 3 = above liver uptake). These data were compared with the patient's characteristics including sex, age, Ann Arbor staging, bulky disease (tumour burden > 10 cm), presence of B symptoms, bone foci on PET (n = 106), bone marrow involvement (BMI) on biopsy (n = 75), leukocyte count (n = 74), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) (n = 87), C-reactive protein (CRP) (n = 83) and fibrinogen (n = 60). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Multivariate analysis found an independent correlation between BMU visual grading and CRP level (p = 0.007). For semi-quantitative BMU evaluation, multivariate analysis found an independent correlation between sacral SUVs and CRP level (p = 0.032) and Ann Arbor stage (p = 0.005). No BMI was found in patients who presented with SUV{sub max} below 3.4. For splenic evaluation, multivariate analysis found an independent correlation between SU and splenic foci (p = 0.034). No statistical link was found between SU and

  3. Advanced nitrogen removal via nitrite from municipal landfill leachate using a two-stage UASB-A/O system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lina Wu; Yongzhen Peng; Xiao Shi; Chengyao Peng; Jie Zhang

    2015-01-01

    A system consisting of a two-stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and an anoxic/aerobic (A/O) reactor was used to treat municipal landfill leachate. Denitrification took place in the first stage of the UASB re-actor (UASB1). The chemical oxygen demand of the UASB1 effluent was further decreased in the second stage (UASB2). Nitrification was accomplished in the A/O reactor. When diluted with tap water at a ratio of 1:1, the ammonia nitrogen concentration of the influent leachate was approximately 1200 mg·L−1, whereas that of the system effluent was approximately 8–11 mg·L−1, and the corresponding removal efficiency is about 99.08%. Stable partial nitrification was achieved in the A/O reactor with 88.61%–91.58%of the nitrite accumula-tion ratio, even at comparatively low temperature (16 °C). The results demonstrate that free ammonia (FA) con-centrations within a suitable range exhibit a positive effect on partial nitrification. In this experiment when FA was within the 1–30 mg·L−1 range, partial nitrification could be achieved, whereas when FA exceeded 280 mg·L−1, the nitrification process was entirely inhibited. Temperature was not the key factor leading to par-tial nitrification within the 16–29 °C range. The inhibitory influence of free nitrous acid (FNA) on nitrification was also minimal when pH was greater than 8.5. Thus, FA concentration was a major factor in achieving partial nitrification.

  4. BUB1 mRNA is significantly co-expressed with AURKA and AURKB mRNA in advanced-stage ovarian serous carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ben; Nymoen, Dag Andre; Elgaaen, Bente Vilming; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Tropé, Claes G; Kærn, Janne; Reich, Reuven; Falkenthal, Thea E Hetland

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and clinical role of the spindle checkpoint kinase budding uninhibited by benzimidazole 1 (Bub1) in primary and metastatic advanced-stage ovarian serous carcinoma. BUB1 mRNA expression was analyzed in 178 tumors (88 effusions, 38 primary carcinomas, and 52 solid metastases) from 144 patients with advanced-stage disease using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bub1 protein expression by Western blotting was studied in 63 carcinomas (30 effusions and 33 solid lesions). BUB1 mRNA expression at different anatomic sites was studied for association with clinicopathologic parameters, including chemotherapy resistance and survival. BUB1 mRNA was universally expressed in serous carcinomas, irrespective of anatomic site. BUB1 mRNA levels were uniformly low in six ovarian surface epithelium specimens analyzed for comparative purposes. Bub1 protein was expressed in 22/30 effusions and 28/33 solid lesions. BUB1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in chemo-naïve primary carcinomas and solid metastases compared to specimens obtained following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (p cancer. BUB1 mRNA levels are lower following chemotherapy exposure in solid lesions, though its presence is unrelated to clinical behavior including response to chemotherapy and survival. BUB1 is co-expressed with AURKA and AURKB suggesting biological relationship between these spindle cell components.

  5. Randomized controlled trial in advance stage breast cancer patients for the effectiveness on stress marker and pain through Sudarshan Kriya and Pranayam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to examine the effect of a cognitive, behavioral stress management module of Sudarshan Kriya (SK and P on levels of serum cortisol and pain among the women suffering from advanced stage breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Participants (n = 147 were screened and randomized to receive standard care (n = 69 versus standard along with SK and Pranayam (P intervention (n = 78 imparted in one 18 hrs workshop spread during 3 days. Participants were expected to practice it at home 20 min daily as adjuvant to standard pharmacological treatment for pain. Results: There was a significant difference in blood cortisol levels after 3 months of practice of SK and P. Mean blood levels in the intervention arm were 341.2 ng/ml against 549.2 ng/ml in the control arm (P ≤ 0.002. Pain perception in comparison to control arm reduced by 3 points in SK and P arm on 0-10 verbal scale of pain. Conclusion: SK and P is an effective intervention in reducing stress and pain among advance stage patients of breast cancer.

  6. Treatment of liver cancer of middle and advanced stages using ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol injection combined with radiofrequency ablation: A clinical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUN, XUE; LI, RU; ZHANG, BOTAO; YANG, YUEJIE; CUI, ZHIFEI

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is a malignancy of the digestive system and has a high morbidity and mortality rate. Local intervention has become a viable option in identifying liver treatment. The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical effects of treating liver cancer in middle and advanced stages using ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in tumors combined with radiofrequency ablation (RFA). A total of 100 patients with stage III–IV liver cancers were selected to participate in the study. Patients were divided into groups. In group A, treatment was initiated with PEI and after 1–2 weeks RFA was applied while in group B treatment was initiated with RFA and after 1–2 weeks PEI was applied. Patients in group C received PEI and RFA simultaneously. The clinical effects in the 3 groups were compared after 6-month follow ups. The volume of tumor ablation necrosis in group A was significantly greater than that in the groups B and C, while the size was significantly smaller compared to groups B and C after ablation. For group A, the complete ablation rate was significantly higher than that in groups B and C, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Liver damage indices, including raising levels of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and total bilirubin, were significantly decreased in group A (P<0.05). The survival rate in group A was also significantly higher than in groups B and C (P<0.05). In conclusion, for patients with liver cancer in middle and advanced stages, the treatment method using PEI followed by RFA was more beneficial in terms of improving the tumor ablation rate, alleviating liver damages and increasing survival rates. PMID:26998128

  7. Advanced control of liquid water region in diffusion media of polymer electrolyte fuel cells through a dimensionless number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Chen, Ken S.

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, a three-dimension (3-D) model of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is employed to investigate the complex, non-isothermal, two-phase flow in the gas diffusion layer (GDL). Phase change in gas flow channels is explained, and a simplified approach accounting for phase change is incorporated into the fuel cell model. It is found that the liquid water contours in the GDL are similar along flow channels when the channels are subject to two-phase flow. Analysis is performed on a dimensionless parameter Da0 introduced in our previous paper [Y. Wang and K. S. Chen, Chemical Engineering Science 66 (2011) 3557-3567] and the parameter is further evaluated in a realistic fuel cell. We found that the GDL's liquid water (or liquid-free) region is determined by the Da0 number which lumps several parameters, including the thermal conductivity and operating temperature. By adjusting these factors, a liquid-free GDL zone can be created even though the channel stream is two-phase flow. Such a liquid-free zone is adjacent to the two-phase region, benefiting local water management, namely avoiding both severe flooding and dryness.

  8. The advanced stages of stellar evolution: impact of mass loss, rotation, and link with B[e] stars

    CERN Document Server

    Georgy, Cyril; Ekström, Sylvia; Meynet, Georges

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss some consequences of rotation and mass loss on the evolved stages of massive star evolution. The physical reasons of the time evolution of the surface velocity are explained, and then we show how the late-time evolution of massive stars are impacted in combination with the effects of mass loss. The most interesting result is that in some cases, a massive star can have a blue-red-blue evolution, opening the possibility that Blue Supergiants are composed by two distinct populations of stars: one just leaving the main sequence and crossing the HRD for the first time, and the other one evolving back to the blue side of the HRD after a Red Supergiant phase. We discuss a few possible observational tests that can allow to distinguish these two populations, and how supergiant B[e] stars fit in this context.

  9. Whole-liver radiotherapy for end-stage colorectal cancer patients with massive liver metastases and advanced hepatic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sun Young

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate whether whole-liver radiotherapy (RT is beneficial in end-stage colorectal cancer with massive liver metastases and severe hepatic dysfunction. Methods Between June 2004 and July 2008, 10 colorectal cancer patients, who exhibited a replacement of over three quarters of their normal liver by metastatic tumors and were of Child-Pugh class B or C in liver function with progressive disease after undergoing chemotherapy, underwent whole-liver RT. RT was administered using computed tomography-based three-dimensional planning and the median dose was 21 Gy (range, 21-30 in seven fractions. Improvement in liver function tests, defined as a decrease in the levels within 1 month after RT, symptom palliation, toxicity, and overall survival were analyzed retrospectively. Results Levels of alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase improved in 8, 6, 9, and all 10 patients, respectively, and the median reduction rates were 42%, 68%, 50%, and 57%, respectively. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen level decreased after RT in three of four assessable patients. For all patients, pain levels decreased and acute toxicity consisted of nausea/vomiting of grade ≤ 2. Further chemotherapy became possible in four of 10 patients. Mean survival after RT was 80 ± 80 days (range, 20-289; mean survival for four patients who received post-RT chemotherapy was 143 ± 100 days (range, 65-289, versus 38 ± 16 days (range, 20-64 for the six patients who did not receive post-RT chemotherapy (p = 0.127. Conclusions Although limited by small case number, this study demonstrated a possible role of whole-liver RT in improving hepatic dysfunction and delaying mortality from hepatic failure for end-stage colorectal cancer patients with massive liver metastases. Further studies should be followed to confirm these findings.

  10. Cutaneous Lymphoma International Consortium Study of Outcome in Advanced Stages of Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome: Effect of Specific Prognostic Markers on Survival and Development of a Prognostic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarisbrick, Julia J.; Prince, H. Miles; Vermeer, Maarten H.; Quaglino, Pietro; Horwitz, Steven; Porcu, Pierluigi; Stadler, Rudolf; Wood, Gary S.; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Pham-Ledard, Anne; Foss, Francine; Girardi, Michael; Bagot, Martine; Michel, Laurence; Battistella, Maxime; Guitart, Joan; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Martinez-Escala, Maria Estela; Estrach, Teresa; Papadavid, Evangelia; Antoniou, Christina; Rigopoulos, Dimitis; Nikolaou, Vassilki; Sugaya, Makoto; Miyagaki, Tomomitsu; Gniadecki, Robert; Sanches, José Antonio; Cury-Martins, Jade; Miyashiro, Denis; Servitje, Octavio; Muniesa, Cristina; Berti, Emilio; Onida, Francesco; Corti, Laura; Hodak, Emilia; Amitay-Laish, Iris; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo L.; Rodríguez-Peralto, Jose L.; Knobler, Robert; Porkert, Stefanie; Bauer, Wolfgang; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Grandi, Vieri; Cowan, Richard; Rook, Alain; Kim, Ellen; Pileri, Alessandro; Patrizi, Annalisa; Pujol, Ramon M.; Wong, Henry; Tyler, Kelly; Stranzenbach, Rene; Querfeld, Christiane; Fava, Paolo; Maule, Milena; Willemze, Rein; Evison, Felicity; Morris, Stephen; Twigger, Robert; Talpur, Rakhshandra; Kim, Jinah; Ognibene, Grant; Li, Shufeng; Tavallaee, Mahkam; Hoppe, Richard T.; Duvic, Madeleine; Whittaker, Sean J.; Kim, Youn H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Advanced-stage mycosis fungoides (MF; stage IIB to IV) and Sézary syndrome (SS) are aggressive lymphomas with a median survival of 1 to 5 years. Clinical management is stage based; however, there is wide range of outcome within stages. Published prognostic studies in MF/SS have been single-center trials. Because of the rarity of MF/SS, only a large collaboration would power a study to identify independent prognostic markers. Patients and Methods Literature review identified the following 10 candidate markers: stage, age, sex, cutaneous histologic features of folliculotropism, CD30 positivity, proliferation index, large-cell transformation, WBC/lymphocyte count, serum lactate dehydrogenase, and identical T-cell clone in blood and skin. Data were collected at specialist centers on patients diagnosed with advanced-stage MF/SS from 2007. Each parameter recorded at diagnosis was tested against overall survival (OS). Results Staging data on 1,275 patients with advanced MF/SS from 29 international sites were included for survival analysis. The median OS was 63 months, with 2- and 5-year survival rates of 77% and 52%, respectively. The median OS for patients with stage IIB disease was 68 months, but patients diagnosed with stage III disease had slightly improved survival compared with patients with stage IIB, although patients diagnosed with stage IV disease had significantly worse survival (48 months for stage IVA and 33 months for stage IVB). Of the 10 variables tested, four (stage IV, age > 60 years, large-cell transformation, and increased lactate dehydrogenase) were independent prognostic markers for a worse survival. Combining these four factors in a prognostic index model identified the following three risk groups across stages with significantly different 5-year survival rates: low risk (68%), intermediate risk (44%), and high risk (28%). Conclusion To our knowledge, this study includes the largest cohort of patients with advanced-stage MF/SS and

  11. Protective effects of pioglitazone and/or liraglutide on pancreatic β-cells in db/db mice: Comparison of their effects between in an early and advanced stage of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tomohiko; Kaneto, Hideaki; Shimoda, Masashi; Hirukawa, Hidenori; Okauchi, Seizo; Kohara, Kenji; Hamamoto, Sumiko; Tawaramoto, Kazuhito; Hashiramoto, Mitsuru; Kaku, Kohei

    2015-01-15

    The aim was to compare the protective effects of pioglitazone (PIO) and/or liraglutide (LIRA) on β-cells with the progression of diabetes. Male db/db mice were treated with PIO and/or LIRA for 2 weeks in an early and advanced stage. In an early stage insulin biosynthesis and secretion were markedly increased by PIO and LIRA which was not observed in an advanced stage. In concomitant with such phenomena, expression levels of various β-cell-related factors were up-regulated by PIO and LIRA only in an early stage. Furthermore, β-cell mass was also increased by the treatment only in an early stage. Although there was no difference in apoptosis ratio between the two stages, β-cell proliferation was augmented by the treatment only in an early stage. In conclusion, protective effects of pioglitazone and/or liraglutide on β-cells were more powerful in an early stage of diabetes compared to an advanced stage.

  12. A Case Series of Survival Outcomes in Patients with Advanced-stage IIIb/IV Non-small-cell Lung Cancer Treated with HangAm-Plus

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    Bang Sun-Hwi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC represents approximately 80% of all lung cancers. Unfortunately, at their time of diagnosis, most patients have advanced to unresectable disease with a very poor prognosis. The oriental herbal medicine HangAm-Plus (HAP has been developed for antitumor purposes, and several previous studies have reported its therapeutic effects. In this study, the efficacy of HAP was evaluated as a third-line treatment for advanced-stage IIIb/IV NSCLC. Methods: The study involved six patients treated at the East- West Cancer Center (EWCC from April 2010 to October 2011. Inoperable advanced-stage IIIb/IV NSCLC patients received 3,000 or 6,000 mg of HAP on a daily basis over a 12-week period. Computed tomography (CT scans were obtained from the patients at the time of the initial administration and after 12 weeks of treatment. We observed and analyzed the patients overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS. Results: Of the six patients, three expired during the study, and the three remaining patients were alive as of October 31, 2011. The OS ranged from 234 to 512 days, with a median survival of 397 days and a one-year survival rate of 66.7%. In the 12-week-interval chest CT assessment, three patients showed stable disease (SD, and the other three showed progressive disease (PD. The PFS of patients ranged from 88 to 512 days, the median PFS being 96 days. Longer OS and PFS were correlated with SD. Although not directly comparable, the OS and the PFS of this study were greater than those of the docetaxel or the best supportive care group in other studies. Conclusion: HAP may prolong the OS and the PFS of inoperable stage IIIb/IV NSCLC patients without significant adverse effects. In the future, more controlled clinical trials with larger samples from multi-centers should be conducted to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of HAP.

  13. Ruptured ovarian cystic teratoma in pregnancy with diffuse peritoneal reaction mimicking advanced ovarian malignancy: a case report

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    Maiti Sachchidananda

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This case illustrates the unusual complication of granulomatous peritonitis following rupture of a dermoid cyst in pregnancy resembling disseminated ovarian carcinoma. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of this complication during advanced pregnancy in the literature. Case presentation A dermoid cyst ruptured during surgical removal in the second trimester of pregnancy in a 27-year-old primigravida. Postoperatively the patient suffered pulmonary embolism and leakage of sebaceous material through the abdominal wound. She gradually developed significant abdominal distension, gastrointestinal symptoms and lost more than 8 kg of weight in the 12 weeks postoperatively. The baby was delivered at 31 weeks by a technically challenging caesarean section owing to severe dense adhesions obscuring the uterus. Bowel resection was performed for suspected malignant infiltration and adhesion causing obstruction. She had a protracted convalescence with an ileostomy and mucus fistula. Histology confirmed granulation without malignancy. One year following the surgical treatment, she had recovered well and was planning her next pregnancy. Conclusion Although granulomatous peritonitis following rupture of a dermoid cyst is very rare, awareness is the key to diagnosis and appropriate management. Per-operative frozen section may be helpful.

  14. Advances in chemical and physical properties of electric arc furnace carbon steel slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapis, Ioannis; Papayianni, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    Slags are recognised as a highly efficient, cost effective tool in the metal processing industry, by minimising heat losses, reducing metal oxidation through contact with air, removing metal impurities and protecting refractories and graphite electrodes. When compared to natural aggregates for use in the construction industry, slags have higher specific weight that acts as an economic deterrent. A method of altering the specific weight of EAFC slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing, during steel production is presented in this article. The method has minimal interference with the production process of steel, even by limited additions of appropriate minerals at high temperatures. Five minerals are examined, namely perlite, ladle furnace slag, bauxite, diatomite and olivine. Measurements of specific weight are accompanied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF) analysis and scanning electron microscopy spectral images. It is also shown how altering the chemical composition is expected to affect the furnace refractory lining. Additionally, the process has been repeated for the most suitable mix in gas furnace and physical properties (FI, SI, LA, PSV, AAV, volume stability) examined. Alteration of the specific weight can result in tailoring slag properties for specific applications in the construction sector.

  15. Expression of Inflammation-Related Genes Is Altered in Gastric Tissue of Patients with Advanced Stages of NAFLD

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    Rohini Mehta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation perpetuated by visceral adipose. Other organs, particularly stomach and intestine, may also overproduce proinflammatory molecules. We examined the gene expression patterns in gastric tissue of morbidly obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and compared the changes in gene expression in different histological forms of NAFLD. Stomach tissue samples from 20 morbidly obese NAFLD patients who were undergoing sleeve gastrectomy were profiled using qPCR for 84 genes encoding inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, their receptors, and other components of inflammatory cascades. Interleukin 8 receptor-beta (IL8RB gene overexpression in gastric tissue was correlated with the presence of hepatic steatosis, hepatic fibrosis, and histologic diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Expression levels of soluble interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN were correlated with the presence of NASH and hepatic fibrosis. mRNA levels of interleukin 8 (IL8, chemokine (C-C motif ligand 4 (CCL4, and its receptor chemokine (C-C motif receptor type 5 (CCR5 showed a significant increase in patients with advanced hepatic inflammation and were correlated with the severity of the hepatic inflammation. The results of our study suggest that changes in expression patterns for inflammatory molecule encoding genes within gastric tissue may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-related NAFLD.

  16. Advances in chemical and physical properties of electric arc furnace carbon steel slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liapis, Ioannis, E-mail: iliapis@sidenor.vionet.gr [AEIFOROS SA, 12th km Thessaloniki-Veroia Rd, PO Box 59, 57008 Ionia, Thessaloniki (Greece); Papayianni, Ioanna [Laboratory of Building Materials, Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Addition of 10% perlite decreases specific weight of the slag by approx. 7.5%. • Slag-crucible interaction and thin coating layer result in variations in XRF. • XRD shows high glass content and smaller crystalline sizes due to rapid cooling. • SEM shows higher homogeneity and lower crystallisation for SiO{sub 2}/CaO-rich samples. • Physical properties (LA, PSV, AAV) of modified slag show limited deterioration. - Abstract: Slags are recognised as a highly efficient, cost effective tool in the metal processing industry, by minimising heat losses, reducing metal oxidation through contact with air, removing metal impurities and protecting refractories and graphite electrodes. When compared to natural aggregates for use in the construction industry, slags have higher specific weight that acts as an economic deterrent. A method of altering the specific weight of EAFC slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing, during steel production is presented in this article. The method has minimal interference with the production process of steel, even by limited additions of appropriate minerals at high temperatures. Five minerals are examined, namely perlite, ladle furnace slag, bauxite, diatomite and olivine. Measurements of specific weight are accompanied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF) analysis and scanning electron microscopy spectral images. It is also shown how altering the chemical composition is expected to affect the furnace refractory lining. Additionally, the process has been repeated for the most suitable mix in gas furnace and physical properties (FI, SI, LA, PSV, AAV, volume stability) examined. Alteration of the specific weight can result in tailoring slag properties for specific applications in the construction sector.

  17. Status of a Unique Vaccine against hCG for Contraception and Advanced Stage Cancers expressing ectopically hCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talwar GP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dear Egon!br God bless you on your 95th Birthday! May you complete 100 years.br Being submitted in your honor is a brief article on my continuing work to make available a unique vaccine preventing pregnancy in women without blocking ovulation, her normal production of sex steroid hormones and retaining her regular menstrual cycles and bleeding profiles.br The vaccine is directed at the Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, which emerges following fertilization of the egg [1]. Healthy, non-pregnant women do not make it, the basis on which its detection in serum or urine serves as a reliable test for diagnosis of pregnancy. It plays a critical role in implantation of the embryo & thereby to the onset of pregnancy. The purpose of the vaccine is to generate bioeffective antibodies neutralizing hCG & thereby prevent the onset of pregnancy.br As you can imagine, the making of a workable vaccine, competent to make antibodies against a tolerant molecule to the woman’s immune system (she literally bathes in hCG during pregnancy was not simple. What was also demanded was high immunogenicity of the vaccine to make fairly high titres of antibodies to counteract the large amount of hCG made in early pregnancy. At each stage, it required testing in humans and before that could be done, appropriate toxicology studies & approval of Regulatory and Ethics Committees was needed each taking its time. Eventually the vaccine has to be amenable to industrial production to reach the public, hence a recombinant vaccine had to be developed. Given below is a brief write-up on the evolution of the vaccine against the human chorionic gonadotropin.br Yours, Pran

  18. Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor is associated with enhanced angiogenesis and advanced stage in gastric carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chia-Tung Shun; Jaw-Town Lin; Shih-Pei Huang; Min-Tsan Lin; Ming-Shiang Wu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was reported to inactivate p53 and play an essential role in the growth and angiogenesis of tumors that arise at sites of chronic inflammation. Gastric inflammation is a prerequisite for the development of gastric carcinoma (GC), which has recently been linked to Helicobacter pylori(H pylori)infection. This study aimed to investigate dinicopathologicalsignificance of MIF expression in GCs.METHODS: We selected 90 consecutive patients with GCs for investigation of the relation among MIF status, clinicopathological parameters, p53 expression and angiogenesis. MIF and p53 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry as positive and negative groups. Tumor vascularity was evaluated by counting microvessel density on anti-CD34 stained sections. Expression status of MIF was correlated with determined clinicopathological data, p53 immunoreactivity and microvessel counts.RESULTS: Strong immunostainings of MIF were observed in the cytoplasm of cancerous cells in 40% (36/90) of cases but not in normal or metaplastic epithelia. There was no statistically significant correlation between MIFexpression and age, gender, H pylori infection, tumor location, histological subtypes, lymph node metastasis or p53 expression. Early GC less frequently overexpressed MIFas compared to advanced GCs (4/20 vs 32/70, P = 0.04).A remarkably increased microvessel count was noted inGCs with MIF expression than those without MIF expression (55.1±30.1 vs 31.3±28.8, P= 0.0001).CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that expression of MIF may contribute to the progression and enhanced angiogenesis in a substantial portion of GCs.

  19. 基于技术扩散模型的区域"数字鸿沟"演变阶段划分%A Division to Evolution Stages of "Digital Divide" between Regions Based on Technology Diffusion Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛伟贤; 刘骏

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, " ICTs diffusion model" is established based on classical technology diffusion model, and time path function of diffusion is derived from the model. By the method of depicting graph, the graph of time path function shows itself as S-Curve pattern. After that , "digital divide" between regions is shown through difference of two region's time path functions. And on this basis evolution stages of "digital divide" between regions are divided. The research result shows that the internal and external factors , number of " potential user" , the number of initial user in different regions are discrepant,so time path functions of different regions are diverse, and difference of diverse time path functions indicates " digital divide" between regions. Therefore, evolution of "digital divide " between regions is divided into three stages : the gradual expansion stage, the stabilization stage, the gradual reducing stage. This research theoretically reveals the evolution rule of " digital divide " between regions.%基于经典的技术扩散模型,构建了"ICTs的扩散模型",在模型中推导出ICTs扩散的时间路径函数,通过函数图形描绘发现其图形是S形曲线,然后用两个地区的时间路径函数之差表示出区域"数字鸿沟",在此基础上对区域"数字鸿沟"演变的阶段进行划分.研究结果表明,由于不同地区内外部因素、"潜在采纳者"总数、最初使用者数量存在差异,导致不同地区ICTs扩散的时间路径函数不同,从而表现出区域"数字鸿沟",其演变可划分为逐渐扩大阶段、稳定阶段、逐渐缩小阶段.本文从理论上揭示了区域"数字鸿沟"的演变规律.

  20. The favorable role of homozygosity for killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR A haplotype in patients with advanced-stage classic Hodgkin lymphoma

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    Giorgio La Nasa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interim positron emission tomography after 2 cycles of ABVD (iPET-2 is a good predictor of outcome in advanced-stage classic Hodgkin lymphoma. So far, there are no other prognostic biomarkers capable of identifying chemotherapy refractory patients with comparable accuracy. Despite the considerable amount of evidence suggesting that antitumor immune surveillance is downregulated in classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL, few data exist on the impairment of natural killer cell function and the role of their killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs. Methods We investigated KIR gene frequencies, KIR haplotypes, and KIR-ligand combinations in a cohort of 135 patients with advanced-stage classic Hodgkin lymphoma and 221 healthy controls. We furthermore evaluated the correlation of KIR genes and KIR haplotypes with the achievement of negative iPET-2. Results In the cohort of patients, the 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival were 93.6 and 79 %, respectively. Homozygosity for KIR A haplotype and the HLA-C1 KIR ligand (KIR-AA/C1C1 was significantly higher in healthy controls (15.7 vs. 4.8 %, p = 0.001. The KIR-AA genotype resulted to have a significant predictive power for achieving iPET-2 negativity (p = 0.039. Conclusions Homozygosity for KIR A haplotype offers protection against classic Hodgkin lymphoma. The association found for the KIR-AA genotype and achievement of negative iPET-2 suggests that KIR-AA could be used in clinical practice to enhance the chemosensitivity predictive power of iPET-2. Our results point to the possibility of adapting treatment strategies based on the combination of KIR biomarkers and PET scan.

  1. Safety and efficacy of a polyherbal formulation for the management of dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in patients with advanced-stage of type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarvandi, Mahdi; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Abazari, Mohammad; Shafiee-Nick, Reza; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2017-02-16

    The present clinical trial was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a polyherbal formulation (PHF) consisted of Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Nigella sativa, Plantago psyllium, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum for controlling dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in patients with advanced-stage of type-2 diabetes. An open-label phase I trial was carried out on 30 patients who had hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia before the beginning of the trial in spite of receiving statins and oral hypoglycemic drugs. Patients were given one PHF sachet two times daily for 40 consecutive days. All subjects also continuously received their statins and oral hypoglycemic agents. Clinical assessments and laboratory findings were evaluated before starting treatment and at day 40. Treatment with PHF had no significant effects on serum biochemical parameters related to liver and kidney functions, on hematological parameters related to erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets, and on body weight and blood pressure. After consumption of PHF, 2 patients complained of mild nausea, and 2 patients reported diarrhea. PHF significantly decreased fasting blood glucose and HbA1c from 162±40mg/dL to 146±37mg/dL and from 8.4±1.5% to 7.7±1.1%, respectively. Also, it significantly decreased the level of LDL from 138±25mg/dL to 108±36mg/dL, and the level of triglycerides from 203±47mg/dL to 166±58mg/dL. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated that the PHF was safe and efficacious in lowering the levels of blood glucose and serum lipids in patients with advanced-stage of type-2 diabetes.

  2. 6p22.3 amplification as a biomarker and potential therapeutic target of advanced stage bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianmin; Underwood, Willie; Yang, Nuo; Frangou, Costa; Eng, Kevin; Head, Karen; Bollag, Roni J.; Kavuri, Sravan K.; Rojiani, Amyn M.; Li, Yingwei; Yan, Li; Hill, Annette; Woloszynska-Read, Anna; Wang, Jianmin; Liu, Song; Trump, Donald L.; Candace, Johnson S.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic alterations have been identified as to contribute directly or indirectly to the generation of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (TCC-UB). In a comparative fashion much less is known about copy number alterations in TCC-UB, but it appears that amplification of chromosome 6p22 is one of the most frequent changes. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses, we evaluated chromosomal 6p22 amplification in a large cohort of bladder cancer patients with complete surgical staging and outcome data. We have also used shRNA knockdown candidate oncogenes in the cell based study. We found that amplification of chromosome 6p22.3 is significantly associated with the muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (TCC-UB) (22%) in contrast to superficial TCC-UB (9%) (p=7.2-04). The rate of 6p22.3 amplification in pN>1 patients (32%) is more than twice that in pN0 (16%) patients (p=0.05). Interestingly, we found that 6p22.3 amplification is as twice as high (p=0.0201) in African American (AA) than European American (EA) TCC-UB patients. Moreover, we showed that the expression of some candidate genes (E2F3, CDKAL1 and Sox4) in the 6p22.3 region is highly correlated with the chromosomal amplification. In particular, knockdown of E2F3 inhibits cell proliferation in a 6p22.3-dependent manner, whereas knockdown of CDKAL1 and Sox4 has no effect on cell proliferation. Using gene expression profiling, we further identified some common as well as distinctive subset targets of the E2F3 family members. In summary, our data indicate that E2F3 is a key regulator of cell proliferation in a subset of bladder cancer and the 6p22.3 amplicon is a biomarker of aggressive phenotype in this tumor type. PMID:24231253

  3. Estadiamento cirúrgico do câncer de colo de útero localmente avançado Surgical staging of locally advanced uterine cervix cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor Ricardo Cosiski Marana

    2005-12-01

    controle locorregional da doença na pelve.PURPOSE: to assess to what extent the surgical staging differs from the clinical staging among cases of advanced uterine cervix carcinoma, and also to assess the percentage of cases with positive para-aortic ganglia in this group of patients. METHODS: this is a descriptive prospective study in which 36 patients with histological diagnosis of uterine cervix carcinoma considered locally advanced were included (stages IB2, IIB, IIIA and B, and IVA. The cases were submitted to clinical staging, according to FIGO criteria. All patients were to be treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Age ranged from 40 to 73 years, with a mean of 56.2±7.9. The procedure started with pelvic lymphadenectomy followed by para-aortic lymphadenectomy, in case the pelvic lymph nodes were positive on surgical examination. Examination of the abdominal cavity and lymphadenectomy were done either through laparotomy or laparoscopy, chosen at random. In each case, the clinical staging was compared to the surgical staging, considered the gold standard. RESULTS: in the clinical staging (CS, 7 cases were classified as IB2 (tumors larger than 4 cm, 22 cases as CSII and 7 cases as CSIII. The surgical assessment changed the clinical staging as follows: the stage was decreased in six cases, and increased in 13. There was agreement only in 18 cases (50%. The para-aortic lymph nodes were affected in six cases. CONCLUSIONS: clinical staging of locally advanced uterine cervix carcinoma is incorrect in most of the cases. Such inconsistency may lead to excessive treatment in some cases, but about one fourth of the patients with positive para-aortic ganglia would not be adequately treated with the current standard treatment radiotherapy with chemosensitization, which aims at the local regional control of the pelvic disease.

  4. Decreased apoptosis in advanced-stage/high-grade hepatocellular carcinoma complicating chronic hepatitis C is mediated through the downregulation of p21 ras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahed Baddour; Ebtehal Farrag; Ahmed Zeid; Essam Bedewy; Yousry Taher

    2013-01-01

    Objective and background:Although p21 ras has been reported to be upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma complicating chronic hepatitis C type Ⅰ,p21 ras has a different role in advanced stages,as it has been found to be downregulated.The goal of this study was to investigate the status of p21 ras in early-stage/low-grade and late-stage/high-grade hepatocellular carcinoma and its possible link to apoptosis.Material and methods:Thirty-five cases each of chronic HCV hepatitis type 4 (group Ⅰ) and cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) complicating chronic HCV hepatitis (groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ) were immunohistochemically evaluated using a p21 ras polyclonal antibody.The apoptotic index was determined in histologic sections using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated d-UTP biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay.Results:Significant differences (P=0.001) were detected in p21 ras protein expression between the three groups.A near 2-fold increase in p21 ras staining was observed in the cirrhotic cases compared to the hepatitis cases,and p21 ras expression was decreased in the HCC group.p21 ras expression correlated with stage (r=0.64,P=0.001) and grade (r=-0.65,P=0.001) in the HCC group and grade in the HCV group (r=0.44,P=0.008).Both p21 ras expression and TUNEL-LI were significantly lower in large HCCs compared to small HCCs (P=0.01 each).The TUNEL values were negatively correlated with stage in the HCC group (r=-0.85,P=0.001).The TUNEL values were also negatively correlated with grade in both the HCV and HCC groups (r=0.89,P=0.001 and r=-0.53,P=0.001,respectively).The p21 ras scores were significantly correlated with the TUNEL-LI values in the HCC group (r=0.63,P=0.001) and HCV group (r=0.88,P=0.001).Conclusions:p21 ras acts as an initiator in HCC complicating type 4 chronic HCV and is downregulated with HCC progression,which most likely promotes tumor cell survival because it facilitates the downregulation of apoptosis with tumor progression.

  5. Downregulation of six microRNAs is associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in small cell carcinoma of the cervix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma of the cervix (SCCC is very rare, and due to the long time period required to recruit sufficient numbers of patients, there is a paucity of information regarding the prognostic factors associated with survival. MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been used as cancer-related biomarkers in a variety of tumor types, and the objective of this study was to determine whether microRNA expression profiles can predict clinical outcome in SCCC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty-four patients with SCCC who underwent radical hysterectomy between January 2000 and October 2009 were enrolled. Using the GeneCopoeia All-in-One™ Customized Human qPCR Primer Array, the expression profiles of 30 miRNAs associated with tumor metastasis was obtained from the formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples of all 44 patients. Seven miRNAs, has-let-7c, has-miR-10b, has-miR-100, has-miR-125b, has-miR-143, has-miR-145 and has-miR-199a-5p were significantly down-regulated in advanced stage SCCC patients (FIGO IB2-IV compared to early stage SCCC patients (FIGOIB1. Among, downregulation of six miRNAs, has-let-7c, has-miR-100, has-miR-125b, has-miR-143, has-miR-145 and has-miR-199a-5p were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and reduced survival in SCCC. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses revealed that SCCC patients with low expression of has-miR-100 (P = 0.019 and has-miR-125b (P = 0.020 projected a significant tendency towards poorer prognosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that downregulation of 7 miRNA associated with advanced stage, 6 miRNAs with metastasis and 2 with poor prognosis in SCCC. Functional analysis of these miRNAs may enhance our understanding of SCCC, as altered expression of specific miRNAs may regulate the metastatic pathway and provide novel targets for therapy.

  6. Advanced MRI increases the diagnostic accuracy of recurrent glioblastoma: Single institution thresholds and validation of MR spectroscopy and diffusion weighted MR imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kazda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate identification of glioblastoma progression remains an unmet clinical need. The aim of this prospective single-institutional study is to determine and validate thresholds for the main metabolite concentrations obtained by MR spectroscopy (MRS and the values of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC to enable distinguishing tumor recurrence from pseudoprogression. Thirty-nine patients after the standard treatment of a glioblastoma underwent advanced imaging by MRS and ADC at the time of suspected recurrence — median time to progression was 6.7 months. The highest significant sensitivity and specificity to call the glioblastoma recurrence was observed for the total choline (tCho to total N-acetylaspartate (tNAA concentration ratio with the threshold ≥1.3 (sensitivity 100.0% and specificity 94.7%. The ADCmean value higher than 1313 × 10−6 mm2/s was associated with the pseudoprogression (sensitivity 98.3%, specificity 100.0%. The combination of MRS focused on the tCho/tNAA concentration ratio and the ADCmean value represents imaging methods applicable to early non-invasive differentiation between a glioblastoma recurrence and a pseudoprogression. However, the institutional definition and validation of thresholds for differential diagnostics is needed for the elimination of setup errors before implementation of these multimodal imaging techniques into clinical practice, as well as into clinical trials.

  7. Sir Hugh Cairns and World War II British advances in head injury management, diffuse brain injury, and concussion: an Oxford tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James L; Patel, Vimal; Bailes, Julian E

    2016-11-01

    The authors trace the Oxford, England, roots of World War II (WWII)-related advances in head injury management, the biomechanics of concussion and brain injury, and postwar delineation of pathological findings in severe concussion and diffuse brain injury in man. The prominent figure in these developments was the charismatic and innovative Harvey Cushing-trained neurosurgeon Sir Hugh Cairns. Cairns, who was to closely emulate Cushing's surgical and scholarly approach, is credited with saving thousands of lives during WWII by introducing and implementing innovative programs such as helmets for motorcyclists, mobile neurosurgical units near battle zones, and the military usage of penicillin. In addition, he inspired and taught a generation of neurosurgeons, neurologists, and neurological nurses in the care of brain and spinal cord injuries at Oxford's Military Hospital for Head Injuries. During this time Cairns also trained the first full-time female neurosurgeon. Pivotal in supporting animal research demonstrating the critical role of acceleration in the causation of concussion, Cairns recruited the physicist Hylas Holbourn, whose research implicated rotary acceleration and shear strains as particularly damaging. Cairns' work in military medicine and head injury remain highly influential in efforts to mitigate and manage brain injury.

  8. Whole-body MRI with diffusion-weighted sequence for staging of patients with suspected ovarian cancer: a clinical feasibility study in comparison to CT and FDG-PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michielsen, Katrijn; Op de beeck, Katya; Dymarkowski, Steven; Keyzer, Frederik de; Vandecaveye, Vincent [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Medical Imaging Research Centre, Leuven (Belgium); Vergote, Ignace; Amant, Frederic; Leunen, Karin [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Leuven Cancer Institute, Leuven (Belgium); Moerman, Philippe [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Morphology and Molecular Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); Deroose, Christophe [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Research Centre, Leuven (Belgium); Souverijns, Geert [Jessa Ziekenhuis - Campus Virga Jessa, Department of Radiology, Hasselt (Belgium)

    2014-04-15

    To evaluate whole-body MRI with diffusion-weighted sequence (WB-DWI/MRI) for staging and assessing operability compared with CT and FDG-PET/CT in patients with suspected ovarian cancer. Thirty-two patients underwent 3-T WB-DWI/MRI, {sup 18} F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) and CT before diagnostic open laparoscopy (DOL). Imaging findings for tumour characterisation, peritoneal and retroperitoneal staging were correlated with histopathology after DOL and/or open surgery. For distant metastases, FDG-PET/CT or image-guided biopsies were the reference standards. For tumour characterisation and peritoneal staging, WB-DWI/MRI was compared with CT and FDG-PET/CT. Interobserver agreement for WB-DWI/MRI was determined. WB-DWI/MRI showed 94 % accuracy for primary tumour characterisation compared with 88 % for CT and 94 % for FDG-PET/CT. WB-DWI/MRI showed higher accuracy of 91 % for peritoneal staging compared with CT (75 %) and FDG-PET/CT (71 %). WB-DWI/MRI and FDG-PET/CT showed higher accuracy of 87 % for detecting retroperitoneal lymphadenopathies compared with CT (71 %). WB-DWI/MRI showed excellent correlation with FDG-PET/CT (κ = 1.00) for detecting distant metastases compared with CT (κ = 0.34). Interobserver agreement was moderate to almost perfect (κ = 0.58-0.91). WB-DWI/MRI shows high accuracy for characterising primary tumours, peritoneal and distant staging compared with CT and FDG-PET/CT and may be valuable for assessing operability in ovarian cancer patients. (orig.)

  9. Increased Levels of Plasma Epstein Barr Virus DNA Identify a Poor-Risk Subset of Patients With Advanced Stage Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkos, Bradley M.; Gru, Alejandro A.; Geyer, Susan M.; Bingman, Anissa K.; Hemminger, Jessica A.; Mishra, Anjali; Wong, Henry K.; Pancholi, Preeti; Freud, Aharon G.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Baiocchi, Robert A.; Porcu, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    Discovering prognostic factors that simultaneously describe tumor characteristics and improve risk stratification is a priority in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). More than a third of advanced stage CTCL patients in this cohort had detectable cell free plasma Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-DNA (pEBVd) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. An increased level of pEBVd was highly concordant with EBV (ie, Epstein–Barr virus RNAs) in tumor tissue and was associated with inferior survival. Introduction Outcomes in advanced stage (AS) cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are poor but with great variability. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a subset of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Frequency of plasma EBV-DNA (pEBVd) detection, concordance with EBV RNA (EBER) in tumor tissue, codetection of plasma cytomegalovirus DNA (pCMVd), and prognostic effect in AS CTCL are unknown. Patients and Methods Patients (n = 46; 2006–2013) with AS CTCL (≥IIB) were retrospectively studied. pEBVd and pCMVd were longitudinally measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. EBER in situ hybridization (ISH) was performed on tumor samples. Survival from time of diagnosis (ToD) and time of progression to AS was assessed. Results Plasma EBV-DNA and pCMVd were detected in 37% (17 of 46) and 17% (8 of 46) of AS CTCL patients, respectively. pCMVd detection was significantly more frequent in pEBVd-positive (pEBVd+) than pEBVd− patients (35% vs. 7%; P = .038). Tumor tissue for EBER-ISH was available in 14 of 17 pEBVd+ and 22 of 29 pEBVd− patients; 12 of 14 (85.7%) pEBVd+ patients were EBER+ versus 0 of 22 pEBVd− patients. Frequency of large cell transformation (LCT) tended to be greater in pEBVd+ patients, but was not significant (10 of 14 pEBVd+ vs. 10 of 23 pEBVd−; P = .17). No notable differences in rates of increased levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were observed (17 of 17 pEBVd+ vs. 27 of 29 pEBVd−). pEBVd detection was associated with

  10. Advanced maternal age and the risk of Down syndrome characterized by the meiotic stage of the chromosomal error: A population-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, P.W.; Khoury, M.J.; Freeman, S.B. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The identification of DNA polymorphisms makes it possible to classify trisomy 21 according to the parental origin and stage (meiosis I [MI], meiosis II [MII], or postzygotic mitotic) of the chromosomal error. Studying the effect of parental age on these subgroups could shed light on parental exposures and their timing. From 1989 through 1993, 170 infants with trisomy 21 and 267 randomly selected control infants were ascertained in a population-based, case-control study in metropolitan Atlanta. Blood samples for genetic studies were obtained from case infants and their parents. Using logistic regression, we independently examined the association between maternal and paternal age and subgroups of trisomy 21 defined by parental origin and meiotic stage. The distribution of trisomy 21 by origin was 86% maternal (75% MI and 25% MII), 9% paternal (50% MI and 50% MII), and 5% mitotic. Compared with women <25 years of age, women {>=}40 years old had an odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-27.4) for maternal MI (MMI) errors and 51.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-999.0) for maternal MII (MMII) errors. Birth-prevalence rates for women {>=}40 years old were 4.2/1,000 births for MMI errors and 1.9/1,000 births for MMII errors. These results support an association between advanced maternal age and both MMI and MMII errors. The association with MI does not pinpoint the timing of the error; however, the association with MII implies that there is at least one maternal age-related mechanism acting around the time of conception. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Impact of Pretreatment Combined {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Staging on Radiation Therapy Treatment Decisions in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Sweet Ping, E-mail: sweet.ng@petermac.org [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); David, Steven [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Alamgeer, Muhammad; Ganju, Vinod [Monash Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To assess the diagnostic performance of pretreatment {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) and its impact on radiation therapy treatment decisions in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Methods and Materials: Patients with LABC with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status <2 and no contraindication to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant radiation therapy were enrolled on a prospective trial. All patients had pretreatment conventional imaging (CI) performed, including bilateral breast mammography and ultrasound, bone scan, and CT chest, abdomen, and pelvis scans performed. Informed consent was obtained before enrolment. Pretreatment whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans were performed on all patients, and results were compared with CI findings. Results: A total of 154 patients with LABC with no clinical or radiologic evidence of distant metastases on CI were enrolled. Median age was 49 years (range, 26-70 years). Imaging with PET/CT detected distant metastatic disease and/or locoregional disease not visualized on CI in 32 patients (20.8%). Distant metastatic disease was detected in 17 patients (11.0%): 6 had bony metastases, 5 had intrathoracic metastases (pulmonary/mediastinal), 2 had distant nodal metastases, 2 had liver metastases, 1 had pulmonary and bony metastases, and 1 had mediastinal and distant nodal metastases. Of the remaining 139 patients, nodal disease outside conventional radiation therapy fields was detected on PET/CT in 15 patients (10.8%), with involvement of ipsilateral internal mammary nodes in 13 and ipsilateral level 5 cervical nodes in 2. Conclusions: Imaging with PET/CT provides superior diagnostic and staging information in patients with LABC compared with CI, which has significant therapeutic implications with respect to radiation therapy management. Imaging with PET/CT should be considered in all patients undergoing primary

  12. Clinical Impact of Education Provision on Determining Advance Care Planning Decisions among End Stage Renal Disease Patients Receiving Regular Hemodialysis in University Malaya Medical Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing (Wong), Albert; Chin, Loh Ee; Ping, Tan Li; Peng, Ng Kok; Kun, Lim Soo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Advance care planning (ACP) is a process of shared decision-making about future health-care plans between patients, health care providers, and family members, should patients becomes incapable of participating in medical treatment decisions. ACP discussions enhance patient's autonomy, focus on patient's values and treatment preferences, and promote patient-centered care. ACP is integrated as part of clinical practice in Singapore and the United States. Aim: To assess the clinical impact of education provision on determining ACP decisions among end-stage renal disease patients on regular hemodialysis at University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). To study the knowledge and attitude of patients toward ACP and end-of-life issues. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six patients were recruited from UMMC. About 43 questions pretest survey adapted from Lyon's ACP survey and Moss's cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) attitude survey was given to patients to answer. An educational brochure is then introduced to these patients, and a posttest survey carried out after that. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 22.0. Results: Opinion on ACP, including CPR decisions, showed an upward trend on the importance percentage after the educational brochure exposure, but this was statistically not significant. Seventy-five percent of participants had never heard of ACP before, and only 3.6% had actually prepared a written advanced directive. Conclusion: The ACP educational brochure clinically impacts patients’ preferences and decisions toward end-of-life care; however, this is statistically not significant. Majority of patients have poor knowledge on ACP. This study lays the foundation for execution of future larger scale clinical trials, and ultimately, the incorporation of ACP into clinical practice in Malaysia.

  13. Our experiences with erlotinib in second and third line treatment patients with advanced stage IIIB/ IV non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehić, Bakir; Stanetić, Mirko; Tinjić, Ljuljeta; Smoljanović, Vlatka

    2008-11-01

    HeadHER1/EGFR is known to play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis and is overexpressed in up to 80% of NSCLCs. The study of an Expanded Access Clinical Program of Erlotinib in NSCLC is a phase IV open-label, non-randomized, multicenter trial in patients with advanced (inoperable stage IIIb/IV) NSCLC who were eligible for treatment with erlotinib but had no access to trial participation. Patients for the study from Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) were selected from two Clinical centres (Sarajevo and Banja Luka). The aim of study was to evaluated efficacy and tolerability of erlotinib monotherapy in this setting. All patients who received at least one dose of erlotinib and data were entered in the database as of the CRF cut-off date of 14th May 2008 were included in analysis of data (n = 19). This population is defined as the Intent to Treat (ITT) population and includes all patients who had at least one dose of erlotinib regardless of whether major protocol violations were incurred. The findings are consistent with the results of the randomized, placebo-controlled BR.21 study. Indicating that erlotinib is an effective option for patients with advanced NSCLC who are unsuitable for, or who have previously failed standard chemotherapy. In B&H group of patients DCR was almost 84%, and PFS was approximately 24,7 weeks (compared with 44% and 9,7 weeks for erlotinib reported in phase III). Almost three quarter of the patients received erlotinib as their second line of therapy. Overall, erlotinib was well tolerated; there were no patients who withdrew due to a treatment-related AE (mainly rash) and there were few dose reductions. 24% of patients experienced an SAE (most commonly gastrointestinal (GI) disorders).

  14. Radiochemotherapy including cisplatin alone versus cisplatin + 5-fluorouracil for locally advanced unresectable stage IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribius, Silke; Kilic, Yasemin [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Kronemann, Stefanie [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); Schroeder, Ursula [Dept. of Head and Neck Surgery, Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); Hakim, Samer [Dept. of Oro-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); Schild, Steven E. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Rades, Dirk [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Background and purpose: the optimal radiochemotherapy regimen for advanced head-and-neck cancer is still debated. This nonrandomized study compares two cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy regimens in 128 patients with locally advanced unresectable stage IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Patients and methods: concurrent chemotherapy consisted of either two courses cisplatin (20 mg/m{sup 2}/d1-5 + 29-33; n = 54) or two courses cisplatin (20 mg/m{sup 2}/d1-5 + 29-33) + 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; 600 mg/m{sup 2}/d1-5 + 29-33; n = 74). Results: at least one grade 3 toxicity occurred in 25 of 54 patients (46%) receiving cisplatin alone and in 52 of 74 patients (70%) receiving cisplatin + 5-FU. The latter regimen was particularly associated with increased rates of mucositis (p = 0.027) and acute skin toxicity (p = 0.001). Seven of 54 (13%) and 20 of 74 patients (27%) received only one chemotherapy course due to treatment-related acute toxicity. Late toxicity in terms of xerostomia, neck fibrosis, skin toxicity, and lymphedema was not significantly different. The 2-year locoregional control rates were 67% after cisplatin alone and 52% after cisplatin + 5-FU (p = 0.35). The metastases-free survival rates were 79% and 69%, respectively (p = 0.65), and the overall survival rates 70% and 51%, respectively (p = 0.10). On multivariate analysis, outcome was significantly associated with performance status, T-category, N-category, hemoglobin level prior to radiotherapy, and radiotherapy break > 1 week. Conclusion: two courses of fractionated cisplatin (20 mg/m{sup 2}/day) alone appear preferable, as this regimen resulted in similar outcome and late toxicity as two courses of cisplatin + 5-FU, but in significantly less acute toxicity. (orig.)

  15. Mixed, Nonsplit, Extended Stability, Stiff Integration of Reaction Diffusion Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Hasnaa H.

    2016-07-26

    A tailored integration scheme is developed to treat stiff reaction-diffusion prob- lems. The construction adapts a stiff solver, namely VODE, to treat reaction im- plicitly together with explicit treatment of diffusion. The second-order Runge-Kutta- Chebyshev (RKC) scheme is adjusted to integrate diffusion. Spatial operator is de- scretised by second-order finite differences on a uniform grid. The overall solution is advanced over S fractional stiff integrations, where S corresponds to the number of RKC stages. The behavior of the scheme is analyzed by applying it to three simple problems. The results show that it achieves second-order accuracy, thus, preserving the formal accuracy of the original RKC. The presented development sets the stage for future extensions, particularly, to multidimensional reacting flows with detailed chemistry.

  16. Transient terahertz photoconductivity measurements of minority-carrier lifetime in tin sulfide thin films: Advanced metrology for an early stage photovoltaic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, R.; Sher, Meng-Ju; Ofori-Okai, Benjamin K.; Steinmann, V.; Yang, Chuanxi; Hartman, Katy; Nelson, Keith A.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.; Gordon, Roy G.; Buonassisi, T.

    2016-01-01

    Materials research with a focus on enhancing the minority-carrier lifetime of the light-absorbing semiconductor is key to advancing solar energy technology for both early stage and mature material platforms alike. Tin sulfide (SnS) is an absorber material with several clear advantages for manufacturing and deployment, but the record power conversion efficiency remains below 5%. We report measurements of bulk and interface minority-carrier recombination rates in SnS thin films using optical-pump, terahertz-probe transient photoconductivity (TPC) measurements. Post-growth thermal annealing in H2S gas increases the minority-carrier lifetime, and oxidation of the surface reduces the surface recombination velocity. However, the minority-carrier lifetime remains below 100 ps for all tested combinations of growth technique and post-growth processing. Significant improvement in SnS solar cell performance will hinge on finding and mitigating as-yet-unknown recombination-active defects. We describe in detail our methodology for TPC experiments, and we share our data analysis routines in the form freely available software.

  17. Finding advanced third-stage larvae of Gnathostoma turgidum Stossich, 1902 in Mexico from natural and experimental host and contributions to the life cycle description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosqueda Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Sánchez Miranda, Elizabeth; Carranza Calderón, Laura; Ortiz Nájera, Héctor Ernesto

    2009-04-01

    In order to clarify the role of Gnathostoma turgidum as an etiological agent involved in human gnathostomiasis in Mexico, establish the taxonomic identity of the advanced third-stage larvae (AdvL(3)), and contribute to the knowledge of its life cycle, experimental host infections, examination of potential natural hosts, and morphological comparisons were carried out. Examination of ten species of potential hosts at San Pedro las Playas and Tres Palos Lagoon in Guerrero state, Mexico revealed that two (Kinosternon integrum and Rana zweifeli) were infected by 15 AdvL(3) of G. turgidum. A specific identity was obtained comparing these larvae with those recovered from hosts experimentally infected. The AdvL(3) measured 1.6 mm in length, with two cervical papillae (both in 12th row) and an excretory pore on the 19th row. The average of cephalic hooklets, from first to fourth row, was 30.8, 34.0, 36.7, and 39.6, respectively. This is the first record of AdvL(3) of G. turgidum in America, and it represents a significant contribution for the understanding of the life cycle of this species.

  18. The unique dorsal brood pouch of Thermosbaenacea (Crustacea, Malacostraca) and description of an advanced developmental stage of Tulumella unidens from the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico), with a discussion of mouth part homologies to other Malacostraca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen; Boesgaard, Tom; Iliffe, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    margin of carapace of the female are rows of large spines preventing the developing stages from falling out. The external morphology of the advanced developmental stages is described in much detail, providing information on e.g., carapace formation and early limb morphology. Among the hitherto unknown...... structures in the advanced developmental stages provided by this study are the presence of an embryonic dorsal organ and rudimentary ‘naupliar processes’ of the second antennae. Since most hypotheses on crustacean (and malacostracan and peracaridan) relationship rest on external limb morphology, we use early...... limb bud morphology of Tulumella to better establish thermosbaenacean limb homologies to those of other crustaceans, which is a necessary basis for future morphology based phylogenetic considerations....

  19. Study of variation of thermal diffusivity of advanced composite materials of E-glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP) in temperature range 5–300 K

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kalobaran Das; S M Kamaruzzaman; Tapas Ranjan Middya; Siddhartha Datta

    2009-02-01

    Modified Angstrom method is applied to study the variation of thermal diffusivity of plain woven fabric composite in closed cycle cryo-refrigerator (CCR) based set up in the temperature range 5–300 K. The set up used is plug in type and its small size offers portability. The set up works without use of any liquid cryogen. The temperature versus thermal diffusivity curve shows three distinct regions viz. 5–30 K, 30–120 K and 120–300 K. In the first region thermal diffusivity varies exponentially and rapidly. In the second region thermal diffusivity changes exponentially but relatively slowly than that in the first region. In the last region the change in thermal diffusivity with temperature is exponential in nature but very slow.

  20. The Impact of Local and Regional Disease Extent on Overall Survival in Patients With Advanced Stage IIIB/IV Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginson, Daniel S., E-mail: daniel.higginson@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Chen, Ronald C.; Tracton, Gregg; Morris, David E.; Halle, Jan; Rosenman, Julian G.; Stefanescu, Mihaela; Pham, Erica [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Socinski, Mark A. [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Patients with advanced stage IIIB or stage IV non-small cell lung carcinoma are typically treated with initial platinum-based chemotherapy. A variety of factors (eg, performance status, gender, age, histology, weight loss, and smoking history) are generally accepted as predictors of overall survival. Because uncontrolled pulmonary disease constitutes a major cause of death in these patients, we hypothesized that clinical and radiographic factors related to intrathoracic disease at diagnosis may be prognostically significant in addition to conventional factors. The results have implications regarding the selection of patients for whom palliative thoracic radiation therapy may be of most benefit. Methods and Materials: We conducted a pooled analysis of 189 patients enrolled at a single institution into 9 prospective phase II and III clinical trials involving first-line, platinum-based chemotherapy. Baseline clinical and radiographic characteristics before trial enrollment were analyzed as possible predictors for subsequent overall survival. To assess the relationship between anatomic location and volume of disease within the thorax and its effect on survival, the pre-enrollment computed tomography images were also analyzed by contouring central and peripheral intrapulmonary disease. Results: On univariate survival analysis, multiple pulmonary-related factors were significantly associated with worse overall survival, including pulmonary symptoms at presentation (P=.0046), total volume of intrathoracic disease (P=.0006), and evidence of obstruction of major bronchi or vessels on prechemotherapy computed tomography (P<.0001). When partitioned into central and peripheral volumes, central (P<.0001) but not peripheral (P=.74) disease was associated with worse survival. On multivariate analysis with known factors, pulmonary symptoms (hazard ratio, 1.46; P=.042), central disease volume (hazard ratio, 1.47; P=.042), and bronchial/vascular compression (hazard ratio, 1

  1. CoMPASs: IOn programme (Care Of Memory Problems in Advanced Stages of dementia: Improving Our Knowledge): protocol for a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Louise; Harrington, Jane; Scott, Sharon; Davis, Sarah; Lord, Kathryn; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Round, Jeff; Candy, Bridget; Sampson, Elizabeth L

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 700 000 people in the UK have dementia, rising to 1.2 million by 2050; one-third of people aged over 65 will die with dementia. Good end-of-life care is often neglected, and detailed UK-based research on symptom burden and needs is lacking. Our project examines these issues from multiple perspectives using a rigorous and innovative design, collecting data which will inform the development of pragmatic interventions to improve care. Methods and analysis To define in detail symptom burden, service provision and factors affecting care pathways we shall use mixed methods: prospective cohort studies of people with advanced dementia and their carers; workshops and interactive interviews with health professionals and carers, and a workshop with people with early stage dementia. Interim analyses of cohort data will inform new scenarios for workshops and interviews. Final analysis will include cohort demographics, the symptom burden and health service use over the follow-up period. We shall explore the level and nature of unmet needs, describing how comfort and quality of life change over time and differences between those living in care homes and those remaining in their own homes. Data from workshops and interviews will be analysed for thematic content assisted by textual grouping software. Findings will inform the development of a complex intervention in the next phase of the research programme. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was granted by National Health Service ethical committees for studies involving people with dementia and carers (REC refs. 12/EE/0003; 12/LO/0346), and by university ethics committee for work with healthcare professionals (REC ref. 3578/001). We shall present our findings at conferences, and in peer-reviewed journals, prepare detailed reports for organisations involved with end-of-life care and dementia, publicising results on the Marie Curie website. A summary of the research will be provided to participants

  2. Regional albedo of Arctic first-year drift ice in advanced stages of melt from the combination of in situ measurements and aerial imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Divine

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case study of the regional (≈ 150 km broadband albedo of first year Arctic sea ice in advanced stages of melt, estimated from a combination of in situ albedo measurements and aerial imagery. The data were collected during the eight day ICE12 drift experiment carried out by the Norwegian Polar Institute in the Arctic north of Svalbard at 82.3° N from 26 July to 3 August 2012. The study uses in situ albedo measurements representative of the four main surface types: bare ice, dark melt ponds, bright melt ponds and open water. Images acquired by a helicopter borne camera system during ice survey flights covered about 28 km2. A subset of > 8000 images from the area of homogeneous melt with open water fraction of ≈ 0.11 and melt pond coverage of ≈ 0.25 used in the upscaling yielded a regional albedo estimate of 0.40 (0.38; 0.42. The 95% confidence interval on the estimate was derived using the moving block bootstrap approach applied to sequences of classified sea ice images and albedo of the four surface types treated as random variables. Uncertainty in the mean estimates of surface type albedo from in situ measurements contributed some 95% of the variance of the estimated regional albedo, with the remaining variance resulting from the spatial inhomogeneity of sea ice cover. The results of the study are of relevance for the modeling of sea ice processes in climate simulations. It particularly concerns the period of summer melt, when the optical properties of sea ice undergo substantial changes, which existing sea ice models have significant diffuculty accurately reproducing.

  3. Diffusion MRI: Pitfalls, literature review and future directions of research in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delouche, Aurélie; Attyé, Arnaud; Heck, Olivier; Grand, Sylvie; Kastler, Adrian; Lamalle, Laurent; Renard, Felix; Krainik, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a leading cause of disability in adults, many of whom report a distressing combination of physical, emotional and cognitive symptoms, collectively known as post-concussion syndrome, that persist after the injury. Significant developments in magnetic resonance diffusion imaging, involving voxel-based quantitative analysis through the measurement of fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity, have enhanced our knowledge on the different stages of mTBI pathophysiology. Other diffusion imaging-derived techniques, including diffusion kurtosis imaging with multi-shell diffusion and high-order tractography models, have recently demonstrated their usefulness in mTBI. Our review starts by briefly outlining the physical basis of diffusion tensor imaging including the pitfalls for use in brain trauma, before discussing findings from diagnostic trials testing its usefulness in assessing brain structural changes in patients with mTBI. Use of different post-processing techniques for the diffusion imaging data, identified the corpus callosum as the most frequently injured structure in mTBI, particularly at sub-acute and chronic stages, and a crucial location for evaluating functional outcome. However, structural changes appear too subtle for identification using traditional diffusion biomarkers, thus disallowing expansion of these techniques into clinical practice. In this regard, more advanced diffusion techniques are promising in the assessment of this complex disease.

  4. Clinical Application Value of MRI Diffusion-weighted Image in the Diagnosis of Stage T1 Breast Cancer%MRI扩散加权成像对乳腺癌T1期诊断的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱辉严; 谌力群; 许平; 谢磊

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨乳腺癌 T1期应用 MRI 扩散加权成像的临床诊断价值研究。方法临床选择2012年1月~2015年12月本院收治的乳腺癌 T1期患者25例为研究对象,同期入选乳腺良性肿瘤25例为研究对照,进行 MRI 扩散加权成像检查法,后进行 MRI 动态增强扫描,比较 MRI 动态增强扫描与 MRI 扩散加权像检查法的诊断准确性;比较乳腺良性肿瘤与乳腺癌 T1期患者的 MRI 加权扩散像 ADC 值;比较乳腺良性肿瘤与乳腺癌 T1期患者的 MRI 动态增强减影扫描的环形强化、毛刺征、形态不规则等特征发生情况。结果MRI 扩散加权成像检查法的诊断准确率为80.0%(20例),MRI 动态增强减影扫描的诊断准确率为52.0%(13例),两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);乳腺癌 T1期患者的 MRI 加权扩散像 ADC 值显著低于乳腺癌良性肿瘤,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);乳腺癌 T1期患者的MRI 动态增强减影扫描检测出环形强化、毛刺征、形态不规则等特征的发生情况显著高于乳腺良性肿瘤,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论乳腺癌 T1期患者进行 MRI 扩散加权成像检查可提高检查的准确性,临床效果确切,可与MRI 动态增强扫描联合应用,有助于早期诊断乳腺癌,值得临床推广。%Objective To study the clinical diagnosis value of MRI diffusion-weighted image in the diagnosis of Stage T1 breast cancer.Methods 25 patients with Stage T1 breast cancer treated from July 2014 to May 2015 in our hospital were selected as observation group.At the same time period,50 cases of benign tumor were selected as control group.The accuracy based on MRI diffusion-weighted image and dynamic MRI enhancement imaging was compared.ADC value of MRI diffusion-weighted image for two groups was compared,the incidence rate of ring enhancement,spiculation,irregular form based on dynamic MRI enhancement imaging for two groups was compared.Results The

  5. 疟原虫红前期适应性免疫相关机制的研究进展%Advances in research on the mechanism of adaptive immunity to Plasmodium in the preerythrocytic stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭小红

    2011-01-01

    红前期是疟原虫进入宿主的第一个时期,阻断红前期疟原虫的发育,就能够从源头上阻断疟疾的发生和传播,有效的红前期疟疾疫苗对于控制疟疾的发病及阻断疟疾的传播有着重要意义.对红前期免疫机制的深入研究对于合理的红前期亚单位疫苗的设计具有重要的指导意义.本文仅就目前疟原虫红前期适应性免疫相关机制的研究做一综述.%The preerythrocytic stage is the first stage of Plasmodium invasion. Interrupting parasite proliferation during the preerythrocytic stage can block the development and transmission of malaria. An effective vaccine specific to the preerythrocytic stage is highly significant in terms of controlling the development and prevalence of malaria. A thorough investigation of the mechanisms of protection from the preerythrocytic stage is crucial to designing a subunit vaccine specific to the preerythrocytic stage. Advances in research on the mechanisms of adaptive immunity to Plasmodium in the preerythrocytic stage are reviewed in this paper.

  6. Advances in Lymph Node Metastasis and the Modes of Lymph Node 
Dissection in Early Stage Non-small Cell Lung Caner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning DING

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer ranks the first position in morbidity and mortality among all malignances in China. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC accounts for nearly 80% of all lung malignancies. Surgical resection is still the current major treatment method for early stage NSCLC. Lymph node stages together with the extent of lymph node dissection directly affect the prognosis. Anatomical lobectomy with systematic mediastinal lymph node dissection have been the standard surgical treatment for NSCLC. However, it is controversial in the extent of lymph node dissection for early stage NSCLC. Accurate nodes stage and the extent of mediatinal nodes dissection affect the peri-operative complications and the prognosis of NSCLC greatly. In the past decade, more and more surgeons demostrated that lobe-specific or selective mediastinal lymph node dissection is suitable for clinical stage I NSCLC, especially the stage Ia lesions, and may become the standard lymph node dissection mode in the future.

  7. [Advances in Lymph Node Metastasis and the Modes of Lymph Node 
Dissection in Early Stage Non-small Cell Lung Caner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ningning; Mao, Yousheng

    2016-06-20

    Lung cancer ranks the first position in morbidity and mortality among all malignances in China. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for nearly 80% of all lung malignancies. Surgical resection is still the current major treatment method for early stage NSCLC. Lymph node stages together with the extent of lymph node dissection directly affect the prognosis. Anatomical lobectomy with systematic mediastinal lymph node dissection have been the standard surgical treatment for NSCLC. However, it is controversial in the extent of lymph node dissection for early stage NSCLC. Accurate nodes stage and the extent of mediatinal nodes dissection affect the peri-operative complications and the prognosis of NSCLC greatly. In the past decade, more and more surgeons demostrated that lobe-specific or selective mediastinal lymph node dissection is suitable for clinical stage I NSCLC, especially the stage Ia lesions, and may become the standard lymph node dissection mode in the future.

  8. The use of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for patients with end-stage renal disease and pre-existing advanced liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupma Kaul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available End-stage renal disease (ESRD associated with pre-existing advanced liver disease (ALD has increased the risk of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to assess the outcome following the use of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD in ESRD patients with ALD. A retrospective case-controlled study was performed on 16 patients with ALD and ESRD (ESRD-ALD and 27 control patients with ESRD but without liver disease (ESRD; both groups were started on CAPD during the same period. No major complications were observed in either group in the immediate post-surgical period and, after an average break in period of 11.3 days, the cases and controls were started on regular CAPD. The average duration of follow-up was 8 ± 2.3 months in the ESRD-ALD group compared with 20 ± 1.3 months in the ESRD group. The overall peritonitis rates were 1.26/treatment year in the ESRD-ALD group and 0.63 in the ESRD group. The 6- and 12-month survivals among ESRD-ALD patients were 63.75% and 38.75%, respectively. Patients with ESRD-ALD had significantly lower baseline serum protein and albumin levels at the time of initiation of CAPD. On follow-up, the hemoglobin levels improved in both the groups along with an improvement in the serum protein and albumin levels. Fourteen of the 16 ESRD-ALD patients died at the end of the 3-year follow-up period; deaths were due to terminal liver failure in nine patients and peritonitis in five patients. Patients who died in the ESRD-ALD group had lower serum albumin, lower body mass index (BMI (median BMI 18.2 vs. 25.6 and higher grades of liver disease [child Pugh grade B (8, grade C (6 vs. grade B (2] at initiation of CAPD. Our study suggests that CAPD is a safe modality in patients with ESRD-ALD and that it does not carry any major risk for bleeding tendencies, technique failure or worsening of nutritional status. Low serum albumin, lower BMI and higher grade of liver disease at initiation are associated with higher

  9. Diffusion-weighted MRI and fibroscan vs. histopathology for assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic HCV patients: (Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hosni Kamel Abdelmaksoud

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Diffusion MRI can distinguish non-fibrotic liver (F0 from advanced fibrosis (F3 and F4 but cannot be used to distinguish between the intermediate stages of fibrosis-fibroscan can differentiate between (F0, F1, F2 and (F3, F4.

  10. Endometrial cancer: preoperative staging using three-dimensional T2-weighted turbo spin-echo and diffusion-weighted MR imaging at 3.0 T: a prospective comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, Masatoshi; Kim, Tonsok; Onishi, Hiromitsu; Nakamoto, Atsushi; Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Imaoka, Izumi; Kagawa, Yuki; Murakami, Takamichi [Kinki University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan); Ueguchi, Takashi; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki [Osaka University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan); Enomoto, Takayuki [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka (Japan); Niigata University School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Niigata (Japan); Kimura, Tadashi [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    To prospectively assess the efficacy of 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using the three-dimensional turbo spin-echo T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted technique (3D-TSE/DW) compared with that of conventional imaging using the two-dimensional turbo spin-echo T2-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced technique (2D-TSE/DCE) for the preoperative staging of endometrial cancer, with pathological analysis as the reference standard. Seventy-one women with endometrial cancer underwent MR imaging using 3D-TSE/DW (b = 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}) and 2D-TSE/DCE. Two radiologists independently assessed the two imaging sets. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for staging were analysed with the McNemar test; the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) were compared with a univariate z-score test. The results for assessing deep myometrial invasion, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and Az, respectively, were as follows: 3D-TSE/DW - observer 1, 87 %, 95 %, 85 % and 0.96; observer 2, 92 %, 84 %, 94 % and 0.95; 2D-TSE/DCE - observer 1, 80 %, 79 %, 81 % and 0.89; observer 2, 86 %, 84 %, 87 % and 0.86. Most of the values were higher with 3D-TSE/DW without significant differences (P > 0.12). For assessing cervical stromal invasion, there were no significant differences in those values for both observers (P > 0.6). Accuracy of 3D-TSE/DW was at least equivalent to that of the conventional technique for the preoperative assessment of endometrial cancer. (orig.)

  11. Advances in MRI in diagnosis of early-stage Alzheimer’sdisease%MRI早期诊断阿尔茨海默病的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵江民; 詹青

    2016-01-01

    With the aging of global population, the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) shows a significant upward trend. So far, there is still a lack of effective treatment for AD, and diagnosis, prevention and treatment in early stage of AD is the only effective way to delay the progression of AD. Currently, the diagnosis of AD still mainly relies on the exclusive method and clinical neuropsychological scales with poor repeatability and being absent of objective evidence, lacking sensitive and accurate methods for early diagnosis of AD. With the development of medical imaging technology, "medical imaging+" transdisciplinary research has become the new norm, the interdisciplinary neuroimaging techniques can clearly show the finer structures and lesions in the brain, which provides a basis for the early diagnosis of AD. Due to the loss of neurons in brain tissues of patients with AD, cerebral atrophy is developed, so the AD can be observed by measuring the degree of cerebral atrophy. This paper summarizes the research progress in measurement of hippocampal volume, entorhinal cortex thickness and the change of amygdale through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the application of double inversion recovery (DIR) sequence in diagnosis of AD, and the role of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the assessment of injury in white matter related to hippocampus.%迄今为止,尚缺乏有效的 AD 治疗方法,早期诊断及防治是延缓 AD 进展的唯一有效方法。随着全球人口老龄化,阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer's disease,AD)发病率呈明显上升趋势。目前,AD 的诊断仍主要依靠排除法和临床神经心理量表法,但其可重复性差且缺乏客观依据;因此,尚缺乏敏感且准确的 AD 早期诊断方法。随着影像学技术的发展,“医学影像学+”的学科交叉已成为新常态,由此产生的神经影像学技术可以清晰地显示脑内更细小的结构和病灶,这为 AD 的早期影像学诊

  12. Diffusion-weighted imaging of pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riccardo; De; Robertis; Paolo; Tinazzi; Martini; Emanuele; Demozzi; Flavia; Dal; Corso; Claudio; Bassi; Paolo; Pederzoli; Mirko; D’Onofrio

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) is a reliable and accurate imaging method for the evaluation of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma(PDAC). Diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI) is a relatively recent technological improvement that expanded MRI capabilities, having brought functional aspects into conventional morphologic MRI evaluation. DWI can depict the random diffusion of water molecules within tissues(the so-called Brownian motions). Modifications of water diffusion induced by different factors acting on the extracellular and intracellular spaces, as increased cell density, edema, fibrosis, or altered functionality of cell membranes, can be detected using this MR sequence. The intravoxel incoherent motion(IVIM) model is an advanced DWI technique that consent a separate quantitative evaluation of all the microscopic random motions that contribute to DWI, which are essentially represented by molecular diffusion and blood microcirculation(perfusion). Technological improvements have made possible the routine use of DWI during abdominal MRI study. Several authors have reported that the addition of DWI sequence can be of value for the evaluation of patients with PDAC, especially improving the staging; nevertheless, it is still unclear whether and how DWI could be helpful for identification, characterization, prognostic stratification and follow-up during treatment. The aim of this paper is to review up-to-date literature data regarding the applications of DWI and IVIM to PDACs.

  13. The weak-ties in advanced business services as a major force of innovation and diffusion; Las Eak-Ties en los servicios avanzados a empresas como factor relevante de la innovacion y su difusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almenar i Llongo, V.; Hernandez Sancho, F.; Solar i Marco, V.

    2012-07-01

    This paper tries to expose the role of weak-ties of advanced business services in both mechanisms which generate innovation as well as allow technological diffusion and transfer of innovations (spillovers). Assuming that the latest information generally flows to agents through weak ties, the Weak-Ties Hypothesis (WTH) is an approach that helps to explain the importance of the relations with the environment in the process of innovation and generation of new knowledge and its implementation and dissemination, evaluating the synergy's resulting from cooperation between agents. (Author) 21 refs.

  14. Diffusion barrier property of MnSi{sub x}O{sub y} layer formed by chemical vapor deposition for Cu advanced interconnect application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Mai Phuong, E-mail: nmphuong46@gmail.com; Sutou, Yuji; Koike, Junichi, E-mail: koikej@material.tohoku.ac.jp

    2015-04-01

    An amorphous manganese oxide layers formed by chemical vapor deposition have been studied as a copper diffusion barrier. The thermal stability of the barrier layer was assessed by annealing Cu/MnSi{sub x}O{sub y}/SiO{sub 2}/Si samples at 400 °C for various times up to 10 h. Transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), capacitance-voltage and current–voltage measurements were performed. Failure of the barrier property is marked by observing the copper peak appearing in EDX and SIMS spectra data from the SiO{sub 2} region. Amorphous MnSi{sub x}O{sub y} barrier with a thickness of 1.2 nm has failed in preventing Cu diffusion into SiO{sub 2} substrate after anneal at 400°C in vacuum for 1h, as proven by the presence of Cu in the dielectric (SiO{sub 2}) layer. However, the amorphous MnSi{sub x}O{sub y} with the thickness of 2.0 nm barrier was thermally stable and could prevent Cu from inter-diffusion to the SiO{sub 2} substrate after annealing at 400 °C even up to 10 h. - Highlights: • Amorphous manganese silicate layer has been studied as a copper diffusion barrier. • The 1.2 nm-thick Mn oxide layer is too thin to become a diffusion barrier. • Good thermal stability of 2.0 nm-thick manganese silicate layer.

  15. International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens. Working group 3: extraprostatic extension, lymphovascular invasion and locally advanced disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magi-Galluzzi, C.; Evans, A.J.; Delahunt, B.; Epstein, J.I.; Griffiths, D.F.; Kwast, T.H. van der; Montironi, R.; Wheeler, T.M.; Srigley, J.R.; Egevad, L.L.; Humphrey, P.A.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The International Society of Urological Pathology Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens in Boston made recommendations regarding the standardization of pathology reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens. Issues relating to extraprostatic extension (pT3a

  16. Results of an Advanced Fan Stage Operating Over a Wide Range of Speed and Bypass Ratio. Part 2; Comparison of CFD and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestina, Mark L.; Suder, Kenneth L.; Kulkarni, Sameer

    2010-01-01

    NASA and GE teamed to design and build a 57 percent engine scaled fan stage for a Mach 4 variable cycle turbofan/ramjet engine for access to space with multipoint operations. This fan stage was tested in NASA's transonic compressor facility. The objectives of this test were to assess the aerodynamic and aero mechanic performance and operability characteristics of the fan stage over the entire range of engine operation including: 1) sea level static take-off; 2) transition over large swings in fan bypass ratio; 3) transition from turbofan to ramjet; and 4) fan wind-milling operation at high Mach flight conditions. This paper will focus on an assessment of APNASA, a multistage turbomachinery analysis code developed by NASA, to predict the fan stage performance and operability over a wide range of speeds (37 to 100 percent) and bypass ratios.

  17. 阶段变化模型下大学生高级阶段锻炼行为调查与归因%Investigation and Attribution Analysis on the Physical Exercise Behavior of College Students in the Advanced Stage Based on the Stages of Change Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐梓轩

    2015-01-01

    Based on the stages of change model, the physical exercise behavior of the college students in the advanced stage is investigated. The research results show that an apparent linear normal distribution on the physical exercise behavior of college students could be observed. The proportion of students in the advanced stage reached up to 25%. In the advanced stage, significant differences existed in the physical exercise behavior of the college students with different gender and discipline. On the basis of the correlation effect, the factors of action stage effect as follows: persistence, interest, gender, etc. Meanwhile, the factors of maintain stage effect as follows: self efficacy, persistence and interest. Thus, the influence of physical exercise behavior in the advanced stage could be mainly attributed to the internal factors.%文章运用“阶段变化模型”理论,对现处于锻炼行为高级阶段的大学生展开调查与研究。研究结果表明,大学生课余体育锻炼行为阶段符合正态分布的特点,其中达到锻炼行为高级阶段的学生占25%。高级阶段中,不同性别与学科学生的锻炼行为分布均存在显著性差异。行动阶段影响因素依据效应相关性大小依次为:坚持性、锻炼兴趣和性别等。维持阶段因素依据效应相关性大小依次为:自我效能、坚持性以及锻炼兴趣。锻炼行为高级阶段的影响因素主要归为内部因素。

  18. Preoperative lymph node staging in patients with primary prostate cancer: comparison and correlation of quantitative imaging parameters in diffusion-weighted imaging and 11C-choline PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vag, Tibor; Beer, Ambros J.; Souvatzoglou, Michael; Schwaiger, Markus [Technical University Munich, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Heck, Matthias M. [Technical University Munich, Clinic of Urology, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Weirich, Gregor [Technical University Munich, Institute of Pathology, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Holzapfel, Konstantin; Eiber, Matthias; Rummeny, Ernst J. [Technical University Munich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Krause, Bernd Joachim [University Hospital Rostock, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    To compare the diagnostic performance of DWI and 11C-choline PET/CT in the assessment of preoperative lymph node status in patients with primary prostate cancer. Thirty-three patients underwent DWI and 11C-choline PET/CT prior to prostatectomy and extended pelvic lymph node dissection. Mean standardised uptake value (SUV{sub mean}) and mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of 76 identified lymph nodes (LN) were measured and correlated with histopathology. ADC values and SUVs were compared using linear regression analysis. A significant difference between benign and malignant LN was observed for ADC values (1.17 vs. 0.96 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; P < 0.001) and SUV{sub mean} (1.61 vs. 3.20; P < 0.001). ROC analysis revealed an optimal ADC threshold of 1.01 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s for differentiating benign from malignant LN with corresponding sensitivity/specificity of 69.70 %/78.57 % and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.785. The optimal threshold for SUV{sub mean} was 2.5 with corresponding sensitivity/specificity of 69.72 %/90.48 % and with an AUC of 0.832. ADC values and SUV{sub mean} showed a moderate significant inverse correlation (r = -0.63). Both modalities reveal similar moderate diagnostic performance for preoperative lymph node staging of prostate cancer, not justifying their application in routine clinical practice at this time. The only moderate inverse correlation between ADC values and SUV{sub mean} suggests that both imaging parameters might provide complementary information on tumour biology. (orig.)

  19. Prospective comparison of computed tomography, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and [{sup 11}C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography for preoperative lymph node staging in prostate cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heck, Matthias M.; Retz, Margitta; Nawroth, Roman; Kuebler, Hubert; Maurer, Tobias; Thalgott, Mark; Gschwend, Juergen E. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Urology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Souvatzoglou, Michael; Schwaiger, Markus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Gramer, Bettina M.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Eiber, Matthias [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Weirich, Gregor [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Pathology and Pathologic Anatomy, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Rondak, Ina-Christine [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Krause, Bernd [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Universitaetsmedizin Rostock, Universitaet Rostock, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    The aim of this study was to prospectively compare diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and [{sup 11}C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with computed tomography (CT) for preoperative lymph node (LN) staging in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Between June 2010 and May 2012, CT, DWI and [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT were performed preoperatively in 33 intermediate- and high-risk PCa patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) and extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) including obturator fossa and internal, external and common iliac fields. Patient- and field-based performance characteristics for all three imaging techniques based on histopathological results are reported. Imaging techniques were compared by means of the area under the curve (AUC). LN metastases were detected in 92 of 1,012 (9 %) LNs from 14 of 33 (42 %) patients. On patient-based analysis, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for CT were 57, 68 and 64 %, respectively, for DWI were 57, 79 and 70 %, respectively, and for [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT were 57, 90 and 76 %, respectively. On field-based analysis, these numbers for CT were 47, 94 and 88 %, respectively, for DWI were 56, 97 and 92 %, respectively, and for [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT were 62, 96 and 92 %, respectively. Neither DWI nor [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT performed significantly better than CT on pairwise comparison of patient- and field-based results. All three imaging techniques exhibit a rather low sensitivity with less than two thirds of LN metastases being detected on patient- and field-based analysis. Overall diagnostic efficacy did not differ significantly between imaging techniques, whereas distinct performance characteristics, esp. patient-based specificity, were best for [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT followed by DWI and CT. (orig.)

  20. Multidimensional diffusion MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topgaard, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Principles from multidimensional NMR spectroscopy, and in particular solid-state NMR, have recently been transferred to the field of diffusion MRI, offering non-invasive characterization of heterogeneous anisotropic materials, such as the human brain, at an unprecedented level of detail. Here we revisit the basic physics of solid-state NMR and diffusion MRI to pinpoint the origin of the somewhat unexpected analogy between the two fields, and provide an overview of current diffusion MRI acquisition protocols and data analysis methods to quantify the composition of heterogeneous materials in terms of diffusion tensor distributions with size, shape, and orientation dimensions. While the most advanced methods allow estimation of the complete multidimensional distributions, simpler methods focus on various projections onto lower-dimensional spaces as well as determination of means and variances rather than actual distributions. Even the less advanced methods provide simple and intuitive scalar parameters that are directly related to microstructural features that can be observed in optical microscopy images, e.g. average cell eccentricity, variance of cell density, and orientational order - properties that are inextricably entangled in conventional diffusion MRI. Key to disentangling all these microstructural features is MRI signal acquisition combining isotropic and directional dimensions, just as in the field of multidimensional solid-state NMR from which most of the ideas for the new methods are derived.

  1. Assessing the Early Response of Advanced Cervical Cancer to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Using Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging:A Pilot Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Chun Wang; Dao-Yu Hu; Xue-Mei Hu; Ya-Qi Shen; Xiao-Yan Meng; Hao Tang; Zhen Li

    2016-01-01

    Background:Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model has shown promising results for providing both diffusion and perfusion information in cervical cancer;however,its use to predict and monitor the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in cervical cancer is relatively rare.The study aimed to evaluate the use of DWI with IVIM and monoexponential models to predict and monitor the efficacy of NACT in cervical cancer.Methods:Forty-two patients with primary cervical cancer underwent magnetic resonance exams at 3 time points (pre-NACT,3 weeks after the first NACT cycle,and 3 weeks after the second NACT cycle).The response to treatment was determined according to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors 3 weeks after the second NACT treatment,and the subjects were classified as two groups:responders and nonresponders groups.The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC),true diffusion coefficient (D),perfusion-related pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*),and perfusion fraction (f) values were determined.The differences in IVIM-derived variables and ADC between the different groups at the different time points were calculated using an independent samples t-test.Results:The D and ADC values were all significantly higher for the responders than for the nonresponders at all 3 time points,but no significant differences were observed in the D* and f values.An analysis of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves indicated that a D value threshold <0.93 × 10-3 mm2/s and an ADC threshold <1.11 × 10-3 mm2/s could differentiate responders from nonresponders at pre-NACT time point,yielding area under the curve (AUC) of which were 0.771 and 0.806,respectively.The ROC indicated that the AUCs of D and ADC at the 3 weeks after the first NACT cycle and 3 weeks after the second NACT cycle were 0.823,0.763,and 0.787,0.794,respectively.The AUC values of D and ADC at these 3 time points were not significantly different (P =0

  2. Evaluation of advanced hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. Part 2. Two-stage regulated pump/turbines for operating heads of 1000 to 1500 m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomquist, C.A.; Frigo, A.A.; Degnan, J.R.

    1979-10-01

    This UPHS report applies to Francis-type, reversible pump/turbines regulated with gating systems. The first report, however, covered single-stage regulations; this report covers two-stage regulations. Development of a two-stage regulated pump/turbine appears to be attractive because the proposed single-drop UPHS concept requires turbomachinery with a head range of 1000 to 2000 m. With turbomachinery of this range available, the single-drop scheme offers a simple and economic UPHS option. Six different two-stage, top-gated pump/turbines have been analyzed: three that generate 500 MW and three that generate 350 MW. In each capacity, one machine has an operating head of 1000 m, another has a head of 1250 m, and the third has a head of 1500 m. The rated efficiencies of the machines vary from about 90% (1000-m head) to about 88% (1500-m head). Costs in 1978 $/kW for the three 500-MW units are: 20.5 (1000 m), 16.5 (1250 m), and 13.5 (1500 m). Corresponding costs for the three 350-MW units are 23, 18, and 14 $/kW. No major turbomachinery obstacles are foreseen that could hamper development of these pump/turbines. Further model testing and development are needed before building them.

  3. Ethylene perception is required for the expression of tomato ripening-related genes and associated physiological changes even at advanced stages of ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeberichts, F.A.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Woltering, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv Prisca) with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), a potent inhibitor of ethylene action, delayed colour development, softening, and ethylene production in tomato fruit harvested at the mature green breaker, and orange stages. 1-MCP treatment also dec

  4. Changes in brain activation during the acquisition of a multifrequency bimanual coordination task: from the cognitive stage to advanced levels of automaticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttemans, Veerle; Wenderoth, Nicole; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2005-04-27

    Little is known about activation changes reflecting overlearning, i.e., extensive motor training beyond asymptotic performance. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to trace the neural shifts from an initial to a skilled (learning) and finally overlearned stage (automatization). Scanning occurred before training (PRE) and after 1 (MID) and 2 weeks (POST) of intensive practice on a new bimanual coordination task (>10,500 cycles). Kinematics revealed major improvements between PRE and MID sessions, whereas MID to POST session performance leveled off, indicative of learning and automatization, respectively. Imaging findings showed that activation decreased in bilateral opercular areas, bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the right ventral premotor and supramarginal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate sulcus during the learning stage and in the supplementary motor area during the automatization stage. These changes are hypothesized to reflect decreases in attention-demanding sensory processing, as well as suppression of preferred coordination tendencies as a prelude to acquiring new coordination modes. Conversely, learning-related increases were observed in the primary motor cortex (M1), posterior cingulate zone (PCZ), putamen, and right anterior cerebellum. Importantly, both M1 and PCZ activation decreased again to initial level (PRE) during automated performance (POST). Only the putamen and anterior cerebellum remained more activated across both learning and automatization stages, supporting their crucial role in long-term motor memory formation for coordination tasks.

  5. Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Topical report No. 14. Catalyst activity trends in two-stage coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    The Two Stage Coal Liquefaction process became operational at Wilsonville in May 1981, with the inclusion of an H-OIL ebullated-bed catalytic reactor. The two stage process was initially operated in a nonintegrated mode and has recently been reconfigurated to fully integrate the thermal and the catalytic stages. This report focuses on catalyst activity trends observed in both modes of operation. A literature review of relevant catalyst screening studies in bench-scale and PDU units is presented. Existing kinetic and deactivation models were used to analyze process data over an extensive data base. Based on the analysis, three separate, application studies have been conducted. The first study seeks to elucidate the dependence of catalyst deactivation rate on type of coal feedstock used. A second study focuses on the significance of catalyst type and integration mode on SRC hydrotreatment. The third study presents characteristic deactivation trends observed in integrated operation with different first-stage thermal severities. In-depth analytical work was conducted at different research laboratories on aged catalyst samples from Run 242. Model hydrogenation and denitrogenation activity trends are compared with process activity trends and with changes observed in catalyst porosimetric properties. The accumulation of metals and coke deposits with increasing catalyst age, as well as their distribution across a pellet cross-section, are discussed. The effect of catalyst age and reactor temperature on the chemical composition of flashed bottoms product is addressed. Results from regenerating spent catalysts are also presented. 35 references, 31 figures, 18 tables.

  6. Studio in Advertising Design, Fashion Design and Illustration, Product Design, Stage Design. Volume 3: Advanced Elective Courses in Art for Grades 10, 11, or 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The document provides teaching guidelines and information on advance elective courses in a studio art program for grades 10, 11, and 12. The courses are presented in four sections: (1) studio in advertising design--advertising and production, lettering, illustrating, and color reproduction; (2) studio in fashion design and illustration--elements…

  7. A new staging system for locally advanced (pT3-4) renal cell carcinoma: a multicenter European study including 2,000 patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ficarra, V.; Galfano, A.; Guille, F.; Schips, L.; Tostain, J.; Mejean, A.; Lang, H.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Taille, A. De La; Chautard, D.; Descotes, J.L.; Cindolo, L.; Novara, G.; Rioux-Leclercq, N.; Zattoni, F.; Artibani, W.; Patard, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: We provide an adequate prognostic stratification for locally advanced renal cell carcinoma and propose a new TNM classification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed clinical and pathological data on a large series of patients undergoing radical nephrectomy for pT3-4 renal cell carcinoma at 1

  8. Abnormalities on cephalic hooklets of advanced third-stage larvae from Gnathostoma Owen, 1836 (Nematoda: Gnathostomidae) collected from Mexican rivulus Millerichthys robustus Costa, 1995 (Ciprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) in Tlacotalpan, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosqueda-Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Ocampo-Jaimes, Angélica

    2009-11-01

    Morphological abnormalities were observed on the cephalic bulb hooklets of advanced third-stage larvae (AdvL(3)) of genus Gnathostoma. The larvae were obtained from the fish "Mexican rivulus" Millerichthys robustus collected from a seasonal pond near Tlacotalpan, Veracruz, Mexico. The abnormalities involved (1) extra rudimentary hooklets, located between the four rows and after the fourth row, (2) branched or lobulated hooklets, and (3) fragmented hooklets not uniformly disposed in rows. The alterations observed on the cephalic bulb hooklets do not represent intraspecific variations, and they may be considered as a potential tool for assessing the presence of pollutants or stressors located within the ecosystem.

  9. The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) can predict outcomes in ambulatory patients with advanced heart failure who have been referred for cardiac transplantation evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Szyguła-Jurkiewicz, Bożena; Zakliczyński, Michał; Andrejczuk, Mariusz; Mościński, Mateusz; Zembala, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Risk stratification in heart failure (HF) patients is an important element for management. There are several risk stratification models that can be used to predict the prognosis of patients with HF, such as Aaronson's scale, CVM-HF (CardioVascular Medicine Heart Failure), the Seattle Heart Failure Model (SHFM) and the Munich score. These models fail to adequately address the impact of multiorgan dysfunction on prognosis. The classical Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score consists of...

  10. Vaneless diffusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoo, Y.

    The influence of vaneless diffusers on flow in centrifugal compressors, particularly on surge, is discussed. A vaneless diffuser can demonstrate stable operation in a wide flow range only if it is installed with a backward leaning blade impeller. The circumferential distortion of flow in the impeller disappears quickly in the vaneless diffuser. The axial distortion of flow at the diffuser inlet does not decay easily. In large specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is distorted axially. Pressure recovery of diffusers at distorted inlet flow is considerably improved by half guide vanes. The best height of the vanes is a little 1/2 diffuser width. In small specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is not much distorted and pressure recovery can be predicted with one-dimensional flow analysis. Wall friction loss is significant in narrow diffusers. The large pressure drop at a small flow rate can cause the positive gradient of the pressure-flow rate characteristic curve, which may cause surging.

  11. The role of next-generation sequencing in understanding the genomic basis of diffuse large B cell lymphoma and advancing targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Sydney; Jardin, Fabrice

    2016-03-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has redefined the genetic landscape of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) by identifying recurrent somatic mutations. Importantly, in some cases these mutations impact potentially actionable targets, thus affording novel personalized therapy opportunities. At the forefront of today's precision therapy era, how to best incorporate NGS into daily clinical practice is of primordial concern, in order to tailor patient's treatment regimens according to their individual mutational profiles. With the advent of cell-free DNA sequencing, which provides a sensitive and less invasive means of monitoring DLBCL patients, the clinical feasibility of NGS has been greatly improved. This article reviews the current landscape of DLBCL mutations, as well as the targeted therapies developed to counter their effects, and discusses how best to utilize NGS data for treatment decision-making.

  12. Plasma Desphospho-Uncarboxylated Matrix Gla Protein as a Marker of Kidney Damage and Cardiovascular Risk in Advanced Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Kurnatowska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP is formed as a result of vitamin K insufficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between plasma dp-ucMGP, kidney function and cardiovascular risk factors before and after 9-months substitution of vitamin K2 in non-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD stage 4 and 5. Methods: 38 CKD patients were supplemented for 270±12 days with 90 µg vitamin K2 and 10 µg cholecalciferol or 10 µg cholecalciferol alone. At baseline and at follow-up circulating calcium, phosphate, lipids, hemoglobin, albumin and total protein, dp-ucMGP, osteoprotegerin, fetuin A, osteocalcin and fibroblast grown factor 23 (FGF-23 were assessed. Proteinuria was assessed in the first morning void. Results: Baseline plasma dp-ucMGP was 1018.6±498.3 pmol/l and was significantly higher in patients at stage 5 CKD (1388.3 ±505.4 pmol/l than at stage 4 (885.1±419.7 pmol/l, p=0.04. Vitamin K2 supplementation resulted in a decrease of dp-ucMGP level by 10.7%. Plasma dp-ucMGP was positively associated with proteinuria, serum creatinine, PTH and FGF-23; and inversely associated with glomerular filtration rate, serum hemoglobin and albumin. Conclusions: High dp-ucMGP level, reflecting a poor vitamin K status seems to be associated with kidney damage and may be also a marker of cardiovascular risk in CKD patients. Supplementation with vitamin K2 may improve the carboxylation status of MGP.

  13. Advances in pre-erythrocytic stage malaria vaccine%红外期疟疾疫苗的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭小红

    2011-01-01

    Pre-erythrocytic stage is the first stage which Plasmodium to invaded a human host,effective malaria vaccine for pre-erythrocytic stage has important significance to control the morbidity and the prevalence of the malaria.The present study of malaria vaccines for pre-erythrocytic stage include subunit vaccines and whole-cell vaccines,the latter is also included irradiation-attenuated sporozoites and genetically attenuated sporozoites.Although whole-cell vaccines induce complete and long-lasting protection,the difficulties to produce and transport have limited its clinical application.The current subunit vaccines are still not achieve satisfactory protective effect,and the relevant mechanisms need further in-depth study.Here,we do a review on the development of these vaccines.%红外期是疟原虫侵入宿主的第一个时期,有效的红外期疟疾疫苗对控制疟疾的发病和流行具有重要的作用.目前研究中的红外期疟疾疫苗主要有亚单位疫苗和全虫疫苗两种,其中后者包括了放射减毒子孢子疫苗和基因减毒子孢子疫苗.全虫疫苗虽然能够诱导完全性的免疫保护作用,但是其生产及运输方式却限制了它的现场应用.目前的亚单位疫苗不能达到让人满意的保护效应,有效亚单位疫苗的研制还需要对相关的机制做进一步深入的研究.本文仅就目前这些疫苗的研究进展作一综述.

  14. A systematic review of prognostic/end-of-life communication with adults in the advanced stages of a life-limiting illness: patient/caregiver preferences for the content, style, and timing of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sharon M; Clayton, Josephine M; Hancock, Karen; Walder, Sharon; Butow, Phyllis N; Carrick, Sue; Currow, David; Ghersi, Davina; Glare, Paul; Hagerty, Rebecca; Tattersall, Martin H N

    2007-07-01

    Evidence-based recommendations concerning how to discuss dying, life expectancy, and likely future symptoms with patients with a limited life expectancy and their families are lacking. The aim of this systematic review was to review studies regarding prognostic/end-of-life communication with adult patients in the advanced stages of a life-limiting illness and their caregivers. Relevant studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified by searching computerized databases up to November 2004. One hundred twenty-three studies met the criteria for the full review, and 46 articles reported on patient/caregiver preferences for content, style, and timing of information. The majority of the research was descriptive. Although there were individual differences, patients/caregivers in general had high levels of information need at all stages of the disease process regarding the illness itself, likely future symptoms and their management, and life expectancy and information about clinical treatment options. Patient and caregiver information needs showed a tendency to diverge as the illness progressed, with caregivers needing more and patients wanting less information. Patients and caregivers preferred a trusted health professional who showed empathy and honesty, encouraged questions, and clarified each individual's information needs and level of understanding. In general, most patients/caregivers wanted at least some discussion of these topics at the time of diagnosis of an advanced, progressive, life-limiting illness, or shortly after. However, they wanted to negotiate the content and extent of this information.

  15. International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens. Working group 3: extraprostatic extension, lymphovascular invasion and locally advanced disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Evans, Andrew J; Delahunt, Brett; Epstein, Jonathan I; Griffiths, David F; van der Kwast, Theo H; Montironi, Rodolfo; Wheeler, Thomas M; Srigley, John R; Egevad, Lars L; Humphrey, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    The International Society of Urological Pathology Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens in Boston made recommendations regarding the standardization of pathology reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens. Issues relating to extraprostatic extension (pT3a disease), bladder neck invasion, lymphovascular invasion and the definition of pT4 were coordinated by working group 3. It was agreed that prostate cancer can be categorized as pT3a in the absence of adipose tissue involvement when cancer bulges beyond the contour of the gland or beyond the condensed smooth muscle of the prostate at posterior and posterolateral sites. Extraprostatic extension can also be identified anteriorly. It was agreed that the location of extraprostatic extension should be reported. Although there was consensus that the amount of extraprostatic extension should be quantitated, there was no agreement as to which method of quantitation should be employed. There was overwhelming consensus that microscopic urinary bladder neck invasion by carcinoma should be reported as stage pT3a and that lymphovascular invasion by carcinoma should be reported. It is recommended that these elements are considered in the development of practice guidelines and in the daily practice of urological surgical pathology.

  16. Well staged

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, Godfrey

    2011-06-15

    Packers Plus Energy Services Inc. has commercially launched QuickFRAC, a multi-stage completition system which can fracture four to five isolated stages in one treatment and set up a record of 23-stage slickwater frac in less than 10 hours. It could take up to 40 days to do 100 fracture treatments with other systems. This technology makes it possible to distribute fluid at each port thanks to the limited entry system. In order to make multiple isolated stages within one treatment zone, each zone includes multiple QuickPORT sleeves with packers on either side. The other technology which made this possible is the repeater port system, it allows them to perform more frac stages. This technology could be useful in the future since the need for stages will be doubling soon with microdarcy shale oil extraction which is more difficult than gas.

  17. Phase III study comparing cisplatin plus gemcitabine with cisplatin plus pemetrexed in chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scagliotti, G.V.; Parikh, P.; Pawel, J. von;

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Cisplatin plus gemcitabine is a standard regimen for first-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Phase II studies of pemetrexed plus platinum compounds have also shown activity in this setting. Patients and Methods This noninferiority, phase III, randomized study...... compared the overall survival between treatment arms using a fixed margin method (hazard ratio [HR] cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) on day 1...... and gemcitabine 1,250 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 (n = 863) or cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) and pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) on day 1 (n = 862) every 3 weeks for up to six cycles. Results Overall survival for cisplatin/pemetrexed was noninferior to cisplatin/ gemcitabine (median survival, 10.3 v 10.3 months, respectively; HR = 0...

  18. Evaluation of advanced hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. Part 1. Single-stage regulated pump turbines for operating heads of 500 to 1000 m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, A.A.; Blomquist, C.A.; Degnan, J.R.

    1979-10-01

    High-head, large-capacity turbomachinery is needed for the concept of underground pumped hydroelectric storage to be technically and economically attractive. Single-stage, reversible, Francis-type pump turbines with adjustable wicket gates appear to offer the most economically attractive option for heads between about 500 and 1000 m. The feasibility of developing these types of machines for capacities up to 500 MW and operating heads up to 1000 m has been evaluated. Preliminary designs have been generated for six single-stage pump turbines. The designs are for capacities of 350 and 500 MW and for operating heads of 500, 750, and 1000 m. The report contains drawings of the machines along with material specifications and hydraulic performance data. Mechanical, hydraulic, and economic analyses indicate that these machines will behave according to the criteria used to design them and that they can be built at a reasonable cost. The stress and deflection responses of the 500-MW, 100-m-head pump turbine, determined by detailed finite element analysis techniques, give solid evidence of the integrity of the conceptual designs of the six units and indicate no unsolvable problems. Results of a life expectancy analysis of the wicket gates indicate that a near infinite life can be expected for these components when they are subjected to normal design loads. Efficiencies of 90.7 and 91.4% in the generating and pumping modes, respectively, can be expected for the 500-MW, 1000-m-head unit. Performances of the other five machines are comparable. The specific costs of the pump turbines in mid-1978 US dollars per kW vary from 19.2 to 11.8 over a head range of from 500 to 1000 m for the 500-MW machines and from 20.0 to 12.3 for the 350-MW machines.

  19. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  20. Combined value of apparent diffusion coefficient-standardized uptake value max in evaluation of post-treated locally advanced rectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davide Ippolito; Davide Fior; Chiara Trattenero; Elena De Ponti; Silvia Drago; Luca Guerra; Cammillo Talei Franzesi; Sandro Sironi

    2015-01-01

    AIM:To assess the clinical diagnostic value of functional imaging,combining quantitative parameters of apparent diffusion coefficient(ADC) and standardized uptake value(SUV)max,before and after chemo-radiation therapy,in prediction of tumor response of patients with rectal cancer,related to tumor regression grade at histology.METHODS:A total of 31 patients with biopsy proven diagnosis of rectal carcinoma were enrolled in our study.All patients underwent a whole body 18FDG positron emission tomography(PET)/computed tomography(CT) scan and a pelvic magnetic resonance(MR)examination including diffusion weighted(DW) imaging for staging(PET1,RM1) and after completion(6.6 wk)of neoadjuvant treatment(PET2,RM2).Subsequently all patients underwent total mesorectal excision and the histological results were compared with imaging findings.The MR scanning,performed on 1.5 T magnet(Philips,Achieva),included T2-weighted multiplanar imaging and in addition DW images with b-value of 0 and 1000 mm2/s.On PET/CT the SUVmax of the rectal lesion were calculated in PET1 and PET2.The percentage decrease of SUVmax(△SUV) and ADC(△ADC) values from baseline to presurgical scan were assessed and correlated with pathologic response classified as tumor regression grade(Mandard’s criteria;TRG1 = complete regression,TRG5 = no regression).RESULTS:After completion of therapy,all the patients were submitted to surgery.According to the Mandard’s criteria,22 tumors showed complete(TRG1) or subtotal regression(TRG2) and were classified as responders;9tumors were classified as non responders(TRG3,4 and5).Considering all patients the mean values of SUVmax in PET 1 was higher than the mean value of SUVmax in PET 2(P < 0.001),whereas the mean ADC values was lower in RM1 than RM2(P < 0.001),with a △SUV and △ADC respectively of 60.2%and 66.8%.The best predictors for TRG response were SUV2(threshold of4.4) and ADC2(1.29

  1. Core compressor exit stage study. 1: Aerodynamic and mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdsall, E. A.; Canal, E., Jr.; Lyons, K. A.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of aspect ratio on the performance of core compressor exit stages was demonstrated using two three stage, highly loaded, core compressors. Aspect ratio was identified as having a strong influence on compressors endwall loss. Both compressors simulated the last three stages of an advanced eight stage core compressor and were designed with the same 0.915 hub/tip ratio, 4.30 kg/sec (9.47 1bm/sec) inlet corrected flow, and 167 m/sec (547 ft/sec) corrected mean wheel speed. The first compressor had an aspect ratio of 0.81 and an overall pressure ratio of 1.357 at a design adiabatic efficiency of 88.3% with an average diffusion factor or 0.529. The aspect ratio of the second compressor was 1.22 with an overall pressure ratio of 1.324 at a design adiabatic efficiency of 88.7% with an average diffusion factor of 0.491.

  2. A Study of 358 Cases of Locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Receiving Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy: Improving the Seventh Edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer T-Staging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the rationality and limitations of the seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (the 7th AJCC edition T-staging system for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. The prognosis of 358 patients with stage T3/T4 NPC treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT was analyzed with the Kaplan–Meier method or the log-rank test. The 7th AJCC staging system of NPC has some limitations in that the T category is neither the significant factor in OS/LRFS nor the independent prognostic factor in OS/LRFS/DMFS/DFS (P>0.05. After adjustment by anatomic structures, univariate analysis has shown that the adjusted-T category has statistical significance between T3 and T4 for OS (86.4% and 71.3%, P=0.002, LRFS (97% and 90.9%, P=0.048, DMFS (90.9% and 77.2%, P=0.001, and DFS (86.2% and 67.5%, P=0.000, and multivariate analysis has shown that the adjusted-T category is an independent prognostic factor for OS/DMFS/DFS (with the exception of LRFS. Then, GTV-P was taken into consideration. Multivariate analysis showed that these nT categories serve as suitable independent prognostic factors for OS/DMFS/DFS (P<0.001 and LRFS (HR = 3.131; 95% CI, 1.090–8.990; P=0.043. The 7th AJCC staging system has limitations and should be improved by including the modifications suggested, such as anatomic structures and tumor volume adjustment.

  3. Transarterial chemoperfusion with gemcitabine and mitomycin C in pancreatic carcinoma: Results in locally recurrent tumors and advanced tumor stages; Transarterielle Chemoperfusion mit Gemcitabine und Mitomycin C bei Pankreaskarzinom: Ergebnisse bei Rezidivtumoren und fortgeschrittenen Tumorstadien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J.; Zangos, S.; Heller, M.; Hammerstingl, R.M.; Bauer, R.W. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, J. W. Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt (Germany); Boecher, E. [Klinik Paradise, Medizinische Klinik, Soest (Germany); Jacob, U. [Leonardisklinik, Onkologische Fachklinik, Bad Heilbrunn (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate local transarterial chemoperfusion (TACP) in locally recurrent pancreatic carcinoma and advanced tumor stages which did not respond to prior systemic chemotherapy. The tumor response, survival, and pain response were retrospectively analyzed. Materials and method: Forty outpatients (median age 62 years, range 36 - 79) were treated with a minimum of 3 (mean 6, range 3 - 12) applications per patient in four-week intervals. Twenty-eight patients were in advanced tumor stages, and 12 patients had locally recurrent tumors. Gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m{sup 2}) and mitomycin C (8.5 mg/m{sup 2}) were administered within 1 hour through a celiac trunk catheter. The tumor response (diameter, volume) was measured using MRI or CT and classified according to RECIST. The pain response was defined as a reduction of pain intensity of more than 50% on a visual analog scale, or a reduction of more than 50% in analgesics consumption, or a switch to a less potent analgesic agent. Results: The treatment was tolerated well by all patients. No clinically relevant problems or grade III or IV toxicity according to CTC (Common Toxicity Criteria) were observed. Tumor-related pain was relieved in 20/32 (62.5%) cases. Radiologically, 'complete response' was found in 3/40 (7.5%), 'partial response' in 9/40 (22.5%), 'stable disease' in 16/40 (40%), and 'progressive disease' in 12/40 (30%) of the patients. The median survival period since initial diagnosis and first TACP was 16.4 months and 8.1 months, respectively. Locally recurrent tumors showed better, but still not significant results regarding tumor response (41.7% vs. 25%) as well as survival (14.4 vs. 7 months) compared to advanced tumor stages. Responders (CR + PR) showed a significant survival advantage compared to patients with tumor progression (13.0 vs. 6.0 months; p = 0.013). (orig.)

  4. Atypical pyogenic brain abscess evaluation by diffusion-weighted imaging: diagnosis with multimodality MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Ulus, Ozden Sila; Berkman, Mehmet Zafer; Kocagoz, Sesin; Karaarslan, Ercan

    2015-10-01

    Whether a brain abscess is apparent by imaging depends on the stage of the abscess at the time of imaging, as well as the etiology of the infection. Because conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is limited in its ability to distinguish brain abscesses from necrotic tumors, advanced techniques are required. The management of these two disease entities differs and can potentially affect the clinical outcome. We report a case having atypical imaging features of a pyogenic brain abscess on advanced MRI, in particular, on diffusion-weighted and perfusion imaging, in a patient with osteosarcoma undergoing chemotherapy.

  5. Circulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF Levels in Advanced Stage Cancer Patients Compared to Normal Controls and Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Critical Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoka H. Kusumanto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-angiogenic therapy is emerging as a valuable tool in the treatment of patients with cancer. As VEGF is a central target in anti-angiogenic therapy, its levels in the circulation might be relevant in selecting tumor types or patients likely to respond to this treatment. Additional VEGF has been recognized as a key factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Recently anti-angiogenic therapy has been advocated in this situation. We measured VEGF levels in whole blood in 42 patients with high grade (n = 26 and low grade (n = 16 end stage cancer, and in 28 healthy controls and 37 patients with diabetes related vascular disease. Only 2/26 patients in the group of high grade cancer had signifi cantly elevated VEGF levels, 1/16 in the low grade group and 1/28 in the healthy control group. In contrast, in 10/37 diabetic patients the mean VEGF levels were significantly elevated compared to the other groups. The mean level in these diabetic patients was significantly elevated compared to the other groups. These data indicate the limitation of the use of circulating VEGF levels as a potential selection criterion for anti-angiogenic therapy in cancer patients and suggest further studies into its application in the management of diabetic complications.

  6. Estimated aortic blood pressure based on radial artery tonometry underestimates directly measured aortic blood pressure in patients with advancing chronic kidney disease staging and increasing arterial stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Rasmus K; Peters, Christian D; Khatir, Dinah S;

    2016-01-01

    we compared invasive aortic systolic BP (SBP) with estimated central SBP obtained by radial artery tonometry and examined the influence of renal function and arterial stiffness on this relationship. We evaluated 83 patients with stage 3 to 5 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 30 ml......% confidence interval -14.9 to -11.4) mm Hg. Arterial stiffness was evaluated by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and was significantly increased in CKD patients compared with (versus) control patients (mean 10.7 vs. 9.3 m/s). The difference in BP significantly increased 1.0 mm Hg for every 10 ml....../min decrease in eGFR and by 1.6 mm Hg per 1 m/s increase in cfPWV. Using multivariate regression analysis including both eGFR and cfPWV, the difference between estimated central and invasive aortic SBP was significantly increased by 0.7 mm Hg. For the entire cohort brachial SBP significantly better reflected...

  7. The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) can predict outcomes in ambulatory patients with advanced heart failure who have been referred for cardiac transplantation evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyguła-Jurkiewicz, Bożena; Zakliczyński, Michał; Andrejczuk, Mariusz; Mościński, Mateusz; Zembala, Marian

    2014-06-01

    Risk stratification in heart failure (HF) patients is an important element for management. There are several risk stratification models that can be used to predict the prognosis of patients with HF, such as Aaronson's scale, CVM-HF (CardioVascular Medicine Heart Failure), the Seattle Heart Failure Model (SHFM) and the Munich score. These models fail to adequately address the impact of multiorgan dysfunction on prognosis. The classical Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score consists of: total bilirubin, INR (international normalized ratio) and creatinine level. There are some modifications of the MELD scale: MELD-XI, which excludes the INR score; the mod-MELD score, in which INR is replaced with albumin levels; and MELD-Na, which consists of the bilirubin and creatinine levels, INR ratio and the sodium level. Therefore, the MELD score systems are markers of multisystem dysfunction (renal, cardiac, hepatic). It is important that they are composed of routinely collected laboratory measures which are easy to use.

  8. Diffuse scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostorz, G. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Angewandte Physik, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    While Bragg scattering is characteristic for the average structure of crystals, static local deviations from the average lattice lead to diffuse elastic scattering around and between Bragg peaks. This scattering thus contains information on the occupation of lattice sites by different atomic species and on static local displacements, even in a macroscopically homogeneous crystalline sample. The various diffuse scattering effects, including those around the incident beam (small-angle scattering), are introduced and illustrated by typical results obtained for some Ni alloys. (author) 7 figs., 41 refs.

  9. Radioimmunotherapy using {sup 131}I-rituximab in patients with advanced stage B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienert, Maren; Reisinger, Ingrid; Humplik, Beatrice I.; Reim, Christel; Kroessin, Thomas; Avril, Norbert; Munz, Dieter L. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Srock, Stefanie; Pezzutto, Antonio [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Haematology and Oncology, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, toxicity and therapeutic response of non-myeloablative radioimmunotherapy using {sup 131}I-rituximab in previously heavily treated patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL). Nine patients with relapsed, refractory or transformed B-NHL received ten radioimmunotherapies. Patients had a median of 5 (range 2-7) prior standard therapies. Four patients had received prior high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation, and eight had received prior rituximab therapy. Histopathology consisted of four mantle cell, one follicular and four diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Rituximab, a monoclonal chimeric anti-CD20 antibody (IDEC-C2B8), was labelled with {sup 131}I using the Iodogen method. The administered activity (2,200{+-}600 MBq) was based on a dosimetrically calculated 45 cGy total-body radiation dose. All patients received an infusion of 2.5 mg/kg of rituximab prior to administration of the radiopharmaceutical. No acute adverse effects were observed after the administration of{sup 131}I-rituximab. Radioimmunotherapy was safe in our patient group and achieved one complete response ongoing at 14 months and two partial responses progressing at 12 and 13 months after treatment. One partial responder was re-treated with radioimmunotherapy and achieved an additional progression-free interval of 7 months. Four non-responders with bulky disease died 4.8{+-}2.0 months after therapy. Three patients had an elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level prior to radioimmunotherapy and none of the patients responded. Of two patients who received radioimmunotherapy as an additional treatment after salvage chemotherapy, one continues to be disease-free at 9 months and one relapsed at 5 months' follow-up. Reversible grade 3 or 4 haematological toxicity occurred in seven of nine patients. Median nadirs were 35 days for platelets, 44 days for leucocytes and 57 days for erythrocytes. (orig.)

  10. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1962-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 1 provides an authoritative, complete, coherent, and critical review of the nuclear industry. This book covers a variety of topics, including nuclear power stations, graft polymerization, diffusion in uranium alloys, and conventional power plants.Organized into seven chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the three stages of the operation of a power plant, either nuclear or conventionally fueled. This text then examines the major problems that face the successful development of commercial nuclear power plants. Other chapters consider

  11. Relativistic diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Z

    2009-02-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

  12. 分析探讨同期与分期双膝关节置换术治疗晚期双侧膝关节炎的安全性%Safety Analysis of Double Knee Joint Replacement in One Stage or By Stages in Treating Advanced Bilateral Knee Arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金培程; 唐本森

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect and safety of double knee joint replacement in one stage or by stages in treating advanced bilateral knee arthritis. Methods 84 cases with advanced bilateral knee arthritis in our hospital were selected. They were divided into observation group and control group, 42 cases in each group. The observation group was given double knee joint replacement in one stage, the control group was given double knee joint replacement by stages. Compare the condition ongoing and after the surgery and HSS score. Results LOS of control group[(45.1±10.4)d] was obviously longer than observation group[(22.6±5.4)d]. Blood transfusion of control group[(616.1±263.5)mL] was obviously less than observation group[(1014.9±403.8) mL]. The difference was statistically significant (P0.05). The difference of scores improved degree between observation group (38.6±23.7) and control group (35.5±24.1) was not significant (P>0.05). Conclusion Clinical effect and safety of knee joint replacement in one stage or by stages in treating advanced bilateral knee arthritis has no obvious difference, each has its own advantages and disadvantages and patients can choose the operation method according to their own situation and condition.%目的:对晚期双侧膝关节炎的患者分别采用同期与分期双膝关节置换术的方法治疗,并对其临床效果与安全性进行探究比较。方法选择在该院接受治疗的84例晚期双侧膝关节炎患者,并按照随机投掷的方法将其分成实验组与对照组,平均每组42例患者,给予实验组患者采用同期双膝关节置换术的方法治疗,对照组采用分期双膝关节置换术的方法治疗,并比较两组患者术中与术后的情况及HSS评分。结果对照组的住院时间(45.1±10.4)d明显比实验组的住院时间(22.6±5.4)d长,对照组的输血量(616.1±263.5)mL明显少于实验组的输血量(1014.9±403.8)mL,差异有统计学意义(P0.05)

  13. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...... localities of tensions between matter and the immaterial, the practical and the ideal, and subject and object. In the colloquial language there can, moreover, often seem to be something authentic or genuine about atmosphere, juxtaposing it to staging, which is implied to be something simulated or artificial....... This introduction seeks to outline how a number of scholars have addressed the relationship between staged atmospheres and experience, and thus highlight both the philosophical, social and political aspects of atmospheres...

  14. Utility of [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG PET/CT) in the Initial Staging and Response Assessment of Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulikal, Narendra; Gajjala, Sivanath Reddy; Kalawat, Teck Chand; Kottu, Radhika; Amancharla Yadagiri, Lakshmi

    2015-12-01

    In India up to 50 % of breast cancer patients still present as locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). The conventional methods of metastatic work up include physical examination, bone scan, chest & abdominal imaging, and biochemical tests. It is likely that the conventional staging underestimates the extent of initial spread and there is a need for more sophisticated staging procedure. The PET/CT can detect extra-axillary and occult distant metastases and also aid in predicting response to chemotherapy at an early point in time. To evaluate the utility of FDG PET/CT in initial staging and response assessment of patients with LABC receiving NACT. A prospective study of all biopsy confirmed female patients diagnosed with LABC receiving NACT from April 2013 to May 2014. The conventional work up included serum chemistry, CECT chest and abdomen and bone scan. A baseline whole body PET/CT was done in all patients. A repeat staging evaluation and a whole body PET/CT was done after 2/3rd cycle of NACT in non-responders and after 3/4 cycles in clinical responders. The histopathology report of the operative specimen was used to document the pathological response. The FDG PET/CT reported distant metastases in 11 of 38 patients, where as conventional imaging revealed metastases in only 6. Almost all the distant lesions detected by conventional imaging were detected with PET/CT, which showed additional sites of metastasis in 3 patients. In 2 patients, PET/CT detected osteolytic bone metastasis which were not detected by bone scan. In 5 patients PET CT detected N3 disease which were missed on conventional imaging. A total of 14 patients had second PET/CT done to assess the response to NACT and 11 patients underwent surgery. Two patients had complete pathological response. Of these 1 patient had complete metabolic and morphologic response and other had complete metabolic and partial morphologic response on second PET/CT scan. The 18 FDG PET/CT can detect more number of

  15. Diffusion weighted imaging of female pelvic cancers: Concepts and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punwani, Shonit, E-mail: shonit.punwani@gmail.com [Department of Academic Radiology, 2nd Floor Podium, University College London Hospital, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Early applications of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) were limited to neuroimaging, concentrating either on stroke or brain tumours. With recent advances in MRI hardware and software DWI is now increasingly being investigated for cancer assessment throughout the body. Clinical applications of DWI relating to female pelvic cancers have largely concentrated on detection, localisation and staging of disease. More recently investigators have started to evaluate the ability of DWI for determining tumour histology and even predicting the outcome of chemoradiation treatment. This article reviews the physical concepts of MR diffusion weighting, illustrates the biophysical basis of diffusion contrast and reports the clinical applications of DWI for cervical, endometrial, ovarian, rectal and bladder tumours.

  16. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/2015 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited ...

  17. Surgical thcrapy for advanced stage hypopharyngeal cancer and cervical esophageal carcinoma%晚期下咽癌和颈段食管癌的外科治疗体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林秀安; 刘辉; 郑雄; 林曦; 黄加兴; 陆伟

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review the reconstruction surgery of the defect after en bloc removal of advanced stage hypopharyngeal cancer and esophageal carcinoma of cervical segment by gastric-pharyngeal anastomosis or colon-pharyngeal anastomosis. Methods The clinical data of 35 cases accepted gastric-pharyngeal anastomosis(18 cases) or colon-pharyngeal anastomosis(17 cases) were analysed, retrospectively, in which vagus nerves of 14 cases were remained. Results Thirty four cases had good function of deglutition after operation. There was no severe complication such as necrosis of stomach or intestine. Cervical metastasis rate was 62.9%(22/35).Three-year and five-year survival rate were 54.3%(19/35) and 39.3%(11/28), respectively. One of the 35 cases have survived for ten years. Conclusion Gastric-pharyngeal anastomosis or colon-pharyngeal anastomosis can result in good outcome in treatment of the defect after en bloc removal of advanced stage hypopharyngeal cancer and esophageal carcinoma of cervical segment. Cervical dissection is an important portion of surgical therapy. Paying attention to the local anatomic structures and careful operation during surgical procedure can decrease the occurrence of complication and increase the quality of life.%目的 对晚期下咽癌和颈段食管癌大面积切除后的组织缺损,应用胃(肠)咽吻合术重建恢复功能经验及疗效总结.方法 对35例胃(肠)咽吻合术的临床资料进行了回顾性分析,胃上提18例,带蒂结肠17例,其中保留迷走神经干14例.结果 34例获得良好的吞咽功能.无胃肠坏死等严重并发症.颈淋巴结转移率62.9%(22/35),3年生存率54.3%(19/35),5年生存率39.3%(11/28),最长1例已存活10年.结论 胃(肠)咽吻合术对晚期下咽癌和颈段食管癌切除后大范围下咽-食管缺损具有较好的I期效果.颈淋巴结清扫术是外科治疗重要的一部分.术中注意局部解剖结构,精细操作,可减少并发症,提高生活质量.

  18. Randomized Phase II Study of Erlotinib in Combination With Placebo or R1507, a Monoclonal Antibody to Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor, for Advanced-Stage Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Spigel, David R.; Chen, David; Steins, Martin B.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Schneider, Claus-Peter; Novello, Silvia; Eberhardt, Wilfried E.E.; Crino, Lucio; Habben, Kai; Liu, Lian; Jänne, Pasi A.; Brownstein, Carrie M.; Reck, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose R1507 is a selective, fully human, recombinant monoclonal antibody (immunoglobulin G1 subclass) against insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R). The strong preclinical evidence supporting coinhibition of IGF-1R and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as anticancer therapy prompted this study. Patients and Methods Patients with advanced-stage non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with progression following one or two prior regimens, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0 to 2, and measurable disease were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned to receive erlotinib (150 mg orally once a day) in combination with either placebo, R1507 9 mg/kg weekly, or R1507 16 mg/kg intravenously once every 3 weeks. Treatment cycles were repeated every 3 weeks. The primary end point was comparison of the 12-week progression-free survival (PFS) rate. Results In all, 172 patients were enrolled: median age, 61 years; female, 33%; never-smokers, 12%; and performance status 0 or 1, 88%. The median number of R1507 doses was six for the weekly arm and 3.5 for the every-3-weeks arm. Grades 3 to 4 adverse events occurred in 37%, 44%, and 48% of patients with placebo, R1507 weekly, and R1507 every 3 weeks, respectively. The 12-week PFS rates were 39%, 37%, and 44%, and the median overall survival was 8.1, 8.1, and 12.1 months for the three groups, respectively, with statistically nonsignificant hazard ratios. The 12-week PFS rate in patients with KRAS mutation was 36% with R1507 compared with 0% with placebo. Conclusion The combination of R1507 with erlotinib did not provide PFS or survival advantage over erlotinib alone in an unselected group of patients with advanced NSCLC. Predictive biomarkers are essential for further development of combined inhibition of IGF-1R and EGFR. PMID:22025157

  19. [Pulmonary diffusion test to NO and CO time course during thoracic radiotherapy for lung cancer: the CONORT prospective study protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarza, V; Couraud, S; Hassouni, A; Prévost, C; Souquet, P-J; Letanche, G; Hammou, Y; Girard, N; Viart-Ferber, C; Mornex, F

    2014-10-01

    Thoracic radiotherapy is a usual treatment for lung cancer. Early-stages may be treated in stereotactic mode while locally advanced stages are usually treated with conventional radiotherapy mode. Pulmonary function tests show that thoracic irradiation has no impact on lung volume such as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) or forced vital capacity (FCV). However, some studies found that CO (carbon monoxide) diffusing capacity (TLCO) may be altered under thoracic radiotherapy. DLCO alteration is usually symptomatic of either a lesion in the alveolar membrane or a pulmonary capillary alteration. Pulmonary diffusion may be also appreciated by the NO (azote monoxide) diffusion capacity. Moreover, using a double measurement of NO and CO diffusing capacities permit to assess which lung compartment (capillary or membrane) is affected. CONORT is an observational prospective monocentric study, aiming to assess the CO and NO diffusing capacity (as well as other pulmonary function tests) during thoracic radiotherapy. Inclusion criteria are patients with lung cancer, treated by thoracic radiotherapy (conformational or stereotactic), who signed consent. Pulmonary function tests are performed before, during, at the end and six weeks and six months after thoracic irradiation. To estimate a difference of 15% in diffusing capacity test, we have to include 112 patients with a 90% power and a 5% alpha risk. Four months after beginning, 36 patients were included. Preliminary data will be presented at the SFRO meeting.

  20. Diffusion in liquids a theoretical and experimental study

    CERN Document Server

    Tyrrell, H J V

    1984-01-01

    Diffusion in Liquids: A Theoretical and Experimental Study aims to discuss the principles, applications, and advances in the field of diffusion, thermal diffusion, and thermal conduction in liquid systems. The book covers topics such as the principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics; diffusion in binary and multicompetent systems; and experimental methods of studying diffusion processes in liquids. Also covered in the book are topics such as the theoretical interpretations of diffusion coefficients; hydrodynamic and kinetic theories; and diffusion in electrolyte systems. The text is recommen

  1. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    In recent years, the social sciences have taken a “mobilities turn.” There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not “just happen.” Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed...... that mobility is more than movement between point A and B. It explores how the movement of people, goods, information, and signs influences human understandings of self, other and the built environment. Moving towards a new understanding of the relationship between movement, interaction and environments......, the book asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities?...

  2. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 53: From student to entry-level professional: Examining the technical communications practices of early career-stage US aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Holloway, Karen; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Studies indicate that communications and information-related activities take up a substantial portion of an engineer's work week; therefore, effective communications and information-use skills are one of the key engineering competencies that early career-stage aerospace engineers and scientists must possess to be successful. Feedback from industry rates communications and information-use skills high in terms of their importance to engineering practice; however, this same feedback rates the communications and information-use skills of early career-stage engineers low. To gather adequate and generalizable data about the communications and information-related activities of entry-level aerospace engineers and scientists, we surveyed 264 members of the AIAA who have no more than 1-5 years of aerospace engineering work experience. To learn more about the concomitant communications norms, we compared the results of this study with data (1,673 responses) we collected from student members of the AIAA and with data (341 responses) we collected from a study of aerospace engineering professionals. In this paper, we report selected results from these studies that focused on the communications practices and information-related activities of early career-stage U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists in the workplace.

  3. Diffusion coefficient in photon diffusion theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, R; Ten Bosch, JJ

    2000-01-01

    The choice of the diffusion coefficient to be used in photon diffusion theory has been a subject of discussion in recent publications on tissue optics. We compared several diffusion coefficients with the apparent diffusion coefficient from the more fundamental transport theory, D-app. Application to

  4. PET Imaging for Initial Staging and Therapy Assessment in Multiple Myeloma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Clément; Leforestier, Rodolphe; Jamet, Bastien; Carlier, Thomas; Bourgeois, Mickael; Guérard, François; Touzeau, Cyrille; Moreau, Philippe; Chérel, Michel; Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Bodet-Milin, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological neoplasm characterized by the clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. MM results in diffuse or focal bone infiltration and extramedullary lesions. Over the past two decades, advances have been made with regard to the diagnosis, staging, treatment, and imaging of MM. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are currently recommended as the most effective imaging modalities at diagnostic. Yet, recent data from the literature suggest that positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) using 18F-deoxyglucose (FDG) is a promising technique for initial staging and therapeutic monitoring in this pathology. This paper reviews the recent advances as well as the potential place of a more specific radiopharmaceutical in MM. PMID:28218709

  5. Advanced Morphological and Functional Magnetic Resonance Techniques in Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Mastropasqua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a multifactorial disease that is the leading cause of irreversible blindness. Recent data documented that glaucoma is not limited to the retinal ganglion cells but that it also extends to the posterior visual pathway. The diagnosis is based on the presence of signs of glaucomatous optic neuropathy and consistent functional visual field alterations. Unfortunately these functional alterations often become evident when a significant amount of the nerve fibers that compose the optic nerve has been irreversibly lost. Advanced morphological and functional magnetic resonance (MR techniques (morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging, arterial spin labeling, and functional connectivity may provide a means for observing modifications induced by this fiber loss, within the optic nerve and the visual cortex, in an earlier stage. The aim of this systematic review was to determine if the use of these advanced MR techniques could offer the possibility of diagnosing glaucoma at an earlier stage than that currently possible.

  6. Intravoxel Incoherent Motion MR Imaging for Staging of Hepatic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Liang, Long; Dong, Yuhao; Lian, Zhouyang; Chen, Wenbo; Liang, Changhong; Zhang, Shuixing

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the potential of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) MR imaging for staging of hepatic fibrosis (HF). Methods We searched PubMed and EMBASE from their inception to 31 July 2015 to select studies reporting IVIM MR imaging and HF staging. We defined F1-2 as non-advanced HF, F3-4 as advanced HF, F0 as normal liver, F1 as very early HF, and F2-4 as significant HF. Then we compared stage F0 with F1, F0-1 with F2-3, and F1-2 with F3-4 using IVIM-derived parameters (pseudo-diffusion coefficient D*, perfusion fraction f, and pure molecular diffusion parameter D). The effect estimate was expressed as a pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI), using the fixed-effects model. Results Overall, we included six papers (406 patients) in this study. Significant differences in D* were observed between F0 and F1, F0-1 and F2-3, and F1-2 and F3-4 (WMD 2.46, 95% CI 0.83–4.09, P = 0.006; WMD 13.10, 95% CI 9.53–16.67, P < 0.001; WMD 14.34, 95% CI 10.26–18.42, P < 0.001, respectively). Significant differences in f were also found between F0 and F1, F0-1 and F2-3, and F1-2 and F3-4 (WMD 1.62, 95% CI 0.06–3.18, P = 0.027; WMD 5.63, 95% CI 2.74–8.52, P < 0.001; WMD 3.30, 95% CI 2.10–4.50, P < 0.001, respectively). However, D showed no differences between F0 and F1, F0-1 and F2-3, and F1-2 and F3-4 (WMD 0.05, 95% CI -0.01─0.11, P = 0.105; WMD 0.04, 95% CI -0.01─0.10, P = 0.230; WMD 0.02, 95% CI -0.02─0.06, P = 0.378, respectively). Conclusions IVIM MR imaging provides an effective method of staging HF and can distinguish early HF from normal liver, significant HF from normal liver or very early HF, and advanced HF from non-advanced HF. PMID:26820668

  7. Intravoxel Incoherent Motion MR Imaging for Staging of Hepatic Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhang

    Full Text Available To determine the potential of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM MR imaging for staging of hepatic fibrosis (HF.We searched PubMed and EMBASE from their inception to 31 July 2015 to select studies reporting IVIM MR imaging and HF staging. We defined F1-2 as non-advanced HF, F3-4 as advanced HF, F0 as normal liver, F1 as very early HF, and F2-4 as significant HF. Then we compared stage F0 with F1, F0-1 with F2-3, and F1-2 with F3-4 using IVIM-derived parameters (pseudo-diffusion coefficient D*, perfusion fraction f, and pure molecular diffusion parameter D. The effect estimate was expressed as a pooled weighted mean difference (WMD with 95% confidence interval (CI, using the fixed-effects model.Overall, we included six papers (406 patients in this study. Significant differences in D* were observed between F0 and F1, F0-1 and F2-3, and F1-2 and F3-4 (WMD 2.46, 95% CI 0.83-4.09, P = 0.006; WMD 13.10, 95% CI 9.53-16.67, P < 0.001; WMD 14.34, 95% CI 10.26-18.42, P < 0.001, respectively. Significant differences in f were also found between F0 and F1, F0-1 and F2-3, and F1-2 and F3-4 (WMD 1.62, 95% CI 0.06-3.18, P = 0.027; WMD 5.63, 95% CI 2.74-8.52, P < 0.001; WMD 3.30, 95% CI 2.10-4.50, P < 0.001, respectively. However, D showed no differences between F0 and F1, F0-1 and F2-3, and F1-2 and F3-4 (WMD 0.05, 95% CI -0.01─0.11, P = 0.105; WMD 0.04, 95% CI -0.01─0.10, P = 0.230; WMD 0.02, 95% CI -0.02─0.06, P = 0.378, respectively.IVIM MR imaging provides an effective method of staging HF and can distinguish early HF from normal liver, significant HF from normal liver or very early HF, and advanced HF from non-advanced HF.

  8. sfDM: Open-Source Software for Temporal Analysis and Visualization of Brain Tumor Diffusion MR Using Serial Functional Diffusion Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschin, Rafael; Panigrahy, Ashok; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in the diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors is tissue heterogeneity leading to mixed treatment response. Additionally, they are often difficult or at very high risk for biopsy, further hindering the clinical management process. To overcome this, novel advanced imaging methods are increasingly being adapted clinically to identify useful noninvasive biomarkers capable of disease stage characterization and treatment response prediction. One promising technique is called functional diffusion mapping (fDM), which uses diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to generate parametric maps between two imaging time points in order to identify significant voxel-wise changes in water diffusion within the tumor tissue. Here we introduce serial functional diffusion mapping (sfDM), an extension of existing fDM methods, to analyze the entire tumor diffusion profile along the temporal course of the disease. sfDM provides the tools necessary to analyze a tumor data set in the context of spatiotemporal parametric mapping: the image registration pipeline, biomarker extraction, and visualization tools. We present the general workflow of the pipeline, along with a typical use case for the software. sfDM is written in Python and is freely available as an open-source package under the Berkley Software Distribution (BSD) license to promote transparency and reproducibility.

  9. Curative effect of one-stage total hip arthroplasty for advanced tuberculosis of hip%Ⅰ期全髋关节置换术治疗晚期髋关节结核的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓辉; 梁大伟; 杨毅; 龚跃昆; 马珂; 李彪

    2015-01-01

    背景:髋关节结核在我国仍属于常见病,国内外学者对于髋关节结核是否进行Ⅰ期全髋关节置换术仍存在较大分歧。目的:观察Ⅰ期全髋关节置换术治疗晚期髋关节结核的疗效及安全性。  方法:2007年3月至2014年2月我院共收治晚期髋关节结核患者33例,均行Ⅰ期全髋关节置换术。33例均为单侧髋关节结核,其中男20例,女13例;平均年龄44.2岁(19~65岁);髋关节结核感染分期Ⅲ期4例,Ⅳ期29例;其中2合并肺结核(陈旧性),1例合并脊柱(L1)结核,髋关节窦道形成4例(已闭合),髋关节强直14例。术前给予正规抗痨治疗平均42.0 d(21~90 d),红细胞沉降率(ESR)、C反应蛋白(CRP)下降至接近正常范围,给予Ⅰ期病灶清除全髋关节置换术、所有病例均使用生物型假体,术后病理检查均诊断为结核感染,术后继续正规抗痨治疗平均9.2个月(6~12个月),髋关节功能采用Harris评分系统进行评价,术后及随访复查X线片、CT、ESR、CRP。  结果:33例全髋关节置换术切口均甲级愈合,术后假体无松动、下沉、脱位。全部获得随访,平均随访时间61.0个月(5~96个月),均无髋关节疼痛、功能障碍及结核复发。术前患者平均Harris评分30.5分(20~60分),末次随访平均Harris评分90.4分(85~97分)。  结论:排除混合感染,术前抗结核治疗有效,术中彻底清除病灶,Ⅰ期行全髋关节置换治疗晚期髋关节结核可获得满意的疗效。%Background:Although hip tuberculosis is still a common disease in China, there has been much dispute over one-stage total hip arthroplasty (TKA) for the treatment. Objective:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of one-stage TKA for advanced tuberculosis of hip. Methods:From March 2007 to February 2014, 33 patients (33 hips) with advanced tuberculosis of the hip underwent one-stage

  10. Late stages of the evolution of A-type stars on the main sequence: comparison between observed chemical abundances and diffusion models for 8 Am stars of the Praesepe cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Fossati, L; Monier, R; Khan, S A; Kochukhov, O; Landstreet, J; Wade, G; Weiss, W

    2007-01-01

    Aims. We aim to provide observational constraints on diffusion models that predict peculiar chemical abundances in the atmospheres of Am stars. We also intend to check if chemical peculiarities and slow rotation can be explained by the presence of a weak magnetic field. Methods. We have obtained high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of eight previously-classified Am stars, two normal A-type stars and one Blue Straggler, considered to be members of the Praesepe cluster. For all of these stars we have determined fundamental parameters and photospheric abundances for a large number of chemical elements, with a higher precision than was ever obtained before for this cluster. For seven of these stars we also obtained spectra in circular polarization and applied the LSD technique to constrain the longitudinal magnetic field. Results. No magnetic field was detected in any of the analysed stars. HD 73666, a Blue Straggler previously considered as an Ap (Si) star, turns out to have the abundances of a no...

  11. Recent advances in mass transport in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ochsner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The present topical volume presents a representative cross-section of some recent advances made in the area of diffusion. The range of topics covered is very large, and, this reflects the enormous breadth of the topic of diffusion. The areas covered include diffusion in intermetallics, phenomenological diffusion theory, diffusional creep, kinetics of steel-making, diffusion in thin films, precipitation, diffusional phase transformations, atomistic diffusion simulations, epitaxial growth and diffusion in porous media. Review from Book News Inc.: In 13 invited and peer-reviewed papers, scientist

  12. A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of oral 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP, NSC #663249) in the treatment of advanced stage solid cancers – A California Cancer Consortium Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Joseph; Synold, Timothy W.; Morgan, Robert J.; Kunos, Charles; Longmate, Jeff; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Lim, Dean; Shibata, Stephen; Chung, Vincent; Stoller, Ronald G.; Belani, Chandra P.; Gandara, David R.; McNamara, Mark; Gitlitz, Barbara J.; Lau, Derick H.; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Davies, Angela; Espinoza-Delgado, Igor; Newman, Edward M.; Yen, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Background 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP) is a novel small molecule ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor. This study was designed to estimate the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and oral bioavailability of 3-AP in patients with advanced stage solid tumors. Methods Twenty patients received one dose of intravenous and subsequent cycles of oral 3-AP following a 3+3 patient dose-escalation. Intravenous 3-AP was administered to every patient at a fixed dose of 100 mg over a 2-hour infusion 1 week prior to the first oral cycle. Oral 3-AP was administered every 12 hours for 5 consecutive doses on days 1–3, days 8–10, and days 15–17 of every 28-day cycle. 3-AP was started at 50 mg with a planned dose escalation to 100, 150, and 200 mg. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) and bioavailability were evaluated. Results Twenty patients were enrolled. For dose level 1 (50mg), the second of three treated patients had a DLT of grade 3 hypertension. In the dose level 1 expansion cohort, three patients had no DLTs. No further DLTs were encountered during escalation until the 200 mg dose was reached. At the 200 mg 3-AP dose level, two treated patients had DLTs of grade 3 hypoxia. One additional DLT of grade 4 febrile neutropenia was subsequently observed at the de-escalated 150 mg dose. One DLT in 6 evaluable patients established the MTD as 150 mg per dose on this dosing schedule. Responses in the form of stable disease occurred in 5 (25%) of 20 patients. The oral bioavailability of 3-AP was 67 ± 29%, and was consistent with the finding that the MTD by the oral route was 33% higher than by the intravenous route. Conclusions Oral 3-AP is well-tolerated and has an MTD similar to its intravenous form after accounting for the oral bioavailability. Oral 3-AP is associated with a modest clinical benefit rate of 25% in our treated patient population with advanced solid tumors. PMID:22105720

  13. 2015 MICCAI Workshop on Computational Diffusion MRI

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Aurobrata; Kaden, Enrico; Rathi, Yogesh; Reisert, Marco

    2016-01-01

    These Proceedings of the 2015 MICCAI Workshop “Computational Diffusion MRI” offer a snapshot of the current state of the art on a broad range of topics within the highly active and growing field of diffusion MRI. The topics vary from fundamental theoretical work on mathematical modeling, to the development and evaluation of robust algorithms, new computational methods applied to diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data, and applications in neuroscientific studies and clinical practice. Over the last decade interest in diffusion MRI has exploded. The technique provides unique insights into the microstructure of living tissue and enables in-vivo connectivity mapping of the brain. Computational techniques are key to the continued success and development of diffusion MRI and to its widespread transfer into clinical practice. New processing methods are essential for addressing issues at each stage of the diffusion MRI pipeline: acquisition, reconstruction, modeling and model fitting, image processing, fiber t...

  14. Comparison of optimised endovaginal vs external array coil T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging techniques for detecting suspected early stage (IA/IB1) uterine cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downey, Kate; Morgan, Veronica A.; Giles, Sharon L.; MacDonald, A.; DeSouza, Nandita M. [The Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK Cancer Imaging Centre, Surrey (United Kingdom); Attygalle, Ayoma D. [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Davis, M. [Kingston Hospital, Department of Gynaecology, Kingston-upon-Thames, Surrey (United Kingdom); Ind, Thomas E.J.; Shepherd, John H. [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Gynecology Unit, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    To compare sensitivity and specificity of endovaginal versus external-array coil T2-W and T2-W + DWI for detecting and staging small cervical tumours. Optimised endovaginal and external array coil MRI at 3.0-T was done prospectively in 48 consecutive patients with stage Ia/Ib1 cervical cancer. Sensitivity/specificity for detecting tumour and parametrial extension against histopathology for a reading radiologist were determined on coronal T2-W and T2W + DW images. An independent radiologist also scored T2-W images without and with addition of DWI for the external-array and endovaginal coils on separate occasions >2 weeks apart. Cohen's kappa assessed inter- and intra-observer agreement. Median tumour volume in 19/38 cases positive on subsequent histology was 1.75 cm{sup 3}. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV were: reading radiologist 91.3 %, 89.5 %, 91.3 %, 89.5 %, respectively; independent radiologist T2-W 82.6 %, 73.7 %, 79.1 %, 77.8 % for endovaginal, 73.9 %, 89.5 %, 89.5 %, 73.9 % for external-array coil. Adding DWI improved sensitivity and specificity of endovaginal imaging (78.2 %, 89.5 %); adding DWI to external-array imaging improved specificity (94.7 %) but reduced sensitivity (66.7 %). Inter- and intra-observer agreement on T2-W + DWI was good (kappa = 0.67 and 0.62, respectively). Endovaginal coil T2-W MRI is more sensitive than external-array coil for detecting tumours <2 cm{sup 3}; adding DWI improves specificity of endovaginal imaging but reduces sensitivity of external-array imaging. (orig.)

  15. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring - perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state. This ability can be invaluable to learn when certain computer nodes are infected or which people are the initial disease spreaders to control future diffusions. We formulate this problem over discrete-time SEIRS-type diffusion models in terms of maximum likelihood. We design methods that are based on submodularity and a novel prize-collecting dominating-set vertex cover (PCDSVC) relaxation that can identify likely diffusion steps with some provable performance guarantees. Our methods are the first to be able to reconstruct complete diffusion histories accurately in real and simulated situations. As a special case, they can also identify the initial spreaders better than the existing methods for that problem. Our results for both meme and contaminant diffusion show that the partial diffusion data problem can be overcome with proper modeling and methods, and that hidden temporal characteristics of diffusion can be predicted from limited data.

  16. Thermodynamics, diffusion and the Kirkendall effect in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Aloke; Vuorinen, Vesa; Divinski, Sergiy V

    2014-01-01

    Covering both basic and advanced thermodynamic and phase  principles,  as well as providing stability diagrams relevant for diffusion studies, Thermodynamics, Diffusion and the Kirkendall Effect in Solids maximizes reader insights into Fick’s laws of diffusion, atomic mechanisms, interdiffusion, intrinsic diffusion, tracer diffusion and the Kirkendall effect. Recent advances in the area of interdiffusion will be introduced, while the many practical examples and large number of illustrations given will serve to aid researches working in this area in learning the practical evaluation of various diffusion parameters from experimental results. With a unique approach to the two main focal points in solid state transformations, energetics (thermodynamics) and kinetics (interdiffusion) are extensively studied and their combined use in practise is discussed. Recent developments in the area of Kirkendall effect, grain boundary diffusion and multicomponent diffusion are also covered extensively. This book will appe...

  17. Intrathecal Injection for Advanced Stages of Tuberculous Meningitis in Elderly Patients%鞘内注药治疗老年中晚期结核性脑膜炎的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建丽; 刘诗翔

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究脑脊液置换和鞘内注射异烟肼、糖皮质激素、尿激酶和胞二磷胆碱对老年中晚期结核性脑膜炎患者的疗效.方法 于2007年10月1日至2012年3月31日住院的86例老年中晚期结核性脑膜炎患者,按是否鞘内注药分为治疗组(46例)和对照组(40例).对照组给予常规药物治疗和置换脑脊液治疗;治疗组在常规药物治疗的基础上,给予脑脊液置换并鞘内注射异烟肼、糖皮质激素、尿激酶和胞二磷胆碱.根据2组脑脊液变化和临床疗效进行比较分析.结果 治疗组治愈32例,有效10例,无效4例;对照组治愈16例,有效8例,无效16例.治疗组治疗效果明显高于对照组(P<0.05),且未发现与脑脊液置换加鞘内注药相关的并发症.结论 在常规药物治疗的基础上,鞘内注射异烟肼、糖皮质激素、尿激酶和胞二磷胆碱可提高老年中晚期结核性脑膜炎患者的临床疗效.%Objective To investigate the curative effects cerebrospinal fluid replacement and intrathecal injection of isoniazid, glucocorticoids, urokinase and citicoline on advanced stages of tuberculous meningitis in elderly patients. Methods Elderly patients treated in the between October 1,2007 and March 31,2012 for advanced stages of 86 case tuberculous meningitis were divided into two groups according to whether the intrathecal injection: control group (40 case) and treatment group(46 case). All patients were given conventional drug treatment and cerebrospinal fluid replacement. On this basis, patients in treatment group were additionally given intrathecal injection of isoniazid, glucocorticoids, urokinase and citicoline. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid and clinical efficacy were compared between the two groups. Results In treatment group,32 patients were cured,10 were improved and 4 underwent ineffective treatment. In control group,16 patients were cured,8 were improved and 16 underwent ineffective treatment. Compared with control

  18. Find out the Target IOP while Different Blood Pressure in Advanced Stage Glaucoma%晚期青光眼在不同血压段时靶眼压的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏兴云; 贺平; 刘静

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨晚期青光眼在不同血压段时病程的进展规律 ,并找出在不同血压段时的治疗靶眼压.方法:长期随访晚期青光眼患者的血压及眼压值 ,并分别做视野检查 ,通过A G IS评分法判断病程的进展.并统计出不同血压时的治疗靶眼压值.结果:随访血压越低 ,视野受损进展越快.当视野无进展时 ,血压越低 ,其随访眼压也越低.血压与目标眼压之间呈近似线性关系.结论:低血压是晚期青光眼病程中的危险因素之一.晚期青光眼患者对靶眼压的选择应根据不同血压段来选择.%Objective:To explore progress rule of advanced stage glaucoma and find out the target intraocular pressure in different blood pressure .Methods:Long term follow-up the intraocular pressure and blood pressure .Judge the course of glaucoma by AGIS .find out the target intraocular pressure in different blood pressure .Results:For the lower blood pressure ,impaired vision progress more quickly .When vision without progress ,the lower blood pressure ,the lower intraocular pressure there has been approximate linear relationship between blood pressure and the target intraocular pressure .Conclusion:Low blood pressure is one of the risk factors of adanced glaucoma progression .The target in-traocular pressure should be selected according to different blood pressure .

  19. Study on Two-stage MBBR for Advanced Treatment of Domestic Sewage with High Ammonia Nitrogen%两级MBBR深度处理高氨氮生活污水的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建广; 黄传伟; 谢勇军; 王丹

    2011-01-01

    采用两级移动床生物膜反应器(MBBR)深度处理高氨氮生活污水,重点考察了水力停留时间(HRT)和气水比对其除污效果的影响.结果表明,当系统的总HRT为8h,MBBR1的气水比为25:1、MBBR2的曝气量为280 L/h时,系统的出水COD和氨氮分别为45 mg/L左右和5mg/L以下,平均去除率分别为65%和95%左右,达到了(GB18918-2002)的一级A标准;同时系统内存在同步硝化反硝化作用,对TN的去除率可达30%左右.%Two-stage moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was used for advanced treatment of domestic sewage with high ammonia nitrogen.The influence of HRT and air/water ratio on the pollutant removal efficiency was investigated.The results show that when the total HRT is 8 h, the air/water ratio of MBBR1 is 25: 1, and the aeration rate of MBBR2 is 280 L/h, the effluent COD and ammonia nitrogen are about 45 mg/L and less than 5 mg/L, and their average removal rates are 65% and 95% respectively, meeting the first level A criteria specified in Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (CB 18918 -2002).Moreover, the simuhaneous nitrification and denitrification exists in the reactor, and the removal rate of TN is about 30%.

  20. Theoretical Model of Transformation Superlastic Diffusion Bonding for Eutectoid Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on current theories of diffusion and creep cavity closure at high temperature, a theoretical analysis of phase transformation diffusion bonding for T8/T8 eutectoid steel is carried out. The diffusion bonding is mainly described as two-stage process: Ⅰ The interfacial cavity with shape change from diamond to cylinder.Ⅱ The radius of the cylindrical cavity are reduced and eliminated gradually. A new theoretical model is established for the process of transformation superplastic diffusion bonding (TSDB) ...

  1. Concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy with carboplatin in patients with unresectable advanced head and neck tumors stages III and IV; Simultane Radiochemotherapie mit Carboplatin bei Patienten mit inoperablen fortgeschrittenen Kopf-Hals-Tumoren der Stadien UICC III und IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muecke, R.; Ziegler, P.G.; Libera, T.; Fietkau, R. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie; Blynow, M.; Dommerich, S.; Kramp, B. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). HNO-Klinik und Poliklinik; Kundt, G. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Informatik und Biometrie

    1999-05-01

    Background: The results of treating advanced tumors in the head and neck region with radiotherapy alone are disappointing. Concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy may improve this situation. The treatment results of concurrent radiochemotherapy at the University of Rostock were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Six weeks after radiochemotherapy 56.5% of patients had a complete remission, 36% a partial remission and 7.5% `no change`. With a median follow-up of 42 months (6 to 74 months) overall survival, disease-free survival and local control were 24.3%, 28.9%, 18.0% 5 years after treatment. All these criteria were significantly better in patients with palliative tumor resection compared to no surgical treatment (uni- and multivariate) and in patients with Stage III than in patients with Stage IV carcinomas (univariate), overall survival was significantly better in patients with Stage III (multivariate). A pretherapeutic Hb level below 7.0 mmol/l (11.27 g/dl) reduced the local control significantly (uni- and multivariate). Grade III and IV mucositis was detected in 10%, Grade III leucopenia in 12% of treated patients. Grade IV leucopenia and Grade III thrombopenia were observed in 1 patient each. Conclusion: The toxicity of this treatment is tolerable. However, additional trials must be conducted before considering the palliative tumor resection as standard therapy. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Die Therapieergebnisse der Behandlung fortgeschrittener Tumoren der Kopf-Hals-Region mit alleiniger Bestrahlung sind unbefriedigend. Eine simultane Radiochemotherapie verbessert diese Resultate vermutlich. In einer retrospektiven Analyse wurden Ergebnisse nach simultaner Radiochemotherapie an der Universitaet Rostock ausgewertet. Ergebnisse: Sechs Wochen nach Radiochemotherapie erreichten 56,5% der Patienten eine komplette und 36% der Patienten eine partielle Remission, ein `no change` war bei 7,5% der Patienten festzustellen. Bei einer medianen Beobachtungszeit von

  2. Diffuse anterior retinoblastoma: current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jing Yang,1–3 Yalong Dang,1–3 Yu Zhu,1 Chun Zhang2,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, 3Clinical Stem Cell Research Center, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Diffuse anterior retinoblastoma is a rare variant of retinoblastoma seeding in the area of the vitreous base and anterior chamber. Patients with diffuse anterior retinoblastoma are older than those with the classical types, with the mean age being 6.1 years. The original cells of diffuse anterior retinoblastoma are supposed to be cone precursor. Patients most commonly present with pseudouveitis, pseudohypopyon, and increased intraocular pressure. The retina under fundus examination is likely to be normal, and the clinical features mimic the inflammation progress, which can often lead to misdiagnosis. The published diffuse anterior retinoblastoma cases were diagnosed after fine-needle aspiration biopsy running the potential risk of inducing metastasis. The most common treatment for diffuse anterior retinoblastoma is enucleation followed by systematic chemotherapy according to the patient’s presentation and clinical course. This review summarizes the recent advances in etiology (including tumorigenesis and cell origin, pathology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and new treatment. The challenges of early diagnosis and prospects are also discussed. Keywords: pathology, microenvironment, treatment, diagnosis 

  3. Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Parashar, Bhupesh; Arora, Shruthi; Wernicke, A. Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy for early stage lung cancer is a promising modality. It has been traditionally used in patients not considered candidates for standard surgical resection. However, its role has been changing rapidly since the introduction of new and advanced technology, especially in tumor tracking, image guidance, and radiation delivery. Stereotactic radiation therapy is one such advancement that has shown excellent local control rates and promising survival in early stage lung cancer. In a...

  4. Spectrum of fibrosing diffuse parenchymal lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthau, Adam S; Padilla, Maria L

    2009-02-01

    The interstitial lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by inflammation and/or fibrosis of the pulmonary interstitium. In 2002, the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society revised the classification of interstitial lung diseases and introduced the term diffuse parenchymal lung disease. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a subtype of diffuse parenchymal lung disease. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are subdivided into usual interstitial pneumonia (with its clinical counterpart idiopathic interstitial pneumonia), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease, and lymphocytic pneumonia. Sarcoidosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis are the 2 most common granulomatous diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, and dermatomyositis/polymyositis (causing antisynthetase syndrome) are diffuse parenchymal lung diseases of known association because these conditions are associated with connective tissue disease. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome is a rare genetic diffuse parenchymal lung disease characterized by the clinical triad of pulmonary disease, oculocutaneous albinism, and bleeding diathesis. This review provides an overview of the chronic fibrosing diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. Its primary objective is to illuminate the clinical challenges encountered by clinicians who manage the diffuse parenchymal lung diseases regularly and to offer potential solutions to those challenges. Treatment for the diffuse parenchymal lung diseases is limited, and for many patients with end-stage disease, lung transplantation remains the best option. Although much has been learned about the diffuse parenchymal lung diseases during the past decade, research in these diseases is urgently needed.

  5. Ga self-diffusion in isotopically enriched GaAs heterostructures doped with Si and Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norseng, Marshall Stephen [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-12-01

    This study attempts to advance the modeling of AlGaAs/GaAs/AlAs diffusion by experimental investigation of Ga self-diffusion in undoped, as-grown doped and Zinc diffused structures. We utilize novel, isotopically enriched superlattice and heterostructure samples to provide direct observation and accurate measurement of diffusion with a precision not possible using conventional techniques.

  6. Basic principles of diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bammer, Roland. E-mail: roland@s-word.stanford.edu

    2003-03-01

    In diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), image contrast is determined by the random microscopic motion of water protons. During the last years, DWI has become an important modality in the diagnostic work-up of acute ischemia in the CNS. There are also a few promising reports about the application of DWI to other regions in the human body, such as the vertebral column or the abdomen. This manuscript provides an introduction into the basics of DWI and Diffusion Tensor imaging. The potential of various MR sequences in concert with diffusion preparation are discussed with respect to acquisition speed, spatial resolution, and sensitivity to bulk physiologic motion. More advanced diffusion measurement techniques, such as high angular resolution diffusion imaging, are also addressed.

  7. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

  8. 全身磁共振背景抑制扩散成像对胃癌原发病灶筛查及N分期的价值%The Value of MR Whole-Body Diffusion Weighted Imaging with Background Suppression (WB-DWIBS) in Detecting the Gastric Carcinoma and in Staging of Lymph Node Metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳琦; 徐芹艳; 孙西河; 董鹏; 王锡臻; 常光辉; 葛艳明

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨全身MR背景抑制扩散成像(whole-body diffusion weighted imaging with background suppression,WB-DWIBS))对胃癌原发病灶筛查及N分期的价值.方法 选取经手术或胃镜活检病理证实的胃癌患者20例作为研究组,另随机选取健康者17名作为对照组,行常规MRI和WB-DWIBS检查.测量胃癌及正常胃壁的信号强度及表观扩散系数(ADC)值,同时计数WB-DWIBS发现的转移淋巴结的个数.结果 胃癌在高b值WB-DWIBS上表现为较高信号,与正常胃壁相比,其信号强度明显高于正常胃壁的信号强度(P<0.05),ADC值明显小于正常胃壁的ADC值(P<0.05).低分化腺癌与中分化腺癌间的信号强度与ADC值差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).WB-DWIBS对转移淋巴结分期N0期的敏感性为33.3%,特异性为64.3%;N1期的敏感性为57.1%,特异性为53.8%;N2期的敏感性为71.4%,特异性为46.2%.结论 WB-DWIBS可快速发现胃癌,对胃癌的全身筛查和早期诊断具有重要意义;对胃癌的N分期亦有重要价值.%Objective To explore the value of MR whole body diffusion weighted imaging with background suppression ( WB-DWIBS) in detecting the gastric carcinoma and in staging of lymph node metastasis. Methods Seventeen healthy volunteers and 20 patients with gastric carcinoma conformed by surgery or gastroscope biopsy were collected. The patients underwent conventional MRI and WB-DWIBS. The signal intensity and ADC values of stomach wall were measured. The numbers of metastatic lymph nodes found in the WB-DWIBS were counted. Results On high b value of WB-DWIBS, the signal intensity of gastric carcinoma was significant higher than that of normal stomach wall (P 0.05). The sensitivity and the specificity of WB-DWIBS for N0 staging was 33.3% and 64. 3% , N1 staging 57.1 % and 53.8% , N2 staging 71.4% and 46.2% respectively Conclusion WB-DWIBS has important value in screening and detecting early primary gastric carcinoma, and also has

  9. FAU in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors or Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-06

    Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage III Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell

  10. 晚期创伤性踝关节炎应用关节镜辅助踝关节融合术治疗的临床观察%The Observasion of the Clinical Effect to Arthroscopy With Ankle Arthrodesis of Advanced Stage of Traumatic Anklebone Arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕国福

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of arthroscopic with ankle arthrodesis treating by advanced stage of traumatic anklebone arthritis. Methods 32 cases of patients with advanced stage of traumatic ankle arthritis were selected into the study, and treated by arthroscopic ankle fusion, the treatment effect was analyzed. Results The time of operation was(122±24)min,the amount of bleeding was(50±15)ml. After 1 year,VAS score was(2.6±1). Conclusion The clinical effect of arthroscopy with ankle arthrodesis for the treatment of advanced stage of traumatic anklebone arthritis is significant.%目的:观察关节镜辅助踝关节融合术治疗晚期创伤性踝关节炎的效果。方法选取32例晚期创伤性踝关节炎患者做研究对象,均采用关节镜辅助踝关节融合术治疗,分析治疗效果。结果手术时间(122±24)min,出血量(50±15)ml;术后1年疼痛VAS评分为(2.6±1.0)分。结论关节镜辅助踝关节融合术治疗晚期创伤性踝关节炎效果显著。

  11. [The preoperative staging of rectal neoplasms: the clinical exam and diagnostic imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, M; Danza, F M

    1999-01-01

    The management of rectal cancer remains an important clinical problem. Although there was been great progress in surgical management, the survival of patients with locally advanced disease has not improved significantly during the past decades. Preoperative staging and evaluation of the risk of recurrence may help in the choice of operation. It is difficult for clinicians to quantify reliably with digital examination the degree of fixation of the tumor, and they usually cannot distinguish nodal metastases except in advanced cases. The more frequent overstaging of small tumors within one quadrant of the rectum is a major drawback of digital examination. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance seems to underestimate the extension of rectal tumors, but both can be helpful in selecting patients with advanced tumors for whom preoperative adjuvant treatment is being considered. Endoluminal ultrasound is superior in staging tumors confined to the rectal wall, but is not the ideal tool for staging: the results are examiner dependent, the field of vision in depth is limited, and stricturing tumors cannot be passed by the ultrasound transducer. Imaging diagnostic attendibility confirms the preeminent role of intraoperative exploration in the assessment of neoplastic diffusion in order to plan a correct surgical treatment.

  12. Diffusion imaging changes in grey matter in Alzheimer's disease: a potential marker of early neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Philip S J; Simpson, Ivor J A; Ryan, Natalie S; Ourselin, Sebastien; Fox, Nick C

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is recognized to have a long presymptomatic period, during which there is progressive accumulation of molecular pathology, followed by inexorable neuronal damage. The ability to identify presymptomatic individuals with evidence of neurodegenerative change, to stage their disease, and to track progressive changes will be important for early diagnosis and for prevention trials. Despite recent advances, particularly in magnetic resonance imaging, our ability to identify early neurodegenerative changes reliably is limited. The development of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, which is sensitive to microstructural changes not visible with conventional volumetric techniques, has led to a number of diffusion imaging studies in AD; these have largely focused on white matter changes. However, in AD cerebral grey matter is affected very early, with pathological studies suggesting that grey matter changes predate those in white matter. In this article we review the growing number of studies that assess grey matter diffusivity changes in AD. Although use of the technique is still at a relatively early stage, results so far have been promising. Initial studies identified changes in diffusion measures in the hippocampi of patients with mild cognitive impairment, which predated macroscopic volume loss, with positive predictive value for progression to AD dementia. More recent studies have identified abnormalities in multiple neocortical areas (particularly the posterior cingulate) at various stages of disease progression. Studies of patients who carry genetic mutations predisposing to autosomal dominant familial AD have shown cortical and subcortical grey matter diffusivity changes several years before the expected onset of the first clinical symptoms. The technique is not without potential methodological difficulties, especially relating to partial volume effects, although recent advances appear to be reducing such issues. Going forward

  13. Advance Care Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallworthy, Elizabeth J

    2013-04-16

    Advance care planning should be available to all patients with chronic kidney disease, including end-stage kidney disease on renal replacement therapy. Advance care planning is a process of patient-centred discussion, ideally involving family/significant others, to assist the patient to understand how their illness might affect them, identify their goals and establish how medical treatment might help them to achieve these. An Advance Care Plan is only one useful outcome from the Advance Care Planning process, the education of patient and family around prognosis and treatment options is likely to be beneficial whether or not a plan is written or the individual loses decision making capacity at the end of life. Facilitating Advance Care Planning discussions requires an understanding of their purpose and communication skills which need to be taught. Advance Care Planning needs to be supported by effective systems to enable the discussions and any resulting Plans to be used to aid subsequent decision making.

  14. Sleeping Beauties in Meme Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Leihan; Xu, Ke

    2016-01-01

    A sleeping beauty in diffusion indicates that the information, can be ideas or innovations, will experience a hibernation before a sudden spike of popularity and it is widely found in citation history of scientific publications. However, in this study, we demonstrate that the sleeping beauty is an universal phenomenon in information diffusion and even more inspiring, there exist two consecutive sleeping beauties in the entire lifetime of propagation, suggesting that the information, including trending topics, search queries or Wikipedia views, which we call memes, will go unnoticed for a period and suddenly attracts some attention, and then it falls asleep again and later wakes up with another unexpected popularity peak. Further explorations on this phenomenon show that intervals between two wake ups follow an exponential distribution and the second awakening stage generally reaches its peak at a higher velocity and will bring a wider dissemination. Taking these findings into consideration, the upgraded Bass ...

  15. The Application Value of Background Suppression Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWIBS) in Preoperative Staging of Rectal Cancer%全身磁共振背景抑制扩散成像在直肠癌术前分期中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芹艳; 孙世杭; 孙西河; 董鹏; 王锡臻; 常光辉; 管玥; 葛艳明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinic value of background suppression diffusion weighted imaging( DWIBS) in preoperative staging of rectal cancer. Materials and Methods 39 cases of rectal cancer confirmed by colonoscopy received DWIBS. The data was divided into three (T2, T3 T4) groups on the basis of pathological results about T stage of rectal cancer. The relative signal intensity and the ADC values of the tumor were measured, the length, perimeter and thickness of the lesion were examined on DWIBS sequence. The difference of every index among groups and correlative a-nalysis were taken. Preoperative NM staging was made, the results were compared with the results of pathological NM staging and the accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of DWIBS NM staging was calculated. Results Among 39 cancer lesions, DWIBS correctly detected 39 lesions, the sensitivity and accuracy both were 100%. Thickness of the lesion were different from each other(f 0.05 ). The overall diagnostic accuracy rate of N staging was 84. 61% ; For No stage the sensitivity was 85.71% , the specificity was 83.33%. For N, stage, the diagnostic sensitivity was 70.00% , the specificity was 89.66%. For N, stage, the sensitivity was 100% , specificity was 80. 65%. 6 cases of distant metastasis were correctly diagnosed by DWIBS. Conclusion DWIBS is sensitive and accuracy in NM staging of rectal cancer, it is an effective method to show the metastatic lymph node and distant metastasis, and also has high accuracy and sensitivity in detecting the primary tumor of rectal cancer. However,the application of DW1BS in T staging exists certain limits, combining with conventional MRI sequences is helpful to improve the accuracy of T staging.%目的 探讨全身磁共振背景抑制扩散加权成像(DWIBS)对直肠癌术前分期的应用价值.资料与方法 对39例经肠镜证实的直肠癌患者,术前行全身磁共振DWIBS检查,以直肠癌原发灶病理结果为标准将本组资料分为T2、T3、T4三

  16. Analysis on effect of two kinds of chemotherapies on mediate and advanced stage ovarian cancer%中晚期卵巢癌术后两种化疗方式的临床疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖秀兰; 任统伟

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨中晚期卵巢癌术后化疗的临床疗效分析.方法 回顾性分析某院自2009年10月~2011年1月收治的36例中晚期卵巢癌进行化疗患者,将患者随机分为常规穿刺术20例,皮下植入化疗泵16例,观察两组的一次穿刺成功率、完成化疗疗程的情况及不良反应.结果 常规组穿刺53次,一次成功率为83.0%,二次成功率为17.0%,化疗泵组总穿刺数42次,一次成功率为97.6%,二次成功率为2.4%.两组穿刺(P<0.05).常规组完成疗程45%,化疗泵组完成疗程81.2% (P< 0.05).两组均出现不同程度的不良反应.结论 皮下植入化疗泵与常规穿刺术组比较,植入化疗泵一次穿刺成功率、完成化疗疗程及不良反应方面具有显著优势.%OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of chemotherapy on mediate and advanced stage ovarian cancer. METHODS We retrospectively analyzed 36 cases with ovarian cancer treated from October 2009 to January 2011, the 36 cases were randomly divided into 2 groups with 20 cases in conventional group given conventional implantation, and 16 cases in experimental group given chemotherapy pump of hypodermic implantation. Contrast the achievement ratio of puncture, achievement course of chemotherapy and adverse reaction. RESULTS In the conventional group, the achievement ratio of puncture was 53 times, first and second achievement ratio was 83.0% and 17.0%. In the experimental group, the achievement ratio of puncture was 42 times, first and second achievement ratio was 97.6% and 2.4%.There was significant difference in both groups (P< 0.05). The achievement course of chemotherapy was 81.2% and 45.0% respectively in the experimental group and conventional group. The different degrees of adverse reaction occurred in two groups. CONCLUSION Pump of hypodermic implantation could improve the achievement ratio of puncture, achievement course and reduce the adverse reaction.

  17. An Open-Label, Multicenter, Randomized, Phase II Study of Pazopanib in Combination with Pemetrexed in First-Line Treatment of Patients with Advanced-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scagliotti, Giorgio V; Felip, Enriqueta; Besse, Benjamin;

    2013-01-01

    This randomized open-label phase II study evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of pazopanib in combination with pemetrexed compared with the standard cisplatin/pemetrexed doublet in patients with previously untreated, advanced, nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer.......This randomized open-label phase II study evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of pazopanib in combination with pemetrexed compared with the standard cisplatin/pemetrexed doublet in patients with previously untreated, advanced, nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer....

  18. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of TBI: Potentials and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David B; Iv, Michael; Douglas, Pamela K; Anderson, Ariana; Vos, Sjoerd B; Bammer, Roland; Zeineh, Michael; Wintermark, Max

    2015-10-01

    Neuroimaging plays a critical role in the setting in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an advanced magnetic resonance imaging technique that is capable of providing rich information on the brain's neuroanatomic connectome. The purpose of this article is to systematically review the role of DTI and advanced diffusion techniques in the setting of TBI, including diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, diffusion spectrum imaging, and q-ball imaging. We discuss clinical applications of DTI and review the DTI literature as it pertains to TBI. Despite the continued advancements in DTI and related diffusion techniques over the past 20 years, DTI techniques are sensitive for TBI at the group level only and there is insufficient evidence that DTI plays a role at the individual level. We conclude by discussing future directions in DTI research in TBI including the role of machine learning in the pattern classification of TBI.

  19. Direct methods of analyzing diffuse scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgopoulos, P.; Cohen, J.B.

    1979-07-01

    Methods of analysis of diffuse scattering have now reached the stage where thee are well tested and documented standard procedures for a variety of materials, and software, for both x-rays and neutrons. These methods and their meaning Are briefly reviewed.

  20. Identifying Role Diffusion in School Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astramovich, Randall L.; Hoskins, Wendy J.; Gutierrez, Antonio P.; Bartlett, Kerry A.

    2013-01-01

    Role ambiguity in professional school counseling is an ongoing concern despite recent advances with comprehensive school counseling models. The study outlined in this article examined role diffusion as a possible factor contributing to ongoing role ambiguity in school counseling. Participants included 109 graduate students enrolled in a…

  1. A Student Diffusion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Mickey; Pearson, Bryan

    2017-02-01

    Diffusion is a truly interdisciplinary topic bridging all areas of STEM education. When biomolecules are not being moved through the body by fluid flow through the circulatory system or by molecular motors, diffusion is the primary mode of transport over short distances. The direction of the diffusive flow of particles is from high concentration toward low concentration.

  2. Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj S Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and reduced diffusion (AESD is a syndrome of encephalopathy characterized by biphasic seizures and altered consciousness in the acute stage followed in the subacute stage by restricted diffusion in the subcortical white matter on magnetic resonance imaging. The etiology of AESD has been attributed to viral infection like influenza A and human herpes virus 6. The exact pathogenesis of AESD is uncertain. Here we report a case of AESD, diagnosed based on clinicoradiological correlation.

  3. Magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging in the diagnosis of diffuse liver diseases in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Sheng; ZHOU Kang-rong; ZHAO Wei-dong; PENG Wei-jun; TANG Feng; MAO Jian

    2005-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of diffuse hepatic lesions in early stage is a tough task at any time for clinical conventional imaging Magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (MR DWI) can detect the changes of tissue structure at molecular level This study was designed to determine the value of DWI in the diagnosis of diffuse liver lesions in early stage.Methods Diffuse liver lesions were induced by diethylnitrosamine in 42 rats of test group. Fourteen rats in control group were fed with pure water. Dynamic changes of MR DWI were observed every week in both groups during the early stage of diffuse liver lesions (1 to 12 weeks after drug administration in the test group). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of liver parenchyma in different stages and pathologic changes were analyzed.Results The process of diffuse hepatic lesions in the test group was classified into three stages according to pathological changes, namely hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. No obvious morphological changes were shown by conventional imaging in both groups during this stage. But MR DWI demonstrated heterogeneous signal changes in early stage of hepatic cirrhosis in the test group. No significant change of ADC values was found in the control group between different weeks (P>0.05). The ADC values of the test group declined from the fifth week, and after the tenth week the ADC values were significantly different between the test and control groups at gradient factor (b) value 300 sec/mm2 (P<0.05). At b value 600 and 1000 sec/mm2, significant difference was seen between the two groups from the sixth week onward. The range of ADC value of the groups was (1.7-0.9)±(0.40-0.04) mm2/sec (b=600) and (1.38-0.75)±(0.07-0.35) mm2/sec (b=1000), respectively. Dominant pathological changes included swelled hepatocytes within 1 to 4 weeks after the administration of diethylnitrosamine in the test group, hyperplasia of fibrous tissues in 5-8 weeks and formation of cirrhotic nodules in 9

  4. Earthquake-explosion discrimination using diffusion maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, N.; Bregman, Y.; Lindenbaum, O.; Ben-Horin, Y.; Averbuch, A.

    2016-12-01

    Discrimination between earthquakes and explosions is an essential component of nuclear test monitoring and it is also important for maintaining the quality of earthquake catalogues. Currently used discrimination methods provide a partial solution to the problem. In this work, we apply advanced machine learning methods and in particular diffusion maps for modelling and discriminating between seismic signals. Diffusion maps enable us to construct a geometric representation that capture the intrinsic structure of the seismograms. The diffusion maps are applied after a pre-processing step, in which seismograms are converted to normalized sonograms. The constructed low-dimensional model is used for automatic earthquake-explosion discrimination of data that are collected in single seismic stations. We demonstrate our approach on a data set comprising seismic events from the Dead Sea area. The diffusion-based algorithm provides correct discrimination rate that is higher than 90 per cent.

  5. Connectionist and diffusion models of reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, R; Van Zandt, T; McKoon, G

    1999-04-01

    Two connectionist frameworks, GRAIN (J. L. McClelland, 1993) and brain-state-in-a-box (J. A. Anderson, 1991), and R. Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model were evaluated using data from a signal detection task. Dependent variables included response probabilities, reaction times for correct and error responses, and shapes of reaction-time distributions. The diffusion model accounted for all aspects of the data, including error reaction times that had previously been a problem for all response-time models. The connectionist models accounted for many aspects of the data adequately, but each failed to a greater or lesser degree in important ways except for one model that was similar to the diffusion model. The findings advance the development of the diffusion model and show that the long tradition of reaction-time research and theory is a fertile domain for development and testing of connectionist assumptions about how decisions are generated over time.

  6. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 756x576 ... Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing and inset ...

  7. Lamellar Diffuse Keratitis. Its management and clinical evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny García Milián

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The new advances in Refractive Surgery have led to an increment in the indications of the LASIK, but also of their complications. Among the postoperative complications, Diffuse Lamellar Keratitis (DLK can occur with a frequency of approximately between 1.8% and 12% of the cases. The objective of this work is to describe the behavior of DLK in patients intervened by the LASIK technique and its clinical evolution. A retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study was made of 5 cases of DLK observed in 253 patients (eyes operated by Lasik in the Ophthalmological Center of Sancti Spíritus between April 3 2008 and April 9 2009. The studied variables were: associated risk factors, beginning of clinical assessment in days, reached stage, type of treatment, duration and time of follow-up and visual results. In the 5 studied cases an average beginning of clinical assessment was observed at 3 days with blurred vision and slight ocular troubles, all were treated with steroidal antinflamatory drugs topically administered obtaining a mean AVC/SC preQX =0, 98 AV mean last control =0, 94, and a average duration of treatment of 15 days, with stages I and II being the ones that prevailed in the sample. It has been shown that DLQ is a complication that can be innocuous for visual results after the application of LASIK, if it is treated appropriately and in an early way.

  8. Creep effects in diffusion bonding of oxygen-free copper

    CERN Document Server

    Moilanen, Antti

    Diffusion is the transport of atoms or particles through the surrounding material. Various microstructural changes in metals are based on the diffusion phenomena. In solid metals the diffusion is closely related to crystallographic defects. In single-component metals the dominant mechanism of diffusion is the vacancy mechanism. Diffusion bonding is a direct technological application of diffusion. It is an advanced solidstate joining process in which the surfaces of two components are brought to contact with each other and heated under a pressing load in a controlled environment. During the process, the contact surfaces are bonded by atomic diffusion across the interface and as a result, one solid piece is formed. The condition of high temperature and low applied stress combined with relatively long process duration enables the creep effects to take place in bonded metals. Furthermore, creep causes unwanted permanent deformations in the bonded components. Some authors suggest that there could be a threshold fo...

  9. Parenteral Nutrition for Patients Treated for Locally Advanced Inoperable Tumors of the Head and Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-10

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx Stage III; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx Stage IV; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stage III; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stage IV; Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stage III; Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stage IV; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity Stage III; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity Stage IV; Locally Advanced Malignant Neoplasm

  10. Therapeutic problems in advanced stages of malignant diseases of throat and oral cavity observed during the treatment of the patients at E.N.T. Department of Wojewodzki Szpital Zespolony im. J. Babinskiego in Wroclaw; Problemy terapeutyczne w zaawansowanych stadiach nowotworow zlosliwych gardla i jamy ustnej na podstawie obserwacji chorych leczonych w Oddziale Laryngologicznym Wojewodzkiego Szpitala Zespolonego im. J. Babinskiego we Wroclawiu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, A.; Gul, E.; Hejjamy, R.; Turek, W. [Wojewodzki Szpital Zespolony im. J. Babinskiego, Wroclaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Therapeutic problems in advanced stages of malignant neoplasms of throat and oral cavity have been presented on the ground of 140 patients treated in the years 1982 - 1992 in the ENT Department of the Babinski Regional Hospital in Wroclaw. Attention has been called to the fact, that patients coming mostly from neglected environment, report themselves for treatment to late and often they don`t give their consent to the proposed surgical intervention what complicates a choice of the way of treatment affecting treatment results. In the presented material there were 111 (79.3%) such patients. The authors present surgical treatment difficulties often related to necessity of reconstructive operations and problems related to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Symptomatic treatment of neoplastic disease terminal stage has been discussed especially difficulties related to a nutrition of the patient, fighting a pain and also problems created by the stay of such patient in a surgical department. (author)

  11. Recommendations for initial evaluation, staging, and response assessment of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: the Lugano classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheson, Bruce D; Fisher, Richard I; Barrington, Sally F; Cavalli, Franco; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Zucca, Emanuele; Lister, T Andrew

    2014-09-20

    The purpose of this work was to modernize recommendations for evaluation, staging, and response assessment of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). A workshop was held at the 11th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma in Lugano, Switzerland, in June 2011, that included leading hematologists, oncologists, radiation oncologists, pathologists, radiologists, and nuclear medicine physicians, representing major international lymphoma clinical trials groups and cancer centers. Clinical and imaging subcommittees presented their conclusions at a subsequent workshop at the 12th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma, leading to revised criteria for staging and of the International Working Group Guidelines of 2007 for response. As a result, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)–computed tomography (CT) was formally incorporated into standard staging for FDG-avid lymphomas. A modification of the Ann Arbor descriptive terminology will be used for anatomic distribution of disease extent, but the suffixes A or B for symptoms will only be included for HL. A bone marrow biopsy is no longer indicated for the routine staging of HL and most diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. However, regardless of stage, general practice is to treat patients based on limited (stages I and II, nonbulky) or advanced (stage III or IV) disease, with stage II bulky disease considered as limited or advanced disease based on histology and a number of prognostic factors. PET-CT will be used to assess response in FDG-avid histologies using the 5-point scale. The product of the perpendicular diameters of a single node can be used to identify progressive disease. Routine surveillance scans are discouraged. These recommendations should improve evaluation of patients with lymphoma and enhance the ability to compare outcomes of clinical trials.

  12. Diffusion tensor imaging of white and grey matter within the spinal cord of normal Beagle dogs: Sub-regional differences of the various diffusion parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hakyoung; Park, Noh-Won; Ha, Yun-Mi; Kim, Jaehwan; Moon, Won-Jin; Eom, Kidong

    2016-09-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an advanced diffusion weighted imaging technique that can identify early stage lesions and Wallerian degeneration within the spinal cord; these changes are difficult to recognise on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The only DTI parameters previously investigated in dogs are fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity (MD). The aim of this study was to evaluate multiple DTI parameters in sub-regional areas of the spinal cord in normal Beagles. All imaging data were obtained from the lumbar spinal cord (L1-L3) of ten normal dogs using a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Transverse multi-shot echo planar imaging sequences (b values = 0 and 800 s/mm(2); 12 directions) were used for DTI. Regions of interest were selected from sub-regions of the white and grey matter, and from the whole spinal cord, in the transverse plane in all DTI maps. The DTI parameters in spinal cord sub-regions in the transverse plane were significantly different amongst the white matter, grey matter and whole spinal cord (P matter sub-regions (P grey matter may be useful for regional evaluation of the dog spinal cord.

  13. The STAR trial protocol: a randomised multi-stage phase II/III study of Sunitinib comparing temporary cessation with allowing continuation, at the time of maximal radiological response, in the first-line treatment of locally advanced/metastatic Renal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collinson Fiona J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over recent years a number of novel therapies have shown promise in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC. Internationally the standard of care of first-line therapy is sunitinib™, after a clear survival benefit was demonstrated over interferon-α. Convention dictates that sunitinib is continued until evidence of disease progression, assuming tolerability, although there is no evidence that this approach is superior to intermittent periods of treatment. The purpose of the STAR trial is to compare the standard treatment strategy (conventional continuation strategy, CCS with a novel drug free interval strategy (DFIS which includes planned treatment breaks. Methods/Design The STAR trial is an NIHR HTA-funded UK pragmatic randomised phase II/III clinical trial in the first-line treatment of advanced RCC. Participants will be randomised (1:1 to either a sunitinib CCS or a DFIS. The overall aim of the trial is to determine whether a DFIS is non-inferior, in terms of 2-year overall survival (OS and quality adjusted life years (QALY (averaged over treatment and follow up, compared to a CCS. The QALY primary endpoint was selected to assess whether any detriment in terms of OS could be balanced with improvements in quality of life (QoL. This is a complex trial with a number of design challenges, and to address these issues a feasibility stage is incorporated into the trial design. Predetermined recruitment (stage A and efficacy (stage B intermediary endpoints must be met to allow continuation to the overall phase III trial (stage C. An integral qualitative patient preference and understanding study will occur alongside the feasibility stage to investigate patients’ feelings regarding participation or non-participation in the trial. Discussion The optimal duration of continuing sunitinib in advanced RCC is unknown. Novel targeted therapies do not always have the same constraints to treatment duration as standard chemotherapeutic agents

  14. Seismic isolation for Advanced LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, R; Allen, G; Cowley, S; Daw, E; Debra, D; Giaime, J; Hammond, G; Hammond, M; Hardham, C; How, J; Hua, W; Johnson, W; Lantz, B; Mason, K; Mittleman, R; Nichol, J; Richman, S; Rollins, J; Shoemaker, D; Stapfer, G; Stebbins, R

    2002-01-01

    The baseline design concept for a seismic isolation component of the proposed 'Advanced LIGO' detector upgrade has been developed with proof-of-principle experiments and computer models. It consists of a two-stage in-vacuum active isolation platform that is supported by an external hydraulic actuation stage. Construction is underway for prototype testing of a full-scale preliminary design.

  15. The antibacterial substance, taurolidine in the second/third-line treatment of very advanced stage IV melanoma including brain metastases: results of a phase 2, open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Laurence; Goldinger, Simone M; Baumann, Katrin; Schad, Karin; French, Lars E; Röthlisberger, Peter; Dummer, Reinhard

    2011-02-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of taurolidine, an antibacterial substance, was evaluated in a phase 2 trial enrolling patients with advanced melanoma. The treatment schedule consisted of daily taurolidine (20 g) administered intravenously for 5 days per week for 3 consecutive weeks followed by 1 week of rest. One cycle comprised of 28 days. A maximum of six cycles could be administered. Sixteen patients were assessable for tumor response, seven of whom had brain metastases. Three patients (18.8%) achieved disease stabilization, including a patient with a primary mucosal melanoma of the nasal cavity who had a marked locoregional response with disease stabilization of the distant metastases. Thirteen patients had disease progression. Median overall survival was 46±1 days. Adverse events were moderate and mainly gastrointestinal. Treatment with taurolidine has no activity in patients with advanced melanoma.

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging for long-term follow-up of corticospinal tract degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, S.; Ehrenreich, H. [Max-Planck-Institute for Experimental Medicine, Georg-August-University, Hermann-Rein-Strasse 3, 37075, Goettingen (Germany); Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, Georg-August-University, Goettingen (Germany); Finsterbusch, J.; Frahm, J. [Biomedizinische NMR Forschungs GmbH, Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Georg-August-University, Goettingen (Germany); Weishaupt, J.H. [Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, Georg-August-University, Goettingen (Germany); Khorram-Sefat, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, Georg-August-University, Goettingen (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a predominantly clinical and electromyographic diagnosis. Conventional MRI reveals atrophy of the motor system, particularly the pyramidal tract, in the advanced stages but does not provide a sensitive measure of disease progression. Three patients with different principal symptoms of ALS, i.e., with predominant involvement of the upper (UMN) or lower (UMN) motor neurons, or bulbar disease, respectively, underwent serial clinical examination including lung function tests, conventional MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). MRI demonstrated changes in of the pyramidal tract without measurable variation on follow-up. The patient with UMN involvement showed remarkable progressive loss of diffusion anisotropy in the pyramidal tract. DTI might be useful, together with clinical follow-up, as an objective morphological marker in therapeutic trials. (orig.)

  17. Between Stage and Screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tornqvist, Egil

    1996-01-01

    Ingmar Bergman is worldwide known as a film and stage director. Yet no-one has attempted to compare his stage and screen activities. In Between stage and screen Egil Tornqvist examines formal and thematical correspondences and differences between a number of Bergman's stage, screen, and radio produc

  18. Chemical effect on diffusion in intermetallic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ting

    With the trend of big data and the Internet of things, we live in a world full of personal electronic devices and small electronic devices. In order to make the devices more powerful, advanced electronic packaging such as wafer level packaging or 3D IC packaging play an important role. Furthermore, ?-bumps, which connect silicon dies together with dimension less than 10 ?m, are crucial parts in advanced packaging. Owing to the dimension of ?-bumps, they transform into intermetallic compound from tin based solder after the liquid state bonding process. Moreover, many new reliability issues will occur in electronic packaging when the bonding materials change; in this case, we no longer have tin based solder joint, instead, we have intermetallic compound ?-bumps. Most of the potential reliability issues in intermetallic compounds are caused by the chemical reactions driven by atomic diffusion in the material; thus, to know the diffusivities of atoms inside a material is significant and can help us to further analyze the reliability issues. However, we are lacking these kinds of data in intermetallic compound because there are some problems if used traditional Darken's analysis. Therefore, we considered Wagner diffusivity in our system to solve the problems and applied the concept of chemical effect on diffusion by taking the advantage that large amount of energy will release when compounds formed. Moreover, by inventing the holes markers made by Focus ion beam (FIB), we can conduct the diffusion experiment and obtain the tracer diffusivities of atoms inside the intermetallic compound. We applied the technique on Ni3Sn4 and Cu3Sn, which are two of the most common materials in electronic packaging, and the tracer diffusivities are measured under several different temperatures; moreover, microstructure of the intermetallic compounds are investigated to ensure the diffusion environment. Additionally, the detail diffusion mechanism was also discussed in aspect of diffusion

  19. Composites for Exploration Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, J. C.; Jackson, J. R.; Richardson, S. W.; Thomas, A. D.; Mann, T. O.; Miller, S. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Composites for Exploration Upper Stage (CEUS) was a 3-year, level III project within the Technology Demonstration Missions program of the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate. Studies have shown that composites provide important programmatic enhancements, including reduced weight to increase capability and accelerated expansion of exploration and science mission objectives. The CEUS project was focused on technologies that best advanced innovation, infusion, and broad applications for the inclusion of composites on future large human-rated launch vehicles and spacecraft. The benefits included near- and far-term opportunities for infusion (NASA, industry/commercial, Department of Defense), demonstrated critical technologies and technically implementable evolvable innovations, and sustained Agency experience. The initial scope of the project was to advance technologies for large composite structures applicable to the Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) by focusing on the affordability and technical performance of the EUS forward and aft skirts. The project was tasked to develop and demonstrate critical composite technologies with a focus on full-scale materials, design, manufacturing, and test using NASA in-house capabilities. This would have demonstrated a major advancement in confidence and matured the large-scale composite technology to a Technology Readiness Level 6. This project would, therefore, have bridged the gap for providing composite application to SLS upgrades, enabling future exploration missions.

  20. Diffusion formalism and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dattagupta, Sushanta

    2013-01-01

    Within a unifying framework, Diffusion: Formalism and Applications covers both classical and quantum domains, along with numerous applications. The author explores the more than two centuries-old history of diffusion, expertly weaving together a variety of topics from physics, mathematics, chemistry, and biology. The book examines the two distinct paradigms of diffusion-physical and stochastic-introduced by Fourier and Laplace and later unified by Einstein in his groundbreaking work on Brownian motion. The author describes the role of diffusion in probability theory and stochastic calculus and

  1. Limited resources in a driven diffusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackley, Chris A; Romano, M Carmen; Grebogi, Celso; Thiel, Marco

    2010-08-13

    The advance of particles in many driven diffusion systems depends on the availability of resources in the surrounding environment. In the balance between supply and demand of such resources we are confronted with a regime in which, under limited resource availability, the flow is markedly reduced. In the context of mRNA translation this represents the finite availability of amino acid-tRNA molecules. In this limited resources regime a severe depletion of amino acid tRNAs is also observed. These dramatic effects are vital to our understanding of translation, and are likely to also be important for the many other applications of driven diffusion models.

  2. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joesph Fadok

    2008-01-01

    Siemens has developed a roadmap to achieve the DOE goals for efficiency, cost reduction, and emissions through innovative approaches and novel technologies which build upon worldwide IGCC operational experience, platform technology, and extensive experience in G-class operating conditions. In Phase 1, the technologies and concepts necessary to achieve the program goals were identified for the gas turbine components and supporting technology areas and testing plans were developed to mitigate identified risks. Multiple studies were conducted to evaluate the impact in plant performance of different gas turbine and plant technologies. 2015 gas turbine technologies showed a significant improvement in IGCC plant efficiency, however, a severe performance penalty was calculated for high carbon capture cases. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the DOE 2010 and 2015 efficiency targets can be met with a two step approach. A risk management process was instituted in Phase 1 to identify risk and develop mitigation plans. For the risks identified, testing and development programs are in place and the risks will be revisited periodically to determine if changes to the plan are necessary. A compressor performance prediction has shown that the design of the compressor for the engine can be achieved with additional stages added to the rear of the compressor. Tip clearance effects were studied as well as a range of flow and pressure ratios to evaluate the impacts to both performance and stability. Considerable data was obtained on the four candidate combustion systems: diffusion, catalytic, premix, and distributed combustion. Based on the results of Phase 1, the premixed combustion system and the distributed combustion system were chosen as having the most potential and will be the focus of Phase 2 of the program. Significant progress was also made in obtaining combustion kinetics data for high hydrogen fuels. The Phase 1 turbine studies indicate initial feasibility of the

  3. Quantitative law of diffusion induced fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H-J Lei; H-L Wang; B Liu; C-A Wang

    2016-01-01

    Through dimension analysis, an almost analyt-ical model for the maximum diffusion induced stress (DIS) and critical temperature (or concentration) difference at which cracks begin to initiate in the diffusion process is devel-oped. It interestingly predicts that the spacing of diffusion-induced cracks is constant, independent of the thickness of specimen and the temperature difference. These conclusions are validated by our thermal shock experiments on alu-mina plates. Furthermore, the proposed model can interpret observed hierarchical crack patterns for high temperature jump cases, and a three-stage relation between the resid-ual strength and the temperature difference. The prediction for crack spacing can guide the biomimetic thermal-shock-failure proof design, in which the hard platelets smaller than the predicted diffusion induced by constant crack-spacing are embedded in a soft matrix, and, therefore, no fracture will happen. This may guide the design of the thermal protec-tion system and the lithium ion battery. Finally we present the maximum normalized DISes for various geometry and boundary conditions by single-variable curves for the stress-independent diffusion process and two-variable contour plots for the stress-dependent diffusion process, which can provide engineers and materialists a simple and easy way to quickly evaluate the reliability of related materials and devices.

  4. Nonequilibrium free diffusion in seed leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz G., Luis; Riquelme P., Pablo; Guzmán, R.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we use a Schlieren-like Near Field Scattering (SNFS) setup to study nonequilibrium free diffusion behavior of a colloidal solution obtained from seeds leachate. The main objective is to compare the temporal behavior of the diffusion coefficient of seed leachate with an electric conductivity based vigor test. SNFS sizing measurements, based on Mie theory, were carried out to ensure its reliability and sensitivity. Then, we performed a typical nonequilibrium free diffusion experiment of a glycerol-water mixture. In this way, we confirmed that SNFS setup is sensitive to giant concentration fluctuations of nanocolloidal solutions. The results obtained in this stage reproduce properly the data reported elsewhere in literature. Moreover, seed leachate diffuse, in water, in a similar way that glycerol does. In both cases we used the same method (dynamic structure factor) to determine thermo-physical properties. We show that time evolution of diffusion coefficient of Lupinus Albus leachate exhibits three defined regimes as electric conductivity measurements. The results also exhibit a correspondence between the behavior of the diffusion coefficient and electric conductivity values of the two regions in the temporal range studied. Finally, we discuss biological processes involved in germination that could modulate this dependence, and the role played by the electrolytic nature of solutes.

  5. Complete or partial trisomy 3 in gastro-intestinal MALT lymphomas co-occurs with aberrations at 18q21 and correlates with advanced disease stage: A study on 25 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jens Krugmann; Alexandar Tzankov; Stephan Dirnhofer; Falko Fend; Dominik Wolf; Reiner Siebert; Pensiri Probst; Martin Erdel

    2005-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR Taji et al.[1] have reported in their study on 13 patients with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas an aggressive tumor course in trisomy 3 positive cases. The authors analyzed only stage I patients with classical low-grade marginal zone lymphoma of the MALT type and detected the trisomy 3 using an alphasatellite DNA probe directed to the centromere. Their data support the observation that trisomy 3 is the most frequent cytogenetic aberration in MALT lymphomas[2,3].

  6. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Olsen, Ole Fogh; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  7. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Fogh Olsen, Ole; Sporring, Jon

    2007-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  8. 微藻饵料对双壳贝类幼体生长影响的研究进展%Advance in the Effect of Microalgal Diets and Nutritional Value on the Growth of Early Life Stages of Bivalves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Microalgal diet is the key factor in shellfish growth and breeding. To gain a thorough knowledge of the effect of microalgal diets on the growth of early life stages of bivalves, this review summarizes the reports about this area since 1980 and analyzes the nutrition value of microalgae, including ingestibility, digestibility and biochemistry composition. It is concluded that different kinds of microalgal diets have different feeding effects, which is significant correlation with the fatty acid composition and sterols of microalgae, on bivalves and that the feeding effect of same microalgae vary among different life stages of bivalves. However the relevant mechanisms are still uncovered precisely. In terms of the nutritional value of microalgal diets, many studies on the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been done, however few researches on n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been carried out till now. Besides, previous work conducted on bivalves has focused largely on larval and juvenile stages, with little attention given to postlarval stage. Therefore, it is necessary to continue these studies in future. Due to the complexity of relevant factors linked to bivalve growth, for future improvement, correlation analyses of the relationship between particular nutritional components and bivalve growth across a wide range of microalgal diets could provide a better understanding of nutritional value on the growth of early life stages of bivalves and further help to promote the development of the feeding biology of bivalves.%  饵料藻类影响着贝类的营养、生理与繁殖。为了深入了解微藻饵料对双壳贝类幼体生长的影响,归纳总结了1980年以来的相关研究报道,从微藻营养价值、贝类对微藻的摄食率、消化率及微藻饵料的生化组成等方面进行了分析。可以得出,不同的饵料藻类对贝类幼虫的饵料效果不同,同一种微藻的饵料效果在贝类发育的不同阶段也有差

  9. Atomic diffusion in stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Georges; Richer, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This book gives an overview of atomic diffusion, a fundamental physical process, as applied to all types of stars, from the main sequence to neutron stars. The superficial abundances of stars as well as their evolution can be significantly affected. The authors show where atomic diffusion plays an essential role and how it can be implemented in modelling.  In Part I, the authors describe the tools that are required to include atomic diffusion in models of stellar interiors and atmospheres. An important role is played by the gradient of partial radiative pressure, or radiative acceleration, which is usually neglected in stellar evolution. In Part II, the authors systematically review the contribution of atomic diffusion to each evolutionary step. The dominant effects of atomic diffusion are accompanied by more subtle effects on a large number of structural properties throughout evolution. One of the goals of this book is to provide the means for the astrophysicist or graduate student to evaluate the importanc...

  10. Diffusion-weighted and diffusion-tensor imaging of normal and diseased uterus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duygu; Kara; Bozkurt; Murat; Bozkurt; Mehmet; Ali; Nazli; Ilhan; Nahit; Mutlu; Ozgur; Kilickesmez

    2015-01-01

    Owing to technical advances and improvement of the software, diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging(DWI and DTI) greatly improved the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) of the pelvic region. These imaging sequences can exhibit important tissue contrast on the basis of random diffusion(Brownian motion) of water molecules in tissues. Quantitative measurements can be done with DWI and DTI by apparent diffusion coefficient(ADC) and fractional anisotropy(FA) values respectively. ADC and FA values may be changed by various physiological and pathological conditions providing additional information to conventional MRI. The quantitative DWI assists significantly in the differentiation of benign and malignant lesions. It can demonstrate the microstructural architecture and celluler density of the normal and diseased uterine zones. On the other hand, DWI and DTI are useful for monitoring the treatment outcome of the uterine lesions. In this review, we discussed advantages of DWI and DTI of the normal and diseased uterus.

  11. The Study on the in Advance of Default Options with a Jump-Diffusion%带跳扩散的可提前到期的违约期权研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方开娟; 傅毅; 张寄洲

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, by the method of partial differential equation, we study the pricing problems of the stock option when the subsidiary corporation defaults. With the jump-diffusion assumption, the acceleration of maturity of the option will be considered.The stock option of the time-interval has been analyzed by the structured form method.The mathematical model of the the stock option and the expression of the solution are obtained.%用偏微分方程的方法,研究子公司是否违约,对母公司的股票期权的定价 的影响问题.在跳扩散的前提假设下,利用结构化方法,考虑当子公司违约时,母公司股票期权的可提前到期性,分时段进行分析,并给出了母公司期权定价的数学模型和解的表达式.

  12. Helium diffusion in carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, W. H.; Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.; Hobbs, D.

    2013-12-01

    The abundance and large grain size of carbonate minerals make them a potentially attractive target for 4He thermochronology and 3He cosmogenic dating, although the diffusive properties of helium in carbonates remain poorly understood. This work characterizes helium diffusion in calcite and dolomite to better understand the crystal-chemical factors controlling He transport and retentivity. Slabs of cleaved natural calcite and dolomite, and polished sections of calcite cut parallel or normal to c, were implanted with 3He at 3 MeV with a dose of 5x1015/cm2. Implanted carbonates were heated in 1-atm furnaces, and 3He distributions following diffusion anneals were profiled with Nuclear Reaction Analysis using the reaction 3He(d,p)4He. For 3He transport normal to cleavage surfaces in calcite, we obtain the following Arrhenius relation over the temperature range 78-300°C: Dcalcite = 9.0x10-9exp(-55 × 6 kJ mol-1/RT) m2sec-1. Diffusion in calcite exhibits marked anisotropy, with diffusion parallel to c about two orders of magnitude slower than diffusion normal to cleavage faces. He diffusivities for transport normal to the c-axis are similar in value to those normal to cleavage surfaces. Our findings are broadly consistent with helium diffusivities from step-heating measurements of calcite by Copeland et al. (2007); these bulk degassing data may reflect varying effects of diffusional anisotropy. Helium diffusion normal to cleavage surfaces in dolomite is significantly slower than diffusion in calcite, and has a much higher activation energy for diffusion. For dolomite, we obtain the following Arrhenius relation for He diffusion over the temperature range 150-400°C: Ddolomite = 9.0x10-8exp(-92 × 9 kJ mol-1/RT) m2sec-1. The role of crystallographic structure in influencing these differences among diffusivities was evaluated using the maximum aperture approach of Cherniak and Watson (2011), in which crystallographic structures are sectioned along possible diffusion

  13. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  14. Stages of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  15. Stages of Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stage 0 , abnormal cells are found in the mucosa or submucosa layer of the esophagus wall. These ... found. Stage IA : Cancer has formed in the mucosa or submucosa layer of the esophagus wall. The ...

  16. Dynamic Stage Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Florian von Hofen[GER

    2013-01-01

    Concepts and methods for dynamic stage designs were introduced ranging from different ifelds of TV live shows, exhibitions and theatre performances, and a special emphasis was put on solution to the theatre stage design.

  17. Ages and Stages: Teen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & ... Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen Teen Article Body Adolescence can be ...

  18. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  19. Case Report of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma of Uterine Cervix Treated at a Semiurban Cancer Centre in North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Epari

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoma of the uterine cervix is very rare. We report a case of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the uterine cervix treated at a newly commissioned semiurban cancer centre in north India in 2015. Data for this study was obtained from the hospital electronic medical records and the patient's case file. We also reviewed published case reports of uterine and cervical lymphoma involving forty-one patients. We treated a case of stage IV DLBCL cervix with six cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) and intrathecal methotrexate followed by consolidation with radiotherapy. The patient showed complete response to chemotherapy. We conclude that, in advanced stage lymphoma involving uterus and cervix, combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is effective in short term. PMID:27597906

  20. Case Report of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma of Uterine Cervix Treated at a Semiurban Cancer Centre in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhor Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoma of the uterine cervix is very rare. We report a case of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL involving the uterine cervix treated at a newly commissioned semiurban cancer centre in north India in 2015. Data for this study was obtained from the hospital electronic medical records and the patient’s case file. We also reviewed published case reports of uterine and cervical lymphoma involving forty-one patients. We treated a case of stage IV DLBCL cervix with six cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone and intrathecal methotrexate followed by consolidation with radiotherapy. The patient showed complete response to chemotherapy. We conclude that, in advanced stage lymphoma involving uterus and cervix, combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is effective in short term.

  1. Entropy methods for diffusive partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Jüngel, Ansgar

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a range of entropy methods for diffusive PDEs devised by many researchers in the course of the past few decades, which allow us to understand the qualitative behavior of solutions to diffusive equations (and Markov diffusion processes). Applications include the large-time asymptotics of solutions, the derivation of convex Sobolev inequalities, the existence and uniqueness of weak solutions, and the analysis of discrete and geometric structures of the PDEs. The purpose of the book is to provide readers an introduction to selected entropy methods that can be found in the research literature. In order to highlight the core concepts, the results are not stated in the widest generality and most of the arguments are only formal (in the sense that the functional setting is not specified or sufficient regularity is supposed). The text is also suitable for advanced master and PhD students and could serve as a textbook for special courses and seminars.

  2. Plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) level is associated with myocardial impairment assessed with advanced echocardiography in Type 1 Diabetes Patients with normal ejection fraction and without known heart disease or end stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, Simone; Rossing, Peter; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper;

    2016-01-01

    PAR is associated with early myocardial impairment assessed with advanced echocardiographic methods. Methods In an observational study on 318 type 1 diabetes patients without known heart disease and with normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (biplane LVEF >45%), we performed conventional, tissue Doppler...... was: 58±5%. suPAR levels were not associated with LVEF (p = 0.11). In adjusted models, higher suPAR levels were independently associated with both impaired systolic function assessed with global longitudinal strain (GLS) and tissue velocity s', and with impaired diastolic measures a' and e'/a' (all p...... ≤ 0.034). In multivariable analysis including cardiovascular riskfactors and both systolic and diastolic measures (GLS and e'/a') both remained independently associated with suPAR levels (p ≤ 0.012). Conclusions In type 1 diabetes patients with normal LVEF and without known heart disease, su...

  3. 帕金森病早期临床表现和诊断方法的研究进展%Research Advances in Clinical Manifestations and Diagnositic Methods in Early Stage of Parkinson's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琰

    2011-01-01

    帕金森病(PD)早期的临床表现多种多样,因症状非常不典型(如手足间歇性震颤、颈肩痛、便秘、焦虑、抑郁等)而经常被临床医师忽视,而且目前关于此方面的研究尚不多.质子磁共振波谱技术、神经功能成像技术等影像学检查技术的发展,使早期确诊PD成为可能.现主要就PD早期的运动和非运动症状的临床表现及诊断方法进行综述,以加深临床医师的认识,提高PD的早期识别率,有助于延缓疾病进展,提高患者生活质量.%Early clinical manifestations of Parkinson's disease(PD) are variable and atypical, such as intermittent tremor,back pain,muscle tension,constipation,and anxiety-depression,frequently ignored by the clinicians.This aspect is not widely studied.The development of imaging technology, such as proton magnetic resonance and functional imaging makes it possible to diagnose PD at an early stage.The review summarizes the motor and non-motor symptoms in the early stage of PD and the diagnostic methods in aiming to improve the early identification and quality of life of the patients.

  4. Tungsten diffusion in olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Van Orman, J. A.

    2014-03-01

    Diffusion of tungsten has been characterized in synthetic forsterite and natural olivine (Fo90) under dry conditions. The source of diffusant was a mixture of magnesium tungstate and olivine powders. Experiments were prepared by sealing the source material and polished olivine under vacuum in silica glass ampoules with solid buffers to buffer at NNO or IW. Prepared capsules were annealed in 1 atm furnaces for times ranging from 45 min to several weeks, at temperatures from 1050 to 1450 °C. Tungsten distributions in the olivine were profiled by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The following Arrhenius relation is obtained for W diffusion in forsterite: D=1.0×10-8exp(-365±28 kJ mol/RT) m s Diffusivities for the synthetic forsterite and natural Fe-bearing olivine are similar, and tungsten diffusion in olivine shows little dependence on crystallographic orientation or oxygen fugacity. The slow diffusivities measured for W in olivine indicate that Hf-W ages in olivine-metal systems will close to diffusive exchange at higher temperatures than other chronometers commonly used in cosmochronology, and that tungsten isotopic signatures will be less likely to be reset by subsequent thermal events.

  5. Cosmology with matter diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Calogero, Simone

    2013-01-01

    We construct a viable cosmological model based on velocity diffusion of matter particles. In order to ensure the conservation of the total energy-momentum tensor in the presence of diffusion, we include a cosmological scalar field $\\phi$ which we identify with the dark energy component of the Universe. The model is characterized by only one new degree of freedom, the diffusion parameter $\\sigma$. The standard $\\Lambda$CDM model can be recovered by setting $\\sigma=0$. If diffusion takes place ($\\sigma >0$) the dynamics of the matter and of the dark energy fields are coupled. We argue that the existence of a diffusion mechanism in the Universe can serve as a theoretical motivation for interacting models. We constrain the background dynamics of the diffusion model with Supernovae, H(z) and BAO data. We also perform a perturbative analysis of this model in order to understand structure formation in the Universe. We calculate the impact of diffusion both on the CMB spectrum, with particular attention to the integr...

  6. The role of MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging in restaging rectal cancers after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem Bayram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is challenging to restage rectal cancer at MRI, in patients who have had neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.Objective: To investigate the accuracy of MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI in the restaging of rectal cancer.Materials and methods: Pre- and post-neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy MRI examinations of 35 patients diagnosed with locally advanced rectal cancer were evaluated and subsequently compared with post-operative pathology results.Results: The accuracy of MRI with DWI to determine the T-stage status was calculated as 54.28%. Kappa statistics revealed poor concordance with pathology results, with a κ value of 0.212 ± 0.114 (p = 0.028. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values measured after the neoadjuvant chemotherapy revealed a significant increase when compared with pre-treatment ADC values (p < 0.000001. MRI accuracy rate for lymph node involvement was calculated as 57.14% with a κ value of 0.001 (p = 0.989. MRI had 80% sensitivity and 100% specificity in determining mesorectal fascia involvement, with a calculated positive predictive value of 100% and a calculated negative predictive value of 96%. The accuracy of MRI in overall staging according to the TNM staging system was 28%.Conclusion: The accuracy of MRI in restaging rectal cancer is not yet sufficient and is not on par with the accuracy of MRI in the primary staging of the disease. This is attributed to post-treatment changes. Adding DWI to the protocol is promising, but more expanded data are required.

  7. Double-Diffusive Convection in Rotational Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    frequencies that conformed to the GM spectral model for internal waves with an initial random phase distribution, modeling an environment...shear wave field. This model used frequencies that conformed to the GM spectral model for internal waves with an initial random phase distribution...frequencies that conformed to the GM frequency spectral model. During this stage of research, double diffusion rates don’t stabilize into a single a steady

  8. Beyond Erikson's Eight Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Ruth

    1979-01-01

    Erik Erikson has described eight stages of the healthy personality. This essay offers a revised version of the eight stages. Although most individuals develop through the eight stages, each is personally unique because patterns of fluctuation between safety and growth differ from one individual to another. (Author)

  9. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  10. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1530x1350 View Download Large: 3060x2700 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC shows ...

  11. Ovarian Cancer Stage I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage I Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage I Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  12. Advances in Composition Analysis of Sediments Using Near-infrared Diffuse Reflection Spectroscopy%近红外漫反射光谱在沉积物化学成分分析中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚文郁; 孙青; 凌媛; 谢曼曼; 岑况

    2012-01-01

    The contents of organic matter, related elements and heavy metals in sediments are the basis for the study of paleoenvironment and ecological environment evaluation. The near-infrared ( NIR) diffuse reflection spectroscopy technique is a simple, rapid, and low cost method to determine the components in sediments. In this article we overview the standard procedure for sampling, the method of sample preparation and mathematical modelling for the chemical composition analysis in sediments. Furthermore, we introduce the selection of modelling, spectrum pretreatment and regression analysis to improve the accuracy of the quantitative analysis for a near-infrared spectrum model. The NIR diffuse reflection technique has been advocated to measure the contents of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, biogenic silica, heavy metals etc. However, there is still plenty of work to be done since the application in sediments is not well established. At present, further study need to be carried out for the mechanism of measuring error in sediments. Properly chosen sample collection after suitable spectrum-pretreatment with optimization of mathematical models should improve the precision and accuracy of measurements.%沉积物中有机质及相关元素含量、重金属含量等是研究环境污染和古环境的依据.利用近红外漫反射光谱测定沉积物中的化学成分,方法简便、快捷、价廉.本文概述了近红外漫反射光谱测定沉积物中化学成分的基本流程、样品制备及建模方法,介绍了如何通过选择建模样品、利用光谱预处理及回归分析等方法提高近红外光谱模型的定量能力,综述了近红外漫反射光谱分析沉积物中的有机碳、总氮、总磷、生物硅、重金属含量等方法.但是利用近红外光谱分析沉积物中的化学成分研究起步较晚,仍存在很多问题,有必要深入探讨近红外光谱分析沉积物的化学成分时产生误差的机理,进

  13. A fully coupled diffusion-reaction scheme for moisture sorption-desorption in an anhydride-cured epoxy resin

    KAUST Repository

    El Yagoubi, Jalal

    2012-11-01

    Thermoset materials frequently display non-classical moisture sorption behaviors. In this paper, we investigated this issue from an experimental point of view as well as in terms of modeling the water transport. We used the gravimetric technique to monitor water uptake by epoxy samples, with several thicknesses exposed to different levels of humidity during absorption and desorption tests. Our results revealed that the polymer displays a two-stage behavior with a residual amount of water that is desorbed progressively. We proposed a phenomenological reaction-diffusion scheme to describe this behavior. The model describes water transport as a competition between diffusion and the reaction, during which the local diffusivity and solubility depend on the local advancement of the reaction. We then implemented our model using COMSOL Multiphysics and identified it using a MATLAB-COMSOL optimization tool and the experimental data. We discussed the relation between the hydrophilicity of the product of the reaction and the diffusion behavior. We examined the reaction-induced modification of the water concentration field. It is worth noting that part of the phenomenology can be explained by the presence of hydrolyzable groups. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 18F-FLT PET/CT在弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤诊断及分期中的价值%Value of 18F-FLT Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Diagnosis and Staging of Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞民; 朱海燕; 李菲; 刘长滨; 关志伟; 姚树林

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of 18 F-FLT positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in diagnosis and staging of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma ( DLBCL) patients and compare with CT. Thirty-six patients with DLBCL in our hospital from September 2008 to Desember 2009 were prospectively evaluated. All 36 patients underwent whole body and head 18F-FLT PET/CT and CT (chest, abdomen cavity and pelvis) were studied before therapy. The maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of every single focus and the SUVmax of aortic arch blood pool were measured and used to calculate the median T/MB value (tumor SUVmax/ mediastinal SUVmax) of every patient. The results showed that the consistency of " F-FLT PET/CT and CT examinations in focus of DLBCL was 79. 10% , the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accurate rate of 18 F-FLT PET/CT were 96. 65% , 100% , 100% , 61. 11% and 96.82% , respectively, which were much higher than that of CT (85.44% , 57.14% , 96.70% , 21.05% and 83.64%). It is concluded that the I8F-FLT PET/CT is a good means for DLBCL diagnosis and staging, which is more sensitive and specific than CT.%本研究旨在比较18F-FLT PET/CT与CT对弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤(DLBCL)的诊断及分期的评估价值,分析DLBCL病灶的18F-FLT PET/CT显像及分布特点.收集2008年9月至2009年12月在本院经病理确诊的36例DLBCL患者,以18F-FLT PET/CT及CT扫描全身及头颅,用18F-FLT PET/CT及CT测量原发肿瘤的部位、大小及SUVmax,计算与主动脉弓血池SUVmax比值(T/MB).结果表明,18F-FLT PET/CT及CT检测DLBCL病灶的一致率为79.10%,其敏感性分别为96.65%、85.44%,特异性分别为100%、57.14%,阳性预测值分别为100%、96.70%,阴性预测值分别为61.11%、21.05%,假阳性率分别为0%、42.86%,假阴性率分别为3.35%、14.56%,准确率分别为96.82%、83.64%.以上指标组间比较均有统计学差异(P<0

  15. Computational Analyses in Support of Sub-scale Diffuser Testing for the A-3 Facility. Part 1; Steady Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Graham, Jason S.; Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin

    2010-01-01

    Simulation technology can play an important role in rocket engine test facility design and development by assessing risks, providing analysis of dynamic pressure and thermal loads, identifying failure modes and predicting anomalous behavior of critical systems. Advanced numerical tools assume greater significance in supporting testing and design of high altitude testing facilities and plume induced testing environments of high thrust engines because of the greater inter-dependence and synergy in the functioning of the different sub-systems. This is especially true for facilities such as the proposed A-3 facility at NASA SSC because of a challenging operating envelope linked to variable throttle conditions at relatively low chamber pressures. Facility designs in this case will require a complex network of diffuser ducts, steam ejector trains, fast operating valves, cooling water systems and flow diverters that need to be characterized for steady state performance. In this paper, we will demonstrate with the use of CFD analyses s advanced capability to evaluate supersonic diffuser and steam ejector performance in a sub-scale A-3 facility at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) where extensive testing was performed. Furthermore, the focus in this paper relates to modeling of critical sub-systems and components used in facilities such as the A-3 facility. The work here will address deficiencies in empirical models and current CFD analyses that are used for design of supersonic diffusers/turning vanes/ejectors as well as analyses for confined plumes and venting processes. The primary areas that will be addressed are: (1) supersonic diffuser performance including analyses of thermal loads (2) accurate shock capturing in the diffuser duct; (3) effect of turning duct on the performance of the facility (4) prediction of mass flow rates and performance classification for steam ejectors (5) comparisons with test data from sub-scale diffuser testing and assessment of confidence

  16. Second stage of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yvonne W; Caughey, Aaron B

    2015-06-01

    Current American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' definition of prolonged second stage diagnoses 10% to 14% of nulliparous and 3% to 3.5% of multiparous women as having a prolonged second stage. The progression of labor in modern obstetrics may have deviated from the current labor norms established in the 1950s, likely due to differences in obstetric population characteristics and variation in clinical practice. Optimal management of the second stage in women with and without epidural remains debatable. Although prolonged second stage is associated with increased risk of maternal morbidity, conflicting data exist regarding the duration of second stage and associated neonatal morbidity and mortality.

  17. Various diffusion magnetic resonance imaging techniques for pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-Yue Tang; Xiao-Ming Zhang; Tian-Wu Chen; Xiao-Hua Huang

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most common malignanttumors and remains a treatment-refractory cancer with a poor prognosis. Currently, the diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasm depends mainly on imaging and which methods are conducive to detecting small lesions. Compared to the other techniques, magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) has irreplaceable advantages and can provide valuable information unattainable with other noninvasive or minimally invasive imaging techniques. Advances in MR hardware and pulse sequence design have particularly improved the quality and robustness of MRI of the pancreas. Diffusion MR imaging serves as one of the common functional MRI techniques and is the only technique that can be used to reflect the diffusion movement of water molecules in vivo. It is generally known that diffusion properties depend on the characterization of intrinsic features of tissue microdynamics and microstructure. With the improvement of the diffusion models, diffusion MR imaging techniques are increasingly varied, from the simplest and most commonly used technique to the more complex. In this review, the various diffusion MRI techniques for pancreatic cancer are discussed, including conventional diffusion weighted imaging(DWI), multi-b DWI based on intra-voxel incoherent motion theory, diffusion tensor imaging and diffusion kurtosis imaging. The principles, main parameters, advantages and limitations of these techniques, as well as future directions for pancreatic diffusion imaging are also discussed.

  18. Observation on Clinical Efficacy of Self-Made Lung Cancer Prescription Combined with Pemetrexed and Cisplatin in the Treatment of Intermediate and Advanced Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer%自拟肺癌方联合培美曲塞及顺铂治疗中晚期非小细胞肺癌的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于小伟; 徐川; 方美花; 仝欣; 李敏

    2015-01-01

    Objective :To observe the clinical efficacy of pemetrexed and cisplatin in combination with self-made lung cancer prescription in the treatment of intermediate and advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer .Methods : A total of 71 patients with intermediate or advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer diagnosed by imaging and pathological or cytological method from Oct .2010 to Oct .2013 were randomly divided into 2 groups .The 35 cases in control group received chemotherapy using pemetrexed combined with cisplatin ,and the 36 cases in treatment group received self-made lung cancer prescription orally in combination with the same chemotherapy of control group . Results : The total effective rates of improvement on clinical symptoms ,quality of life and immune index in the treatment group were superior to those in the control group(P 0 .05) .Conclusions : Integrated Chinese and Western medicine show certain efficacy in the treatment of intermediate and advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer ,and thus is worthy of clinical promotion .%目的:观察培美曲塞联合顺铂方案(PC 方案)化疗加自拟肺癌方口服治疗中晚期非小细胞肺癌的临床疗效。方法:将2010年10月—2013年10月经影像学及病理或细胞学确诊为中晚期非小细胞肺癌的患者71例随机分为两组,治疗组36例,对照组35例。对照组给予 PC 方案化疗,治疗组在对照组的基础上给予自拟肺癌方口服。结果:治疗组在临床症状改善、生存质量提高、免疫指标变化方面的总有效率均优于对照组(P<0.05),但肿瘤客观疗效有效率及临床受益率、体质量变化总有效率与对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:中西医结合治疗中晚期非小细胞肺癌疗效肯定,有临床推广价值。

  19. Theories on diffusion of technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte

    Tracing the body of the diffusion proces by analysing the diffusion process from historical, sociological, economic and technical approaches. Discussing central characteristics of the proces of diffusion og CAD/CAM in Denmark.......Tracing the body of the diffusion proces by analysing the diffusion process from historical, sociological, economic and technical approaches. Discussing central characteristics of the proces of diffusion og CAD/CAM in Denmark....

  20. Diffusing Best Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Both the practice and the research literature on information systems attach great value to the identification and dissemination of information on “best practices”. In the philosophy of science, this type of knowledge is regarded as technological knowledge because it becomes manifest...... in the successful techniques in one context. While the value for other contexts is unproven, knowledge of best practices circulates under an assumption that the practices will usefully self-diffuse through innovation and adoption in other contexts. We study diffusion of best practices using a design science...... approach. The study context is a design case in which an organization desires to diffuse its best practices across different groups. The design goal is embodied in organizational mechanisms to achieve this diffusion. The study used Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a kernel theory. The artifacts...

  1. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Post, Rachel S; Vogelaar, Ingrid P; Carneiro, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects...

  2. Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Lavialle, Olivier; Germain, Christian; Donias, Marc; Guillon, Sebastien; Keskes, Naamen; Berthoumieu, Yannick

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the denoising and enhancing of 3-D reflection seismic data. We propose a pre-processing step based on a non linear diffusion filtering leading to a better detection of seismic faults. The non linear diffusion approaches are based on the definition of a partial differential equation that allows us to simplify the images without blurring relevant details or discontinuities. Computing the structure tensor which provides information on the local orientation of the geological layers, we propose to drive the diffusion along these layers using a new approach called SFPD (Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion). In SFPD, the eigenvalues of the tensor are fixed according to a confidence measure that takes into account the regularity of the local seismic structure. Results on both synthesized and real 3-D blocks show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  3. Seismic fault preserving diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavialle, Olivier; Pop, Sorin; Germain, Christian; Donias, Marc; Guillon, Sebastien; Keskes, Naamen; Berthoumieu, Yannick

    2007-02-01

    This paper focuses on the denoising and enhancing of 3-D reflection seismic data. We propose a pre-processing step based on a non-linear diffusion filtering leading to a better detection of seismic faults. The non-linear diffusion approaches are based on the definition of a partial differential equation that allows us to simplify the images without blurring relevant details or discontinuities. Computing the structure tensor which provides information on the local orientation of the geological layers, we propose to drive the diffusion along these layers using a new approach called SFPD (Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion). In SFPD, the eigenvalues of the tensor are fixed according to a confidence measure that takes into account the regularity of the local seismic structure. Results on both synthesized and real 3-D blocks show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  4. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    with conventional ventilation systems (mixing or displacement ventilation), diffuse ceiling ventilation can significantly reduce or even eliminate draught risk in the occupied zone. Moreover, this ventilation system presents a promising opportunity for energy saving, because of the low pressure loss, extended free......Diffuse ceiling ventilation is an innovative ventilation concept where the suspended ceiling serves as an air diffuser to supply fresh air into the room. Due to the large opening area, air is delivered to the room with very low velocity and no fixed direction, therefore the name ‘diffuse’. Compared......-cooling period and night cooling potential. The investment cost of this ventilation system is about 5-10% lower than the conventional ones, because the acoustic ceiling could be directly applied as air diffuser and the use of plenum to distribute air reduces the cost of ductwork. There is a growing interest...

  5. On Diffusion and Permeation

    KAUST Repository

    Peppin, Stephen S. L.

    2009-01-01

    Diffusion and permeation are discussed within the context of irreversible thermodynamics. A new expression for the generalized Stokes-Einstein equation is obtained which links the permeability to the diffusivity of a two-component solution and contains the poroelastic Biot-Willis coefficient. The theory is illustrated by predicting the concentration and pressure profiles during the filtration of a protein solution. At low concentrations the proteins diffuse independently while at higher concentrations they form a nearly rigid porous glass through which the fluid permeates. The theoretically determined pressure drop is nonlinear in the diffusion regime and linear in the permeation regime, in quantitative agreement with experimental measurements. © 2009 Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York.

  6. Diffusion of Wilson Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Brzoska, A M; Negele, J W; Thies, M

    2004-01-01

    A phenomenological analysis of the distribution of Wilson loops in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory is presented in which Wilson loop distributions are described as the result of a diffusion process on the group manifold. It is shown that, in the absence of forces, diffusion implies Casimir scaling and, conversely, exact Casimir scaling implies free diffusion. Screening processes occur if diffusion takes place in a potential. The crucial distinction between screening of fundamental and adjoint loops is formulated as a symmetry property related to the center symmetry of the underlying gauge theory. The results are expressed in terms of an effective Wilson loop action and compared with various limits of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory.

  7. 过瘤胃胆碱对围产期奶牛营养作用的研究进展%Advance Research on Trophism of Rumen-Protected Choline for Dairy Cows in Perinatal Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翔; 曲永利

    2012-01-01

    本文通过研究围产期奶牛的代谢特点,阐述了胆碱的生物学功能及其在瘤胃中的代谢机理,同时论述了过瘤胃胆碱对围产期奶牛的营养作用。旨在为应用过瘤胃胆碱缓解奶牛能量负平衡,减少围产期奶牛营养代谢病发病率,提高奶牛生产性能,延长奶牛利用年限奠定理论参考依据。%This article elaborated the biological function of choline, described the choline metabolic characteristics in rumen, discussed the nutritional role of rumen-protected choline via studying metabolic characteristics of dairy cows in the rumen protected choline to pe all rinatal stage. This paper aimed to establish theoretical basis on applying eviate the energy negative balance of cows, reduce tperinatal period metabolic disease,improve the performance,prolong the utilization of dairy cows.

  8. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  9. CO diffusion capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, U.

    1979-01-01

    We measured in 287 persons the pulmonary CO diffusion capacity with the steady-state and the single breath methods, applying apnoeic periods of 4 and 10 seconds duration. The aspects methodical significance, polyclinical applicability and pathognostic relevance with respect to other approved pulmonary functional tests are discussed. Differing pulmonary diffusion capacity values found in normal persons or in patients suffering from silicosis, pulmonary fibrosis, Boeck's disease or rheumatoid arthritis, were investigated and critically evaluated.

  10. Drift-Diffusion Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Banoo

    1998-01-01

    equation in the discrete momentum space. This is shown to be similar to the conventional drift-diffusion equation except that it is a more rigorous solution to the Boltzmann equation because the current and carrier densities are resolved into M×1 vectors, where M is the number of modes in the discrete momentum space. The mobility and diffusion coefficient become M×M matrices which connect the M momentum space modes. This approach is demonstrated by simulating electron transport in bulk silicon.

  11. Diffusion in nanocrystalline solids

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, Alan V.

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced atomic migration was an early observation from experimental studies into nanocrystalline solids. This contribution presents an overview of the available diffusion data for simple metals and ionic materials in nanocrystalline form. It will be shown that enhanced diffusion can be interpreted in terms of atomic transport along the interfaces, which are comparable to grain boundaries in coarse-grained analogues. However, the method of sample preparation is seen to play a major role in...

  12. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in leukodystrophies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patay, Zoltan [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Department of Radiology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-11-01

    Leukodystrophies are genetically determined metabolic diseases, in which the underlying biochemical abnormality interferes with the normal build-up and/or maintenance of myelin, which leads to hypo- (or arrested) myelination, or dysmyelination with resultant demyelination. Although conventional magnetic resonance imaging has significantly contributed to recent progress in the diagnostic work-up of these diseases, diffusion-weighted imaging has the potential to further improve our understanding of underlying pathological processes and their dynamics through the assessment of normal and abnormal diffusion properties of cerebral white matter. Evaluation of conventional diffusion-weighted and ADC map images allows the detection of major diffusion abnormalities and the identification of various edema types, of which the so-called myelin edema is particularly relevant to leukodystrophies. Depending on the nature of histopathological changes, stage and progression gradient of diseases, various diffusion-weighted imaging patterns may be seen in leukodystrophies. Absent or low-grade myelin edema is found in mucopolysaccharidoses, GM gangliosidoses, Zellweger disease, adrenomyeloneuropathy, L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria, non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, classical phenylketonuria, Van der Knaap disease and the vanishing white matter, medium grade myelin edema in metachromatic leukodystrophy, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and HMG coenzyme lyase deficiency and high grade edema in Krabbe disease, Canavan disease, hyperhomocystinemias, maple syrup urine disease and leukodystrophy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and high lactate. (orig.)

  13. Advanced industrial gas turbine technology readiness demonstration program. Phase II. Final report: compressor rig fabrication assembly and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, J. K.; Smith, J. D.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a component technology demonstration program to fabricate, assemble and test an advanced axial/centrifugal compressor are presented. This work was conducted to demonstrate the utilization of advanced aircraft gas turbine cooling and high pressure compressor technology to improve the performance and reliability of future industrial gas turbines. Specific objectives of the compressor component testing were to demonstrate 18:1 pressure ratio on a single spool at 90% polytropic efficiency with 80% fewer airfoils as compared to current industrial gas turbine compressors. The compressor design configuration utilizes low aspect ratio/highly-loaded axial compressor blading combined with a centrifugal backend stage to achieve the 18:1 design pressure ratio in only 7 stages and 281 axial compressor airfoils. Initial testing of the compressor test rig was conducted with a vaneless centrifugal stage diffuser to allow documentation of the axial compressor performance. Peak design speed axial compressor performance demonstrated was 91.8% polytropic efficiency at 6.5:1 pressure ratio. Subsequent documentation of the combined axial/centrifugal performance with a centrifugal stage pipe diffuser resulted in the demonstration of 91.5% polytropic efficiency and 14% stall margin at the 18:1 overall compressor design pressure ratio. The demonstrated performance not only exceeded the contract performance goals, but also represents the highest known demonstrated compressor performance in this pressure ratio and flow class. The performance demonstrated is particularly significant in that it was accomplished at airfoil loading levels approximately 15% higher than that of current production engine compressor designs. The test results provide conclusive verification of the advanced low aspect ratio axial compressor and centrifugal stage technologies utilized.

  14. Diffusion in natural ilmenite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhouse, Iona; O'Neill, Hugh; Lister, Gordon

    2010-05-01

    Diffusion rates in natural ilmenite of composition Fe0.842+ Fe0.163+Mn0.07Mg0.01Ti 0.92O3 from the Vishnevye Mountains (Urals, Russia) have been measured at 1000° C. Experiments were carried out in a one atmosphere furnace with oxygen fugacity controlled by flow of a CO-CO2 gas mixture, over a period of four hours. The diffusant source was a synthetic ilmenite (FeTiO3) powder doped with trace amounts of Mg, Co, Ni, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Al, Cr, Ga and Y. Since, the natural ilmenite crystal contained Mn it was also possible to study diffusion of Mn from the ilmenite crystal. The experiments were analysed using the electron microprobe and scanning laser ablation ICP-MS. Diffusion profiles were measured for Al, Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Ga, and Y. Diffusion of Cr, Hf, Zr, V, Nb and Ta was too slow to allow diffusion profiles to be accurately measured for the times and temperatures studied so far. The preliminary results show that diffusion in ilmenite is fast, with the diffusivity determined in this study on the order of 10-13 to 10-16 m2s-1. For comparison, Chakraborty (1997) found interdiffusion of Fe and Mg in olivine at 1000° C on the order of 10-17 to 10-18m2s-1 and Dieckmann (1998) found diffusivity of Fe, Mg, Co in magnetite at 1200° C to be on the order of 10-13 to 10-14 m2s-1. The order in which the diffusivity of the elements decreases is Mn > Co > Mg ≥ Ni > Al ≥ Y ≥ Ga, that is to say that Mn diffuses the fastest and Ga the slowest. Overall, this study intends to determine diffusion parameters such as frequency factor, activation energy and activation volume as a function of temperature and oxygen fugacity. This research is taking place in the context of a larger study focusing on the use of the garnet-ilmenite system as a geospeedometer. Examination of the consequences of simultaneous diffusion of multiple elements is a necessity if we are to develop an understanding of the crystal-chemical controls on diffusion (cf Spandler & O'Neill, in press). Chakraborty

  15. Staged electrostatic precipitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stanley J.; Almlie, Jay C.; Zhuang, Ye

    2016-03-01

    A device includes a chamber having an air inlet and an air outlet. The device includes a plurality of stages including at least a first stage adjacent a second stage. The plurality of stages are disposed in the chamber and each stage has a plurality of discharge electrodes disposed in an interior region and is bounded by an upstream baffle on an end proximate the air inlet and bounded by a downstream baffle on an end proximate the air outlet. Each stage has at least one sidewall between the upstream baffle and the downstream baffle. The sidewall is configured as a collection electrode and has a plurality of apertures disposed along a length between the upstream baffle and the downstream baffle. The upstream baffle of the first stage is positioned in staggered alignment relative to the upstream baffle of the second stage and the downstream baffle of the first stage are positioned in staggered alignment relative to the downstream baffle of the second stage.

  16. Estimated aortic blood pressure based on radial artery tonometry underestimates directly measured aortic blood pressure in patients with advancing chronic kidney disease staging and increasing arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Rasmus K; Peters, Christian D; Khatir, Dinah S; Laugesen, Esben; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Winther, Simon; Buus, Niels H

    2016-10-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) can be assessed noninvasively based on radial tonometry and may potentially be a better predictor of clinical outcome than brachial BP. However, the validity of noninvasively obtained estimates has never been examined in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we compared invasive aortic systolic BP (SBP) with estimated central SBP obtained by radial artery tonometry and examined the influence of renal function and arterial stiffness on this relationship. We evaluated 83 patients with stage 3 to 5 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 30 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) and 41 controls without renal disease undergoing scheduled coronary angiography. BP in the ascending aorta was measured through the angiography catheter and simultaneously estimated using radial tonometry. The mean difference between estimated central and aortic SBP was -13.2 (95% confidence interval -14.9 to -11.4) mm Hg. Arterial stiffness was evaluated by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and was significantly increased in CKD patients compared with (versus) control patients (mean 10.7 vs. 9.3 m/s). The difference in BP significantly increased 1.0 mm Hg for every 10 ml/min decrease in eGFR and by 1.6 mm Hg per 1 m/s increase in cfPWV. Using multivariate regression analysis including both eGFR and cfPWV, the difference between estimated central and invasive aortic SBP was significantly increased by 0.7 mm Hg. For the entire cohort brachial SBP significantly better reflected invasive SBP than estimated SBP. Thus, tonometry-based estimates of central BP progressively underestimate invasive central SBP with decreasing renal function and increasing arterial stiffness in CKD patients.

  17. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 6, is a collection of papers that discusses the role of integrated electronics in medical systems and the usage of biological mathematical models in biological systems. Other papers deal with the health care systems, the problems and methods of approach toward rehabilitation, as well as the future of biomedical engineering. One paper discusses the use of system identification as it applies to biological systems to estimate the values of a number of parameters (for example, resistance, diffusion coefficients) by indirect means. More particularly, the i

  18. MOUTH FLOOR DIFFUSE SUPPURATION COMPLICATED BY CERVICOTHORACIC NECROTIZING FASCIITIS – A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta TRANDAFIR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis is a severe soft tissue infection, often life-threatening, characterized by necrosis of the subcutaneous and fascial tissue, which can be extended along the fascial plans, affecting the adjacent vessels, nerves and muscle tissue. The predisposing factors of the disease include: advanced age, immuno-compromised bodies, diabetes, chronic alcoholism and chronic smoking. Necrotizing fasciitis in head and neck segments is rare, usually with an odontogenic source of infection. In the early stages of evolution, a necrotizing fasciitis is difficult to differentiate from the non-necrotizing infection of the soft tissue. Due to its extremely severe evolution, an early presumptive diagnosis is necessary (based on clinical and imaging aspects, as well as a prompt aggressive surgery backed by an intensive care support. The clinical case of an immunocompromised patient admitted for a mouth floor diffuse suppuration, previously complicated with cervicothoracic necrotizing fasciitis with aggressive evolution, is discussed in the following.

  19. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, urban research has taken a ‘mobilities turn’. There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not ‘just happen.’ Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and lived...... as people are ‘staging themselves’ (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between ‘being staged’ (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the ‘mobile staging’ of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging mobilities is about the fact that mobility...... asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities? The theoretical framing in the Staging mobilities book is applied to four in-depth cases in the accompanying volume Designing mobilities.This book explore how places, sites...

  20. A relation between diffusion,temperature and the cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Haba, Z

    2016-01-01

    We show that the temperature of a diffusing fluid with the diffusion constant \\kappa^{2} in an expanding universe approaches a constant limit T=\\kappa^{2}/H in its final de Sitter stage characterized by the horizon 1/H determined by the Hubble constant. If de Sitter surface temperature in the final equilibrium state coincides with the fluid temperature then the cosmological constant \\Lambda=3H^{2}=6\\pi\\kappa^{2}.

  1. Recent Advances in Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Kätelhön, Enno; Barnes, Edward O; Compton, Richard G; Laborda, Eduardo; Molina, Angela

    2015-06-01

    Recent progress in the theory and practice of voltammetry is surveyed and evaluated. The transformation over the last decade of the level of modelling and simulation of experiments has realised major advances such that electrochemical techniques can be fully developed and applied to real chemical problems of distinct complexity. This review focuses on the topic areas of: multistep electrochemical processes, voltammetry in ionic liquids, the development and interpretation of theories of electron transfer (Butler-Volmer and Marcus-Hush), advances in voltammetric pulse techniques, stochastic random walk models of diffusion, the influence of migration under conditions of low support, voltammetry at rough and porous electrodes, and nanoparticle electrochemistry. The review of the latter field encompasses both the study of nanoparticle-modified electrodes, including stripping voltammetry and the new technique of 'nano-impacts'.

  2. Recent Advances in Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Kätelhön, Enno; Barnes, Edward O; Compton, Richard G; Laborda, Eduardo; Molina, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in the theory and practice of voltammetry is surveyed and evaluated. The transformation over the last decade of the level of modelling and simulation of experiments has realised major advances such that electrochemical techniques can be fully developed and applied to real chemical problems of distinct complexity. This review focuses on the topic areas of: multistep electrochemical processes, voltammetry in ionic liquids, the development and interpretation of theories of electron transfer (Butler–Volmer and Marcus–Hush), advances in voltammetric pulse techniques, stochastic random walk models of diffusion, the influence of migration under conditions of low support, voltammetry at rough and porous electrodes, and nanoparticle electrochemistry. The review of the latter field encompasses both the study of nanoparticle-modified electrodes, including stripping voltammetry and the new technique of ‘nano-impacts’. PMID:26246984

  3. Exploration on the Construction of Students’ Literacy Education System of the Advanced Technical and Skilled Talents in Run-through Cultivation Basic Stage%高端技术技能人才贯通培养试验项目基础教育阶段学生素养教育体系构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏飞

    2016-01-01

    The construction of students’ literacy education system is of great significance to the development of students’ growth and sustainable development in the basic education stage of the advanced technical and skilled talent program. The basic Education College of BCFC insisted the moral education and the socialist core value con-cept as the guide to explore the implementation of literacy education in the basic education stage of the project,and innovation to build the students’ literacy education system of the “four three five five one ”with the theme of“fear,gratitude,study,excellence”.%学生素养教育体系构建对高端技术技能人才贯通培养项目基础教育阶段学生的成长成才和可持续发展意义重大。北京财贸职业学院基础教育学院坚持立德树人,以社会主义核心价值观为统领,在实践中探索实施符合贯通培养项目基础教育阶段学生特点的素养教育,创新构建以“敬畏、感恩、笃学、卓越”为主题的“四三五五一”学生素养教育体系。

  4. Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliosarcomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ju Hyung; Kim, Se Hoon; Kim, Eui Hyun; Kang, Seok-Gu; Chang, Jong Hee

    2015-04-01

    Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis (PDLG) is a rare condition with a fatal outcome, characterized by diffuse infiltration of the leptomeninges by neoplastic glial cells without evidence of primary tumor in the brain or spinal cord parenchyma. In particular, PDLG histologically diagnosed as gliosarcoma is extremely rare, with only 2 cases reported to date. We report a case of primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliosarcomatosis. A 68-year-old man presented with fever, chilling, headache, and a brief episode of mental deterioration. Initial T1-weighted post-contrast brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement without a definite intraparenchymal lesion. Based on clinical and imaging findings, antiviral treatment was initiated. Despite the treatment, the patient's neurologic symptoms and mental status progressively deteriorated and follow-up MRI showed rapid progression of the disease. A meningeal biopsy revealed gliosarcoma and was conclusive for the diagnosis of primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliosarcomatosis. We suggest the inclusion of PDLG in the potential differential diagnosis of patients who present with nonspecific neurologic symptoms in the presence of leptomeningeal involvement on MRI.

  5. Sailing On Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allshouse, Michael; Barad, Mike; Peacock, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    When a density-stratified fluid encounters a sloping boundary, diffusion alters the fluid density adjacent to the boundary, producing spontaneous along-slope flow. Since stratified fluids are ubiquitous in nature, this phenomenon plays a vital role in environmental transport processes, including salt transport in rock fissures and ocean-boundary mixing. Here we show that diffusion-driven flow can be harnessed as a remarkable means of propulsion, acting as a diffusion-engine that extracts energy from microscale diffusive processes to propel macroscale objects. Like a sailboat tacking into the wind, forward motion results from fluid flow around an object, creating a region of low pressure at the front relative to the rear. In this case, however, the flow is driven by molecular diffusion and the pressure variations arise due to the resulting small changes in the fluid density. This mechanism has implications for a number of important systems, including environmental and biological transport processes at locations of strong stratification, such as pycnoclines in oceans and lakes. There is also a strong connection with other prevalent buoyancy-driven flows, such as valley and glacier winds, significantly broadening the scope of these results and opening up a new avenue for propulsion research.

  6. Advances in magnetic resonance 12

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 12, presents a variety of contributions to the theory and practice of magnetic resonance. The book contains six chapters and begins with a discussion of diffusion and self-diffusion measurements by nuclear magnetic resonance. This is followed by separate chapters on spin-lattice relaxation time in hydrogen isotope mixtures; the principles of optical detection of nuclear spin alignment and nuclear quadropole resonance; and the spin-1 behavior, including the relaxation of the quasi-invariants of the motion of a system of pairs of dipolar coupled spin-1/2 nu

  7. Advance care directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advance directive; Do-not-resuscitate - advance directive; Durable power of attorney - advance care directive; POA - advance care directive; Health care agent - advance care directive; Health care proxy - ...

  8. Comprehensive outpaitent treatment for advanced stage patients with ankylosing spondylitis%进展期强直性脊柱炎患者的门诊综合治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永军; 刘明勋

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the efficacy and comprehensive outpatient treatment progression in patients with ankylosing spondyli-tis. Methods:From 2000 March to 2012 March, 365 cases of ankylosing spondylitis patients in outpatient treatment mandatory progress pe-riod, of which 264 cases were male, 101 female;age 15 ~ 42 years, average 29 years;the course of disease was 5 to 9 years, average 6. 3 years;to give psychological counseling education, pay attention to functional exercise, the necessary physical therapy, standard drug treatment, with small needle knife used for treatment. By using visual analogue scale ( Visual Analogue Scale, VAS) , curative effect was evaluated. Results:All cases were followed up, the follow-up time ranged from 24 to 120 months, 17 patients developed fibrous ankylo-sis, 2 patients had bilateral hip bony ankylosis, femoral head necrosis, bilateral total hip arthroplasty. The rest of the patients showed no deformity and dysfunction, VAS first diagnosed by averaging 6. 13 points down to the last follow-up 3. 16 points. Conclusion:Advanced ankylosing spondylitis patients can effectively control the progression of the disease through reasonable comprehensive outpatient treatment.%目的::探讨进展期强直性脊柱炎患者的门诊综合治疗方法及疗效。方法:自2000年3月~2012年3月,门诊治疗进展期强直脊柱炎患者365例,其中男264例,女101例;年龄15~42岁,平均29岁;病程5~9年,平均6.3年;给予心理辅导教育,重视功能锻炼,必要物理治疗,规范药物治疗,配合小针刀应用进行治疗。采用视觉模拟评分法( Visual Analogue Scale,VAS)评价疗效。结果:所有病例均得到长期随访,随访时间24~120个月,17例患者发展为纤维性强直,2例患者出现双侧髋关节骨性强直,股骨头坏死,行双侧人工全髋置换术。其余患者未出现畸形及功能障碍, VAS由初次确诊平均得分6.13分降为末次随访3.16分。结论:进展期强直性

  9. Management of advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bakel, Adrian B; Chidsey, Geoffrey

    2002-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) due to progressive systolic dysfunction has become a modern-day epidemic. Despite the increased incidence and prevalence, significant progress has been made in the past 10 to 15 years in the treatment of CHF at all stages. The current outlook for patients with newly diagnosed, mild heart failure is encouraging. It should be noted, however, that most of the morbidity and health care expenditure is incurred by a minority of patients diagnosed with CHF who are in the advanced stages of their disease. The thrust of this article will be to provide practical advice beyond current guidelines on the management of advanced CHF.

  10. Distributed Control Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2007-01-01

    . Programming a modular, self-reconfigurable robot is however a complicated task: the robot is essentially a real-time, distributed embedded system, where control and communication paths often are tightly coupled to the current physical configuration of the robot. To facilitate the task of programming modular....... This approach allows the programmer to dynamically distribute behaviors throughout a robot and moreover provides a partial abstraction over the concrete physical shape of the robot. We have implemented a prototype of a distributed control diffusion system for the ATRON modular, self-reconfigurable robot......, self-reconfigurable robots, we present the concept of distributed control diffusion: distributed queries are used to identify modules that play a specific role in the robot, and behaviors that implement specific control strategies are diffused throughout the robot based on these role assignments...

  11. Diffusion and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Vrentas, James S

    2013-01-01

    The book first covers the five elements necessary to formulate and solve mass transfer problems, that is, conservation laws and field equations, boundary conditions, constitutive equations, parameters in constitutive equations, and mathematical methods that can be used to solve the partial differential equations commonly encountered in mass transfer problems. Jump balances, Green’s function solution methods, and the free-volume theory for the prediction of self-diffusion coefficients for polymer–solvent systems are among the topics covered. The authors then use those elements to analyze a wide variety of mass transfer problems, including bubble dissolution, polymer sorption and desorption, dispersion, impurity migration in plastic containers, and utilization of polymers in drug delivery. The text offers detailed solutions, along with some theoretical aspects, for numerous processes including viscoelastic diffusion, moving boundary problems, diffusion and reaction, membrane transport, wave behavior, sedime...

  12. Cesium diffusion in graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R.B. III; Davis, W. Jr.; Sutton, A.L. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on diffusion of /sup 137/Cs in five types of graphite were performed. The document provides a completion of the report that was started and includes a presentation of all of the diffusion data, previously unpublished. Except for data on mass transfer of /sup 137/Cs in the Hawker-Siddeley graphite, analyses of experimental results were initiated but not completed. The mass transfer process of cesium in HS-1-1 graphite at 600 to 1000/sup 0/C in a helium atmosphere is essentially pure diffusion wherein values of (E/epsilon) and ..delta..E of the equation D/epsilon = (D/epsilon)/sub 0/ exp (-..delta..E/RT) are about 4 x 10/sup -2/ cm/sup 2//s and 30 kcal/mole, respectively.

  13. Diffusion Tensor Imaging: Exploring the Motor Networks and Clinical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sung Soo; Lee, Seung Koo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    With the advances in diffusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been applied to a number of neurological conditions because DTI can demonstrate microstructures of the brain that are not assessable with conventional MR imaging. Tractography based on DTI offers gross visualization of the white matter fiber architecture in the human brain in vivo. Degradation of restrictive barriers and disruption of the cytoarchitecture result in changes in the diffusion of water molecules in various pathological conditions, and these conditions can also be assessed with DTI. Yet many factors may influence the ability to apply DTI clinically, so these techniques have to be used with a cautious hand.

  14. Diffusion MR Imaging of the Brain in Patients with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Matthew Debnam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several years, there has been significant advancement in the molecular characterization of intracranial diseases, particularly cerebral neoplasms. While nuclear medicine technology, including PET/CT, has been at the foreground of exploration, new MR imaging techniques, specifically diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging, have shown interesting applications towards advancing our understanding of cancer involving the brain. In this paper, we review the fundamentals and basic physics of these techniques, and their applications to patient care for both general diagnostic use and in answering specific questions in selection of patients in terms of expected response to treatment.

  15. Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding of Titanium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Ghosh

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available New and advanced fabrication methods for titanium components are emerging today to replace age-old fabrication processes and reduce component cost. Superplastic forming and diffusion bonding are two such advanced fabrication technologies which when applied individually or in combination can provide significant cost and weight benefits and a rather broad manufacturing technology base. This paper briefly reviews the state of understanding of the science and technology of super plastic forming of titanium alloys, and their diffusion bonding capability. Emphasis has been placed on the metallurgy of superplastic flow in two phase titanium alloys, the microstructural and external factors which influence this behaviour.

  16. From alveolar diffuse atrophy to aggressive periodontitis: a brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzeldemir, Esra; Toygar, Hilal Uslu

    2006-01-01

    Technologic advances in mechanics, electronics, physics, chemistry, and computer science have contributed to advances in dental medicine. Periodontology is not only a clinical science but is also directly related to the basic sciences. Research is conducted in laboratories rather than in clinics now. During the last century, aggressive periodontitis has received attention from numerous researchers because of its multifactorial features. This paper explores the long scientific journey of aggressive periodontitis, beginning with its first definition as alveolar diffuse atrophy. Perhaps in the future, "alveolar diffuse atrophy" will be referred to by another name or term. However, this journey will never end.

  17. Multiple Stages 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, John

    Multiple stages 2: theatrical futures, set design, community plays, cultural capitals, democracy & drama, WWII dramas, performance on adoption, promenade about emigration, qualities in political theatre, performance analysis, dramaturgical education, Toulmin Variations......Multiple stages 2: theatrical futures, set design, community plays, cultural capitals, democracy & drama, WWII dramas, performance on adoption, promenade about emigration, qualities in political theatre, performance analysis, dramaturgical education, Toulmin Variations...

  18. GRAI N-BOUNDARY DIFFUSION

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, N.

    1982-01-01

    The more useful experimental techniques for determining grain-boundary diffusion are briefly described followed by a presentation of results that shed light on the models and mechanisms of grain-boundary and dislocation diffusion. Studies of the following grain-boundary diffusion phenomena will be considered ; anisotropy in grain-boundary diffusion, effect of orientation relationship on grain-boundary diffusion, effect of boundary type and dislocation dissociation, lattice structure, correlat...

  19. Drift in Diffusion Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Marchesoni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The longstanding problem of Brownian transport in a heterogeneous quasi one-dimensional medium with space-dependent self-diffusion coefficient is addressed in the overdamped (zero mass limit. A satisfactory mesoscopic description is obtained in the Langevin equation formalism by introducing an appropriate drift term, which depends on the system macroscopic observables, namely the diffuser concentration and current. The drift term is related to the microscopic properties of the medium. The paradoxical existence of a finite drift at zero current suggests the possibility of designing a Maxwell demon operating between two equilibrium reservoirs at the same temperature.

  20. The Trouble with Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. DeHoff

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenological formalism, which yields Fick's Laws for diffusion in single phase multicomponent systems, is widely accepted as the basis for the mathematical description of diffusion. This paper focuses on problems associated with this formalism. This mode of description of the process is cumbersome, defining as it does matrices of interdiffusion coefficients (the central material properties that require a large experimental investment for their evaluation in three component systems, and, indeed cannot be evaluated for systems with more than three components. It is also argued that the physical meaning of the numerical values of these properties with respect to the atom motions in the system remains unknown. The attempt to understand the physical content of the diffusion coefficients in the phenomenological formalism has been the central fundamental problem in the theory of diffusion in crystalline alloys. The observation by Kirkendall that the crystal lattice moves during diffusion led Darken to develop the concept of intrinsic diffusion, i.e., atom motion relative to the crystal lattice. Darken and his successors sought to relate the diffusion coefficients computed for intrinsic fluxes to those obtained from the motion of radioactive tracers in chemically homogeneous samples which directly report the jump frequencies of the atoms as a function of composition and temperature. This theoretical connection between tracer, intrinsic and interdiffusion behavior would provide the basis for understanding the physical content of interdiffusion coefficients. Definitive tests of the resulting theoretical connection have been carried out for a number of binary systems for which all three kinds of observations are available. In a number of systems predictions of intrinsic coefficients from tracer data do not agree with measured values although predictions of interdiffusion coefficients appear to give reasonable agreement. Thus, the complete

  1. Phase transformation and diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, G B; Dey, G K

    2008-01-01

    Given that the basic purpose of all research in materials science and technology is to tailor the properties of materials to suit specific applications, phase transformations are the natural key to the fine-tuning of the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties. A basic understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of phase transformation is therefore of vital importance. Apart from a few cases involving crystallographic martensitic transformations, all phase transformations are mediated by diffusion. Thus, proper control and understanding of the process of diffusion during nucleation, g

  2. Nonlocal electrical diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.; Olivares-Peregrino, V. H.; Benavides-Cruz, M.; Calderón-Ramón, C.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis and modeling of the electrical diffusion equation using the fractional calculus approach. This alternative representation for the current density is expressed in terms of the Caputo derivatives, the order for the space domain is 0type phenomena, while the time fractional equation is related to sub- or super diffusion. We show that the mathematical concept of fractional derivatives can be useful to understand the behavior of semiconductors, the design of solar panels, electrochemical phenomena and the description of anomalous complex processes.

  3. Nonlinear diffusion equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Zhuo Qun; Li Hui Lai; Zhao Jun Ning

    2001-01-01

    Nonlinear diffusion equations, an important class of parabolic equations, come from a variety of diffusion phenomena which appear widely in nature. They are suggested as mathematical models of physical problems in many fields, such as filtration, phase transition, biochemistry and dynamics of biological groups. In many cases, the equations possess degeneracy or singularity. The appearance of degeneracy or singularity makes the study more involved and challenging. Many new ideas and methods have been developed to overcome the special difficulties caused by the degeneracy and singularity, which

  4. Hydrogen diffusion in Zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrin, Jannick; Zhang, Peipei

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen mobility in gem quality zircon single crystals from Madagascar was investigated through H-D exchange experiments. Thin slices were annealed in a horizontal furnace flushed with a gas mixture of Ar/D2(10%) under ambient pressure between 900 ° C to 1150 ° C. FTIR analyses were performed on oriented slices before and after each annealing run. H diffusion along [100] and [010] follow the same diffusion law D = D0exp[-E /RT], with log D0 = 2.24 ± 1.57 (in m2/s) and E = 374 ± 39 kJ/mol. H diffusion along [001] follows a slightly more rapid diffusion law, with log D0 = 1.11 ± 0.22 (in m2/s) and E = 334 ± 49 kJ/mol. H diffusion in zircon has much higher activation energy and slower diffusivity than other NAMs below 1150 ° C even iron-poor garnets which are known to be among the slowest (Blanchard and Ingrin, 2004; Kurka et al. 2005). During H-D exchange zircon incorporates also deuterium. This hydration reaction involves uranium reduction as it is shown from the exchange of U5+ and U4+ characteristic bands in the near infrared region during annealing. It is the first time that a hydration reaction U5+ + OH- = U4+ + O2- + 1/2H2, is experimentally reported. The kinetics of deuterium incorporation is slightly slower than hydrogen diffusion, suggesting that the reaction is limited by hydrogen mobility. Hydrogen isotopic memory of zircon is higher than other NAMs. Zircons will be moderately retentive of H signatures at mid-crustal metamorphic temperatures. At 500 ° C, a zircon with a radius of 300 μm would retain its H isotopic signature over more than a million years. However, a zircon is unable to retain this information for geologically significant times under high-grade metamorphism unless the grain size is large enough. Refrences Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2004) Hydrogen diffusion in Dora Maira pyrope. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 31, 593-605. Kurka, A., Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2005) Kinetics of hydrogen extraction and deuteration in

  5. 经电子支气管镜下冷冻联合化疗治疗晚期中央型肺癌的疗效观察%Curative Effect Observation of Electronic Bronchoscope Cryotherapy Combined with Chemotherapy in the Treatment of Advanced Stage Central Type Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭之; 宋卓; 迟岩; 赵鑫亮; 怀丽梅; 张淑丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:应用电子支气管镜下冷冻治疗联合化疗对晚期中央型肺癌的疗效分析.方法:选取24例晚期中央型肺癌为治疗组,随机设置24例晚期中央型肺癌(拒绝行电子支气管镜介入冷冻治疗)为对照组,给予标准化疗方案.治疗组采用OLYMPS BF-260电子支气管镜冷冻介入治疗联合(多西他赛+卡铂)方案全身静脉化疗.对照组采用单纯(多西他赛+卡铂)方案全身静脉化疗.结果:治疗组24例患者中,完全缓解(CR)8例,部分缓解(PR)12例,稳定(SD)2例,疾病进展(PD)2例,有效率(CR+PR)为83.3%;对照组24例患者中, CR2例,PR11例,SD7例,PD4例,有效率为54.2%.两组有效率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).治疗组和对照组平均无疾病进展时间(progression-free survival PFS)分别为183 d和92 d,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:经电子支气管镜冷冻联合化疗治疗晚期中央型肺癌有较好的疗效,可提高晚期非小细胞肺癌的生存率.%Objective:To observe the treatment efficiency of the patients with advanced stage central type lung cancer by using electronic bronchoscope cryotherapy, combined with chemotherapy.Method:24 patients with advanced stage central type lung cancer were selected the treatment group, 24 patients with advanced stage central type lung cancer were randomly selected of the control group(refused to row electronic bronchoscope in cryotherapy),who were gived the standard chemotherapy regimens.The treatment group was treated with OLYMPS BF-260 electronic bronchoscopic cryotherapy and combined intravenous chemotherapy with the Docetaxel + Carboplatin, while the control group with intravenous chemotherapy with the Docetaxel + Carboplatin.Result:In the treatment group ,complete remission(CR) was 8 cases, partial remission(PR) was 12 cases, stable disease(SD) was 2 cases,progresive disease(PD) was 2 cases.In the control group ,CR was 2 cases,PR was 11 cases,SD was 8 cases,PD was 4 cases.The effective rate

  6. Application of diffusion tensor imaging in neurosurgery; Anwendung der Diffusions-Tensor-Bildgebung in der Neurochirurgie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saur, R. [Sektion fuer Experimentelle Kernspinresonanz des ZNS, Abt. Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany); Augenklinik des Universitaetsklinikums Tuebingen (Germany); Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie des Universitaetsklinikums Tuebingen (Germany); Gharabaghi, A. [Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie des Universitaetsklinikums Tuebingen (Germany); Erb, M. [Sektion fuer Experimentelle Kernspinresonanz des ZNS, Abt. Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Knowledge about integrity and location of fibre tracts arising from eloquent cortical areas is important to plan neurosurgical interventions and to allow maximization of resection of pathological tissue while preserving vital white matter tracts. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is so far the only method to get preoperatively an impression of the individual complexity of nerve bundles. Thereby nerve fibres are not mapped directly. They are derived indirectly by analysis of the directional distribution of diffusion of water molecules which is influenced mainly by large fibre tracts. From acquisition to reconstruction and visualisation of the fibre tracts many representational stages and working steps have to be passed. Exact knowledge about problems of Diffusion Imaging is important for interpretation of the results. Particularly, brain tumor edema, intraoperative brain shift, MR-artefacts and limitations of the mathematical models and algorithms challenge DTI-developers and applicants. (orig.)

  7. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) as a quantitative parameter in diffusion weighted MR imaging in gynecologic cancer: Dependence on b-values used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehauge, Jesper Folsted; Tanderup, Kari; Haack, Søren;

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has gained interest as an imaging modality for assessment of tumor extension and response to cancer treatment. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of the choice of b-values on the calculation of the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) for locally ad...... advanced gynecological cancer and to estimate a stable interval of diffusion gradients that allows for best comparison of the ADC between patients and institutions....

  8. Brownian yet non-Gaussian diffusion: from superstatistics to subordination of diffusing diffusivities

    CERN Document Server

    Chechkin, A V; Metzler, R; Sokolov, I M

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of biological, soft, and active matter systems are observed to exhibit normal diffusive dynamics with a linear growth of the mean squared displacement, yet with a non-Gaussian distribution of increments. Based on the Chubinsky-Slater idea of a diffusing diffusivity we here establish and analyse a complete minimal model framework of diffusion processes with fluctuating diffusivity. In particular, we demonstrate the equivalence of the diffusing diffusivity process in the short time limit with a superstatistical approach based on a distribution of diffusivities. Moreover, we establish a subordination picture of Brownian but non-Gaussian diffusion processes, that can be used for a wide class of diffusivity fluctuation statistics. Our results are shown to be in excellent agreement with simulations and numerical evaluations.

  9. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joesph Fadok

    2008-01-01

    Siemens has developed a roadmap to achieve the DOE goals for efficiency, cost reduction, and emissions through innovative approaches and novel technologies which build upon worldwide IGCC operational experience, platform technology, and extensive experience in G-class operating conditions. In Phase 1, the technologies and concepts necessary to achieve the program goals were identified for the gas turbine components and supporting technology areas and testing plans were developed to mitigate identified risks. Multiple studies were conducted to evaluate the impact in plant performance of different gas turbine and plant technologies. 2015 gas turbine technologies showed a significant improvement in IGCC plant efficiency, however, a severe performance penalty was calculated for high carbon capture cases. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the DOE 2010 and 2015 efficiency targets can be met with a two step approach. A risk management process was instituted in Phase 1 to identify risk and develop mitigation plans. For the risks identified, testing and development programs are in place and the risks will be revisited periodically to determine if changes to the plan are necessary. A compressor performance prediction has shown that the design of the compressor for the engine can be achieved with additional stages added to the rear of the compressor. Tip clearance effects were studied as well as a range of flow and pressure ratios to evaluate the impacts to both performance and stability. Considerable data was obtained on the four candidate combustion systems: diffusion, catalytic, premix, and distributed combustion. Based on the results of Phase 1, the premixed combustion system and the distributed combustion system were chosen as having the most potential and will be the focus of Phase 2 of the program. Significant progress was also made in obtaining combustion kinetics data for high hydrogen fuels. The Phase 1 turbine studies indicate initial feasibility of the

  10. Diffusion in ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Pelleg, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    This textbook provides an introduction to changes that occur in solids such as ceramics, mainly at high temperatures, which are diffusion controlled, as well as presenting research data. Such changes are related to the kinetics of various reactions such as precipitation, oxidation and phase transformations, but are also related to some mechanical changes, such as creep. The book is composed of two parts, beginning with a look at the basics of diffusion according to Fick's Laws. Solutions of Fick’s second law for constant D, diffusion in grain boundaries and dislocations are presented along with a look at the atomistic approach for the random motion of atoms. In the second part, the author discusses diffusion in several technologically important ceramics. The ceramics selected are monolithic single phase ones, including: A12O3, SiC, MgO, ZrO2 and Si3N4. Of these, three refer to oxide ceramics (alumina, magnesia and zirconia). Carbide based ceramics are represented by the technologically very important Si-ca...

  11. Diffuse ceiling ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen

    both thermal comfort and energy efficient aspects. The present study aims to characterize the air distribution and thermal comfort in the rooms with diffuse ceiling ventilation. Both the stand-alone ventilation system and its integration with a radiant ceiling system are investigated. This study also...

  12. Nanocrystal diffusion doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskin, Vladimir A; Barrows, Charles J; Erickson, Christian S; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2013-09-25

    A diffusion-based synthesis of doped colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals is demonstrated. This approach involves thermodynamically controlled addition of both impurity cations and host anions to preformed seed nanocrystals under equilibrium conditions, rather than kinetically controlled doping during growth. This chemistry allows thermodynamic crystal compositions to be prepared without sacrificing other kinetically trapped properties such as shape, size, or crystallographic phase. This doping chemistry thus shares some similarities with cation-exchange reactions, but proceeds without the loss of host cations and excels at the introduction of relatively unreactive impurity ions that have not been previously accessible using cation exchange. Specifically, we demonstrate the preparation of Cd(1-x)Mn(x)Se (0 ≤ x ≤ ∼0.2) nanocrystals with narrow size distribution, unprecedentedly high Mn(2+) content, and very large magneto-optical effects by diffusion of Mn(2+) into seed CdSe nanocrystals grown by hot injection. Controlling the solution and lattice chemical potentials of Cd(2+) and Mn(2+) allows Mn(2+) diffusion into the internal volumes of the CdSe nanocrystals with negligible Ostwald ripening, while retaining the crystallographic phase (wurtzite or zinc blende), shape anisotropy, and ensemble size uniformity of the seed nanocrystals. Experimental results for diffusion doping of other nanocrystals with other cations are also presented that indicate this method may be generalized, providing access to a variety of new doped semiconductor nanostructures not previously attainable by kinetic routes or cation exchange.

  13. Diffusing Best Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Both the practice and the research literature on information systems attach great value to the identification and dissemination of information on “best practices”. In the philosophy of science, this type of knowledge is regarded as technological knowledge because it becomes manifest in the succes......Both the practice and the research literature on information systems attach great value to the identification and dissemination of information on “best practices”. In the philosophy of science, this type of knowledge is regarded as technological knowledge because it becomes manifest...... in the successful techniques in one context. While the value for other contexts is unproven, knowledge of best practices circulates under an assumption that the practices will usefully self-diffuse through innovation and adoption in other contexts. We study diffusion of best practices using a design science...... approach. The study context is a design case in which an organization desires to diffuse its best practices across different groups. The design goal is embodied in organizational mechanisms to achieve this diffusion. The study used Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a kernel theory. The artifacts...

  14. Model of information diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Lande, D V

    2008-01-01

    The system of cellular automata, which expresses the process of dissemination and publication of the news among separate information resources, has been described. A bell-shaped dependence of news diffusion on internet-sources (web-sites) coheres well with a real behavior of thematic data flows, and at local time spans - with noted models, e.g., exponential and logistic ones.

  15. Osmosis and Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    OsmoBeaker is a CD-ROM designed to enhance the learning of diffusion and osmosis by presenting interactive experimentation to the student. The software provides several computer simulations that take the student through different scenarios with cells, having different concentrations of solutes in them.

  16. Diffusion in aggregated soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rappoldt, C.

    1992-01-01

    The structure of an aggregated soil is characterized by the distribution of the distance from an arbitrary point in the soil to the nearest macropore or crack. From this distribution an equivalent model system is derived to which a diffusion model can be more easily applied. The model system consist

  17. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    -cooling period and night cooling potential. The investment cost of this ventilation system is about 5-10% lower than the conventional ones, because the acoustic ceiling could be directly applied as air diffuser and the use of plenum to distribute air reduces the cost of ductwork. There is a growing interest...

  18. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Sporring, Jon; Fogh Olsen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    . To address this problem, we introduce a photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way, we preserve important illumination features, while...

  19. Diffusive Silicon Nanopore Membranes for Hemodialysis Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Kim

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis using hollow-fiber membranes provides life-sustaining treatment for nearly 2 million patients worldwide with end stage renal disease (ESRD. However, patients on hemodialysis have worse long-term outcomes compared to kidney transplant or other chronic illnesses. Additionally, the underlying membrane technology of polymer hollow-fiber membranes has not fundamentally changed in over four decades. Therefore, we have proposed a fundamentally different approach using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS fabrication techniques to create thin-flat sheets of silicon-based membranes for implantable or portable hemodialysis applications. The silicon nanopore membranes (SNM have biomimetic slit-pore geometry and uniform pores size distribution that allow for exceptional permeability and selectivity. A quantitative diffusion model identified structural limits to diffusive solute transport and motivated a new microfabrication technique to create SNM with enhanced diffusive transport. We performed in vitro testing and extracorporeal testing in pigs on prototype membranes with an effective surface area of 2.52 cm2 and 2.02 cm2, respectively. The diffusive clearance was a two-fold improvement in with the new microfabrication technique and was consistent with our mathematical model. These results establish the feasibility of using SNM for hemodialysis applications with additional scale-up.

  20. Diffusion mechanisms in crystalline materials. Materials Research Society symposium proceedings Volume 527

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishin, Y.; Vogl, G.; Cowern, N.; Catlow, R.; Farkas, D. [eds.

    1998-07-01

    Solid-state diffusion often controls the evolution of the structure and properties of engineering materials, during both processing and the working lifetime of the engineered product. Diffusion characteristics of crystalline materials are critical for the manufacturing and operation of an enormous range of advanced products, from microelectronic devices to gas turbine blades. Although a large number of diffusion data has been accumulated over the years, many fundamental issues remain unresolved. This volume focuses on experimental and simulation techniques that provide access to atomic-scale mechanisms of diffusion in different classes of crystalline materials. Recent advances in the understanding of microscopic mechanisms of diffusion are reviewed and future research directions are discussed. more importantly, the volume features an exchange of ideas among the communities of diffusion scientists working with metals and metallic alloys, intermetallic compounds, semiconductors, ceramics and ionic materials. Topics include: diffusion mechanisms in metals and alloys; diffusion in intermetallic compounds; grain boundary and surface diffusion--diffusion in quasicrystals; diffusion in semiconductors; and diffusion in ionic conductivity and ionic materials.

  1. Nonmonotonic diffusion in crowded environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzel, Gregory Garbès; Tagliazucchi, Mario; Szleifer, Igal

    2015-01-01

    We study the diffusive motion of particles among fixed spherical crowders. The diffusers interact with the crowders through a combination of a hard-core repulsion and a short-range attraction. The long-time effective diffusion coefficient of the diffusers is found to depend non-monotonically on the strength of their attraction to the crowders. That is, for a given concentration of crowders, a weak attraction to the crowders enhances diffusion. We show that this counterintuitive fact can be understood in terms of the mesoscopic excess chemical potential landscape experienced by the diffuser. The roughness of this excess chemical potential landscape quantitatively captures the nonmonotonic dependence of the diffusion rate on the strength of crowder-diffuser attraction; thus it is a purely static predictor of dynamic behavior. The mesoscopic view given here provides a unified explanation for enhanced diffusion effects that have been found in various systems of technological and biological interest. PMID:25302920

  2. Local measurement of thermal conductivity and diffusivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, David H.; Schley, Robert S. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415-2209 (United States); Khafizov, Marat [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, The Ohio State University, 201 W. 19th Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Wendt, Brycen L. [Nuclear Science and Engineering, Idaho State University, 921 S. 8th Ave., Pocatello, Idaho 83209-8060 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Simultaneous measurement of local thermal diffusivity and conductivity is demonstrated on a range of ceramic samples. This was accomplished by measuring the temperature field spatial profile of samples excited by an amplitude modulated continuous wave laser beam. A thin gold film is applied to the samples to ensure strong optical absorption and to establish a second boundary condition that introduces an expression containing the substrate thermal conductivity. The diffusivity and conductivity are obtained by comparing the measured phase profile of the temperature field to a continuum based model. A sensitivity analysis is used to identify the optimal film thickness for extracting the both substrate conductivity and diffusivity. Proof of principle studies were conducted on a range of samples having thermal properties that are representatives of current and advanced accident tolerant nuclear fuels. It is shown that by including the Kapitza resistance as an additional fitting parameter, the measured conductivity and diffusivity of all the samples considered agreed closely with the literature values. A distinguishing feature of this technique is that it does not require a priori knowledge of the optical spot size which greatly increases measurement reliability and reproducibility.

  3. Diffusion and Perfusion MRI in Acute Cerebral Ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tchoyoson CC Lim; Chong-Tin Tan

    2001-01-01

    Reeent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in particular diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion weighted imaging (PWI), have allowed clinicians to have the ability to differentiate between irreversible cerebral infarction and the potentially reversible ischemic penumbra. This article examines the principles and practice of DWI and PWI. With continued advances in thrombolysis and other therapy for acute cerebral ischemia, neuroimaging is poised to play an increasingly important role in decisionmaking in aeute stroke.

  4. Advance payments

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2003-01-01

    Administrative Circular N 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  5. ADVANCE PAYMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative Circular Nº 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  6. Simulation of diffuse photon migration in tissue by a Monte Carlo method derived from the optical scattering of spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Vern P; Doyle, Timothy E

    2013-09-01

    A Monte Carlo method was derived from the optical scattering properties of spheroidal particles and used for modeling diffuse photon migration in biological tissue. The spheroidal scattering solution used a separation of variables approach and numerical calculation of the light intensity as a function of the scattering angle. A Monte Carlo algorithm was then developed which utilized the scattering solution to determine successive photon trajectories in a three-dimensional simulation of optical diffusion and resultant scattering intensities in virtual tissue. Monte Carlo simulations using isotropic randomization, Henyey-Greenstein phase functions, and spherical Mie scattering were additionally developed and used for comparison to the spheroidal method. Intensity profiles extracted from diffusion simulations showed that the four models differed significantly. The depth of scattering extinction varied widely among the four models, with the isotropic, spherical, spheroidal, and phase function models displaying total extinction at depths of 3.62, 2.83, 3.28, and 1.95 cm, respectively. The results suggest that advanced scattering simulations could be used as a diagnostic tool by distinguishing specific cellular structures in the diffused signal. For example, simulations could be used to detect large concentrations of deformed cell nuclei indicative of early stage cancer. The presented technique is proposed to be a more physical description of photon migration than existing phase function methods. This is attributed to the spheroidal structure of highly scattering mitochondria and elongation of the cell nucleus, which occurs in the initial phases of certain cancers. The potential applications of the model and its importance to diffusive imaging techniques are discussed.

  7. Stages of Gallbladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer. Tests that examine the gallbladder and nearby organs are used to detect (find), diagnose, and stage ... cancer cells or to make cancer cells more sensitive to the effects of radiation therapy and certain ...

  8. Thyroid Cancer Staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ja Young; Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The current prevalence of thyroid cancer in women is high. Likewise, other cancers and thyroid cancer have been based on the TNM classification system. Staging of thyroid cancer has an important role in determining the extent of surgical excision and lymph node dissection, planning the adjuvant therapy after surgery and predicting the recurrence rate and the prognosis of patients. Ultrasonography is the basic imaging modality to identify the tumor size and the extent of lymph node metastasis. More recently, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography provide additional help for the staging of thyroid cancer. So, this article describes the 7th edition of the TNM staging of thyroid cancer, as proposed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, and the details of radiologic evaluation of the T, N and M stages

  9. Late-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources, care and ways to engage in meaningful connections. During the late stages, your role as a ... drinks. This will help you track the person's natural routine, and then you can plan a schedule. ...

  10. Understanding cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Manual and Handbook . 2nd ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. National Cancer Institute. Staging. Updated March 9, ... medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- ...

  11. Staged bilateral carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Engell, Hans Christian

    1986-01-01

    In a series of 56 staged bilateral carotid endarterectomies, new neurologic symptoms developed in 5% and 20% following the first and second procedure, respectively. All complications were transient or minor. The incidence of postendarterectomy hypertension was significantly higher following...

  12. Development and organization of the human brain tissue compartments across the lifespan using diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Khader M; Sankar, Ambika; Halphen, Christopher; Kramer, Larry A; Brandt, Michael E; Juranek, Jenifer; Cirino, Paul T; Fletcher, Jack M; Papanicolaou, Andrew C; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda

    2007-10-29

    We used a diffusion tensor imaging-based whole-brain tissue segmentation to characterize age-related changes in (a) whole-brain grey matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid relative to intracranial volume and (b) the corresponding brain tissue microstructure using measures of diffusion tensor anisotropy and mean diffusivity. The sample, a healthy cohort of 119 right-handed males and females aged 7-68 years. Our results demonstrate that white matter and grey matter volumes and their corresponding diffusion tensor anisotropy and mean diffusivity follow nonlinear trajectories with advancing age. In contrast, cerebrospinal fluid volume increases linearly with age.

  13. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  14. Vorinostat and Decitabine in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors or Relapsed or Refractory Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-26

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma

  15. Advances in magnetic resonance 4

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 4 deals with the relaxation, irradiation, and other dynamical effects that is specific to systems having resolved structure in their magnetic resonance spectra. This book discusses the anisotropic rotation of molecules in liquids by NMR quadrupolar relaxation; rotational diffusion constants; alternating linewidth effect; and theoretical formulations of the problem. The line shapes in high-resolution NMR; matrix representations of the equations of motion; matrix representations of the equations of motion; and intramolecular hydrogen bonds are also delibera

  16. Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Detecting Lower-Extremity Lymphedema in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Vulvar Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Lymphadenectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Lymphedema; Perioperative/Postoperative Complications; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  17. Value of magnetic resonance imaging in diffuse liver diseases; Stellenwert der MRT bei diffusen Lebererkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, N.; D' Anastasi, M.; Reiser, M.F.; Zech, C.J. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Diffuse liver diseases show an increasing prevalence. The diagnostic gold standard of liver biopsy has several disadvantages. There is a clinical demand for non-invasive imaging-based techniques to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the entire liver. Ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used. Steatosis: chemical shift and frequency selective imaging, MR spectroscopy (MRS). Hemochromatosis: MR-based iron quantification. Fibrosis: MR elastography, diffusion, intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and MR perfusion. T1-weighted in and opposed phase imaging is the clinically most frequently used MR technique to noninvasively detect and quantify steatosis. New methods for quantification that are not influenced by confounders like iron overload are under investigation. The most sensitive method to measure the fat content of the liver is MRS. As data acquisition and analysis remain complex and there is no whole organ coverage, MRS of the liver is not a routine method. With an optimized protocol incorporating T2* sequences, MRI is the modality of choice to quantify iron overload in hemochromatosis. Standard MR sequences cannot depict early stages of liver fibrosis. Advanced MR techniques (e.g. elastography, diffusion, IVIM and perfusion) for noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis appear promising but their role has to be further investigated. (orig.) [German] Die Praevalenz diffuser Lebererkrankungen nimmt zu. Der klinische Goldstandard, die Leberbiopsie, hat zahlreiche Nachteile. Es besteht ein Bedarf an bildgebenden Verfahren zur nichtinvasiven qualitativen und quantitativen Beurteilung der gesamten Leber bei diesen Erkrankungen. Hier sind Ultraschall, CT und MRT zu nennen. Steatosis: Chemical-shift- und frequenzselektive Bildgebung, MR-Spektroskopie (MRS) zur Fettquantifizierung. Haemochromatose: MR-basierte Eisenquantifizierung. Fibrose: MR-Elastographie, Diffusion, ''intravoxel incoherent motion

  18. Advanced nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Razali

    2012-01-01

    While theories based on classical physics have been very successful in helping experimentalists design microelectronic devices, new approaches based on quantum mechanics are required to accurately model nanoscale transistors and to predict their characteristics even before they are fabricated. Advanced Nanoelectronics provides research information on advanced nanoelectronics concepts, with a focus on modeling and simulation. Featuring contributions by researchers actively engaged in nanoelectronics research, it develops and applies analytical formulations to investigate nanoscale devices. The

  19. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  20. Prognostic significance of Epstein-Barr virus DNA detection in pretreatment serum in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Akinao; Yanada, Masamitsu; Miura, Hiroki; Inaguma, Yoko; Tokuda, Masutaka; Morishima, Satoko; Kanie, Tadaharu; Yamamoto, Yukiya; Mizuta, Shuichi; Akatsuka, Yoshiki; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Mizoguchi, Yoshikazu; Nakamura, Shigeo; Okamoto, Masataka; Emi, Nobuhiko

    2015-11-01

    It is still a matter of debate whether detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in pretreatment serum has clinical implications for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. For this study, we measured EBV DNA load in pretreatment serum from 127 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients without any underlying immunodeficiency to evaluate its effects on clinical manifestations and prognosis. Anthracycline-based chemotherapy in combination with rituximab was given as initial therapy for 119 patients (94%). Epstein-Barr virus DNA was detected in 15 patients (12%), who were older (P = 0.005) and tended to be at a more advanced disease stage (P = 0.053). They showed significantly worse progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) than other patients (P EBV-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization was known for 123 patients; 6 of 8 positive patients (75%) and 9 of 115 negative patients (8%) had detectable EBV DNA in pretreatment serum. While patients positive for EBV-encoded small RNA had significantly worse PFS and OS than negative patients (P = 0.001 and P = 0.029, respectively), EBV DNA detection in pretreatment serum was associated with poorer PFS and OS even for the 115 patients negative for EBV-encoded small RNA (P EBV DNA detection in pretreatment serum may have an adverse prognostic impact for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

  1. AdvancED Flex 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Shashank; Schulze, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    AdvancED Flex 4 makes advanced Flex 4 concepts and techniques easy. Ajax, RIA, Web 2.0, mashups, mobile applications, the most sophisticated web tools, and the coolest interactive web applications are all covered with practical, visually oriented recipes. * Completely updated for the new tools in Flex 4* Demonstrates how to use Flex 4 to create robust and scalable enterprise-grade Rich Internet Applications.* Teaches you to build high-performance web applications with interactivity that really engages your users.* What you'll learn Practiced beginners and intermediate users of Flex, especially

  2. Galactic Diffuse Polarized Emission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ettore Carretti

    2011-12-01

    Diffuse polarized emission by synchrotron is a key tool to investigate magnetic fields in the Milky Way, particularly the ordered component of the large scale structure. Key observables are the synchrotron emission itself and the RM is by Faraday rotation. In this paper the main properties of the radio polarized diffuse emission and its use to investigate magnetic fields will be reviewed along with our current understanding of the galactic magnetic field and the data sets available. We will then focus on the future perspective discussing RM-synthesis – the new powerful instrument devised to unlock the information encoded in such an emission – and the surveys currently in progress like S-PASS and GMIMS.

  3. Fractal model of anomalous diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmachowski, Lech

    2015-12-01

    An equation of motion is derived from fractal analysis of the Brownian particle trajectory in which the asymptotic fractal dimension of the trajectory has a required value. The formula makes it possible to calculate the time dependence of the mean square displacement for both short and long periods when the molecule diffuses anomalously. The anomalous diffusion which occurs after long periods is characterized by two variables, the transport coefficient and the anomalous diffusion exponent. An explicit formula is derived for the transport coefficient, which is related to the diffusion constant, as dependent on the Brownian step time, and the anomalous diffusion exponent. The model makes it possible to deduce anomalous diffusion properties from experimental data obtained even for short time periods and to estimate the transport coefficient in systems for which the diffusion behavior has been investigated. The results were confirmed for both sub and super-diffusion.

  4. Diffusion in porous crystalline materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishna, R.

    2012-01-01

    The design and development of many separation and catalytic process technologies require a proper quantitative description of diffusion of mixtures of guest molecules within porous crystalline materials. This tutorial review presents a unified, phenomenological description of diffusion inside meso-

  5. Anomalous diffusion of epicentres

    CERN Document Server

    Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar; Posadas, A; Luzon, F

    2007-01-01

    The classification of earthquakes in main shocks and aftershocks by a method recently proposed by M. Baiesi and M. Paczuski allows to the generation of a complex network composed of clusters that group the most correlated events. The spatial distribution of epicentres inside these structures corresponding to the catalogue of earthquakes in the eastern region of Cuba shows anomalous anti-diffusive behaviour evidencing the attractive nature of the main shock and the possible description in terms of fractional kinetics.

  6. [The diffusion of knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-H, Manuel; Cruz-A, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Between August 19 and 21, the Feria del Libro de las Ciencias de la Salud (Healthcare Book Fair) took place in the Palacio de Medicina in Mexico City. Archives of Medical Research, Revista Médica del IMSS, and Saber IMSS, three of the main instruments of knowledge diffusion of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, assisted to this book fair, which was organized by the Facultad de Medicina of UNAM.

  7. CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF DIFFUSION BARRIERS FOR ADVANCED METALLIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    IntroductionWhen Jack Kilby of Texas instrUmentS built theworld's first integrated circuit in 1958, the devicecontains only one transistOr Since then, integratedcircuitS have enjoyed tmpendous success in bothtechnology and business. The number of 'transistors oneach chip has been growing continuously due to theshrinking of device features. Todayl an advancedintegrated circuit device can Pack hundreds ofmillions transistors. TO connect these resistorstogether tO become a functioning chip is getting moreand m...

  8. Histopathological, Molecular, and Genetic Profile of Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer: Current Knowledge and Challenges for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Post, Rachel S; Gullo, Irene; Oliveira, Carla; Tang, Laura H; Grabsch, Heike I; O'Donovan, Maria; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C; van Krieken, Han; Carneiro, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Familial clustering is seen in 10 % of gastric cancer cases and approximately 1-3 % of gastric cancer arises in the setting of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). In families with HDGC, gastric cancer presents at young age. HDGC is predominantly caused by germline mutations in CDH1 and in a minority by mutations in other genes, including CTNNA1. Early stage HDGC is characterized by a few, up to dozens of intramucosal foci of signet ring cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions. These include in situ signet ring cell carcinoma and pagetoid spread of signet ring cells. Advanced HDGC presents as poorly cohesive/diffuse type carcinoma, normally with very few typical signet ring cells, and has a poor prognosis. Currently, it is unknown which factors drive the progression towards aggressive disease, but it is clear that most intramucosal lesions will not have such progression.Immunohistochemical profile of early and advanced HDGC is often characterized by abnormal E-cadherin immunoexpression, including absent or reduced membranous expression, as well as "dotted" or cytoplasmic expression. However, membranous expression of E-cadherin does not exclude HDGC. Intramucosal HDGC (pT1a) presents with an "indolent" phenotype, characterized by typical signet ring cells without immunoexpression of Ki-67 and p53, while advanced carcinomas (pT > 1) display an "aggressive" phenotype with pleomorphic cells, that are immunoreactive for Ki-67 and p53. These features show that the IHC profile is different between intramucosal and more advanced HDGC, providing evidence of phenotypic heterogeneity, and may help to define predictive biomarkers of progression from indolent to aggressive, widely invasive carcinomas.

  9. Dynamics of the connectome in Huntington's disease : A longitudinal diffusion MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odish, Omar F F; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Hosseini, Hadi; Van Den Bogaard, Simon J A; Roos, Raymund A C; Leemans, A

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To longitudinally investigate the connectome in different stages of Huntington's disease (HD) by applying graph theoretical analysis to diffusion MRI data. Experimental design We constructed weighted structural networks and calculated their topological properties. Twenty-two prem

  10. Role of additional radiotherapy in advanced stages of Hodgkin's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwaldt, J H; Coleman, C N; Fischer, R I; Lister, T A; Diehl, V

    1992-09-01

    Although radiotherapy is widely used as additional treatment following chemotherapy, its precise role has never been clearly proven. Relapses tend to occur in previously involved bulky sites. Non-randomized studies may suggest a positive effect of the addition of radiotherapy. This effect however, might also be caused by selection. Randomized studies have not resulted in a survival advantage for the patients treated with additional radiotherapy compared to no further treatment or additional chemotherapy. The SWOG study 7808 suggest a 20% benefit in remission duration for the nodular sclerosis histology subgroup. Definitive conclusions have to wait for more mature results of randomized studies including the ongoing EORTC study and the possibility to perform an overview of all studies.

  11. [Ozone therapy in the advanced stages of arteriosclerosis obliterans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Valdés, A; Menéndez Cepero, S; Gómez Moraleda, M; Ley Pozo, J

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen patients with atherosclerosis obliterans at the lower limbs, no candidates to revascularizing surgery were submitted to ozone therapy. An improvement statistically significant was noticed in the treatment groups since amputation ratio decreased (26.7%) and the need of pain's surgery procedures (13.3%) in comparison with the control group (46.7 and 26.7% respectively). Ozone therapy is considered as a good way in the management of the atherosclerosis with obliteration in late period.

  12. Advances in high rate anaerobic treatment: staging of reactor systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van J.B.; Zee, van der F.P.; Tan, N.C.G.; Rebac, S.; Kleerebezem, R.

    2001-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment (AnWT) is considered as the most cost-effective solution for organically polluted industrial waste streams. Particularly the development of high-rate systems, in which hydraulic retention times are uncoupled from solids retention times, has led to a world-wide acceptan

  13. Advanced MR Neuroimaging in Early Stage Presenile Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M.E. Steketee (Rebecca)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractDementia is a syndrome affecting cognitive functions and behavior, with an overwhelming impact on both patients and caregivers. An estimated number of 35.6 million patients suffers from dementia, with a subset affected before the age of 65 years, i.e. presenile dementia. Establishing

  14. High Speed, High Accuracy Stage for Advanced Lithography. Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the x-direction is repeated. Figure 7 shows calibration plots made from an early attempt to make an accurate XY grid using a step-and-repeat camera...at HTA Photomask in San Jose, CA. The caption to this figure discusses the salient points in some detail. In summary, these data show: 1. There is...similar to those obtained by HTA , even though their equipment was entirely different in its structure and operating protocol. By working closely

  15. Treatment of Parkinson's disease in the advanced stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossig, C; Reichmann, H

    2013-04-01

    Levodopa/Carbidopa, respectively, Levodopa/Benserazide is the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease and during the progress of the disease, patients will inevitably need to be treated with it. Nonetheless, after a certain time period most of the patients experience side effects. Mainly disturbing are motor and non-motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Numerous options from changing the medication regimen, to continuos dopaminergic drug delivery via apomorphine or Duodopa pumps and stereotactical interventions are available. The physician's responsibility is to choose the right therapeutic procedure for each timepoint of the patient's disease. In this review, we provide an up to date overview of the available strategies.

  16. Advances in modern cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The twentieth century elevated our understanding of the Universe from its early stages to what it is today and what is to become of it. Cosmology is the weapon that utilizes all the scientific tools that we have created to feel less lost in the immensity of our Universe. The standard model is the theory that explains the best what we observe. Even with all the successes that this theory had, two main questions are still to be answered: What is the nature of dark matter and dark energy? This book attempts to understand these questions while giving some of the most promising advances in modern cosmology.

  17. Experimental investigation on flow in diffuser of 1090 MW steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoznedl, Michal; Sedlák, Kamil; Mrózek, Lukáš; Bednář, Lukáš; Kalista, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with flow of wet water steam in diffuser of turbine engine 1090 MW on saturated water steam. Experimental measurements were done while the turbine was in operation for a wide range of outputs. Defining the outlet velocity from the last stage and with knowledge of static pressures on the diffuser outlet, it is possible to define the contribution of the diffuser to the whole low pressure part efficiency.

  18. Fractional anisotropy and diffusivity changes in thyroid-associated orbitopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Ji Sung; Seo, Hyung Suk; Lee, Young Hen [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ansan, Gyeonggido (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hwa [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Sang-il [Korea University Guro Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Eun-Kee; Sapkota, Nabraj [University of Utah, Utah Center for Advanced Imaging Research, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kim, Ki Joon [Nanoori Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    To investigate the extraocular muscle (EOM) changes in thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) on DTI and the correlations between DTI parameters and clinical features. Twenty TAO patients and 20 age- and sex-matched controls provided informed consent and were enrolled. Ten-directional DTI was acquired in orbit. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean, axial, and radial diffusivities were obtained at medial and lateral EOMs in both orbits. EOM thickness was measured in patients using axial CT images. FA and diffusivities were compared between patients and controls. The relationships between DTI values and muscle thickness and exophthalmos were evaluated. DTI values compared between patients in active and inactive phases by clinical activity score of TAO. DTI values were also compared between acute and chronic stages by the duration of disease. In medial EOM, FA was significantly lower in patients (p < 0.001) and negatively correlated with muscle thickness (r = -0.604, p < 0.001). Radial diffusivity was significantly higher in patients (p = 0.010) and correlated with muscle thickness (r = 0.349, p = 0.027). In lateral EOM, DTI values did not differ between patients and controls. In the acute stage, the diffusivities of the medial rectus EOM were increased compared with the chronic stage. DTI values of the medial and lateral rectus EOM did not differ significantly between active and inactive phases. DTI can be used to diagnose TAO with FA and radial diffusivity change in EOM. Diffusivities can be used to differentiate acute and chronic stage of TAO. However, DTI values showed limitation in reflecting TAO activity according to the CAS. (orig.)

  19. Composers on stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    A trend on the scene of contemporary music is composers going on stage, performing their pieces themselves. Within a discourse of popular music, this is more the rule than exception, but when it comes to the context of contemporary scored music, the historical and aesthetic context differs......, and something quite different is undergoing. This paper intends to discuss three examples of performances in which the composer’s appearance on stage was an important part of the piece, - both when it came to the role as a performer and as an individual person – as representer and presenter. The paper intends...... 2011 and Fischer-Lichte 2008) Hereby, the role of the composer appearing on stage is discussed from an aesthetic point of view; meanwhile social and political aspects of the phenomenon are also addressed. The three artistic works discussed are Simon Steen-Andersen’s Run Time Error (2009-), Niels...

  20. What Explains the ICT Diffusion Gap Between the Major Industrialized Countries: An Empirical Analysis?

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert Cette; Jimmy Lopez

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few years, a large body of literature has shown that the level of information and communications technology (ICT) diffusion, and, as a result, the favorable effects of this diffusion on productivity, differ greatly between the major advanced countries, with the United States the country where ICT diffusion is strongest. This study aims to explain empirically this gap. Annual macroeconomic panel data are used for the period 1981-2005 and cover eleven OECD countries: Austria, Denm...

  1. Interface reaction and a special form of grain boundary diffusion in the Cr-W system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, F.J.A.

    1972-01-01

    The two phase diffusion between chromium and tungsten, forming b.c.c. solid solutions, has been followed right from the beginning by means of a special X-ray diffraction technique, light microscopy and electron microprobe analysis. It appears that in a first stage only tungsten diffuses into the chr

  2. Factors That Influence the Diffusion Process of Mobile Devices in Higher Education in Botswana and Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asino, Tutaleni I.

    2015-01-01

    This comparative study uses the Diffusion of Innovation (DoI) theoretical framework to explore factors that influence diffusion of mobile devices in higher education in Botswana and Namibia. The five attributes (Relative Avantage, Compatability, Complexity, Trialability, and Observability) of the persuasion stage, which have been found in previous…

  3. Staging of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo; Bostwick, David G; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Berney, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Prostatic carcinoma (PCa) is a significant cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. Accurate staging is critical for prognosis assessment and treatment planning for PCa. Despite the large volume of clinical activity and research, the challenge to define the most appropriate and clinically relevant staging system remains. The pathologically complex and uncertain clinical course of prostate cancer further complicates the design of staging classification and a substaging system suitable for individualized care. This review will focus on recent progress and controversial issues related to prostate cancer staging. The 2010 revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (AJCC/UICC) tumour, node and metastasis (TNM) system is the most widely used staging system at this time. Despite general acceptance of the system as a whole, there is controversy and uncertainty about its application, particularly for T2 subclassification. The three-tiered T2 classification system for organ-confined prostate cancer is superfluous, considering the biology and anatomy of PCa. A tumour size-based substaging system may be considered in the future TNM subclassification of pT2 cancer. Lymph node status is one of the most important prognostic factors for prostate cancer. Nevertheless, clinical outcomes in patients with positive lymph nodes are variable. Identification of patients at the greatest risk of systemic progression helps in the selection of appropriate therapy. The data suggest that the inherent aggressiveness of metastatic prostate cancer is closely linked to the tumour volume of lymph node metastasis. We recommend that a future TNM staging system should consider subclassification of node-positive cancer on the basis of nodal cancer volume, using the diameter of the largest nodal metastasis and/or the number of positive nodes.

  4. 高端技术技能人才贯通培养基础阶段的语文教学探索%Exploration on the Chinese Teaching of the AdvancedTechnical and Skilled Talents in Run-through Cultivation Basic Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明靖

    2016-01-01

    语文是最重要的交际工具,是人类文化的重要组成部分。“高端技术技能人才贯通培养试验项目”基础教育阶段的语文教学要以全面提高语文素养为宗旨,在课程设置上满足复合型人才的要求,并通过教学设计建构激发学习动力的开放型学习体系,培养学生终身学习的能力,促进学生身心和谐发展。%Chinese is the most important tool of communication,and it is an important part of human culture. In the stage of basic education of the project to the advanced technical and skilled talents, We must comprehensively improve the Chinese accomplishment for the purpose,Set the course to meet the requirements of compound talents ,construct an open learning system to Stimulate motivation, cultivate ability of lifelong learning, and promote students’ physical and mental harmony.

  5. A social diffusion model with an application on election simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jing-Kai; Wang, Fu-Min; Tsai, Chin-Hua; Hung, San-Chuan; Kung, Perng-Hwa; Lin, Shou-De; Chen, Kuan-Ta; Lei, Chin-Laung

    2014-01-01

    Issues about opinion diffusion have been studied for decades. It has so far no empirical approach to model the interflow and formation of crowd's opinion in elections due to two reasons. First, unlike the spread of information or flu, individuals have their intrinsic attitudes to election candidates in advance. Second, opinions are generally simply assumed as single values in most diffusion models. However, in this case, an opinion should represent preference toward multiple candidates. Previously done models thus may not intuitively interpret such scenario. This work is to design a diffusion model which is capable of managing the aforementioned scenario. To demonstrate the usefulness of our model, we simulate the diffusion on the network built based on a publicly available bibliography dataset. We compare the proposed model with other well-known models such as independent cascade. It turns out that our model consistently outperforms other models. We additionally investigate electoral issues with our model simulator.

  6. Diffusion phenomena of cells and biomolecules in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz-Ozturk, Ece; Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem

    2015-09-01

    Biomicrofluidics is an emerging field at the cross roads of microfluidics and life sciences which requires intensive research efforts in terms of introducing appropriate designs, production techniques, and analysis. The ultimate goal is to deliver innovative and cost-effective microfluidic devices to biotech, biomedical, and pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, creating an in-depth understanding of the transport phenomena of cells and biomolecules becomes vital and concurrently poses significant challenges. The present article outlines the recent advancements in diffusion phenomena of cells and biomolecules by highlighting transport principles from an engineering perspective, cell responses in microfluidic devices with emphases on diffusion- and flow-based microfluidic gradient platforms, macroscopic and microscopic approaches for investigating the diffusion phenomena of biomolecules, microfluidic platforms for the delivery of these molecules, as well as the state of the art in biological applications of mammalian cell responses and diffusion of biomolecules.

  7. Epidemic Diffusion on Complex Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-Yan; LIU Zong-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Boyh diffusion and epidemic are well studied in the stochastic systems and complex networks,respetively.Here we combine these two fields and study epidemic diffusion in complex networks.Instead of studying the threshold of infection,which was focused on in previous works,we focus on the diffusion.behaviour.We find that the epidemic diffusion in a complex network is an anomalous superdiffusion with varyingg diffusion exponext γand that γ is influenced seriously by the network structure,such as the clustering coefficient and the degree distribution.Numerical simulations have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  8. Scoping studies: advancing the methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien Kelly K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scoping studies are an increasingly popular approach to reviewing health research evidence. In 2005, Arksey and O'Malley published the first methodological framework for conducting scoping studies. While this framework provides an excellent foundation for scoping study methodology, further clarifying and enhancing this framework will help support the consistency with which authors undertake and report scoping studies and may encourage researchers and clinicians to engage in this process. Discussion We build upon our experiences conducting three scoping studies using the Arksey and O'Malley methodology to propose recommendations that clarify and enhance each stage of the framework. Recommendations include: clarifying and linking the purpose and research question (stage one; balancing feasibility with breadth and comprehensiveness of the scoping process (stage two; using an iterative team approach to selecting studies (stage three and extracting data (stage four; incorporating a numerical summary and qualitative thematic analysis, reporting results, and considering the implications of study findings to policy, practice, or research (stage five; and incorporating consultation with stakeholders as a required knowledge translation component of scoping study methodology (stage six. Lastly, we propose additional considerations for scoping study methodology in order to support the advancement, application and relevance of scoping studies in health research. Summary Specific recommendations to clarify and enhance this methodology are outlined for each stage of the Arksey and O'Malley framework. Continued debate and development about scoping study methodology will help to maximize the usefulness and rigor of scoping study findings within healthcare research and practice.

  9. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Nickerson, HK; Steenrod, NE

    2011-01-01

    ""This book is a radical departure from all previous concepts of advanced calculus,"" declared the Bulletin of the American Mathematics Society, ""and the nature of this departure merits serious study of the book by everyone interested in undergraduate education in mathematics."" Classroom-tested in a Princeton University honors course, it offers students a unified introduction to advanced calculus. Starting with an abstract treatment of vector spaces and linear transforms, the authors introduce a single basic derivative in an invariant form. All other derivatives - gradient, divergent, curl,

  10. Comparative study on electrophysiological mechanic indexes of mimetic muscle and temporalis in reparative process of facial paralysis at advanced stage%晚期面神经麻痹修复过程中表情肌与颞肌电生理力学指标的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志奇; 齐向东

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The shortcoming of excessive strong muscular strength may be produced when the complex tissue valve of temporalis epicranial aponeurosis is used to repair facial paralysis at advanced stage. We made a comparative study on electrophysiological mechanic indexes of mimetic muscle and temporalis in the hope that expressional asymmetry after operation can be avoided.OBJECTIVE: To determine the interference pattern(IP) of temporalis and mimetic muscle by electromyography(EMG) and screen functional index for transferring temporal musculofascial flap in advanced facial paralysis.DESIGN: An open trial.SETTING: Department of Cineplastic Surgery and Anatomy Teaching & Research Section, Nanfang Hospital affiliated to Southern Medical University.PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen healthy young volunteers from year 2000 students of the Military Academy were chosen in this experiment.METHODS: Based on the principle of EMG, IPs of muscle bundle of temporalis and mimetic muscle were determined.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Turns and amplitude of corresponding muscle bundle and their ratio(T/A) were recorded and compared.RESULTS: Muscular strength of the three muscle bundles that could be utilized by temporalis was 1.5 to 4 times as that of corresponding mimetic muscle bundle. The difference was significant.CONCLUSION: Temporalis can be divided into three bundles to substitute mimetic muscle in the repair of facial paralysis at advanced stage, and muscular strength is relatively stronger.%背景:应用颞肌帽状腱膜复合组织瓣修复晚期面神经麻痹(以下简称面瘫),存在肌力过强的缺点,将颞肌和表情肌的电生理力学指标比较研究,希望可以避免出现术后不对称表情的情况.目的:采用肌电图测定颞肌与表情肌的干扰型,为晚期面瘫施行颞肌筋膜瓣转移筛选功能指标.设计:开放性试验.单位:南方医科大学南方医院整形外科及临床解剖研究所.对象:于2000年军校学员中选拔的健康青

  11. Modeling and Analysis of New Products Diffusion on Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a heterogeneous networks model with the awareness stage and the decision-making stage to explain the process of new products diffusion. If mass media is neglected in the decision-making stage, there is a threshold whether the innovation diffusion is successful or not, or else it is proved that the network model has at least one positive equilibrium. For networks with the power-law degree distribution, numerical simulations confirm analytical results, and also at the same time, by numerical analysis of the influence of the network structure and persuasive advertisements on the density of adopters, we give two different products propagation strategies for two classes of nodes in scale-free networks.

  12. How Is Ovarian Cancer Staged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Is Ovarian Cancer Staged? Staging is the process of finding out ... Ask Your Doctor About Ovarian Cancer? More In Ovarian Cancer About Ovarian Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  13. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is important for two reasons. First, staging your lung cancer helps decide which therapy (or therapies) should be used. Second, lung cancer ... 422-6237 http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/lung/page8 http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/non- small-cell-lung/Patient/page2 National Lung ...

  14. Stages of Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not spread to the larynx (voice box); or cancer has spread to the larynx or esophagus and is more than 4 centimeters; ... a common treatment for all stages of hypopharyngeal cancer. The following surgical ... to remove the larynx (voice box) and part of the pharynx (throat). ...

  15. World Stage Design

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    12-19. III Torontos rahvusvaheline lavakujunduse, kostüümi ning valgus- ja helikujunduse näitus, mis toimub samaaegselt OISTATi (International Organization of Scenographers, Theatre Architects and Technicians) maailmakongressiga ja USITT (United States Institute for Theatre Technology) üritustega (konverents, Stage Expo). Eestit esindab lavakujunduse kategoorias Lilja Blumenfeld-Luhse

  16. Controlling mechanisms of moisture diffusion in convective drying of leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmakhlouf, Naima; Azzouz, Soufien; Monzó-Cabrera, Juan; Khdhira, Hechmi; ELCafsi, Afif

    2016-08-01

    Leather manufacturing involves a crucial energy-intensive drying stage in the finishing process to remove its residual moisture. It occurs several times in the tanning course. As it is the target of this paper to depict an experimental way to determine moisture diffusion in the convective drying of leather. The effective diffusion coefficient is estimated by a method derived from Fick's law and by analytic method. The effective diffusion coefficients are obtained from drying tests and the diffusivity behaviour is studied versus the controlling parameter such as the convective airflow temperature. The experiments were conducted at hot air temperatures of 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 °C and hot air speed of 1 m/s. The hot air temperature had significant effect on the effective moisture diffusivity of the leather sample. The average effective moisture diffusivity in rosehip ranged between 5.87 × 10-11 and 14.48 × 10-11 m2/s for leather at the temperatures studied. Activation energy for convective drying was found to be 38.46 kJ/mol for leather. The obtained results fully confirm the theoretical study in which an exponentially increasing relationship between effective diffusivity and temperature is predicted. The results of this study provide a better understanding of the drying mechanisms and may lead to a series of recommendations for leather drying optimization. It opens the possibility for further investigations on the description of drying conditions.

  17. Implicit stage topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lahousse

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Il a souvent été proposé que les éléments spatio-temporels en position initiale de phrase spécifient le cadre de l’événement dénoté par la proposition et ont une interprétation thématique ou topicale. Alors que les topiques spatio-temporels explicites ont souvent été étudiés, Erteschik-Schir (1997, 1999 propose l’idée que les topiques spatio-temporels, ou topiques scéniques (stage topics peuvent aussi être implicites.Dans cet article, nous offrons des arguments en faveur de la notion de topique scénique implicite. Nous montrons qu’un certain nombre de cas d’inversion nominale en français, une configuration syntaxique qui est favorisée par la présence d’un topique scénique explicite, s’expliquent par la présence d’un topique scénique implicite. Le fait que les topiques scéniques implicites interagissent avec la structure syntaxique de la même façon que les topiques scéniques explicites constitue un argument empirique en faveur de leur existence.It has often been proposed that sentence-initial spatio-temporal elements specify the frame in which the whole proposition takes place and are topical (i.e. thematic. Whereas considerable attention has been paid to explicit spatio-temporal topics, Erteschik-Shir (1997, 1999 argues that spatio-temporal topics, or stage topics, can also be implicit.In this article we provide evidence in favour of the notion of implicit stage topic. We show that a certain number of nominal inversion cases in French, a syntactic configuration which is triggered by the presence of an explicit stage topic, are explained by the presence of an implicit stage topic. The fact that implicit stage topics interact with syntactic structure the same way explicit stage topics do constitutes a strong empirical argument in favour of their existence.

  18. Coupled Diffusion Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章复熹

    2004-01-01

    @@ Coupled diffusion processes (or CDP for short) model the systems of molecular motors,which attract much interest from physicists and biologists in recent years[1,2,9,14,4,7,21]. The protein moves along a filament called the track, and it is crucial that there are several inner states of the protein and the underlying chemical reaction causes transitions among different inner states,while chemical energy can be converted to mechanical energy by rachet effects[5,3,2,14,12].

  19. Pitfalls in whole body MRI with diffusion weighted imaging performed on patients with lymphoma: What radiologists should know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Domenico; La Grutta, Ludovico; Grassedonio, Emanuele; Patti, Caterina; Lagalla, Roberto; Midiri, Massimo; Galia, Massimo

    2016-09-01

    The technological advances in radiological imaging and the relevance of a diagnostic tool that may reduce radiation-induced long-term effects have led to a widespread use of whole body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) with diffusion weighted imaging for oncologic patients. A lot of studies demonstrated the feasibility and reliability of WB-MRI as an alternative technique for lymphoma staging and response assessment during and after treatment. In this paper, taking advantage of our 2years of experience using WB-MRI for lymphoma, we discuss the main pitfalls and artifacts radiologists should know examining a WB-MRI performed on this typology of patients in order to avoid images misinterpretation.

  20. Multi-stage cleaning plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullendorff, A.; Wikner, J.

    1980-12-09

    A cleaning plant positioned within an annular fluidized bed combustion chamber is divided into a plurality of separate cleaning stages, wherein a first stage is located adjacent the fluidized bed and additional stages are arranged within the first stage. Each stage comprises a plurality of separate cleaning devices which act in parallel, while cleaning devices of different stages act in series to remove debris from the combustion gases that exit from the fluidized bed combustion chamber.

  1. Advanced ferroelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Blinc, R

    2011-01-01

    Advances in the field of ferroelectricity have implications both for basic physics and for technological applications such as memory devices, spintronic applications and electro-optic devices, as well as in acoustics, robotics, telecommunications and medicine. This book provides an account of recent developments in the field.

  2. Interactive Volume Rendering of Diffusion Tensor Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlawitschka, Mario; Weber, Gunther; Anwander, Alfred; Carmichael, Owen; Hamann, Bernd; Scheuermann, Gerik

    2007-03-30

    As 3D volumetric images of the human body become an increasingly crucial source of information for the diagnosis and treatment of a broad variety of medical conditions, advanced techniques that allow clinicians to efficiently and clearly visualize volumetric images become increasingly important. Interaction has proven to be a key concept in analysis of medical images because static images of 3D data are prone to artifacts and misunderstanding of depth. Furthermore, fading out clinically irrelevant aspects of the image while preserving contextual anatomical landmarks helps medical doctors to focus on important parts of the images without becoming disoriented. Our goal was to develop a tool that unifies interactive manipulation and context preserving visualization of medical images with a special focus on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. At each image voxel, DTI provides a 3 x 3 tensor whose entries represent the 3D statistical properties of water diffusion locally. Water motion that is preferential to specific spatial directions suggests structural organization of the underlying biological tissue; in particular, in the human brain, the naturally occuring diffusion of water in the axon portion of neurons is predominantly anisotropic along the longitudinal direction of the elongated, fiber-like axons [MMM+02]. This property has made DTI an emerging source of information about the structural integrity of axons and axonal connectivity between brain regions, both of which are thought to be disrupted in a broad range of medical disorders including multiple sclerosis, cerebrovascular disease, and autism [Mos02, FCI+01, JLH+99, BGKM+04, BJB+03].

  3. A diffuse interface model with immiscibility preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Arpit, E-mail: atiwari2@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Freund, Jonathan B., E-mail: jbfreund@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Pantano, Carlos [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    A new, simple, and computationally efficient interface capturing scheme based on a diffuse interface approach is presented for simulation of compressible multiphase flows. Multi-fluid interfaces are represented using field variables (interface functions) with associated transport equations that are augmented, with respect to an established formulation, to enforce a selected interface thickness. The resulting interface region can be set just thick enough to be resolved by the underlying mesh and numerical method, yet thin enough to provide an efficient model for dynamics of well-resolved scales. A key advance in the present method is that the interface regularization is asymptotically compatible with the thermodynamic mixture laws of the mixture model upon which it is constructed. It incorporates first-order pressure and velocity non-equilibrium effects while preserving interface conditions for equilibrium flows, even within the thin diffused mixture region. We first quantify the improved convergence of this formulation in some widely used one-dimensional configurations, then show that it enables fundamentally better simulations of bubble dynamics. Demonstrations include both a spherical-bubble collapse, which is shown to maintain excellent symmetry despite the Cartesian mesh, and a jetting bubble collapse adjacent a wall. Comparisons show that without the new formulation the jet is suppressed by numerical diffusion leading to qualitatively incorrect results.

  4. Cerebral perfusion changes in traumatic diffuse brain injury. IMP SPECT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Development, Aging and Cancer; Ishii, Kiyoshi; Onuma, Takehide

    1997-05-01

    Diffuse brain injury (DBI) is characterized by axonal degeneration and neuronal damage which cause diffuse brain atrophy. We have investigated the time course of abnormalities in cerebral perfusion distribution in cases of DBI by using Iodine-123-IMP SPECT, and the relationship to the appearance of diffuse brain atrophy. SPECT scans were performed on eight patients with diffuse brain injury due to closed cranial trauma in acute and chronic stages. All patients showed abnormalities in cerebral perfusion with decreases in perfusion, even in non-depicted regions on MRI, and the affected areas varied throughout the period of observation. Diffuse brain atrophy appeared in all patients. In some patients, diffuse brain atrophy was observed at or just after the time when the maximum number of lesions on SPECT were seen. The abnormalities in cerebral perfusion in cases of DBI might therefore be related to axonal degeneration and neuronal damage which causes diffuse brain atrophy. (author)

  5. Anisotropic Thermal Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Anisotropic thermal diffusion in magnetized plasmas is an important physical phenomena for a diverse set of physical conditions ranging from astrophysical plasmas to MFE and ICF. Yet numerically simulating this phenomenon accurately poses significant challenges when the computational mesh is misaligned with respect to the magnetic field. Particularly when the temperature gradients are unresolved, one frequently finds entropy violating solutions with heat flowing from cold to hot zones for χ∥ /χ⊥ >=102 which is substantially smaller than the range of interest which can reach 1010 or higher. In this talk we present a new implicit algorithm for solving the anisotropic thermal diffusion equations and demonstrate its characteristics on what has become a fairly standard set of test problems in the literature. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2013-5687A.

  6. The diffusion of microfinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit; Chandrasekhar, Arun G; Duflo, Esther; Jackson, Matthew O

    2013-07-26

    To study the impact of the choice of injection points in the diffusion of a new product in a society, we developed a model of word-of-mouth diffusion and then applied it to data on social networks and participation in a newly available microfinance loan program in 43 Indian villages. Our model allows us to distinguish information passing among neighbors from direct influence of neighbors' participation decisions, as well as information passing by participants versus nonparticipants. The model estimates suggest that participants are seven times as likely to pass information compared to informed nonparticipants, but information passed by nonparticipants still accounts for roughly one-third of eventual participation. An informed household is not more likely to participate if its informed friends participate. We then propose two new measures of how effective a given household would be as an injection point. We show that the centrality of the injection points according to these measures constitutes a strong and significant predictor of eventual village-level participation.

  7. Diffusion in Solids Fundamentals, Methods, Materials, Diffusion-Controlled Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mehrer, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    Diffusion is a vital topic in solid-state physics and chemistry, physical metallurgy and materials science. Diffusion processes are ubiquitous in solids at elevated temperatures. A thorough understanding of diffusion in materials is crucial for materials development and engineering. This book first gives an account of the central aspects of diffusion in solids, for which the necessary background is a course in solid state physics. It then provides easy access to important information about diffuson in metals, alloys, semiconductors, ion-conducting materials, glasses and nanomaterials. Several diffusion-controlled phenomena, including ionic conduction, grain-boundary and dislocation pipe diffusion, are considered as well. Graduate students in solid-state physics, physical metallurgy, materials science, physical and inorganic chemistry or geophysics will benefit from this book as will physicists, chemists, metallurgists, materials engineers in academic and industrial research laboratories.

  8. A Systematic Review on Effect and Safety of Nedaplatin Combined with Paclitaxel for Middle and Advanced Stage of Cervical Cancer%奈达铂联合紫杉醇治疗中晚期宫颈癌的疗效及安全性系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙霞; 吴逢波; 徐珽

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical effect and safety of nedaplatin combined with paclitaxel for middle and advanced stage of cervical cancer. Methods The databases of MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMbase, PubMed, CNKI, CBM,VIP and WanFang Data were retrieved by computer for searching out the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on nedaplatin combined with paclitaxel for treating middle and advanced stage of cervical cancer, the retrieval time limit was up to November 2013. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, two reviewers independently screened the literature, extracted the data and evaluated the quality of the included RCTs, and then meta -analysis was performed by using RevMan 5. 1 software. Results A total of 12 RCTs were included,involving 787 patients. According to the different intervention measures, the two subgroups were divided. The results of meta - analysis showed that compared with the simple radiotherapy, nedaplatin combined with paclitaxel chemoradiotherapy could significantly improve the short term efficacy of the patients [ RR = 1. 58,95% CI(1. 03,2. 41),P ﹤ 0. 000 01 ] and long - term survival rate[ RR = 1. 27,95% CI(1. 14,1. 40),P ﹤ 0. 000 01], the gastrointestinal adverse reactions had no statistical difference[ RR = 1. 32,95% CI(0. 99,1. 74),P = 0. 05]; the short term efficacy had no statistical difference between nedaplatin plus paclitaxel and cisplatin plus paclitaxel, relative in patients with advanced cervical cancer was not statistically significant[ RR = 1. 08,95% CI(0. 98,1. 1)9,P = 0. 10]; the gastrointestinal adverse reactions were significantly re-duced[ RR = 0. 48,95% CI(0. 37,0. 62),P ﹤ 0. 000 01], thrombocytopenia had no statistical difference [ RR = 1. 24,95% CI(0. 90, 1. 70),P = 0. 18] . Conclusion Nedaplatin plus paclitaxel in treating middle and advanced stage of cervical cancer is safe and effec-tive, can be used as an alternative to the cisplatin plus paclitaxel therapy. However, the included documents are smaller in

  9. Cross-diffusion effects in isothermal double diffusive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerril, R. [Michoacan Univ. Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Michoacan (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica y Mathematicas

    2000-11-01

    The nonlinear coefficients of the amplitude equations for the stationary, oscillatory and codimension-2 point bifurcations are calculated for isothermal double diffusive convection with cross-diffusion. The locations of the tricritical point for the stationary instability and the codimension-2 point are also found. Thereby the separation between these points in parameter space can be calculated as a function of rescaled cross-diffusion constants.

  10. 弥散加权磁共振成像对中晚期宫颈癌盆腔和腹腔淋巴结转移的诊断价值%Diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted imaging in pelvic and abdominal lymph node metastases of advanced cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古力米热·布然江; 艾力克木·阿不都玩克; 叶伟军; 刘艳

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the accuracy of routine and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWl) in detecting pelvic and abdominal lymph nodes (LNs) of patients with advanced cervical cancer and its diagnostic value in distinguishing benign and malignant diseases.Methods:Eighty untreated patients with advanced cervical cancer were collected between December 2011 and December 2012.Routine and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and DWI were performed before concurrent radiochemotherapy,after external radiation of 45 Gy,and three months after the end of radiation therapy.The morphologic and functional parameters of LNs of interest on MRI image were analyzed.Results:The areas of 122 suspected metastatic LNs in pelvic and abdominal cavities on MRI image after external radiation of 45 Gy and three months after the end of radiation therapy were significantly smaller than those before concurrent radiochemotherapy (P < 0.05); the change of T1-weighted signal was not obvious,and T2-weighted signal was heterogeneously enhanced.The areas of non-metastatic LNs were not obviously changed (P > 0.05).The apparent difusion coefficient (ADC) values of 122 suspected metastatic LNs in pelvic and abdominal cavities on MRI image after external radiation of 45 Gy and three months after the end of radiation therapy were significantly increased as compared with that before concurrent radiochemotherapy (P < 0.05).Before concurrent radiochemotherapy,the ADC values were significantly different between suspected metastatic LNs and non-metastatic LNs (P > 0.05).Conclusion:Routine and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and DWI can display pelvic and abdominal LNs more accurately and sensitively,and they can help to distinguish benign and malignant diseases.%目的:本研究旨在探讨常规磁共振成像(magnetic resonance imaging,MRI)及动态增强扫描加弥散加权成像(diffusion-weighted imaging,DWI)对中晚期宫颈癌盆腔和腹腔淋

  11. The Pearson diffusions: A class of statistically tractable diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forman, Julie Lyng; Sørensen, Michael

    estimators are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal. The discussion covers GMM, quasi-likelihood, and non- linear weighted least squares estimation too, and it is discussed how explicit likeli- hood or approximate likelihood inference is possible for the Pearson diffusions. A complete model....... Special attention is given to a skew t-type distribution. Explicit formulae for the conditional moments and the polynomial eigenfunctions are derived. The analyti- cal tractability is inherited by transformed Pearson diffusions, integrated Pearson diffusions, sums of Pearson diffusions, and stochastic...

  12. Staging Sociotechnical Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Yoshinaka, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    The management of innovation and product development is increasingly facing complex challenges of staging design processes across heterogeneous organisational spaces, with multiple actor-concerns and sources of knowledge. This paper addresses how insights from the Actor-Network Theory and political...... process theory may contribute to a reflexive understanding of design as the staging of socio-technical relations and processes cutting across boundaries of diverse organisational, political and knowledge domains. This idea is pursued through the notion of ‘socio-technical spaces’. Socio-technical space...... of product development. The concept of socio-technical spaces is further illustrated through actual examples from industry dealing with early conceptualisation in product development and the role played by management concepts in the configuration of spaces....

  13. Calibration of Nanopositioning Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy is one of the most important criteria for the performance evaluation of micro- and nanorobots or systems. Nanopositioning stages are used to achieve the high positioning resolution and accuracy for a wide and growing scope of applications. However, their positioning accuracy and repeatability are not well known and difficult to guarantee, which induces many drawbacks for many applications. For example, in the mechanical characterisation of biological samples, it is difficult to perform several cycles in a repeatable way so as not to induce negative influences on the study. It also prevents one from controlling accurately a tool with respect to a sample without adding additional sensors for closed loop control. This paper aims at quantifying the positioning repeatability and accuracy based on the ISO 9283:1998 standard, and analyzing factors influencing positioning accuracy onto a case study of 1-DoF (Degree-of-Freedom nanopositioning stage. The influence of thermal drift is notably quantified. Performances improvement of the nanopositioning stage are then investigated through robot calibration (i.e., open-loop approach. Two models (static and adaptive models are proposed to compensate for both geometric errors and thermal drift. Validation experiments are conducted over a long period (several days showing that the accuracy of the stage is improved from typical micrometer range to 400 nm using the static model and even down to 100 nm using the adaptive model. In addition, we extend the 1-DoF calibration to multi-DoF with a case study of a 2-DoF nanopositioning robot. Results demonstrate that the model efficiently improved the 2D accuracy from 1400 nm to 200 nm.

  14. Interests diffusion in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Gregorio; D'Antonio, Fulvio; De Nicola, Antonio; Tucci, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    We provide a model for diffusion of interests in Social Networks (SNs). We demonstrate that the topology of the SN plays a crucial role in the dynamics of the individual interests. Understanding cultural phenomena on SNs and exploiting the implicit knowledge about their members is attracting the interest of different research communities both from the academic and the business side. The community of complexity science is devoting significant efforts to define laws, models, and theories, which, based on acquired knowledge, are able to predict future observations (e.g. success of a product). In the mean time, the semantic web community aims at engineering a new generation of advanced services by defining constructs, models and methods, adding a semantic layer to SNs. In this context, a leapfrog is expected to come from a hybrid approach merging the disciplines above. Along this line, this work focuses on the propagation of individual interests in social networks. The proposed framework consists of the following main components: a method to gather information about the members of the social networks; methods to perform some semantic analysis of the Domain of Interest; a procedure to infer members' interests; and an interests evolution theory to predict how the interests propagate in the network. As a result, one achieves an analytic tool to measure individual features, such as members' susceptibilities and authorities. Although the approach applies to any type of social network, here it is has been tested against the computer science research community. The DBLP (Digital Bibliography and Library Project) database has been elected as test-case since it provides the most comprehensive list of scientific production in this field.

  15. Basic Studies of Non-Diffusive Transport in Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, George J. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Maggs, James E. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-10-25

    The project expanded and developed mathematical descriptions, and corresponding numerical modeling, of non-diffusive transport to incorporate new perspectives derived from basic transport experiments performed in the LAPD device at UCLA, and at fusion devices throughout the world. By non-diffusive it is meant that the transport of fundamental macroscopic parameters of a system, such as temperature and density, does not follow the standard diffusive behavior predicted by a classical Fokker-Planck equation. The appearance of non-diffusive behavior is often related to underlying microscopic processes that cause the value of a system parameter, at one spatial position, to be linked to distant events, i.e., non-locality. In the LAPD experiments the underlying process was traced to large amplitude, coherent drift-waves that give rise to chaotic trajectories. Significant advances were made in this project. The results have lead to a new perspective about the fundamentals of edge transport in magnetically confined plasmas; the insight has important consequences for worldwide studies in fusion devices. Progress was also made in advancing the mathematical techniques used to describe fractional diffusion.

  16. Advancing Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny L. Tenuto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Preparing students to become active citizens and contributors to a democratic society is premised on teaching democratic principles and modeling standards of democratic practice at all levels of education. The purpose of this integrative literature review is to establish a conceptual framework grounded in literature and a model for cultivating democratic professional practice in education (DPPE to advance leadership for school improvement. This work is presented in three parts: (a a review of historical references, reports, and legislation that culminated in increased accountability and standards in P-12 public education; (b a discussion of social patterns in education generally associated with bureaucracy versus democracy; and (c a new contribution to the literature, a model for cultivating DPPE is conceptualized to encourage leading and teaching professionals to reflect on beliefs and evaluate practices in advancing leadership for school improvement. Recommendations are included for further research.

  17. Advanced Virgo

    CERN Multimedia

    Virgo, a first-generation interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detector, located in the European Gravitational Observatory, EGO, Cascina (Pisa-Italy) and constructed by the collaboration of French and Italian institutes (CNRS and INFN) has successfully completed its long-duration data taking runs. It is now undergoing a fundamental upgrade that exploits available cutting edges technology to open an exciting new window on the universe, with the first detection of a gravitational wave signal. Advanced Virgo (AdV) is the project to upgrade the Virgo detector to a second-generation instrument. AdV will be able to scan a volume of the Universe 1000 times larger than initial Virgo. AdV will be hosted in the same infrastructures as Virgo. The Advanced VIRGO project is funded and at present carried on by a larger collaboration of institutes belonging to CNRS- France , RMKI - Hungary, INFN- Italy, Nikhef - The Netherlands Polish Academy of Science - Poland.

  18. Advanced LIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O.; Ain, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry–Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recyc...

  19. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  20. Experimental Investigation of a High Pressure Ratio Aspirated Fan Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Ali; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Adamczyk, John J.; Braunscheidel, Edward

    2004-01-01

    The experimental investigation of an aspirated fan stage designed to achieve a pressure ratio of 3.4:1 at 1500 ft/sec is presented in this paper. The low-energy viscous flow is aspirated from diffusion-limiting locations on the blades and flowpath surfaces of the stage, enabling a very high pressure ratio to be achieved in a single stage. The fan stage performance was mapped at various operating speeds from choke to stall in a compressor facility at fully simulated engine conditions. The experimentally determined stage performance, in terms of pressure ratio and corresponding inlet mass flow rate, was found to be in good agreement with the three-dimensional viscous computational prediction, and in turn close to the design intent. Stage pressure ratios exceeding 3:1 were achieved at design speed, with an aspiration flow fraction of 3.5 percent of the stage inlet mass flow. The experimental performance of the stage at various operating conditions, including detailed flowfield measurements, are presented and discussed in the context of the computational analyses. The sensitivity of the stage performance and operability to reduced aspiration flow rates at design and off design conditions are also discussed.