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Sample records for advanced solid malignancies

  1. A Dose Escalation Study in Adult Patients With Advanced Solid Malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-23

    Advanced Solid Tumors With Alterations of FGFR1, 2 and or 3; Squamous Lung Cancer With FGFR1 Amplification; Bladder Cancer With FGFR3 Mutation or Fusion; Advanced Solid Tumors With FGFR1 Amplication; Advanced Solid Tumors With FGFR2 Amplication; Advanced Solid Tumors With FGFR3 Mutation

  2. Clinical Analysis of Bisphosphonates Treatment on Bone Metastases and Hypercalcemia of Malignancy in Advanced Solid Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MING Shu-hong; SUN Tie-ying

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and toleration of bisphosphonates therapy in patients with bone metastases and hypercalcemia of malignancy in advanced solid tumor. Methods: Patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed cancer and hypercalcemia with bone metastases were designed to open treatment with either 4mg zoledronic acid or 90mg pamidronate. The primary efficacy parameters were pain scores(NRS), Corrected serum calcium(CSC) and CSC effective rate. The vital signs, biochemical and hematological parameters were determined. Results: Twenty patients were enrolled in this study, twelve patients in zoledronic acid group and eight in pamidronate group. Zoledronic acid and pamidronate significantly palliated pain. Pain scores were significantly lower at end-point after Zoledronic acid or pamidronate infusion(5.92 vs 3.25,P<0.01;6.13 vs 4.38, P<0.01, respectively). The mean CSC level decreased significantly after Zoledronic acid or pamidronate infusion from 12.86 to 10.28mg/dl and 13.19 to 10.36mg/dl respectively. The CSC effective rate was about 90% at 14 days after infusion in two groups. There was no statistical significance for all primary efficacy parameters in zoledronic acid group compared with pamidronate group. An adverse reaction was mild fever after pamidronate infusion and then completely reversible. Conclusion: Zoledronic acid and pamidronate disodium were well tolerated and effective for bone metastases and hypercalcemia of malignancy in advanced solid tumor.

  3. Dual Inhibition of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Pathway with Cetuximab and Erlotinib: A Phase I Study in Patients with Advanced Solid Malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Michael J.; Schneider, Charles J.; Hosford, Martha A.; Brahmer, Julie R.; Rudin, Charles M.; Finckenstein, Friedrich Graf; Philip-Norton, Robyn E.; Lu, Haolan; Weber, Martin R.; Ettinger, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the optimal dose of the antiepidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody cetuximab that can be safely administered in combination with a standard daily dose of erlotinib in patients with advanced solid malignancies. Patients and Methods Patients with advanced solid malignancies who had failed standard chemotherapies received escalating doses of cetuximab without a loading dose (100, 200, 250 mg/m2 i.v. weekly) in combination with a fixed dose of erlotinib (150 mg daily orally) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Results Twenty-two patients were treated, including 14 patients (64%) with non-small cell lung cancer. Twenty patients received combination treatment at the highest dose level for a median of 5.5 weeks (range, 1–31 weeks). One dose-limiting toxicity was observed: grade 3 skin rash. Overall, the most common adverse events (any grade, grade 3/4) were consistent with the safety profiles of the individual drugs: acneform rash (100%, 9%), diarrhea (77%, 5%), and hypomagnesemia (59%, 12%). Seven of 18 evaluable patients (38.9%) had stable disease lasting for a median of 16.6 weeks (range, 6.1–25.1 weeks). Conclusion Dual EGFR inhibition with cetuximab and erlotinib is feasible; the observed toxicities were manageable and consistent with the safety profiles of the individual drugs. The recommended doses for phase II studies are 250 mg/m2 i.v. weekly for cetuximab and 150 mg daily orally for erlotinib. PMID:19182243

  4. Novel systemic treatment options for advanced solid tumors with or without central nervous system metastases or malignant glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milojkovic Kerklaan, B.

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy is a very frequently used therapy in patients with advanced tumors with or without central nervous system (CNS) metastases or primary brain tumors. Despite the significant progress in drug development, the survival of patients is limited with an unmet need for more effective chemotherap

  5. Advances in diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan D. Yan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive neoplasm. The incidence of malignant mesothelioma is increasing worldwide. Diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM represents one-fourth of all mesotheliomas. Association of asbestos exposure with DMPM has been observed, especially in males. A great majority of patients present with abdominal pain and distension, caused by accumulation of tumors and ascitic fluid. In the past, DMPM was considered a pre-terminal condition; therefore attracted little attention. Patients invariably died from their disease within a year. Recently, several prospective trials have demonstrated median survival of 40 to 90 months and 5-year survival of 30% to 60% after the combined treatment using cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This improvement in survival has prompted new searches into the medical science related to DMPM, a disease previously ignored as uninteresting. This review article focuses on the key advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, treatments and prognosis of DMPM that have occurred in the past decade.

  6. Immunotherapy advances in uro-genital malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratta, Raffaele; Zappasodi, Roberta; Raggi, Daniele; Grassi, Paolo; Verzoni, Elena; Necchi, Andrea; Di Nicola, Massimo; Salvioni, Roberto; de Braud, Filippo; Procopio, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer has made significant progresses over the last 20 years. Multiple efforts have been attempted to restore immune-mediated tumor elimination, leading to the development of several targeted immunotherapies. Data from recent clinical trials suggest that these agents might improve the prognosis of patients with advanced genito-urinary (GU) malignancies. Nivolumab has been the first immune checkpoint-inhibitor approved for pre-treated patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Pembrolizumab and atezolizumab have shown promising results in both phase I and II trials in urothelial carcinoma. Brentuximab vedotin has demonstrated early signals of clinical activity and immunomodulatory effects in highly pre-treated patients with testicular germ cell tumors. In this review, we have summarized the major clinical achievements of immunotherapy in GU cancers, focusing on immune checkpoint blockade as well as the new immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) under clinical evaluation for these malignancies.

  7. Photodynamic therapy of advanced malignant tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lian-xing; Dai, Lu-pin; Lu, Wen-qin

    1993-03-01

    Forty patients with advanced tumors were treated by photodynamic therapy (PDT) from May 1991 to August 1991 in our hospital with age ranges from 30 to 81 years old. The pathological diagnosis shows that 13 had tumors in the colon, 3 in the stomach, 2 in the oesophageal, 2 in the palatum, 1 in the cervix, and 19 others with malignant cancers of the skin. The histology was as follows: squamous cell in 20, adenocarcinoma in 19, melanocarcinoma in 1. By TNM classification there were no cases of T1, 5 cases of T2, and 35 cases of T2 - T3. All patients were stage IV. The overall effective rate was 85%, our experience is that the PDT is suitable for the patients with advanced tumor, especially those whose tumor recurrences are hard to treat after conventional treatment (surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy). The PDT appears to be a new and promising possibility to treat advanced tumors and to improve the patients' survival rates.

  8. Management of intestinal obstruction in advanced malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry John Murray Ferguson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with incurable, advanced abdominal or pelvic malignancy often present to acute surgical departments with symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction. It is rare for bowel strangulation to occur in these presentations, and spontaneous resolution often occurs, so the luxury of time should be afforded while decisions are made regarding surgery. Cross-sectional imaging is valuable in determining the underlying mechanism and pathology. The majority of these patients will not be suitable for an operation, and will be best managed in conjunction with a palliative medicine team. Surgeons require a good working knowledge of the mechanisms of action of anti-emetics, anti-secretories and analgesics to tailor early management to individual patients, while decisions regarding potential surgery are made. Deciding if and when to perform operative intervention in this group is complex, and fraught with both technical and emotional challenges. Surgery in this group is highly morbid, with no current evidence available concerning quality of life following surgery. The limited evidence concerning operative strategy suggests that resection and primary anastomosis results in improved survival, over bypass or stoma formation. Realistic prognostication and involvement of the patient, care-givers and the multidisciplinary team in treatment decisions is mandatory if optimum outcomes are to be achieved.

  9. Advanced mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bruhns, Otto T

    2003-01-01

    Mechanics, and in particular, the mechanics of solids, forms the basis of all engi­ neering sciences. It provides the essential foundations for understanding the action of forces on bodies, and the effects of these forces on the straining of the body on the one hand, and on the deformation and motion of the body on the other. Thus, it provides the solutions of many problems with which the would-be engineer is going to be confronted with on a daily basis. In addition, in engineering studies, mechanics has a more vital importance, which many students appreciate only much later. Because of its clear, and analyt­ ical setup, it aids the student to a great extent in acquiring the necessary degree of abstraction ability, and logical thinking, skills without which no engineer in the practice today would succeed. Many graduates have confirmed to me that learning mechanics is generally per­ ceived as difficult. On the other hand, they always also declared that the preoccu­ pation with mechanics made an essential c...

  10. Everolimus and Malignancy after Solid Organ Transplantation: A Clinical Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallvard Holdaas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignancy after solid organ transplantation remains a major cause of posttransplant mortality. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor class of immunosuppressants exerts various antioncogenic effects, and the mTOR inhibitor everolimus is licensed for the treatment of several solid cancers. In kidney transplantation, evidence from registry studies indicates a lower rate of de novo malignancy under mTOR inhibition, with some potentially supportive data from randomized trials of everolimus. Case reports and small single-center series have suggested that switch to everolimus may be beneficial following diagnosis of posttransplant malignancy, particularly for Kaposi’s sarcoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer, but prospective studies are lacking. A systematic review has shown mTOR inhibition to be associated with a significantly lower rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC recurrence versus standard calcineurin inhibitor therapy. One meta-analysis has concluded that patients with nontransplant HCC experience a low but significant survival benefit under everolimus monotherapy, so far unconfirmed in a transplant population. Data are limited in heart transplantation, although observational data and case reports have indicated that introduction of everolimus is helpful in reducing the recurrence of skin cancers. Overall, it can be concluded that, in certain settings, everolimus appears a promising option to lessen the toll of posttransplant malignancy.

  11. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, B

    2006-01-01

    The present volume 45 of Advances in Solid-State Physics contains the written versions of selected invited lectures from the spring meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft in the World Year of Physics 2005, the Einstein Year, which was held from 4 - 11 March 2005 in Berlin, Germany. Many topical talks given at the numerous symposia are included. Most of these were organized collaboratively by several of the divisions of the Arbeitskreis. The book presents, to some extent, the status of the field of solid-state physics in 2005 not only in Germany but also internationally. It is ''nanoscience'', namely the physics of quantum dots and wires, electrical transport, optical properties, spin transport in nanostructures, and magnetism on the nanoscale, that is of central interest to the physics community. Also, soft matter and biological systems are covered.

  12. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    The present volume 46 of Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written versions of selected invited lectures from the spring meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft which was held from 27 to 31 March 2006 in Dresden, Germany. Many topical talks given at the numerous symposia are included. Most of these were organized collaboratively by several of the divisions of the Arbeitskreis. The topis range from zero-dimensional physics in quantum dots, molecules and nanoparticles over one-dimensional physics in nanowires and 1d systems to more applied subjects like optoelectronics and materials science in thin films. The contributions span the whole width of solid-state physics from truly basic science to applications.

  13. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1992-08-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor will utilize improved design features and automated manufacturing methods to produce an inherently safer propulsive system for the Space Shuttle and future launch systems. This second-generation motor will also provide an additional 12,000 pounds of payload to orbit, enhancing the utility and efficiency of the Shuttle system. The new plant will feature strip-wound, asbestos-free insulation; propellant continuous mixing and casting; and extensive robotic systems. Following a series of static tests at the Stennis Space Center, MS flights are targeted to begin in early 1997.

  14. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor will utilize improved design features and automated manufacturing methods to produce an inherently safer propulsive system for the Space Shuttle and future launch systems. This second-generation motor will also provide an additional 12,000 pounds of payload to orbit, enhancing the utility and efficiency of the Shuttle system. The new plant will feature strip-wound, asbestos-free insulation; propellant continuous mixing and casting; and extensive robotic systems. Following a series of static tests at the Stennis Space Center, MS flights are targeted to begin in early 1997.

  15. Unusual malignant solid neoplasms of the kidney: Cross-sectional imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Hahn, Peter F. [Dept. of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States); Shirkhoda, Ali [Dept. of Radiology, University of California School of Medicine, Irvine (United States); Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Ozmen, Mustafa [Dept. of Radiology, University of Hacettepe School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2015-08-15

    Malignant kidney neoplasms are the most frequently encountered solid kidney masses. Although renal cell carcinoma is the major renal malignancy, other solid malignant renal masses should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid renal masses that do not contain a macroscopic fatty component. In this pictorial essay, we present the imaging findings of a primitive neuroectodermal tumor, primary liposarcoma of the kidney, primary neuroendocrine tumor, leiomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, sclerosing fibrosarcoma and renal metastasis of osteosarcoma.

  16. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The present volume 47 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2007 Spring Meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik which was held in Regensburg, Germany, from March 26 to 30, 2007 in conjunction with the 71st Annual Meeting of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.It gives an overview of the present status of solid state physics where low-dimensional systems such as quantum dots and quantum wires are dominating. The importance of magnetic materials is reflected by the large number of contributions in the part dealing with ferromagnetic films and particles. One of the most exciting achievements of the last couple of years is the successful application of electrical contacts to and the investigation of single layers of graphene. This exciting physics is covered in Part IV of this book. Terahertz physics is another rapidly moving field which is presented here by five contributions. Achievements in solid state physics are only rarely...

  17. Craniofacial resection of advanced oral and maxillofacial malignant tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志愿; 邱蔚六

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical outcome of craniofacial resection for advanced malignant tumors in oral and maxillofacial regions.Methods Forty-six patients who underwent craniofacial resection for malignancies involving the anterior and middle cranial fossa over a 20-year period between June 1978 and December 1997 at our department were evaluated. Twenty patients received radiation therapy and an adjuvant therapy after the operation. Eleven patients received chemotherapy of various types as an adjuvant therapy.Results The 3- and 5-year survival rates were 48.8% (20/41) and 35.1% (13/37), respectively, while the 10-year survival rate was 20% (4/20).Conclusions Our results revealed good prospects of using craniofacial resection on patients with advanced malignancies in the oral and maxillofacial regions.

  18. Surgical palliation of gastric outlet obstruction in advanced malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potz, Brittany A; Miner, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a common problem associated with advanced malignancies of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Palliative treatment of patients’ symptoms who present with GOO is an important aspect of their care. Surgical palliation of malignancy is defined as a procedure performed with the intention of relieving symptoms caused by an advanced malignancy or improving quality of life. Palliative treatment for GOO includes operative (open and laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy) and non-operative (endoscopic stenting) options. The performance status and medical condition of the patient, the extent of the cancer, the patients prognosis, the availability of a curative procedure, the natural history of symptoms of the disease (primary and secondary), the durability of the procedure, and the quality of life and life expectancy of the patient should always be considered when choosing treatment for any patient with advanced malignancy. Gastrojejunostomy appears to be associated with better long term symptom relief while stenting appears to be associated with lower immediate procedure related morbidity. PMID:27648158

  19. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The present volume 48 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2008 Spring Meeting of the DPG section Condensed Matter Physics (Sektion kondensierte Materie der DPG) which was held in Berlin, Germany, and gives a nice overview of the present status of condensed matter physics. Low-dimensional systems are dominating the field and especially nanowires and quantum dots. In recent years one learned how to produce nanowires directly during a growth process. Therefore, a number of articles is related to such nanowires. In nanoparticles and quantum dots, the dimensionality is further reduced and we learn more and more how to produce such systems in a defined way and what effects result from the confinement in all three dimensions. Spin effects and magnetism is another important field of present-day research in solid state physics. The third chapter covers this physics. The growing interest into organic materials and biological systems is reflec...

  20. NASA's Advanced solid rocket motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) will not only bring increased safety, reliability and performance for the Space Shuttle Booster, it will enhance overall Shuttle safety by effectively eliminating 174 failure points in the Space Shuttle Main Engine throttling system and by reducing the exposure time to aborts due to main engine loss or shutdown. In some missions, the vulnerability time to Return-to-Launch Site aborts is halved. The ASRM uses case joints which will close or remain static under the effects of motor ignition and pressurization. The case itself is constructed of the weldable steel alloy HP 9-4-0.30, having very high strength and with superior fracture toughness and stress corrosion resistance. The internal insulation is strip-wound and is free of asbestos. The nozzle employs light weight ablative parts and is some 5,000 pounds lighter than the Shuttle motor used to date. The payload performance of the ASRM-powered Shuttle is 12,000 pounds higher than that provided by the present motor. This is of particular benefit for payloads delivered to higher inclinations and/or altitudes. The ASRM facility uses state-of-the-art manufacturing techniques, including continuous propellant mixing and direct casting.

  1. NASA's Advanced solid rocket motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) will not only bring increased safety, reliability and performance for the Space Shuttle Booster, it will enhance overall Shuttle safety by effectively eliminating 174 failure points in the Space Shuttle Main Engine throttling system and by reducing the exposure time to aborts due to main engine loss or shutdown. In some missions, the vulnerability time to Return-to-Launch Site aborts is halved. The ASRM uses case joints which will close or remain static under the effects of motor ignition and pressurization. The case itself is constructed of the weldable steel alloy HP 9-4-0.30, having very high strength and with superior fracture toughness and stress corrosion resistance. The internal insulation is strip-wound and is free of asbestos. The nozzle employs light weight ablative parts and is some 5,000 pounds lighter than the Shuttle motor used to date. The payload performance of the ASRM-powered Shuttle is 12,000 pounds higher than that provided by the present motor. This is of particular benefit for payloads delivered to higher inclinations and/or altitudes. The ASRM facility uses state-of-the-art manufacturing techniques, including continuous propellant mixing and direct casting.

  2. Malignant solid pseudopapillary tumor of pancreas causing sinistral portal hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ahmad Wani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid pseudopapillary tumor (SPT of the pancreas is a rare benign or low-grade malignant epithelial tumor that occurs mainly in young females in second to fourth decades of life. Pathologic and imaging findings include a well-defined, encapsulated pancreatic mass with cystic and solid components with evidence of hemorrhage. We report a 23-year-old female who presented with upper abdominal pain of long duration and epigastric mass on palpation. Multidetector-row CT (MDCT demonstrated a large well-defined heterogeneous attenuation mass, containing hyperdense areas of hemorrhage mixed with solid enhancing and cystic non-enhancing areas, arising from the pancreatic body and tail. Splenic vein thrombosis was present with dilated splenoportal collateral vessels between splenic hilum and portal/superior mesenteric veins, with dilated vessels seen in the gastric wall, with patent portal vein, compatible with sinistral portal hypertension. Typical imaging features and age and sex of the patient suggested a diagnosis of SPT of pancreas complicated by segmental portal hypertension due to splenic vein thrombosis. Histopathology of the biopsy material was confirmatory.

  3. A phase I study of bortezomib, etoposide and carboplatin in patients with advanced solid tumors refractory to standard therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieu, Christopher; Chow, Laura; Pierson, A. Scott; Eckhardt, S. Gail; O'Bryant, Cindy L.; Morrow, Mark; Tran, Zung Vu; Wright, John J.; Gore, Lia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity, pharmacological, and biological properties of the combination of bortezomib, etoposide, and carboplatin in adults with advanced solid malignancies. Patients and methods: Patients received escalating doses of bortezomib, etoposide, and carboplatin every 21 days. Sur

  4. Therapeutic ureteral occlusion in advanced pelvic malignant tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinn, A.C.; Ohlsen, H.; Brehmer-Andersson, E.; Brundin, J.

    1986-01-01

    A technique for ureteral occlusion, combining insertion of nylon plugs with injection of polidocanol, is described. The method was used in 15 patients with vesicovaginal fistulas after operation and irradiation for advanced gynecological malignancy, or with severe malfunction and fibrosis of the bladder after radiotherapy for bladder carcinoma. The urinary leakage ceased in 11 patients, was greatly diminished in 2 and was unchanged in 2. Migration of plugs to the renal pelvis was the most serious complication and may have been the cause of pyelonephritis in 1 case. The technique is recommended for patients with a short life expectancy and uncontrolled, distressing leakage of urine.

  5. Measuring Combustion Advance in Solid Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    Set of gauges on solid-propellant rocket motor with electrically insulating case measures advance of combustion front and local erosion rates of propellant and insulation. Data furnished by gauges aid in motor design, failure analysis, and performance prediction. Technique useful in determining propellant uniformity and electrical properties of exhaust plum. Gauges used both in flight and on ground. Foilgauge technique also useful in basic research on pulsed plasmas or combustion of solids.

  6. Holmium nanoparticles : preparation and in vitro characterization of a new device for radioablation of solid malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, Wouter; Varkevisser, Rosanne; Soulimani, Fouad; Seevinck, Peter R; de Leeuw, Hendrik; Bakker, Chris J G; Luijten, Peter R; van Het Schip, Alfred D; Hennink, Wim E; Nijsen, J Frank W

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study introduces the preparation and in vitro characterization of a nanoparticle device comprising holmium acetylacetonate for radioablation of unresectable solid malignancies. METHODS: HoAcAc nanoparticles were prepared by dissolving holmium acetylacetonate in chloroform, follo

  7. Early clinical investigation of sulofenur with a daily schedule in advanced solid tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup-Hansen, A; Pedersen, H; Andersen, E

    1997-01-01

    modification for the individual patient at any given dose level; 38 patients with advanced solid malignant tumours were enrolled. Haemolytic anaemia was the main side effect. The toxicity was marked at dose levels of 600 and 700 mg/m2. Moderate methaemoglobinaemia also occurred. One case of reversible toxic...

  8. Advanced Solid Rocket Launcher and Its Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yasuhiro; Imoto, Takayuki; Habu, Hiroto; Ohtsuka, Hirohito; Hori, Keiichi; Koreki, Takemasa; Fukuchi, Apollo; Uekusa, Yasuyuki; Akiba, Ryojiro

    The research on next generation solid propellant rockets is actively underway in various spectra. JAXA is developing the Advanced Solid Rocket (ASR) as a successor to the M-V launch vehicle, which was utilized over past ten years for space science programs including planetary missions. ASR is a result of the development of the next generation technology including a highly intelligent autonomous check-out system, which is connected to not only the solid rocket but also future transportation systems. It is expected to improve the efficiency of the launch system and double the cost performance. Far beyond this effort, the passion of the volunteers among the industry-government-academia cooperation has been united to establish the society of the freewheeling thinking “Next generation Solid Rocket Society (NSRS)”. It aims at a larger revolution than what the ASR provides so that the order of the cost performance is further improved. A study of the Low melting temperature Thermoplastic Propellant (LTP) is now at the experimental stage, which is expected to reform the manufacturing process of the solid rocket propellant and lead to a significant increase in cost performance. This paper indicates the direction of the big flow towards the next generation solid-propellant rockets: the concept of the intelligent ASR under development; and the innovation behind LTP.

  9. Differentiation between Benign and Malignant Solid Thyroid Nodules Using an US Classification System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Hun; Kim, Dong Wook; In, Hyun Sin; Park, Ji Sung; Kim, Sang Hyo; Eom, Jae Wook; Kim, Bomi [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Joo [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Myung Ho [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a new ultrasound (US) classification system for differentiating between benign and malignant solid thyroid nodules. In this study, we enrolled 191 consecutive patients who received real-time US and subsequent US diagnoses for solid thyroid nodules, and underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration. Each thyroid nodule was prospectively classified into 1 of 5 diagnostic categories by real-time US: 'malignant,' 'suspicious for malignancy,' 'borderline,' 'probably benign,' and 'benign'. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid US and the cut-off US criteria by comparing the US diagnoses of thyroid nodules with cytopathologic results. Of the 191 solid nodules, 103 were subjected to thyroid surgery. US categories for these 191 nodules were malignant (n = 52), suspicious for malignancy (n = 16), borderline (n = 23), probably benign (n 18), and benign (n = 82). A receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the US diagnosis for solid thyroid nodules using the 5-category US classification system was very good. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of US diagnosis were 86%, 95%, 91%, 92%, and 92%, respectively, when benign, probably benign, and borderline categories were collectively classified as benign (negative). The diagnostic accuracy of thyroid US for solid thyroid nodules is high when the above-mentioned US classification system is applied.

  10. Recent advances in solid phase peptide synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    White, P.D.

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction by Merrifield half a century ago, solid phase peptide synthesis has evolved to become the enabling technology for the development of peptide therapeutics. Using modern methods, 100 - 1000s of peptides can be routinely synthesised in parallel for screening as leads for drug development and peptide APIs are produced in ton scale. In this talk I consider the state of art and report on recent advances to overcome remaining issues such as aspartimide formation, racemisation ...

  11. Advances in tunable solid-state lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Shazer, L.G.

    1987-02-01

    Continuing problems in solid-state lasers including low efficiency and lack of frequency diversity have limited their applicability in past years. Through recent materials technological developments, both of these problems are starting to be solved. Many new tunable lasers operating at wavelengths ranging from 650 nm to 3..mu..m have been demonstrated in the laboratory, and applications now are being considered for space and terrestrial remote sensors. Comparable progress also has been made towards more efficient solid-state lasers, for example, new neodymium (Nd) lasers having 6% overall efficiency. These advances in solid-state lasers depend on the interplay between the fields of materials science and lasers. To develop this association between the two disciplines, an Optical Society of America (OSA) topical meeting on Tunable Solid State lasers was held in Zigzag, Oreg. As well as covering research and development of tunable lasers based on ion-doped dielectric solids, this meeting discussed crystal growth and laser applications. Also included were rare earth laser sources operating at new wavelengths, an expansion in the agenda from the first meeting, held last year in May in Arlington, Va.

  12. Advance of Therapeutic Methods for Malignant Pleural Effusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao-tao

    2016-01-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a condition caused by primary malignant tumors in the pleura or other malignant tumors metastasis to the pleura. It is also one of common serious complications of middle-late malignant tumor, which has severe impact on the quality of life, even threatening the life of the patients. The selection of treatments for MPE depends on many factors, including the symptoms, performance status, primary tumor types, response to systemic therapy, and degree of lung recruitment maneuvers (LRM) after drainage of pleural effusion. Generally, the treatment methods include thoracentesis, indwelling pleural catheter, pleurodesis, intrapleural injection of drugs, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, anti-angiogenesis therapy, surgery, and thermotherapy. With the in-depth study on pathogenesis of MPE, the treatments of MPE have continuous improvements. This study mainly reviewed the treatment methods for MPE so as to provide the basis for clinical practice in the future.

  13. Advance of Therapeutic Methods for Malignant Pleural Effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao-tao XU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural effusion (MPE is a condition caused by primary malignant tumors in the pleura or other malignant tumors metastasis to the pleura. It is also one of common serious complications of middle-late malignant tumor, which has severe impact on the quality of life, even threatening the life of the patients. The selection of treatments for MPE depends on many factors, including the symptoms, performance status, primary tumor types, response to systemic therapy, and degree of lung recruitment maneuvers (LRM after drainage of pleural effusion. Generally, the treatment methods include thoracentesis, indwelling pleural catheter, pleurodesis, intrapleural injection of drugs, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, anti-angiogenesis therapy, surgery, and thermotherapy. With the in-depth study on pathogenesis of MPE, the treatments of MPE have continuous improvements. This study mainly reviewed the treatment methods for MPE so as to provide the basis for clinical practice in the future.

  14. Photons or protons for non-central nervous system solid malignancies in children: a historical perspective and important highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Najat C; Mahajan, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, major advances have occurred in radiotherapy techniques, delivery, and treatment planning. Although radiotherapy is an integral treatment component of pediatric solid tumors, it is associated with potential acute and long-term untoward effects and risk of secondary malignancy particularly in growing children. Two major advances in external beam radiotherapy are intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and proton beam radiotherapy. Their use in the treatment of children with cancer has been steadily increasing. IMRT uses multiple modulated radiation fields that enhance the conformality of the dose distribution to the target volume and avoid high doses to normal tissues. However, IMRT may be associated with increased volume of normal tissue that receives low doses and potential risk of secondary malignancy. Contrary to IMRT, proton beam radiotherapy uses a few beams and a fast dose fall-off distal to the target volume. Although both modalities require substantial personnel time and effort, the very high cost and limited availability of proton radiotherapy have constrained its widespread use. It is anticipated that both modalities may markedly improve tumor control and quality of life for long-term cancer survivors. Clinical trials with long-term follow-up are needed to confirm the premise that proton beam therapy will decrease late effects and secondary malignancies without compromising local control in pediatric patients with cancer.

  15. The curative effect of autologous DC-CIK cells transfusion combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced malignant solid tumor%自体DC-CIK细胞回输联合化疗治疗晚期恶性实体瘤疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金美四; 朱红梅; 李一辉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the curative effect in the near future that autologous DC-CIK cells transfusion com-bined with chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced malignant solid tumor. Methods Observed the curative effect that au-tologous DC-CIK cells transfusion combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced malignant solid tumor , and the pe-ripheral blood cytokins, tumor markers, gastrointestinal reactions, bone marrow suppression,the quality of life,kamofsky grade. Results There was 0 case completely response (CR) in twenty advanced tumor patients that cured by chemotherapy, part re-sponse(PR) of 1 case,minimal remission (MR) of 2 cases,stable disease(SD) of 7 cases, progressive disease(PD) of 10 cases. The remission rate was 15%,disease control rate was 50%. There was 1 case of CR in united group, PR of 2 cases, MR of 4 cases,SD of 10 cases, PD of 3 cases. The remission rate was 35%,disease control rate was 85%. There were statistical signifi-cant differences between the two groups. For the cancerous pain,spirit condition,sleep,fatigue and weakness of qualitative index live marked improvement and bone marrow suppression. There were statistical significant differenece between the two groups. There were no statistical significant difference between the two groups on the tumor markers and peripheral bood cytokins. Conclusion The curative effect that autologous DC-CIK cells transfusion combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of ad-vanced malignant solid tumor is better than that cured by chemotherapy. It improves the life quality of advanced tumor patients and kamofsky grade,reduces bone marrow suppression,doesn't increase gastrointestinal reactions, tumor makers and blood cy-tokins don't change.%目的:观察化疗联合自体DC-CIK细胞回输治疗晚期恶性实体瘤的近期疗效。方法观察单纯化疗(对照组)和化疗联合自体DC-CIK细胞回输(联合组)治疗晚期恶性实体肿瘤疗效,主要观察指标:治疗前后外

  16. Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC), centered at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center in Cincinnati, Ohio, is the foundation for the Agency's solids and surfaces analysis capabilities. ...

  17. Some epidemiological and clinical characteristics of solid malignant tumors in children from Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Laffita Estévez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: cancer has kept up as the second cause of death in Las Tunas pediatric population.Objective: to characterize clinical and epidemiological variables of the cases diagnosed with solid malignant tumors in children seen and treated in the onco-pediatric consultation of “Mártires de Las Tunas” Pediatric Hospital from 2010 to 2014.Methods: a descriptive and retrospective study was carried out in 62 patients with solid malignant tumors in the pediatric population of Las Tunas province, from January, 2010 to December, 2014. The variables considered were: presumptive diagnosis, age, family history of tumors, clinical signs of alarm related to the tumor at the moment of diagnosis and investigations to confirm the diagnosis.  Results: non-Hodgkin lymphoma was the most frequently diagnosed tumor, with a 19, 35% of the patients. The most affected age group was between 11 and 14 years old, with a 33, 87%. The 16, 13% of the patients had family history of solid malignant tumors. The most frequent form of presentation was the abdominal tumor, with 29, 03 %. Abdominal ultrasound and computerized axial tomography were the most used complementary diagnostic means, both in the 17, 74% of the patients. Biopsy was used to confirm the 96, 77% of the cases.Conclusions: the clinical and epidemiological variables were characterized in pediatric patients diagnosed with solid malignant tumors in Las Tunas. Children between 11 and 14 years old and family history of malignant tumors were the most significant findings.

  18. Enhancing Solid Component within Mature Ovarian Teratomas on MR: Does it Indicate a Malignant Transformation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Myung Gyu; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Jae Woong; Lee, Jong Mee; Kim, Yun Hwan; Park, Cheol Min [Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    To evaluate the enhancing solid component within mature ovarian teratomas on pelvic MR examinations. Thirty-two women with surgically proven mature cystic teratomas underwent preoperative pelvic MR examinations. Five cases had an enhancing solid component within mature cystic ovarian teratomas on MR images. The MR images were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists by consensus, focusing on the enhancing portion of tumor and the tumor itself. The study subjects include 5 patients (15.6%) with enhancing solid components within the mature ovarian cystic teratomas. The mean tumor size was 9.8 cm and they were all unilateral. The enhancing solid components of the tumors had a variable appearance and were located in the peripheral region. No cases were found to have a transmural extension or direct invasion of the neighboring pelvic organ. An enhancing solid component associated with mature ovarian teratomas is not uncommon. This finding does not however, necessarily indicate malignant transformation.

  19. Differential Profile of Ultrasound Findings Associated with Malignancy in Mixed and Solid Thyroid Nodules in an Elderly Female Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Vera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Ultrasonographic characteristics are associated with thyroid malignancy. Our aim was to compare the diagnostic value of ultrasound features in the detection of thyroid malignancy in both solid and mixed nodules. Methods. We prospectively studied female patients (≥50 years referred to ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. Ultrasound features considered suspicious were hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, irregular margins, high anteroposterior (AP/axial-ratio, and absent halo. Associations were separately assessed in mixed and solid nodules. Results. In a group of 504 elderly female patients (age = 69±8 years, the frequency of malignant cytology was 6%. Thirty-one percent of nodules were mixed and 60% were solid. The rate of malignant cytology was similar for mixed and solid nodules (7.4 versus 5.8%, P: 0.56. While in mixed nodules none of the ultrasound characteristics were associated with malignant cytology, in solid nodules irregular margins and microcalcifications were significant (all P<0.05. The combination of irregular margins and/or microcalcifications significantly increased the association with malignant cytology only in solid nodules (OR: 2.76 (95% CI: 1.25–6.10, P: 0.012. Conclusions. Ultrasound features were of poor diagnostic value in mixed nodules, which harbored malignant lesions as often as solid nodules. Our findings challenge the recommended minimal size for ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in mixed nodules.

  20. Long-term outcomes among older patients following nonmyeloablative conditioning and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for advanced hematologic malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorror, Mohamed L; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Storer, Barry E;

    2011-01-01

    A minimally toxic nonmyeloablative regimen was developed for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to treat patients with advanced hematologic malignancies who are older or have comorbid conditions.......A minimally toxic nonmyeloablative regimen was developed for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to treat patients with advanced hematologic malignancies who are older or have comorbid conditions....

  1. Physiologic upper limit of pore size in the blood-tumor barrier of malignant solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Gary L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence of large pores in the blood-tumor barrier (BTB of malignant solid tumor microvasculature makes the blood-tumor barrier more permeable to macromolecules than the endothelial barrier of most normal tissue microvasculature. The BTB of malignant solid tumors growing outside the brain, in peripheral tissues, is more permeable than that of similar tumors growing inside the brain. This has been previously attributed to the larger anatomic sizes of the pores within the BTB of peripheral tumors. Since in the physiological state in vivo a fibrous glycocalyx layer coats the pores of the BTB, it is possible that the effective physiologic pore size in the BTB of brain tumors and peripheral tumors is similar. If this were the case, then the higher permeability of the BTB of peripheral tumor would be attributable to the presence of a greater number of pores in the BTB of peripheral tumors. In this study, we probed in vivo the upper limit of pore size in the BTB of rodent malignant gliomas grown inside the brain, the orthotopic site, as well as outside the brain in temporalis skeletal muscle, the ectopic site. Methods Generation 5 (G5 through generation 8 (G8 polyamidoamine dendrimers were labeled with gadolinium (Gd-diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid, an anionic MRI contrast agent. The respective Gd-dendrimer generations were visualized in vitro by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Following intravenous infusion of the respective Gd-dendrimer generations (Gd-G5, N = 6; Gd-G6, N = 6; Gd-G7, N = 5; Gd-G8, N = 5 the blood and tumor tissue pharmacokinetics of the Gd-dendrimer generations were visualized in vivo over 600 to 700 minutes by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. One additional animal was imaged in each Gd-dendrimer generation group for 175 minutes under continuous anesthesia for the creation of voxel-by-voxel Gd concentration maps. Results The estimated diameters of Gd-G7 dendrimers were 11 ± 1 nm and those of Gd-G8

  2. Molecular and therapeutic advances in the diagnosis and management of malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lowery, Aoife J

    2013-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting tumors derived from chromaffin cells originating in the neural crest. These tumors represent a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge because the diagnosis of malignancy is frequently made in retrospect by the development of metastatic or recurrent disease. Complete surgical resection offers the only potential for cure; however, recurrence can occur even after apparently successful resection of the primary tumor. The prognosis for malignant disease is poor because traditional treatment modalities have been limited. The last decade has witnessed exciting discoveries in the study of PCCs and PGLs; advances in molecular genetics have uncovered hereditary and germline mutations of at least 10 genes that contribute to the development of these tumors, and increasing knowledge of genotype-phenotype interactions has facilitated more accurate determination of malignant potential. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms responsible for malignant transformation in these tumors has opened avenues of investigation into targeted therapeutics that show promising results. There have also been significant advances in functional and radiological imaging and in the surgical approach to adrenalectomy, which remains the mainstay of treatment for PCC. In this review, we discuss the currently available diagnostic and therapeutic options for patients with malignant PCCs and PGLs and detail the molecular rationale and clinical evidence for novel and emerging diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  3. Medical therapy of advanced malignant epithelial tumours of the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, N; Parma, G; Bocciolone, L; Franchi, D; Sideri, M; Maggioni, A

    2000-01-01

    Despite improvements seen in median and overall survival using a combination of platinum-compounds and paclitaxel (PTX), long-term survival rates for patients with advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma remain disappointing and ongoing efforts have aimed to develop more effective primary therapy. In the early 1990Os the drug PTX was first tested in ovarian cancer. In the Gynaecological Oncology Group (GOG) trial 111 the cisplatin (CP)+PTX regimen was judged to be superior compared to the platinum-based control arm with an improvement of overall response rate, median progression-free interval and overall median survival. These favourable data were confirmed by a European-Canadian Intergroup trial (OV10). In contrast, in a further GOG trial (GOG132) there was no difference in survival between CP alone and the combination of PTX and CP. The International Collaborative Ovarian Neoplasm Study (ICON)3 is the first and only trial comparing PTX plus carboplatin against carboplatin alone or a (non-taxane) CP-based control arm. The last analysis performed with a total of 1,293 events showed an estimated absolute difference in one-year progression-free survival of 1% and in two-year overall survival of 2% both in favour of PTX plus carboplatin. The results of ICON3, in accordance with GOG132 study, appear to contradict the earlier positive results seen for PTX and CP in the GOG-111 and OV10 trials and suggested that single agent carboplatin, CY-adriamycin-CP are safe and effective first-line treatments for women requiring chemotherapy for ovarian cancer. A meta-analysis with individual patient data is warranted to better clarify the issue of PTX in the front line therapy of advanced ovarian cancer. Salvage chemotherapy is often utilised in patients with advanced ovarian cancer, due to the high frequency of recurrent disease even after a clinical or pathological complete response after primary chemotherapy. Main objectives of salvage chemotherapy include: i. improvement in

  4. Successful selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) in a patient with a malignant solid pseudopapillary pancreatic neoplasm (SPN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, S; Bartsch, D K; Schober, M; Librizzi, D; Pfestroff, A; Burbelko, M; Moll, R; Michl, P; Gress, T M

    2012-01-01

    Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas (SPNs, Gruber-Frantz-Tumor) are a rare entity representing 1-5% of all exocrine pancreatic tumors. The pseudocystic lesions preferentially affect young females SIRT). Four years after SIRT and 10 years after initial diagnosis of metastatic SPN, the patient is in a good condition without any evidence for hepatic recurrence. This case represents a rare clinical course of a malignant and invasive SPN with an exceptionally long survival despite of high initial tumor burden. The selective internal radiotherapy is a suitable approach for inducing long-term remissions of the strongly vascularized liver metastases.

  5. Advances in haploidentical stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Juan; Sanz, Jaime; Sanz, Guillermo F; Sanz, Miguel A

    2016-08-01

    One of the most important advances in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is the use of alternative donors and cell sources, such as haploidentical transplants (haplo-HSCT) from family donors. Several approaches have been developed to overcome the challenging bidirectional alloreactivity. We discuss these approaches, including ex vivo T-cell-depleted grafts with megadose of CD34(+) cells, not requiring immunosuppression after allogeneic transplantation for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, and other strategies using unmanipulated T-cell-replete grafts with intensive immunosuppression or post-transplantation cyclophosphamide to minimize the GVHD. We also address the role of other strategies developed in the context of the haplo-HSCT platforms, such as ex vivo selective depletion of alloreactive donor T-cell subpopulations, infusion of antigen-specific T-cells against several pathogens, and infusion of regulatory T-cells, among other experimental approaches. Finally, some considerations about the selection of the most suitable donor, when more than one family member is available, are also addressed.

  6. ASAS = NASA's Advanced Solid-state Array Spectroradiometer: 1988 -2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS) data collection contains data collected by the ASAS sensor flown aboard NASA aircraft. A fundamental use of...

  7. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 4 covers articles on single crystal compound semiconductors and complex polycrystalline materials. The book discusses narrow gap semiconductors and solid state batteries. The text then describes the advantages of hot-pressed microcrystalline compacts of oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics over single crystal materials, as well as heterostructure junction lasers. Solid state physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and graduate students studying the subjects being discussed will find the book invaluable.

  8. WT1 Peptide Cancer Vaccine for Patients with Hematopoietic Malignancies and Solid Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Oka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild-type Wilms' tumor gene WT1 is expressed at a high level in hematopoietic malignancies including acute leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes, as well as in various kinds of solid cancers. Human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs, which could specifically lyse WT1-expressing tumor cells with HLA class I restriction, were generated in vitro. It was also demonstrated that mice immunized with the WT1 peptide rejected challenges by WT1-expressing cancer cells and survived with no signs of autoaggression to normal organs that physiologically expressed WT1. Furthermore, we and others detected IgM and IgG WT1 antibodies in patients with hematopoietic malignancies, indicating that the WT1 protein was highly immunogenic, and that immunoglobulin class-switch-inducing, WT1-specific, cellular immune responses were elicited in these patients. CD8+ WT1-specific CTLs were also detected in peripheral blood or tumor-draining lymph nodes of cancer patients. These results provided us with the rationale for elicitation of CTL responses targeting the WT1 product for cancer immunotherapy. On the basis of these findings, we performed a phase I clinical trial of a WT1 peptide cancer vaccine for the patients with malignant neoplasms. These results strongly suggested that the WT1 peptide cancer vaccine had efficacy in the clinical setting because clinical responses, including reduction of leukemic blast cells or regression of tumor masses, were observed after the WT1 vaccination in patients with hematopoietic malignancies or solid cancers. The power of a tumor-associated-antigen (TAA-derived cancer vaccine may be enhanced in combination with stronger adjuvants, helper peptide, molecular-target-based drugs, or some chemotherapy drugs, such as gemcitabine, which has been revealed to suppress regulartory T-cell function. In contrast, reduction of WT1 peptide dose may be needed for the treatment of patients with hematological stem cell diseases

  9. Solid malignancies complicated with pulmonary embolism: clinical analysis of 120 patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Shui-qing; LIN Yi; YING Hong-yan; SHAO Ya-juan; LI Xiao-yuan; BAI Chun-mei

    2010-01-01

    Background Pulmonary embolism, a potentially fatal event, occurs more frequently in cancer patients than in the general population. To offer an accurate diagnosis and effective treatment to such patients in China, we analyzed the incidence rate and clinical features of pulmonary embolism in patients with solid tumor hospitalized in the Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) Hospital.Methods A retrospective analysis was made of the hospitalized patients with solid malignancies complicated with pulmonary embolism who had been admitted into the PUMC Hospital from January 2002 to December 2008. Results The incidence of pulmonary embolism in hospitalized patients with solid malignancies was 0.27% (120/43 967). The median age at diagnosis was 57.5 years. The male to female ratio was 1.0:1.4 (49:71). Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) constituted the largest proportion of the 120 patients (37.5%), followed by patients with breast (9.2%), ovarian (8.3%), pancreatic (6.7%), and liver cancer (6.7%). Eighty patients (66.7%) had stage IV cancer. Bone was the most common site of distant metastasis (46.3%). D-dimer level was elevated in 90.9% of the 66 tested patients. The incidence of bleeding due to anti-coagulation therapy was 3.6%. Thirty-six (30.0%) of the 120 patients had concurrent deep venous thrombosis in the lower extremities. Seventeen patients developed acute pulmonary embolism within 2 weeks after surgery, 3 of whom died suddenly. Four patients presented with deep venous thrombosis and 1 with pulmonary embolism prior to the identification of malignancy.Conclusions Patients with cancer of the lung, ovarian, breast, pancreas, and liver are more likely to be complicated with pulmonary embolism than those with other types of solid tumors. Patients with distant metastasis are at a higher risk of pulmonary embolism. Pulmonary embolism without concurrent deep venous thrombosis is more frequently observed than concurrence of both disorders in the clinical setting.

  10. Laser cooling in solids: advances and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seletskiy, Denis V.; Epstein, Richard; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2016-09-01

    This review discusses the progress and ongoing efforts in optical refrigeration. Optical refrigeration is a process in which phonons are removed from a solid by anti-Stokes fluorescence. The review first summarizes the history of optical refrigeration, noting the success in cooling rare-earth-doped solids to cryogenic temperatures. It then examines in detail a four-level model of rare-earth-based optical refrigeration. This model elucidates the essential roles that the various material parameters, such as the spacing of the energy levels and the radiative quantum efficiency, play in the process of optical refrigeration. The review then describes the experimental techniques for cryogenic optical refrigeration of rare-earth-doped solids employing non-resonant and resonant optical cavities. It then examines the work on laser cooling of semiconductors, emphasizing the differences between optical refrigeration of semiconductors and rare-earth-doped solids and the new challenges and advantages of semiconductors. It then describes the significant experimental results including the observed optical refrigeration of CdS nanostructures. The review concludes by discussing the engineering challenges to the development of practical optical refrigerators, and the potential advantages and uses of these refrigerators.

  11. Prognostic relevance of circulating CK19 mRNA in advanced malignant biliary tract diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kawin Leelawat; Siriluck Narong; Wandee Udomchaiprasertkul; Jerasak Wannaprasert; Sa-ard Treepongkaruna; Somboon Subwongcharoen; Tawee Ratanashu-ek

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine the role of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in prediction of the overall survival of patients with advanced malignant biliary tract obstruction. METHODS: We investigated the prognostic value of CTCs by examining two markers, cytokeratin (CK) 19 and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA, in 40 patients diagnosed with advanced malignant biliary tract diseases. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to detect CK19 and hTERT mRNA in the peripheral blood of these patients. Overall survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression modeling. RESULTS: Positive CK19 and hTERT mRNA expression was detected in 45% and 60%, respectively, of the 40 patients. Univariable analysis indicated that positive CK19 mRNA expression was significantly associated with worse overall survival (P = 0.009). Multivariable analysis determined that positive CK19 mRNA expression, patient's age and serum bilirubin were each independently associated with overall survival. CONCLUSION: CK19 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood appear to provide a valuable marker to predict the overall survival of patients with advanced malignant biliary tract obstruction.

  12. Guidelines on chemotherapy in advanced stage gynecological malignancies: an evaluation of 224 professional societies and organizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos P Polyzos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines are important for guiding practice, but it is unclear if they are commensurate with the available evidence. METHODS: We examined guidelines produced by cancer and gynecological societies and organizations and evaluated their coverage of and stance towards chemotherapy for advanced stage disease among 4 gynecological malignancies (breast, ovarian, cervical, endometrial cancer where the evidence for the use of chemotherapy is very different (substantial and conclusive for breast and ovarian cancer, limited and suggesting no major benefit for cervical and endometrial cancer. Eligible societies and organizations were identified through systematic internet searches (last update June 2009. Pertinent websites were scrutinized for presence of clinical practice guidelines, and relative guidelines were analyzed. RESULTS: Among 224 identified eligible societies and organizations, 69 (31% provided any sort of guidelines, while recommendations for chemotherapy on advanced stage gynecological malignancies were available in 20 of them. Only 14 had developed their own guideline, and only 5 had developed guidelines for all 4 malignancies. Use of levels of evidence and grades of recommendations, and aspects of the production, implementation, and timeliness of the guidelines did not differ significantly across malignancies. Guidelines on breast and ovarian cancer utilized significantly more randomized trials and meta-analyses. Guidelines differed across malignancies on their coverage of disease-free survival (p = 0.033, response rates (p = 0.024, symptoms relief (p = 0.005, quality of life (p = 0.001 and toxicity (p = 0.039, with breast and ovarian cancer guidelines typically covering more frequently these outcomes. All guidelines explicitly or implicitly endorsed the use of chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical practice guidelines are provided by the minority of professional societies and organizations

  13. Recent advances in laser cooling of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemova, Galina; Kashyap, Raman

    2013-10-01

    The recent achievements devoted to cooling of solids with a laser are presented in this paper. We discuss the latest results of traditional laser cooling of solids based on rare earth ions and new techniques based on colloidal lead-salt quantum dots doped in a glass host, laser cooling in Tm3+-doped oxy-fluoride glass ceramic. Relatively short (microsecond) lifetime of the excited level of the PbSe QDs compared to the millisecond lifetime of the excited level of RE ions allows an acceleration of the cooling process and provides an opportunity to use new materials with higher phonon energy as hosts, which are normally considered unsuitable for cooling with RE ions. Another new approach to the laser cooling problem based on super-radiance has been considered in this paper. The advantages of optical refrigeration with rare earth doped semiconductors, in which not only optically active electrons of the 4f shell but the valence and conduction bands of the host material are involved in cooling cycle is discussed. It is shown that involving the valence and conduction bands of the host in the cooling cycle allows the pump wavelength to be shorter than mean fluorescence wavelength. Raman laser cooling of solids as well as observation of spontaneous Brillouin cooling have been presented.

  14. Recent advances in the development of Aurora kinases inhibitors in hematological malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudary, Iqra; Barr, Paul M.; Friedberg, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, since the discovery of Drosophila mutants in 1995, much effort has been made to understand Aurora kinase biology. Three mammalian subtypes have been identified thus far which include the Aurora A, B and C kinases. These regulatory proteins specifically work at the cytoskeleton and chromosomal structures between the kinetochores and have vital functions in the early phases of the mitotic cell cycle. Today, there are multiple phase I and phase II clinical trials as well as numerous preclinical studies taking place looking at Aurora kinase inhibitors in both hematologic and solid malignancies. This review focuses on the preclinical and clinical development of Aurora kinase inhibitors in hematological malignancy and discusses their therapeutic potential. PMID:26622997

  15. Familial aggregation of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström macroglobulinemia with solid tumors and myeloid malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; Goldin, Lynn R; Turesson, Ingemar; Björkholm, Magnus; Landgren, Ola

    2012-01-01

    Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL)/Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a B-cell disorder resulting from the accumulation, predominantly in the bone marrow, of clonally related lymphoplasmacytic cells. LPL/WM is a very rare disease, with an incidence rate of 3-4 cases per million people per year.Currently, the causes of LPL/WM are poorly understood; however, there are emerging data to support a role for immune-related factors in the pathogenesis of LPL/WM. In addition, data show that genetic factors are of importance in the etiology of LPL/WM. In this paper, we will review the current knowledge about familiality of LPL/WM and provide novel data on solid tumors and myeloid malignancies in first-degree relatives of LPL/WM patients.

  16. Emerging therapies targeting tumor vasculature in multiple myeloma and other hematologic and solid malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podar, K; Anderson, K C

    2011-11-01

    Research on the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) in general and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in particular is a major focus in biomedicine and has led to the clinical approval of the monoclonal anti- VEGF antibody bevazicumab; and the second-generation multitargeted receptor kinase inhibitors (RTKIs) sorafenib, sunitinib, and pazopanib. Although these agents show significant preclinical and clinical anti-cancer activity, they prolong overall survival of cancer patients for only months, followed by a restoration of tumor growth and progression. Therefore, there is a clear need to increase our understanding of tumor angiogenesis and the development of resistance. In this review we discuss up-to-date knowledge on mechanisms of tumor angiogenesis, and summarize preclinical and clinical data on existing and potential future anti-angiogenic agents and treatment strategies for Multiple Myeloma (MM) and other hematologic and solid malignancies.

  17. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  18. Advance in Research of Angiotensin II and Its Receptor and Malignant Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu SUN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin AngII, a linear small peptide,which is composed of eight amino acids, is the main effectors of renin-angiotensin systen (Renin-angiotensin system, RAS. AngII, a main biopolypeptide of the RAS, has important pathophysiologic in effects participating in cardiac hypertrophy, vascular cell proproliferation, inflammation and tissue remodeling through G-protein-coupled receptors. In recent years, Ang II can promote tumor cell proliferation, tumor vessel formation and inhibit the differentiation of the tumor cells. This suggests that inhibit the production of AngII or block its effect is expected to become a new measure for the treatment of malignant tumors. This article reviews the advances in research on the relationship between AngII and its receptor and malignant tumor in recent years.

  19. Advanced methods of solid oxide fuel cell modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Jaroslaw; Santarelli, Massimo; Leone, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    Fuel cells are widely regarded as the future of the power and transportation industries. Intensive research in this area now requires new methods of fuel cell operation modeling and cell design. Typical mathematical models are based on the physical process description of fuel cells and require a detailed knowledge of the microscopic properties that govern both chemical and electrochemical reactions. ""Advanced Methods of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Modeling"" proposes the alternative methodology of generalized artificial neural networks (ANN) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) modeling. ""Advanced Methods

  20. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in using color therapy to synchronize crew circadian rhythms. Current RGB LED technology does not produce sufficient brightness to adequately address general lighting in addition to color therapy. The intent is to address both through a mix of white and RGB LEDs designing for fully addressable alertness/relaxation levels as well as more dramatic circadian shifts.

  1. Usefulness of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant solid pancreatic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min Kyoung; Jo, Jeong Hyun; Kwon, Hee Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Oh, Jong Young; Noh, Myung Hwan; Nam, Kyung Jin [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the tissue stiffness of solid pancreatic lesions by using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography to differentiate benign from malignant pancreatic lesions. ARFI elastography was performed in 26 patients who had 27 focal solid pancreatic lesions, including 8 benign lesions (mass-forming pancreatitis, 5; autoimmune pancreatitis, 3) and 19 malignant lesions (pancreatic adenocarcinoma, 16; metastasis from colorectal cancer, 2; malignant neuroendocrine tumor, 1). On the elastographic images of virtual touch tissue imaging (VTI), the echogenicity of the mass was categorized on a 5-grade scale. On the elastographic image of virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ), the shear wave velocities (SWVs) of the lesion and surrounding parenchyma were measured. On the VTI images, the mean echogenicity score of the malignant lesions (3.7±1.0) was higher than that of the benign lesions (3.1±0.4; P=0.023). On the VTQ images, there were no statistical differences in the mean SWV between the benign (2.4±1.1 m/sec) and malignant (3.3±1.0 m/sec) lesions (P=0.101). However, the mean SWV difference values between the lesion and background parenchyma of the malignant lesions (1.5±0.8 m/sec) were higher than those of the benign lesions (0.4±0.3 m/sec; P=0.011). ARFI elastography can determine the relative stiffness between a lesion and the background pancreatic parenchyma using VTI and VTQ, which is helpful in the differentiation between benign and malignant solid pancreatic lesions.

  2. Cholangiocarcinoma and malignant bile duct obstruction: Areview of last decades advances in therapeutic endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades many advances have been achievedin endoscopy, in the diagnosis and therapy ofcholangiocarcinoma,however blood test, magneticresonance imaging, computed tomography scan mayfail to detect neoplastic disease at early stage, thus thediagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma is achieved usuallyat unresectable stage. In the last decades the roleof endoscopy has moved from a diagnostic role toan invaluable therapeutic tool for patients affectedby malignant bile duct obstruction. One of the majorissues for cholangiocarcinoma is bile ducts occlusion,leading to jaundice, cholangitis and hepatic failure.Currently, endoscopy has a key role in the work upof cholangiocarcinoma, both in patients amenable tosurgical intervention as well as in those unfit for surgeryor not amenable to immediate surgical curative resectionowing to locally advanced or advanced disease, withpalliative intention. Endoscopy allows successful biliarydrainage and stenting in more than 90% of patientswith malignant bile duct obstruction, and allows rapidreduction of jaundice decreasing the risk of biliary sepsis.When biliary drainage and stenting cannot be achievedwith endoscopy alone, endoscopic ultrasound-guidedbiliary drainage represents an effective alternativemethod affording successful biliary drainage in morethan 80% of cases. The purpose of this review is tofocus on the currently available endoscopic managementoptions in patients with cholangiocarcinoma.

  3. Advanced technologies available for future solid propellant grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thépénier, Jean; Fonblanc, Gilles

    2001-03-01

    Significant advances have been made during the last decade in several fields of solid propulsion: the advances have enabled new savings in the motor development phase and recurring costs, because they help limit the number of prototypes and tests. The purpose of the paper is to describe the improvements achieved by SNPE in solid grain technologies, making these technologies available for new developments in more efficient and reliable future SRMs: new energetic molecules, new solid propellants, new processes for grain manufacturing, quick response grain design tools associated with advanced models for grain performance predictions. Using its expertise in chemical synthesis, SNPE develops new molecules to fit new energetic material requirements. Tests based on new propellant formulations have produced good results in the propellant performance/safety behavior ratio. New processes have been developed simultaneously to reduce the manufacturing costs of the new propellants. In addition, the grain design has been optimized by using the latest generation of predictive theoretical tools supported by a large data bank of experimental parameters resulting from over 30 years' experience in solid propulsion: Computer-aided method for the preliminary grain design Advanced models for SRM operating and performance predictions

  4. Malignant gliomas: current perspectives in diagnosis, treatment, and early response assessment using advanced quantitative imaging methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rafay Ahmed,1 Matthew J Oborski,2 Misun Hwang,1 Frank S Lieberman,3 James M Mountz11Department of Radiology, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 3Department of Neurology and Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Malignant gliomas consist of glioblastomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, and some less common tumors such as anaplastic ependymomas and anaplastic gangliogliomas. Malignant gliomas have high morbidity and mortality. Even with optimal treatment, median survival is only 12–15 months for glioblastomas and 2–5 years for anaplastic gliomas. However, recent advances in imaging and quantitative analysis of image data have led to earlier diagnosis of tumors and tumor response to therapy, providing oncologists with a greater time window for therapy management. In addition, improved understanding of tumor biology, genetics, and resistance mechanisms has enhanced surgical techniques, chemotherapy methods, and radiotherapy administration. After proper diagnosis and institution of appropriate therapy, there is now a vital need for quantitative methods that can sensitively detect malignant glioma response to therapy at early follow-up times, when changes in management of nonresponders can have its greatest effect. Currently, response is largely evaluated by measuring magnetic resonance contrast and size change, but this approach does not take into account the key biologic steps that precede tumor size reduction. Molecular imaging is ideally suited to measuring early response by quantifying cellular metabolism, proliferation, and apoptosis, activities altered early in treatment. We expect that successful integration of quantitative imaging biomarker assessment into the early phase of clinical trials could provide a novel approach for testing new therapies

  5. THE MALIGNANT OBSTRUCTION OF THE ESOPHOGAS BY ADVANCED CANCER AND RELIEVED BY ENDOSCOPIC TREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-chang; ZHANG Li-jian; ZHANG Xiao-dong; WANG Yan-meng; LI Wei

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of endoscopic treatment on malignant obstructions of the esophagus. Methods: 64 cases of advanced esophageal cancer patients had obstructions of the esophagus, 7 cases could not be operated on, 57 cases had recurred lesions after operation and radiation therapies. The obstructions were all dilated with esophageal dilators, and then were treated using local chemotherapy, or local administration of elemene emulsion injection and a stent was placed in the esophageal lumen.Results: The obstructions were relieved with dilation for only about one week, but the obstructions, using relieved for more than three months after dilation using other treatments. After dilation, the PR of carcinoma was about 80% in local chemotherapy group, however, CR was about 8% and PR was about 92% in the group of elemene emulsion injection. Conclusion: Endoscopic treatment is an effective palliative method for advanced esophageal cancer.

  6. Wind Tunnel Tests on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Advanced Solid Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Keiichi; Fujimoto, Keiichiro; Nonaka, Satoshi; Irikado, Tomoko; Fukuzoe, Moriyasu; Shima, Eiji

    The Advanced Solid Rocket is being developed by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Since its configuration has been changed very recently, its aerodynamic characteristics are of great interest of the JAXA Advanced Solid Rocket Team. In this study, we carried out wind tunnel tests on the aerodynamic characteristics of the present configuration for Mach 1.5. Six test cases were conducted with different body configurations, attack angles, and roll angles. A six component balance, oilflow visualization, Schlieren images were used throughout the experiments. It was found that, at zero angle-of-attack, the flow around the body were perturbed and its drag (axial force) characteristics were significantly influenced by protruding body components such as flanges, cable ducts, and attitude control units of SMSJ (Solid Motor Side Jet), while the nozzle had a minor role. With angle-of-attack of five degree, normal force of CNα = 3.50±0.03 was measured along with complex flow features observed in the full-component model; whereas no crossflow separations were induced around the no-protuberance model with CNα = 2.58±0.10. These values were almost constant with respect to the angle-of-attack in both of the cases. Furthermore, presence of roll angle made the flow more complicated, involving interactions of separation vortices. These data provide us with fundamental and important aerodynamic insights of the Advanced Solid Rocket, and they will be utilized as reference data for the corresponding numerical analysis.

  7. Advanced Computer Science on Internal Ballistics of Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Toru; Kato, Kazushige; Sekino, Nobuhiro; Tsuboi, Nobuyuki; Seike, Yoshio; Fukunaga, Mihoko; Daimon, Yu; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Hiroya

    In this paper, described is the development of a numerical simulation system, what we call “Advanced Computer Science on SRM Internal Ballistics (ACSSIB)”, for the purpose of improvement of performance and reliability of solid rocket motors (SRM). The ACSSIB system is consisting of a casting simulation code of solid propellant slurry, correlation database of local burning-rate of cured propellant in terms of local slurry flow characteristics, and a numerical code for the internal ballistics of SRM, as well as relevant hardware. This paper describes mainly the objectives, the contents of this R&D, and the output of the fiscal year of 2008.

  8. Evaluation of intrathecal drug delivery system for intractable pain in advanced malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuyue; He, Liangliang; Yang, Xiaohui; Li, Xiuhua; Yang, Zhanmin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Pain is prevalent in advanced malignancies; however, some patients cannot get adequate pain relief by conservative routes of analgesic administration or experience serious side effects related to high dose of opioids. For those who have exhausted multimodal conservative analgesic, intrathecal drug delivery is an alternative intervention for truly effective pain management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of intrathecal drug delivery system (IDDS) for the treatment of intractable pain in advanced cancer patients. A prospective cohort study was performed between July 2015 and October 2016. Fifty-three patients undergoing intractable cancer-related pain or intolerable drug-related adverse effects were recruited and received IDDS therapy with a patient-controlled intrathecal analgesia pump. The assessment was conducted during admission, in titration period, and followed up monthly to death by scheduled refill visits. Pain numeric rating scale scores, comprehensive toxicity scores, quality of life scores, systemic opioid use (basal and breakthrough dose), intrathecal morphine use (basal and patient-controlled intrathecal analgesia dose), and complications were recorded to evaluate the curative effect and safety. Between baseline and all subsequent follow-ups, statistically significant decreases in pain numeric rating scale scores and comprehensive toxicity scores were verified. A statistical improvement in quality of life scores was found after starting IDDS therapy. Both basal and breakthrough doses of systemic opioid showed a significant decrease during the follow-up period. And there was a modest escalation in the intrathecal morphine dose throughout the duration of study. No infective, device-related, and catheter-related complications were observed. The findings showed that IDDS therapy allowed for rapid and highly effective pain relief with less toxicity in comparison to conservative medications. Patients with

  9. Advanced Solid State Lighting for Human Evaluation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Holbert, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    Lighting intensity and color have a significant impact on human circadian rhythms. Advanced solid state lighting was developed for the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Deep Space Habitat(DSH) concept demonstrator. The latest generation of assemblies using the latest commercially available LED lights were designed for use in the Bigelow Aerospace Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) simulator and the University of Hawaii's Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (Hi-SEAS) habitat. Agreements with both these organizations will allow the government to receive feedback on the lights and lighting algorithms from long term human interaction.

  10. Propellant development for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, L. C.; Stanley, C. B.; Ricks, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    The properties of a propellant developed for the NASA Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) are described in terms of its composition, performance, and compliance to NASA specifications. The class 1.3 HTPB/AP/A1 propellant employs an ester plasticizer and the content of ballistic solids is set at 88 percent. Ammonia evolution is prevented by the utilization of a neutral bonding agent which allows continuous mixing. The propellant also comprises a bimodal AP blend with one ground fraction, ground AP of at least 20 microns, and ferric oxide to control the burning rate. The propellant's characteristics are discussed in terms of tradeoffs in AP particle size and the types of Al powder, bonding agent, and HTPB polymer. The size and shape of the ballistic solids affect the processability, ballistic properties, and structural properties of the propellant. The revised baseline composition is based on maximizing the robustness of in-process viscosity, structural integrity, and burning-rate tailoring range.

  11. Advanced targeted, cell and gene therapy approaches for pediatric hematological malignancies: results and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Francesca Magnani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the survival of pediatric patients affected by hematological malignancies being improved in the last 20 years by chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, a significant amount of patients still relapses. Treatment intensification is limited by toxic side effects and is constrained by the plateau of efficacy, while the pipeline of new chemotherapeutic drugs is running short. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are essential and researchers around the world are testing in clinical trials immune and gene therapy approaches as second-line treatments. The aim of this review is to give a glance at these novel promising strategies of advanced medicine in the field of pediatric leukemias. Results from clinical protocols using new targeted smart drugs, immunotherapy and gene therapy are summarized, and important considerations regarding the combination of these novel approaches with standard treatments to promote safe and long-term cure are discussed.

  12. Advances in haplo-identical stem cell transplantation in adults with high-risk hematological malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; J; Ricci; Jeffrey; A; Medin; Ronan; S; Foley

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplant is a life-saving procedure for adults and children that have high-risk or relapsed hematological malignancies. Incremental advances in the procedure, as well as expanded sources of donor hematopoietic cell grafts have significantly improved overall rates of success. Yet, the outcomes for patients for whom suitable donors cannot be found remain a significant limitation. These patients may benefit from a hematopoietic cell transplant wherein a relative donor is fully haplotype mismatched. Previously this procedure was limited by graft rejection, lethal graft-versus-host disease, and increased treatmentrelated toxicity. Recent approaches in haplo-identical transplantation have demonstrated significantly improved outcomes. Based on years of incremental preclinical research into this unique form of bone marrow transplant, a range of approaches have now been studied in patients in relatively large phase Ⅱ trials that will be summarized in this review.

  13. PELVIC ACTINOMYCOSIS MIMICKING A LOCALLY ADVANCED PELVIC MALIGNANCY--CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velenciuc, Natalia; Velenciuc, I; Makkai Popa, S; Roată, C; Ferariu, D; Luncă, S

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a former user of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) for 10 years, diagnosed with a bulky, fixed pelvic tumor involving the internal genital organs and the recto sigmoid, causing luminal narrowing of the rectum, interpreted as locally advanced pelvic malignancy, probably of genital origin. Intraoperatively, a high index of suspicion made us collect a sample from the fibrous wall of the tumor mass, large Actinomyces colonies were thus identified. Surgery consisted in debridement, removal of a small amount of pus and appendectomy, thus avoiding a mutilating and useless surgery. Specific antibiotic therapy was administered for 3 months, with favorable postoperative and long-term outcomes. Pelvic actinomycosis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of pelvic tumors in women using an IUD. The association of long-term antibiotic treatment is essential to eradicate the infection and prevent relapses.

  14. Malignant bowel obstruction in advanced cancer patients: epidemiology, management, and factors influencing spontaneous resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuca A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Albert Tuca1, Ernest Guell2, Emilio Martinez-Losada3, Nuria Codorniu41Cancer and Hematological Diseases Institute, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Palliative Care Unit, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain; 3Palliative Care Unit, Institut Català Oncologia Badalona, Barcelona, Spain; 4Medical Oncology Department, Institut Català Oncologia L'Hospitalet, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Malignant bowel obstruction (MBO is a frequent complication in advanced cancer patients, especially in those with abdominal tumors. Clinical management of MBO requires a specific and individualized approach that is based on disease prognosis and the objectives of care. The global prevalence of MBO is estimated to be 3% to 15% of cancer patients. Surgery should always be considered for patients in the initial stages of the disease with a preserved general status and a single level of occlusion. Less invasive approaches such as duodenal or colonic stenting should be considered when surgery is contraindicated in obstructions at the single level. The priority of care for inoperable and consolidated MBO is to control symptoms and promote the maximum level of comfort possible. The spontaneous resolution of an inoperable obstructive process is observed in more than one third of patients. The mean survival is of no longer than 4–5 weeks in patients with consolidated MBO. Polymodal medical treatment based on a combination of glucocorticoids, strong opioids, antiemetics, and antisecretory drugs achieves very high symptomatic control. This review focuses on the epidemiological aspects, diagnosis, surgical criteria, medical management, and factors influencing the spontaneous resolution of MBO in advanced cancer patients.Keywords: malignant bowel obstruction, cancer, intestinal obstruction, bowel occlusion

  15. Risk of solid tumors and hematological malignancy in persons with Turner and Klinefelter syndromes: A national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianguang; Zöller, Bengt; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-08-15

    The risk of solid and hematological malignancy in patients with Turner syndrome, characterized by X chromosome monosomy in women, and Klinefelter syndrome, characterized with two and more X chromosomes in men, is not well established, but such evidence may have etiological implications on cancer development. We identified a total of 1,409 women with Turner syndrome and 1,085 men with Klinefelter syndrome from the Swedish Hospital Discharge and Outpatient Register. These individuals were further linked to the Swedish Cancer Register to examine the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancer using the general population without Turner and Klinefelter syndromes as reference. The overall risk of cancer was 1.34 for women with Turner syndrome; it was increased only for solid tumors. For a specific type of tumor, the risk of melanoma and central nervous system tumor was significantly increased. For persons with Klinefelter syndrome, the risk of solid tumors was decreased (SIR = 0.66), whereas the risk of hematological malignancy was increased (SIR = 2.72). Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and leukemia showed an increased SIR of 3.02 and 3.62, respectively. Our study supported the hypothesis that X chromosome plays an important role in the etiology of solid tumors. The underlying mechanisms for the increased incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and leukemia in persons with Klinefelter syndrome need to be investigated further.

  16. Retrospective analysis of role of interstitial brachytherapy using template (MUPIT in locally advanced gynecological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandwani Pooja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The aim of this retrospective study was to assess treatment outcomes for patients with locally advanced gynecological malignancies being treated with interstitial brachytherapy using Martinez universal perineal interstitial template (MUPIT and to study the acute and late sequelae and survival after treatment by this technique. Materials and Methods : Ninety seven patients untreated with histopathological confirmation of carcinoma of cervix (37 vault (40 and vagina (20 were treated by combination of external beam RT (EBRT using megavoltage irradiation to pelvis to dose of 4000-5000 cGy followed by interstitial brachytherapy using MUPIT between September 2001 to March 2005. Median age was 46 years. Only those patients who were found unsuitable for conventional brachytherapy or in whom intracavitatory radiotherapy was found to be unlikely to encompass a proper dose distribution were treated by interstitial template brachytherapy using MUPIT application and were enrolled in this study. The dose of MUPIT was 1600-2400 cGy in 4-6# with 400 cGy /# and two fractions a day with minimum gap of six hours in between two fractions on micro-HDR. Criteria for inclusion of patients were as follows: Hb minimum 10 gm/dl, performance status - 70% or more (Karnofsy scale, histopathological confirmation FIGO stage IIB-IIIB (excluding frozen pelvis. Results : Among the 97 patients studied, 12 patients lost to follow-up and hence they were excluded from the study. Follow-up of rest of the patients was then done up to September 2006. The duration of follow-up was in the range of 20-60 months. Parameters studied were local control rate, complication rate, mortality rate and number of patients developing systemic metastasis. Local control was achieved in 56/85 (64.7% and complication rate was 15/85 (17.6%. Local control was better for nonbulky tumors compared bulky tumors irrespective of stage of disease. Local control was better in patients with good regression of

  17. Treatments for hematologic malignancies in contrast to those for solid cancers are associated with reduced red cell alloimmunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Dorothea; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan; Tijmensen, Janneke; Middelburg, Rutger A.; de Haas, Masja; de Vooght, Karen M.K.; van de Kerkhof, Daan; Visser, Otto; Péquériaux, Nathalie C.V.; Hudig, Francisca; van der Bom, Johanna G.

    2017-01-01

    Red cell alloimmunization may induce severe hemolytic side effects. Identification of risk-modifying conditions will help tailor preventative strategies. This study aims to quantify the associations of hematologic malignancies and solid cancers with red cell alloimmunization in patients receiving red cell transfusions. We performed a nested multicenter case-control study in a source population of 24,063 patients receiving their first and subsequent red cell transfusions during an 8-year follow-up period. Cases (n=505), defined as patients developing a first transfusion-induced red cell alloantibody, were each compared with 2 non-alloimmunized controls (n=1010) who received a similar number of red cell units. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, we evaluated the association of various malignancies and treatment regimens with alloimmunization during a delineated 5-week risk period. The incidence of alloimmunization among patients with acute (myeloid or lymphoid) leukemia and mature (B- or T-cell) lymphoma was significantly reduced compared to patients without these malignancies: adjusted relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36 (range 0.19–0.68) and 0.30 (range 0.12–0.81). Associations were primarily explained by immunosuppressive treatments [RR for (any type of) chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy 0.27 (95%CI: 0.09–0.83)]. Alloimmunization risks were similarly diminished in allogeneic or autologous stem cell transplanted patients (RR 0.34, 95%CI: 0.16–0.74), at least during the six months post transplant. Alloimmunization risks of patients with other hematologic diseases or solid cancers, and their associated treatment regimens were similar to risks in the general transfused population. Our findings suggest that, in contrast to malignancies in general, hemato-oncological patients treated with dose-intensive regimens have strongly diminished risk of red cell alloimmunization. PMID:27634204

  18. Is the NBN gene mutation I171V a potential risk factor for malignant solid tumors in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Jerzy; Mosor, Maria; Nowicka, Karina; Rembowska, Jolanta; Januszkiewicz, Danuta

    2011-08-01

    NBN gene is considered as one of the low-to-moderate cancer susceptibility gene. At least 4 germline NBN mutations have been found in several malignancies in adults. In our studies, we observed the high incidence of germline mutation I171V of NBN gene in breast, colorectal, larynx cancer, and in multiple primary tumors. In this study, we would like to answer the question whether I171V germline mutation of NBN gene may constitute risk factor for solid tumors in children. The frequency of this mutation has been analyzed in patients with neuroblastoma (n=66), Wilms tumor (n=54), medulloblastoma (n=57), and rhabdomyosarcoma (n=82) hospitalized in Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Department in the years between 1987 and 2010. About 2947 anonymous blood samples collected on Guthrie cards drawn from the newborn screening program of the Wielkopolska region have been used as controls. All the patients and controls came from the same geographical region. I171V mutation of the NBN gene has been observed in 5 controls. Among children with solid tumors only in 1 child with medulloblastoma I171V variant has been found. In conclusion, I171V germline mutation in contrary to adults cannot be considered as a risk factor for children malignancies. However, owing to low number of patients with solid tumors the possibility of a Type II error may exist.

  19. DOES URINARY DIVERSION IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF LIFE IN OBSTRUCTIVE UROPATHY SECONDARY TO ADVANCED PELVIC MALIGNANCY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivashankarappa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The incidence of patients presenting with advanced pelvic malignancy with obstructive uropathy is high in our country. Relentless progress of the malignancy will cause deterioration of renal function, aggravation of pain, infection, deterioration of Quality of Life (QOL, uremia and death. Decreased renal function is considered as a contraindication for palliative chemo and radiotherapy. However urinary diversion in these patients will lead to improvement in renal function and may help in administration of palliative therapy and thus, improve the quality of life of these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study includes the obstructive uropathy patients secondary to pelvic malignancy referred to our institution for urinary diversion between Jan 2010 to Dec 2014. Total 40 patients were included, of which, 25 patients underwent PCN, 9 patients retrograde DJ stenting, 4 patients refused the treatment, 2 patients were not fit for any intervention due to coagulopathy & comorbid conditions. Of 34 treated patients, 30 were female patients and 4 were male patients. All the patients were explained about the procedure and proper consent taken. Laboratory investigations like CBC, coagulation profile, LFT, routine urine analysis, urine C&S and serum electrolytes were carried out. Haemodialysis was done for 10 patients whose serum creatinine was >6mg% & potassium >6meq. USG guided PCN insertion was done in 8 patients, and in those who failed in this procedure, fluoroscopic C-ARM guided PCN insertion done in 17 patients. Post operatively RFT and serum electrolytes were assessed on 3, 7, 15, & 30th day. PCN catheter was changed once in 3 months. RESULTS 8 patients succeeded in USG guided PCN insertion and 17 patients who failed USG PCN insertion, was done under C–Arm guidance. 3 patients received blood transfusion. No deaths were seen during or post procedure in the hospital. Renal functions improved and normalised in most of the

  20. The ubiquitin+proteasome protein degradation pathway as a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of solid tumor malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, James J; Minter, Alex; Driscoll, Daniel A; Burris, Jason K

    2011-02-01

    A concept that currently steers the development of cancer therapies has been that agents directed against specific proteins that facilitate tumorigenesis or maintain a malignant phenotype will have greater efficacy, less toxicity and a more sustained response relative to traditional cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. The clinical success of the targeted agent Imatinib mesylate as an inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase associated with the breakpoint cluster region-Abelson oncogene locus (BCR-ABL) in the treatment of Philadelphia-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) has served as a paradigm. While intellectually gratifying, the selective targeting of a single driver event by a small molecule, e.g., kinase inhibitor, to dampen a tumor-promoting pathway in the treatment of solid tumors is limited by many factors. Focus can alternatively be placed on targeting fundamental cellular processes that regulate multiple events, e.g., protein degradation, through the Ubiquitin (Ub)+Proteasome System (UPS). The UPS plays a critical role in modulating numerous cellular proteins to regulate cellular processes such as signal transduction, growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Clinical success with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib revolutionized treatment of B-cell lineage malignancies such as Multiple Myeloma (MM). However, many patients harbor primary resistance and do not respond to bortezomib and those that do respond inevitably develop resistance (secondary resistance). The lack of clinical efficacy of proteasome inhibitors in the treatment of solid tumors may be linked mechanistically to the resistance detected during treatment of hematologic malignancies. Potential mechanisms of resistance and means to improve the response to proteasome inhibitors in solid tumors are discussed.

  1. Gemcitabine combined with cisplatin in the treatment of advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM):Institutional experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramy R. Ghali; Sherif Abdelwahab; Mohamed E. L. Bassiuony; Ayman I. Kamel; Hussein Shalaby; Dina N. K. Boulos

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine and cisplatinin patients with previously untreated advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Methods: Thirty-threeeligible patients with histologically proven advanced MPM with ECOG PS of ≤ 2 and had adequate liver and kidneyfunctions received gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2) on days 1 and 8 combined with cisplatin (80 mg/m2) on day 1.Results: The majority of the study group were males and constituted 87.9% (n = 29), while females constituted 12.1% (n = 4).The median age was 52 years and ranged from 37 to 69 years. Regarding SWOG performance status, 5 patients were PS 0,21 patients were PS 1 and 7 patients were PS 2. Regarding pathological subtypes, epithelial histology represented 84.8% ofthe study (n = 28) while sarcomatoid type represented 6% (n = 2) and biphasic type accounted for 9% (n = 3). Regarding stagingaccording to IMIG staging system, 12.1% of patients were stage II, 54.5% were stage III and 33.3% were stage IV. Onlyone patient (3%) had attained a complete response, 18 patients (54.5%) showed partial response, 12 patients (36.4%) showedstationary disease, while 2 patients (6.1%) showed progressive disease. The correlation between response rate obtainedand PS was statistically significant (P = 0.029). After a median follow-up of 14.4 months, the median survival time was 20.3Conclusion: The combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin is an active and safe treatment in patients with MPM. Furtherlarger comparative studies are warranted to document this finding.

  2. Results of chest wall resection for recurrent or locally advanced breast malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Giulia; Scanagatta, Paolo; Goldhirsch, Aron; Rietjens, Mario; Colleoni, Marco; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Spaggiari, Lorenzo

    2007-06-01

    Between 1998 and 2003 we observed 15 women who underwent full thickness chest wall resection (FTCWR) followed by plastic reconstruction for locally recurrent or primary breast cancer. Preoperative symptoms were: pain (5 patients), malodorous ulceration (3 patients), presence of tumour mass (4 patients) and thoracic deformity (2 patients). One patient was asymptomatic. Surgery was partial sternectomy with rib resection in 9 patients, rib resection alone in 5, and total sternectomy in one. No perioperative mortality or major morbidity occurred; minor complications occurred in 3 patients (20%). Five of the six surviving patients reported a positive overall outcome in a telephonic interview. Median overall and disease-free survival were 23.4 and 17.5 months, respectively. In conclusion, FTCWR is a safe procedure with low morbidity and mortality that can provide good symptoms palliation in patients with locally advanced breast malignancies, so it should be considered more often by interdisciplinary care providers in those patients who fail to respond to classic multimodality treatment.

  3. Reduced-intensity unrelated cord blood transplantation for patients with advanced malignant lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuji, Koichiro; Miyakoshi, Shigesaburo; Kato, Daisuke; Miura, Yuji; Myojo, Tomohiro; Murashige, Naoko; Kishi, Yukiko; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Kusumi, Eiji; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Hamaki, Tamae; Matsumura, Tomoko; Kami, Masahiro; Fukuda, Takahiro; Masuo, Shigeru; Masuoka, Kazuhiro; Wake, Atsushi; Ueyama, Junichi; Yoneyama, Akiko; Miyamoto, Ko; Nagoshi, Haruhisa; Matsuzaki, Michio; Morinaga, Shinichi; Muto, Yoshitomo; Takeue, Yoichi; Taniguchi, Shuichi

    2005-04-01

    We report the results of reduced-intensity unrelated cord blood transplantation (RI-UCBT) in patients with advanced malignant lymphoma. Twenty patients (median age, 46.5 years; range, 27-66 years) underwent RI-UCBT with a preparative regimen consisting of fludarabine 125 mg/m2 , melphalan 80 mg/m 2 , and 4 Gy of total body irradiation. The median infused total cell dose was 2.75 x 10(7)/kg (range, 2.3-3.4 x 10(7)/kg). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was composed of cyclosporine or tacrolimus alone. Fifteen patients achieved primary neutrophil engraftment after a median of 20 days. Eight patients developed grade II to IV acute GVHD, and 2 developed chronic GVHD. Of the 16 patients with evaluable disease, 10 achieved a complete response. Primary disease recurred in 1 patient, and transplant-related mortality within 100 days occurred in 8 of 20 patients. The estimated 1-year probability of progression-free survival was 50%. These data suggest that RI-UCBT is a feasible option for patients with refractory lymphoma who lack an HLA-matched donor.

  4. The clinical utility of FDG PET/CT among solid organ transplant recipients suspected of malignancy or infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wareham, Neval E; Lundgren, J D; Da Cunha-Bang, C

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at high risk of developing infections and malignancies. (18)F-FDG PET/CT may enable timely detection of these diseases and help to ensure early intervention. We aimed to describe the clinical utility of FDG PET/CT in consecutive, diagnostic...... unresolved SOT recipients transplanted from January 2004 to May 2015. METHODS: Recipients with a post-transplant FDG PET/CT performed as part of diagnostic work-up were included. Detailed chart reviews were done to extract relevant clinical information and determine the final diagnosis related to the FDG PET...

  5. Role of baseline nodule density and changes in density and nodule features in the discrimination between benign and malignant solid indeterminate pulmonary nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, D.M.; van Klaveren, R.J.; de Bock, G.H.; Leusveld, A.L.M.; Dorrius, M.D.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, Y.; de Koning, H.J.; Scholten, E.T.; Verschakelen, J.; Prokop, M.; Oudkerk, M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate whether baseline nodule density or changes in density or nodule features could be used to discriminate between benign and malignant solid indeterminate nodules. Materials and methods: Solid indeterminate nodules between 50 and 500 mm(3) (4.6-9.8 mm) were assessed

  6. Plexin D1 is ubiquitously expressed on tumor vessels and tumor cells in solid malignancies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodink, I.; Verrijp, K.; Raats, J.; Leenders, W.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plexin D1 is expressed on both tumor-associated endothelium and malignant cells in a number of clinical brain tumors. Recently we demonstrated that Plexin D1 expression is correlated with tumor invasion level and metastasis in a human melanoma progression series. The objective of this st

  7. A review of recent advances in solid film lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1987-01-01

    Thin, adherent sputtered MoS2 and ion plated metallic (Au, Ag, Pb) lubricating films are primarily used in precision contacting triboelement surfaces where wear debris formation is critical and high reliability requirements have to be satisfied. Detailed structural and compositional characterization of solid film lubricants is of prime importance. It is this information from the nano-micro-macro level which is needed to interpret and improve the frictional behavior and assure long endurance lives. The purpose of this paper is to summarize in a concise review the solid lubricant film structure and morphology and their effects on the tribological properties of the lubricant systems. The tribological performance of thin lubricating films has significantly advanced through progressive understanding of the film parameters such as adhesion, cohesion, interface formation, nucleation and microstructural growth, critical film thickness and substrate finish, and temperature. Sputtered MoS2 and ion plated Au, Ag, and Pb films are separately discussed and evaluated in terms of the above film parameters to establish the most desirable film structures and thicknesses in order to achieve effective lubrication.

  8. Advance care planning in patients with primary malignant brain tumours: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal Song

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Advance care planning (ACP is a process of reflection and communication of a person’s future health care preferences, and has been shown to improve end-of-life care for patients. The aim of this systematic review is to present an evidence-based overview of ACP in patients with primary malignant brain tumours (pmBT. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using medical and health science electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, MEDLINE, ProQuest, Social Care Online, Scopus and Web of Science up to July 2016. Manual search of bibliographies of articles and grey literature search were also conducted. Two independent reviewers selected studies, extracted data and assessed the methodologic quality of the studies using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program’s appraisal tools. All studies were included irrespective of the study design. A meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity amongst included studies; therefore, a narrative analysis was performed for best evidence synthesis. Overall, 19 studies were included (1 RCT, 17 cohort studies, 1 qualitative study with 4686 participants. All studies scored low to moderate on the methodological quality assessment, implying high risk of bias. A single RCT evaluating a video decision support tool in facilitating ACP in pmBT patients showed a beneficial effect in promoting comfort care and gaining confidence in decision–making. However, the effect of the intervention on quality of life and care at the end-of-life were unclear. There was a low rate of use of ACP discussions at the end-of-life. Advance Directive completion rates and place of death varied between different studies. Positive effects of ACP included lower hospital readmission rates, and intensive care unit utilization. None of the studies assessed mortality outcomes associated with ACP. In conclusion, this review found some beneficial effects of ACP in pmBT. The literature still remains limited in this area, with lack of

  9. Performance of shear wave elastography for differentiation of benign and malignant solid breast masses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiling Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To perform a meta-analysis assessing the ability of shear wave elastography (SWE to identify malignant breast masses. METHODS: PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the ISI Web of Knowledge were searched for studies evaluating the accuracy of SWE for identifying malignant breast masses. The diagnostic accuracy of SWE was evaluated according to sensitivity, specificity, and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC curves. An analysis was also performed according to the SWE mode used: supersonic shear imaging (SSI and the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI technique. The clinical utility of SWE for identifying malignant breast masses was evaluated using analysis of Fagan plot. RESULTS: A total of 9 studies, including 1888 women and 2000 breast masses, were analyzed. Summary sensitivities and specificities were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.94 and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.75-0.87 by SSI and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.81-0.94 and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.84-0.95 by ARFI, respectively. The HSROCs for SSI and ARFI were 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94 and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.93-0.97, respectively. SSI and ARFI were both very informative, with probabilities of 83% and 91%, respectively, for correctly differentiating between benign and malignant breast masses following a "positive" measurement (over the threshold value and probabilities of disease as low as 10% and 11%, respectively, following a "negative" measurement (below the threshold value when the pre-test probability was 50%. CONCLUSIONS: SWE could be used as a good identification tool for the classification of breast masses.

  10. Pleural malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Joseph S; Cengel, Keith A

    2010-07-01

    Pleural malignancies, primary or metastatic, portend a grim prognosis. In addition to the serious oncologic implications of a pleural malignancy, these tumors can be highly symptomatic. A malignant pleural effusion can cause dyspnea, secondary to lung compression, or even tension physiology from a hydrothorax under pressure. The need to palliate these effusions is a seemingly straightforward clinical scenario, but with nuances that can result in disastrous complications for the patient if not attended to appropriately. Solid pleural malignancies can cause great pain from chest wall invasion or can cause a myriad of morbid symptoms because of the invasion of thoracic structures, such as the heart, lungs, or esophagus. This article reviews pleural malignancies, the purely palliative treatments, and the treatments that are performed with definitive (curative) intent.

  11. Clinical observation of intrathecal chemotherapy combined with concurrent radiotherapy for leptomeningeal metastases from malignant solid tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘振宇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of intrathecal chemotherapy combined with concurrent radiotherapy in patients with leptomeningeal metastases from solid tumors.Methods The clinical and follow-up data of 29 patients with leptomeningeal metastases frommalignant solid tumor who had intrathecal chemotherapy combined with concurrent radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed.The treatment regimen was that 12.5-15.0 mg of methotrexate intrathecal injection once a week for 8

  12. Present status and recent advances in living donor liver transplantation for malignant hepatic tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Min Qin; Yasutsugu Takada; Shinji Uemoto; Koichi Tanaka

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been increasingly used to treat hepatic tumors worldwide in recent years, and is currently the most effective alternative to deceased donor liver transplantation to overcome the problem of organ shortage. LDLT has played an enormous role in treating early malignant hepatic tumors. But the indication of LDLT for malignant hepatic tumors is based on indeifnite criteria. This review summarizes the recent studies in LDLT for treating malignant hepatic tumors. DATA SOURCES:A literature research of the PubMed database was conducted and research articles were reviewed. RESULTS:The current data on LDLT for malignant hepatic tumors, combined with our hospital experience, indicated that if a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who meets with the conventional Milan criteria cannot undergo tumor resection because of poorly preserved liver function, and a cadaveric graft is dififcult to obtain within six months, LDLT may be selected. In a patient with recurrence of HCC after conventional therapies, feasibility, optimal timing, and efifcacy of LDLT as a second-line treatment should be determined. CONCLUSIONS:Tumor recurrence is related to the biological behavior and staging of the tumor. New immunosuppressors which have anti-tumor effects and inhibit the immune system need to be developed. The indications of LDLT for hepatic malignant tumors should be selected meticulously.

  13. Environmental impact statement Space Shuttle advanced solid rocket motor program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The proposed action is design, development, testing, and evaluation of Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (ASRM) to replace the motors currently used to launch the Space Shuttle. The proposed action includes design, construction, and operation of new government-owned, contractor-operated facilities for manufacturing and testing the ASRM's. The proposed action also includes transport of propellant-filled rocket motor segments from the manufacturing facility to the testing and launch sites and the return of used and/or refurbished segments to the manufacturing site. Sites being considered for the new facilities include John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi; the Yellow Creek site in Tishomingo County, Mississippi, which is currently in the custody and control of the Tennessee Valley Authority; and John F. Kennedy Space Center, Brevard County, Florida. TVA proposes to transfer its site to the custody and control of NASA if it is the selected site. All facilities need not be located at the same site. Existing facilities which may provide support for the program include Michoud Assembly Facility, New Orleans Parish, Louisiana; and Slidell Computer Center, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana. NASA's preferred production location is the Yellow Creek site, and the preferred test location is the Stennis Space Center.

  14. Advanced manufacturing technologies for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlenbruck, S.; Nedelec, R.; Buchkremer, H.P.; Bram, M.; Menzler, N.H.; Stover, D. [Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Julich (Germany). Inst. of Energy Research

    2009-07-01

    Advances in manufacturing technologies play an important role for the marketability of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Highly cost-effective mass production methods are necessary in order to meet the industry's demands for both stationary and mobile application. Sol-gel methods have already been used for several years as a method of producing thin mesoporous and microporous membrane films of several materials including electrolyte materials. This paper discussed the use of a colloidal sol to create a first layer on top of a standard Julich coatmix-substrate with the spin-coating technique. The experimental methods were described with particular reference to the electrochemical characterization of cells produced; synchronization of roll-coating transport; and scanning electron microscopy. It was concluded that thin-film technologies like sol-gel, roll-coating and physical vapour phase deposition are promising candidates for producing SOFCs with high-performance at low operating temperatures. It was possible to demonstrate the potential of thin film technology for sputtered strontium-diffusion barriers, but optimization of the current ceramic coating methods is still necessary for the electrolyte layers. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Advanced Technology Development: Solid-Liquid Interface Characterization Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing the solid-liquid interface during directional solidification is key to understanding and improving material properties. The goal of this Advanced Technology Development (ATD) has been to develop hardware, which will enable real-time characterization of practical materials, such as aluminum (Al) alloys, to unprecedented levels. Required measurements include furnace and sample temperature gradients, undercooling at the growing interface, interface shape, or morphology, and furnace translation and sample growth rates (related). These and other parameters are correlated with each other and time. A major challenge was to design and develop all of the necessary hardware to measure the characteristics, nearly simultaneously, in a smaller integral furnace compatible with existing X-ray Transmission Microscopes, XTMs. Most of the desired goals have been accomplished through three generations of Seebeck furnace brassboards, several varieties of film thermocouple arrays, heaters, thermal modeling of the furnaces, and data acquisition and control (DAC) software. Presentations and publications have resulted from these activities, and proposals to use this hardware for further materials studies have been submitted as sequels to this last year of the ATD.

  16. Concurrent fine needle aspirations and core needle biopsies: a comparative study of substrates for next-generation sequencing in solid organ malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Chen, Hui; Singh, Rajesh R; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Patel, Keyur P; Routbort, Mark J; Manekia, Jawad; Barkoh, Bedia A; Yao, Hui; Sabir, Sharjeel; Broaddus, Russell R; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Staerkel, Gregg; Stewart, John; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi

    2017-01-13

    Minimally invasive procedures, such as fine needle aspiration and core needle biopsy, are commonly used for the diagnosis in solid organ malignancies. In the era of targeted therapy, it is crucial for molecular testing to be performed on these limited volume specimens. Although several recent studies have demonstrated the utility of small biopsy specimens for molecular testing, there remains debate as to whether core needle biopsy specimens are more reliable than fine needle aspiration for molecular studies. In this study, we reviewed concurrently acquired fine needle aspiration and core needle biopsy samples (n=24), and compared overall cellularity, tumor fraction, and the results of next-generation sequencing. All somatic mutations detected in core needle biopsy samples were also detected in fine needle aspiration samples. The estimated tumor fraction was significantly higher in fine needle aspiration smears than core needle biopsy samples (P=0.003), whereas the overall DNA yield from smears was significantly lower than that obtained from the core needle biopsy specimens (P=0.01). The normalized average amplicon coverage for the genes analyzed was significantly higher in cytology smears than paired core needle biopsy samples, with lower numbers of failed amplicons and higher overall mutation allelic frequencies seen in the former. We further evaluated 100 malignant fine needle aspiration and core needle biopsy samples, acquired concurrently, for overall cellularity and tumor fraction. Overall cellularity and tumor fraction of fine needle aspiration samples was significantly higher than concurrently acquired core needle biopsy samples (Pcore needle biopsy samples. Cytologic specimens, therefore, should be better integrated into routine molecular diagnostics workflow to maximize limited tissues for clinically relevant genomic testing.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 13 January 2017; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2016.228.

  17. SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES: AN ADVANCED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Raghu Nandan Reddy* and Arshia Shariff

    2013-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles are at the forefront of the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several potential applications in drug delivery, research and clinical medicine, as well as in other varied sciences. Solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) dispersions have been proposed as a new type of colloidal drug carrier system suitable for intravenous administration. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) technology represents a promising new approach to lipophilic drug delivery. Solid lipid nanopa...

  18. Phase II study of Belinostat (PXD101), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, for second line therapy of advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Belani, Chandra P.; Ruel, Christopher; Frankel, Paul; Gitlitz, Barbara; Koczywas, Marianna; Espinoza-Delgado, Igor; Gandara, David

    2011-01-01

    Background Belinostat (PXD 101) is a novel inhibitor of class I and II histone deacetylases. This class of compounds has demonstrated anti-cancer activity in malignant mesothelioma. We conducted a phase II study of belinostat in patients with relapsed malignant pleural mesothelioma. Methods Patients with advanced mesothelioma, progression with one prior chemotherapy regimen and ECOG PS 0-2 were eligible. Belinostat was administered at 1000 mg/m2 intravenously over 30 minutes on days 1–5 of every 3 week cycle. The primary endpoint was response rate. The Simon two-stage design was utilized. Disease assessments were performed every 2 cycles. Results Thirteen patients were enrolled. Baseline characteristics were: median age of 73 years; ECOG performance status 0 (n=4), 1 (8) and 2 (1). A median of 2 cycles of therapy were administered. Disease stabilization was seen in 2 patients. No objective responses were noted and the study did not meet criteria to proceed to the second stage of accrual. Median survival was 5 months with a median progression-free survival of 1 month. Salient toxicities included nausea, emesis, fatigue and constipation. One patient died as a consequence of cardiac arrhythmia which was deemed ‘possibly’ related to therapy. Conclusions Belinostat is not active as monotherapy against recurrent malignant pleural mesothelioma. Evaluation of combination strategies or alternate dosing schedules may be necessary for further development of this novel agent in mesothelioma. PMID:19096314

  19. Postoperative monitoring in pregnant patients undergoing surgery for advanced malignancy in last trimester: How long is enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arushi Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgery for advanced breast malignancy in the last trimester of pregnancy is uncommon. We present successful management of a 32-year-old woman, 30 weeks pregnant with stage 3 breast malignancy, for surgery followed by normal labor and chemotherapy. Surgery and intraoperative period were uneventful. Patient had uterine contractions 36 h postsurgery, which were managed timely with active interventions and tocolytics. Risk of premature labor following nonobstetric surgery in pregnant patients is estimated to be 8.3%, but majority of the studies have been carried out in second trimester following appendectomy. There is insufficient data in literature regarding the estimation and duration of persistence of risk of premature labor in these patients. No guidelines are available regarding how long they need to be monitored for premature labor. There is some evidence, although little that risk of premature labor persists for 7 days postsurgery. In the absence of convincing studies and guidelines, we recommend postoperative monitoring for at least 7 days in patients undergoing major surgeries for malignancies in last trimester. Multidisciplinary approach is required to manage these patients.

  20. Sorafenib for the treatment of solid malignancies: what about the cancer microenvironment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomuleasa C

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ciprian Tomuleasa, Andrei Cucuianu, Mihaela Aldea, Ioana Berindan-NeagoeResearch Center of Functional Genomics and Translational Medicine, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj Napoca, RomaniaWe have read with great interest the study of Kim et al, recently published in the International Journal of Nanomedicine.1 The physicians from South Korea describe the anti-tumor efficacy of sorafenib in cholangiocarcinoma, a malignancy with a dismal prognosis and refractory to most chemotherapy options. Surgery is the only curative option, but is limited to only a small number of cases due to the late diagnosis.2 This emphasizes the need to develop new approaches for such cases and the first potential new option is the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib, already proven to improve the therapeutic ratio of hepatocellular carcinoma, as according to Llovet et al.3 But unlike hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinomas are epithelial cancers with a highly developed desmoplastic stroma due to the interaction between the cancer cell and the cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs, as well as the macrophages, and the natural killer (NK cells.4 This tumor microenvironment makes it difficult for a chemotherapy drug to reach the cancer cell and be efficient, which partially explains the reason why Kim et al1 developed a sorafenib-coated stent, that can be placed inside the biliary tree and deliver the drug continuously.View original paper by Kim and colleagues.

  1. Immunotherapy in high-risk chemotherapy-resistant patients with metastatic solid tumors and hematological malignancies using intentionally mismatched donor lymphocytes activated with rIL-2: a phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Shimon; Ackerstein, Aliza; Or, Reuven; Shapira, Michael Y; Gesundheit, Benjamin; Askenasy, Nadir; Morecki, Shoshana

    2010-10-01

    The feasibility and safety of immunotherapy mediated by intentionally mismatched rIL-2 activated killer lymphocytes (IMAK) with no prior stem cell engraftment was investigated in patients with advanced chemotherapy-resistant hematological malignancies and metastatic solid tumors. Our goals were to maximize anti-cancer activity by using intentionally mismatched donor lymphocytes; amplify killing of target cancer cells by rIL-2 activation of killer cells in vitro and in vivo, and avoid the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by anticipated rejection of alloreactive donor lymphocytes. Conditioning consisted of 5 days of fludarabine 25 mg/m(2) or a single dose of cyclophosphamide 1,000 mg/m(2), 2 subcutaneous injections of alpha interferon (IFN) 3 x 10(6) and COX2 inhibitors, followed by administration of IMAK (65 +/- 5 CD3(+)CD56(-); 17 +/- 5 CD3(-)CD56(+)) in conjunction with low dose subcutaneous rIL-2 (6 x 10(6) IU/m(2)/day) for 5 days for continuous activation of alloreactive donor lymphocytes prior to their anticipated rejection. Here, we present our phase 1 clinical study data in a cohort of 40 high-risk patients with metastatic solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Treatment was accompanied by some malaise and occasional self-limited fever but otherwise well tolerated on an outpatient basis. Transient engraftment of donor cells was documented in two patients and only one developed self-limited grade 1 GVHD. Among patients with chemotherapy-resistant disease, long-term progression-free survival was recorded in 5 of 21 evaluable patients with metastatic solid tumors and in four of five patients with hematological malignancies. We conclude that the proposed procedure is feasible, safe, and potentially effective, with some otherwise resistant cancer patients long-term disease-free, thus justifying larger Phase II studies in patients with hematological malignancies and metastatic solid tumors, preferably at a stage of minimal residual disease with the

  2. Advanced Targeted, Cell and Gene-Therapy Approaches for Pediatric Hematological Malignancies: Results and Future Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Francesca Magnani; Sarah eTettamanti; Francesca eMaltese; Nice eTurazzi; Andrea eBiondi; Ettore eBiagi

    2013-01-01

    Despite the survival of pediatric patients affected by hematological malignancies being improved in the last 20 years by chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), a significant amount of patients still relapses. Treatment intensification is limited by toxic side effects and is constrained by the plateau of efficacy, while the pipeline of new chemotherapeutic drugs is running short. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are essential and researchers around the world ar...

  3. Advances in Virus-Directed Therapeutics against Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sajal K.; Perrine, Susan P.; Faller, Douglas V.

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the causal agent in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma and is also associated with multiple human malignancies, including Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease, as well as sporadic cancers of other tissues. A causal relationship of EBV to these latter malignancies remains controversial, although the episomic EBV genome in most of these cancers is clonal, suggesting infection very early in the development of the tumor and a possible role for EBV in the genesis of these diseases. Furthermore, the prognosis of these tumors is invariably poor when EBV is present, compared to their EBV-negative counterparts. The physical presence of EBV in these tumors represents a potential “tumor-specific” target for therapeutic approaches. While treatment options for other types of herpesvirus infections have evolved and improved over the last two decades, however, therapies directed at EBV have lagged. A major constraint to pharmacological intervention is the shift from lytic infection to a latent pattern of gene expression, which persists in those tumors associated with the virus. In this paper we provide a brief account of new virus-targeted therapeutic approaches against EBV-associated malignancies. PMID:22500168

  4. Advances in Virus-Directed Therapeutics against Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal K. Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is the causal agent in the etiology of Burkitt’s lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma and is also associated with multiple human malignancies, including Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease, as well as sporadic cancers of other tissues. A causal relationship of EBV to these latter malignancies remains controversial, although the episomic EBV genome in most of these cancers is clonal, suggesting infection very early in the development of the tumor and a possible role for EBV in the genesis of these diseases. Furthermore, the prognosis of these tumors is invariably poor when EBV is present, compared to their EBV-negative counterparts. The physical presence of EBV in these tumors represents a potential “tumor-specific” target for therapeutic approaches. While treatment options for other types of herpesvirus infections have evolved and improved over the last two decades, however, therapies directed at EBV have lagged. A major constraint to pharmacological intervention is the shift from lytic infection to a latent pattern of gene expression, which persists in those tumors associated with the virus. In this paper we provide a brief account of new virus-targeted therapeutic approaches against EBV-associated malignancies.

  5. Addition of an induction regimen of antiangiogenesis and antitumor immunity to standard chemotherapy improves survival in advanced malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasalvia-Prisco, Eduardo; Goldschmidt, Pablo; Galmarini, Felipe; Cucchi, Silvia; Vázquez, Jesús; Aghazarian, Martha; Lasalvia-Galante, Eduardo; Golomar, Wilson; Gordon, William

    2012-12-01

    Studies have shown that cancer requires two conditions for tumor progression: cancer cell proliferation and an environment permissive to and conditioned by malignancy. Chemotherapy aims to control the number and proliferation of cancer cells, but it does not effectively control the two best-known conditions of the tumor-permissive environment: neoangiogenesis and tolerogenic immunity. Many malignant diseases exhibit poor outcomes after treatment with chemotherapy. Therefore, we investigated the potential benefits of adding an induction regimen of antiangiogenesis and antitumor immunity to chemotherapy in poor outcome disease. In a prospective, randomized trial, we included patients with advanced, unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinomas, non-small cell lung cancer, or prostate cancer. Two groups of each primary condition were compared: group 1 (G1), n = 30, was treated with the standard chemotherapy and used as a control, and group 2 (G2), n = 30, was treated with chemotherapy plus an induction regimen of antiangiogenesis and antitumor immunity. This induction regimen included a low dose of metronomic cyclophosphamide, a high dose of Cox-2 inhibitor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, a sulfhydryl (SH) donor, and a hemoderivative that contained autologous tumor antigens released from patient tumors into the blood. After treatment, the G2 group demonstrated significantly longer survival, lower blood level of neoangiogenesis and immune-tolerance mediators, and higher blood levels of antiangiogenesis and antitumor immunity mediators compared with the G1 group. Toxicity and quality of life were not significantly different between the groups. In conclusion, in several advanced malignancies of different primary localizations, an increase in survival was observed by adding an induction regimen of antiangiogenesis and antitumor immunity to standard chemotherapy.

  6. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and short infusional 5-FU in advanced head and neck malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aich Ranen Kanti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Combination of radical surgery and radiotherapy is the standard management of head and neck malignancies. But due to considerable morbidity of surgery and associated cosmetic and functional deficiencies, often aggravated by adjuvant radiotherapy, many patients prefer only radiotherapy with its′ decreased chance of survival. Proper surgical facilities are also not accessible to most of our patients. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and loco-regional management by surgery and / or radiotherapy have emerged as a viable alternative. Aims: The purpose of this study is to find out the survival outcome as well as toxicity profile of Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and short infusional (3 hours 5-FU followed by radiotherapy in advanced head and neck malignancies. Materials and Methods: From June 2002 to December 2003, seventy four patients with advanced head and neck malignancies were planned to be treated with Cisplatin (50 mg / sq. meter on Days 1 and 2 and 5 - FU (600 mg / sq. meter on Days 1, 2 and 3 by 3 hour infusion on Day care basis. On completion of four cycles of chemotherapy at 21 days interval, all patients were destined to receive 6000 cGy of radiotherapy to the loco - regional site. Results: At one year follow up on completion of therapy, 57% patients were alive and 31% patients were disease free. These 31% patients enjoyed a good quality of life in terms of cosmetic and functional deficits. Toxicities were moderate and easily manageable. Conclusion: The study indicated that neo-adjuvant chemotherapy with Cisplatin and short infusional 5 - FU may be delivered on day care basis and results are comparable with Cisplatin and 96 hours continuous infusional 5 - FU. Thus avoiding the continuous infusional 5 - FU, 7 to 10 days in-patient hospitalization during each cycle may be avoided which is a constrain in developing countries like us.

  7. Feasibility of combined operation and perioperative intensity-modulated brachytherapy of advanced/recurrent malignancies involving the skull base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strege, R.J.; Eichmann, T.; Mehdorn, H.M. [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Kovacs, G.; Niehoff, P. [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Interdisciplinary Brachytherapy Center; Maune, S. [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Otolaryngology; Holland, D. [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Ophthalmology

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: To assess the technical feasibility and toxicity of combined operation and perioperative intensity-modulated fractionated interstitial brachytherapy (IMBT) in advanced-stage malignancies involving the skull base with the goal of preserving the patients' senses of sight. Patients and Methods: This series consisted of 18 consecutive cases: ten patients with paranasal sinus carcinomas, five with sarcomas, two with primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), and one with parotid gland carcinoma. After, in most cases, subtotal surgical resection (R1-R2: carried out so that the patients' senses of sight were preserved), two to twelve (mean five) afterloading plastic tubes were placed into the tumor bed. IMBT was performed with an iridium-192 stepping source in pulsed-dose-rate/high-dose-rate (PDR/HDR) afterloading technique. The total IMBT dose, ranging from 10 to 30 Gy, was administered in a fractionated manner (3-5 Gy/day, 5 days/week). Results: Perioperative fractionated IMBT was performed in 15 out of 18 patients and was well tolerated. Complications that partially prevented or delayed IMBT in some cases included cerebrospinal fluid leakage (twice), meningitis (twice), frontal brain syndrome (twice), afterloading tube displacement (twice), seizure (once), and general morbidity (once). No surgery- or radiation-induced injuries to the cranial nerves or eyes occurred. Median survival times were 33 months after diagnosis and 16 months after combined operation and IMBT. Conclusion: Perioperative fractionated IMBT after extensive but vision-preserving tumor resection seems to be a safe and well-tolerated treatment of advanced/recurrent malignancies involving the skull base. These preliminary state suggest that combined operation and perioperative fractionated IMBT is a palliative therapeutic option in the management of fatal malignancies involving the base of the skull, a strategy which leaves the patients' visual acuity intact. (orig.)

  8. Prevalence and predictors of solid or hematological malignancies in a monocentric cohort of HIV patients from central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mazzotta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV-infected patients have a higher risk of developing cancer than the general population. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, primary CNS lymphoma (PCL and invasive cervical cancers are considered AIDS-defining. An increased incidence in recent years, however, has been reported also for other malignancies after the introduction of HAART. Methods: We performed a case-control study to characterize all HIV-infected patients with both AIDS and non-AIDS-defining neoplasms observed among all consecutive patients followed at the Infectious Diseases Unit of Pescara General Hospital, since 1991 through 2012. All cases were matched with equinumerous controls without neoplasia homogeneous for age, sex and AIDS diagnosis. Results: Out of 626 patients consecutively assisted since 1991, 57 cases of malignancy (9.1% were observed. Of these, 45 (79.0% occurred in males; mean age was 43.6±9.3 years; 49 (86.0% patients were diagnosed with AIDS. Tumors observed were: NHL, 17 (29.8%; SK, 13 (22.8%; HCC, 5 (8.8%; CPL, 6 (10.5%; Hodgkin's lymphoma, 4 (7.0%; solid tumors, 12 (21.1%, including 1 AIDS-defining tumor (anal cancer. Among these, 37 (66.1% patients died; of them 14 (37.8% had non-AIDS cancers. Cases were well matched with the 55 controls for sex (p=0.9, age (p=0.6 and AIDS diagnosis (p=0.6. In comparison with controls, CD4 nadirs were not different (153±151 in controls vs 136±154 cells/mmc, while CD4 at tumor diagnosis were very different between controls (463±283 cells/mmc and cases (226±209 cells/mmc, p<0.0001. Among patients with malignancies, those who died had a non-significant reduction in CD4 counts (p=0.14; seemingly irrelevant were smoking status (p=0.9, working ability (p=0.4, HCV coinfection (p=0.4. Surprisingly, in patients co-infected with HBV, including HBsAg negative, antibody-positive subjects, tumors were significantly more frequent (60.7% vs. 38.8%, p=0.009. Conclusion: Factors potentially relevant for

  9. SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES: AN ADVANCED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu Nandan Reddy* and Arshia Shariff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid lipid nanoparticles are at the forefront of the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several potential applications in drug delivery, research and clinical medicine, as well as in other varied sciences. Solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN dispersions have been proposed as a new type of colloidal drug carrier system suitable for intravenous administration. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs technology represents a promising new approach to lipophilic drug delivery. Solid lipid nanoparticles are spherical lipid particles ranging in size from 1 to 1000 nm and are dispersed in water or in aqueous surfactant solution. It is identical to an oil-in-water emulsion, but the liquid lipid (oil of the emulsion has been replaced by a solid lipid, i.e., yielding Solid Lipid Nanoparticles. SLN are particles made from solid lipid or lipid blends produced by high pressure homogenization. The biodegradable and bioacceptable nature of SLNs makes them less toxic as compared to polymeric nanoparticles. SLNs can also be used to improve the bioavailability of drugs. In this present review this new approach is discussed in terms of their advantages, disadvantages, methods, characterization, pharmacokinetic studies, in-vivo studies, in-vitro studies, and special features

  10. Advances in the research on the solid propellant properties abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Jiang, Zhirong

    1994-06-01

    The recent research on the mechanical properties, burning behavior and processing technology of solid propellants abroad was reviewed. There are some available results in predicting theoretically the mechanical and rheological properties of solid propellants. In order to reduce the cost and increase the reliability in propellants processing, there is great demand on the design and manufacture of continuous mixer of high efficiency and safety. The research on the thermoplastic elastomers used as a kind of future binder of solid propellants has attracted more and more attention of many relevant experts.

  11. Overview of the manufacturing sequence of the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John S.; Nix, Michael B.

    1992-01-01

    The manufacturing sequence of NASA's new Advanced Solid Rocket Motor, developed as a replacement of the Space Shuttle's existing Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor, is overviewed. Special attention is given to the case preparation, the propellant mix/cast, the nondestructuve evaluation, the motor finishing, and the refurbishment. The fabrication sequences of the case, the nozzle, and the igniter are described.

  12. Ruptured ovarian cystic teratoma in pregnancy with diffuse peritoneal reaction mimicking advanced ovarian malignancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiti Sachchidananda

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This case illustrates the unusual complication of granulomatous peritonitis following rupture of a dermoid cyst in pregnancy resembling disseminated ovarian carcinoma. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of this complication during advanced pregnancy in the literature. Case presentation A dermoid cyst ruptured during surgical removal in the second trimester of pregnancy in a 27-year-old primigravida. Postoperatively the patient suffered pulmonary embolism and leakage of sebaceous material through the abdominal wound. She gradually developed significant abdominal distension, gastrointestinal symptoms and lost more than 8 kg of weight in the 12 weeks postoperatively. The baby was delivered at 31 weeks by a technically challenging caesarean section owing to severe dense adhesions obscuring the uterus. Bowel resection was performed for suspected malignant infiltration and adhesion causing obstruction. She had a protracted convalescence with an ileostomy and mucus fistula. Histology confirmed granulation without malignancy. One year following the surgical treatment, she had recovered well and was planning her next pregnancy. Conclusion Although granulomatous peritonitis following rupture of a dermoid cyst is very rare, awareness is the key to diagnosis and appropriate management. Per-operative frozen section may be helpful.

  13. Preface: Special Topic Section on Advanced Electronic Structure Methods for Solids and Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelides, Angelos, E-mail: angelos.michaelides@ucl.ac.uk [London Centre for Nanotechnology and Department of Chemistry, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Martinez, Todd J. [Department of Chemistry and the PULSE Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Alavi, Ali [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany and Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Kresse, Georg [Faculty of Physics and Center for Computational Materials Science, Department of Physics, University of Vienna, Sensengasse 8/12, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Manby, Frederick R. [Centre for Computational Chemistry, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-14

    This Special Topic section on Advanced Electronic Structure Methods for Solids and Surfaces contains a collection of research papers that showcase recent advances in the high accuracy prediction of materials and surface properties. It provides a timely snapshot of a growing field that is of broad importance to chemistry, physics, and materials science.

  14. Comparison of Suspended Solid Separation in Advanced Storm Overflow Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Sørensen, Morten Steen

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory investigation of the separation of suspended solids in a circular weir overflow and a vortex separator. The basic idea is to evaluate the efficiency of a vortical flow in the overflow chamber, and to compare these results with other overflow structures....

  15. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenreich, Henry

    1994-01-01

    The latest volume in the world renowned Solid State Physics series marks the fruition of Founding Editor David Turnbull''s outstanding tenure as series editor. Volume 47 presents five articles written by leadingexperts on areas including crystal-melt interfacial tension, order-disorder transformation in alloys, brittle matrix composites, surfaces and interfaces, and magnetoresistance.

  16. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in solid state ionics: recent advances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukamp, Bernard A.

    2004-01-01

    Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has become an important research tool in Solid State Ionics. Some new developments are highlighted: new methods of automatic parameter extraction from impedance measurements are briefly discussed. The Kramers–Kronig data validation test presents another p

  17. Chromosomal differences between acute nonlymphocytic leukemia in patients with prior solid tumors and prior hematologic malignancies. A study of 14 cases with prior breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamuris, Z.; Dumont, J.; Dutrillaux, B.; Aurias, A. (Institut Curie, Paris (France))

    1989-10-01

    A cytogenetic study of 14 patients with secondary acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (S-ANLL) with prior treatment for breast cancer is reported. The chromosomes recurrently involved in numerical or structural anomalies are chromosomes 7, 5, 17, and 11, in decreasing order of frequency. The distribution of the anomalies detected in this sample of patients is similar to that observed in published cases with prior breast or other solid tumors, though anomalies of chromosome 11 were not pointed out, but it significantly differs from that of the S-ANLL with prior hematologic malignancies. This difference is principally due to a higher involvement of chromosome 7 in patients with prior hematologic malignancies and of chromosomes 11 and 17 in patients with prior solid tumors. A genetic determinism involving abnormal recessive alleles located on chromosomes 5, 7, 11, and 17 uncovered by deletions of the normal homologs may be a cause of S-ANLL. The difference between patients with prior hematologic malignancies or solid tumors may be explained by different constitutional mutations of recessive genes in the two groups of patients.

  18. Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on malignant molecule levels in tumor tissue and serum of patients with locally advanced resectable colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Huang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on malignant molecule levels in tumor tissue and serum of patients with locally advanced resectable colorectal cancer. Methods:A total of 86 cases of patients with locally advanced resectable colorectal cancer were selected and randomly divided into observation group and control group. Control group of patients received traditional postoperative chemotherapy and observation group of patients received preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy and traditional postoperative chemotherapy. After one cycle, two cycles and three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, serum samples were collected to determine the levels of malignant molecules; after surgical resection, the tumor tissues were collected to determine the expression levels of malignant molecules. Results:After one cycle, two cycles and three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, serum VEGF, Cath-D, MCP-1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, sIL-2R and IL-18 levels of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group; after surgical resection, Beclin-1 and Caspase-3 mRNA expression levels in tumor tissue of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group, and mTOR, Livin and MTA1 mRNA expression levels were significantly lower than those of control group.Conclusion: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy can effectively inhibit the malignant degree of locally advanced resectable colorectal cancer and inhibit the expression of malignant molecules, and it is of positive significance in terms of improving overall treatment effect.

  19. Advances in conditioning regimens for older adults undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation to treat hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Basem M; de Lima, Marcos

    2013-06-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is a potentially curative treatment for patients with hematological malignancies. These diseases, however, have their peak incidence in the sixth to eighth decades of life. Historically, elderly patients have been considered unsuitable candidates for SCT because of high treatment-related mortality (TRM). Over the past 15 years, the use of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens before SCT has allowed patients in the sixth and seventh decades of life to be routinely transplanted. Despite major differences among transplant centers in the intensity and composition of the conditioning regimen and immunosuppression, choice of graft source, postgraft immunomodulation, and supportive care, there has been a dramatic decrease in TRM, allowing safer delivery of SCT. Major obstacles to SCT in elderly patients include donor availability, graft-versus-host disease, delayed immune recovery, multiple comorbidities, and chemo refractoriness. Here we review the current results of SCT in elderly patients, focusing on the role of RIC, and using myeloid diseases as the model for discussion.

  20. Advanced solid elements for sheet metal forming simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataix, Vicente; Rossi, Riccardo; Oñate, Eugenio; Flores, Fernando G.

    2016-08-01

    The solid-shells are an attractive kind of element for the simulation of forming processes, due to the fact that any kind of generic 3D constitutive law can be employed without any additional hypothesis. The present work consists in the improvement of a triangular prism solid-shell originally developed by Flores[2, 3]. The solid-shell can be used in the analysis of thin/thick shell, undergoing large deformations. The element is formulated in total Lagrangian formulation, and employs the neighbour (adjacent) elements to perform a local patch to enrich the displacement field. In the original formulation a modified right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor (C) is obtained; in the present work a modified deformation gradient (F) is obtained, which allows to generalise the methodology and allows to employ the Pull-Back and Push-Forwards operations. The element is based in three modifications: (a) a classical assumed strain approach for transverse shear strains (b) an assumed strain approach for the in-plane components using information from neighbour elements and (c) an averaging of the volumetric strain over the element. The objective is to use this type of elements for the simulation of shells avoiding transverse shear locking, improving the membrane behaviour of the in-plane triangle and to handle quasi-incompressible materials or materials with isochoric plastic flow.

  1. Effect of preoperative S-1 combined with regional transcatheter arterial chemoembolization on malignant degree of locally advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Juan Xu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of preoperative S-1 combined with regional transcatheter arterial chemoembolization on malignant degree of locally advanced gastric cancer. Methods:A total of 134 patients who were diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer in our hospital from May 2012 to December 2014 were selected for study, received surgical resection after chemotherapy, and were divided into intravenous chemotherapy group and combined treatment group according to different chemotherapy regimens. After chemotherapy and before operation, serum tumor marker levels were detected;after operation, recurrence and metastasis-related molecule levels in tumor tissue were detected. Results:After chemotherapy and before operation, serum CEA, CA199, CA72-4, TSGF, ESM-1 and DKK-1 levels of combined treatment group were significantly lower than those of intravenous chemotherapy group;TET1, TET2, LATS1 and RUNX3 levels in tumor tissue of combined treatment group were higher than those of intravenous chemotherapy group while Sipa1, GOLPH3, AEP, MT2-MMP, OPN, Galectin-1, Galectin-3 and Galectin-9 levels were lower than those of intravenous chemotherapy group. Conclusions:Compared with systemic intravenous chemotherapy, preoperative S-1 combined with regional transcatheter arterial chemoembolization can more effectively kill gastric cancer cells and prevent tumor recurrence and metastasis at molecular level.

  2. Malignant change in a massive pleomorphic adenoma resembling the presentation of advanced inflammatory breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Leonie; Colbert, Serryth; Spedding, Anne V; Brennan, Peter A

    2012-04-01

    Massive tumours of the parotid are uncommon as due to their site, they are usually removed at an earlier stage. We present a bizarre case of a carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma which mimicked an advanced breast cancer, complete with a 'nipple-like' extension and peau d'orange changes in the overlying skin as a result of a dense dermal inflammatory response. A procedure akin to a mastectomy with facial nerve preservation was carried out for removal. To our knowledge, peau d'orange has not been reported before in parotid tumours.

  3. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    Keynote lecture. Challenges and opportunities of solid state ionic devices / W. Weppner -- pt. I. Ionically conducting inorganic solids. Invited papers. Multinuclear NMR studies of mass transport of phosphoric acid in water / J. R. P. Jayakody ... [et al.]. Crystalline glassy and polymeric electrolytes: similarities and differences in ionic transport mechanisms / J.-L. Souquet. 30 years of NMR/NQR experiments in solid electrolytes / D. Brinkmann. Analysis of conductivity and NMR measurements in Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] fast Li[symbol] ionic conductor: evidence for correlated Li[symbol] motion / O. Bohnké ... [et al.]. Transport pathways for ions in disordered solids from bond valence mismatch landscapes / S. Adams. Proton conductivity in condensed phases of water: implications on linear and ball lightning / K. Tennakone -- Contributed papers. Proton transport in nanocrystalline bioceramic materials: an investigative study of synthetic bone with that of natural bone / H. Jena, B. Rambabu. Synthesis and properties of the nanostructured fast ionic conductor Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Hydrogen production: ceramic materials for high temperature water electrolysis / A. Hammou. Influence of the sintering temperature on pH sensor ability of Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol]. Relationship between potentiometric and impedance spectroscopy measurements / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Microstructure chracterization and ionic conductivity of nano-sized CeO[symbol]-Sm[symbol]O[symbol] system (x=0.05 - 0.2) prepared by combustion route / K. Singh, S. A. Acharya, S. S. Bhoga. Red soil in Northern Sri Lanka is a natural magnetic ceramic / K. Ahilan ... [et al.]. Neutron scattering of LiNiO[symbol] / K. Basar ... [et al.]. Preparation and properties of LiFePO[symbol] nanorods / L. Q. Mai ... [et al.]. Structural and electrochemical properties of monoclinic and othorhombic MoO[symbol] phases / O. M. Hussain ... [et al.]. Preparation of Zircon (Zr

  4. Phase I evaluation of recombinant interleukin-2 in patients with advanced malignant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, M B; Gould, J A; Allegretta, M; Li, J J; Dempsey, R A; Rudders, R A; Parkinson, D R; Reichlin, S; Mier, J W

    1986-09-01

    Seventeen patients with refractory malignant tumors were treated with recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2) administered by weekly bolus intravenous (IV) injection in a phase I dose escalation trial. Patients received 10,000 to 1,000,000 U/m2 per injection over a course of 3 to 33 weeks. Toxicity was dose related and consisted primarily of fever, chills, nausea, and vomiting. Hypotension was observed at doses of 500,000 U/m2 or higher and in one instance was sufficiently severe to require pressors. No tumor regression was seen and all patients eventually developed progressive disease. Blood levels of cortisol, ACTH, prolactin, and growth hormone as well as the acute phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) increased after the administration of IL-2 in most patients. Serum IL-2 levels in excess of 250 U/mL were detected five minutes after an IV injection of 1,000,000 U/m2, after which the levels declined with a half-life of approximately 25 minutes. No alteration in lymphocyte surface phenotype or enhancement in natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity against natural killer (NK)-sensitive and resistant tumor cell lines was observed when these parameters were measured weekly just before the IL-2 injections. However, a dramatic but transient decline in circulating lymphocytes and NK activity was noted within hours of receiving IL-2. This effect was independent of fever and was not abrogated by pretreatment with ibuprofen or metyrapone. The majority of patients developed serum IgG antibodies of IL-2 detectable with a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a nitrocellulose dot blot assay. The development of anti-IL-2 antibodies was not associated with symptoms suggestive of serum sickness, reductions in serum complement levels, or deterioration in lymphocyte tumoricidal activity. This investigation provides insight into the in vivo actions of this potent biological response modifier and will assist in the design of future studies with IL-2 administered alone

  5. Targeting immune checkpoints in malignant glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tete; Liu, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Chen, Jingtao

    2017-01-01

    Malignant glioma is the most common and a highly aggressive cancer in the central nervous system (CNS). Cancer immunotherapy, strategies to boost the bodys anti-cancer immune responses instead of directly targeting tumor cells, recently achieved great success in treating several human solid tumors. Although once considered immune privileged and devoid of normal immunological functions, CNS is now considered a promising target for cancer immunotherapy, featuring the recent progresses in neurobiology and neuroimmunology and a highly immunosuppressive state in malignant glioma. In this review, we focus on immune checkpoint inhibitors, specifically, antagonizing monoclonal antibodies for programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). We discuss advances in the working mechanisms of these immune checkpoint molecules, their status in malignant glioma, and current preclinical and clinical trials targeting these molecules in malignant glioma. PMID:27756892

  6. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, David

    1991-01-01

    The explosion of the science of mesoscopic structures is having a great impact on physics and electrical engineering because of the possible applications of these structures in microelectronic and optoelectronic devices of the future. This volume of Solid State Physics consists of two comprehensive and authoritative articles that discuss most of the physical problems that have so far been identified as being of importance in semiconductor nanostructures. Much of the volume is tutorial in characture--while at the same time time presenting current and vital theoretical and experimental results and a copious reference list--so it will be essential reading to all those taking a part in the research and development of this emerging technology.

  7. Advanced impedance modeling of solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Christopher R.; Hjelm, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy is a powerful technique for detailed study of the electrochemical and transport processes that take place in fuel cells and electrolysis cells, including solid oxide cells (SOCs). Meaningful analysis of impedance measurements is nontrivial, however, because a large number...... methods which advantageously minimize the number of modeling parameters and the parameters used have direct physicochemical meaning. This is accomplished by (i) employing an improved cell model where the representative 0-D resistive-capacitive type EC elements are replaced by analytical 1-D porous......) constraining the parameter values during fitting to ranges of physically reasonable values. Using these methods, the number of fitting parameters for four impedance spectra measured with isolated changes to the fuel and oxidant gas compositions, has been reduced from 80 to 21-34 depending on the model...

  8. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research 3

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 3 covers reviews that are directly related to the two devices which are the epitome of applied solid state science - the transistor and the laser. The book discusses the physics of multilayer-gate IGFET memories; the application of the transient charge technique in drift velocity; and trapping in semiconductors and in materials used in xerography, nuclear particle detectors, and space-charge-limited devices; as well as thin film transistors. The text describes the manipulation of laser beams in solids and discusses

  9. Short-Course Accelerated Radiotherapy in Palliative Treatment of Advanced Pelvic Malignancies: A Phase I Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravatta, Luciana [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura ' Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Padula, Gilbert D.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lacks Cancer Center Saint Mary' s Health Care, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Macchia, Gabriella, E-mail: gmacchia@rm.unicatt.it [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura ' Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Ferrandina, Gabriella [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura ' Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Bonomo, Pierluigi; Deodato, Francesco; Massaccesi, Mariangela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura ' Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Mignogna, Samantha; Tambaro, Rosa [Department of Palliative Therapies, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura ' Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Rossi, Marco [Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care, and Pain Medicine, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura ' Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Flocco, Mariano [' Madre Teresa di Calcutta' Hospice, Larino (Italy); Scapati, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, ' San Francesco' Hospital, Nuoro (Italy); and others

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To define the maximum tolerated dose of a conformal short-course accelerated radiotherapy in patients with symptomatic advanced pelvic cancer. Methods and Materials: A phase I trial in 3 dose-escalation steps was designed: 14 Gy (3.5-Gy fractions), 16 Gy (4-Gy fractions), and 18 Gy (4.5-Gy fractions). The eligibility criteria included locally advanced and/or metastatic pelvic cancer and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of {<=}3. Treatment was delivered in 2 days with twice-daily fractionation and at least an 8-hour interval. Patients were treated in cohorts of 6-12 to define the maximum tolerated dose. The dose-limiting toxicity was defined as any acute toxicity of grade 3 or greater, using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale. Pain was recorded using a visual analog scale. The effect on quality of life was evaluated according to Cancer Linear Analog Scale (CLAS). Results: Of the 27 enrolled patients, 11 were male and 16 were female, with a median age of 72 years (range 47-86). The primary tumor sites were gynecologic (48%), colorectal (33.5%), and genitourinary (18.5%). The most frequent baseline symptoms were bleeding (48%) and pain (33%). Only grade 1-2 acute toxicities were recorded. No patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity. With a median follow-up time of 6 months (range 3-28), no late toxicities were observed. The overall (complete plus partial) symptom remission was 88.9% (95% confidence interval 66.0%-97.8%). Five patients (41.7%) had complete pain relief, and six (50%) showed >30% visual analog scale reduction. The overall response rate for pain was 91.67% (95% confidence interval 52.4%-99.9%). Conclusions: Conformal short course radiotherapy in twice-daily fractions for 2 consecutive days was well tolerated up to a total dose of 18 Gy. A phase II study is ongoing to confirm the efficacy on symptom control and quality of life indexes.

  10. Solid-Liquid Interface Characterization Hardware: Advanced Technology Development (ATD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Palmer N.; Sisk, R. C.; Sen, S.; Kaukler, W. F.; Curreri, Peter A.; Wang, F. C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This ATD has the goal of enabling the integration of three separate measurement techniques to characterize the solid-liquid interface of directionally solidified materials in real-time. Arrays of film-based metal thermocouple elements are under development along with compact Seebeck furnaces suitable for interfacing with separately developed X-ray Transmission Microscopes. Results of applying film arrays to furnace profiling are shown, demonstrating their ability to identify a previously undetected hardware flaw in the development of a second-generation compact furnace. Results of real-time furnace profiling also confirmed that the compact furnace design effectively isolates the temperature profiles in two halves of the furnace, a necessary feature. This isolation had only been inferred previously from the characteristics of Seebeck data reported. Results from a 24-thermocouple array successfully monitoring heating and isothermal cooling of a tin sample are shown. The importance of non-intrusion by the arrays, as well as furnace design, on the profiling of temperature gradients is illustrated with example measurements. Further developments underway for effectively combining all three measurements are assessed in terms of improved x-ray transmission, increased magnification, integral arrays with minimum intrusion, integral scales for velocity measurements and other features being incorporated into the third generation Seebeck furnace under construction.

  11. Is it useful for distinguishing between benign and malignant solid breast masses?: diagnostic criteria of Japan society of ultrasonics in medicine (JSUM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Kim, Sun Hee; Chung, Chun Phil [Maryknoll Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness and the most accurate element of the diagnostic criteria of the Japan Society of Ultrasonics in medicine (JSUM, Nov. 1989) for distinguishing between benign and malignant solid breast masses on the US. We analyzed the ultrasonic findings of histopathologically proved 51 fibroadenomas, 12 fibrocystic disease, and 39 breast cancers in relation to the diagnostic criteria of the JSUM (shape, border, boundary echo, internal echo, posterior echo, lateral echo, and depth/width ratio). The number of cases of fibroadenoma, fibrocystic disease, and breast cancer corresponding to the diagnostic criteria was in the shape (26/51, 5/12, 33/39), border (41/51, 9/12, 29/39), boundary echo (48/51, 12/12, 27/39) internal echo (43/51, 9/12, 24/39), posterior echo (32/51, 3/12, 21/39), and lateral shadowing (15/51, 1/12, 35/39). All diagnostic criterias showed statistical significance for differentiation of benign/malignant breast mass on the US (Chi-square test: {rho} < 0.05). The order of accuracy was boundary echo, internal echo, and border. The mean of depth/width ratio was 0.54 {+-} 0.15, 0.52 {+-} 0.12, and 0.69 {+-} 0.21 in fibroadenoma, fibrocystic disease, and breast cancer respectively and it had statistical significance for differentiation of benign/malignant breast mass on the US (ANOVA test: {rho} = 0.0002). The diagnostic criteria of JSUM is effective for differentiation of benign/malignant breast solid masses on the US and has accuracy in the order of boundary echo, internal echo, and border. Depth/width ratio also has statistical significance.

  12. Advanced computational biology methods identify molecular switches for malignancy in an EGF mouse model of liver cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Stegmaier

    Full Text Available The molecular causes by which the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase induces malignant transformation are largely unknown. To better understand EGFs' transforming capacity whole genome scans were applied to a transgenic mouse model of liver cancer and subjected to advanced methods of computational analysis to construct de novo gene regulatory networks based on a combination of sequence analysis and entrained graph-topological algorithms. Here we identified transcription factors, processes, key nodes and molecules to connect as yet unknown interacting partners at the level of protein-DNA interaction. Many of those could be confirmed by electromobility band shift assay at recognition sites of gene specific promoters and by western blotting of nuclear proteins. A novel cellular regulatory circuitry could therefore be proposed that connects cell cycle regulated genes with components of the EGF signaling pathway. Promoter analysis of differentially expressed genes suggested the majority of regulated transcription factors to display specificity to either the pre-tumor or the tumor state. Subsequent search for signal transduction key nodes upstream of the identified transcription factors and their targets suggested the insulin-like growth factor pathway to render the tumor cells independent of EGF receptor activity. Notably, expression of IGF2 in addition to many components of this pathway was highly upregulated in tumors. Together, we propose a switch in autocrine signaling to foster tumor growth that was initially triggered by EGF and demonstrate the knowledge gain form promoter analysis combined with upstream key node identification.

  13. FAU in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors or Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-06

    Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage IV Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  14. Heterozygous carriers of the I171V mutation of the NBS1 gene have a significantly increased risk of solid malignant tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Jerzy; Mosor, Maria; Ziółkowska, Iwona; Wierzbicka, Malgorzta; Pernak-Schwarz, Monika; Przyborska, Marta; Roznowski, Krzysztof; Pławski, Andrzej; Słomski, Ryszard; Januszkiewicz, Danuta

    2008-03-01

    Homozygous mutation 657del5 within the NBS1 gene is responsible for the majority of Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) cases. NBS patients are characterised by increased susceptibility to malignancies mainly of lymphoid origin. Recently it has been postulated that heterozygous carriers of 657del5 NBS1 mutation are at higher risk of cancer development. The aim of the study was to analyse the frequency of I171V mutation in NBS1 gene in 270 women with breast cancer, 176 patients with larynx cancer, 81 with second primary tumours of head and neck, 131 with colorectal carcinoma and 600 healthy individuals. I171V mutation was present in 17 cancer patients compared with only one in healthy individuals. This constitutes 2.58% in studied patients with malignancies and 0.17% in the control group (P=0.0002; relative risk 1.827; odds ratio 15.886; 95% confidence interval 2.107-119.8). Since DNA was isolated from non malignant cells, all mutations found in cancer patients appeared to be of germinal origin. It can be concluded that NBS1 allele I171V may be a general susceptibility gene in solid tumours.

  15. EVALUATION OF CHIP (IPROPLATIN) IN RECURRENT PEDIATRIC MALIGNANT SOLID TUMORS - A PHASE-II STUDY (PEDIATRIC ONCOLOGY GROUP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NITSCHKE, R; PRATT, C; HARRIS, M; KRISCHER, J; VIETTI, TJ; GRIER, H; KAMPS, W; TOLEDANO, S

    1992-01-01

    CHIP (325 mg/M2), a second generation cisplatin derivative, was administered intravenously every 3 weeks to 85 pediatric patients with recurrent sarcomas (19), osteosarcomas (20), neuroblastoma (23), germ cell tumors (10), and other malignant tumors (7). Thirty-eight of them had been previously expo

  16. Developing a common framework for integrated solid waste management advances in Managua, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olley, Jane E; IJgosse, Jeroen; Rudin, Victoria; Alabaster, Graham

    2014-09-01

    This article describes the municipal solid waste management system in Managua, Nicaragua. It updates an initial profile developed by the authors for the 2010 UN-HABITAT publication Solid Waste Management in the World's Cities and applies the methodology developed in that publication. In recent years, the municipality of Managua has been the beneficiary of a range of international cooperation projects aimed at improving municipal solid waste management in the city. The article describes how these technical assistance and infrastructure investments have changed the municipal solid waste management panorama in the city and analyses the sustainability of these changes. The article concludes that by working closely with the municipal government, the UN-HABITAT project Strengthening Capacities for Solid Waste Management in Managua was able to unite these separate efforts and situate them within a strategic framework to guide the evolution of the municipal solid waste management system in the forthcoming years. The creation of this multi-stakeholder platform allowed for the implementation of joint activities and ensured coherence in the products generated by the different projects. This approach could be replicated in other cities and in other sectors with similar effect. Developing a long term vision was essential for the advancement of municipal solid waste management in the city. Nevertheless, plan implementation may still be undermined by the pressures of the short term municipal administrative government, which emphasize operational over strategic investment.

  17. Oral Xeloda plus bi-platinu two-way combined chemotherapy in treatment of advanced gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fan; Wen-Chao Liu; Yan-Jun Zhang; Jun Ren; Bo-Rong Pan; Du-Hu Liu; Yan Chen; Zhao-Cai Yu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effect, adverse events, cost-effectiveness and dose intensity (DI) of oral Xeloda vs calcium folinate (CF)/5-FU combination chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastrointestinal malignancies, both combined with bi-platinu two-way chemotherapy.METHODS: A total of 131 patients were enrolled and randomly selected to receive either oral Xeloda (X group)or CF/5-FU (control group). Oral Xeloda 1 000 mg/m2was administered twice daily from d 1 to 14 in X group,while CF 200 mg/m2 was taken as a 2-h intravenous infusion followed by 5-FU 600 mg/m2 intravenously for 4-6 h on d 1-5 in control group. Cisplatin and oxaliplatin were administered in the same way to both the groups:cisplatin 60-80 mg/m2 by hyperthermic intraperitoneal administration, and oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 intravenously for 2 h on d 1. All the drugs were recycled every 21 d,with at least two cycles. Pyridoxine 50 mg was given t.i.d.orally for prophylaxis of the hand-foot syndrome (HFS).Then the effect, adverse events, cost-effectiveness and DI of the two groups were evaluated.RESULTS: Hundred and fourteen cases (87.0%) finished more than two chemotherapy cycles. The overall response rate of them was 52.5% (X group) and 42.4% (control group) respectively. Tumor progression time (TTP) was 7.35 mo vs5.95 mo, and 1-year survival rate was 53.1% vs 44.5%. There was a remarkable statistical significance of TTP and 1-year survival between the two groups. The main Xeloda-related adverse events were myelosuppression,gastrointestinal toxicity, neurotoxicity and HFS, which were mild and well tolerable. Therefore, no patients withdrew from the study due to side effects before two chemotherapy cycles were finished. Both groups finished pre-arranged DI and the relative DI was nearly 1.0. The average cost for 1 patient in one cycle was $9 137.35(X group) and $8 961.72 (control group), or US $1 100.89in X group and $1 079.73 in control group. To add 1% to the response rate costs $ 161.44 vs $210

  18. Advances in medium and high temperature solid oxide fuel cell technology

    CERN Document Server

    Salvatore, Aricò

    2017-01-01

    In this book well-known experts highlight cutting-edge research priorities and discuss the state of the art in the field of solid oxide fuel cells giving an update on specific subjects such as protonic conductors, interconnects, electrocatalytic and catalytic processes and modelling approaches. Fundamentals and advances in this field are illustrated to help young researchers address issues in the characterization of materials and in the analysis of processes, not often tackled in scholarly books.

  19. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Relativistic and Electron Correlation Effects in Molecules and Solids

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on "R@lativistic and Electron Correlation Effects in Molecules and Solids", co-sponsored by Simon Fraser University (SFU) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) was held Aug 10- 21, 1992 at the University of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver, Canada. A total of 90 lecturers and students with backgrounds in Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and various interdisciplinary subjects attended the ASI. In my proposal submitted to NATO for financial support for this ASI, I pointed out that a NATO ASI on the effects of relativity in many-electron systems was held ten years ago, [See G.L. Malli, (ed) Relativistic Effects in Atoms, Molecules and Solids, Plenum Press, Vol B87, New York, 1983]. Moreover, at a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on advanced methods for molecular electronic structure "an assessment of state-of­ the-art of Electron Correlation ... " was carried out [see C.E. Dykstra, (ed), Advanced Theories and Computational Approa...

  20. Differences in indicators of malignancy between luminal epithelial cell type and myoepithelial cell type of simple solid carcinoma in the canine mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, H; Nakahira, R; Kishimoto, T E; Michishita, M; Ohkusu-Tsukada, K; Takahashi, K

    2014-11-01

    Routinely diagnosed simple solid carcinoma (SSC) of the canine mammary gland comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors. Seventy-two cases that had been diagnosed as SSC based on hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections were reclassified immunohistochemically on the basis of myoepithelial markers p63 and α-smooth muscle actin, as well as a luminal epithelial marker cytokeratin 8. Only 23 cases (32%) were true SSC, composed only of luminal epithelial cells, whereas 11 cases (15%) were malignant myoepithelioma (MM), composed predominantly of myoepithelial cells, and 38 cases (53%) were biphasic carcinoma (BC), characterized by biphasic proliferation of luminal epithelial and basal/myoepithelial components. As the pathological parameters were compared between the reclassified tumor types, infiltrative potential, vascular/lymphatic invasion, lymph node metastasis, and Ki-67 labeling index were higher in true SSC compared with MM and BC, suggesting that the former may exhibit a poorer prognosis compared with the latter two.

  1. 晚期恶性肿瘤患者157例营养治疗临床分析%A clinical analysis of nutritional therapy in 157 cases with advanced malignancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liang; Shaobai Li; Baofang Bao; Qun Yin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical efficacy of nutritional therapy with Kabiven PI and ω-3 fish oil fat emulsion on advanced stage of malignant tumor. Methods: One hundred and fifity-seven patients with advanced stage of malignant tumor were performed parenteral nutrition and enteral nutritional adjunctive therapy with Kabiven PI and ECOG ≥ 3 of 103 cases, therapy interval 2-3 weeks, declined 1 score. 28 were performed with chemotherapeutics under nutritional therapy 2-4 periodical. 25 of 26 died were dead for cancer cachexia and multiple organ failure. Survival time was 2-7 months. No serious complications occurred in all patients. Conclusion: The symptom and quality of life of advanced stage of malignant tumor were obviously improve by nutritional therapy. The opportunity for therapy tumor was offered. It is a important method on combined therapy of malignant tumor.

  2. ASRM radiation and flowfield prediction status. [Advanced Solid Rocket Motor plume radiation prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, J. E.; Everson, J.; Smith, S. D.; Sulyma, P. R.

    1991-01-01

    Existing and proposed methods for the prediction of plume radiation are discussed in terms of their application to the NASA Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) and Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) projects. Extrapolations of the Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) are discussed with respect to preliminary predictions of the primary and secondary radiation environments. The methodology for radiation and initial plume property predictions are set forth, including a new code for scattering media and independent secondary source models based on flight data. The Monte Carlo code employs a reverse-evaluation approach which traces rays back to their point of absorption in the plume. The SRM sea-level plume model is modified to account for the increased radiation in the ASRM plume due to the ASRM's propellant chemistry. The ASRM cycle-1 environment predictions are shown to identify a potential reason for the shutdown spike identified with pre-SRM staging.

  3. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Ionization of Solids by Heavy Particles

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    This book collects the papers presented at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on "Ionization of Solids by Heavy Particles", held in Giardini-Naxos (Taormina), Italy, on June 1 -5, 1992. The meeting was the first to gather scientists to discuss the physics of electron emission and other ionization effects occurring during the interaction of heavy particles with condensed matter. The central problem in the field is how to use observations of electron emission and final radiation damage to understand what happens inside the solid, like excitation mechanisms, the propagation of the electronic excitation along different pathways, and surface effects. The ARW began with a brief survey of the field, stressing the unknowns. It was pointed out that ionization theories can only address the very particular case of weak perturbations. For this problem, this meant high speed, low-charged projectiles (a perturbation treatment of interactions with slow, highly charged ions was later presented). Only semi-empirical ...

  4. Draft environmental impact statement: Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The proposed action is design, development, testing, and evaluation of Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (ASRM) to replace the motors currently used to launch the Space Shuttle. The proposed action includes design, construction, and operation of new government-owned, contractor-operated facilities for manufacturing and testing the ASRM's. The proposed action also includes transport of propellant-filled rocket motor segments from the manufacturing facility to the testing and launch sites and the return of used and/or refurbished segments to the manufacturing site.

  5. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research 6

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 6 covers the application of composites in electronic systems. The book discusses different types of composite-composite materials consisting of finely dispersed mixtures of metals and insulators; composite devices in which two distinct semiconductor devices are combined in one package; and composite glass fibers with the core and cladding differing in their optical properties. The text describes articles dealing with properties that can be achieved in versatile materials; light-emitting diodes and photodetectors th

  6. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research 2

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 2 covers topics about complex oxide materials such as the garnets, which dominate the field of magnetoelasticity and are among the most important laser hosts, and sodalite, which is one of the classic photochromic materials. The book discusses the physics of the interactions of electromagnetic, elastic, and spin waves in single crystal magnetic insulators. The text then describes the mechanism on which inorganic photochromic materials are based, as observed in a variety of materials in single crystal, powder, and gl

  7. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-14

    The program is conducted by a team consisting of AiResearch Los Angeles Division of Allied-Signal Aerospace Company and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objective of the program is to advance materials and fabrication methodologies to develop a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) system capable of meeting performance, life, and cost goals for coal-based power generation. The program focuses on materials research and development, fabrication process development, cell/stack performance testing and characterization, cost and system analysis, and quality development.

  8. First results from solid state neutral particle analyzer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. Z.; Zhu, Y. B.; Zhao, J. L.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.; Heidbrink, W. W.

    2016-11-01

    Full function integrated, compact solid state neutral particle analyzers (ssNPA) based on absolute extreme ultraviolet silicon photodiode have been successfully implemented on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak to measure energetic particle. The ssNPA system has been operated in advanced current mode with fast temporal and spatial resolution capabilities, with both active and passive charge exchange measurements. It is found that the ssNPA flux signals are increased substantially with neutral beam injection (NBI). The horizontal active array responds to modulated NBI beam promptly, while weaker change is presented on passive array. Compared to near-perpendicular beam, near-tangential beam brings more passive ssNPA flux and a broader profile, while no clear difference is observed on active ssNPA flux and its profile. Significantly enhanced intensities on some ssNPA channels have been observed during ion cyclotron resonant heating.

  9. First-line chemotherapy with liposomal doxorubicin plus cisplatin for patients with advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma: phase II trial

    OpenAIRE

    Arrieta, Ó.; Medina, L A; Estrada-Lobato, E; Hernández-Pedro, N; Villanueva-Rodríguez, G; Martínez-Barrera, L.; Macedo, E O; López-Rodríguez, V; Motola-Kuba, D; Corona-Cruz, J F

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy based on platinum is the standard treatment for unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Liposomal doxorubicin (LD) consists of pegylated phospholipid vesicles that encapsulate doxorubicin-enhancing liposome deposition in the tumour. We evaluated the toxicity profile and anti-tumour activity of cisplatin plus LD in untreated patients with MPM, as well as 99mTc-LD distribution in MPM lesions after chemotherapy administration. Methods: A total of 38 patients w...

  10. 恶性黑素瘤的治疗新进展%New Advances in Treatment of Malignant Melanoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文静

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the incidence of malignant melanoma has a clear upward trend, it is not sensitive to radiotherapy or chemotherapy. However,malignant melanoma is a tumor with higher immunogenicity. Current biological treatments for malignant melanoma include immune therapy, gene therapy and anti-angio-genic treatment etc. , among which the clinical application of adoptive immune therapy is in the rapid development in recent years;meanwhile,the clinical research of regulatory monoclonal antibody drugs and therapy targeted at BRAF V600E and C-KIT mutations have drawn the most attention. The studies have provided new ideas for malignant melanoma immune and gene therapy,which have become the hotspot for the time being.%近年来恶性黑素瘤发病率有明显上升趋势,其对单纯放疗及化疗均不敏感,它是一种免疫原性较高的肿瘤.目前用于恶性黑素瘤的生物治疗方法包括免疫治疗、基因治疗及抗血管生成治疗等,其中过继性免疫治疗的临床应用研究近年来得到快速发展,同时免疫调节性单克隆抗体药物以及针对BRAF基因V600E突变和C-KIT基因突变为靶点的临床研究最引人关注.这些研究为恶性黑素瘤的免疫及基因治疗提供了新思路,成为目前的研究热点.

  11. Analysis of Pre-Analytic Factors Affecting the Success of Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing of Solid Organ Malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hui [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Luthra, Rajyalakshmi, E-mail: rluthra@mdanderson.org; Goswami, Rashmi S.; Singh, Rajesh R. [Department of Hematopathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to routine clinical practice has enabled characterization of personalized cancer genomes to identify patients likely to have a response to targeted therapy. The proper selection of tumor sample for downstream NGS based mutational analysis is critical to generate accurate results and to guide therapeutic intervention. However, multiple pre-analytic factors come into play in determining the success of NGS testing. In this review, we discuss pre-analytic requirements for AmpliSeq PCR-based sequencing using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) (Life Technologies), a NGS sequencing platform that is often used by clinical laboratories for sequencing solid tumors because of its low input DNA requirement from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue. The success of NGS mutational analysis is affected not only by the input DNA quantity but also by several other factors, including the specimen type, the DNA quality, and the tumor cellularity. Here, we review tissue requirements for solid tumor NGS based mutational analysis, including procedure types, tissue types, tumor volume and fraction, decalcification, and treatment effects.

  12. Analysis of Pre-Analytic Factors Affecting the Success of Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing of Solid Organ Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Application of next-generation sequencing (NGS technology to routine clinical practice has enabled characterization of personalized cancer genomes to identify patients likely to have a response to targeted therapy. The proper selection of tumor sample for downstream NGS based mutational analysis is critical to generate accurate results and to guide therapeutic intervention. However, multiple pre-analytic factors come into play in determining the success of NGS testing. In this review, we discuss pre-analytic requirements for AmpliSeq PCR-based sequencing using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM (Life Technologies, a NGS sequencing platform that is often used by clinical laboratories for sequencing solid tumors because of its low input DNA requirement from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue. The success of NGS mutational analysis is affected not only by the input DNA quantity but also by several other factors, including the specimen type, the DNA quality, and the tumor cellularity. Here, we review tissue requirements for solid tumor NGS based mutational analysis, including procedure types, tissue types, tumor volume and fraction, decalcification, and treatment effects.

  13. An Overview of Combustion Mechanisms and Flame Structures for Advanced Solid Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckstead, M. W.

    2000-01-01

    Ammonium perchlorate (AP) and cyclotretamethylenetetranitramine (HMX) are two solid ingredients often used in modern solid propellants. Although these two ingredients have very similar burning rates as monopropellants, they lead to significantly different characteristics when combined with binders to form propellants. Part of the purpose of this paper is to relate the observed combustion characteristics to the postulated flame structures and mechanisms for AP and HMX propellants that apparently lead to these similarities and differences. For AP composite, the primary diffusion flame is more energetic than the monopropellant flame, leading to an increase in burning rate over the monopropellant rate. In contrast the HMX primary diffusion flame is less energetic than the HMX monopropellant flame and ultimately leads to a propellant rate significantly less than the monopropellant rate in composite propellants. During the past decade the search for more energetic propellants and more environmentally acceptable propellants is leading to the development of propellants based on ingredients other than AP and HMX. The objective of this paper is to utilize the more familiar combustion characteristics of AP and HMX containing propellants to project the combustion characteristics of propellants made up of more advanced ingredients. The principal conclusion reached is that most advanced ingredients appear to burn by combustion mechanisms similar to HMX containing propellants rather than AP propellants.

  14. Treating solid dairy manure using microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenge, Anju A; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2009-08-01

    The microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) was used to treat separated solid dairy manure for nutrient release and solids reduction. The MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP was conducted at a microwave temperature of 120 degrees C for 10 minutes, and at three pH conditions of 3.5, 7.3 and 12. The hydrogen peroxide dosage at approximately 2 mL per 1% TS for a 30 mL sample was used in this study, reflecting a range of 0.53-0.75 g H(2)O(2)/g dry sludge. The results indicated that substantial quantities of nutrients could be released into the solution at pH of 3.5. However, at neutral and basic conditions only volatile fatty acids and soluble chemical oxygen demand could be released. The analyses on orthophosphate, soluble chemical oxygen demands and volatile fatty acids were re-examined for dairy manure. It was found that the orthophosphate concentration for untreated samples at a higher % total solids (TS) was suppressed and lesser than actual. To overcome this difficulty, the initial orthophosphate concentration had to be measured at 0.5% TS.

  15. Interaction of Porosity with an Advancing Solid/Liquid Interface: a Real-Time Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Kaukler, W.; Catalina, A.; Stefanescu, D.; Curreri, P.

    1999-01-01

    Problems associated with formation of porosity during solidification continue to have a daily impact on the metal forming industry. Several past investigations have dealt with the nucleation and growth aspects of porosity. However, investigations related to the interaction of porosity with that of a solidification front has been limited mostly to organic analogues. In this paper we report on real time experimental observations of such interactions in metal alloys. Using a state of the art X-Ray Transmission Microscope (XTM) we have been able to observe and record the dynamics of the interaction. This includes distortion of the solid/liquid interface near a poro.sity, solute segr,egation patterns surrounding a porosity and the change in shape of the porosity during interaction with an advancing solid/liquid interface. Results will be presented for different Al alloys and growth conditions. The experimental data will be compared to theory using a recently developed 2D numerical model. The model employs a finite difference approach where the solid/liquid interface is defined through the points at which the interface intersects the grid lines. The transport variables are calculated at these points and the motion of the solidification front is determined by the magnitude of the transport variables. The model accounts for the interplay of the thermal and solutal field and the influence of capilarity to predict the shape of the solid/liquid interface with time in the vicinity of porosity. One can further calculate the perturbation of the solutal field by the presence of porosity in the melt.

  16. Feasibility of Telomerase-Specific Adoptive T-cell Therapy for B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Solid Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Sara; Bobisse, Sara; Moxley, Kelly; Lamolinara, Alessia; De Sanctis, Francesco; Boschi, Federico; Sbarbati, Andrea; Fracasso, Giulio; Ferrarini, Giovanna; Hendriks, Rudi W; Cavallini, Chiara; Scupoli, Maria Teresa; Sartoris, Silvia; Iezzi, Manuela; Nishimura, Michael I; Bronte, Vincenzo; Ugel, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    Telomerase (TERT) is overexpressed in 80% to 90% of primary tumors and contributes to sustaining the transformed phenotype. The identification of several TERT epitopes in tumor cells has elevated the status of TERT as a potential universal target for selective and broad adoptive immunotherapy. TERT-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) have been detected in the peripheral blood of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients, but display low functional avidity, which limits their clinical utility in adoptive cell transfer approaches. To overcome this key obstacle hindering effective immunotherapy, we isolated an HLA-A2-restricted T-cell receptor (TCR) with high avidity for human TERT from vaccinated HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice. Using several relevant humanized mouse models, we demonstrate that TCR-transduced T cells were able to control human B-CLL progression in vivo and limited tumor growth in several human, solid transplantable cancers. TERT-based adoptive immunotherapy selectively eliminated tumor cells, failed to trigger a self-MHC-restricted fratricide of T cells, and was associated with toxicity against mature granulocytes, but not toward human hematopoietic progenitors in humanized immune reconstituted mice. These data support the feasibility of TERT-based adoptive immunotherapy in clinical oncology, highlighting, for the first time, the possibility of utilizing a high-avidity TCR specific for human TERT. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2540-51. ©2016 AACR.

  17. mRNA-transfected dendritic cell vaccine in combination with metronomic cyclophosphamide as treatment for patients with advanced malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Troels Holz; Engell-Noerregaard, Lotte; Zeeberg Iversen, Trine;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vaccination with dendritic cells (DCs) has generally not fulfilled its promise in cancer immunotherapy due to ineffective translation of immune responses into clinical responses. A proposed reason for this is intrinsic immune regulatory mechanisms, such as regulatory T cells (Tregs......). A metronomic regimen of cyclophosphamide (mCy) has been shown to selectively deplete Tregs. To test this in a clinical setting, we conducted a phase I trial to evaluate the feasibility and safety of vaccination with DCs transfected with mRNA in combination with mCy in patients with metastatic malignant......th vaccines. Immune monitoring consisted of IFNγ ELISpot assay, proliferation assay, and flow cytometry for enumeration of immune cell subsets. RESULTS: Toxicity was manageable. Eighteen patients were evaluable after six cycles. Of these, nine patients had progressive disease as best response...

  18. Recent Advances in the Use of Sodium Borohydride as a Solid State Hydrogen Store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new practical hydrogen storage materials with high volumetric and gravimetric hydrogen densities is necessary to implement fuel cell technology for both mobile and stationary applications. NaBH4, owing to its low cost and high hydrogen density (10.6 wt%, has received extensive attention as a promising hydrogen storage medium. However, its practical use is hampered by its high thermodynamic stability and slow hydrogen exchange kinetics. Recent developments have been made in promoting H2 release and tuning the thermodynamics of the thermal decomposition of solid NaBH4. These conceptual advances offer a positive outlook for using NaBH4-based materials as viable hydrogen storage carriers for mobile applications. This review summarizes contemporary progress in this field with a focus on the fundamental dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation pathways and properties and on material design strategies towards improved kinetics and thermodynamics such as catalytic doping, nano-engineering, additive destabilization and chemical modification.

  19. Reorientation phenomena in imidazolium methyl sulfonate as probed by advanced solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goward, Gillian R; Saalwächter, Kay; Fischbach, Ingrid; Spiess, Hans Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Evidence for reorientation of imidazolium rings in imidazolium methylsulfonate is demonstrated using solid-state NMR. This material is a model system for exciting new proton-conducting materials based on imidazole. Two advanced NMR methods, including 1H-13C and 1H-15N recoupled polarization transfer with dipolar sideband pattern analysis and analysis of the coalescence of 13C lineshapes are used to characterize the ring reorientation. The process is found to occur at temperatures well below the melting point of the salt, between 240 and 380 K, and is described by a single activation energy, of 38+/-5 kJ/mol. This material is considered as a model system for quantifying the ring reorientation process, which is often proposed to be the rate-limiting step in proton transport in imidazole-based proton conducting materials.

  20. Solid Waste Management Requirements Definition for Advanced Life Support Missions: Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John; Levri, Julie; Fisher, John; Drysdale, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Prior to determining what Solid Waste Management (SWM) technologies should be researched and developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project for future missions, there is a need to define SWM requirements. Because future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architecture outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions. This paper reviews the results of this ongoing effort and identifies mission-dependent resource recovery requirements.

  1. Effect of S-1 + cisplatin and gemcitabine + cisplatin on malignant indexes in serum and tumor tissue of advanced NSCLC patients with wild-type EGFR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Can Chen; Qing Fang; Qing-Yuan Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of S-1 + cisplatin and gemcitabine + cisplatin on malignant indexes in serum and tumor tissue of advanced NSCLC patients with wild-type EGFR. Methods: The medical records of 58 advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients with wild-type EGFR were retrospectively analyzed, patients who received S-1 + cisplatin chemotherapy were included in the experimental group, patients who received gemcitabine + cisplatin chemotherapy were included in the control group, and then the levels of tumor markers in serum and the expression levels of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in tumor tissue were determined.Results:After treatment, serum tumor markers CEA, NSE, Cyfra21-1, PCDGF, VEGF and TK1 levels of experimental group were significantly lower than those of control group; Pim-1, LUNX, PFKFB3, PFKFB4 and Ki67 levels in tumor tissue of experimental group were significantly lower than those of control group, and TCF21, PDCD5, ASPP1, ASPP2, p53 and EFEMP1 levels were significantly higher than those of control group. Conclusions: S-1 + cisplatin has better curative effect on advanced NSCLC with wild-type EGFR than gemcitabine + cisplatin, and can more effectively kill cancer cells and regulate the expression of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.

  2. Design and application of solid, dense backfill advanced mining technology with two pre-driving entries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiang; Zhang Jixiong; Guo Shuai; Gao Rui; Li Weikang

    2015-01-01

    New solid backfill mining technology provides unique technical advantages for‘three-under’ coal min-ing which refers to coal resources trapped under buildings, railways, and water bodies. This technology has a much higher recovery rate and can effectively control the surface subsidence. However, successful application of this technology depends heavily on geological conditions. To avoid the disadvantages asso-ciated with downward mining and overhead backfilling with this new technology, a new advanced solid backfill mining design with two pre-driving entries is proposed here to ensure the backfill effect. Taking Huayuan coal mine as an example, this paper tests the double gob-side entries retaining with no pillar left scheme and optimizes an integrated technology setup for backfill mining and gob-side entry retain-ing. Field applications show that the recovery rate increased from 40%for strip mining to 85%for backfill mining. Moreover, the new backfill technology allowed for better control over the surrounding rock deformation caused by the gob-side entry retaining effect and better control of ground subsidence as compared to strip mining.

  3. Advanced 2-micron solid-state laser for wind and CO II lidar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Koch, Grady J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2006-12-01

    Significant advancements in the 2-micron laser development have been made recently. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Diffrencial Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for measuring atmospheric CO II concentration profiles. The world record 2-micron laser energy is demonstrated with an oscillator and two amplifiers system. It generates more than one joule per pulse energy with excellent beam quality. Based on the successful demonstration of a fully conductive cooled oscillator by using heat pipe technology, an improved fully conductively cooled 2-micron amplifier was designed, manufactured and integrated. It virtually eliminates the running coolant to increase the overall system efficiency and reliability. In addition to technology development and demonstration, a compact and engineering hardened 2-micron laser is under development. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser is expected to be integrated to a lidar system and take field measurements. The recent achievements push forward the readiness of such a laser system for space lidar applications. This paper will review the developments of the state-of-the-art solid-state 2-micron laser.

  4. Advanced 2-micron Solid-state Laser for Wind and CO2 Lidar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Koch, Grady J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Significant advancements in the 2-micron laser development have been made recently. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. The world record 2-micron laser energy is demonstrated with an oscillator and two amplifiers system. It generates more than one joule per pulse energy with excellent beam quality. Based on the successful demonstration of a fully conductive cooled oscillator by using heat pipe technology, an improved fully conductively cooled 2-micron amplifier was designed, manufactured and integrated. It virtually eliminates the running coolant to increase the overall system efficiency and reliability. In addition to technology development and demonstration, a compact and engineering hardened 2-micron laser is under development. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser is expected to be integrated to a lidar system and take field measurements. The recent achievements push forward the readiness of such a laser system for space lidar applications. This paper will review the developments of the state-of-the-art solid-state 2-micron laser.

  5. Requirements Development Issues for Advanced Life Support Systems: Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levri, Julie A.; Fisher, John W.; Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Long duration missions pose substantial new challenges for solid waste management in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. These possibly include storing large volumes of waste material in a safe manner, rendering wastes stable or sterilized for extended periods of time, and/or processing wastes for recovery of vital resources. This is further complicated because future missions remain ill-defined with respect to waste stream quantity, composition and generation schedule. Without definitive knowledge of this information, development of requirements is hampered. Additionally, even if waste streams were well characterized, other operational and processing needs require clarification (e.g. resource recovery requirements, planetary protection constraints). Therefore, the development of solid waste management (SWM) subsystem requirements for long duration space missions is an inherently uncertain, complex and iterative process. The intent of this paper is to address some of the difficulties in writing requirements for missions that are not completely defined. This paper discusses an approach and motivation for ALS SWM requirements development, the characteristics of effective requirements, and the presence of those characteristics in requirements that are developed for uncertain missions. Associated drivers for life support system technological capability are also presented. A general means of requirements forecasting is discussed, including successive modification of requirements and the need to consider requirements integration among subsystems.

  6. Feasibility of early tapering of cyclosporine following reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation for advanced hematologic or solid malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Akiko; Kami, Masahiro; Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Murashige, Naoko; Kojima, Rie; Takaue, Yoichi

    2005-07-01

    Although some researchers have reported that early tapering of cyclosporine is feasible and beneficial to augment graft-versus-leukemia effects after conventional stem-cell transplantation, there is little information on the feasibility of this strategy following reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation (RIST). We summarized outcomes of 17 patients who underwent early tapering of cyclosporine following RIST from HLA-identical siblings.

  7. Phase i and pharmacological study of pazopanib in combination with oral topotecan in patients with advanced solid tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerklaan, B. Milojkovic; Lolkema, M. P J; Devriese, L. A.; Voest, E. E.; Nol-Boekel, A.; Mergui-Roelvink, M.; Langenberg, M.; Mykulowycz, K.; Stoebenau, J.; Lane, S.; Legenne, P.; Wissel, P.; Smith, D. A.; Giantonio, B. J.; Schellens, J. H M; Witteveen, P. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This phase I study evaluated the safety, tolerability, maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and pharmacokinetics of two dosing schedules of oral topotecan in combination with pazopanib in patients with advanced solid tumours. Methods: Stage I of this study was to determine whether there was an i

  8. Genotype 3b of human parvovirus B19 detected from hospitalized children with solid malignancies in a North Indian tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amita; Jain, Parul; Prakash, Shantanu; Kumar, Archana; Khan, Danish N; Seth, Akansha; Gupta, Shikha; Kant, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection is known to cause serious consequences in immuno-compromized individuals. The present cross sectional study was designed to estimate the prevalence and genotype distribution of B19V in children receiving chemotherapy for solid malignancies at a tertiary care hospital in North India during October 2013 to May 2015. Serum samples from all the patients were tested for anti-B19V IgM and IgG antibodies and for B19V-DNA as soon as received. Samples testing positive for B19V-DNA were subjected to viral load estimation and to genotype determination by sequencing. Total 96 children were enrolled of which 9 (9.3%), 32 (33.3%), and 25 (26%) tested positive for anti-B19V IgM, anti-B19V IgG, and B19V-DNA, respectively. The viral load of B19V-DNA positive children ranged from 5.5 × 10(2) to 3.5 × 10(12) copies/ml. Accordingly children were divided into three groups: group I, with acute infection (n = 25); group II, previously exposed (n = 27), and group III, negative for B19V infection or with inappropriate antibody response (n = 44). B19V positivity was significantly associated (P-value < 0.0001) with a history of blood transfusion in the past 6 months, severe anemia (hemoglobin levels <6 gm%) and thrombocytopenia (platelets <150,000/cu.mm.). Sequence analysis of 21 of 25 DNA positive samples showed that all of them were Genotype 3b that clustered into three groups. All the sequences within each cluster were identical. The nucleotide identity of the sequences suggests a nosocomial outbreak of B19V during the study period. Children on chemotherapy for solid tumors should be routinely screened for B19V infection by both serology and PCR. J. Med. Virol. 88:1922-1929, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The NASA "PERS" Program: Solid Polymer Electrolyte Development for Advanced Lithium-Based Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    In fiscal year 2000, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) established a collaborative effort to support the development of polymer-based, lithium-based cell chemistries and battery technologies to address the next generation of aerospace applications and mission needs. The ultimate objective of this development program, which was referred to as the Polymer Energy Rechargeable System (PERS), was to establish a world-class technology capability and U.S. leadership in polymer-based battery technology for aerospace applications. Programmatically, the PERS initiative exploited both interagency collaborations to address common technology and engineering issues and the active participation of academia and private industry. The initial program phases focused on R&D activities to address the critical technical issues and challenges at the cell level. Out of a total of 38 proposals received in response to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) solicitation, 18 proposals (13 contracts and 5 grants) were selected for initial award to address these technical challenges. Brief summaries of technical approaches, results and accomplishments of the PERS Program development efforts are presented. With Agency support provided through FY 2004, the PERS Program efforts were concluded in 2005, as internal reorganizations and funding cuts resulted in shifting programmatic priorities within NASA. Technically, the PERS Program participants explored, to various degrees over the lifetime of the formal program, a variety of conceptual approaches for developing and demonstrating performance of a viable advanced solid polymer electrolyte possessing the desired attributes, as well as several participants addressing all components of an integrated cell configuration. Programmatically, the NASA PERS Program was very successful, even though the very challenging technical goals for achieving a viable solid polymer electrolyte material or

  10. Pharmacokinetic characteristics of vincristine sulfate liposomes in patients with advanced solid tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao YAN; Zhong-ling ZHU; Zheng-zi QIAN; Ge HU; Hua-qing WANG; Wan-hui LIU; Guang CHENG

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of vincristine sulfate liposomes (VSLI) in patients with advanced solid tumors.Methods:In single-dose pharmacokinetic study,16 patients were administered VSLI (1.5,2.0,or 2.3 mg.m-2) through intravenous infusion.Another 6 patients receiving vincristine sulfate (VCR,2.0 mg) were taken as the control.In multiple-dose pharmacokinetic study,12 patients were administered VSLI (1.5 or 1.8 mg.m-2) through intravenous infusion weekly for 4 consecutive weeks.The plasma concentration of VSLI was determined using the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method.Results:After intravenous infusion of the single dose of VSLI,the plasma concentrations were characterized by bi-exponential decline curves.No statistically significant differences were observed between the main pharmacokinetic parameters in the 3 dose groups.Compared with the patients receiving VCR,the patients treated with VSLI displayed an increase in the area under the plasma concentration vs time curve (AUC),and a decrease in plasma clearance rates.On the 4th cycle in the multiple-dose study,the plasma concentration of VCR in all subjects prior to the weekly administration was below the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ).The calculated pharmacokinetic parameters from the subjects in the multiple-and single-dose (1.5 mgm-2) groups had no significant differences.Although the administration of liposomal VCR may significantly elevate the plasma concentration of VCR,VSLI-associated adverse events were similar to those associated with conventional VCR.Conclusion:VSLI exhibits a lower clearance and a higher AUC compared with conventional VCR.No accumulation was observed in patients exposed to VSLI for 4 consecutive weeks.VSLI was generally tolerated in the subjects.The phase Ⅱ dose of VSLI may be recommended as 4 doses of 1.5 mg·m-2 for treatment of patients with advanced solid tumors.

  11. 营养支持辅助晚期恶性肿瘤化疗体会%Experience on auxiliary nutritional support in chemotherapy of advanced malignant tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李森

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the results of chemotherapy of auxiliary nutritional support in advanced malignant tumor. Methods 80 patients with advanced malignant tumor, who were treated with chemotherapy in our hospital from August 2010 to August 2013, were selected as the research objects and were divided into two groups according to the treatment methods, with 40 cases in each group. To observe and compare the results of chemotherapy between control group who were treated with conventional chemotherapy and observation group who were treated with auxiliary nutritional support based on conventional chemotherapy. Results The decreasing degree of Albumin(ALB)and nitrogen balance in observation group were obviously lower than which in control group, Immunoglobulin A(IgA), Immunoglobulin G(IgG), and Immunoglobulin M(IgM)in observation group were better than which in control group, furthermore, the incidence of adverse reactions in the course of chemotherapy in observation group were lower than which in control group, the differences were statically significant(P < 0.05). Conclusion Auxiliary nutritional support in chemotherapy of advanced malignant tumor could reduce further deterioration of patients'immune function, could improve then quality of life, is worthy of clinical popularization and application.%目的:探讨营养支持辅助晚期恶性肿瘤化疗结果。方法将我院2010年8月~2013年8月所医治晚期恶性肿瘤化疗患者80例作为研究对象,按其方法分成两组,每组40例,对照组患者进行常规化疗,观察组患者在常规化疗的基础上进行营养支持,观察、比较两组患者的化疗结果。结果观察组患者化疗后白蛋白(ALB)和氮平衡指标下降程度明显低于对照组,免疫球蛋白A(IgA)、免疫球蛋白G(IgG)、免疫球蛋白M(IgM)优于对照组,且化疗过程中不良反应发生率低于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论晚期恶性肿瘤

  12. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Laser Interactions with Atoms, Solids,and Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this NATO Advanced Study Institute was to bring together scientists and students working in the field of laser matter interactions in order to review and stimulate developmentoffundamental science with ultra-short pulse lasers. New techniques of pulse compression and colliding-pulse mode-locking have made possible the construction of lasers with pulse lengths in the femtosecond range. Such lasers are now in operation at several research laboratories in Europe and the United States. These laser facilities present a new and exciting research direction with both pure and applied science components. In this ASI the emphasis is on fundamental processes occurring in the interaction of short laser pulses with atoms, molecules, solids, and plasmas. In the case of laser-atom (molecule) interactions, high power lasers provide the first access to extreme high-intensity conditions above 10'8 Watts/em', a new frontier for nonlinear interaction of photons with atoms and molecules. New phenomena observed include ...

  13. Phase I study of a systemically delivered p53 nanoparticle in advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senzer, Neil; Nemunaitis, John; Nemunaitis, Derek; Bedell, Cynthia; Edelman, Gerald; Barve, Minal; Nunan, Robert; Pirollo, Kathleen F; Rait, Antonina; Chang, Esther H

    2013-05-01

    Selective delivery of therapeutic molecules to primary and metastatic tumors is optimal for effective cancer therapy. A liposomal nanodelivery complex (scL) for systemic, tumor-targeting delivery of anticancer therapeutics has been developed. scL employs an anti-transferrin receptor (TfR), scFv as the targeting molecule. Loss of p53 suppressor function, through mutations or inactivation of the p53 pathway, is present in most human cancers. Rather than being transiently permissive for tumor initiation, persistence of p53 dysfunction is a continuing requirement for maintaining tumor growth. Herein, we report results of a first-in-man Phase I clinical trial of restoration of the normal human tumor suppressor gene p53 using the scL nanocomplex (SGT-53). Minimal side effects were observed in this trial in patients with advanced solid tumors. Furthermore, the majority of patients demonstrated stable disease. One patient with adenoid cystic carcinoma had his status changed from unresectable to resectable after one treatment cycle. More significantly, we observed an accumulation of the transgene in metastatic tumors, but not in normal skin tissue, in a dose-related manner. These results show not only that systemically delivered SGT-53 is well tolerated and exhibits anticancer activity, but also supply evidence of targeted tumor delivery of SGT-53 to metastatic lesions.

  14. Advances in solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology with low-platinum-loading electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Ticianelli, E. A.; Derouin, C. R.; Redondo, A.

    1987-01-01

    The Gemini Space program demonstrated the first major application of fuel cell systems. Solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells were used as auxiliary power sources in the spacecraft. There has been considerable progress in this technology since then, particularly with the substitution of Nafion for the polystyrene sulfonate membrane as the electrolyte. Until recently the performance was good only with high platinum loading (4 mg/sq cm) electrodes. Methods are presented to advance the technology by (1) use of low platinum loading (0.35 mg/sq cm) electrodes; (2) optimization of anode/membrane/cathode interfaces by hot pressing; (3) pressurization of reactant gases, which is most important when air is used as cathodic reactant; and (4) adequate humidification of reactant gases to overcome the water management problem. The high performance of the fuel cell with the low loading of platinum appears to be due to the extension of the three dimensional reaction zone by introduction of a proton conductor, Nafion. This was confirmed by cyclic voltammetry.

  15. Bortezomib in combination with celecoxib in patients with advanced solid tumors: a phase I trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salzer Shanta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background COX-2 inhibitors, such as celecoxib, and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway inhibitors, such as bortezomib, can down-regulate NF-κB, a transcription factor implicated in tumor growth. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose and dose-limiting toxicities of bortezomib in combination with celecoxib in patients with advanced solid tumors. Methods Patients received escalating doses of bortezomib either on a weekly schedule (days 1, 8, 15, 22, and 29 repeated every 42 days or on a twice-weekly administration schedule (days 1, 4, 8, and 11 repeated every 21 days, in combination with escalating doses of celecoxib twice daily throughout the study period from 200 mg to 400 mg twice daily. Results No dose-limiting toxicity was observed during the study period. Two patients had stable disease lasting for four and five months each, and sixteen patients developed progressive disease. Conclusion The combination of bortezomib and celecoxib was well tolerated, without dose limiting toxicities observed throughout the dosing ranges tested, and will be studied further at the highest dose levels investigated. Trial registration number NCT00290680.

  16. Phase I Study of Capecitabine, Oxaliplatin, Bevacizumab, and Everolimus in Advanced Solid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangwala, F.; Bendell, J.; Kozloff, M.; Arrowood, C.; Dellinger, A.; Meadows, J.; Tourt-Uhlig, S.; Murphy, J.; Meadows, K.L.; Starr, A.; Broderick, S.; Brady, J.C.; Cushman, S. M.; Morse, M.; Uronis, H.; Hsu, S.D.; Zafar, S.Y.; Wallace, J.; Starodub, A.; Strickler, J.; Pang, H.; Nixon, A.B.; Hurwitz, H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To define maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicities, and pharmacodynamics of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, bevacizumab, and everolimus in advanced solid tumor patients. Design This was a standard “3+3” dose-escalation trial. All subjects received bevacizumab 7.5mg/kg on day one of each cycle. Doses for capecitabine, oxaliplatin and everolimus were modified per dose limiting toxicity (DLT). Baseline and on-treatment plasma biomarkers were analyzed. Archived tumor mRNA levels were evaluated for NRP1, NRP2 and VEGF-A isoforms. Results Twenty-nine patients were evaluable for toxicity and 30 for efficacy. Two DLTs were observed in cohort 1 and one DLT each was observed in cohort -1 and -1b. Grade ≥3 toxicities included neutropenia, hypertension, perforation/fistula/hemorrhage, hypertriglyceridemia, diarrhea, and thromboembolism. Twelve subjects experienced partial response (PR); 12 had stable disease as best response. Three of seven chemorefractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) subjects experienced PR; eight of 15 chemonaive mCRC subjects experienced PR. Plasma TβRIII and IL-6 increased on treatment but without correlation to outcome. Increased VEGF165 levels significantly correlated with longer progression free survival. Conclusions Everolimus with full dose capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab had unacceptable toxicity. MTD was: everolimus 5mg daily; capecitabine 680mg/m2 BID days 1-14; oxaliplatin 100mg/m2 and bevacizumab 7.5mg/kg, day one. Activity was noted in mCRC. PMID:24711126

  17. Immunotherapy of Genitourinary Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruo Inamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cancer patients are treated with some combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Despite recent advances in local therapy with curative intent, chemotherapeutic treatments for metastatic disease often remain unsatisfying due to severe side effects and incomplete long-term remission. Therefore, the evaluation of novel therapeutic options is of great interest. Conventional, along with newer treatment strategies target the immune system that suppresses genitourinary (GU malignancies. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma and non-muscle-invasive bladder caner represent the most immune-responsive types of all human cancer. This review examines the rationale and emerging evidence supporting the anticancer activity of immunotherapy, against GU malignancies.

  18. Malignant hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you need surgery, tell both your surgeon and anesthesiologist before surgery if: You know that you or ... IN. Malignant hyperthermia and muscle-related disorders. In: Miller RD, ed. Miller's Anesthesia . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  19. Therapeutic Response in Patients with Advanced Malignancies Treated with Combined Dendritic Cell–Activated T Cell Based Immunotherapy and Intensity–Modulated Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasumi, Kenichiro; Aoki, Yukimasa; Watanabe, Ryuko [Hasumi International Research Foundation, Tokyo Research Center, 1-44-6 Asagaya-kita, Suginami- ku, Tokyo 166-0001 (Japan); Hankey, Kim G.; Mann, Dean L., E-mail: dmann001@umaryland.edu [Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, MSTF Room 700, 10 South Pine Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21040 (United States)

    2011-04-28

    Successful cancer immunotherapy is confounded by the magnitude of the tumor burden and the presence of immunoregulatory elements that suppress an immune response. To approach these issues, 26 patients with advanced treatment refractory cancer were enrolled in a safety/feasibility study wherein a conventional treatment modality, intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), was combined with dendritic cell-based immunotherapy. We hypothesized that radiation would lower the tumor burdens, decrease the number/function of regulatory cells in the tumor environment, and release products of tumor cells that could be acquired by intratumoral injected immature dendritic cells (iDC). Metastatic lesions identified by CT (computed tomography) were injected with autologous iDC combined with a cytokine-based adjuvant and KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin), followed 24 h later by IV-infused T-cells expanded with anti-CD3 and IL-2 (AT). After three to five days, each of the injected lesions was treated with fractionated doses of IMRT followed by another injection of intratumoral iDC and IV-infused AT. No toxicity was observed with cell infusion while radiation-related toxicity was observed in seven patients. Five patients had progressive disease, eight demonstrated complete resolution at treated sites but developed recurrent disease at other sites, and 13 showed complete response at various follow-up times with an overall estimated Kaplan-Meier disease-free survival of 345 days. Most patients developed KLH antibodies supporting our hypothesis that the co-injected iDC are functional with the capacity to acquire antigens from their environment and generate an adaptive immune response. These results demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of this multimodality strategy combining immunotherapy and IMRT in patients with advanced malignancies.

  20. 恶性肿瘤外周神经转移研究进展%Research advances in the peripheral nerve metastasis of malignant tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宇波; 曾林涓; 苏红; 黄开红

    2014-01-01

    外周神经浸润(PNI)与多种类型肿瘤转移、复发关系密切,是独立预后不良因素。本文从明确PNI 概念开始,综述目前 PNI 分子和病理机制、体外内模型建立等研究进展,旨在更深入地了解PNI 在肿瘤转移、复发中的作用,为进一步研究 PNI 机制及开发靶向 PNI 治疗策略奠定基础。%Perineural invasion (PNI) has been reported to be closely related to the metastasis and recurrence in various cancers..For many of these malignancies,.PNI is emerging as an independent risk factor for poor prognosis. In the present study , a clear definition of PNI was laid out , and then the authors summarized current theories on the molecular mechanism and pathogenesis of PNI. In addition, current research in vitro and in vivo models for PNI were also introduced. The objectives of this review were to highlight the PNI status in predicting cancer metastasis and recurrence , as well as lead to advancements in the understanding and target therapy of this pathological entity.

  1. A phase I/II trial of beta-(1,3/(1,6 D-glucan in the treatment of patients with advanced malignancies receiving chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitberg Alan B

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract β-(1,3/(1,6 D-glucan, a component of the fungal cell wall, has been shown to stimulate the immune system, enhance hematopoiesis, amplify killing of opsonized tumor cells and increase neutrophil chemotaxis and adhesion. In view of these attributes, the β-glucans should be studied for both their therapeutic efficacy in patients with cancer as well as an adjunctive therapy in patients receiving chemotherapy as a maneuver to limit suppression of hematopoiesis. In this study, twenty patients with advanced malignancies receiving chemotherapy were given a β-(1,3/(1,6 D-glucan preparation (MacroForce plus IP6, ImmuDyne, Inc. and monitored for tolerability and effect on hematopoiesis. Our results lead us to conclude that β-glucan is well-tolerated in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, may have a beneficial effect on hematopoiesis in these patients and should be studied further, especially in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and lymphoma.

  2. Phase I study of GC1008 (fresolimumab: a human anti-transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ monoclonal antibody in patients with advanced malignant melanoma or renal cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Morris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In advanced cancers, transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ promotes tumor growth and metastases and suppresses host antitumor immunity. GC1008 is a human anti-TGFβ monoclonal antibody that neutralizes all isoforms of TGFβ. Here, the safety and activity of GC1008 was evaluated in patients with advanced malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. METHODS: In this multi-center phase I trial, cohorts of patients with previously treated malignant melanoma or renal cell carcinoma received intravenous GC1008 at 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, or 15 mg/kg on days 0, 28, 42, and 56. Patients achieving at least stable disease were eligible to receive Extended Treatment consisting of 4 doses of GC1008 every 2 weeks for up to 2 additional courses. Pharmacokinetic and exploratory biomarker assessments were performed. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients, 28 with malignant melanoma and 1 with renal cell carcinoma, were enrolled and treated, 22 in the dose-escalation part and 7 in a safety cohort expansion. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed, and the maximum dose, 15 mg/kg, was determined to be safe. The development of reversible cutaneous keratoacanthomas/squamous-cell carcinomas (4 patients and hyperkeratosis was the major adverse event observed. One malignant melanoma patient achieved a partial response, and six had stable disease with a median progression-free survival of 24 weeks for these 7 patients (range, 16.4-44.4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: GC1008 had no dose-limiting toxicity up to 15 mg/kg. In patients with advanced malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, multiple doses of GC1008 demonstrated acceptable safety and preliminary evidence of antitumor activity, warranting further studies of single agent and combination treatments. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00356460.

  3. Low-Dose Decitabine-Based Chemoimmunotherapy for Patients with Refractory Advanced Solid Tumors: A Phase I/II Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation is one of the main drivers of tumor initiation and progression. The reversibility of methylation modulation makes it an attractive target for novel anticancer therapies. Clinical studies have demonstrated that high-dose decitabine, a hypomethylating agent, results in some clinical benefits in patients with refractory advanced tumors; however, they are extremely toxic. Low doses of decitabine minimize toxicity while potentially improving the targeted effects of DNA hypomethylation. Based on these mechanisms, low-dose decitabine combined with chemoimmunotherapy may be a new treatment option for patients with refractory advanced tumors. We proposed the regimen of low-dose decitabine-based chemoimmunotherapy for patients with refractory advanced solid tumors. A favorable adverse event profile was observed in our trial that was highlighted by the finding that most of these adverse events were grades 1-2. Besides, the activity of our cohort was optimistic and the clinical benefit rate was up to 60%, and the median PFS was prolonged compared with PFS to previous treatment. We also identified a significant correlation between the PFS to previous treatment and clinical response. The low-dose DAC decitabine-based chemoimmunotherapy might be a promising protocol for improving the specificity and efficiency of patients with refractory advanced solid tumors. This trial is registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov database (identifier NCT01799083.

  4. Malignant Catatonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Ozkul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia is a syndrome characterized by mutism, immobility, negativism, stereotypy, mannerisms, echophenomena, perseveration and passive obedience. The underlying causes can be psychiatric or may be associated with general medical status or neurological diseases. Additionally catatonia has two subtypes as malignant and nonmalignant catatonia. Main symptoms of malignant catatonia are hyperthermia and autonomic symptoms such as tachycardia, tachypnea and hyperhidrosis. It is important to make the diagnosis as early as possible for an appropriate medical treatment. Clinicians should be aware of the fatal outcome of the disease.

  5. Malignant glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Cronemberger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to discuss current knowledge about pathophysiology and clinical, therapeutic and prophylactic approaches for malignant glaucoma. This type of glaucoma can occur after different surgical procedures. It can also occur in aphakic, phakic and pseudophakic eyes and develop spontaneously in individuals with no ocular surgical history, or associated with topical miotics. Currently, the ultrasound biomicroscopy has provided many interesting and useful findings for diagnosis and monitoring the treatment of malignant glaucoma. It occurs more often in short eyes in which pre operative measurements of the anterior chamber depth and axial length are extremely important for its prophylaxis and diagnosis.

  6. Regional intra-arterial chemotherapy for treatment of advanced malignant tumors in children%小儿不可切除性恶性实体瘤区域性动脉化疗的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李民驹; 黄勇; 吴德华; 唐达星; 徐珊; 周银宝; 章毅英

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and long-term outcomes of regional intra-arterial chemotherapy for the treatment of advanced malignant solid tumors in children.Methods During Jul 1999 and Dec 2006,regional intra-arterial chemotherapy was performed in 15 patients (aging from 0.5 to 12 years,6 males and 9 females) with advanced malignant solid tumors in various parts of their bodies.In all the eases,13 accepted preoperative treatment and 2 accepted postoperative treatment.The tumors included rhabdomyosarcoma (2 cases in pelvis,2 in vagina and 1 in bladder),endodermal sinus tumor (3 in sacroiliac and 1 in colic omentum),malignant teratoma (1 in ovary and 1 in cerebellum),desmoplastic small round cell tumor (1 in abdomen),pancreablastoma (1 in root of mesentery),ependymoma (1 in cerebellum) and dermatofibrosareoma (1 in upper arm).Transcatheter arterial infusion chemotherapy (TAIC) of cisplatin,pirarubicin and vindesine was performed with the doses as follows:cisplatin 80 mg/m2,pirarubicin 40 mg/m2 and vindesine 3 mg/m2.Internal lilac artery was chosen as the route of administration for tumors in pelvis,bladder and vagina,internal I|iac artery and coccygeal artery for tumors in sacroiliac,superior mesenteric artery for tumors in abdomen,branch of brachial artery for tumors in upper arm and vertebral artery for tumors in cerebellum.TAIC was repeated every 4 weeks.In the intermission of TALC,intravenous systemic chemotherapy with vindesine,VP16,and ephosphamide were administered.Results In the period of chemotherapy,no cardiotoxicity,nephrotoxicity or hepatic dysfunction were observed except for grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ bone marrow suppression.One patient with ependymoma in the cerebellum got mild hemiplegia and recovered 4 weeks later.The tumors of the 13 patients accepting preoperative treatment were significantly shrunken,localized and could be completely resected.Remnant tumors of the 2 patients who underwent postoperative TAIC disappeared with no recurrence

  7. Immunotherapy for malignant glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter M Suryadevara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas (MG are the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor. Most patients diagnosed with glioblastoma (GBM, the most common and malignant glial tumor, die within 12-15 months. Moreover, conventional treatment, which includes surgery followed by radiation and chemotherapy, can be highly toxic by causing nonspecific damage to healthy brain and other tissues. The shortcomings of standard-of-care have thus created a stimulus for the development of novel therapies that can target central nervous system (CNS-based tumors specifically and efficiently, while minimizing off-target collateral damage to normal brain. Immunotherapy represents an investigational avenue with the promise of meeting this need, already having demonstrated its potential against B-cell malignancy and solid tumors in clinical trials. T-cell engineering with tumor-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs is one proven approach that aims to redirect autologous patient T-cells to sites of tumor. This platform has evolved dramatically over the past two decades to include an improved construct design, and these modern CARs have only recently been translated into the clinic for brain tumors. We review here emerging immunotherapeutic platforms for the treatment of MG, focusing on the development and application of a CAR-based strategy against GBM.

  8. Surgery of malignant pancreatic tumors; Chirurgie maligner Pankreastumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, M.; Friess, H.; Kleeff, J. [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik

    2009-02-15

    Ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the pancreas. Despite great efforts in basic and clinical pancreatic cancer research, the prognosis remains poor with an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Complete surgical resection represents the only curative treatment option and 5-year survival rates of 20-25% can be achieved following curative resection and adjuvant chemotherapy. Although pancreatic surgery is considered one of the most technically demanding and challenging procedures, there has been constant progress in surgical techniques and advances in perioperative care with a modern interdisciplinary approach including anesthesiology, oncology, radiology and nursing. This has reduced morbidity and especially mortality rates in high-volume centers. Among extended resection procedures multivisceral and venous resections are technically feasible and should be considered if a complete tumor resection can be achieved. Multimodal regimens have shown promising results, however, only adjuvant chemotherapy is supported by solid evidence from randomized controlled trials. (orig.) [German] Das duktale Adenokarzinom ist der haeufigste maligne Pankreastumor. Trotz intensiver Anstrengungen auf dem Gebiet der Pankreasforschung konnte die Gesamtprognose in den vergangenen Jahren nicht entscheidend verbessert werden. Die einzige potenziell kurative Therapie ist die chirurgische Resektion. In Kombination mit einer adjuvanten Chemotherapie liegen die 5-Jahres-Ueberlebensraten aktuell bei 20-25%. Dank kontinuierlicher Weiterentwicklung der chirurgischen Operationstechnik und Verbesserungen der perioperativen Versorgung der Patienten mit einer engen interdisziplinaeren Zusammenarbeit (Chirurgie, Anaesthesie, Onkologie, Radiologie und Pflege) konnten die perioperative Morbiditaets- und Mortalitaetsraten in den vergangenen Jahren deutlich gesenkt werden. Unter den erweiterten Resektionsverfahren sind Venen- oder multiviszerale Resektionen technisch sicher

  9. Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish K Tiwari; Heather S Laird-Fick; Ramesh K Wali; Hemant K Roy

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms,thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses.Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions,therefore,is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy.In order to efficiently detect these lesions,systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed.However,most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example,serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma,and fecal occult blood test,for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures,such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes.Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool,the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can't be avoided.The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs.Moreover,only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies,and indeed needs surveillance.To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention,it's important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (riskstratification),and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts.We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies,and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them.

  10. Advanced Flow Analysis Tools for Transient Solid Rocket Motor Simulations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The challenges of designing, developing, and fielding man-rated propulsion systems continue to increase as NASA's mission moves forward with evolving solid...

  11. Continuation Study of Entinostat in Combination With Pembrolizumab in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-16

    Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Bronchial Neoplasms; Lung Neoplasms; Respiratory Tract Neoplasms; Thoracic Neoplasms; Digestive System Neoplasms; Endocrine Gland Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; Lung Diseases; Breast Diseases; Renal Neoplasm; Solid Tumors

  12. Pembrolizumab and Ziv-aflibercept in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-09

    Adult Solid Neoplasm; Metastatic Melanoma; Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Colorectal Carcinoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer

  13. Recent advances and results from the solid radiochemistry nuclear diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibyan, N.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Moody, K. J.; Grant, P. M.; Despotopulos, J. D.; Faye, S. A.; Jedlovec, D. R.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2016-11-01

    The solid debris collection capability at the National Ignition Facility has been expanded to include a third line-of-sight assembly. The solid radiochemistry nuclear diagnostic measurement of the ratio of gold isotopes is dependent on the efficient collection of neutron-activated hohlraum debris by passive metal disks. The collection of target debris at this new location is more reliable in comparison to the historic locations, and it appears to be independent of collector surface ablation.

  14. Advances in Solid-State Transformations of Coordination Bonds: From the Ball Mill to the Aging Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mottillo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the formation of coordination bonds is pivotal to the development of a plethora of functional metal-organic materials, ranging from coordination polymers, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs to metallodrugs. The interest in and commercialization of such materials has created a need for more efficient, environmentally-friendly routes for making coordination bonds. Solid-state coordination chemistry is a versatile greener alternative to conventional synthesis, offering quantitative yields, enhanced stoichiometric and topological selectivity, access to a wider range of precursors, as well as to molecules and materials not readily accessible in solution or solvothermally. With a focus on mechanochemical, thermochemical and “accelerated aging” approaches to coordination polymers, including pharmaceutically-relevant materials and microporous MOFs, this review highlights the recent advances in solid-state coordination chemistry and techniques for understanding the underlying reaction mechanisms.

  15. Recent advances in small molecular, non-polymeric organic hole transporting materials for solid-state DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Thanh-Tuan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Issue from thin-film technologies, dye-sensitized solar cells have become one of the most promising technologies in the field of renewable energies. Their success is not only due to their low weight, the possibility of making large flexible surfaces, but also to their photovoltaic efficiency which are found to be more and more significant (>12% with a liquid electrolyte, >7% with a solid organic hole conductor. This short review highlights recent advances in the characteristics and use of low-molecular-weight glass-forming organic materials as hole transporters in all solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. These materials must feature specific physical and chemical properties that will ensure both the operation of a photovoltaic cell and the easy implementation. This review is an english extended version based on our recent article published in Matériaux & Techniques 101, 102 (2013.

  16. 恩度联合化疗治疗117例晚期恶性肿瘤%117 cases of advanced malignancies treated with recombinant human endostatin plus chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pingpo Ming; Wei Ge; Liang Liu; Yongfa Zheng; Huilin Xu

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the recent efficacy and adverse reactions of recombinant human endostatin (Endostar) plus chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced malignancies. Methods:One hundred and seventeen cases of advanced malignancies were diagnosed and confirmed by histopathological examination, patients were treated with Endostar combined with chemotherapeutic drugs with no cross-resistance. Evaluate the efficacy and adverse reactions after finished two cycles of combination therapy. Results:All the 117 cases of patients were evaluated according to relevant standards, and there were 12 cases of complete remission (CR), 30 cases of partial remission (PR), 58 cases of stable disease (SD), 17 cases of progressive disease (PD). The response rate (RR) was 35.8%, disease control rate (DCR) was 85.4%. Conclusion:The protocol of Endostar combined with chemotherapy could improve the quality of life of patients with malignances, it also has the advantage of low toxicity. Considering the time span of the study, the long-term efficacy remains to be observed.

  17. Conducting Reflective, Hands-On Research with Advanced Characterization Instruments: A High-Level Undergraduate Practical Exploring Solid-State Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, S. J.; Mapp, L. K.

    2016-01-01

    An undergraduate practical exercise has been designed to provide hands-on, instrument-based experience of advanced characterization techniques. A research experience approach is taken, centered around the concept of solid-state polymorphism, which requires a detailed knowledge of molecular and crystal structure to be gained by advanced analytical…

  18. Advances in automatic, manual and microwave-assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatino, Giuseppina; Papini, Anna M

    2008-11-01

    Solid-phase strategies speed up the production of both short- and long-sequence peptides compared with solution methodologies. Therefore, solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS), proposed by Merrifield in the early 1960s, contributed to the 'Peptide Revolution' in the fields of diagnostics, and drug and vaccine development. Since then, peptide chemistry research has aimed to optimize these synthetic procedures, focusing on areas such as amide bond formation (the coupling step), solid supports and automation. Particular attention was devoted to the environmental impact of SPPS: the requirement for large amounts of organic solvents meant high costs for industrial peptide manufacturing that needed to be reduced. SPPS, alone or in hybrid technologies, has become strategic for the production of peptides as active pharmaceutical ingredients on a commercial scale.

  19. Optimization of solid-state synthesis process of advanced ceramics materials: influence of mixing conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakri Adel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of mixing process on solid state reaction of solid oxide material mixture was studied. Lead piezoelectric ceramic specimens 0.5 Pb(Zn1/3,Sb2/3O3-0.5 Pb0.98La0.02(Zr0.48,Ti0.52O3 prepared by different mixing procedures, were conducted under different conditions such as order, combination and mixing time. The phase formation, composition nature, structural properties of powder mixture was analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The obtained results for different mixing processes make the solid state reaction method more selective, taking into consideration the attraction forces between the reactants and the electronegativity of oxide reactants.

  20. Recent advances in solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology with low platinum loading electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Manko, David J.; Koch, Hermann; Enayetullah, Mohammad A.; Appleby, A. John

    1989-01-01

    Of all the fuel cell systems only alkaline and solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells are capable of achieving high power densities (greater than 1 W/sq cm) required for terrestrial and extraterrestrial applications. Electrode kinetic criteria for attaining such high power densities are discussed. Attainment of high power densities in solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells has been demonstrated earlier by different groups using high platinum loading electrodes (4 mg/sq cm). Recent works at Los Alamos National Laboratory and at Texas A and M University (TAMU) demonstrated similar performance for solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells with ten times lower platinum loading (0.45 mg/sq cm) in the electrodes. Some of the results obtained are discussed in terms of the effects of type and thickness of membrane and of the methods platinum localization in the electrodes on the performance of a single cell.

  1. Endoscopic stent treatment of elderly patients with advanced malignant biliary obstructive jaundice%内镜下支架置入治疗老年晚期恶性胆管梗阻性黄疸的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦炜; 宋秋花

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察内镜下胆管内支架置入对老年晚期恶性梗阻性黄疸的引流效果.方法 回顾分析36例老年晚期恶性梗阻性黄疸患者的临床资料.结果 胆管内支架置入对老年恶性梗阻性黄疸患者有明显的短期减黄效果,且住院时间短,近期并发症少,但远期由于支架堵塞,有引起黄疸复发及胆管炎危险.结论 胆管内支架置入是一种安全有效的治疗老年晚期恶性胆管梗阻性黄疸的减黄方法,对于失去手术机会的晚期恶性胆管梗阻患者,在延长患者生存期,提高生活质量方面均具有十分重要的意义.%[ Objective ] To observe the endoscopic biliary stent placement for elderly patients with advanced malignant obstructive jaundice drainage effect. [ Methods ] 36 cases of elderly patients with advanced malignant obstructive jaundice in patients with clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. [ Results ] Biliary stenting in elderly patients with malignant obstructive jaundice had obvious short-term effect of reducing yellow, and the hospitalization time was short, the recent few complications, but the long-term due to stent blockage, there was cause jaundice risk of recurrence and cholangitis. [Conclusion] The biliary stent is a safe and effective treatment for elderly patients with advanced malignant biliary obstructive jaundice yellow reduction method, for the losa of opportunities for surgery in patients with advanced malignant biliary obstruction, In the extended survival period, to improve the quality of life isof great significance.

  2. Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of docetaxel combined with melphalan and carboplatin, with autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell support, in patients with advanced refractory malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Yago; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Bearman, Scott I; McSweeney, Peter A; Cagnoni, Pablo J; Matthes, Steve; Gustafson, Dan; Long, Michael; Barón, Anna E; Jones, Roy B

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the maximal tolerated dose (MTD), extramedullary toxicities, and pharmacokinetics of docetaxel combined with high-dose melphalan and carboplatin with autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell support. Fifty-nine patients with advanced refractory malignancy (32 breast cancer, 10 non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 6 germ cell tumors, 4 Hodgkin disease, 4 ovarian cancer, 2 sarcoma, and 1 unknown primary adenocarcinoma) with a median of 3 prior chemotherapy regimens and a median of 3 organs involved were enrolled. Treatment included docetaxel (150-550 mg/m2 infused over 2 hours on day -6), melphalan (150-165 mg/m2 infused over 15 minutes from day -5 to -3), and carboplatin (1000-1300 mg/m2 as a 72-hour continuous infusion from day -5). Five patients died from direct regimen-related organ toxicity (2 capillary leak syndrome, 2 enterocolitis, and 1 hepatic toxicity), and 1 additional patient died from pulmonary aspergillosis. The docetaxel MTD was defined as 400 mg/m 2 , combined with melphalan (150 mg/m2 ) and carboplatin (1000 mg/m2 ). The MTD cohort was expanded to enroll a total of 26 patients, 1 of whom died from toxic enterocolitis. The remaining 25 patients presented the following extramedullary toxicity profile, which was manageable and largely reversible: stomatitis, myoarthralgias, peripheral neuropathy, gastrointestinal and cutaneous toxicities, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Docetaxel exhibited linear pharmacokinetics in the dose range tested (150-550 mg/m2 ). Pharmacodynamic correlations were noted between the docetaxel area under the curve and peripheral neuropathy or stomatitis. The response rate among 38 patients with measurable disease was 95%, with 47% complete responses. At a median follow-up of 26 months (range, 7-72 months), the 3-year event-free survival and overall survival were 26% and 36%, respectively. In conclusion, a 4-fold dose escalation of docetaxel, combined with melphalan and

  3. Advances in solid state laser technology for space and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments in laser technology and their potential for medical applications are discussed. Gas discharge lasers, dye lasers, excimer lasers, Nd:YAG lasers, HF and DF lasers, and other commonly used lasers are briefly addressed. Emerging laser technology is examined, including diode-pumped lasers and other solid state lasers.

  4. Targeting solid tumors : advances in treatment strategies for glioma and colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houdt, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Curative treatment of most solid tumors includes surgical interference. However, the incidence of local recurrence or distant micrometastases is significantly lower when patients are treated with systemic or locally administered chemo- or targeted therapy. In the last decade, many novel targeting st

  5. Hypercalcemia of malignancy and new treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sternlicht H

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hillel Sternlicht,1 Ilya G Glezerman1,2 1Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Weill Cornell Medical College, 2Renal Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Hypercalcemia of malignancy affects up to one in five cancer patients during the course of their disease. It is associated with both liquid malignancies, commonly multiple myeloma, leukemia, and non-Hodgkins lymphoma and solid cancers, particularly breast and renal carcinomas as well as squamous cell carcinomas of any organ. The clinical manifestations of hypercalcemia are generally constitutional in nature and not specific to the inciting malignancy. Such physical manifestations can range from malaise to lethargy and confusion. Constipation and anorexia are common. Acute kidney injury is likely the most frequently encountered manifestation of end organ damage. Symptomatology is closely linked to both the absolute elevation of serum calcium levels and the rapidity of calcium rise. The majority of cases are humoral in etiology and related to parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP. Approximately 20% of cases are the result of direct bone metastasis with extra-renal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol and ectopic parathyroid hormone production likely accounting for less than 1% of cases. The diagnosis of hypercalcemia of malignancy is confirmed either by an elevated PTHrP or by an evidence of bone metastasis in the appropriate clinical setting. Treatment is predicated on the patient’s symptoms and absolute serum calcium level. Interventions are aimed at lowering the serum calcium concentration by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing urinary calcium excretion, the former accomplished via bisphosphonate therapy and the latter with aggressive hydration. Novel therapies for refractory disease include denosumab, a monoclonal antibody against the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand, and the calcimimetic cinacalcet. Finally, anti

  6. Advancing radiation balanced lasers (RBLs) in rare-earth (RE)-doped solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hehlen, Markus Peter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-21

    These slides cover the following topics: Mid-IR lasers in crystals using two-tone RBL (Single-dopant two-tone RBLs: Tm3+, Er3+, and Co-doped two-tone RBLs: (Yb3+, Nd3+) and (Ho3+, Tm3+); Advanced approaches to RBL crystals (Precursor purification, Micro-pulling-down crystal growth, and Bridgman crystal growth); Advanced approaches to RBL fibers (Materials for RBL glass fibers, Micro-structured fibers for RBL, and Fiber preform synthesis); and finally objectives.

  7. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Hydrogen in Disordered and Amorphous Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bowman, Robert

    1986-01-01

    This is the second volume in the NATO ASI series dealing with the topic of hydrogen in solids. The first (V. B76, Metal Hydrides) appeared five years ago and focussed primarily on crystalline phases of hydrided metallic systems. In the intervening period, the amorphous solid state has become an area of intense research activity, encompassing both metallic and non-metallic, e.g. semiconducting, systems. At the same time the problem of storage of hydrogen, which motivated the first ASI, continues to be important. In the case of metallic systems, there were early indications that metallic glasses and disordered alloys may be more corrosion resistant, less susceptible to embrittlement by hydrogen and have a higher hydrogen mobility than ordered metals or intermetallics. All of these properties are desirable for hydrogen storage. Subsequent research has shown that thermodynamic instability is a severe problem in many amorphous metal hydrides. The present ASI has provided an appropriate forum to focus on these issu...

  8. NATO Advanced Study Institute on the Physics of Structurally Disordered Solids

    CERN Document Server

    1976-01-01

    Structurally disordered solids are characterized by their lack of spatial order that is evidenced by the great variety of ordered solids. The former class of materials is commonly termed amorphous or glassy, the latter crystalline. However, both classes share, many of the other physical properties of solids, e. g. , me­ chanical stability, resistance to shear stress, etc. The traditional macroscopic distinction between the crystalline and the glassy states is that while the former has a fixed melting point, the latter does not. However, with the availability and production of a large number of materials in both crystalline and amorphous states, and their easy inter-convertability, simple de­ finitions are not possible or at best imprecise. For the present purpose, it is sufficient to say that in contrast to the crystalline state, in which the posi­ tions of atoms are fixed into adefinite structure, ex­ cept for small thermal vibrations, the amorphous state of the same material displays varying degrees of ...

  9. 老年恶性实体肿瘤患者医院感染危险因素分析%Risk factors of nosocomial infections in senile patients with malignant solid tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敏; 杜鸿昱; 张培先

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析引起老年恶性实体肿瘤患者医院感染的危险因素,减低医院感染率.方法 回顾性分析2009年8月-2010年10月住院的460例老年恶性实体肿瘤患者,应用SPSS 17.0统计软件包对可能危险因素中正态分布的计量资料行t检验,对计数资料行x2值检验,将两种检验中有统计学意义的因素进行多因素logistic同归分析,根据回归结果,按危险因素对感染影响的大小进行排列.结果 460例老年恶性实体肿瘤患者中,患呼吸道肿瘤、卡氏评分(KPS评分)、患低蛋白血症、TNM分期、中性粒细胞绝对计数及住院时间6个危险因素,经t检验、x2检验差异有统计学意义;对6个因素进行多因素logistic同归分析,患呼吸道肿瘤、KPS评分<60分、患低蛋白血症、中性粒细胞绝对计数减少及住院时间延长均是医院感染危险因素.结论 老年恶性实体肿瘤患者患呼吸道肿瘤是最主要的医院感染危险因素,应加强病房管理严格执行消毒隔离制度,预防医院感染的发生.%OBJECTIVE To analyze the risk factors of nosocomial infections in the senile patients with malignant solid tumors so as to reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections.METHODS A total of 460 cases of senile inpatients with malignant solid tumors,who were treated in the hospital from Aug 2009 to Oct 2010,were retrospectively analyzed.The SPSS 17.0 statistical package was used to perform t-test and count column chisquare test for the normal distribution of measurement data.The multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for the factors that had statistical significant.The risk factors were arranged according to their impact on the infections.RESULTS Of totally 460 senile patients with malignant solid tumors,the t-test and chi-square test showed that there was statistical difference in the respiratory tract tumors,KPS score,hypoproteinemia,TNM stage,the absolute neutrophil count,or duration of

  10. A concept of advanced broad-band solid-state supermirror polarizers for cold neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, A. K.; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Bigault, T.; Courtois, P.; Jullien, D.; Soldner, T.

    2016-12-01

    An ideal solid-state supermirror (SM) neutron polarizer assumes total reflection of neutrons from the SM coating for one spin-component and total absorption for the other, thus providing a perfectly polarized neutron beam at the exit. However, in practice, the substrate's neutron-nuclei optical potential does not match perfectly that for spin-down neutrons in the SM. For a positive step in the optical potential (as in a Fe / Si Nx SM on Si substrate), this mismatch results in spin-independent total reflection for neutrons with small momentum transfer Q , limiting the useful neutron bandwidth in the low- Q region. To overcome this limitation, we propose to replace Si single-crystal substrates by media with higher optical potential than that for spin-down neutrons in the SM ferromagnetic layers. We found single-crystal sapphire and single-crystal quartz as good candidates for solid-state Fe / Si Nx SM polarizers. To verify this idea, we coated a thick plate of single-crystal sapphire with a m = 2.5 Fe / Si Nx SM. At the T3 instrument at the ILL, we measured the spin-up and spin-down reflectivity curves with λ = 7.5 Å neutrons incident from the substrate to the interface between the substrate and the SM coating. Results of this experimental test are in excellent agreement with our expectations: the bandwidth of high polarizing power extends significantly into the low- Q region. This finding, together with the possibility to apply a strong magnetizing field, opens a new road to produce high-efficiency solid-state SM polarizers with an extended neutron wavelength bandwidth and near-to-perfect polarizing power.

  11. Recent experimental advances on hydrophobic interactions at solid/water and fluid/water interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hongbo; Shi, Chen; Huang, Jun; Li, Lin; Liu, Guangyi; Zhong, Hong

    2015-03-15

    Hydrophobic effects play important roles in a wide range of natural phenomena and engineering processes such as coalescence of oil droplets in water, air flotation of mineral particles, and folding and assembly of proteins and biomembranes. In this work, the authors highlight recent experimental attempts to reveal the physical origin of hydrophobic effects by directly quantifying the hydrophobic interaction on both solid/water and fluid/water interfaces using state-of-art nanomechanical techniques such as surface forces apparatus and atomic force microscopy (AFM). For solid hydrophobic surfaces of different hydrophobicity, the range of hydrophobic interaction was reported to vary from ∼10 to >100 nm. With various characterization techniques, the very long-ranged attraction (>100 nm) has been demonstrated to be mainly attributed to nonhydrophobic interaction mechanisms such as pre-existing nanobubbles and molecular rearrangement. By ruling out these factors, intrinsic hydrophobic interaction was measured to follow an exponential law with decay length of 1-2 nm with effective range less than 20 nm. On the other hand, hydrophobic interaction measured at fluid interfaces using AFM droplet/bubble probe technique was found to decay with a much shorter length of ∼0.3 nm. This discrepancy of measured decay lengths is proposed to be attributed to inherent physical distinction between solid and fluid interfaces, which impacts the structure of interface-adjacent water molecules. Direct measurement of hydrophobic interaction on a broader range of interfaces and characterization of interfacial water molecular structure using spectroscopic techniques are anticipated to help unravel the origin of this rigidity-related mismatch of hydrophobic interaction and hold promise to uncover the physical nature of hydrophobic effects. With improved understanding of hydrophobic interaction, intrinsic interaction mechanisms of many biological and chemical pathways can be better

  12. Advanced Test Method of Solid Oxide Cells in a Plug-Flow Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Hauch, Anne; Hendriksen, Peter Vang;

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of two electrolysis tests of solid oxide cells [Ni/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-YSZ-lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM)/YSZ] tested in a plug-flow setup. An extensively instrumented cell test setup was used, and the tests involved measurements of the cell...... electrolysis conditions. From measurements of the in-plane voltages in the electrodes and impedance spectra obtained during the electrolysis operation, we derive information about the resistance distributions in the Ni electrodes and describe how these distributions evolve over time. Impedance spectra at open...

  13. Nonlinear optics and solid-state lasers advanced concepts, tuning-fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Jianquan

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the complete spectrum of nonlinear optics and all solid state lasers.The book integrates theory, calculations and practical design, technology, experimental schemes and applications. With the expansion and further development of Laser technology, the wavelength spectrum of Lasers had to be enlarged, even to be tunable which requires the use of nonlinear optical and Laser tunable technology. It systematically summarizes and integrates the analysis of international achievements within the last 20 years in this field. It will be helpful for university teachers, graduate students as well as engineers.

  14. Overcoming resistance to molecularly targeted anticancer therapies: Rational drug combinations based on EGFR and MAPK inhibition for solid tumours and haematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Giampaolo; Bianco, Roberto; Daniele, Gennaro; Ciardiello, Fortunato; McCubrey, James A; Ricciardi, Maria Rosaria; Ciuffreda, Ludovica; Cognetti, Francesco; Tafuri, Agostino; Milella, Michele

    2007-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that cancer can be envisioned as a "signaling disease", in which alterations in the cellular genome affect the expression and/or function of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. This ultimately disrupts the physiologic transmission of biochemical signals that normally regulate cell growth, differentiation and programmed cell death (apoptosis). From a clinical standpoint, signal transduction inhibition as a therapeutic strategy for human malignancies has recently achieved remarkable success. However, as additional drugs move forward into the clinical arena, intrinsic and acquired resistance to "targeted" agents becomes an issue for their clinical utility. One way to overcome resistance to targeted agents is to identify genetic and epigenetic aberrations underlying sensitivity/resistance, thus enabling the selection of patients that will most likely benefit from a specific therapy. Since resistance often ensues as a result of the concomitant activation of multiple, often overlapping, signaling pathways, another possibility is to interfere with multiple, cross-talking pathways involved in growth and survival control in a rational, mechanism-based, fashion. These concepts may be usefully applied, among others, to agents that target two major signal transduction pathways: the one initiated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and the one converging on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of sensitivity/resistance to EGFR inhibitors, as well as the rationale for combining them with other targeted agents, in an attempt to overcome resistance. In the second part of the paper, we review MAPK-targeted agents, focusing on their therapeutic potential in haematologic malignancies, and examine the prospects for combinations of MAPK inhibitors with cytotoxic agents or other signal transduction-targeted agents to obtain synergistic anti-tumour effects.

  15. Design manual for management of solid by-products from advanced coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    Developing coal conversion technologies face major obstacles in byproduct management. This project has developed several management strategies based on field trials of small-scale landfills in an earlier phase of the project, as well as on published/unpublished sources detailing regulatory issues, current industry practice, and reuse opportunities. Field testing, which forms the basis for several of the disposal alternatives presented in this design manual, was limited to byproducts from Ca-based dry SO{sub 2} control technologies, circulating fluidized bed combustion ash, and bubbling bed fluidized bed combustion ash. Data on byproducts from other advanced coal technologies and on reuse opportunities are drawn from other sources (citations following Chapter 3). Field results from the 5 test cases examined under this project, together with results from other ongoing research, provide a basis for predictive modeling of long-term performance of some advanced coal byproducts on exposure to ambient environment. This manual is intended to provide a reference database and development plan for designing, permitting, and operating facilities where advanced coal technology byproducts are managed.

  16. Cuttlebone-like V2O5 Nanofibre Scaffolds – Advances in Structuring Cellular Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöller, Andrea; Runčevski, Tomče; Dinnebier, Robert E.; Bill, Joachim; Burghard, Zaklina

    2017-02-01

    The synthesis of ceramic materials combining high porosity and permeability with good mechanical stability is challenging, as optimising the latter requires compromises regarding the first two properties. Nonetheless, significant progress can be made in this direction by taking advantage of the structural design principles evolved by nature. Natural cellular solids achieve good mechanical stability via a defined hierarchical organisation of the building blocks they are composed of. Here, we report the first synthetic, ceramic-based scaffold whose architecture closely mimics that of cuttlebone –a structural biomaterial whose porosity exceeds that of most other natural cellular solids, whilst preserving an excellent mechanical strength. The nanostructured, single-component scaffold, obtained by ice-templated assembly of V2O5 nanofibres, features a highly sophisticated and elaborate architecture of equally spaced lamellas, which are regularly connected by pillars as lamella support. It displays an unprecedented porosity of 99.8 %, complemented by an enhanced mechanical stability. This novel bioinspired, functional material not only displays mechanical characteristics similar to natural cuttlebone, but the multifunctionality of the V2O5 nanofibres also renders possible applications, including catalysts, sensors and electrodes for energy storage.

  17. Advanced broad-band solid-state supermirror polarizers for cold neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Petukhov, A K; Bigault, T; Courtois, P; Jullien, D; Soldner, T

    2016-01-01

    An ideal solid-state supermirror (SM) neutron polarizer assumes total reflection of neutrons from the SM coating for one spin-component and total absorption for the other, thus providing a perfectly polarized neutron beam at the exit. However, in practice, the substrate's neutron-nucleai optical potential does not match perfectly that for spin-down neutrons in the SM. For a positive step in the optical potential (as in a Fe/SiN(x) SM on Si substrate), this mismatch results in spin-independent total reflection for neutrons with small momentum transfer Q, limiting the useful neutron bandwidth in the low-Q region. To overcome this limitation, we propose to replace Si single-crystal substrates by media with higher optical potential than that for spin-down neutrons in the SM ferromagnetic layers. We found single-crystal sapphire and single-crystal quartz as good candidates for solid-state Fe/SiN(x) SM polarizers. To verify this idea, we coated a thick plate of single-crystal sapphire with a m=2.4 Fe/SiN(x) SM. At ...

  18. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Related Pathways in Hemato-Lymphoid Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Medinger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is essential for malignant tumor growth. This has been documented for solid tumors, and there is an emerging evidence suggesting that tumor progression of hematolymphoid malignancies also depends on the induction of new blood vessel formation. The most important proangiogenic agent is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, activating VEGF receptors 1 and 2. The available data on angiogenesis in hemato-lymphoid malignancies, such as acute leukemias, myelodysplastic syndromes, myeloproliferative neoplasms, multiple myeloma, and lymphomas, point towards the significance of autocrine and paracrine VEGF-mediated effects for proliferation and survival of leukemia/lymphoma cells in addition to tumor vascularization. Antiangiogenic strategies have become an important therapeutic modality for solid tumors. Several antiangiogenic agents targeting VEGF-related pathways are also being utilized in clinical trials for the treatment of hemato-lymphoid malignancies, and in some instances these pathways have emerged as promising therapeutic targets. This review summarizes recent advances in the basic understanding of the role of angiogenesis in hemato-lymphoid malignancies and the translation of such basic findings into clinical studies.

  19. Processing of solid solution, mixed uranium/refractory metal carbides for advanced space nuclear power and propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Travis Warren

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and space nuclear power are two enabling technologies for the manned exploration of space and the development of research outposts in space and on other planets such as Mars. Advanced carbide nuclear fuels have been proposed for application in space nuclear power and propulsion systems. This study examined the processing technologies and optimal parameters necessary to fabricate samples of single phase, solid solution, mixed uranium/refractory metal carbides. In particular, the pseudo-ternary carbide, UC-ZrC-NbC, system was examined with uranium metal mole fractions of 5% and 10% and corresponding uranium densities of 0.8 to 1.8 gU/cc. Efforts were directed to those methods that could produce simple geometry fuel elements or wafers such as those used to fabricate a Square Lattice Honeycomb (SLHC) fuel element and reactor core. Methods of cold uniaxial pressing, sintering by induction heating, and hot pressing by self-resistance heating were investigated. Solid solution, high density (low porosity) samples greater than 95% TD were processed by cold pressing at 150 MPa and sintering above 2600 K for times longer than 90 min. Some impurity oxide phases were noted in some samples attributed to residual gases in the furnace during processing. Also, some samples noted secondary phases of carbon and UC2 due to some hyperstoichiometric powder mixtures having carbon-to-metal ratios greater than one. In all, 33 mixed carbide samples were processed and analyzed with half bearing uranium as ternary carbides of UC-ZrC-NbC. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and density measurements were used to characterize samples. Samples were processed from powders of the refractory mono-carbides and UC/UC 2 or from powders of uranium hydride (UH3), graphite, and refractory metal carbides to produce hypostoichiometric mixed carbides. Samples processed from the constituent carbide powders and sintered at temperatures above the melting point of UC

  20. An open-label study to investigate the cardiac safety profile of cabazitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maison-Blanche, Pierre; Dakhil, Shaker; Baron, Ari;

    2014-01-01

    additional ECG parameters (QT, PR and QRS intervals, and heart rate), plasma pharmacokinetics of cabazitaxel and overall clinical safety. RESULTS: The pharmacodynamic (ECG) population included 94 patients. In 63 patients with a full 24-h ECG evaluation, the maximum upper bound of 90 % confidence interval (CI......PURPOSE: This study assessed the cardiovascular safety of cabazitaxel, based on thorough evaluation of QT and non-QT variables, and the relationship between pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic electrocardiographic (ECG) profiles and the occurrence of Grade ≥3 cardiovascular adverse events. METHODS......: Patients with advanced solid tumors were treated with cabazitaxel 25 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks. Digital ECG recordings were obtained during Cycle 1 over 24 h after dosing. The primary end point was effect of cabazitaxel on QT interval corrected by the Fridericia formula (QTcF). Secondary end points were...

  1. A Dynamic Model for the Interaction Between an Insoluble Particle and an Advancing Solid/Liquid Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina, A. V.; Mukherjee, S.; Stefanescu, D. M.

    2000-01-01

    Most models that describe the interaction of an insoluble particle with an advancing solid-liquid interface are based on the assumption of steady state. However, as demonstrated by experimental work, the process does not reach steady state until the particle is pushed for a while by the interface. In this work, a dynamic mathematical model was developed. The dynamic model demonstrates that this interaction is essentially non-steady state and that steady state eventually occurs only when solidification is conducted at sub-critical velocities. The model was tested for three systems: aluminum-zirconia particles, succinonitrilepolystyrene particles, and biphenyl-glass particles. The calculated values for critical velocity of the pushing/engulfment transition were in same range with the experimental ones.

  2. Phase 1 study of pembrolizumab (MK-3475; anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody) in Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Toshio; Seto, Takashi; Hirai, Fumihiko; Takenoyama, Mitsuhiro; Nosaki, Kaname; Tsurutani, Junji; Kaneda, Hiroyasu; Iwasa, Tsutomu; Kawakami, Hisato; Noguchi, Kazuo; Shimamoto, Takashi; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Background This phase I study evaluated the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, immunogenicity, and antitumor activity of pembrolizumab in Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors. Methods Following an initial dose and a 28-day rest (cycle 1), pembrolizumab was administered as an intravenous infusion at escalating doses (2 or 10 mg/kg) every 2 weeks (Q2W) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed using CTCAE v4.0, and tumor response was assessed using both RECIST v1.1 and immune-related response criteria (irRC). Full pharmacokinetic sampling was performed during cycle 1. Results Three patients received pembrolizumab at 2.0 mg/kg and seven at 10 mg/kg. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed during cycle 1. Eighty percent of patients experienced drug-related AEs (mostly grade 1 or 2); the most common drug-related AEs were nausea, malaise, pyrexia, and aspartate aminotransferase/alanine transaminase (AST/ALT) elevations (n = 2 each). No drug-related grade 4 or 5 AEs occurred. Immune-related AEs comprised grade 3 ALT elevation (n = 1), grade 3 AST elevation (n = 1), grade 1 pneumonitis (n = 1), and grade 1 thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation (n = 1). The safety and pharmacokinetic profiles of Japanese patients were similar to those previously reported for Caucasian patients. A partial tumor response was observed in one patient with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and in one patient with melanoma. Conclusions Pembrolizumab at both 2 and 10 mg/kg Q2W was well tolerated in Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors and showed encouraging anti-tumor activity against melanoma and NSCLC.

  3. International Symposium on Boundary Element Methods : Advances in Solid and Fluid Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, Kadin

    1990-01-01

    The Boundary Element Method (BEM) has become established as an effective tool for the solutions of problems in engineering science. The salient features of the BEM have been well documented in the open literature and therefore will not be elaborated here. The BEM research has progressed rapidly, especially in the past decade and continues to evolve worldwide. This Symposium was organized to provide an international forum for presentation of current research in BEM for linear and nonlinear problems in solid and fluid mechanics and related areas. To this end, papers on the following topics were included: rotary­ wing aerodynamics, unsteady aerodynamics, design and optimization, elasticity, elasto­ dynamics and elastoplasticity, fracture mechanics, acoustics, diffusion and wave motion, thermal analysis, mathematical aspects and boundary/finite element coupled methods. A special session was devoted to parallel/vector supercomputing with emphasis on mas­ sive parallelism. This Symposium was sponsored by United ...

  4. Hot Melt Extruded Amorphous Solid Dispersion of Posaconazole with Improved Bioavailability: Investigating Drug-Polymer Miscibility with Advanced Characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Fule

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive antifungal infections are reasons for morbidity and mortality in immunogenic patients worldwide. Posaconazole is a most promising antifungal agent against all types of invasive infections with high % of cure rate. The marketed suspension formulation has low bioavailability and is needed to be taken with food. In this paper, PCZ hot melt extruded amorphous solid dispersion (SD with immediate release and improved bioavailability was prepared using Soluplus (Sol as primary carrier for solubilization. Surfactants such as PEG 400, Lutrol F27, Lutrol F68, and TPGS are also used in combination with Soluplus to improve the physicochemical performance of the formulation when it comes in contact with GI (gastrointestinal fluid. Drug-polymer miscibility of SD was investigated using advanced techniques. In the in vivo study, the AUC(0–72 and Cmax of PCZ/Soluplus were 11.5 and 11.74 time higher than those of pure PCZ. The formulation of the extrudate SD had an AUC(0–72 and Cmax higher than those with the commercial capsule (Noxafil. Molecular dynamic (MD simulation studies were carried out using in silico molecular modelling to understand the drug-polymer intermolecular behaviour. The results of this research ensure enhanced dissolution and bioavailability of the solid dispersion of PCZ prepared by HME compared with the PCZ suspension.

  5. Hot melt extruded amorphous solid dispersion of posaconazole with improved bioavailability: investigating drug-polymer miscibility with advanced characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fule, Ritesh; Amin, Purnima

    2014-01-01

    Invasive antifungal infections are reasons for morbidity and mortality in immunogenic patients worldwide. Posaconazole is a most promising antifungal agent against all types of invasive infections with high % of cure rate. The marketed suspension formulation has low bioavailability and is needed to be taken with food. In this paper, PCZ hot melt extruded amorphous solid dispersion (SD) with immediate release and improved bioavailability was prepared using Soluplus (Sol) as primary carrier for solubilization. Surfactants such as PEG 400, Lutrol F27, Lutrol F68, and TPGS are also used in combination with Soluplus to improve the physicochemical performance of the formulation when it comes in contact with GI (gastrointestinal) fluid. Drug-polymer miscibility of SD was investigated using advanced techniques. In the in vivo study, the AUC(0-72) and C(max) of PCZ/Soluplus were 11.5 and 11.74 time higher than those of pure PCZ. The formulation of the extrudate SD had an AUC(0-72) and C(max) higher than those with the commercial capsule (Noxafil). Molecular dynamic (MD) simulation studies were carried out using in silico molecular modelling to understand the drug-polymer intermolecular behaviour. The results of this research ensure enhanced dissolution and bioavailability of the solid dispersion of PCZ prepared by HME compared with the PCZ suspension.

  6. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This project has successfully advanced the technology for MSOFC's for coal-based power generation. Major advances include: tape-calendering processing technology, leading to 3X improved performance at 1000 C; stack materials formulations and designs with sufficiently close thermal expansion match for no stack damage after repeated thermal cycling in air; electrically conducting bonding with excellent structural robustness; and sealants that form good mechanical seals for forming manifold structures. A stack testing facility was built for high-spower MSOFC stacks. Comprehensive models were developed for fuel cell performance and for analyzing structural stresses in multicell stacks and electrical resistance of various stack configurations. Mechanical and chemical compatibility properties of fuel cell components were measured; they show that the baseline Ca-, Co-doped interconnect expands and weakens in hydrogen fuel. This and the failure to develop adequate sealants were the reason for performance shortfalls in large stacks. Small (1-in. footprint) two-cell stacks were fabricated which achieved good performance (average area-specific-resistance 1.0 ohm-sq cm per cell); however, larger stacks had stress-induced structural defects causing poor performance.

  7. Stages of Malignant Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... form in the lining of the chest or abdomen. Malignant mesothelioma is a disease in which malignant ( ... that examine the inside of the chest and abdomen are used to detect (find) and diagnose malignant ...

  8. Advanced conceptual design report solid waste retrieval facility, phase I, project W-113

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.E.

    1994-03-21

    Project W-113 will provide the equipment and facilities necessary to retrieve suspect transuranic (TRU) waste from Trench 04 of the 218W-4C burial ground. As part of the retrieval process, waste drums will be assayed, overpacked, vented, head-gas sampled, and x-rayed prior to shipment to the Phase V storage facility in preparation for receipt at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP). Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) studies focused on project items warranting further definition prior to Title I design and areas where the potential for cost savings existed. This ACD Report documents the studies performed during FY93 to optimize the equipment and facilities provided in relation to other SWOC facilities and to provide additional design information for Definitive Design.

  9. Identification and Mitigation of Generated Solid By-Products during Advanced Electrode Materials Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Candace S J; Dysart, Arthur D; Beltz, Jay H; Pol, Vilas G

    2016-03-01

    A scalable, solid-state elevated-temperature process was developed to produce high-capacity carbonaceous electrode materials for energy storage devices via decomposition of a starch-based precursor in an inert atmosphere. In a separate study, it is shown that the fabricated carbonaceous architectures are useful as an excellent electrode material for lithium-ion, sodium-ion, and lithium-sulfur batteries. This article focuses on the study and analysis of the formed nanometer-sized by-products during the lab-scale synthesis of the carbon material. The material production process was studied in operando (that is, during the entire duration of heat treatment). The unknown downstream particles in the process exhaust were collected and characterized via aerosol and liquid suspensions, and they were quantified using direct-reading instruments for number and mass concentrations. The airborne emissions were collected using the Tsai diffusion sampler (TDS) for characterization and further analysis. Released by-product aerosols collected in a deionized (DI) water trap were analyzed, and the aerosols emitted from the post-water-suspension were collected and characterized. After long-term sampling, individual particles in the nanometer size range were observed in the exhaust aerosol with layer-structured aggregates formed on the sampling substrate. Upon the characterization of the released aerosol by-products, methods were identified to mitigate possible human and environmental exposures upon industrial implementation.

  10. Evaluation of Advanced Solid Lubricant Coatings for Foil Air Bearings Operating at 25 and 500 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Fellenstein, James A.; Benoy, Patricia A.

    1998-01-01

    The tribological properties of one chrome oxide and one chrome carbide based solid lubricant coating were evaluated in a partial-arc foil bearing at 25 and 500 C. Start/stop bearing operation up to 20,000 cycles were run under 10 kPa (1.5 psi) static deadweight load. Bearing friction (torque) was measured during the test. Specimen wear and SEM/EDS surface analyses were conducted after testing to understand and elucidate the tribological characteristics observed. The chrome oxide coating which contains both (Ag) and (BaF2/CaF2) for low and high temperature lubrication, exhibited low friction in sliding against Al2O3 coated foils at 25 and 500 C. The chrome carbide coating, which lacked a low temperature lubricant but contained BaF2/CaF2 as a high temperature lubricant, exhibited high friction at 25 C and low friction at 500 C against both bare and Al2O3 coated superalloy foil surfaces. Post test surface analyses suggest that improved tribological performance is exhibited when a lubricant film from the coating transfers to the foil surface.

  11. Advances in the Dynallax solid-state dynamic parallax barrier autostereoscopic visualization display system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterka, T.; Kooima, R. L.; Sandin, D. J.; Johnson, A.; Leigh, J.; DeFanti, T. A.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Univ. of Calif. at San Diego

    2008-05-01

    A solid-state dynamic parallax barrier autostereoscopic display mitigates some of the restrictions present in static barrier systems such as fixed view-distance range, slow response to head movements, and fixed stereo operating mode. By dynamically varying barrier parameters in real time, viewers may move closer to the display and move faster laterally than with a static barrier system, and the display can switch between 3D and 2D modes by disabling the barrier on a per-pixel basis. Moreover, Dynallax can output four independent eye channels when two viewers are present, and both head-tracked viewers receive an independent pair of left-eye and right-eye perspective views based on their position in 3D space. The display device is constructed by using a dual-stacked LCD monitor where a dynamic barrier is rendered on the front display and a modulated virtual environment composed of two or four channels is rendered on the rear display. Dynallax was recently demonstrated in a small-scale head-tracked prototype system. This paper summarizes the concepts presented earlier, extends the discussion of various topics, and presents recent improvements to the system.

  12. Advances in the Dynallax solid-state dynamic parallax barrier autostereoscopic visualization display system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, Tom; Kooima, Robert L; Sandin, Daniel J; Johnson, Andrew; Leigh, Jason; DeFanti, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    A solid-state dynamic parallax barrier autostereoscopic display mitigates some of the restrictions present in static barrier systems, such as fixed view-distance range, slow response to head movements, and fixed stereo operating mode. By dynamically varying barrier parameters in real time, viewers may move closer to the display and move faster laterally than with a static barrier system, and the display can switch between 3D and 2D modes by disabling the barrier on a per-pixel basis. Moreover, Dynallax can output four independent eye channels when two viewers are present, and both head-tracked viewers receive an independent pair of left-eye and right-eye perspective views based on their position in 3D space. The display device is constructed by using a dual-stacked LCD monitor where a dynamic barrier is rendered on the front display and a modulated virtual environment composed of two or four channels is rendered on the rear display. Dynallax was recently demonstrated in a small-scale head-tracked prototype system. This paper summarizes the concepts presented earlier, extends the discussion of various topics, and presents recent improvements to the system.

  13. Vascular Reconstruction in Hepatic Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berumen, Jennifer; Hemming, Alan

    2016-04-01

    With surgery for hepatic malignancy, there are poor options for chemotherapy; many patients are deemed unresectable because of vascular involvement or location of tumors. Over the past few decades, advances in surgical technique have allowed resection of these tumors with vascular reconstruction to achieve negative margins and improve chances for survival. This article reviews those reconstruction techniques and outcomes in detail, including in situ perfusion and ex vivo liver surgery, and provides a discussion of implications and operative planning for patients with hepatic malignancy in order to provide surgeons with better understanding of these complicated operations.

  14. Development of Advanced LED Phosphors by Spray-based Processes for Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabot Corporation

    2007-09-30

    The overarching goal of the project was to develop luminescent materials using aerosol processes for making improved LED devices for solid state lighting. In essence this means improving white light emitting phosphor based LEDs by improvement of the phosphor and phosphor layer. The structure of these types of light sources, displayed in Figure 1, comprises of a blue or UV LED under a phosphor layer that converts the blue or UV light to a broad visible (white) light. Traditionally, this is done with a blue emitting diode combined with a blue absorbing, broadly yellow emitting phosphor such as Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce (YAG). A similar result may be achieved by combining a UV emitting diode and at least three different UV absorbing phosphors: red, green, and blue emitting. These emitted colors mix to make white light. The efficiency of these LEDs is based on the combined efficiency of the LED, phosphor, and the interaction between the two. The Cabot SSL project attempted to improve the over all efficiency of the LED light source be improving the efficiency of the phosphor and the interaction between the LED light and the phosphor. Cabot's spray based process for producing phosphor powders is able to improve the brightness of the powder itself by increasing the activator (the species that emits the light) concentration without adverse quenching effects compared to conventional synthesis. This will allow less phosphor powder to be used, and will decrease the cost of the light source; thus lowering the barrier of entry to the lighting market. Cabot's process also allows for chemical flexibility of the phosphor particles, which may result in tunable emission spectra and so light sources with improved color rendering. Another benefit of Cabot's process is the resulting spherical morphology of the particles. Less light scattering results when spherical particles are used in the phosphor layer (Figure 1) compared to when conventional, irregular shaped

  15. First-in-Class, First-in-Human Phase I Study of Selinexor, a Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export, in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Razak, Albiruni R; Mau-Sørensen, Morten; Gabrail, Nashat Y

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This trial evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy of selinexor (KPT-330), a novel, oral small-molecule inhibitor of exportin 1 (XPO1/CRM1), and determined the recommended phase II dose. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 189 patients with advanced solid tumors...

  16. A phase I, dose-escalation study of TB-403, a monoclonal antibody directed against PlGF, in patients with advanced solid tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, U; Nielsen, D L; Sørensen, M;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: TB-403 (RO 5323441), a humanised monoclonal antibody, is a novel antiangiogenesis agent directed against placental growth factor. The safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and antitumour activity of TB-403 were assessed in a phase I, dose-escalation study in patients with advanced solid...

  17. Research advances in epigenetic and its involvement in human malignancies%表观遗传学在肿瘤中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯海金; 张振华; 闫慧明

    2016-01-01

    Recently, human malignant tumor is become one of main diseases which harm people's health. Tumor is a kind of genetic disease associated with genes, in the evolution process of tumorigenesis, often accompanied by the change of epigenetics, such as DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNA changes. Epigenetic change as a marker of early diagnosis, may also become the new target for cancer prevention and control. This paper reviewed the current research status of epigenetic and its involvement in human malignancies.%肿瘤是目前危害人类最主要的疾病之一,是一类与基因有关的遗传性疾病,在肿瘤发生、演进过程中常伴随有表观遗传学的改变,如:DNA甲基化、组蛋白修饰、染色质重塑、非编码RNA等表观遗传学的改变。表观遗传改变不仅可以作为肿瘤早期诊断的标志,也可能成为肿瘤防治的新靶点。本文对目前表观遗传学研究现状进行综述,阐述表观遗传学在肿瘤中的作用。

  18. Malignant hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollock Neil

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant hyperthermia (MH is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle that presents as a hypermetabolic response to potent volatile anesthetic gases such as halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine, and rarely, in humans, to stresses such as vigorous exercise and heat. The incidence of MH reactions ranges from 1:5,000 to 1:50,000–100,000 anesthesias. However, the prevalence of the genetic abnormalities may be as great as one in 3,000 individuals. MH affects humans, certain pig breeds, dogs, horses, and probably other animals. The classic signs of MH include hyperthermia to marked degree, tachycardia, tachypnea, increased carbon dioxide production, increased oxygen consumption, acidosis, muscle rigidity, and rhabdomyolysis, all related to a hypermetabolic response. The syndrome is likely to be fatal if untreated. Early recognition of the signs of MH, specifically elevation of end-expired carbon dioxide, provides the clinical diagnostic clues. In humans the syndrome is inherited in autosomal dominant pattern, while in pigs in autosomal recessive. The pathophysiologic changes of MH are due to uncontrolled rise of myoplasmic calcium, which activates biochemical processes related to muscle activation. Due to ATP depletion, the muscle membrane integrity is compromised leading to hyperkalemia and rhabdomyolysis. In most cases, the syndrome is caused by a defect in the ryanodine receptor. Over 90 mutations have been identified in the RYR-1 gene located on chromosome 19q13.1, and at least 25 are causal for MH. Diagnostic testing relies on assessing the in vitro contracture response of biopsied muscle to halothane, caffeine, and other drugs. Elucidation of the genetic changes has led to the introduction, on a limited basis so far, of genetic testing for susceptibility to MH. As the sensitivity of genetic testing increases, molecular genetics will be used for identifying those at risk with

  19. Mistletoe in the treatment of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Sakallı Çetin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a malignant neoplasia drives from melanocytes. Malignant melanoma, the most causing death, is seen in the third place at skin cancer. Malignant melanoma shows intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and variability in the course of the disease which are distinct features separating from other solid tumors. These features prevent the development and standardization of non-surgical treatment models of malignant melanoma. Although there is a large number of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma, it hasn’t been demonstrated the survival advantage of adjuvant treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Because of the different clinical course of malignant melanoma, the disease is thought to be closely associated with immune system. Therefore, immunomodulatory therapy models were developed. Mistletoe stimulates the immune system by increasing the number and activity of dendritic cells, thus it has been shown to effect on tumor growth and metastasis of malignant melanoma patient. Outlined in this review are the recent developments in the understanding the role of mistletoe as a complementary therapy for malignant melanoma. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 145-152

  20. Current chemotherapy and new advances in malignant pleural mesothelioma%恶性胸膜间皮瘤治疗新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗凌; 吴聪

    2009-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumor of the pleura. The association between asbestos exposure and the development of MPM has been recognized. The current treatment of MPM includes surgery, radiotherapy,and chemotherapy, but its outcome remains unfavorable. The effects of surgery have not yet been defined because of a lack of randomized trials. The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of MPM remains controversial,as the radiosensitivity of malignant mesothelial cells is modest. The effects of chemotherapy is still relatively poor. Pemetrexed-cisplatin combination regimen has more favorable results in MPM therapy. Muhimodality therapy is regarded as the best treatment of MPM at present.%恶性胸膜间皮瘤是一种胸膜恶性肿瘤,已发现其发生与石棉暴露有关.目前治疗恶性胸膜间皮瘤的方法有手术治疗、化疗和放疗,但效果均不理想.外科手术由于缺乏随机对照研究,其效果仍不确切.放疗因为恶性间皮瘤细胞的放射敏感性一般.故也存在争议.化疗对恶性胸膜间皮瘤的治疗效果相对较差.联合应用培美曲唑与顺铂能达到较好效果.多模式治疗方案被认为是目前治疗恶性胸膜间皮瘤的首选.

  1. Development of a preclinical orthotopic xenograft model of ewing sarcoma and other human malignant bone disease using advanced in vivo imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Vormoor

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma represent the two most common primary bone tumours in childhood and adolescence, with bone metastases being the most adverse prognostic factor. In prostate cancer, osseous metastasis poses a major clinical challenge. We developed a preclinical orthotopic model of Ewing sarcoma, reflecting the biology of the tumour-bone interactions in human disease and allowing in vivo monitoring of disease progression, and compared this with models of osteosarcoma and prostate carcinoma. Human tumour cell lines were transplanted into non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NSG and Rag2(-/-/γc(-/- mice by intrafemoral injection. For Ewing sarcoma, minimal cell numbers (1000-5000 injected in small volumes were able to induce orthotopic tumour growth. Tumour progression was studied using positron emission tomography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and bioluminescent imaging. Tumours and their interactions with bones were examined by histology. Each tumour induced bone destruction and outgrowth of extramedullary tumour masses, together with characteristic changes in bone that were well visualised by computed tomography, which correlated with post-mortem histology. Ewing sarcoma and, to a lesser extent, osteosarcoma cells induced prominent reactive new bone formation. Osteosarcoma cells produced osteoid and mineralised "malignant" bone within the tumour mass itself. Injection of prostate carcinoma cells led to osteoclast-driven osteolytic lesions. Bioluminescent imaging of Ewing sarcoma xenografts allowed easy and rapid monitoring of tumour growth and detection of tumour dissemination to lungs, liver and bone. Magnetic resonance imaging proved useful for monitoring soft tissue tumour growth and volume. Positron emission tomography proved to be of limited use in this model. Overall, we have developed an orthotopic in vivo model for Ewing sarcoma and other primary and secondary human bone malignancies, which

  2. NMS-P937, an orally available, specific small-molecule polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor with antitumor activity in solid and hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsasina, Barbara; Beria, Italo; Alli, Cristina; Alzani, Rachele; Avanzi, Nilla; Ballinari, Dario; Cappella, Paolo; Caruso, Michele; Casolaro, Alessia; Ciavolella, Antonella; Cucchi, Ulisse; De Ponti, Anna; Felder, Eduard; Fiorentini, Francesco; Galvani, Arturo; Gianellini, Laura M; Giorgini, Maria L; Isacchi, Antonella; Lansen, Jaqueline; Pesenti, Enrico; Rizzi, Simona; Rocchetti, Maurizio; Sola, Francesco; Moll, Jürgen

    2012-04-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is a serine/threonine protein kinase considered to be the master player of cell-cycle regulation during mitosis. It is indeed involved in centrosome maturation, bipolar spindle formation, chromosome separation, and cytokinesis. PLK1 is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors and its overexpression often correlates with poor prognosis. Although five different PLKs are described in humans, depletion or inhibition of kinase activity of PLK1 is sufficient to induce cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cell lines and in xenograft tumor models. NMS-P937 is a novel, orally available PLK1-specific inhibitor. The compound shows high potency in proliferation assays having low nanomolar activity on a large number of cell lines, both from solid and hematologic tumors. NMS-P937 potently causes a mitotic cell-cycle arrest followed by apoptosis in cancer cell lines and inhibits xenograft tumor growth with clear PLK1-related mechanism of action at well-tolerated doses in mice after oral administration. In addition, NMS-P937 shows potential for combination in clinical settings with approved cytotoxic drugs, causing tumor regression in HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma xenografts upon combination with irinotecan and prolonged survival of animals in a disseminated model of acute myelogenous leukemia in combination with cytarabine. NMS-P937, with its favorable pharmacologic parameters, good oral bioavailability in rodent and nonrodent species, and proven antitumor activity in different preclinical models using a variety of dosing regimens, potentially provides a high degree of flexibility in dosing schedules and warrants investigation in clinical settings.

  3. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  4. Advanced solid-state NMR techniques for characterization of membrane protein structure and dynamics: Application to Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Meaghan E.; Brown, Leonid S.; Ladizhansky, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Studies of the structure, dynamics, and function of membrane proteins (MPs) have long been considered one of the main applications of solid-state NMR (SSNMR). Advances in instrumentation, and the plethora of new SSNMR methodologies developed over the past decade have resulted in a number of high-resolution structures and structural models of both bitopic and polytopic α-helical MPs. The necessity to retain lipids in the sample, the high proportion of one type of secondary structure, differential dynamics, and the possibility of local disorder in the loop regions all create challenges for structure determination. In this Perspective article we describe our recent efforts directed at determining the structure and functional dynamics of Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin, a heptahelical transmembrane (7TM) protein. We review some of the established and emerging methods which can be utilized for SSNMR-based structure determination, with a particular focus on those used for ASR, a bacterial protein which shares its 7TM architecture with G-protein coupled receptors.

  5. Advanced solid-state NMR techniques for characterization of membrane protein structure and dynamics: application to Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Meaghan E; Brown, Leonid S; Ladizhansky, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Studies of the structure, dynamics, and function of membrane proteins (MPs) have long been considered one of the main applications of solid-state NMR (SSNMR). Advances in instrumentation, and the plethora of new SSNMR methodologies developed over the past decade have resulted in a number of high-resolution structures and structural models of both bitopic and polytopic α-helical MPs. The necessity to retain lipids in the sample, the high proportion of one type of secondary structure, differential dynamics, and the possibility of local disorder in the loop regions all create challenges for structure determination. In this Perspective article we describe our recent efforts directed at determining the structure and functional dynamics of Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin, a heptahelical transmembrane (7TM) protein. We review some of the established and emerging methods which can be utilized for SSNMR-based structure determination, with a particular focus on those used for ASR, a bacterial protein which shares its 7TM architecture with G-protein coupled receptors.

  6. Radiation dose and relapse are predictors for development of second malignant solid tumors after cancer in childhood and adolescence: A population-based case-control study in the five Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svahn-Tapper, Gudrun [Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics

    2006-06-15

    The aim of the study was to assess the risk with radiation therapy and chemotherapy of the first cancer in childhood and adolescence for the development of a second malignant solid tumor (SMST). Also, the role of relapse of the primary tumor was studied. It is a nested case-control study within a Nordic cohort of patients less than 20 years of age at first diagnosis 1960-1987. SMSTs were diagnosed in 1960-1991. There were 196 cases and 567 controls. The risk was increased only for radiotherapy given more than five years before the development of the SMST. A significantly increased relative risk of 1.8 was found already at doses below 1 Gy. The risk increased rapidly up to a maximum of 18.3 for doses above 30 Gy. Chemotherapy alone did not increase the risk to develop an SMST. However, in combination with radiotherapy, chemotherapy showed a significant potentiating effect. Relapse was found to be an independent risk factor for development of an SMST, with a higher relative risk for females than for males.

  7. Established and Emerging Biomarkers in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatina Verykiou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In an era of personalized medicine, disease specific biomarkers play an increasing role in the stratification of high-risk patient groups. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer with an ever-increasing global incidence, especially in patients under 35-years of age. Despite the excellent prognosis for patients diagnosed with early stage disease, metastatic disease still carries significant overall mortality. Biomarkers aim not only to identify high-risk patients, but also to provide potential therapeutic targets for differing patient subgroups. Furthermore, accessibility to tissue samples from a range of disease stages in malignant melanoma, unlike most other solid tissue tumours, provides the unique opportunity to explore the biology of tumour progression that may be relevant in the biology of cancer as a whole. Over the past decade, there have been major advances in targeted therapies, providing new avenues and hope to patients with this devastating disease. This review will focus on most up to date histological, serological and molecular biomarkers in malignant melanoma.

  8. 舒适护理对晚期恶性肿瘤患者的满意度研究%Comfortable nursing satisfaction research in patients with advanced malignant tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈媛霞

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨舒适护理对晚期恶性肿瘤患者临终护理的满意度研究。方法2012~2013年收治的晚期恶性肿瘤患者86例,其中男性51例,女性35例,年龄64~83岁。随机对48例行常规护理的恶性肿瘤患者作为对照组,38例晚期恶性肿瘤患者采用舒适护理作为观察组。满意度按照百分制分为≥90分为满意、60~89分为一般、≤60分为不满意3个等级。使用SPSS11.0软件包进行χ2检验, P<0.05为差异有统计学意义。结果观察组在舒适护理模式下38例患者的满意度为94.6%,而对照组在常规护理模式下48例患者的满意度为80.2%,舒适护理组晚期恶性肿瘤患者的满意度明显高于常规护理组差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论护理人员借助优质的舒适护理的手段和技术,采取行之有效的心理护理、疼痛护理措施,可使患者感受到个性化舒适临终关怀,提高患者满意度,维持患者的生存希望。%Objective To explore the comfortable nursing in patients with late malignant tumor palliative care satisfaction research. Methods Collected from 2012 to 2013 with 86 patients with advanced malignant tumor, men 51 cases, women 35 cases, the age of 64~83 years old. Random 48 routine nursing care of malignant tumor patients as control group, 38 cases of late malignant tumor patients using comfortable nursing as observation group. Satisfaction in accordance with the centesimal system is divided into 90 divided into satisfaction, 60~89 is divided into general, dissatisfied with 60 or less divided into three grades. Using SPSS11.0 software package for chi-square test, P<0.05 for the difference was statistically significant. Results Comfortable nursing observation group of the comfortable nursing mode of 38 cases of patients' satisfaction was 94.6%, Conventional nursing mode of 48 patients satisfaction was 80.2%, Comfortable nursing group and satisfaction of patients with advanced malignant tumor was obviously

  9. Introduction of laser initiation for the 48-inch Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) test motors at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Chris J.; Litzinger, Gerald E.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor is a new design for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. The new design will provide more thrust and more payload capability, as well as incorporating many design improvements in all facets of the design and manufacturing process. A 48-inch (diameter) test motor program is part of the ASRM development program. This program has multiple purposes for testing of propellent, insulation, nozzle characteristics, etc. An overview of the evolution of the 48-inch ASRM test motor ignition system which culminated with the implementation of a laser ignition system is presented. The laser system requirements, development, and operation configuration are reviewed in detail.

  10. A Phase Ib Study of the VEGF Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Tivozanib and Modified FOLFOX-6 in Patients With Advanced Gastrointestinal Malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenhuis, Corina N.; Loos, Walter J.; Esteves, Brooke; van Doorn, Leni; Cotreau, Monette M.; Strahs, Andrew L.; den Hollander, Martha W.; Gietema, Jourik A.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Eskens, Ferry A. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Combining a modified (m)FOLFOX-6 (leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil [5-FU], and 85 mg/kg(2) oxaliplatin) regimen with antiangiogenic therapy is a standard treatment option in advanced colorectal cancer. In this phase Ib study, safety, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of tivozanib with mFOLFOX-6 wer

  11. 晚期恶性肿瘤血清VEGF含量测定的临床意义%Clinical significance of serum vascular endothelial growth factor in advanced malignant tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingcheng Lin; De Zeng; Hongbiao Wang; Wenzhao Lin; Wen Lin; Chaoqun Hong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the clinical significance of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level in patients with advanced cancer. Methods: Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the serum VEGF concentration in 40 patients with advanced cancer [non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), esophageal cancer (EC) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)] before and after chemotherapy and 10 healthy volunteers as control group. Results: The serum VEGF concentrations in 40 cases of advanced cancer patients were significantly higher than those of 10 healthy control cases [(477.07 ± 374.10 ) pg/mL vs (139.09 ± 133.41 ) pg/mL; P = 0.016]. The serum VEGF concentrations in patients with NSCLC, EC and NPC were (518.53 ± 378.99) pg/mL, (399.21 ± 393.69) pg/mL and (500.68 ± 348.48) pg/mL, respectively. The differences were all statistically significant as compared with healthy control group (P values were 0.011,0.044 and 0.019, respectively). The serum VEGF concentrations of the patients in response to chemotherapy was significantly lower than those of the same patients before they undergoing chemotherapy [(400.41 + 332.84) pg/mL vs (777.10 ± 666.01) pg/mL; P = 0.034]. Conclusion: The serum VEGF level might be a novel and promising tumor marker of advanced malignancies and a predictor of disease progression, prognosis and therapeutic efficacy.

  12. Gynecologic Malignancies Post-LeFort Colpocleisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayan Elkattah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. LeFort colpocleisis (LFC is a safe and effective obliterative surgical option for older women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse who no longer desire coital activity. A major disadvantage is the limited ability to evaluate for post-LFC gynecologic malignancies. Methods. We present the first case of endometrioid ovarian cancer diagnosed after LFC and review all reported gynecologic malignancies post-LFC in the English medical literature. Results. This is the second reported ovarian cancer post-LFC and the first of the endometrioid subtype. A total of nine other gynecologic malignancies post-LFC have been reported in the English medical literature. Conclusions. Gynecologic malignancies post-LFC are rare. We propose a simple 3-step strategy in evaluating post-LFC malignancies.

  13. Greenhouse gas accounting of the proposed landfill extension and advanced incineration facility for municipal solid waste management in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woon, K.S.; Lo, Irene M.C., E-mail: cemclo@ust.hk

    2013-08-01

    The burgeoning of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal issue and climate change have drawn massive attention from people. On the one hand, Hong Kong is facing a controversial debate over the implementation of proposed landfill extension (LFE) and advanced incineration facility (AIF) to curb the MSW disposal issue. On the other hand, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government is taking concerted efforts to reduce the carbon intensity in this region. This paper discusses the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from four proposed waste disposal scenarios, covering the proposed LFE and AIF within a defined system boundary. On the basis of the data collected, assumptions made, and system boundary defined in this study, the results indicate that AIF releases less GHG emissions than LFE. The GHG emissions from LFE are highly contributed by the landfill methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions but offset by biogenic carbon storage, while the GHG emissions from AIF are mostly due to the stack discharge system but offset by the energy recovery system. Furthermore, parametric sensitivity analyses show that GHG emissions are strongly dependent on the landfill CH{sub 4} recovery rate, types of electricity displaced by energy recovery systems, and the heating value of MSW, altering the order of preferred waste disposal scenarios. This evaluation provides valuable insights into the applicability of a policy framework for MSW management practices in reducing GHG emissions. Highlights: • AIF is better than LFE with regard to GHG emissions in Hong Kong. • Major individual sub-processes of LFE and AIF for GHG emissions are investigated. • GHG emissions for LFE and AIF are strongly dependent on studied parametric sensitivity analyses. • Findings are valuable for sustainable MSW management and GHG reductions in waste sector.

  14. Factors affecting the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of PEGylated liposomal irinotecan (IHL-305) in patients with advanced solid tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huali; Infante, Jeffrey R; Keedy, Vicki L; Jones, Suzanne F; Chan, Emily; Bendell, Johanna C; Lee, Wooin; Kirschbrown, Whitney P; Zamboni, Beth A; Ikeda, Satoshi; Kodaira, Hiroshi; Rothenberg, Mace L; Burris, Howard A; Zamboni, William C

    2015-01-01

    IHL-305 is a PEGylated liposomal formulation of irinotecan (CPT-11). The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with interpatient variability in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of IHL-305 in patients with advanced solid tumors. IHL-305 was administered intravenously once every 4 weeks as part of a Phase I study. Pharmacokinetic studies of the liposomal sum total CPT-11, released CPT-11, SN-38, SN-38G, 7-ethyl-10-[4-N-(5-aminopentanoic acid)-1-piperidino]-carbonyloxycamptothecin, and 7-ethyl-10-[4-amino-1-piperidino]-carbonyloxycamptothecin in plasma were performed. Noncompartmental and compartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were conducted using pharmacokinetic data for sum total CPT-11. The pharmacokinetic variability of IHL-305 is associated with linear and nonlinear clearance. Patients whose age and body composition (ratio of total body weight to ideal body weight [TBW/IBW]) were greater than the median age and TBW/IBW of the study had a 1.7-fold to 2.6-fold higher ratio of released CPT-11 area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) to sum total CPT-11 AUC. Patients aged <60 years had a 1.3-fold higher ratio of percent decrease in monocytes at nadir to percent decrease in absolute neutrophil count at nadir as compared with patients aged ≥60 years. There was an inverse relationship between patient age and percent decrease in monocytes at nadir, ie, younger patients have a higher percent decrease in monocytes. Patients with a higher percent decrease in monocytes at nadir have a decreased plasma exposure of sum total CPT-11. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of IHL-305 are consistent with those of other PEGylated liposomal carriers. Interpatient variability in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of IHL-305 was associated with age, body composition, and monocytes. PMID:25709442

  15. Nursing Experience of 852 Cases of Adverse Reaction of Chemotherapy in Children with Malignant Solid Tumors%852例实体恶性肿瘤患儿化疗不良反应的护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢艳; 王倩

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the care of children with solid malignancies 852 cases of adverse reactions to chemotherapy. Methods 852 cases occur ed during summarizes adverse reactions to chemotherapy in children with cancer care measures. Results 852 cases of cancer in children, with varying degrees of adverse ef ects during chemotherapy, through ef ective nursing intervention to reduce the pain caused by chemotherapy, reduce complications and improve quality of life, and to the successful completion of chemotherapy plan . Conclusion During chemotherapy cor ect and timely treatment and care can ef ectively reduce the incidence of complications, so that children can successful y complete chemotherapy program.%目的:探讨852例实体恶性肿瘤患儿化疗不良反应的护理。方法分析总结852例恶性肿瘤患儿化疗期间出现不良反应的护理措施。结果852例恶性肿瘤患儿,在化疗期间出现不同程度的不良反应,通过有效的护理干预,降低因化疗而带来的痛苦,减少并发症的发生,提高生活质量,并能顺利完成化疗计划。结论化疗期间正确及时的治疗与护理能有效减少并发症的发生,使患儿能顺利完成化疗计划。

  16. Inhibition of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) Leads to Abrogation of the Malignant Phenotype in Aggressive Pediatric Renal Malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megison, Michael L.; Gillory, Lauren A.; Stewart, Jerry E.; Nabers, Hugh C.; Mrozcek-Musulman, Elizabeth; Beierle, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the tremendous advances in the treatment of childhood kidney tumors, there remain subsets of pediatric renal tumors that continue to pose a therapeutic challenge, mainly malignant rhabdoid kidney tumors and non-osseous renal Ewing sarcoma. Children with advanced, metastatic or relapsed disease have a disease-free survival rate under 30%. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that is important in many facets of tumor development and progression. FAK has been found in other pediatric solid tumors and in adult renal cellular carcinoma, leading us to hypothesize that FAK would be present in pediatric kidney tumors and would impact their cellular survival. In the current study, we showed that FAK was present and phosphorylated in pediatric kidney tumor specimens. We also examined the effects of FAK inhibition upon G401 and SK-NEP-1 cell lines utilizing a number of parallel approaches to block FAK including RNAi and small molecule FAK inhibitors. FAK inhibition resulted in decreased cellular survival, invasion and migration, and increased apoptosis. Further, small molecule inhibition of FAK led to decreased tumor growth in a nude mouse SK-NEP-1 xenograft model. The findings from this study will help to further our understanding of the regulation of tumorigenesis in rare pediatric renal tumors, and may provide desperately needed novel therapeutic strategies and targets for these rare, but difficult to treat, malignancies. PMID:24464916

  17. Karnofsky Performance Status and Lactate Dehydrogenase Predict the Benefit of Palliative Whole-Brain Irradiation in Patients With Advanced Intra- and Extracranial Metastases From Malignant Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partl, Richard, E-mail: richard.partl@medunigraz.at [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Richtig, Erika [Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Avian, Alexander; Berghold, Andrea [Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Kapp, Karin S. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To determine prognostic factors that allow the selection of melanoma patients with advanced intra- and extracerebral metastatic disease for palliative whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) or best supportive care. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study of 87 patients who underwent palliative WBRT between 1988 and 2009 for progressive or multiple cerebral metastases at presentation. Uni- and multivariate analysis took into account the following patient- and tumor-associated factors: gender and age, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), neurologic symptoms, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, number of intracranial metastases, previous resection or stereotactic radiosurgery of brain metastases, number of extracranial metastasis sites, and local recurrences as well as regional lymph node metastases at the time of WBRT. Results: In univariate analysis, KPS, LDH, number of intracranial metastases, and neurologic symptoms had a significant influence on overall survival. In multivariate survival analysis, KPS and LDH remained as significant prognostic factors, with hazard ratios of 3.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-6.5) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.6-4.9), respectively. Patients with KPS ≥70 and LDH ≤240 U/L had a median survival of 191 days; patients with KPS ≥70 and LDH >240 U/L, 96 days; patients with KPS <70 and LDH ≤240 U/L, 47 days; and patients with KPS <70 and LDH >240 U/L, only 34 days. Conclusions: Karnofsky performance status and serum LDH values indicate whether patients with advanced intra- and extracranial tumor manifestations are candidates for palliative WBRT or best supportive care.

  18. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  19. A phase 1 dose-escalation study of the oral histone deacetylase inhibitor abexinostat in combination with standard hypofractionated radiotherapy in advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Eric; Cohen-Jonathan Moyal, Elizabeth; Gregorc, Vanesa; Zucali, Paolo Andrea; Menard, Jean; Soria, Jean-Charles; Kloos, Ioana; Hsu, Jeff; Luan, Ying; Liu, Emily; Vezan, Remus; Graef, Thorsten; Rivera, Sofia

    2016-12-24

    Current treatments for advanced solid tumors tend to be only palliative. Although radiotherapy is administered with a curative intent, radioresistance and dose-limiting toxicities pose limitations to treatment. Abexinostat, an oral pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to radiation in various solid tumor cell lines. We conducted an exploratory, phase 1, dose-escalation study of abexinostat in combination with standard hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with advanced solid tumors treated in a palliative setting. Among 58 treated patients, the median age was 61.5 years (range, 20-82); 47% of the patients had M1 stage disease, and 95% had received previous chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy in combination with surgery and/or radiotherapy. The recommended phase 2 dose was determined to be 90 mg/m2 (140 mg). Of the 51 patients evaluable for response, best overall response was 8% (1 complete response [CR], 3 partial responses [PRs]), and best loco-regional response was 12% (1 CR and 5 PRs) at a median follow-up of 16 weeks. Of note, patients with target or non-target brain lesions showed encouraging responses, with 1 patient achieving a best loco-regional response of CR. Treatment-emergent grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs) were few, with most common being thrombocytopenia (17%), lymphopenia (12%), and hypokalemia (7%). Six patients (10%) discontinued treatment due to AEs. No grade ≥3 prolongation of the QTc interval was observed, with no treatment discontinuations due to this AE. Oral abexinostat combined with radiotherapy was well tolerated in patients with advanced solid tumors. The combination may have potential for treatment of patients with brain lesions.

  20. The Interaction Between an Insoluble Particle and an Advancing Solid/Liquid Interface: Micro-Gravity Experiments and Theoretical Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina, Adrian V.; Ssen, Subhayu; Stefanescu, Doru M.

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of an insoluble particle with an advancing solid/liquid interface (SLI) has been a subject of investigation for the past four decades. While the original interest stemmed from geology applications (e.g., frost heaving in soil), researchers soon realized that the complex science associated with such an interaction is relevant to many other scientific fields encompassing metal matrix composites (MMCs), high temperature superconductors, inclusion management in steel, growth of monotectics, and preservation of biological cells. During solidification of a liquid containing an insoluble particle, three distinct interaction phenomena have been experimentally observed: instantaneous engulfment of the particle, continuous pushing, and particle pushing followed by engulfment. It was also observed that for given experimental conditions and particle size there is a critical solidification velocity, V(sub cr), above which a particle is engulfed. During solidification of MMCs pushing leads to particle agglomeration at the grain boundaries and this has detrimental effects on mechanical properties of the casting. Consequently, the process must be designed for instantaneous engulfment to occur. This implies the development of accurate theoretical models to predict V(sub cr), and perform benchmark experiments to test the validity of such models. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the pushing/engulfment phenomenon (PEP), its quantification in terms of the material and processing parameters remains a focus of research. Since natural convection currents occurring during terrestrial solidification experiments complicate the study of PEP, execution of experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) has been approved and funded by NASA. Extensive terrestrial (1g) experiments and preliminary micro-gravity (mu g) experiments on two space shuttle missions have been conducted in preparation for future experiments on the ISS. The investigated

  1. An Open-Label, Multicenter, Phase 1/2 Study of E7438 (EZH2 Histone Methyl Transferase [HMT] Inhibitor) as a Single Agent in Subjects With Advanced Solid Tumors or With B-cell Lymphomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    B-cell Lymphomas (Phase 1); Advanced Solid Tumors (Phase 1); Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (Phase 2); Follicular Lymphoma (Phase 2); Transformed Follicular Lymphoma; Primary Mediastinal Large B-Cell Lymphoma

  2. Phase I dose-escalation study of the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus and the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat in patients with advanced malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Haeseong; Garrido-Laguna, Ignacio; Naing, Aung; Fu, Siqing; Falchook, Gerald S.; Piha-Paul, Sarina A.; Wheler, Jennifer J.; Hong, David S.; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M.; Subbiah, Vivek; Zinner, Ralph G.; Kaseb, Ahmed O.; Patel, Shreyaskumar; Fanale, Michelle A.; Velez-Bravo, Vivianne M.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Kurzrock, Razelle; Janku, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical models suggest that histone deacetylase (HDAC) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors have synergistic anticancer activity. We designed a phase I study to determine the safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), recommended phase II dose (RP2D), and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of combined mTOR inhibitor sirolimus (1 mg-5 mg PO daily) and HDAC inhibitor vorinostat (100 mg-400 mg PO daily) in patients with advanced cancer. Seventy patients were enrolled and 46 (66%) were evaluable for DLT assessment since they completed cycle 1 without dose modification unless they had DLT. DLTs comprised grade 4 thrombocytopenia (n = 6) and grade 3 mucositis (n = 1). Sirolimus 4 mg and vorinostat 300 mg was declared RP2D because MTD with sirolimus 5 mg caused significant thrombocytopenia. The grade 3 and 4 drug-related toxic effects (including DLTs) were thrombocytopenia (31%), neutropenia (8%), anemia (7%), fatigue (3%), mucositis (1%), diarrhea (1%), and hyperglycemia (1%). Of the 70 patients, 35 (50%) required dose interruption or modification and 61 were evaluable for response. Partial responses were observed in refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (−78%) and perivascular epithelioid tumor (−54%), and stable disease in hepatocellular carcinoma and fibromyxoid sarcoma. In conclusion, the combination of sirolimus and vorinostat was feasible, with thrombocytopenia as the main DLT. Preliminary anticancer activity was observed in patients with refractory Hodgkin lymphoma, perivascular epithelioid tumor, and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27589687

  3. A prospective study of an alemtuzumab containing reduced-intensity allogeneic stem cell transplant program in patients with poor-risk and advanced lymphoid malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Craig S; Chou, Joanne F; Papadopoulos, Esperanza B; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Jakubowski, Ann A; Young, James W; Scordo, Michael; Giralt, Sergio; Castro-Malaspina, Hugo

    2014-12-01

    Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens for allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT) have used alemtuzumab to abrogate the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Thirty-eight patients with advanced lymphoma underwent a prospective phase II study of melphalan, fludarabine and alemtuzumab containing RIC allo-SCT from 20 matched related and 18 unrelated donors with cyclosporine-A as GVHD prophylaxis. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD at 3 months was 10.5% and three evaluable patients experienced chronic GVHD. Progression-free (PFS) and overall (OS) survival at 5 years was 25% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 13-40%) and 44% (95% CI: 28-59%), respectively. Previous high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplant (HDT-ASCT) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) at the time of allo-SCT resulted in inferior OS. Within this cohort of patients with high-risk lymphoma, alemtuzumab containing RIC resulted in a low risk of GVHD and a high incidence of progression of disease, especially in those with poor-risk features defined by elevated LDH pre-allo-SCT and previous HDT-ASCT.

  4. Malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients in India: Initial experience in the HAART era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra K Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Malignancies in HIV-infected adult patients were infrequent in patients attending the clinic. Majority of the patients presented with advanced immunosuppression and the ADCs, NHL in particular, were the commonest malignancies.

  5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Turbine Hybrid Power System for Advanced Aero-propulsion and Power Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)/ gas turbine hybrid power systems (HPSs) have been recognized by federal agencies and other entities as having the potential to operate...

  6. Advanced Manufacturing of Intermediate Temperature, Direct Methane Oxidation Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Durable Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation builds on the successes of the Phase I program by integrating our direct oxidation membrane electrode assembly (MEA) into a monolithic solid...

  7. Advanced manufacturing of intermediate temperature, direct methane oxidation membrane electrode assemblies for durable solid oxide fuel cell Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ITN proposes to create an innovative anode supported membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) that is capable of long-term operation at...

  8. Gamma-Secretase/Notch Signalling Pathway Inhibitor RO4929097 and Temsirolimus in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-29

    Endometrial Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  9. Pedunculated malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhat Ramesha

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedunculated malignant melanoma is a rare occurrence. A 29 year old woman presented with a pedunculated malignant melanoma on a congenital melanocytic naevus with halo. Pedunculated malignant melanoma is known to have a high incidence of metastasis. The absence of metastasis and the presence of halo, in the case presented, suggests, that the body′s immunological process may have arrested the spread of the melanoma.

  10. Malignant colorectal polyps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luis; Bujanda; Angel; Cosme; Ines; Gil; Juan; I; Arenas-Mirave

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, the number of cases in which malignant colorectal polyps are removed is increasing due to colorectal cancer screening programmes. Cancerous polyps are classified into non-invasive high grade neoplasia (NHGN), when the cancer has not reached the muscularis mucosa, and malignant polyps, classed as T1, when they have invaded the submucosa. NHGN is considered cured with polypectomy, while the prognosis for malignant polyps depends on various morphological and histological factors. The prognostic facto...

  11. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Roberts; Dianne M. Runk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Originally described in 1838 by Muller, phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm which represents roughly 0.3–0.9% of all breast cancers. Phyllodes tumor are divided into benign, borderline and malignant histologic categories. Malignant phyllodes tumor represent anywhere from 10–30% of all phyllodes tumors. This group has both the potential to recur locally and metastasize, however not all malignant phyllodes behave this way. The challenge lays in predicting which tumo...

  12. Development of an image converter of radical design. [employing solid state electronics towards the production of an advanced engineering model camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, E. L.; Farnsworth, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    A long term investigation of thin film sensors, monolithic photo-field effect transistors, and epitaxially diffused phototransistors and photodiodes to meet requirements to produce acceptable all solid state, electronically scanned imaging system, led to the production of an advanced engineering model camera which employs a 200,000 element phototransistor array (organized in a matrix of 400 rows by 500 columns) to secure resolution comparable to commercial television. The full investigation is described for the period July 1962 through July 1972, and covers the following broad topics in detail: (1) sensor monoliths; (2) fabrication technology; (3) functional theory; (4) system methodology; and (5) deployment profile. A summary of the work and conclusions are given, along with extensive schematic diagrams of the final solid state imaging system product.

  13. Malignant Vagal Paraganglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamersley, Erin R S; Barrows, Amy; Perez, Angel; Schroeder, Ashley; Castle, James T

    2016-06-01

    Paragangliomas are rare, typically benign neuroendocrine tumors that represent a small portion of head and neck tumors. A small percentage of these are known to have malignant potential. They arise from the carotid body, jugular bulb or vagus nerves. There is limited literature discussing the management of malignant vagal paragangliomas. We present a case of a 25 year old female with a left malignant vagal paraganglioma. The following case presentation will describe the presentation, classic radiologic findings, and management of a malignant vagal paraganglioma along with a review of the literature.

  14. Factors affecting the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of PEGylated liposomal irinotecan (IHL-305 in patients with advanced solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu H

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Huali Wu,1 Jeffrey R Infante,2 Vicki L Keedy,3 Suzanne F Jones,2 Emily Chan,3 Johanna C Bendell,2 Wooin Lee,4 Whitney P Kirschbrown,1 Beth A Zamboni,5 Satoshi Ikeda,6 Hiroshi Kodaira,6 Mace L Rothenberg,3 Howard A Burris III,2 William C Zamboni1,7–9 1UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 2Sarah Cannon Research Institute/Tennessee Oncology, PLLC, 3Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 5Department of Mathematics, Carlow University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 6Yakult Honsha Co., Ltd., Medical Development Department, Tokyo, Japan; 7UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, 8UNC Institute for Pharmacogenomics and Individualized Therapy, 9Carolina Center for Cancer Nanotechology Excellence, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: IHL-305 is a PEGylated liposomal formulation of irinotecan (CPT-11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with interpatient variability in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of IHL-305 in patients with advanced solid tumors. IHL-305 was administered intravenously once every 4 weeks as part of a Phase I study. Pharmacokinetic studies of the liposomal sum total CPT-11, released CPT-11, SN-38, SN-38G, 7-ethyl-10-[4-N-(5-aminopentanoic acid-1-piperidino]-carbonyloxycamptothecin, and 7-ethyl-10-[4-amino-1-piperidino]-carbonyloxycamptothecin in plasma were performed. Noncompartmental and compartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were conducted using pharmacokinetic data for sum total CPT-11. The pharmacokinetic variability of IHL-305 is associated with linear and nonlinear clearance. Patients whose age and body composition (ratio of total body weight to ideal body weight [TBW/IBW] were greater than the median age and TBW/IBW of the study had a 1.7-fold to 2.6-fold higher ratio of released CPT-11 area under the concentration versus time

  15. 血管紧张素II及其受体与恶性肿瘤关系的研究进展%Advance in Research of Angiotensin II and Its Receptor and Malignant Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹿璐; 史健

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin AngII, a linear small peptide,which is composed of eight amino acids, is the main effectors of renin-angiotensin systen (Renin-angiotensin system, ARS). AngII, a main biopolypeptide of the ARS, has important patho-physiologic in effects participating in cardiac hypertrophy, vascular cell proproliferation, inlfammation and tissue remodeling through G-protein-coupled receptors. In recent years, Ang II can promote tumor cell proliferation, tumor vessel formation and inhibit the differentiation of the tumor cells. hTis suggests that inhibit the production of AngII or block its effect is expected to become a new measure for the treatment of malignant tumors. hTis article reviews the advances in research on the relationship between AngII and its receptor and malignant tumor in recent years.%血管紧张素II(angiotensin II, AngII)是由8个氨基酸组成的线性小肽,是肾素-血管紧张素系统(re-nin-angiotensinsystem, ARS)主要的效应因子。AngII主要的作用受体有两个,血管紧张素II1型(angiotensin II 1 recep-tor, AT1R)和AT2R分别是AngII作用于靶细胞表面的特异性G蛋白偶联1型和2型受体。AngII通过上述两种受体参与调节血管舒缩、水盐平衡、炎性反应、细胞增殖、细胞凋亡等生物学功能。近年来发现AngII具有促进肿瘤细胞增殖、肿瘤血管形成并抑制肿瘤细胞分化的功能。这提示抑制AngII的产生或阻断其作用有望成为治疗恶性肿瘤的一项新措施。本文就近年来关于AngII及其受体与恶性肿瘤关系的研究进展作一综述。

  16. Incidence, risk factors and outcomes of de novo malignancies post liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pavan; Kedar; Mukthinuthalapati; Raghavender; Gotur; Marwan; GhabrilMarwan; Ghabril

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplantation(LT) is associated with a 2 to7 fold higher, age and gender adjusted, risk of de novo malignancy. The overall incidence of de novo malignancy post LT ranges from 2.2% to 26%, and 5 and 10 years incidence rates are estimated at 10% to 14.6% and 20% to 32%, respectively. The main risk factors for de novo malignancy include immunosuppression with impaired immunosurveillance, and a number of patient factors which include; age, latent oncogenic viral infections, tobacco and alcohol use history, and underlying liver disease. The most common cancers after LT are non-melanoma skin cancers, accounting for approximately 37% of de novo malignancies, with a noted increase in the ratio of squamous to basal cell cancers. While these types of skin cancer do not impact patient survival, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders and solid organ cancer, accounting for 25% and 48% of malignancies, are associated with increased mortality. Patients developing these types of cancer are diagnosed at more advanced stages, and their cancers behave more aggressively compared with the general population. Patients undergoing LT for primary sclerosing cholangitis(particularly with inflammatory bowel disease) and alcoholic liver disease have high rates of malignancies compared with patients undergoing LT for other indications. These populations are at particular risk for gastrointestinal and aerodigestive cancers respectively. Counseling smoking cessation, skin protection from sun exposure and routine clinical follow-up are the current approach in practice. There are no standardized surveillance protocol, but available data suggests that regimented surveillance strategies are needed and capable of yielding cancer diagnosis at earlier stages with better resulting survival. Evidence-based strategies are needed to guide optimal surveillance and safe minimization of immunosuppression.

  17. An evaluation of the total quality management implementation strategy for the advanced solid rocket motor project at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. M.S. Thesis - Tennessee Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Sullivan, Kenneth W.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation of the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) strategy to implement Total Quality Management (TQM) in the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Project is presented. The evaluation of the implementation strategy reflected the Civil Service personnel perspective at the project level. The external and internal environments at MSFC were analyzed for their effects on the ASRM TQM strategy. Organizational forms, cultures, management systems, problem solving techniques, and training were assessed for their influence on the implementation strategy. The influence of ASRM's effort was assessed relative to its impact on mature projects as well as future projects at MSFC.

  18. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation. Quarterly technical status report, January--March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-14

    The program is conducted by a team consisting of AiResearch Los Angeles Division of Allied-Signal Aerospace Company and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objective of the program is to advance materials and fabrication methodologies to develop a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) system capable of meeting performance, life, and cost goals for coal-based power generation. The program focuses on materials research and development, fabrication process development, cell/stack performance testing and characterization, cost and system analysis, and quality development.

  19. Recent Advances in Fast Ion Conducting Materials and Devices - Proceedings of the 2nd Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Liu, Qingguo; Chen, Liquan

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * Invited Papers * Recent Trends in Solid State Ionics * Theoretical Aspects of Fast Ion Conduction in Solids * Chemical Bonding and Intercalation Processes in Framework Structures * Extra-Large Near-Electrode Regions and Diffusion Length on the Solid Electrolyte-Electrode Interface as Studied by Photo-EMF Method * Frequency Response of Glasses * XPS Studies on Ion Conducting Glasses * Characterization of New Ambient Temperature Lithium Polymer-Electrolyte * Recent Development of Polymer Electrolytes: Solid State Voltammetry in Polymer Electrolytes * Secondary Solid State Batteries: From Material Properties to Commercial Development * Silver Vanadium Oxide Bronze and its Applications for Electrochemical Devices * Study on β''-Alumina Solid Electrolyte and β Battery in SIC * Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * Processing for Super Superionic Ceramics * Hydrogen Production Using Oxide Ionic or Protonic Conductor * Ionically Conductive Sulfide-Based Lithium Glasses * Relation of Conductivity to Structure and Structural Relaxation in Ion-Conducting Glasses * The Mechanism of Ionic Conductivity in Glass * The Role of Synthesis and Structure in Solid State Ionics - Electrodes to Superconductors * Electrochromism in Spin-Coated Thin Films from Peroxo-Poly tungstate Solutions * Electrochemical Studies on High Tc Superconductors * Multivalence Fast Ionic Conductors - Montmorillonites * Contributed Papers * Volt-Ampere Characteristics and Interface Charge Transport in Solid Electrolytes * Internal Friction of Silver Chalcogenides * Thermal Expansion of Ionic and Superionic Solids * Improvement of PEO-LiCF3SO3 Complex Electrolytes Using Additives * Ionic Conductivity of Modified Poly (Methoxy Polyethylene Glycol Methacrylate) s-Lithium Salt Complexes * Solid Polymer Electrolytes of Crosslinked Polyethylene Glycol and Lithium Salts * Single Ionic Conductors Prepared by in Situ Polymerization of Methacrylic Acid

  20. Recent advances and perspectives in analytical methodologies for monitoring the bioavailability of trace metals in environmental solid substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2006-01-01

    In the last decades, researchers have realised that the impact of trace elements (TE) in environmental solid substrates on ecological systems and biota cannot be ascertained appropriately by means of total metal content measurements. Assessment of TE chemical forms, types of binding and reactivity...... and the eventual impact of anthropogenic TE in environmental solids are addressed. The potential of passive dosimeters based on microdialysis sampling for on-site, real-time monitoring of chemical contaminants in pore soil solution is thoroughly discussed and critically compared with active microsamplers. Recent...

  1. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Thomas [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Soukri, Mustapha [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farmer, Justin [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mobley, Paul [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Tanthana, Jak [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Dongxiang [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Song, Chunshan [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  2. Novel oncolytic viral therapies in patients with thoracic malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Z

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Zeeshan Ahmad, Robert A Kratzke Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Transplantation, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: Oncolytic virotherapy is the use of replication-competent viruses to treat malignancies. The potential of oncolytic virotherapy as an approach to cancer therapy is based on historical evidence that certain viral infections can cause spontaneous remission of both hematologic and solid tumor malignancies. Oncolytic virotherapy may eliminate cancer cells through either direct oncolysis of infected tumor cells or indirect immune-mediated oncolysis of uninfected tumor cells. Recent advances in oncolytic virotherapy include the development of a wide variety of genetically attenuated RNA viruses with precise cellular tropism and the identification of cell-surface receptors that facilitate viral transfer to the tissue of interest. Current research is also focused on targeting metastatic disease by sustaining the release of progeny viruses from infected tumor cells and understanding indirect tumor cell killing through immune-mediated mechanisms of virotherapy. The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate recent evidence on the clinical development of tissue-specific viruses capable of targeting tumor cells and eliciting secondary immune responses in lung cancers and mesothelioma. Keywords: lung cancer, mesothelioma, VSV, adenovirus, measles

  3. Bronchial malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weshler, Z; Sulkes, A; Kopolovitch, J; Leviatan, A; Shifrin, E

    1980-01-01

    We describe a case of malignant melanoma presenting initially as an endobronchial lesion located in the left main bronchus causing total atelectasis. This resolved with radiation therapy. Widespread metastases developed shortly thereafter. The differential diagnosis of primary and metastatic bronchial malignant melanoma is discussed. Other isolated case reports are reviewed.

  4. Malignant vagal paraganglioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Camilla S; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise S

    2003-01-01

    Approximately 20 cases of malignant vagal paragangliomas (MVP)have been reported in English literature. Malignancy is based on the presence of metastases. A careful preoperative evaluation is necessary to detect multicentricity and/or significant production of catecholamines. A new case of MVP tr...

  5. Biology and clinical application of CAR T cells for B cell malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Marco L; Sadelain, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells have generated broad interest in oncology following a series of dramatic clinical successes in patients with chemorefractory B cell malignancies. CAR therapy now appears to be on the cusp of regulatory approval as a cell-based immunotherapy. We review here the T cell biology and cell engineering research that led to the development of second generation CARs, the selection of CD19 as a CAR target, and the preclinical studies in animal models that laid the foundation for clinical trials targeting CD19+ malignancies. We further summarize the status of CD19 CAR clinical therapy for non-Hodgkin lymphoma and B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, including their efficacy, toxicities (cytokine release syndrome, neurotoxicity and B cell aplasia) and current management in humans. We conclude with an overview of recent pre-clinical advances in CAR design that argues favorably for the advancement of CAR therapy to tackle other hematological malignancies as well as solid tumors.

  6. Advances in simultaneous DSC-FTIR microspectroscopy for rapid solid-state chemical stability studies: some dipeptide drugs as examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan-Yang; Wang, Shun-Li

    2012-04-01

    The solid-state chemistry of drugs has seen growing importance in the pharmaceutical industry for the development of useful API (active pharmaceutical ingredients) of drugs and stable dosage forms. The stability of drugs in various solid dosage forms is an important issue because solid dosage forms are the most common pharmaceutical formulation in clinical use. In solid-state stability studies of drugs, an ideal accelerated method must not only be selected by different complicated methods, but must also detect the formation of degraded product. In this review article, an analytical technique combining differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier-transform infrared (DSC-FTIR) microspectroscopy simulates the accelerated stability test, and simultaneously detects the decomposed products in real time. The pharmaceutical dipeptides aspartame hemihydrate, lisinopril dihydrate, and enalapril maleate either with or without Eudragit E were used as testing examples. This one-step simultaneous DSC-FTIR technique for real-time detection of diketopiperazine (DKP) directly evidenced the dehydration process and DKP formation as an impurity common in pharmaceutical dipeptides. DKP formation in various dipeptides determined by different analytical methods had been collected and compiled. Although many analytical methods have been applied, the combined DSC-FTIR technique is an easy and fast analytical method which not only can simulate the accelerated drug stability testing but also at the same time enable to explore phase transformation as well as degradation due to thermal-related reactions. This technique offers quick and proper interpretations.

  7. Janus Solid-Liquid Interface Enabling Ultrahigh Charging and Discharging Rate for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiaxin; Hou, Yuyang; Duan, Yandong; Song, Xiaohe; Wei, Yi; Liu, Tongchao; Hu, Jiangtao; Guo, Hua; Zhuo, Zengqing; Liu, Lili; Chang, Zheng; Wang, Xiaowei; Zherebetskyy, Danylo; Fang, Yanyan; Lin, Yuan; Xu, Kang; Wang, Lin-Wang; Wu, Yuping; Pan, Feng

    2015-09-09

    LiFePO4 has long been held as one of the most promising battery cathode for its high energy storage capacity. Meanwhile, although extensive studies have been conducted on the interfacial chemistries in Li-ion batteries,1-3 little is known on the atomic level about the solid-liquid interface of LiFePO4/electrolyte. Here, we report battery cathode consisted with nanosized LiFePO4 particles in aqueous electrolyte with an high charging and discharging rate of 600 C (3600/600 = 6 s charge time, 1 C = 170 mAh g(-1)) reaching 72 mAh g(-1) energy storage (42% of the theoretical capacity). By contrast, the accessible capacity sharply decreases to 20 mAh g(-1) at 200 C in organic electrolyte. After a comprehensive electrochemistry tests and ab initio calculations of the LiFePO4-H2O and LiFePO4-EC (ethylene carbonate) systems, we identified the transient formation of a Janus hydrated interface in the LiFePO4-H2O system, where the truncated symmetry of solid LiFePO4 surface is compensated by the chemisorbed H2O molecules, forming a half-solid (LiFePO4) and half-liquid (H2O) amphiphilic coordination environment that eases the Li desolvation process near the surface, which makes a fast Li-ion transport across the solid/liquid interfaces possible.

  8. Familial malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopf, A.W.; Hellman, L.J.; Rogers, G.S.; Gross, D.F.; Rigel, D.S.; Friedman, R.J.; Levenstein, M.; Brown, J.; Golomb, F.M.; Roses, D.F.; Gumport, S.L.

    1986-10-10

    Characteristics associated with familial compared with nonfamilial malignant melanoma were assessed. These data were obtained from consecutive prospectively completed questionnaires on 1169 cases of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Of these, 69 patients indicated a positive family history for this cancer. Among the various clinical and histological variables compared, those that significantly correlated with the familial occurrence of malignant melanoma include younger age at first diagnosis, smaller diameter of the lesion, lower Clark level, decreased frequency of nonmelanoma skin cancer, and reduced prevalence of noncutaneous cancer. Increased awareness of malignant melanoma among family members could account for some of these observations. Identification of the familial variety of malignant melanoma has practical implications concerning early detection and prompt intervention.

  9. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Thomas [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Soukri, Mustapha [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farmer, Justin [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mobley, Paul [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Tanthana, Jak [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Dongxiang [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Song, Chunshan [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  10. 胎盘多肽在晚期恶性肿瘤化疗中的作用%Role of Placental Peptide Injection in Chemotherapy of Advanced Malignant Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赫丽杰; 王梓英; 刘爽

    2016-01-01

    [Objective]To analyze he clinical efficacy of placenta polypeptide inj ection used in advanced ma-lignant tumor chemotherapy on the immune function of patients.[Methods]90 cases of advanced malignant tumor undergoing surgery patients admitted to the department of medical oncology at our hospital were divided into treatment group and control group with 45 cases in each.Both groups of patients were given conventional chemotherapy,and the treatment group received placenta polypeptide inj ection treatment 21 days a cycle medi-cation for a four-cycle period.Clinical efficacy and immunological index difference between the two groups of patients were observed.[Results]In the treatment group,remission rate was 40%,which was significantly higher than that the remission rate of 20% in the control group.The difference was statistically significant(P0.05).Prior to chemotherapy,KPS scores of the patients in the two groups had no statistical sig-nificant differences (P >0.05).KPS score of the patients in the two groups increased significantly after treat-ment compared to before (P 0.05).After treatment,the levels of CD4+ cells and CD4+/CD8+ in the control group were significantly lower than those of the treatment group (P 0.05).IgG and IgM of the control group were significantly lower than that of treatment group (P 0.05).化疗前两组患者的KPS评分相比较差异无显著性(P>0.05),治疗后两组患者的KPS评分均较治疗前显著提高(P0.05),治疗后对照组的CD4+细胞水平、CD4+/CD8+显著低于观察组(P0.05),治疗后对照组的IgG、IgM显著低于观察组(P<0.05).观察组的恶心、呕吐(60%)、口腔黏膜炎(11.11%)、外周神经毒性(13.33%)发生率显著低于对照组,且差异具有显著性(P<0.05).[结论]胎盘多肽注射液应用于晚期恶性肿瘤化疗能够改善患者近期疗效、提高患者体能状况、改善患者的免疫水平,降低不良反应发生率.

  11. Application of stilamin on advanced gastrointestinal carcinoma patients complicated with malignant bowel obstruction%思他宁在晚期胃肠道肿瘤患者合并恶性肠梗阻治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jundong Wu; Yezhong Zhuang; Wenhe Huang; Miansheng Huang; Weifeng Wang; Muming Xu

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effectiveness of stilarnin in malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) due to advanced gastrointestinal carcinoma patients.Methods:62 patients with MBO due to gastrointestinal carcinoma were randomly divided into two groups:routine therapy group (control group 30 patients) and stilamin group (32 patients).Stilamin group received routine therapy combined with stilamin (6 mg/d) by 24 hours continuous infusion for three to twelve days.The curative effectiveness was observed and compared between the two groups.Results:After treatment,the clinical symptoms of abdominal distention and abdominal pain were relieved significantly in stilamin group compared with the control group (84.4% vs 57.6%;P<0.05).The exhaust of anus was more earlier (62.1% vs 25.6%;P<0.05),and the average volume of gastrointestinal decompression reduced more rapidly in stilamin group compared with the control group [(216 ± 158) mL/d vs (522 + 184) mL/d;P<0.001),smaller and less fluid-air in the intestinal and in the colon at the 81.3% of patients plain abdominal radiography were observed in stilamin group.Quality of life,evaluated with Kamofsky score (57 ± 7 vs 45 ± 9;P<0.01),was improved significantly.Conclusion:The administration of stilamin,in combination with routine treatment can be very effective in the management of MBO.It can effectively relieve the symptoms of MBO and improve the quality of life in patients.

  12. Advances in High Energy Solid-State 2-micron Laser Transmitter Development for Ground and Airborne Wind and CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Chen, Songsheng; Kavaya, Michael J.; Trieu, Bo; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul; Modlin, Edward A.; Koch, Grady; Beyon, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Sustained research efforts at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) during last fifteen years have resulted in a significant advancement in 2-micron diode-pumped, solid-state laser transmitter for wind and carbon dioxide measurement from ground, air and space-borne platform. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a compact, flight capable, high energy, injection seeded, 2-micron laser transmitter for ground and airborne wind and carbon dioxide measurements. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser transmitter was integrated into a mobile trailer based coherent Doppler wind and CO2 DIAL system and was deployed during field measurement campaigns. This paper will give an overview of 2-micron solid-state laser technology development and discuss results from recent ground-based field measurements.

  13. Advances in high-energy solid-state 2-micron laser transmitter development for ground and airborne wind and CO2 measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Chen, Songsheng; Kavaya, Michael J.; Trieu, Bo; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul; Modlin, Edward A.; Koch, Grady; Beyon, Jeffrey

    2010-10-01

    Sustained research efforts at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) during last fifteen years have resulted in a significant advancement in 2-micron diode-pumped, solid-state laser transmitter for wind and carbon dioxide measurement from ground, air and space-borne platform. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a compact, flight capable, high energy, injection seeded, 2-micron laser transmitter for ground and airborne wind and carbon dioxide measurements. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser transmitter was integrated into a mobile trailer based coherent Doppler wind and CO2 DIAL system and was deployed during field measurement campaigns. This paper will give an overview of 2- micron solid-state laser technology development and discuss results from recent ground-based field measurements.

  14. Treatment Options for Malignant Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... form in the lining of the chest or abdomen. Malignant mesothelioma is a disease in which malignant ( ... that examine the inside of the chest and abdomen are used to detect (find) and diagnose malignant ...

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Malignant Mesothelioma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... form in the lining of the chest or abdomen. Malignant mesothelioma is a disease in which malignant ( ... that examine the inside of the chest and abdomen are used to detect (find) and diagnose malignant ...

  16. General Information about Malignant Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... form in the lining of the chest or abdomen. Malignant mesothelioma is a disease in which malignant ( ... that examine the inside of the chest and abdomen are used to detect (find) and diagnose malignant ...

  17. Clinical Implications of Biochemical Tests for Diagnose and Treat Advanced Malignancy%生化检测对晚期恶性肿瘤诊治的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡少娟; 李婷婷; 孙渌; 张哲

    2016-01-01

    目的:为了尽可能延长晚期恶性肿瘤患者生存时间,分析生化结果以探讨患者出现意识改变病因。方法现摘取我院临床收治的典型的13例伴有意识改变的晚期恶性肿瘤患者临床资料,通过对其生化指标变化、疾病诊治经过以及患者的预后转归进行分析。结果13例患者中7例因低血糖出现昏迷,约占52%(7/13)。其中2例因未能及时发现低血糖在住院后1 d内死亡,其原发病分别为1例胃癌、1例胆管癌;3例通过及时补充高张糖,病情缓解后进一步CT或磁共振检查明确了原发性肝癌诊断;2例为胰腺肿瘤复发及恶化。4例因高钙血症出现意识改变,约占30%(4/13),其中2例为肺癌、1例为前列腺癌,1例误诊为恶性肿瘤骨转移后发生急性肾功能衰竭,但骨髓穿刺诊断为多发性骨髓瘤,确诊后2天内死亡。10例出现低钠、低氯血症,约占77%(10/13),其中2例因严重低钠、低氯血症出现意识模糊,经过补充高渗盐水等治疗后病情缓解。3例伴有低钾血症。13例患者入院后2 d内死亡人数为3人,死亡率约占23%(3/13),抢救成功率约为77%(10/13)。结论急检生化能够对明确恶性肿瘤患者意识改变病因、临床诊治及预后有帮助,能够减少此类患者短期内的死亡风险。%ObjectiveTo prolong the survival time of advanced malignancy patients as soon as possibile,we aimed to investigate the etiology of patients with altered states of consciousness by analyzing biochemistry results.Methods 13-cases patients were admitted to our hospital with altered states of consciousness. Clinical data were colected from advanced malignancy. Analyses were by biochemical parameters changes,diagnosis and treatment of disease,prognosis and outcome.Results 7 cases of patients with hypoglycemic coma accounts for 52%(7/13). 2 cases failed to find hypoglycemia were dead after hospitalization within one

  18. Advances and trends in structural and solid mechanics; Proceedings of the Symposium, Washington, DC, October 4-7, 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, A. K. (Editor); Housner, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanics of materials and material characterization are considered, taking into account micromechanics, the behavior of steel structures at elevated temperatures, and an anisotropic plasticity model for inelastic multiaxial cyclic deformation. Other topics explored are related to advances and trends in finite element technology, classical analytical techniques and their computer implementation, interactive computing and computational strategies for nonlinear problems, advances and trends in numerical analysis, database management systems and CAD/CAM, space structures and vehicle crashworthiness, beams, plates and fibrous composite structures, design-oriented analysis, artificial intelligence and optimization, contact problems, random waves, and lifetime prediction. Earthquake-resistant structures and other advanced structural applications are also discussed, giving attention to cumulative damage in steel structures subjected to earthquake ground motions, and a mixed domain analysis of nuclear containment structures using impulse functions.

  19. Advance on Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2 in Lung Cancer and Other Solid Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Weiqin; Lu Kaihua

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence has revealed that IGF signalling plays a key role in cellular proliferation, survival, differentiation and senescence. Dysregulation of this signalling pathway is related to the development and progression of many human diseases, including cancer, diabetes and atherosclerosis. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) is reported to be a modulator of the action of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), whereas IGF-independent effects of IGFBP-2 on cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and mobility have been revealed not only during the embryonic state but also in the pathological state of cancer. IGFBP-2 is involved in the genesis and progress of various malignancies including lung cancer. Recent ifndings show in many pre-clinical trials that IGFBP-2 may contribute to the transformation and progression of lung cancer. These studies suggest that IGFBP-2 may be a potential therapeutic target for lung cancer. In this review, we provide an overview on IGFBP-2, review corresponding studies investigating the role of IGFBP-2 as a cancer target in multiple tumors and discuss its possible mechanism in lung cancer.

  20. Hematologic malignancies during preg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam K. Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignancy is the second most common cause of mortality in the reproductive period and it complicates up to one out of every 1000 pregnancies. When cancer is diagnosed during pregnancy, the management approach must take into consideration both the mother and her fetus. Hematologic cancers diagnosed in pregnancy are not common, resulting in paucity of randomized controlled trials. Diagnosis of such malignancies may be missed or delayed, as their symptoms are similar to those encountered during normal pregnancy. Also, many imaging studies may be hazardous during pregnancy. Management of these malignancies during pregnancy induces many treatment-related risks for mother and baby and should consider patient’s preferences for pregnancy continuation. In this article, hematologic malignancies diagnosed in pregnant patients including acute leukemias, chronic myeloid leukemia, lymphomas, multiple myeloma and myeloproliferative neoplasms, will be reviewed, including diagnostic and management strategies and their impact on the pregnant patient and the developing fetus.

  1. In Situ Observations of Interaction Between Particulate Agglomerates and an Advancing Planar Solid/Liquid Interface: Microgravity Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Juretzko, F.; Stafanescu, D. M.; Dhindaw, B. K.; Curreri, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Results are reported of directional solidification experiments on particulate agglomerate pushing and engulfment by a planar solid/liquid (s/l) interface. These experiments were conducted on the Space Shuttle Columbia during the United States Microgravity Payload 4 (USMP-4) Mission. It was found that the pushing to engulfment transition velocity, V(sub cr) for agglomerates depends not only on their effective size but also their orientation with respect to the s,1 interface. The analytical model for predicting V(sub cr) of a single particle was subsequently enhanced to predict V(sub cr) of the agglomerates by considering their shape factor and orientation.

  2. In-Situ Observations of Interaction Between Particulate Agglomerates and an Advancing Planar Solid/Liquid Interface: Microgravity Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Juretzko, F.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Dhindaw, B. K.; Curreri, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Results are reported of directional solidification experiments on particulate agglomerate pushing and engulfment by a planar solid/liquid (s/1) interface. These experiments were conducted on the Space Shuttle Columbia during the United States Microgravity Payload 4 (USMP-4) Mission. It was found that the pushing to engulfment transition velocity, V(sub ct),, for agglomerates depends not only on their effective size but also their orientation with respect to the s/l interface. The analytical model for predicting V(sub cr) of a single particle was subsequently enhanced to predict V(sub cr) of the agglomerates by considering their shape factor and orientation.

  3. Temozolomide in malignant glioma

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor Dresemann

    2010-01-01

    Gregor DresemannCenter for Neurooncology at Aerztehaus Velen, Velen, GermanyAbstract: Glioblastoma multiforme WHO grade IV (GBM) is the most aggressive ­malignant glioma and the most frequent primary tumor of the central nervous system. The median ­survival of newly diagnosed GBM patients was between 9 to 12 months prior to treatment with ­temozolomide being introduced. Primary resection that is as complete as possible is recommended for malignant glioma. Conventional ...

  4. Malignant chondroid syringoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikala P

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available An adult female presented with a painful recurrent swelling on the posterior aspect of the scalp of six months′ duration, which was clinically diagnosed as fibroma. An excision biopsy showed anaplastic epithelial cells arranged in irregular cords and trabeculae, mitosis, malignant chondroid areas, desmoplasia and perineural invasion, suggesting malignancy. Wide excision of the tumor was the only treatment given since there was no metastasis.

  5. Stents for malignant ureteral obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Pavlovic

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignant ureteral obstruction can result in renal dysfunction or urosepsis and can limit the physician's ability to treat the underlying cancer. There are multiple methods to deal with ureteral obstruction including regular polymeric double J stents (DJS, tandem DJS, nephrostomy tubes, and then more specialized products such as solid metal stents (e.g., Resonance Stent, Cook Medical and polyurethane stents reinforced with nickel-titanium (e.g., UVENTA stents, TaeWoong Medical. In patients who require long-term stenting, a nephrostomy tube could be transformed subcutaneously into an extra-anatomic stent that is then inserted into the bladder subcutaneously. We outline the most recent developments published since 2012 and report on identifiable risk factors that predict for failure of urinary drainage. These failures are typically a sign of cancer progression and the natural history of the disease rather than the individual type of drainage device. Factors that were identified to predict drainage failure included low serum albumin, bilateral hydronephrosis, elevated C-reactive protein, and the presence of pleural effusion. Head-to-head studies show that metal stents are superior to polymeric DJS in terms of maintaining patency. Discussions with the patient should take into consideration the frequency that exchanges will be needed, the need for externalized hardware (with nephrostomy tubes, or severe urinary symptoms in the case of internal DJS. This review will highlight the current state of diversions in the setting of malignant ureteral obstruction.

  6. Development and evaluation of lafutidine solid dispersion via hot melt extrusion: Investigating drug-polymer miscibility with advanced characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Fule

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In current study, immediate release solid dispersion (SD formulation of antiulcer drug lafutidine (LAFT was developed using hot melt extrusion (HME technique. Amphiphilic Soluplus® used as a primary solubilizing agent, with different concentrations of selected surfactants like PEG 400, Lutrol F127 (LF127, Lutrol F68 (LF68 were used to investigate their influence on formulations processing via HME. Prepared amorphous glassy solid dispersion was found to be thermodynamically and physicochemically stable. On the contrary, traces of crystalline LAFT not observed in the extrudates according to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Raman spectroscopy. Raman micro spectrometry had the lowest detection limit of LAFT crystals compared with XRD and DSC. Atomic Force microscopy (AFM studies revealed drug- polymer molecular miscibility and surface interaction at micro level. 1H–COSY NMR spectroscopy confirmed miscibility and interaction between LAFT and Soluplus®, with chemical shift drifting and line broadening. MD simulation studies using computational modelling showed intermolecular interaction between molecules. Dissolution rate and solubility of LAFT was enhanced remarkably in developed SD systems. Optimized ratio of polymer and surfactants played crucial role in dissolution rate enhancement of LAFT SD. The obtained results suggested that developed LAFT has promising potential for oral delivery and might be an efficacious approach for enhancing the therapeutic potential of LAFT.

  7. Advanced analytical method of nereistoxin using mixed-mode cationic exchange solid-phase extraction and GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yujin; Choe, Sanggil; Lee, Heesang; Jo, Jiyeong; Park, Yonghoon; Kim, Eunmi; Pyo, Jaesung; Jung, Jee H

    2015-07-01

    Nereistoxin(NTX) was originated from a marine annelid worm Lumbriconereis heteropoda and its analogue pesticides including cartap, bensultap, thiocyclam and thiobensultap have been commonly used in agriculture, because of their low toxicity and high insecticidal activity. However, NTX has been reported about its inhibitory neuro toxicity in human and animal body, by blocking nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and it cause significant neuromuscular toxicity, resulting in respiratory failure. We developed a new method to determine NTX in biological fluid. The method involves mixed-mode cationic exchange based solid phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for final identification and quantitative analysis. The limit of detection and recovery were substantially better than those of other methods using liquid-liquid extraction or headspace solid phase microextraction. The good recoveries (97±14%) in blood samples were obtained and calibration curves over the range 0.05-20 mg/L have R2 values greater than 0.99. The developed method was applied to a fatal case of cartap intoxication of 74 years old woman who ingested cartap hydrochloride for suicide. Cartap and NTX were detected from postmortem specimens and the cause of the death was ruled to be nereistoxin intoxication. The concentrations of NTX were 2.58 mg/L, 3.36 mg/L and 1479.7 mg/L in heart, femoral blood and stomach liquid content, respectively. The heart blood/femoral blood ratio of NTX was 0.76.

  8. Inhibition of VEGF signaling pathways in multiple myeloma and other malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podar, Klaus; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2007-03-01

    Due to its direct effects on endothelial cells, circulatory endothelial progenitor cells, hematopoietic stem cells, immune cells, osteoclasts, osteoblasts and neurons, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is linked to tumor cell development, progression, metastatic osteolysis and drug resistance, as well as clinical features such as metastatic osteolysis. Importantly, recent advances in the understanding of mechanisms of action of antiangiogenic drugs/VEGF-inhibitors have fundamentally changed treatment regimens in cancer. VEGF plays a key role not only in solid tumors but also in hematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma (MM). Despite recent advances in our understanding of MM pathogenesis and novel therapies (bortezomib and lenalidomide), it remains incurable. Our own and others' work suggest that VEGF-inhibitors e.g., the small molecule VEGF receptor inhibitor pazopanib, may also improve patient outcome in MM.

  9. Management of malignant pleural effusions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Uzbeck, Mateen H

    2010-06-01

    Malignant pleural effusions are a common clinical problem in patients with primary thoracic malignancy and metastatic malignancy to the thorax. Symptoms can be debilitating and can impair tolerance of anticancer therapy. This article presents a comprehensive review of pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical approaches to the management of malignant pleural effusion, and a novel algorithm for management based on patients\\' performance status.

  10. DC-based immunotherapy for hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitawaki, Toshio

    2014-02-01

    Great advances have been made in the treatment of hematological malignancies, but achieving a definitive cure remains an elusive goal for the majority of patients. Antigen-specific tumor immunotherapy has the potential to improve clinical outcome in patients with such diseases by eradicating chemotherapy-resistant tumor cell clones without damaging normal tissues. Dendritic cells (DCs) serve as an essential link between the innate and the adaptive immune systems, acting as key controllers of antigen-specific T cell responses. Molecular identification of tumor-specific antigens recognized by T lymphocytes and technical advances in ex vivo generation of human DCs has enabled us to develop DC-based tumor immunotherapies (also called "DC vaccines"). To date, a large number of clinical trials of DC vaccines have been conducted for a variety of tumors, including hematological malignancies. Overall, these trials have demonstrated that DC vaccines have excellent safety profiles, moderate immunological activity, and mild clinical efficacy. To establish a role for DC vaccines in the treatment of hematological malignancies, we need both to define patient populations that can obtain clinical benefit from DC vaccines and to develop combination therapies that augment clinical efficacy of DC vaccines. In this review, I will describe current status of DC-based immunotherapy for hematological malignancies, and discuss future perspectives in this field.

  11. Primary Malignant Tumours of Bone Following Previous Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J. T.; Sommerville, S. M. M.; Grimer, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Destructive bone lesions occurring in patients who have previously had a malignancy are generally assumed to be a metastasis from that malignancy. We reviewed 60 patients with a previous history of malignancy, who presented with a solitary bone lesion that was subsequently found to be a new and different primary sarcoma of bone. These second malignancies occurred in three distinct groups of patients: (1) patients with original tumours well known to be associated with second malignancies (5%); (2) patients whose second malignancies were likely to be due to the previous treatment of their primary malignancy (40%); (3) patients in whom there was no clearly defined association between malignancies (55%). The purpose of this study is to emphasise the necessity for caution in assuming the diagnosis of a metastasis when a solitary bone lesion is identified following a prior malignancy. Inappropriate biopsy and treatment of primary bone sarcomas compromises limb salvage surgery and can affect patient mortality. PMID:18414590

  12. Primary Malignant Tumours of Bone Following Previous Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Grimer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Destructive bone lesions occurring in patients who have previously had a malignancy are generally assumed to be a metastasis from that malignancy. We reviewed 60 patients with a previous history of malignancy, who presented with a solitary bone lesion that was subsequently found to be a new and different primary sarcoma of bone. These second malignancies occurred in three distinct groups of patients: (1 patients with original tumours well known to be associated with second malignancies (5%; (2 patients whose second malignancies were likely to be due to the previous treatment of their primary malignancy (40%; (3 patients in whom there was no clearly defined association between malignancies (55%. The purpose of this study is to emphasise the necessity for caution in assuming the diagnosis of a metastasis when a solitary bone lesion is identified following a prior malignancy. Inappropriate biopsy and treatment of primary bone sarcomas compromises limb salvage surgery and can affect patient mortality.

  13. Structural features of a bituminous coal and their changes during low-temperature oxidation and loss of volatiles investigated by advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.-D.; Schimmelmann, A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Hatcher, P.G.; Li, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative and advanced 13C solid-state NMR techniques were employed to investigate (i) the chemical structure of a high volatile bituminous coal, as well as (ii) chemical structural changes of this coal after evacuation of adsorbed gases, (iii) during oxidative air exposure at room temperature, and (iv) after oxidative heating in air at 75 ??C. The solid-state NMR techniques employed in this study included quantitative direct polarization/magic angle spinning (DP/MAS) at a high spinning speed of 14 kHz, cross polarization/total sideband suppression (CP/TOSS), dipolar dephasing, CH, CH2, and CHn selection, 13C chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) filtering, two-dimensional (2D) 1H-13C heteronuclear correlation NMR (HETCOR), and 2D HETCOR with 1H spin diffusion. With spectral editing techniques, we identified methyl CCH 3, rigid and mobile methylene CCH2C, methine CCH, quaternary Cq, aromatic CH, aromatic carbons bonded to alkyls, small-sized condensed aromatic moieties, and aromatic C-O groups. With direct polarization combined with spectral-editing techniques, we quantified 11 different types of functional groups. 1H-13C 2D HETCOR NMR experiments indicated spatial proximity of aromatic and alkyl moieties in cross-linked structures. The proton spin diffusion experiments indicated that the magnetization was not equilibrated at a 1H spin diffusion time of 5 ms. Therefore, the heterogeneity in spatial distribution of different functional groups should be above 2 nm. Recoupled C-H long-range dipolar dephasing showed that the fraction of large charcoal-like clusters of polycondensed aromatic rings was relatively small. The exposure of this coal to atmospheric oxygen at room temperature for 6 months did not result in obvious chemical structural changes of the coal, whereas heating at 75 ??C in air for 10 days led to oxidation of coal and generated some COO groups. Evacuation removed most volatiles and caused a significant reduction in aliphatic signals in its DP

  14. Safety and Efficacy in Advanced Solid Tumors of a Targeted Nanocomplex Carrying the p53 Gene Used in Combination with Docetaxel: A Phase 1b Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirollo, Kathleen F; Nemunaitis, John; Leung, Po Ki; Nunan, Robert; Adams, Jana; Chang, Esther H

    2016-09-01

    Loss of p53 suppressor function, through mutations or inactivation of the p53 pathway, occurs in most human cancers. SGT-53 is a liposomal nanocomplex designed for systemic, tumor-targeting delivery of the wt p53 gene. In this nanodelivery system, an anti-transferrin receptor single-chain antibody fragment serves as the targeting moiety. In an initial phase 1 trial in patients with advanced solid tumors, SGT-53 demonstrated tumor-specific targeting, was shown to be well tolerated, and was associated with an antitumor effect in several patients. Our preclinical studies have also demonstrated enhanced antitumor activity with the combination of SGT-53 and docetaxel. Thus, this dose-escalation trial was undertaken to assess the combination of SGT-53 and docetaxel for safety and potential efficacy in 14 advanced cancer patients. Results reveal that the combination of SGT-53 (maximum dose, 3.6 mg DNA/infusion) and docetaxel (75 mg/m(2)/infusion) was well tolerated. Moreover, clinical activity involving 12 evaluable patients was observed. Three of these patients achieved RECIST-verified partial responses with tumor reductions of -47%, -51%, and -79%. Two others had stable disease with significant shrinkage (-25% and -16%). These results support phase 2 testing of SGT-53 in combination with docetaxel.

  15. Intracranial manifestations of malignant lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanski, M.; Fahrendorf, G.; Urbanitz, D.; Beckmann, A.; Elger, C.

    1985-06-01

    Approximately 10% of patients with malignant lymphoma will show neurological symptoms at some time during the course of their illness. In non-Hodgkin lymphoma, CNS involvement is more frequent than in Hodgkin's disease. Diffuse histiocytic and poorly differentiated lymphomas, bone marrow involvement, advanced tumor stage and hematogenous spread are particular risk factors. Invasion of the spinal canal is the most common type of CNS involvement. Intracranial lesions, which are comparatively rare, may present as intracerebral metastases, epi- or subdural masses or focal or diffuse leptomeningeal disease. Lymphomatous leptomeningitis usually cannot be demonstrated by CT. On the other hand, dural and cerebral parenchymal lesions are sometimes highly characteristic of lymphoma as a result of their features and location.

  16. Malignancies in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Mruganka; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Gordon, Caroline; Clarke, Ann E; Bernatsky, Sasha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to underline important advancements in the understanding of cancer risks in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In SLE, there is an increased risk of specific kinds of malignancy. For example, the risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is increased several-fold in SLE versus the general population. In addition, heightened risks for lung cancer, thyroid cancer and cervical dysplasia in SLE have been found. Some have postulated that immunosuppressive drugs play a role, as well as other important mediators, such as lupus disease activity itself. One new frontier being explored is the significant finding of a decreased risk of certain nonhematologic cancers (e.g., breast, ovarian, endometrial and prostate) in SLE. The reasons for this are currently under study. PMID:19643208

  17. Incidental finding of malignant renal cystic tumour diagnosed sonographically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Milan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Malignant cystic renal tumor is a rare variant of renal malignancy. Cystic neoplasm results from haemorrhage, necrosis and colliquation of a solid tumour or tumour occurring within the wall of a cyst. That pathoanatomic substratum reflects characteristic sonographic features indicating its malignant nature. It is important to distinguish a simple cyst (not requiring surgery from intracystic malignant lesion because it requires surgery. Case Outline The authors present a 59-year-old woman with a sonographic finding of a simple cyst in the upper pole of the right kidney revealed during gynaecological ultrasonography. Immediately afterwards, the radiologist performed renal sonography and its finding was a cystic lesion suggestive of malignancy. Further evaluation by CT scan showed that the lesion was clearly malignant. After surgery, the histological finding verified cystic renal cancer. Conclusion Ultrasonography may reveal a complex cyst and solid mass but requires an experienced sonographer. Contrast CT scan would be performed to examine the "suspicious" lesion because it clearly shows if a cystic lesion is benign or malignant. .

  18. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  19. On the theory for the arrest of an advancing molten contact line on a cold solid of the same material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiaffino, Stefano; Sonin, Ain A.

    1997-08-01

    We show that a conventional continuum formulation of the equations and boundary conditions for the spreading of a pure molten material over a cold, solid substrate of its own kind has no meaningful solution for the angle of attack θs of the fusion front at the contact line, which is the quantity that determines contact-line arrest. θs is determined by the heat flux just behind the contact line, and the heat flux in the mathematical model is singular at the contact line. The scale of the physical mechanism which limits the heat flux at the contact line and removes the singularity is estimated by computing the point where the continuum model must be cut off in order to bring it into agreement with the experimental data for a microcrystalline wax. The cutoff scale is in the range 0.1-1 μm, that is, much larger than molecular dimensions, but of order 10-2-10-1 times the convective thermal length scale α/U.

  20. Pharmacokinetics and safety of DTS-108, a human oligopeptide bound to SN-38 with an esterase-sensitive cross-linker in patients with advanced malignancies: a Phase I study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coriat R

    2016-11-01

    (coefficients of variation % were 439,293 (24%, 1,992 (34%, and 4,538 (46% h·ng/mL. Stable disease (according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors was observed in nine patients. Conclusion: Assessing SN-38 concentration using fluorescence HPLC is questionable since this method failed to monitor dose escalation of DTS-108, a new topoisomerase I inhibitor, due to ex vivo degradation. LC/MS/MS methods were consistent in evaluating SN-38 exposures allowing drug monitoring. The maximum tolerated dose of DTS-108 was 416 mg/m2. The RP2D for intravenous DTS-108 was 313 mg/m2 every 2 weeks in patients with advanced/metastatic solid tumors. Keywords: Phase I, topoisomerase I inhibitor, irinotecan, fluorescence HPLC

  1. Functional MR Imaging in Chest Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broncano, Jordi; Luna, Antonio; Sánchez-González, Javier; Alvarez-Kindelan, Antonio; Bhalla, Sanjeev

    2016-02-01

    With recent advances in MR imaging, its application in the thorax has been feasible. The performance of both morphologic and functional techniques in the evaluation of thoracic malignances has improved not only differentiation from benign etiologies but also treatment monitoring based on a multiparametric approach. Several MR imaging-derived parameters have been described as potential biomarkers linked with prognosis and survival. Therefore, an integral approach with a nonradiating and noninvasive technique could be an optimal alternative for evaluating those patients.

  2. Advanced Develpment of Solid Polymer Electrolytes Used in Lithium Batteries%锂离子电池用聚合物固体电解质的新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡树文; 张正诚; 方世璧

    2001-01-01

    Advanced development of solid polymer electrolytes used inlithium batteries was reviewed since early 1980′s in this paper.The structure and property of polymer electrolytes are reviewed with 75 references.%综述了锂离子电池用聚合物固体电解质方面的进展。

  3. Summary of worldwide pediatric malignancies reported after exposure to etanercept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyukhin Nataliya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns have been raised about a potential link between the use of TNF inhibitors and development of malignancy in the pediatric population. We examined the worldwide experience of etanercept use in pediatric patients and the occurrence of malignancies as reported from clinical trials, registry studies, post-marketing surveillance, and published scientific literature. Methods All reports of "malignancy" in pediatric patients (including subjects who received etanercept before age 18 and developed a malignancy before age 22 were collected from the etanercept clinical trials database and global safety database using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA; v12.0 standardized MedDRA query "Malignancies" from 1998 to August 2009. Cases were collected irrespective of treatment indication. All cases were included regardless of exposure to other TNF blockers or other biologics and whether the other exposure was before or after etanercept. Results A total of 18 potential malignancies were identified: 4 leukemias, 7 lymphomas, and 7 solid tumors. Three of the 18 malignancies remain unconfirmed. No malignancies were reported from clinical trials or the open-label extension studies in any indication in children. Conclusion The data suggest that there does not appear to be an increased risk of malignancy overall with the use of etanercept. Among etanercept-exposed patients aged 4 to 17 years, the estimated worldwide and US reporting rates for lymphoma were approximately 0.01 per 100 patient-years (1 in 10,000 pt-yrs. While the reported rate of lymphoma is higher in pediatric patients treated with etanercept than in normal children, the expected rate of lymphoma in biologic naïve JIA patients is currently unknown. The risk of TNF inhibitors in the development of malignancies in children and adolescents is difficult to assess because of the rarity of malignant events, the absence of knowledge of underlying frequency of

  4. Early malignant syphilis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigosa, Yara Martins; Bendazzoli, Paulo Salomão; Barbosa, Angela Marques; Ortigosa, Luciena Cegatto Martins

    2016-01-01

    Early malignant syphilis is a rare and severe variant of secondary syphilis. It is clinically characterized by lesions, which can suppurate and be accompanied by systemic symptoms such as high fever, asthenia, myalgia, and torpor state. We report a diabetic patient with characteristic features of the disease showing favorable evolution of the lesions after appropriate treatment. PMID:28300925

  5. Calvarial malignant fibrous histiocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabra R

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH of the central nervous system (CNS is uncommon. We report cases of two young patients of MFH arising from the cranial meninges and involving the adjacent skull and scalp. There was infiltration of the brain in one case. Both the lesions were excised and primary scalp repair was performed.

  6. AIDS and associated malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles WOOD; William HARRINGTON Jr

    2005-01-01

    AIDS associated malignancies (ARL) is a major complication associated with AIDS patients upon immunosuppression.Chronically immunocompromised patients have a markedly increased risk of developing lymphoproliferative disease. In the era of potent antiretrovirals therapy (ARV), the malignant complications due to HIV- 1 infection have decreased in developed nations where ARV is administered, but still poses a major problem in developing countries where HIV- 1incidence is high and ARV is still not yet widely available. Even in ARV treated individuals there is a concern that the prolonged survival of many HIV- 1 carriers is likely to eventually result in an increased number of malignancies diagnosed.Malignancies that were found to have high incidence in HIV-infected individuals are Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The incidence of NHL has increased nearly 200 fold in HIV-positive patients, and accounts for a greater percentage of AIDS defining illness in the US and Europe since the advent of HAART therapy. These AIDS related lymphomas are distinct from their counterparts seen in HIV- 1 seronegative patients.For example nearly half of all cases of ARL are associated with the presence of a gamma herpesvirus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) or human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)/Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV). The pathogenesis of ARLs is complex. B-cell proliferation driven by chronic antigenemia resulting in the induction of polyclonal and ultimately monoclonal lymphoproliferation may occur in the setting of severe immunosuppression.

  7. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Roberts

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Despite biopsy proven malignant phyllodes tumor, it was near impossible to predict such a rapid course of disease progression in our patient. Our case illustrates the unpredictable nature of this disease in general and it possibly sheds light on a variant of the disease which had undergone an aggressive transformation.

  8. Pegylated liposomal mitomycin C prodrug enhances tolerance of mitomycin C: a phase 1 study in advanced solid tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Talia; Grenader, Tal; Ohana, Patricia; Amitay, Yasmine; Shmeeda, Hilary; La-Beck, Ninh M; Tahover, Esther; Berger, Raanan; Gabizon, Alberto A

    2015-10-01

    Mitomycin C (MMC) has potent cytotoxicity but cumulative toxicity limits widespread use. In animals, pegylated liposomal mitomycin C lipid-based prodrug (PL-MLP) was well tolerated and more effective than free MMC. We evaluated PL-MLP in patients with advanced cancer. Twenty-seven patients were treated in escalating dose cohorts of 0.5-3.5 mg/kg (equivalent to 0.15-1.03 mg/kg MMC) every 4 weeks for up to 12 cycles, unless disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred. Pharmacokinetics were assessed during cycles 1 and 3. Per protocol maximum tolerated dose was not reached at 3.5 mg/kg. However, prolonged thrombocytopenia developed after repeated doses of 3 mg/kg or cumulative doses of 10-12 mg/kg. Dose-related grade 3 or higher adverse events included fatigue, anemia, and decreased platelets. Cmax and AUC0-∞ increased linearly over the dose range 0.5-2.0 mg/kg, and greater than linearly from 2.5 to 3.5 mg/kg; there were no significant differences in clearance of MLP between cycles 1 and 3. Median t1/2 was 23 h among dose cohorts, with no trend by dose or cycle. One patient had a partial response. Stable disease was observed in 10 patients across all dose levels. PL-MLP has a long circulation time, was well tolerated, and can be administered to heavily pretreated patients at a single dose of 3.0 mg/kg and cumulative dose of 10-12 mg/kg before development of prolonged thrombocytopenia; this is nearly threefold the equivalent dose of MMC tolerated historically. This formulation may be active in a variety of tumor types and is better tolerated than free MMC.

  9. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  10. Synchronous dual malignancy: Successfully treated cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Rashi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of a second malignancy in a patient with a known malignant tumour is not uncommon. Synchronous primary malignancies are still unusual We are presenting two cases treated successfully at our centre. Case report 1-A 70 year old female presented to us with lump in right breast for two years and bleeding per vaginum for two years.Histopathology of cervix showed squamous cell carcinoma (large cell non keratinizing and clinical stage was IIIB. HPE mastectomy specimen showed infiltrating duct carcinoma and stage II. Patient was treated with external beam radiotherapy for carcinoma cervix and breast simultaneously and chemotherapy as required. Patient is on regular follow up and clinically no evidence of disease. Case Report 2 -A 40 year old female presented with mild headache off and on for one year, projectile vomiting for three months and right side facial swelling for three months. HPE brain tissue showed astrocytoma grade II and HPE parotid tumour showed low grade muco-epidermoid carcinoma. Patient was treated with surgery first then radiotherapy. Patient is in regular follow up,having no complain,clinically no neurological dysfunction and no evidence of disease at right parotid and neck region. Thus it was concluded that patients responded well to treatment. Treatment strategies in case of synchronous double malignancy depend on treating the malignancy that is more advanced first or sometimes both could be treated simultaneously. In our case we concluded that synchronous double malignancy may be treated successfully. Both sites should be treated fully as if they were occurring separately considering toxicities.

  11. Oral potentially malignant disorders: is malignant transformation predictable and preventable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.

    2014-01-01

    Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. The prevalence is approximately 1% while the annual malignant transformation ranges from 2% to 3%. At present, there are no reliable clinicopathological or molecular predicting factors of malignant transformation that

  12. Medicinal therapy of malignant lymphomas; Medikamentoese Therapie maligner Lymphome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aul, C.; Schroeder, M.; Giagounidis, A. [Medizinische Klinik II, St.-Johannes-Hospital Duisburg (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Chemotherapy represents the most important therapeutic option in malignant lymphomas. Low to intermediate risk Hodgkin's disease is treated by a combination of chemotherapy and radiation. The new chemotherapy protocol BEACOPP has improved the outcome of advanced stages in comparison with the internationally accepted standard protocol COPP/ABVD. Dependent on the initial staging, cure rates between 50 and 95% can be achieved. Indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas usually present in advanced stages of disease. Chemotherapy in these cases has palliative character and aims at improving patients'quality of life and at avoiding complications due to the disease. In aggressive and very aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma chemotherapy is curative and must be initiated immediately irrespective of the staging results. The efficacy of the standard protocol CHOP (cyclophosphamide,doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone), that was established in the 1970s, has recently been improved by shortening of the therapy interval (CHOP-14 vs.CHOP-21),addition of etoposide (CHOEP) and combination with the monoclonal antibody rituximab (R-CHOP). The value of high dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplantation has been shown unequivocally only for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma and relapsed Hodgkin's disease responsive to chemotherapy. The therapeutic strategy of malignant lymphomas is likely to be improved within the next years due to the introduction of novel cytostatic agents, the broadening application of monoclonal antibodies,upcoming new transplantation procedures and the development of substances with molecular targets.To rapidly increase our current knowledge on the topic it is mandatory to include patients into the large national and international multicenter studies. (orig.) [German] Die Chemotherapie stellt die wichtigste Behandlungsoption maligner Lymphome dar. Bei Hodgkin-Lymphomen niedrigen bzw. intermediaeren Risikoprofils wird eine kombinierte Behandlung

  13. PR-104 a bioreductive pre-prodrug combined with gemcitabine or docetaxel in a phase Ib study of patients with advanced solid tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKeage Mark J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this phase Ib clinical trial was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD of PR-104 a bioreductive pre-prodrug given in combination with gemcitabine or docetaxel in patients with advanced solid tumours. Methods PR-104 was administered as a one-hour intravenous infusion combined with docetaxel 60 to 75 mg/m2 on day one given with or without granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF on day two or administrated with gemcitabine 800 mg/m2 on days one and eight, of a 21-day treatment cycle. Patients were assigned to one of ten PR-104 dose-levels ranging from 140 to 1100 mg/m2 and to one of four combination groups. Pharmacokinetic studies were scheduled for cycle one day one and 18F fluoromisonidazole (FMISO positron emission tomography hypoxia imaging at baseline and after two treatment cycles. Results Forty two patients (23 females and 19 males were enrolled with ages ranging from 27 to 85 years and a wide range of advanced solid tumours. The MTD of PR-104 was 140 mg/m2 when combined with gemcitabine, 200 mg/m2 when combined with docetaxel 60 mg/m2, 770 mg/m2 when combined with docetaxel 60 mg/m2 plus G-CSF and ≥770 mg/m2 when combined with docetaxel 75 mg/m2 plus G-CSF. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT across all four combination settings included thrombocytopenia, neutropenic fever and fatigue. Other common grade three or four toxicities included neutropenia, anaemia and leukopenia. Four patients had partial tumour response. Eleven of 17 patients undergoing FMISO scans showed tumour hypoxia at baseline. Plasma pharmacokinetics of PR-104, its metabolites (alcohol PR-104A, glucuronide PR-104G, hydroxylamine PR-104H, amine PR-104M and semi-mustard PR-104S1, docetaxel and gemcitabine were similar to that of their single agents. Conclusions Combination of PR-104 with docetaxel or gemcitabine caused dose-limiting and severe myelotoxicity, but prophylactic G-CSF allowed PR-104 dose escalation with docetaxel. Dose

  14. Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of PM01183 (a tetrahydroisoquinoline, Lurbinectedin) in combination with gemcitabine in patients with advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Ares, Luis; Forster, Martin; Boni, Valentina; Szyldergemajn, Sergio; Corral, Jesús; Turnbull, Samantha; Cubillo, Antonio; Teruel, Carlos Fernandez; Calderero, Iker López; Siguero, Mariano; Bohan, Patrick; Calvo, Emiliano

    2016-11-21

    Background To determine the recommended dose (RD) of a combination of PM01183 and gemcitabine in patients with advanced solid tumors. Methods Forty-five patients received escalating doses of PM01183/gemcitabine on Days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks (d1,8 q3wk) following a standard 3 + 3 design. Results PM01183 3.5 mg flat dose (FD)/gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) was the highest dose level tested. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were mostly hematological and resulted in the expansion of a lower dose level (PM01183 3.5 mg FD/gemcitabine 800 mg/m(2)); 19 patients at this dose level were evaluable but >30% had DLT and >20% had febrile neutropenia. No DLT was observed in 11 patients treated at PM01183 3.0 mg FD/gemcitabine 800 mg/m(2), which was defined as the RD. This regimen was feasible and tolerable with manageable toxicity; mainly grade 3/4 myelosuppression. Non-hematological toxicity comprised fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and transaminases increases. Fifteen (33%) patients received ≥6 cycles with no cumulative hematological toxicity. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed no evidence of drug-drug interaction. Nine of 38 patients had response as per RECIST (complete [3%] and partial [21%]), for an overall response rate (ORR) of 24% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 12-40%). Eleven patients (29%) had disease stabilization ≥4 months. Responses were durable (median of 8.5 months): overall median progression-free survival (PFS) was 4.2 months (95% CI, 2.7-6.5 months). Conclusions The RD for this combination is PM01183 3.0 mg FD (or 1.6 mg/m(2))/gemcitabine 800 mg/m(2) d1,8 q3wk. This schedule is well tolerated and has antitumor activity in several advanced solid tumor types.

  15. Phase I study of tremelimumab (CP-675 206) plus PF-3512676 (CPG 7909) in patients with melanoma or advanced solid tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, M; Underhill, C; Lobb, S; McBurnie, J; Meech, S J; Gomez-Navarro, J; Marshall, M A; Huang, B; Mather, C B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tremelimumab, a fully human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 monoclonal antibody, and PF-3512676, a Toll-like receptor-9 agonist, are targeted immune modulators that elicit durable single-agent antitumour activity in advanced cancer. Methods: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of these agents combined during this phase I study, patients received intravenous tremelimumab (6.0, 10.0, or 15.0 mg kg−1) every 12 weeks plus subcutaneous PF-3512676 (0.05, 0.10, or 0.15 mg kg−1) weekly. Primary end points were safety and tolerability; secondary end points included pharmacokinetics and antitumour activity. Results: Twenty-one patients with stage IV melanoma (n=17) or advanced solid tumours (n=4) were enrolled. Injection-site reactions (n=21; 100%), influenza-like illness (n=18; 86%), and diarrhoea (n=13; 62%) were the most common treatment-related adverse events (TAEs). Grade ⩾3 TAEs were reported (n=7; 33%). Dose-limiting toxicities (prespecified 6-week observation) occurred in one of the six patients in the 10 mg kg−1 tremelimumab plus 0.05 mg kg−1 PF-3512676 cohort (grade 3 hypothalamopituitary disorder) and two of the six patients in the 15 mg kg−1 tremelimumab plus 0.05 mg kg−1 PF-3512676 cohort (grade 3 diarrhoea). Consequently, 15 mg kg−1 tremelimumab plus 0.05 mg kg−1 PF-3512676 exceeded the MTD. Two melanoma patients achieved durable (⩾170 days) partial response. No human antihuman antibody responses to tremelimumab were observed. Conclusion: Weekly PF-3512676 (⩽0.15 mg kg−1) plus tremelimumab (⩽10 mg kg−1 every 12 weeks) was tolerable. PMID:23652314

  16. Litter decomposition over broad spatial and long time scales investigated by advanced solid-state NMR: insight into effects of climate, litter quality, and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Chen, N.; Harmon, M. E.; Li, Y.; Cao, X.; Chappell, M.

    2012-12-01

    Advanced 13C solid-state NMR techniques were employed to study the chemical structural changes of litter decomposition across broad spatial and long time scales. The fresh and decomposed litter samples of four species (Acer saccharum (ACSA), Drypetes glauca (DRGL), Pinus resinosa (PIRE), and Thuja plicata (THPL)) incubated for up to 10 years at four sites under different climatic conditions (from Arctic to tropical forest) were examined. Decomposition generally led to an enrichment of cutin and surface wax materials, and a depletion of carbohydrates causing overall composition to become more similar compared with original litters. However, the changes of main constituents in the four litters were inconsistent with the four litters following different pathways of decomposition at the same site. As decomposition proceeded, waxy materials decreased at the early stage and then gradually increased in PIRE; DRGL showed a significant depletion of lignin and tannin while the changes of lignin and tannin were relative small and inconsistent for ACSA and THPL. In addition, the NCH groups, which could be associated with either fungal cell wall chitin or bacterial wall petidoglycan, were enriched in all litters except THPL. Contrary to the classic lignin-enrichment hypothesis, DRGL with low-quality C substrate had the highest degree of composition changes. Furthermore, some samples had more "advanced" compositional changes in the intermediate stage of decomposition than in the highly-decomposed stage. This pattern might be attributed to the formation of new cross-linking structures, that rendered substrates more complex and difficult for enzymes to attack. Finally, litter quality overrode climate and time factors as a control of long-term changes of chemical composition.

  17. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  18. Malignant mesenchymoma of the scrotum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Brynitz, S;

    1991-01-01

    Paratesticular sarcomas are rare, especially the malignant mesenchymoma. To our knowledge only four cases of paratesticular malignant mesenchymoma have been described previously. All were localized to the spermatic cord. We present a case of malignant mesenchymoma in the scrotum free of the sperm...

  19. Hyaluronan in human malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sironen, R.K. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Tammi, M.; Tammi, R. [Institute of Biomedicine, Anatomy, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Auvinen, P.K. [Department of Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Anttila, M. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kosma, V-M., E-mail: Veli-Matti.Kosma@uef.fi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2011-02-15

    Hyaluronan, a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, is intimately involved in the biology of cancer. Hyaluronan accumulates into the stroma of various human tumors and modulates intracellular signaling pathways, cell proliferation, motility and invasive properties of malignant cells. Experimental and clinicopathological evidence highlights the importance of hyaluronan in tumor growth and metastasis. A high stromal hyaluronan content is associated with poorly differentiated tumors and aggressive clinical behavior in human adenocarcinomas. Instead, the squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas tend to have a reduced hyaluronan content. In addition to the stroma-cancer cell interaction, hyaluronan can influence stromal cell recruitment, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hyaluronan receptors, hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronan degrading enzymes, hyaluronidases, are involved in the modulation of cancer progression, depending on the tumor type. Furthermore, intracellular signaling and angiogenesis are affected by the degradation products of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan has also therapeutic implications since it is involved in multidrug resistance.

  20. Possible participation of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in the origin of cancer stem cells in diabetic patients with colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang; Cheng, Yong

    2013-05-01

    The association between diabetes and the associated increased risk of several solid malignancies has been the subject of investigation for many years, while potential biologic links between the two diseases are incompletely understood. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) signal transduction may represent a focal point in their respective contributions to malignant transformation associated diabetes. While the physiopathology of RAGE axis in promoting malignancies cannot be explained completely by the available mechanism as perpetuating inflammation at tumor microenvironment. In addition, experimental researches revealed a crucial role for upstreams of RAGE signaling pathway in maintaining the stemness properties and tumorigenicity of cancer stem cells. Hence, we hypothesized that RAGE inducing cancer stem cells may be a key determinant in the origin and progression of colon malignant tumors concomitant diabetes. Such an opinion not only bands together the seemingly disparate various complications in diabetes and colon cancers, but also has future implications for risk assessment and biopharmaceutical treatment.

  1. Unexpected second primary malignancies detected by f-18 FDG PET/CT during follow-up for primary malignancy: Two case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Ji In; Lee, Eun Seong; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Seok Ki [Nuclear Medicine, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    As the survival rate of cancer patients has increased over the last few decades, the risk of cancer survivors developing second primary malignancies has gained attention. We report two rare cases of second primary hematologic malignancy detected by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) during follow-up for primary solid malignancies. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed in a breast cancer patient and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in an anal cancer patient. F-18 FDG PET/CT findings led to the diagnosis of unexpected second primary hematologic malignancy in cancer survivors in these two cases.

  2. The neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroff, S N

    1980-03-01

    The neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is an evidently underdiagnosed but potentially lethal consequence of treatment with potent neuroleptics. The author presents a detailed review of the clinical characteristics and differential diagnosis of the NMS as described in the world literature. Further studies of the incidence, etiology and pathogenesis of the NMS may enhance knowledge of neuroleptic pharmacology and produce more effective means of prevention and treatment.

  3. Malignant melanoma of choroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manohar S

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of malignant melanoma of the choroid are reported due to rarity of the condition in India. One of the cases presented with Naevus of Ota. All the cases had typical clinical and investigative features. All cases were enucleated. Histopathologically three of them were of mixed type and one was of the epithelioid type. Two of the cases were seen in patients below 40 years of age.

  4. Intravascular malignant lymphomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Duverneuil, N.; Lafitte, F.; Chiras, J. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Batiment Babinski, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 75013 Paris (France); Mokhtari, K. [Service de Neuropathologie, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 75013 Paris (France); Behin, A.; Hoang-Xuan, K. [Departement de Neurologie, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 75013 Paris (France)

    2002-09-01

    Intravascular malignant lymphomatosis is a rare and probably often overlooked disease characterised by massive intravascular proliferation of lymphoid cells, usually with a poor prognosis. CT and MRI appearances are nonspecific; the most suggestive finding being both asymmetrical, bilateral, contrast enhancing high-signal areas on T2 weighting and infarct-like lesions of the cortex and basal ganglia. We report two patients with previously unreported dural and spinal cord involvement. (orig.)

  5. Malignant histiocytosis. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    RUIZ, OSCAR; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, UNMSM; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; QUIÑONES, WILLY; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; MISAD, OSCAR; Laboratorio de Anatomia Patológica “Oscar Misad; Delgado, Carlos; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Ronceros, Sergio; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. médico patólogo.; MARANGONI, MANUELA; Departamento de Enfermería, Hospital Dos de Mayo; BARDALES, LUZ; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; REYES, RAFAEL; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; CASTILLO, ALFREDO; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; URRUTIA, KATIA; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen year-old male patient referred from Huancayo who presented one month gastric intolerance, jaundice, fever and a lymph proliferative syndrome. Laboratory tests revealed severe pancytopenia due to phagocytosis. Haematologic and anatomy-pathology diagnosis was human malignant histiocytosis. We present this case due to its low frequency and the emergency character of the disease. Paciente varón de 14 años, procedente de Huancayo, que presenta un mes antes de su hospitalización intoler...

  6. Bilateral Malignant Brenner Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser D Choudhary, S.Manzoor Kadri, Ruby Reshi, S. Besina, Mansoor A. Laharwal, Reyaz tasleem, Qurrat A. Chowdhary

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral malignant Brenner tumour ofovary is extremely rate. A case ofmalignant Brenner tumourinvolving both the ovaries with mctastasis to mesentery in a 48 year femalc is presented. Grosslyo'arian masses were firm with soft areas, encapsulated and having bosselated external surfaces.Cut sections showed yellowish white surface with peripheral cysts (in both tumours. Microscopyrevealed transitional cell carcinoma with squamoid differentiation at places. Metastatic deposits werefound in the mesentery. Endometrium showed cystic glandular hyperplasia.

  7. Malignant Catatonia Mimicking Pheochromocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant catatonia is an unusual and highly fatal neuropsychiatric condition which can present with clinical and biochemical manifestations similar to those of pheochromocytoma. Differentiating between the two diseases is essential as management options greatly diverge. We describe a case of malignant catatonia in a 20-year-old male who presented with concurrent psychotic symptoms and autonomic instability, with markedly increased 24-hour urinary levels of norepinephrine at 1752 nmol/day (normal, 89–470 nmol/day, epinephrine at 1045 nmol/day (normal, <160 nmol/day, and dopamine at 7.9 μmol/day (normal, 0.4–3.3 μmol/day. The patient was treated with multiple sessions of electroconvulsive therapy, which led to complete clinical resolution. Repeat urine collections within weeks of this presenting event revealed normalization or near normalization of his catecholamine and metanephrine levels. Malignant catatonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the hypercatecholamine state, particularly in a patient who also exhibits concurrent catatonic features.

  8. Gastrointestinal lipoma and malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, A; Witz, M

    1991-07-01

    Twenty gastrointestinal lipomata in 18 patients are reviewed: 15 located in the colon, 3 in the distal ileum, one in the duodenum, and one in the stomach. They were found most frequently in European-born, elderly women and presented with variable abdominal symptomatology. Four lipomata were removed during endoscopy, the remainder at laparotomy, partial colectomy being performed in 10 cases. All, except 2 subserosal types, were located in the submucosa, and their average size was 2.7 cm diameter. Microscopically, none showed true encapsulation, and all were composed of mature fat cells without cellular atypia. In spite of nonspecific changes at endoscopy, one-half of the cases showed, on microscopic examination, atrophy of the overlying glands and a prominent eosinophilic and/or lymphoplasmocytic infiltration of the lamina propria. Two large subserosal lipomata were associated with Crohn's disease. In addition, in 39% of cases, malignant tumours, either single or double, were present in the gastrointestinal tract or elsewhere. Gastrointestinal "lipomata" are located in the sites of normal fatty infiltration in the elderly; these growths could be a local aging or reactive process of the intestinal wall rather than true neoplasms without any potential malignancy. However, coexistent malignancies should be carefully searched for in elderly patients with colonic lipoma.

  9. Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Malignant Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-14

    Biphasic Mesothelioma; Epithelioid Mesothelioma; Peritoneal Malignant Mesothelioma; Pleural Biphasic Mesothelioma; Pleural Epithelioid Mesothelioma; Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; Pleural Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma; Recurrent Peritoneal Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma

  10. Advances in research and intervention of psychological problems in patients with malignant tumor%恶性肿瘤患者社会心理问题的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志敏(综述); 刘巍(审校)

    2015-01-01

    With the transformation from the traditional biomedical model to bio⁃psychosocial medical model, psychological problems as malignant tumor etiology have become deeply studied into clinical research. Behavioral medicine research in recent decades indicated that complex psychological factors ( such as anxiety, depression, pain, stress) have a certain relationship with the occurrence of some human malignant tumor. The role of psychological factors in treatment of malignant tumor is becoming more and more signifi⁃cant. Negativepsychological mood not only caused adverse effects on neoplastic disease transformation, but also can influence the quality of life of the patients. So in the malignant tumor treatment at the same time we should strengthen thesupport of psychological problems. According to some reports in the literature at home and abroad, this article makes a brief review on the psychological prob⁃lems of patients with malignant tumor as follows.%随着医学模式由传统生物医学模式向生物⁃心理⁃社会医学模式的转变,心理问题作为恶性肿瘤的病因已深入到临床进行研究。近几十年来行为医学研究显示:复性心理因素(如焦虑、抑郁、痛苦及紧张等)与人类一些恶性肿瘤的发生有一定关系。心理因素在恶性肿瘤治疗中的作用日益显著。负面心理情绪不仅对肿瘤病程转变造成了不良影响,而且可影响患者的生活质量。故在恶性肿瘤支持治疗的同时应加强对心理问题的关注。本文根据国内外一些文献报道,对恶性肿瘤患者心理问题方面的研究结果简要综述如下。

  11. Breast cancer as second malignant neoplasm after acute myeloid leukemia: A rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Babu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer survivors after successful treatment of hematological and lymphoid malignancies are at an increased risk for second malignant neoplasms. As the overall survival has increased in these cancers, solid tumors are emerging as a serious long-term complication. In this article, we describe such a rare occurrence, in literature, of breast cancer after the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

  12. Evaluation of Diagnostic Efficiency of Ultrasound Features on Malignant Thyroid Nodules in Chinese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Qiang Li

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We should be alert with taller-than-wide shape and microcalcifications. Intranodular flow was a weak predictor of malignancy. According to Youden indexes and ROC analysis, irregular margins and hypoechogenicity combined with solid component or taller-than-wide shapes or microcalcifications have a high predicative value for malignant thyroid nodules in Chinese patients.

  13. [Oral complications of chemotherapy of malignant neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obralić, N; Tahmiscija, H; Kobaslija, S; Beslija, S

    1999-01-01

    Function and integrity disorders of the oral cavity fall into the most frequent complication of the chemotherapy of leucemias, malignant lymphomas and solid tumors. Complications associated with cancer chemotherapy can be direct ones, resulting from the toxic action of antineoplastic agents on the proliferative lining of the mouth, or indirect, as a result of myelosuppression and immunosuppression. The most frequent oral complications associated with cancer chemotherapy are mucositis, infection and bleeding. The principles of prevention and management of oral complications during cancer chemotherapy are considered in this paper.

  14. Microspheres with Ultrahigh Holmium Content for Radioablation of Malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, W.; Seevinck, P.R.; Krijger, G.C.; Visser, T.; Kroon-Batenburg, L.M.J.; Bakker, C.J.G.; Hennink, W.E.; Van het Schip, A.D.; Nijsen, J.F.W.

    Purpose The aim of this study was to develop microspheres with an ultra high holmium content which can be neutron activated for radioablation of malignancies. These microspheres are proposed to be delivered selectively through either intratumoral injections into solid tumors or administered via an

  15. Microspheres with ultrahigh holmium content for radioablation of malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, W; Seevinck, P R; Krijger, G C; Visser, T; Kroon-Batenburg, L M J; Bakker, C J G; Hennink, W E; van het Schip, A D; Nijsen, J F W

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop microspheres with an ultra high holmium content which can be neutron activated for radioablation of malignancies. These microspheres are proposed to be delivered selectively through either intratumoral injections into solid tumors or administered via an

  16. Solid Waste Treatment Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershaft, Alex

    1972-01-01

    Advances in research and commercial solid waste handling are offering many more processing choices. This survey discusses techniques of storage and removal, fragmentation and sorting, bulk reduction, conversion, reclamation, mining and mineral processing, and disposal. (BL)

  17. Helminths and malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennervald, Birgitte J; Polman, K.

    2009-01-01

    -malignant change has taken place. Three helminth infections have been classified as definitely carcinogenic to humans (group 1 carcinogens), namely Schistosoma haematobium, which is associated with cancer of the urinary bladder and the food-borne liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini...... associated with cholangiocarcinoma of the liver. Reducing the level of infection and the risk of getting (re)infected will reduce the risk of cancer development later in life. Helminth infections are thus a preventable cause of cancer, emphasizing the need for sustainable helminth control in endemic areas...

  18. Characterization of oil shale, isolated kerogen, and post-pyrolysis residues using advanced 13 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Birdwell, Justin E.; Chappell, Mark A.; Li, Yuan; Pignatello, Joseph J.; Mao, Jingdong

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of oil shale kerogen and organic residues remaining in postpyrolysis spent shale is critical to the understanding of the oil generation process and approaches to dealing with issues related to spent shale. The chemical structure of organic matter in raw oil shale and spent shale samples was examined in this study using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Oil shale was collected from Mahogany zone outcrops in the Piceance Basin. Five samples were analyzed: (1) raw oil shale, (2) isolated kerogen, (3) oil shale extracted with chloroform, (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C to mimic surface retorting, and (5) oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C to simulate in-situ retorting. The NMR methods applied included quantitative direct polarization with magic-angle spinning at 13 kHz, cross polarization with total sideband suppression, dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, 13C chemical shift anisotropy filtering, and 1H-13C long-range recoupled dipolar dephasing. The NMR results showed that, relative to the raw oil shale, (1) bitumen extraction and kerogen isolation by demineralization removed some oxygen-containing and alkyl moieties; (2) unpyrolyzed samples had low aromatic condensation; (3) oil shale pyrolysis removed aliphatic moieties, leaving behind residues enriched in aromatic carbon; and (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C contained larger aromatic clusters and more protonated aromatic moieties than oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C, which contained more total aromatic carbon with a wide range of cluster sizes.

  19. First-in-human trial of an anti-5T4 antibody-monomethylauristatin conjugate, PF-06263507, in patients with advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Geoffrey I; Vaishampayan, Ulka N; LoRusso, Patricia; Barton, Jeremy; Hua, Steven; Reich, Steven D; Shazer, Ronald; Taylor, Carrie T; Xuan, Dawei; Borghaei, Hossein

    2017-01-09

    Background The antibody-drug conjugate PF-06263507 targets the cell-surface, tumor-associated antigen 5T4 and consists of a humanized IgG1 conjugated to the microtubule-disrupting agent monomethylauristatin-F by a non-cleavable maleimidocaproyl linker. In this first-in-human, dose-finding trial (NCT01891669), we evaluated safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary antitumor activity of PF-06263507 in pretreated patients with advanced solid tumors, unselected for 5T4 expression. starting at 0.05 mg/kg, with 25, 56, and 95% dose increments, depending on observed dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), applying a modified continual reassessment method. Results Twenty-six patients received PF-06263507 at 0.05 to 6.5 mg/kg. The first DLT, grade 3 photophobia, occurred at 4.34 mg/kg and two additional DLTs, grade 2 keratitis and grade 1 limbal stem cell deficiency (> 2-week dosing delay), at 6.5 mg/kg. The most common adverse events (AEs) were fatigue (38.5%), photophobia (26.9%), and decreased appetite, dry eye, nausea, and thrombocytopenia (23.1% each). No treatment-related grade 4-5 AEs were reported. Systemic exposure of PF-06263507 increased in a dose-related manner. At the maximum tolerated dose (MTD, 4.34 mg/kg), mean terminal half-life for PF-06263507 and unconjugated payload were ~6 and 3 days, respectively. Payload serum concentrations were substantially lower compared with PF-06263507. No objective responses were observed. Conclusions The MTD and recommended phase II dose were determined to be 4.34 mg/kg. Ocular toxicities accounted for the DLTs observed, as previously reported with monomethylauristatin-F payloads. Further studies are warranted to investigate clinical activity of this agent in patients with 5T4-expressing tumors.Trial registration ID: NCT01891669.

  20. Chemical structures of coal lithotypes before and after CO2 adsorption as investigated by advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X.; Mastalerz, Maria; Chappell, M.A.; Miller, L.F.; Li, Y.; Mao, J.

    2011-01-01

    Four lithotypes (vitrain, bright clarain, clarain, and fusain) of a high volatile bituminous Springfield Coal from the Illinois Basin were characterized using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The NMR techniques included quantitative direct polarization/magic angle spinning (DP/MAS), cross polarization/total sideband suppression (CP/TOSS), dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, and recoupled C-H long-range dipolar dephasing techniques. The lithotypes that experienced high-pressure CO2 adsorption isotherm analysis were also analyzed to determine possible changes in coal structure as a result of CO2 saturation at high pressure and subsequent evacuation. The main carbon functionalities present in original vitrain, bright clarain, clarain and fusain were aromatic carbons (65.9%-86.1%), nonpolar alkyl groups (9.0%-28.9%), and aromatic C-O carbons (4.1%-9.5%). Among these lithotypes, aromaticity increased in the order of clarain, bright clarain, vitrain, and fusain, whereas the fraction of alkyl carbons decreased in the same order. Fusain was distinct from other three lithotypes in respect to its highest aromatic composition (86.1%) and remarkably small fraction of alkyl carbons (11.0%). The aromatic cluster size in fusain was larger than that in bright clarain. The lithotypes studied responded differently to high pressure CO2 saturation. After exposure to high pressure CO2, vitrain and fusain showed a decrease in aromaticity but an increase in the fraction of alkyl carbons, whereas bright clarain and clarain displayed an increase in aromaticity but a decrease in the fraction of alkyl carbons. Aromatic fused-rings were larger for bright clarain but smaller for fusain in the post-CO2 adsorption samples compared to the original lithotypes. These observations suggested chemical CO2-coal interactions at high pressure and the selectivity of lithotypes in response to CO2 adsorption. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  1. 益气健脾补肾方在中晚期恶性肿瘤化疗中的疗效观察%Efficacy Observation of Qi Enriching, Invigorating Spleen and Kidney Tonifying Prescription during Chemotherapy of Patients with Moderate and Advanced Malignant Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寿辉; 宣志红

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To observe therapeutic efficacy of Qi enriching, invigorating spleen and kidney tonifying prescription during chemotherapy of patients with moderate and advanced malignant tumor. METHODS: 80 patients with moderate and advanced malignant tumor were randomly divided into 2 groups. Control group was given chemotherapy alone, and experimental group was addtionaly given Qi entiching, invigorating spleen and kidney tonifying prescription (one dose each day) on the basis of chemotherapy for 21 days. Therapeutic efficacy, adverse drug reaction and survival quality of 2 groups were observed. RESULTS: Compared with control group, clinical efficacy of trial group was improved significantly, and adverse drug reactions like bone marrow suppression and renal function impairment were lessened obviously and the life quality of patients was improved (P< 0.05). CONCLUSION: Qi enriching, invigorating spleen and kidney tonifying prescription can enhance the curative effect of chemotherapy for patients with moderate and advanced malignant tumor, improve the life quality of patients and reduce adverse drug reactions.%目的:观察益气健脾补肾方在中晚期恶性肿瘤化疗中的疗效.方法:将80例中晚期恶性肿瘤患者随机均分为两组,对照组单纯化疗,试验组单纯化疗结合益气健脾补肾方(每日1剂),疗程均为21d.观察两组患者疗效、不良反应与生存质量.结果:与对照组比较,试验组临床疗效显著增强,骨髓抑制与肾功能损伤等不良反应显著减轻,患者生存质量显著改善(P<0.05).结论:益气健脾补肾方可以提高中晚期恶性肿瘤化疗效果,减轻不良反应,提高患者生存质量.

  2. MANAGEMENT OF SYMPTOMATIC MALIGNANT ASCITES WITH DIURETICS AND PARACENTESIS: CASE REPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Amer Hayat Khan; Andee Dzulkarnaen Zakaria; Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman; Salleh S. Khairiyah; Muhammad Shahid Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Malignant ascites is a widespread impediment of advanced cancer but to 20% of all cases of malignant ascites have unknown primary tumours. With the exception of ovarian cancer, the response of the ascites to treatment of the tumor is unsatisfactory and treatment related morbidity is common. The intent of most treatments for malignant ascites should be palliative with diuretics paracentesis were the common approach. A 53 years old, male patients who was admitted with history of abdominal diste...

  3. Targeting cell cycle regulators in hematologic malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiman eAleem

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hematologic malignancies represent the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer in economically developed countries. In hematologic malignancies normal hematopoiesis is interrupted by uncontrolled growth of a genetically altered stem or progenitor cell (HSPC that maintains its ability of self-renewal. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs not only regulate the mammalian cell cycle, but also influence other vital cellular processes, such as stem cell renewal, differentiation, transcription, epigenetic regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. Chromosomal translocations, amplification, overexpression and altered CDK activities have been described in different types of human cancer, which have made them attractive targets for pharmacological inhibition. Mouse models deficient for one or more CDKs have significantly contributed to our current understanding of the physiological functions of CDKs, as well as their roles in human cancer. The present review focuses on selected cell cycle kinases with recent emerging key functions in hematopoiesis and in hematopoietic malignancies, such as CDK6 and its role in MLL-rearranged leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia, CDK1 and its regulator WEE-1 in acute myeloid leukemia, and cyclin C/CDK8/CDK19 complexes in T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. The knowledge gained from gene knockout experiments in mice of these kinases is also summarized. An overview of compounds targeting these kinases, which are currently in clinical development in various solid tumors and hematopoietic malignances, is presented. These include the CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors (palbociclib, LEE011, LY2835219, pan-CDK inhibitors that target CDK1 (dinaciclib, flavopiridol, AT7519, TG02, P276-00, terampeprocol and RGB 286638 as well as the WEE-1 kinase inhibitor, MK-1775. The advantage of combination therapy of cell cycle inhibitors with conventional chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of AML, such as cytarabine, is discussed.

  4. Advances on research of metabolomics in malignant cancer diagnosis%代谢组学在恶性肿瘤诊断中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雨萌; 陈莹

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics for biological metabolite changes was widely accepted,the study of metabolomics is be⁃coming a powerful tool for disease diagnosis and disease mechanism in recent years.In this paper,we review the recent applications of metabonomics study in the diagnosis of malignant tumor.Literatures about the study of meta⁃bonomics in the diagnosis of malignant tumor were summarized according to the classification of tumors.In recent years,metabolomics is widely used in cancer diagnosis,mainly in gastric cancer,liver cancer,lung cancer,esoph⁃ageal cancer,breast cancer,ovarian cancer,prostate cancer,et al.Metabolomics play important role in the aspects of cancer pathogenesis,early diagnosis,differential diagnosis,staging and prognosis.With the development of anal⁃ysis techniques,metabolomics will become an important method in the research of malignant tumor.%近年来代谢组学研究成为疾病诊断、疾病机制研究等的有力手段,对于生物代谢物变化的研究思想已被广泛接受。本文总结了近年来代谢组学研究在恶性肿瘤诊断中的应用,将近几年国内外代谢组学在恶性肿瘤诊断方面相关文献按病种进行归纳整理、总结分析。目前代谢组学用于肿瘤诊断主要集中在胃癌、肝癌、肺癌、食管癌、乳腺癌、卵巢癌、前列腺癌等。代谢组学在恶性肿瘤的发病机制、早期诊断、鉴别诊断、分期及预后判断方面均显示出巨大的发展潜力。随着分析技术的不断发展和完善,代谢组学将成为恶性肿瘤研究的重要手段。

  5. Temozolomide in malignant glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Dresemann

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Gregor DresemannCenter for Neurooncology at Aerztehaus Velen, Velen, GermanyAbstract: Glioblastoma multiforme WHO grade IV (GBM is the most aggressive ­malignant glioma and the most frequent primary tumor of the central nervous system. The median ­survival of newly diagnosed GBM patients was between 9 to 12 months prior to treatment with ­temozolomide being introduced. Primary resection that is as complete as possible is recommended for malignant glioma. Conventional fractionated irradiation 55 to 60 gy with concomitant temozolomide followed by standard temozolomide 6 cycles (5/28 (EORTC/NCIC-regime published by R Stupp in 2005 is the standard of care for newly diagnosed GBM after surgery, independent of the methylation status of the MGM-T gene promoter. Age is no ­contraindication for treatment with temozolomide, although comorbidity and performance status have to be ­considered. For temozolomide naive GBM and astrocytoma grade III patients with disease progression, temozolomide is still the treatment of choice outside of clinical studies. A ­general consensus regarding the schedule of choice has not yet been achieved; so far the 5 out of 28 days regimen (5/28 is the standard of care in most countries. Patients with disease progression after standard temozolomide (5/28 are candidates for clinical studies. Outside of clinical ­studies, dose-dense (7/7, prolonged (21/28, or metronomic (28/28 temozolomide, or alternatively a nitrosourea-based regimen can be an option. The excellent toxicity profile of ­temozolomide allows for various combinations with antitumor agents. None of these ­combinations, however, have been demonstrated to be statistically significantly superior compared to temozolomide alone. The role of lower dosed, dose-dense, or continuous regimen with or without drug combination and the role of temozolomide for newly diagnosed astrocytoma grade III and low grade glioma still has to be determined.Keywords: glioblastoma

  6. Value of acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant solitary solid thyroid nodules%声辐射力脉冲弹性成像在甲状腺单发实性结节良恶性鉴别诊断中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章晶; 徐辉雄; 张一峰; 徐军妹; 刘畅; 郭乐杭; 刘琳娜

    2013-01-01

    级≥Ⅳ级的结节19个,包括良性结节8个,恶性结节11个;VTI分级<Ⅳ级的结节23个,包括良性结节22个,恶性结节1个;VTI诊断甲状腺恶性单发实性结节的敏感度、特异度、阳性预测值、阴性预测值分别为91.7%(11/12)、73.3%(22/30)、57.8%(11/19)、95.7%(22/23)。常规超声+VTI诊断甲状腺恶性单发实性结节的敏感度、特异度、阳性预测值、阴性预测值分别为91.7%(11/12)、80.0%(24/30)、64.7%(11/17)、96.0%(24/25)。而常规超声+VTQ诊断甲状腺恶性单发实性结节的敏感度、特异度、阳性预测值、阴性预测值分别为91.7%(11/12)、83.3%(25/30)、68.8%(11/16)、96.2%(25/26)。结论单独的ARFI技术诊断甲状腺单发实性结节良恶性的能力并不优于常规超声,但是两者联合应用可提高甲状腺单发实性结节良恶性鉴别诊断水平。%Objective To explore the value of virtual touch tissue imaging (VTI) and virtual touch tissue quantification ( VTQ) of acoustic radiation force impulse ( ARFI) elastography in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant solitary solid thyroid nodules in ultrasound .Methods The ARFI elastography characteristics and ultrasound (US) features of 42 histologically proven solid or predominantly solid thyroid nodules in 42 patients with a solitary nodule were reviewed .The pathological diagnosis was the gold standard and the sensitivity ,specificity,positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of US, VTQ and VTI in diagnosis of malignant solitary solid thyroid nodules were caculated. Results Forty-two nodules included 30 benign lesions(16 nodular goiters,13 adenomatous goiters and one subacute thyroiditis)and 12 malignant lesions(papillary carcinomas).The sonographic features that suggested malignancy include hypoechogenicity , irregular or microlobulated margin

  7. Primary malignant tumors of the small bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, V K; Bodzin, J H

    1980-09-01

    Primary malignant tumors of the small bowel are uncommon and are often diagnosed at an advanced stage. A 10 year survey (1967 to 1977) of the clinical records at one hospital revealed 39 cases of primary malignant tumors of the small bowel. The most common symptoms were abdominal pain (89.7 percent) and weight loss (77 percent). Six patients presented with complications of enterovesical fistula, bleeding and perforation. Preoperative diagnosis was suspected in 27 cases (69.2 percent). Adenocarcinoma was the most common tumor, followed by carcinoid tumor, lymphoma, leiomyosarcoma and melanoma. The treatment of choice was surgical resection whenever possible. Curative resection was attempted in 25 cases. Adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy was used in four patients with lymphoma. Twenty-seven patients (69.2 percent) are alive from 1 to 6 years after diagnosis and treatment. The 5 year survival rate is 35 percent. Earlier diagnosis is essential if the prognosis for patients with small bowel malignancy is to be improved.

  8. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Yi Lin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM is rare. It is difficult to diagnose early and responds poorly to treatment. There is no optimal and effective treating consensus so far. We report three patients of MPM treated at Mackay Memorial Hospital in recent 3 years. They were two men and one woman without asbestos exposure related to their occupations. Due to failure in early diagnosis of MPM, none of them survived for more than 5 months. We make a brief review from the previous literature. These three cases were compared with the reviewing data in many aspects including the risk factor, clinical presentation, diagnostic options, and management. Besides, some latest clinical trials are introduced in this report.

  9. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

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    Mariana Moscovich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS is a potentially fatal adverse event associated with the use of antipsychotics (AP. The objective of this study was to investigate the profile of cases of NMS and to compare our findings with those published in similar settings. A series of 18 consecutive patients with an established diagnosis of NMS was analyzed, gathering data on demography, symptoms and signs. Two thirds of all cases involved woman with a past medical history of psychiatric disorder receiving relatively high doses of AP. The signs and symptoms of NMS episodes were similar to those reported in other series and only one case had a fatal outcome, the remaining presenting complete recovery. As expected, more than two thirds of our cases were using classic AP (68%, however the clinical profile of these in comparison with those taking newer agent was similar. Newer AP also carry the potential for NMS.

  10. Fulminant metastatic malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M.K. Faheem,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old lady presented with complaints of chest pain and cough for the past one month. Right supraclavicular lymphadenopathy, bilateral pleural effusion were present. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from the lymph node showed brownish-black pigment laden tumour cells. Review of history subsequently revealed that she had undergone a surgical procedure over the sole of her left foot three years ago of which no records were available. Reexamination of sole of left foot showed a pigmented infiltraling lesion. Pleural biopsy revealed pigmented tumour deposits. The patient was diagnosed to have fulminant metastatic malignant melanoma of left foot with metastasis to cervical lymph nodes and pleura. This case report re-emphasizes the importance of combined approach to ascertain diagnosis early.

  11. Therapeutic problems in advanced stages of malignant diseases of throat and oral cavity observed during the treatment of the patients at E.N.T. Department of Wojewodzki Szpital Zespolony im. J. Babinskiego in Wroclaw; Problemy terapeutyczne w zaawansowanych stadiach nowotworow zlosliwych gardla i jamy ustnej na podstawie obserwacji chorych leczonych w Oddziale Laryngologicznym Wojewodzkiego Szpitala Zespolonego im. J. Babinskiego we Wroclawiu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, A.; Gul, E.; Hejjamy, R.; Turek, W. [Wojewodzki Szpital Zespolony im. J. Babinskiego, Wroclaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Therapeutic problems in advanced stages of malignant neoplasms of throat and oral cavity have been presented on the ground of 140 patients treated in the years 1982 - 1992 in the ENT Department of the Babinski Regional Hospital in Wroclaw. Attention has been called to the fact, that patients coming mostly from neglected environment, report themselves for treatment to late and often they don`t give their consent to the proposed surgical intervention what complicates a choice of the way of treatment affecting treatment results. In the presented material there were 111 (79.3%) such patients. The authors present surgical treatment difficulties often related to necessity of reconstructive operations and problems related to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Symptomatic treatment of neoplastic disease terminal stage has been discussed especially difficulties related to a nutrition of the patient, fighting a pain and also problems created by the stay of such patient in a surgical department. (author)

  12. Review on clinical trials of targeted treatments in malignant mesothelioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jan Nyrop; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2011-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive tumor of the serosal surfaces with a poor prognosis. Advances in the understanding of tumor biology have led to the development of several targeted treatments, which have been evaluated in clinical trials. This article is a comprehensive review of all...... clinical trials evaluating the effect of targeted treatments in MM....

  13. Primary intrahepatic malignant epithelioid mesothelioma

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    Iraklis Perysinakis

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the eighth adult case of primary intrahepatic malignant mesothelioma reported in the literature. These tumors are rarely diagnosed preoperatively. Absence of previous asbestos exposure does not exclude malignant mesothelioma from the differential diagnosis. Proper surgical treatment may offer prolonged survival to the patient, without adjuvant therapy.

  14. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page. Please enable Javascript in your browser. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot What Is Malignant Melanoma? Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the ... people of all age groups, even the young. Melanoma in the Foot Melanoma that occurs in the ...

  15. Malign katatoni, et neuropsykiatrisk syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Katinka; Lublin, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes a 36-year-old schizophrenic man who developed malignant catatonia during a hospital stay. He was treated with benzodiazepines (BZD) and 26 sessions of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). After the therapy his condition normalised. Malignant catatonia is a rare condition...

  16. Malignant ameloblastoma or ameloblastic carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, P.J.; Müller, H.

    1984-01-01

    The World Health Organization defines malignant ameloblastoma as a lesion exhibiting features of an ameloblastoma in primary and metastatic growths. To cases collected from the literature we have added two of our own cases in which features of an ameloblastoma were coupled with malignant behavior. I

  17. Håndens maligne tumorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britt Mejer; Rasmussen, Per Joen Svabo; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz;

    2011-01-01

    Malignant tumours of the hand are rare and are often misdiagnosed. A painful swelling of the hand or digits are often diagnosed with an infection, benign tumours such as ganglion cysts, or arthritis. Wounds that do not heal despite adequate treatment should be biopsied to rule out malignancy. A c...

  18. Malignant priapism: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-12-01

    Metastatic involvement of the penis is most commonly from a primary malignant genitourinary tumour. It is a rare phenomenon usually reflecting disseminated malignancy associated with a poor prognosis. Metastasis to the penis mimicking priapism is extremely rare, particularly in the absence of disseminated disease.

  19. Thyroid nodules with minimal cystic changes have a low risk of malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Dong Gyu; Kim, Dae Sik; Kim, Soo Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The goal of this study was to determine the risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules with minimal cystic changes. A total of consecutive 1,000 thyroid nodules (≥1 cm) with final diagnoses from two institutions were included in this study. The risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules was analyzed according to the internal content, which was categorized as purely solid, minimally cystic (cystic changes ≤10%), and partially cystic (cystic changes >10%). We also assessed the risk of malignancy of nodules with minimal cystic changes depending on echogenicity and presence of any suspicious ultrasonografic (US) features. The overall frequency of purely solid, minimally cystic, and partially cystic nodules was 730/1,000 (73%), 61/1,000 (6.1%), and 209/1,000 (20.9%), respectively, with risks of malignancy of 14.8% (108/730), 3.3% (2/61), and 3.3% (7/209), respectively. The risk of malignancy of nodules with minimal cystic changes was significantly lower than that of purely solid nodules (P=0.013). The risk of malignancy of nodules with minimal cystic changes was also lower than that of purely solid nodules in the group of hypoechoic nodules (P=0.063) and in the group of nodules with suspicious US features (P=0.028), but was not significantly different from that of partially cystic nodules regardless of echogenicity or the presence of suspicious US features (P≥0.652). Thyroid nodules with minimal cystic changes have a low risk of malignancy, similar to that of partially cystic nodules regardless of echogenicity or the presence of suspicious US features. The US lexicon could define solid nodules as nodules with purely solid internal content in order to enhance the accuracy of estimated risks of malignancy.

  20. The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-ConFIRM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-ConFIRM) was formed to promote international, multidisciplinary collaborations to advance our understanding of the etiology and outcomes of kidney cancer.

  1. Hypercalcemia of malignancy: An update on pathogenesis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aibek E Mirrakhimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercalcemia of malignancy is a common finding typically found in patients with advanced stage cancers. We aimed to provide an updated review on the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management of malignancy-related hypercalcemia. We searched PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science for original articles, case reports, and case series articles focused on hypercalcemia of malignancy published from 1950 to December 2014. Hypercalcemia of malignancy usually presents with markedly elevated calcium levels and therefore, usually severely symptomatic. Several major mechanisms are responsible for the development of hypercalcemia of malignancy including parathyroid hormone-related peptide-mediated humoral hypercalcemia, osteolytic metastases-related hypercalcemia, 1,25 Vitamin D-mediated hypercalcemia, and parathyroid hormone-mediated hypercalcemia in patients with parathyroid carcinoma and extra parathyroid cancers. Diagnosis should include the history and physical examination as well as measurement of the above mediators of hypercalcemia. Management includes hydration, calcitonin, bisphosphonates, denosumab, and in certain patients, prednisone and cinacalcet. Patients with advanced underlying kidney disease and refractory severe hypercalcemia should be considered for hemodialysis. Hematology or oncology and palliative care specialists should be involved early to guide the options of cancer targeted therapies and help the patients and their closed ones with the discussion of comfort-oriented care.

  2. Gynaecological malignancies from palliative care perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlesh Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the approximately 80,000 new cases of all cancers detected every year in India, 10-15% are gynecological malignancies. As per population-based registries under the National Cancer Registry Program, the leading sites of cancer among women are the cervix uteri, breast, and oral cavity. About 50-60% of all cancers among women in India are mainly of the following four organs: cervix uteri, breast, corpus uteri, and ovaries. Over 70% of these women report for diagnostic and treatment services at an advanced stage of disease, resulting in poor survival and high mortality rates. Among all gynecological cancers, ovarian cancer is the deadliest one and, in 2/3 rd of the cases, is detected in an advanced stage. But, in India and in other developing countries, due to inadequate screening facilities for the preventable cancer cervix, this kills more women than any other cancer in females. Gynecology Oncologist as a sub-specialist has an immensely important role in curtailing the menace of gynecological malignancies by providing comprehensive preventive, curative, palliative and follow-up services, with the aim of assuring a good quality of life to women as a cornerstone of cancer management.

  3. Thermoradiotherapy of malignant tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Kazuo; Itami, Jun; Arimizu, Noboru (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Uno, Takashi; Toita, Takafumi; Shiina, Takeki; Mikuriya, Shuuichi; Yamada, Tsunehisa

    1991-06-01

    From October 1986 to June 1989, 79 patients with malignant tumors were treated by radiation therapy combined with hyperthermia at National Medical Center Hospital. Seventy two patients (male: 48, female: 23) were evaluable. Average age was 62.4 years old (ranged 20-81 years old). Irradiation was delivered twice to fifth weekly in tumor doses of 50 to 60 Gy (TDF 82-122). We used 3 types of hyperthermic equipment, Thermotron RF8, BSD 1000 System and Endoradiotherm 100A. Hyperthermia was initiated within 30 minutes following irradiation, most of the patients being treated with adequate equipment, 41-44degC, for 60-70 minutes every 72 hours. Fifteen of 71 patients (20.8%) showed a complete response and 36 patients (50%) showed a partial response, so effective rate was 70.8% of all. In superficial tumors, 4 of 21 patients (21.5%) showed a complete response and 8 of 21 patients showed a partial response, effective rate was 63.2% of all. In deep seated tumor, 10 of 46 patients (21.7%) showed a complete response and 25 of all patients showed a partial response, so effective rate was 76.1% of all. Five patients were heated following only intra-tumor injection of OK-432 and its effective rate was 75%. We think that this modality of therapy will be effective in cases which heating area had been irradiated over tolerable doses. CR rate of superficial tumors according to intra-tumor center temperature tends to higher in the cases of higher tumor temperature. In deep seated tumor, 11 patients (23.9%) had reached over 43degC, 29 patients (63.0%) heated 41-43degC, 6 patients (13.0%) heated under 41degC and CR rate of each group were 36.4%, 17.2%, 16.7%, respectively. We think that thermotherapy with irradiation is an effective therapy in the treatment of malignancies but the improvement of heating equipment will be expected. (author).

  4. 恶性肿瘤的放射治疗联合基因治疗研究进展%Advancement of researches on the malignant tumor radio-genetic therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玥; 苏成海

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the routine methods of malignant tumor treatment and used in clinical many years,while gene therapy is one of the new therapy.But the formation of tumor is the complicated process effected by many factors and many genes.The effect of polygene therapy is not ideal.Therefore,radio-genetic therapy is the hot spot of the present study and will become one of the important direction of cancer therapy.%放射治疗是恶性肿瘤治疗的常规手段之一,并早已用于临床.而基因治疗是一种新型的治疗方法,但由于肿瘤的形成是多因素、多基因参与的复杂过程,单纯基因治疗的效果并不理想.因此,放射治疗联合基因治疗是目前的研究热点,也将成为肿瘤治疗研究的重要方向之一.

  5. [Malignant pustule in province of Milan, Italy (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelosa, L

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary the statistical data are reported about human malignant pustule denounced in Italy in different Districts, in Lombardia and in Province of Milan. Correlatively the outbreaks and cases of haematic anthrax in animals declared in Italy, in different Districts, in Lombardia and in Province of Milan. Then the outbreaks of malignant pustule in Province of Milan are related in 1975-1977 period in the resident population where is considerable concentration of the leather manufactures. The epidemiological and microbiological researches have determined the relation among the outbreak of malignant pustule and the working of the hides imported from African Countries (Nigeria, Tanzania, Ethiopia, South Africa, Burundi-Kenya, Uganda) containing the spores of b. anthrax. The spores besides to cause infections of the workmen employed in the hide manufacture (industrial anthrax) through the effluents and solid refuses from the tanneries, are dispended upon the tiled ground and determine outbreak the haematic anthrax in the animals and agricultural coutaneus anthrax in the men.

  6. Malignancy and chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, Ramon

    2003-01-01

    Increased incidence of cancer at various sites is observed in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Certain malignant diseases, such as lymphomas and carcinomas of the kidney, prostate, liver and uterus, show an enhanced prevalence compared with the general population. In particular, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) shows an excess incidence in ESRD patients. A multitude of factors, directly or indirectly associated with the renal disease and the treatment regimens, may contribute to the increased tumor formation in these patients. Patients undergoing renal replacement therapy (RRT) are prone to develop acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), which may subsequently lead to the development of RCC. In pre-dialysis patients with coexistent renal disease, as in dialysis and transplant patients, the presence of ACKD may predispose to RCC. Previous use of cytotoxic drugs (eg, cyclophosphamide) or a history of analgesic abuse, are additional risk factors for malignancy. Malignancy following renal transplantation is an important medical problem during the follow-up. The most common malignancies are lymphoproliferative disorders (early after transplantation) and skin carcinomas (late after transplantation). Another important confounder for risk of malignancy after renal transplantation is the type of immunosuppression. The type of malignancy is different in various countries and dependent on genetic and environmental factors. Finally, previous cancer treatment in a uremic patient on the transplant waiting list is of great importance in relation to waiting time and post-malignancy screening.

  7. Helicobacter pylori and Gastrointestinal Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerito, Marino; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Rokkas, Theodoros; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the principal trigger of gastric carcinogenesis and gastric cancer (GC) and remains the third leading cause of cancer-related death in both sexes worldwide. In a big Japanese study, the risk of developing GC in patients with peptic ulcer disease who received H. pylori eradication therapy and annual endoscopic surveillance for a mean of 9.9 years was significantly lower after successful eradication therapy compared to the group with persistent infection (0.21%/year and 0.45%/year, respectively, p = .049). According to a recent meta-analysis, H. pylori eradication is insufficient in GC risk reduction in subjects with advanced precancerous conditions (i.e., intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia). A microsimulation model suggested screening smokers over the age of 50 in the U.S. for serum pepsinogens. This would allow to detect advanced gastric atrophy with endoscopic follow-up of subjects testing positive as a cost-effective strategy to reduce GC mortality. In a Taiwanese study, the anti-H. pylori IgG-based test-and-treat program had lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratios than that with (13)C-urea breath test in both sexes to prevent GC whereas expected years of life lost for GC were higher and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of test-and-treat programs were more cost-effective in young adults (30-69 years old) than in elders (>70 years old). With respect to gastrointestinal malignancies other than GC, a meta-analysis confirmed the inverse association between H. pylori infection and esophageal adenocarcinoma. In a Finnish study, H. pylori seropositivity was associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancers (multivariate adjusted OR 2.63; 95% CI: 1.08-6.37), another meta-analysis showed a slightly increased rate of pancreatic cancer in patients with CagA-negative strains (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.02-1.65), whereas current data suggest that the association between H. pylori and colorectal neoplasms may be population

  8. Treating malignant glioma in Chinese patients: update on temozolomide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang L

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Liang Chang,1 Jun Su,1 Xiuzhi Jia,2,3 Huan Ren2,3 1Department of Neurosurgery, The Tumor Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 2Department of Immunology, Harbin Medical University, 3Key Lab Infection and Immunity, Heilongjiang Province, Harbin, People's Republic of China Abstract: Malignant glioma, ie, anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma, is the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor in the People's Republic of China, and is particularly aggressive. The median survival of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma is only 12–14 months despite advanced therapeutic strategies. Treatment of malignant glioma consists mainly of surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. Temozolomide (TMZ, a second-generation oral alkylating agent, is playing an increasingly important role in the treatment of malignant glioma in Chinese patients. Since the publication of a study by Stupp et al in 2005, which used a protocol of conventional fractionated irradiation with concomitant TMZ followed by standard TMZ for six cycles, many clinical studies in the People's Republic of China have demonstrated that such a treatment strategy has significantly improved efficacy with limited side effects for newly diagnosed glioblastoma after surgery as compared with strategies that do not contain TMZ. However, as a relatively new agent, the history and development of TMZ for malignant glioma is not well documented in Chinese patients. Multicenter, randomized controlled trials including appropriately sized patient populations investigating multiple aspects of TMZ therapy and related combination therapies are warranted in patients with malignant glioma. This review provides an update on the efficacy, mechanism of action, adverse reactions, and clinical role of TMZ in the treatment of malignant glioma in Chinese patients. Keywords: malignant glioma, chemotherapy, temozolomide, efficacy, side effect, People's Republic of China

  9. Ewing's Sarcoma and Second Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Schiffman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma (ES is a rare tumor that is most common in children and young adults. Late effects of ES therapy include second cancers, a tragic outcome for survivors of such a young age. This paper will explore the frequencies and types of malignancies that occur after ES. Additionally, it will review how second malignancies have changed with the shift in treatment from high-dose radiation to chemotherapy regimens including alkylators and epipodophyllotoxins. The risk of additional cancers in ES survivors will also be compared to survivors of other childhood cancers. Finally, the possible genetic contribution to ES and second malignancies will be discussed.

  10. Malignant renal tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Scott Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Renal malignancies are common in children. While the majority of malignant renal masses are secondary to Wilms tumor, it can be challenging to distinguish from more aggressive renal masses. For suspicious renal lesions, it is crucial to ensure prompt diagnosis in order to select the appropriate surgical procedure and treatment. This review article will discuss the common differential diagnosis that can be encountered when evaluating a suspicious renal mass in the pediatric population. This includes clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, malignant rhabdoid tumor, renal medullary carcinoma and lymphoma. 

  11. In the sandbox: palliative care and hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Thomas W

    2014-02-01

    Palliative care specialists have had little involvement in the care of patients with hematologic malignancies. The reasons for this are not clear, because these patients certainly face a significant symptom burden, and many hematologic malignancies are either incurable or carry poor prognoses. For example, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in patients over age 60 has a 5-year survival of less than 10%, akin to pancreatic cancer. Although most oncologists would agree with involving palliative care specialists in the case of advanced pancreatic cancer, few seem to consider this in the context of AML. Why should AML be any different?

  12. Advance research on microRNA-221,microRNA-222 and malignant tumor%microRNA-221和microRNA-222与恶性肿瘤的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春智; 康春生; 浦佩玉

    2009-01-01

    It has become clear that particular microRNAs(miRNAs) function either as tumor suppres-sors or oncogenes, whose loss or overexpression, respectively, has diagnostic and prognostic significance.Mi-croRNA-221 and microRNA-222 are a cluster microRNAs of oncogenes.They are overexpressed in some malig-nant tumors, including glioblstoma, prostate carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, and so on.By regulating particular target mRNAs, microRNA-221 and microRNA-222 perform pro- oneogenie role.p27kip1 and p57kip2 are target genes of microRNA-221 and mieroRNA-222.MicroRNA-221 and microRNA-222 promote oncogensis and tumor grow by down-regulating p27kip1 and p57kip2 expression.%微RNA(micmRNA)-221和microRNA-222是成簇的microRNA,在恶性肿瘤中起促癌作用,在胶质母细胞瘤、前列腺癌、乳头状甲状腺癌等恶性肿瘤中高表达.microRNA-221和microRNA-222通过调控其特定的靶基因行使促癌作用.在所有预测的靶基因中,p27kip1和p57kip2是已被验证的靶基因,microRNA-221和microRNA-222通过下调p27kip1和p57kip2的表达来促进肿瘤的形成和生长.

  13. AMG 319 Lymphoid Malignancy FIH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-20

    Cancer; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Hematologic Malignancies; Hematology; Leukemia; Low Grade Lymphoma; Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Oncology; Oncology Patients; T Cell Lymphoma; Tumors

  14. [Malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrier, P; Grodner, F; Ruf, R; Texier, J; Cottencin, R; Cousteau, C; Deslandre, A; Gounant, C; Szpirglas, H; Laufer, J

    1983-01-01

    Rapid regression of all symptoms was obtained after moderate chemotherapy in two women aged 69 and 77 years respectively with malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Cervico-facial locations of these tumors are discussed in relation to definition, etiology, geographic factors, genetic markers, and associated immunologic disorders. Diagnosis requires a series of explorations including, obviously as a last resort, exploratory cervicotomy. Other regions may be involved and must be investigated, but lesions not affecting lymph nodes occur in only approximately 2 p. cent of patients with cervico-facial malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (approximately 10 p. cent of all malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas). Other localizations include the hard palate, gums, sinuses, and salivary glands. Burkitt's lymphoma represents, on the contrary, 30 p. cent of malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma seen in European children. The different therapeutic modalities available are discussed.

  15. Defective Autophagy Initiates Malignant Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-05-19

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Park et al. (2016) elegantly demonstrate that a partial defect in autophagy supports malignant transformation as it favors the production of genotoxic reactive oxygen species by mitochondria.

  16. Malignant hypertension: a preventable emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Walter; van der Merwe, Veronica

    2013-08-16

    The Waitemata Hypertension Clinic Database 2009-2012 (Auckland, New Zealand) was searched for patients meeting the definition of Malignant Hypertension. Eighteen of 565 patients met the criteria. All patients had essential hypertension which was either undiagnosed, untreated or undertreated. Most cases responded satisfactorily to standard drug therapy, but a number were left with significant chronic kidney disease. Malignant hypertension is a life-threatening disease which should be entirely preventable with regular blood pressure checks in primary care.

  17. Telomerase Activation in Hematological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Ropio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase expression and telomere maintenance are critical for cell proliferation and survival, and they play important roles in development and cancer, including hematological malignancies. Transcriptional regulation of the rate-limiting subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase gen (hTERT is a complex process, and unveiling the mechanisms behind its reactivation is an important step for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here, we review the main mechanisms of telomerase activation and the associated hematologic malignancies.

  18. Predictive Characteristics of Malignant Pheochromocytoma

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Junsoo; Song, Cheryn; Park, Myungchan; Yoo, Sangjun; Park, Se Jun; Hong, SeokJun; Hong, Bumsik; Kim, Choung-Soo; Ahn, Hanjong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The prognosis of patients with malignant pheochromocytoma is poor, but the predictive factors are not well understood. We aimed to identify the clinical characteristics predictive of malignancy after initial surgical removal in patients with pheochromocytoma. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 152 patients diagnosed with pheochromocytoma, including 5 (3.3%) with metastasis at the time of the initial surgical excision and 12 (7.9%) who developed metastasis...

  19. New Advance of Studies on Molecularly Imprinted Solid-phase Extraction%分子印迹固相萃取技术研究新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祺文; 熊远福; 王锦; 文祝友; 熊海蓉; 胡红远

    2015-01-01

    随着人们对环境污染和食品安全的关注,分子印迹固相萃取技术在各领域的应用有了进一步发展.在介绍分子印迹固相萃取技术的基础上,对近年来分子印迹固相萃取技术在环境样品中农药残留的检测,食品及饲料中药物残留的检测,功能药物成分提纯及药物检测,水土环境中的其它污染物检测等4大方面的研究现状进行了综述. 同时,指出了分子印迹固相萃取技术目前存在的问题,探讨了分子印迹固相萃取技术未来的发展方向.%With attention to environmental pollution and food safety, molecular imprinted solid phase extraction technique in various fields has been further developed. Therefore, molecular imprinted solid phase extraction were briefly described in this article. Molecular imprinted solid phase extraction enrichment and detection of pesticide residues, drug residues in food and feed, other contaminants in water and soil, and also molecular imprinted solid phase extraction of drug testing and purification of functional pharmaceutical ingredient in recent years were reviewed. In this paper, the problem molecular imprinted solid phase extraction technique encountered in recent years was analyzed, and the trend of molecular imprinted solid phase extraction technique was also discussed.

  20. Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Munde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant melanoma is a rare and aggressive neoplasm that originates from the proliferation of melanocytes. Although, it comprises 1.3% of all cancers, malignant melanoma of the oral cavity accounts for only 0.2-8% of all reported melanomas and occurs approximately 4 times more frequently in the oral mucosa of the upper jaw, usually on the palate or alveolar gingivae. Most of the mucosal melanomas are usually asymptomatic in early stages, and presents as pigmented patch or a mass delaying the diagnosis until symptoms of swelling, ulceration, bleeding, or loosening of teeth are noted. The prognosis is extremely poor, especially in advanced stages. Therefore, any pigmented lesion of undetermined origin should always be biopsied. We herewith report of two cases of oral malignant melanoma in a 60 and 75-year-old female.

  1. Non-coding RNA repertoires in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Leah; Finn, Stephen P; Cuffe, Sinead; Gray, Steven G

    2015-12-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare malignancy, with extremely poor survival rates. There are limited treatment options, with no second line standard of care for those who fail first line chemotherapy. Recent advances have been made to characterise the underlying molecular mechanisms of mesothelioma, in the hope of providing new targets for therapy. With the discovery that non-coding regions of our DNA are more than mere junk, the field of research into non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) has exploded in recent years. Non-coding RNAs have diverse and important roles in a variety of cellular processes, but are also implicated in malignancy. In the following review, we discuss two types of non-coding RNAs, long non-coding RNAs and microRNAs, in terms of their role in the pathogenesis of MPM and their potential as both biomarkers and as therapeutic targets in this disease.

  2. Adoptive therapy with CAR redirected T cells for hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiqi; Yang, Zhi; Shen, Junjie; Shan, Juanjuan; Qian, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    The survival of patients with hematological malignancies has been significantly improved due to the development of new therapeutic agents. However, relapse remains a major matter for concern. Recently, T cells engineered with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) were reported to show unprecedented responses in a range of hematological malignancies. The persistence of the CAR-T cell can last for years and tends toward long-term antitumor memory by which relapses can be effectively prevented. The primary side effects that appear in most clinical trials are cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity. However, these symptoms can be treated and reversed. In this review, we describe CAR structure and function and summarize recent advances in CAR-T cell therapy in hematological malignancies.

  3. The predictive value of magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis and treatment of leptomeningeal metastases from malignant solid tumors%磁共振成像在恶性实体肿瘤脑膜转移诊断及治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘振宇; 何华; 董丽华; 袁婷婷; 杨国姿

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨磁共振成像(MRI)在恶性实体肿瘤脑膜转移诊断及治疗中的价值.方法 对63例恶性实体肿瘤脑膜转移患者的影像学特点、临床、治疗及随访资料进行回顾性分析.结果 全部患者接受头部MRI检查,26例患者行颈或腰椎MRI检查,表现为脑沟回内结节样强化、脑脊膜线性强化、硬膜增厚强化、室管膜强化、脑室内转移、椎管内转移结节、交通性脑积液、硬膜下积液、影像学阴性.发生室管膜强化、脑室内转移及椎管内种植转移的小细胞癌患者分别为5、7及9例,多于其他病理类型(P=0.002、P=0.009、P< 0.000 1).7例患者鞘内注射化疗后出现癫痫发作,其中5例影像学表现为软脑膜线性强化.33例接受放疗联合鞘内注射化疗综合治疗的患者中3例预后极差,其中2例影像学表现阴性.25例患者治疗后症状明显缓解,其中21例复查头部MRI,影像学缓解程度不一.结论 MRI增强扫描对恶性实体肿瘤脯膜转移患者诊断有重要辅助作用.磁共振表现及临床特点与病理类型具有相关性.影像学表现为软脑膜线性强化型的患者鞘内注射化疗后癫痫发作可能性大,可考虑给予相关预防治疗.MRI不适用于疾病严重程度与预后判断及疗效评估.%Objective To investigate the value of application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosis and treatment of leptomeningeal metastases from malignant solid tumors.Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted depend on the radiological data of 63 patients who had been diagnosed as leptomeningcal metastasis of malignant solid tumors.Results All patients received brain MRI examination.26 patients underwent cervical or lumbar spine MRI examination.The MRI images showed nodular enhancement in the gyri and sulci,leptomeningeal linear enhancement,dura mater thickening and enhancement,ependymal enhancement,intraventricular metastasis,intraspinal metastatic nodules

  4. Advanced Welding Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  5. Febrile neutropenia in haematological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fever is the principle sign of infection in neutropenic patient and frequently may be the only evidence of infection. The pattern of fever in neutropenia is non-specific and not pathognomonic of any type of infections or non-infectious process and can be suppressed by the antipyretic effects of drugs such as corticosteroids. Neutropenia, resulting from cytotoxic chemotherapy is the most common risk factor for severe infections in hematological malignancies. The duration of neutropenia also contributes significantly to the risk of serious infections. This risk is significantly greater a lower neutrophil counts, such that 100% patients with ANC < 100 cells/µl lasting 3 weeks or more develop documented infections. The prompt initiation of empirical antibiotics in febrile neutropenia has been the most important advance in the management of the immunocompromised host. The initial empirical antibiotic regimen started at presentation of the febrile episode frequently requires modifications especially in high-risk febrile neutropenia. Neutropenic patients who remain febrile despite 4-7 days of broad spectrum antibacterial therapy are at a high risk of invasive fungal infection. Empirical antifungal therapy with Amphotericin B in persistently febrile neutropenic patients and other high risk patients has shown to reduce the risk of invasive fungal infection by 50-80% and the risk of fungal infection related mortality by 23-45% in 1980′s. The IDSA has recommended that amphotericin B at 0.5-0.7 mg/kg/day be administered till marrow recovery. This approach is limited however by the adverse effects caused by drug infusion (fever, chills, myalgias, nausea, hypotension and bronchospasm. Lipid formulations which improve the therapeutic ratio of the traditional formulation are available. The safety and efficacy of these formulations is well established. These formulations have comparable efficacy and are less nephrotoxic than conventional amphotericin B

  6. MicroRNA gene expression in malignant lymphoproliferative disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei; LI Jian-yong

    2007-01-01

    Objective To review the recent studies about microRNAs and advances in malignant lymphoproliferative disorders.Data sources Published articles (2001-2006) about microRNAs and malignant iymphoproliferative disorders were selected using MEDLINE.Study selection After independent review by two observers, 43 of 421 originally identified articles were selected that specifically addressed the stated purpose.Results Two observers independently assessed studies using explicit methodological criteria for evaluating microRNAs in malignant lymphoproliferative disorders. Recent work has revealed a class of small noncoding RNA species,microRNAs, which affect various biological processes. MicroRNAs inhibit the expression of protein encoding genes at the posttranscriptional level in a variety of eukaryotic organisms. In this review, we focused on the biogenetic pathways of microRNAs (miR-15a, miR-16-1, miR-155, miR-17-92 cluster, miR-142) and discussed the implications for human malignant lymphoproliferative disorders.Conclusions microRNAs are involved in tumorigenesis and mediate gene regulation as a fundamental genetic program at the posttranscriptional level. Further study of microRNAs may lead to novel concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of malignant lymphoproliferative disorders.

  7. Total body irradiation for children with malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanuki, Eiichi; Maeno, Toshio; Kamata, Rikisaburo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Mugishima, Hideo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-12-01

    Total body irradiation combined with high dose chemotherapy has been performed just before bone marrow transplantation in 35 children with advanced malignancies, with the object of achieving successful transplantation and improving the prognosis. Simulation was performed as follows: back scatter, flatness, dose accumulation using randophantom and dose distribution using a thermo-luminescence dosimeter and linac-graphy. The standard error of dose distribution was within 10%. In neuroblastoma, of which there were 14 cases in stage IV and one case in stage III, the 5-year survival rate was 55%. In leukemia, of which all cases were in the high-risk group (7 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 2 of acute myeloblastic leukemia) the 5-year survival rate was 55%. The 5 cases having first remission survived disease-free while the 4 cases having non-first remission died. In malignant lymphoma (6 cases in stage IV and one case in stage III, with bulky mass) the 5-year survival rate was 67%. Four cases with other diagnoses (severe aplastic anemia, and others) all survived. As yet no side effects resulting from total body irradiation have been recognized in our cases, but a longer follow-up period is necessary to observe possible late side effects. (author).

  8. Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Hematological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Raimondo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the role of tumor microenvironment in the progression of hematological malignancies has been widely recognized. Recent studies have focused on how cancer cells communicate within the microenvironment. Among several factors (cytokines, growth factors, and ECM molecules, a key role has been attributed to extracellular vesicles (EV, released from different cell types. EV (microvesicles and exosomes may affect stroma remodeling, host cell functions, and tumor angiogenesis by inducing gene expression modulation in target cells, thus promoting cancer progression and metastasis. Microvesicles and exosomes can be recovered from the blood and other body fluids of cancer patients and contain and deliver genetic and proteomic contents that reflect the cell of origin, thus constituting a source of new predictive biomarkers involved in cancer development and serving as possible targets for therapies. Moreover, due to their specific cell-tropism and bioavailability, EV can be considered natural vehicles suitable for drug delivery. Here we will discuss the recent advances in the field of EV as actors in hematological cancer progression, pointing out the role of these vesicles in the tumor-host interplay and in their use as biomarkers for hematological malignancies.

  9. The cytologic criteria of malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andrew H; Zhao, Chengquan; Li, Qing Kay; Gustafson, Karen S; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; Tambouret, Rosemary; Benstein, Barbara; Savaloja, Lynnette C; Kulesza, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Cytology and cell biology are two separate fields that share a focus on cancer. Cancer is still diagnosed based on morphology, and surprisingly little is known about the molecular basis of the defining structural features. Cytology uses the smallest possible biopsy for diagnosis by reducing morphologic "criteria of malignancy" to the smallest scale. To begin to develop common ground, members of the American Society of Cytopathology Cell Biology Liaison Working Group classify some of the "criteria of malignancy" and review their relation to current cell biology concepts. The criteria of malignancy are extremely varied, apparently reflecting many different pathophysiologies in specific microenvironments. Criteria in Group 1 comprise tissue-level alterations that appear to relate to resistance to anoikis, alterations in cell adhesion molecules, and loss of apical-basal polarity. Criteria in Group 2 reflect genetic instability, including chromosomal and possibly epigenetic instability. Criteria in Groups 3 are subcellular structural changes involving cytoplasmic components, nuclear lamina, chromatin and nucleoli that cannot be accounted for by genetic instability. Some distinct criteria in Group 3 are known to be induced by cancer genes, but their precise structural basis remains obscure. The criteria of malignancy are not closely related to the histogenetic classification of cancers, and they appear to provide an alternative, biologically relevant framework for establishing common ground between cytologists and cell biologists. To understand the criteria of malignancy at a molecular level would improve diagnosis, and likely point to novel cell physiologies that are not encompassed by current cell biology concepts.

  10. Applied mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Allan F

    2009-01-01

    Modern computer simulations make stress analysis easy. As they continue to replace classical mathematical methods of analysis, these software programs require users to have a solid understanding of the fundamental principles on which they are based. Develop Intuitive Ability to Identify and Avoid Physically Meaningless Predictions Applied Mechanics of Solids is a powerful tool for understanding how to take advantage of these revolutionary computer advances in the field of solid mechanics. Beginning with a description of the physical and mathematical laws that govern deformation in solids, the text presents modern constitutive equations, as well as analytical and computational methods of stress analysis and fracture mechanics. It also addresses the nonlinear theory of deformable rods, membranes, plates, and shells, and solutions to important boundary and initial value problems in solid mechanics. The author uses the step-by-step manner of a blackboard lecture to explain problem solving methods, often providing...

  11. Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor in solid tumor malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Mette K; Hedegaard, Chris J; Poulsen, Hans S

    2012-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is over-expressed, as well as mutated, in many types of cancers. In particular, the EGFR variant type III mutant (EGFRvIII) has attracted much attention as it is frequently and exclusively found on many tumor cells, and hence both EGFR and EGFRvIII have...... been proposed as valid targets in many cancer therapy settings. Different strategies have been developed in order to either inhibit EGFR/EGFRvIII activity or to ablate EGFR/EGFRvIII-positive tumor cells. Drugs that inhibit these receptors include monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind...

  12. Protocol of the Australasian Malignant Pleural Effusion (AMPLE) trial: a multicentre randomised study comparing indwelling pleural catheter versus talc pleurodesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fysh, Edward T. H.; Thomas, Rajesh; Read, Catherine A; Lam, Ben C H; Yap, Elaine; Horwood, Fiona C; LEE, Pyng; Piccolo, Francesco; Shrestha, Ranjan; Garske, Luke A; Lam, David C.L.; Rosenstengel, Andrew; Bint, Michael; Murray, Kevin; Smith, Nicola A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Malignant pleural effusion can complicate most cancers. It causes breathlessness and requires hospitalisation for invasive pleural drainages. Malignant effusions often herald advanced cancers and limited prognosis. Minimising time spent in hospital is of high priority to patients and their families. Various treatment strategies exist for the management of malignant effusions, though there is no consensus governing the best choice. Talc pleurodesis is the conventional management b...

  13. Protocol of the Australasian Malignant Pleural Effusion (AMPLE) trial: a multicentre randomised study comparing indwelling pleural catheter versus talc pleurodesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fysh, ETH; Thomas, R; Read, CA; Lam, BCH; Yap, E.; Horwood, FC; Lee, P.; Piccolo, F; R Shrestha; Garske, LA; Rosenstengel, A; Bint, M; Murray, K.; Smith, NA; Lee, YCG

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural effusion can complicate most cancers. It causes breathlessness and requires hospitalisation for invasive pleural drainages. Malignant effusions often herald advanced cancers and limited prognosis. Minimising time spent in hospital is of high priority to patients and their families. Various treatment strategies exist for the management of malignant effusions, though there is no consensus governing the best choice. Talc pleurodesis is the conventional management ...

  14. Recent Advances in Solid Catalysts Obtained by Metalloporphyrins Immobilization on Layered Anionic Exchangers: A Short Review and Some New Catalytic Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Nakagaki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Layered materials are a very interesting class of compounds obtained by stacking of two-dimensional layers along the basal axis. A remarkable property of these materials is their capacity to interact with a variety of chemical species, irrespective of their charge (neutral, cationic or anionic. These species can be grafted onto the surface of the layered materials or intercalated between the layers, to expand or contract the interlayer distance. Metalloporphyrins, which are typically soluble oxidation catalysts, are examples of molecules that can interact with layered materials. This work presents a short review of the studies involving metalloporphyrin immobilization on two different anionic exchangers, Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs and Layered Hydroxide Salts (LHSs, published over the past year. After immobilization of anionic porphyrins, the resulting solids behave as reusable catalysts for heterogeneous oxidation processes. Although a large number of publications involving metalloporphyrin immobilization on LDHs exist, only a few papers have dealt with LHSs as supports, so metalloporphyrins immobilized on LHSs represent a new and promising research field. This work also describes new results on an anionic manganese porphyrin (MnP immobilized on Mg/Al-LDH solids with different nominal Mg/Al molar ratios (2:1, 3:1 and 4:1 and intercalated with different anions (CO32− or NO3−. The influence of the support composition on the MnP immobilization rates and the catalytic performance of the resulting solid in cyclooctene oxidation reactions will be reported.

  15. XYY male and hematologic malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguma, N; Shigeta, C; Kamada, N

    1996-09-01

    Two cases of XYY male with refractory anemia with excess of blasts are reported, and previous reported XYY males with hematologic malignancy are reviewed. Altogether 26 cases were collected for analysis: acute myeloid leukemia (10), acute lymphocytic leukemia (seven), acute leukemia (two), chronic myelocytic leukemia (three), myelodysplastic syndrome (three), and essential thrombocythemia (one). The age at the time of diagnosis ranged in age from 7.5 to 81 years. In three of six XYY/XY mosaicism cases, XYY clone was associated with malignancy. However, in two cases XYY clone was not involved. The evidence presented here suggests that the event of an XYY male with hematologic malignancy is incidental rather than a genetic etiology.

  16. Oral and maxillofacial malignancies: An analysis of 77 cases seen at an academic medical hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Aremu Ibikunle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral and maxillofacial malignancies (OMMs consist of a wide range of lesions, which constitute varying proportions of the total incidence of malignancies in the human population. Available epidemiological data vary across racial, geographical, gender, and occupational divides. They are often associated with significant impairment of patients' quality of life. Materials and Methods: A review of hospital records of patients with histologically diagnosed primary OMM, who presented to the Department of Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, over a 5-year period, was done. Data including age, gender, site, and type of tumor, and histological grade of tumor were retrieved and analyzed with the SPSS version 20.0. Results: A total of 77 cases of OMMs were identified with a male/female ratio of 1:1.03. The mean (±standard deviation age was 50.1 (17.8 years. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequently seen epithelial malignancy constituting 35.1% of all malignancies, with most patients in advanced stages of the disease. Osteosarcoma was the most frequently diagnosed sarcoma, constituting 11.7% of all malignancies seen. Salivary gland malignancies constituted 29 (37.7%. Other malignancies seen include, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, leiomyosarcoma, and malignant melanoma. Conclusion: OMMs constitute a significant health burden in our region. Thus, adequate resources should be allocated toward improving awareness among the populace. Policy shifts and regular dental visits which may increase the likelihood of early intervention should be instituted.

  17. Comparison of Intensive Chemotherapy and Hypomethylating Agents before Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndromes: A Study of the Myelodysplastic Syndrome Subcommittee of the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Victoria T; Iacobelli, Simona; van Biezen, Anja; Maertens, Johann; Bourhis, Jean-Henri; Passweg, Jakob R; Yakhoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Tabrizi, Reza; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Chevallier, Patrice; Chalandon, Yves; Huynh, Anne; Cahn, Jean Yves; Ljungman, Per; Craddock, Charles; Lenhoff, Stig; Russell, N H; Fegueux, Nathalie; Socié, Gerard; Benedetto, Bruno; Meijer, Ellen; Mufti, G J; de Witte, Theo; Robin, Marie; Kröger, Nicolaus

    2016-09-01

    The European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data set was used to retrospectively analyze the outcomes of hypomethylating therapy (HMA) compared with those of conventional chemotherapy (CC) before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in 209 patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndromes. Median follow-up was 22.1 months and the median age of the group was 57.6 years with 37% of the population older than > 60 years. The majority of patients (59%) received reduced-intensity conditioning and 34% and 27% had intermediate-2 and high international prognostic scoring system (IPSS) scores. At time of HSCT, 32% of patients did not achieve complete remission (CR) and 13% had primary refractory disease. On univariate analysis, outcomes at 3 years were not significantly different between HMA and CC for overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS), cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM): OS (42% versus 35%), RFS (29% versus 31%), CIR (45% versus 40%), and NRM (26% versus 28%). Comparing characteristics of the groups, there were more patients < 55 years old, more patients in CR (68% versus 32%), and fewer patients with primary refractory disease in the CC group than in the HMA group (10% versus 19%, P < .001). Patients with primary refractory disease had worse outcomes than those in CR with regard to OS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41 to 4.13; P = .001), RFS (HR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.37 to 3.76; P = .001), and NRM (HR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.18 to 5.26; P = .016). In addition, an adverse effect of IPSS-R cytogenetic risk group was evident for RFS. In summary, outcomes after HSCT are similar for patients receiving HMA compared with those receiving CC, despite the higher proportion of patients with primary refractory disease in the HMA group.

  18. Advance in pyrolysis and gasification of municipal solid waste study%城市生活垃圾热解气化技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁浩然; 鲁涛; 熊祖鸿; 黄宏宇; 小林敬幸; 陈勇; 黎志强

    2012-01-01

    从城市生活垃圾热转化方式的比较入手,简要阐明了热解气化过程,讨论了各类热解气化反应器的优缺点,概述了城市生活垃圾热解、气化实验研究进展以及热解气化技术中试及应用情况。通过比较各类实验研究,明确了热解温度、加热速率对热解产物产量及产物分布的影响,气化温度、氧气当量比(RO)对含氧气化反应的影响,气化温度、水蒸气与城市生活垃圾质量比(S/M)对水蒸气气化反应的影响。指出了城市生活垃圾热解气化实验研究热点在于优化控制参数,提高反应速率,促进目标产物高值化,抑制其它产物及污染物的生成,以及城市生活垃圾热解气化技术的发展方向。%Pyrolysis and gasification process of municipal solid waste was briefly clarified in this paper starting with various ways of municipal solid waste thermal conversion.The advantages and drawbacks of pyrolysis and gasification reactors were discussed.The research progress in municipal solid waste pyrolysis and gasification and the pilot test of pyrolysis and gasification technology together with their application status were all introduced.The effects of pyrolysis temperature and heating process on the yields and distribution of pyrolysis products,the effects of gasification temperature and oxygen equivalence ratio(RO) on the oxygen gasification reaction and the effects of gasification temperature,water vapor and the municipal solid waste mass ratio(S/M) on the steam gasification reaction were all illustrated clearly by comparing various experimental studies.It was found that the research on municipal solid waste pyrolysis and gasification focused on optimizing control parameters,improving reaction rate,promoting high-value target product and inhibiting the formation of other products and contaminants.Finally the research direction of municipal solid waste pyrolysis and gasification technology in the future was propsed

  19. Decidualized Ovarian Mass Mimicking Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufee Wong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deciduosis classically occurs in the context of known endometriosis in the pelvis, most commonly in the ovaries, but also in the peritoneum. However, ovarian deciduosis outside the context of endometriosis is rare and makes diagnosis difficult, especially as the sonographic appearance suggests a malignant process. We report a case of decidualized ovarian mass in a patient without prior history of endometriosis that mimicked an ovarian malignancy. MRI may be a useful imaging modality to monitor these lesions and guide management. Consultation with a multidisciplinary team accustomed to such conditions will help to tailor the management to each individual.

  20. Cutavirus in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Sarah; Fridholm, Helena; Vinner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    A novel human protoparvovirus related to human bufavirus and preliminarily named cutavirus has been discovered. We detected cutavirus in a sample of cutaneous malignant melanoma by using viral enrichment and high-throughput sequencing. The role of cutaviruses in cutaneous cancers remains to be in......A novel human protoparvovirus related to human bufavirus and preliminarily named cutavirus has been discovered. We detected cutavirus in a sample of cutaneous malignant melanoma by using viral enrichment and high-throughput sequencing. The role of cutaviruses in cutaneous cancers remains...

  1. Malignant Nodular Hidradenoma of Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of malignant nodular hidradenoma in an old woman, who presented with a nodular swelling in the right side of nose near the medial canthus of the right eye. Wide excision of the nodular mass with a clear margin of healthy surrounding tissue was performed along with primary closure. Post operatively, adjuvant radiation therapy was given on a telecobalt machine due to the presence of high risk features. In general, malignant forms of hidradenomas are not usual and treatment strategies should be individualized.

  2. Malignant diseases as suicidal motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Ljiljana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Suicide is a conscious and intentional destruction of one’s own life, which occurs as a result of mutual influence of a person’s disposition and motives (facts inspiring the commitment of suicide. It is well known that various diseases, including malignancies, could be important and in some cases the only motive for committing suicide. Objective The purpose of the study was to analyze in detail suicides of persons whose only motive was an established malignant disease. Method The analysis was performed using the autopsy material of the Institute of Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, during the period from 1990 to 2004. The reports on performed medico-legal autopsies were used, as well as history data obtained from the family members of suicidal persons, investigation reports and the available medical documents. Results In 1931 cases there was established suicidal nature of a violent death. Neoplasms were the suicidal motive in 37 persons (1.9%. The basic characteristics of the analyzed sample were predominance of males (26:11, ratio 2.4:1, the age of over 70 years and the highest incidence of malignant lung and breast tumors. Almost all cases were the persons who underwent treatment for malignant neoplasms over a longer period of time. During 19 autopsies (51.3% out of 37, a progressive phase of malignancy was established, i.e. metastases. The data on prior oral announcement of suicide intention were obtained for 70.3% (26 cases, and on previous suicidal attempts only for 13.5% (5 cases. In the majority of cases (78.4% the place of committed suicide was the person’s home. In 16 cases (43.2% the suicide was committed with a firearm. Hanging as a manner of destroying one’s own life was chosen by 12 persons (32.4%, while other ways were less frequently used. Conclusion Although malignancies were not present with high incidence as a suicidal motive in our analyzed sample, such cases require particular

  3. Current management and novel agents for malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Byung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advanced malignant melanoma remains a challenging cancer. Over the past year, there have been 3 agents approved for treatment of melanoma by Food and Drug Administration. These include pegylated interferon alpha-2b for stage III melanoma, vemurafenib for unresectable or metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation, and ipilimumab for treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma. This review will also update on the development of novel agents, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and adoptive cellular therapy.

  4. The case for therapeutic positivism in head and neck malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J E

    1980-10-01

    A negative attitude toward the treatment of advanced malignancy of the head and neck is frequently encountered. Aggressive therapy, at least for certain patients, is reasonable, and the assessment of certain factors in choosing candidates for such therapy is important. Illustrative case presentations demonstrate that a meaningful number of patients receive palliation or even cure with radical therapy. In view of the grim choices, it seems appropriate to take a positive, if radical, approach when the patient is highly motivated.

  5. 固体脂质体纳米粒制备方法的研究进展%Advances in the preparation methods of solid lipid nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯炜玮; 陈志伟

    2011-01-01

    @@ 固体脂质纳米粒(solid lipid nanoparticles,SLN)又称固体脂质体,是一种室温下为固态的天然或合成的脂质体或类脂纳米粒子.SLN的研究始于20世纪90年代,是一种以硬脂酸、卵磷脂、三酰甘油等脂类原料为基质,将药物包裹于类脂核中制成50~1000nm粒径的固体脂质粒子给药体系.

  6. Talazoparib in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Solid Tumors That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery and Liver or Kidney Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-05

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; HER2/Neu Negative; Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer; Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Solid Neoplasm; Stage III Mesothelioma; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Mesothelioma; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  7. Cutaneous manifestations of internal malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ayyamperumal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many malignancies affecting the internal organs display cutaneous manifestations which may be either specific (tumor metastases or nonspecific lesions. Aims: The study is aimed at determining the frequency and significance of cutaneous manifestations among patients with internal malignancy. Materials and Methods: 750 cases of proven internal malignancy, who attended a cancer chemotherapy center in South India, were studied. Specific infiltrates were confirmed by histopathology, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and marker studies. Results: Out of the 750 patients with internal malignancy, skin changes were seen in a total of 52 (6.93% patients. Conclusion: Cutaneous metastases (specific lesions were seen in 20 patients (2.66%: contiguous in 6 (0.8%, and non-contiguous in 14 (1.86%. Nonspecific skin changes were seen in 32 patients (4.26%. None of our patients presented with more than one type of skin lesions. Herpes zoster was the most common nonspecific lesion noticed in our patients, followed by generalized pruritus, multiple eruptive seborrheic keratoses, bullous disorder, erythroderma, flushing, purpura, pyoderma gangrenosum, insect bite allergy and lichenoid dermatitis.

  8. Multiple Cutaneous (pre)-Malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.T. van der Leest (Robert)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The three most common cutaneous malignancies are derived from melanocytes and keratinocytes (ordered in decreasing aggressiveness): melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). This thesis focuses only on these three types of cancer and their

  9. Malignant nodular hidradenoma of scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Maiti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant nodular hidradenoma (MNH is a rare tumor of sweat gland known by many names in the literature. Scalp is a known and yet uncommon site of occurrence. We describe two patients with scalp MNH with brain parenchymal invasion. Both tumors recurred in spite of total excision and radiotherapy.

  10. Herniation of malignant lung cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saurabh Kumar Singh; Rakesh Bhargava; Zuber Ahmad; Deepak K.Pandey; Shirin Naaz; Vibhanshu Gupta

    2008-01-01

    @@ Hernia of the lung is defined as a protrusion of lung tissue,covered by parietal and visceral pleurae,through an abnormal opening in the chest wall,diaphragm or mediastinum.1 It is a relatively uncommon condition.We report a case of lung hernia following cavitation in malignant lung mass.

  11. Partially Cystic Thyroid Nodules: Ultrasound Findings of Malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jang Mi; Choi, Yoon Jung; Kwag, Hyon Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To seek for the ultrasound (US) findings of partially cystic thyroid nodules that are associated with malignancy. We reviewed the US characteristics of 22 surgically confirmed partially cystic papillary carcinomas, and compared them with those of 80 benign partially cystic nodules. The review cases were selected in a random order from a total of 1029 partially cystic nodules that were diagnosed with an US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy over a period of 8 years (June 2003 to October 2010) at our institution. In partially cystic thyroid nodules, a taller-than-wide shape (100%, p<0.001) and spiculated or microlobulated margin (58.3%, p 0.003) were significantly associated with malignancy. In terms of internal solid portion of the nodule, eccentric configuration (68.0%, p<0.001), non-smooth margin (81.3%, p<0.001), hypoechogenecity (30.0%, p<0.042), and microcalcification (89.5%, p<0.001) were more frequently demonstrated in malignant nodules than benign ones. In partially cystic thyroid nodules, understanding the characteristics of US findings is important to make a precise diagnosis of malignant nodules.

  12. Long-term experience with (laterally) extended endopelvic resection (LEER) in relapsed pelvic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höckel, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Gynecologic cancers recurring in the pelvis are generally advanced in malignant progression limiting curative treatment approaches. The cancer field theory links cancer progression to reversed morphogenesis and allows the exact anatomical delineation of the cancer field, i.e., the tissue compartment of potential tumor infiltration related to the tumor's ontogenetic stage. Cancer surgery is redefined with the resection of ontogenetic stage-related cancer fields instead of the mere removal of the malignant tumor with an uninvolved tissue margin. Most gynecologic pelvic malignancies recurring in the pelvis represent ontogenetic stages 3 and 4. (Laterally) extended endopelvic resection ((L)EER) has been designed to resect the cancer fields of gynecologic tumors in these advanced ontogenetic stages. This paper reports long-term experience with (L)EER for relapsed pelvic malignancies strongly supporting the cancer field theory and the principle and practice of cancer field resection.

  13. Subtask 6: Recommended practices for powder characterization. IEA Programme on Advanced Fuel Cells, Annex 2: Modelling and evaluation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Heuveln, F.H.; Huijsmans, J.P.P. [eds.

    1992-08-01

    Powders, or precursors of powders, for the fabrication of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) anode-, cathode-, electrolyte- and ceramic interconnect structures are the relevant products to be evaluated. The aim is to provide a standard set of powder properties which have to be measured according to recommended methods and measurement conditions. The set is based on the results of a round robin test for electrolyte powder between five laboratories. The selected powder properties to be measured are chemical composition, phase composition, specific surface, particle size distribution, particle shape, sinterability, powder density, and flowability. The laboratories involved are Cookson Group (United Kingdom), Eniricerche (Italy), Senter for Industriforskning (Norway), Alusuisse/Lonza (Switzerland), and the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation. 2 app., 8 refs.

  14. Serum tumour markers in malignant mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Pallavi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is a rare malignancy of the body cavities with dismal prognosis. It has been a diagnostic dilemma for years with many clinical and pathological mimics. Discovery of a reliable tumour marker will definitely be of value in screening individuals with a history of asbestos exposure, diagnosis, treatment and follow up of malignant mesothelioma. Many tumour markers have been studied and speculatively associated with the malignant mesothelioma, but much still needs to be proven.

  15. A phase I and pharmacokinetics study of intravenous calcitriol in combination with oral dexamethasone and gefitinib in patients with advanced solid tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muindi, Josephia R.; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.; Christy, Renee; Engler, Kristie L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The primary objective of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of intravenously (i.v.) calcitriol administered in combination with a fixed oral dose of dexamethasone and gefitinib in patients with refractory solid tumors. Methods A fixed oral dose of dexamethasone of 4 mg/day was given every 12 h × 3 doses starting 12 h prior to i.v. calcitriol administration. Calcitriol was administered i.v. over 1 h on weeks 1, 3, and weekly thereafter. The starting calcitriol dose level was 57 μg and escalation occurred in cohorts of three patients until the MTD was defined. Gefitinib was given at a fixed oral daily dose of 250 mg starting at week 2 (day 8). Serum calcitriol PK studies were performed on day 1 (calcitriol + dexamethasone) and on day 15 (calcitriol + dexamethasone + gefitinib). Results A total of 20 patients were treated. Dose-limiting hypercalcemia was observed in two out of the four patients receiving 163 mcg/week of calcitriol. Mean (±SE) peak serum calcitriol concentration (Cmax) at the MTD (125 μg/week calcitriol) was 11.17 ± 2.62 ng/ml and the systemic exposure (AUC0–72 h) of 53.30 ± 10.49 ng h/ml. The relationship between calcitriol dose and either Cmax or AUC was linear over the 57–163 μg dose range. Conclusions The addition of a low dose of dexamethasone allowed the safe escalation of calcitriol to the MTD of 125 μg/week. This dose level resulted in serum calcitriol concentrations that are associated with pre-clinical antitumor activity. However, no antitumor activity was noted clinically in patients with solid tumors. PMID:19396601

  16. The targeting of immunosuppressive mechanisms in hematological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M H

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive immune system has the capacity to recognize and kill leukemic cells. However, immune tolerance mechanisms that normally protect healthy tissues from autoimmune effects prevent the development of effective antitumor immunity. Tumors use several different immunosuppressive mechanisms...... to evade otherwise effective T-cell responses. A growing number of immune evasion mechanisms have been characterized mainly in solid tumors. In hematological malignancies, less is known about how different immune escape mechanisms influence tumor immune evasion and the extent of their impact on ongoing...... immune responses. The present review highlights the potential role of three well-defined immunosuppressive mechanisms in hematological malignancies: (i) inhibitory T-cell pathways (especially programmed death ligand 1/programmed death 1 (PD-L1/PD-1)), (ii) regulatory immune cells, and (iii) metabolic...

  17. A review of high temperature co-electrolysis of H2O and CO2 to produce sustainable fuels using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs): advanced materials and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yun; Wang, Jianchen; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Wenqiang; Chen, Jing; Qiao, Jinli; Zhang, Jiujun

    2017-02-06

    High-temperature solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) are advanced electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices with high conversion/energy efficiencies. They offer attractive high-temperature co-electrolysis routes that reduce extra CO2 emissions, enable large-scale energy storage/conversion and facilitate the integration of renewable energies into the electric grid. Exciting new research has focused on CO2 electrochemical activation/conversion through a co-electrolysis process based on the assumption that difficult C[double bond, length as m-dash]O double bonds can be activated effectively through this electrochemical method. Based on existing investigations, this paper puts forth a comprehensive overview of recent and past developments in co-electrolysis with SOECs for CO2 conversion and utilization. Here, we discuss in detail the approaches of CO2 conversion, the developmental history, the basic principles, the economic feasibility of CO2/H2O co-electrolysis, and the diverse range of fuel electrodes as well as oxygen electrode materials. SOEC performance measurements, characterization and simulations are classified and presented in this paper. SOEC cell and stack designs, fabrications and scale-ups are also summarized and described. In particular, insights into CO2 electrochemical conversions, solid oxide cell material behaviors and degradation mechanisms are highlighted to obtain a better understanding of the high temperature electrolysis process in SOECs. Proposed research directions are also outlined to provide guidelines for future research.

  18. Health Service Needs of Terminal Inpatients With Advanced Malignant Tumor in Gommunity Hospice Gare Pilot Settings in Shanghai%上海市社区舒缓疗护(临终关怀)项目试点机构晚期恶性肿瘤临终住院患者的卫生服务需求调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾文娟; 施永兴; 袁炜; 陈琦; 周佳秋; 黄艳; 李明

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解上海市社区舒缓疗护(临终关怀)项目试点机构晚期恶性肿瘤临终住院患者的卫生服务需求。方法采用便利抽样法,选取于2014年3月6—20日在上海市18家临终关怀项目试点机构的临终关怀病房住院的晚期恶性肿瘤患者134名。采用自行设计的调查问卷,对患者进行问卷调查。问卷的主要内容包括患者的基本情况、生命质量情况、卫生服务需求、对疾病和死亡的态度。结果134名晚期恶性肿瘤临终住院患者中,123人(占91.8%)生活不能完全自理,86人(占64.2%)有疼痛;50人(占37.3%)选择积极治疗,仅17人(占12.7%)选择放弃或拒绝治疗,63人(占47.0%)有心理护理需求,18人(占13.4%)有心灵需求,69人(占51.5%)迫切需求家属陪伴,仅25人(占18.7%)对志愿者服务有需求;84人(占62.7%)知晓病情,82人(占61.2%)对疾病的态度听任自然,53人(占39.6%)不愿谈论死亡。不同年龄、信仰、地域、生命质量的患者卫生服务需求间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论老年及高龄恶性肿瘤患者是社区临终关怀服务的主要对象,患者医疗护理需求较高,心理、精神方面需求未得到满足,期望得到亲友的支持。心理护理、生活护理、镇痛治疗应作为社区临终关怀服务的工作重点,应注重对患者的心理心灵关爱和死亡教育,鼓励家属亲友共同参与。%Objective To investigate the health service needs of terminal inpatients with advanced malignant tumor in community hospice care pilot settings in Shanghai .Methods Using convenience sampling method , we enrolled 134 terminal inpatients with advanced malignant tumor from 18 community hospice care pilot settings in Shanghai from March 6 to 20, 2014.We conducted self -designed questionnaire survey with the patients .The survey content included general data

  19. Oncolytic virotherapy for pediatric malignancies: future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Alicia M; Friedman, Gregory K; Ring, Eric K; Beierle, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric solid tumors remain a major health concern, with nearly 16,000 children diagnosed each year. Of those, ~2,000 succumb to their disease, and survivors often suffer from lifelong disability secondary to toxic effects of current treatments. Countless multimodality treatment regimens are being explored to make advances against this deadly disease. One targeted treatment approach is oncolytic virotherapy. Conditionally replicating viruses can infect tumor cells while leaving normal cells unharmed. Four viruses have been advanced to pediatric clinical trials, including herpes simplex virus-1, Seneca Valley virus, reovirus, and vaccinia virus. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of action of each virus, pediatric preclinical studies conducted to date, past and ongoing pediatric clinical trials, and potential future direction for these novel viral therapeutics. PMID:27579298

  20. Malignant melanoma of the foot and ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, K J; Hayes, D W; Green, D R; Dickerson, J

    2000-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is a serious and devastating skin disease that podiatrists may be called upon to treat. It is pertinent that delays in diagnosis and treatment of malignant melanoma be avoided. Some of the topics discussed in this article are causes, clinical features, classification, and treatment of malignant melanoma, focusing on the foot and ankle.

  1. The worth of radiotherapy in malignant melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proppe, A H

    1978-08-01

    A new approach for the evaluation of the effectiveness of various forms of treatment of malignant melanomas is presented. Factors influencing the survival time from initiation of therapy until death were statistically analyzed in 548 patients who died from malignant melanoma. In slowly developing malignancies X-ray therapy was found to be superior to therapeutic methods.

  2. Bone marrow metastasis in nonhematologic malignancies: Data from a cancer hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriti Chauhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone marrow metastasis by a nonhematologic malignancy signifies advanced stage of disease and confers a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to analyze clinical presentation, hematological profile, biochemical profile, radiological presentation, and patterns of bone marrow involvement in patients with metastatic nonhematologic malignancies retrospectively. Materials and Methods: Ninety bone marrow procedures were done in cases of nonhematologic malignancies for suspected involvement or as a part of staging procedure. Results: Sixteen out of 90 patients showed metastasis by nonhematologic malignancies. The most common malignancy to metastasize was malignant small round cell tumor (Ewing's sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma followed by carcinoma breast and prostate. The most common clinical presentation was backache, fever anorexia, and abdominal pain. The biochemical findings included raised serum calcium and lactate dehydrogenase. 62.5% had anemia and 37.5% had thrombocytopenia. Leukocytosis was seen in 37.5% of patients. Leukoerythroblastic picture was seen in 43.75% cases. Of the eleven cases where both bone marrow aspirate and biopsies were done, 10 cases showed malignant cells in both. Immunohistochemistry was conclusive in four cases. The combined procedure of aspiration and biopsy gives a higher yield and are essential in patients with suspected bone marrow metastasis in nonhematologic malignancies.

  3. Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies and Malignancy: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiniakou, Eleni; Mammen, Andrew L

    2017-02-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are a heterogeneous group of autoimmune diseases (collectively known as myositis) affecting the skeletal muscles as well as other organ systems such as skin, lungs, and joints. The primary forms of myositis include polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (PM), and immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM). Patients with these diseases experience progressive proximal muscle weakness, have characteristic muscle biopsy findings, and produce autoantibodies that are associated with unique clinical features. One distinguishing feature of these patients is that they are also known to have an increased risk of cancer. Since the first description of the association in 1916, it has been extensively reported in the medical literature. However, there have been significant variations between the different studies with regard to the degree of cancer risk in patients with IIM. These discrepancies can, in part, be attributed to differences in the definition of malignancy-associated myositis used in different studies. In recent years, significant advances have been made in defining specific features of IIM that are associated with the development of malignancy. One of these has been myositis-specific antibodies (MSAs), which are linked to distinct clinical phenotypes and categorize patients into groups with more homogeneous features. Indeed, patients with certain MSAs seem to be at particularly increased risk of malignancy. This review attempts a systematic evaluation of research regarding the association between malignancy and myositis.

  4. A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR BREAST MALIGNANT TUMORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范志民; 刘国津; 盖学良; 王晓军; 辛志泳

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To review the evolution of the current surgical treatment for breast malignant tumors over the past twenty years in the First Hospital of Jilin University (the former Bethune University of Medical Sciences). Methods: 1195 eligible patients with primary breast malignant tumor diagnosed and surgically treated at the First Teaching Hospital from January 1980 and December 2000 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The peak frequency was in 40-49 years of age (40.00%), the age of the patients with breast malignant tumors trends to become young. The most common pTNM classification was Stage Ⅱ. The most common histological type was infiltrating ductal carcinoma (398 patients, 33.31%), and simple carcinoma (279 patients, 23.53%). Modified radical mastectomy was the most common operation procedure performed (779 patients, 65.19%), and was increasingly used while radical mastectomy was adopted decreasingly in recent decade. Conclusion: The variation of operation procedures performed on patients with breast malignant tumors reflected the advance of our understanding of the biology of cancer and the progression of new treatment principles.

  5. [Orbital metastasis in malignant melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroli, G L; Hamedani, M; Barraco, P; Oubaaz, A; Morax, S

    2001-03-01

    We report the case of a 60-year-old man presenting bilateral progressive proptosis with diplopia, weight loss, tachycardia, nervosity, and stomach pain. These signs seemed at first to favor a diagnosis of Graves'ophthalmopathy. Thyroid tests were negative and the initial orbital CT scan was considered normal. A new radiological investigation 4 months later in our hospital revealed typical hypertrophy of the extraocular muscles compatible with orbital metastasis. The systemic investigations demonstrated a pulmonary tumor, multiple hepatic lesions, and several pigmented nodules of gastric mucosa. The pathology of pulmonary and gastric specimens confirmed the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. The primary lesion remains unknown. The authors discuss the differential diagnoses of orbital metastasis and the radiological characteristics of orbital metastasis in malignant melanoma.

  6. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru, Peng; Williams, Terence M.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Guo, Deliang, E-mail: deliang.guo@osumc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center & Arthur G James Cancer Hospital, Columbus, OH 43012 (United States)

    2013-11-08

    Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation.

  7. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deliang Guo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation.

  8. Paediatric and adult malignant glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Chris; Perryman, Lara; Hargrave, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Gliomas in children differ from their adult counterparts by their distribution of histological grade, site of presentation and rate of malignant transformation. Although rare in the paediatric population, patients with high-grade gliomas have, for the most part, a comparably dismal clinical outcome...... to older patients with morphologically similar lesions. Molecular profiling data have begun to reveal the major genetic alterations underpinning these malignant tumours in children. Indeed, the accumulation of large datasets on adult high-grade glioma has revealed key biological differences between...... the adult and paediatric disease. Furthermore, subclassifications within the childhood age group can be made depending on age at diagnosis and tumour site. However, challenges remain on how to reconcile clinical data from adult patients to tailor novel treatment strategies specifically for paediatric...

  9. Recurrence of neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Blanco, Leticia; García-Prada, Hilario; Santamarina, Susana; Jiménez-Treviño, Luis; Bobes, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare idiosyncratic reaction associated with the use of neuroleptics that has an incidence of 0.02 to 3% among patients taking these drugs. This is a very serious complication with a mortality rate that reaches 10-20%. It is therefore very important to have high clinical suspicion and use appropriate criteria to objectify this clinical picture early, stopping the medication causing the picture and to avoid the subsequent complications as much as possible that would be responsible for both its mortality and sequels. We present that case of an 81-year old woman who was admitted to the Psychiatric Hospitalization Unit (PHU) for a depressive episode with psychotic symptoms who developed a neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) when Haloperidol was introduced. After its suspension and subsequent clinical recovery, antipsychotic treatment with Risperidone was reintroduced and she suffered a recurrence of NMS. Finally, significant improvement was achieved with several sessions of electroshock therapy (EST).

  10. Prognostic value of molecular markers of oral pre-malignant and malignant lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Agus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The representation of oral cancer and precancerous lesions is often undetected until at later stage and the survival rate of oral cancer has remained essentially unchanged over the past three decades. Over 90% of these tumors are squamous cell carcinoma. The American Cancer Society estimates that among 28,900 new cases of oral diagnosis in 2002, nearly 7,400 people will die from this disease. Oral pre-malignant and malignant lesions have multi-step process both at phenotype and genetic levels that influence tumor behavior and genetic mutations. Purpose: The aim of this presentation was to review the current knowledge of prognostic value of tumor marker in order to achieve early detection, prognostic value, proper and accurate treatment of oral cancer. Reviews: Technological advances in molecular biology have greatly increased the number of new molecular markers that can be detected by molecular analysis such as immunohistochemistry (IHC, polymerase chain reaction (PCR and surgical margin analysis that may increase prognosis and treatment of oral cancer. The result of most valuable tumor markers is twenty nine divided into four groups according to their function such as enhancement of tumor growth, tumor suppression and anti tumor defense, including immune response and apoptosis, angiogenesis, tumor invasion and metastatic potential, including adhesion molecules and matrix degradation. Conclusion: In general the conclusion is that the location of markers within the tumor and not the quantitative assessment is as same as emphasized. Especially, the analysis of new molecular markers have been used to be of great importance for early detection, surgical margin analysis, prognostication and treatment of oral pre-malignant and cancerous lesion.

  11. 顺铂IL-2胸腔内灌注联合培美曲塞全身化疗治疗老年晚期肺腺癌恶性胸腔积液%Clinical Observation of Cisplatin+IL-2 Intrathoracic Perfusion Joint Pemetrexed Disodium Systemic Chemotherapy for Elderly Patients with Advanced Malignant Pleural Effusion of Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永明; 荆丽君; 冯桂新; 李同源; 李志杰

    2012-01-01

      Objective:Observation on cisplatin and IL-2 intrathoracic perfusion combined with pemetrexed disodium systemic chemotherapy for elderly patients with advanced malignant pleural effusion of lung adenocarcinoma’s clinical efficacy and side effects.Method:The lung adenocarcinoma in elderly patients with pleural effusion a total of 51 cases,the intrathoracic injection of cisplatin(40 mg/m2)and IL-2(1.5 million U)once a week for 2 weeks were given. At the same time,pemetrexed disodium for injection(500 mg/m2),the first day,every 3 weeks repeated,two cycles. The 4th week for evaluating efficacy and side effects.Result:51 patients could be evaluated the effects,16 cases were completely alleviated,a part of the mitigation in 25 cases,6 cases ineffective. Then its effective rate of 80.39%,complete remission rate 31.37%.Conclusion:Cisplatin and IL-2 intrathoracic perfusion combined with pemetrexed disodium systemic chemotherapy is a effective treatment method for elderly lung adenocarcinoma patients with advanced malignant pleural effusion which were light toxicity and safe clinical use.%  目的:观察顺铂+IL-2胸腔内灌注联合培美曲塞全身化疗治疗老年晚期肺腺癌恶性胸腔积液的临床疗效及毒副反应.方法:老年肺腺癌并胸腔积液患者共51例,采用顺铂40 mg/m2及IL-2150万U胸腔灌注保留,每周一次,共2周,同时应用培美曲塞,第1天,每3周重复,完成2个周期.治疗第4周评价疗效及毒副作用.结果:51例患者均可评价疗效,完全缓解者16例,部分缓解者25例,无效者6例,其有效率为80.39%,完全缓解率31.37%.结论:顺铂+IL-2胸腔内灌注联合培美曲塞全身化疗治疗老年晚期肺腺癌恶性胸腔积液治疗的方法疗效显著,毒性反应轻,临床使用安全.

  12. Olanzapine induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Bichitra Nanda; Khandelwal, Sudhir K; Sood, Mamta

    2013-01-01

    An 18 year old male diagnosed as a case of bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) following treatment with olanzapine (20 mg per day), an atypical antipsychotic drug. NMS is usually seen with typical antipsychotic drugs. The patient was diagnosed as a case of NMS, offending agent was immediately withdrawn and prompt treatment with bromocriptine and levodopa produced a good recovery. The various features of the case are discussed in view of the potential mortality of the syndrome.

  13. Benign chondroblastoma - malignant radiological appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, K.; Treugut, H.; Mueller, G.E.

    1980-04-01

    The very rare benign chondroblastoma occasionally invades soft tissues and may grow beyond the epiphysis into the metaphysis. In the present case such a tumour did not show the typical radiological appearances, but presented malignant features both on plain films and on the angiogram. The importance of biopsy of tumours which cannot be identified with certainty must be stressed before radical surgery is carried out.

  14. Endobronchial metastases from extrathoracic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoglu, Sebahat; Uçan, Eyüp S; Celik, Gülperi; Sener, Gülper; Sevinç, Can; Kilinç, Oğuz; Itil, Oya

    2005-01-01

    Endobronchial metastases (EBM) from extrapulmonary malignant tumors are rare. The most common extrathoracic malignancies associated with EBM are breast, renal and colorectal carcinomas. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical, radiographic and bronchoscopic aspects of patients with EBM who were diagnosed between 1992 and 2002. Data about patients' clinical conditions, symptoms, radiographic and endoscopic findings, and histopathological examination results were investigated. EBM was defined as bronchoscopically visible lesions histopathologically identical to the primary tumor in patients with extrapulmonary malignancies. We found 15 cases with EBM. Primary tumors included breast (3), colorectal (3), and renal (2) carcinomas; Malignant Melanoma (2); synovial sarcoma (1), ampulla of Vater adenocarcinoma (1), pheochromocytoma (1), hypernephroma (1), and Hodgkin's Disease (1). The most common symptoms were dyspnea (80%), cough (66.6%) and hemoptysis (33.3%). Multiple (40%) or single (13.3%) pulmonary nodules, mediastinal or hilar lymphadenopathy (40%), and effusion (40%) were the most common radiographic findings. The mean interval from initial diagnosis to diagnosis of EBM was 32.8 months (range, 0-96 months) and median survival time was 18 months (range, 4-84). As a conclusion, various extrapulmonary tumors can metastasize to the bronchus. Symptoms and radiographic findings are similar with those in primary lung cancer. Therefore, EBM should be discriminated from primary lung cancer histopathologically. Although mean survival time is usually short, long-term survivors were reported. Consequently, treatment must be planned according to the histology of the primary tumor, evidence of metastasis to other sites and medical status of the patient.

  15. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi Claudio; Bianchi Tommaso

    2009-01-01

    This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interv...

  16. Management of malignant pleural effusion

    OpenAIRE

    Boshuizen, R.C.

    2017-01-01

    The first part of this thesis focuses on IPCs (indwelling pleural catheters) in malignant pleural effusion (MPE) management. In an invited review, the (dis)advantages and prejudices of IPCs are described (Chapter1.1). Since costs and reimbursement issues are the main reasons in the Netherlands to withhold patients from IPCs, we performed a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database. In this database, we registered patient characteristics (gender, tumor type), survival data a...

  17. The genetics of malignant hyperthermia.

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility remains the commonest cause of death owing to general anaesthesia. This is despite the availability of presymptomatic testing, admittedly by a highly invasive method, and a recognised treatment for implementation immediately a patient shows signs of developing a crisis. Recently the finding of linkage to markers from chromosome 19q13.1-13.2 and the identification of mutations in a candidate gene held out hope of genetic diagnosis being available. However,...

  18. [Malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlino, A; Rossi, M T; Fabrizio, T; Scutari, F

    2010-03-01

    Malignant fibroous histiocytoma (MFH) is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma, that most frequently occurs in the muscles of the extremities and in abdominal or in retroperitoneal space of young adults. It is seldom confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. It is rarely diagnosed before excision and pathological exam, and has an unfavorable prognostic in some cases. This work reports the case of a 94 years old patient with originally cutaneous MFH stressing the importance of the early diagnosis.

  19. Targeting hedgehog in hematologic malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, David A; Copland, Mhairi

    2012-03-08

    The Hedgehog pathway is a critical mediator of embryonic patterning and organ development, including hematopoiesis. It influences stem cell fate, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis in responsive tissues. In adult organisms, hedgehog pathway activity is required for aspects of tissue maintenance and regeneration; however, there is increasing awareness that abnormal hedgehog signaling is associated with malignancy. Hedgehog signaling is critical for early hematopoietic development, but there is controversy over its role in normal hematopoiesis in adult organisms where it may be dispensable. Conversely, hedgehog signaling appears to be an important survival and proliferation signal for a spectrum of hematologic malignancies. Furthermore, hedgehog signaling may be critical for the maintenance and expansion of leukemic stem cells and therefore provides a possible mechanism to selectively target these primitive cell subpopulations, which are resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Indeed, phase 1 clinical trials of hedgehog pathway inhibitors are currently underway to test this hypothesis in myeloid leukemias. This review covers: (1) the hedgehog pathway and its role in normal and malignant hematopoiesis, (2) the recent development of clinical grade small molecule inhibitors of the pathway, and (3) the potential utility of hedgehog pathway inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in hemato-oncology.

  20. A Hybrid Solid-State NMR and Electron Microscopy Structure-Determination Protocol for Engineering Advanced para-Crystalline Optical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brijith; Rombouts, Jeroen; Oostergetel, Gert T; Gupta, Karthick B S S; Buda, Francesco; Lammertsma, Koop; Orru, Romano; de Groot, Huub J M

    2017-01-24

    Hybrid magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy and TEM were demonstrated for de novo structure determination of para-crystalline materials with a bioinspired fused naphthalene diimide (NDI)-salphen-phenazine prototype light-harvesting compound. Starting from chiral building blocks with C2 molecular symmetry, the asymmetric unit was determined by MAS NMR spectroscopy, index low-resolution TEM diffraction data, and resolve reflection conditions, and for the first time the ability to determine the space group from reciprocal space data using this hybrid approach was shown. Transfer of molecular C2 symmetry into P2/c packing symmetry provided a connection across length scales to overcome both lack of long-range order and missing diffraction-phase information. Refinement with heteronuclear distance constraints confirmed the racemic P2/c packing that was scaffolded by molecular recognition of salphen zinc in a pseudo-octahedral environment with bromide and with alkyl chains folding along the phenazine. The NDI light-harvesting stacks ran orthogonal to the intermolecular electric dipole moment present in the solid. Finally, the orientation of flexible lamellae on an electrode surface was determined.

  1. Effect of BSD 2000 deep thermotherapy plus chemotherapy in treatment of malignant seroperitoneum of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer patients with drug resistance%BSD2000相控阵聚焦热疗联合化疗治疗耐药性卵巢上皮癌患者恶性腹腔积液的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何朗; 孙永红; 文世民; 陈红

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察BSD 2000相控阵聚焦热疗联合化疗对耐药性卵巢上皮癌患者恶性腹腔积液的疗效.方法 36例耐药性卵巢上皮癌恶性腹腔积液患者按抽签法随机分为治疗组和对照组各18例,其中治疗组采用BSD 2000相控阵聚焦热疗+GT方案(吉西他滨1 000 mg/m2静脉滴注,第1、8天;紫杉醇80 mg/m2腹腔注射,第1、8天)化疗;对照组单独采用GT方案化疗.28 d为1个周期,2个周期后评价疗效、患者不良反应、Karnofsky评分、中位生存时间.结果 治疗组有效率(RR)高于对照组[55.6%(10/18)比22.2%(4/18),P<0.05],疾病控制率(DCR)亦高于对照组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组不良反应类似,无Ⅲ~Ⅳ度不良反应发生.治疗组Karnofsky评分改善率高于对照组,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组患者中位生存时间、生存率比较差异均无统计学意义(均P> 0.05).结论 BSD 2000相控阵聚焦热疗联合化疗可有效控制耐药性卵巢上皮癌患者恶性腹腔积液,改善患者生命质量,不良反应轻微.%Objective To observe the effect of BSD 2000 deep thermotherapy plus chemotherapy in treatment of malignant seroperitoneum of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer patients with drug resistance.Methods 36 advanced epithelial ovarian cancer patients with malignant seroperitoneum for drug resistance were randomly divided into two groups,trial group (18 cases) and control group (18 cases).Cases in trial group were treated with BSD 2000 deep thermotherapy plus GT regimen (gemcitabine 1 000 mg/m2 iv d1,d8,taxinol 80 mg/m2 ip d1,d8.28 days for a cycle),while control group with GT regimen alone.Effect,survival time (median) toxicity and Karnofsky score were evaluated after 2 cycles.Results Response rate (RR) was strongly higher in trial group compared with control group [55.6 % (10/18) vs 22.2 % (4/18),P < 0.05],the same to disease control rate (DCR),but there was not significant difference between two groups (P

  2. Derrame pleural neoplásico Malignant pleural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete Ribeiro Teixeira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O derrame pleural neoplásico é uma complicação freqüente nos pacientes portadores de tumores avançados. A presença de células malignas no líquido pleural ou na biópsia da pleura é indicativa de disseminação da doença primária, com conseqüente redução da expectativa de vida. O diagnóstico e tratamento precoce do derrame pleural maligno são fundamentais para promover uma melhor qualidade de vida aos pacientes portadores de câncer avançado.The malignant pleural effusion is a frequent complication in patients with of advanced tumors. The presence of malignant cells in the pleural fluid or in the pleural biopsy is indicative of dissemination of the primary disease, with consequent reduction of life expectancy. The early diagnosis and treatment of the malignant effusion is pivotal in promoting a better quality of life to patients with advanced cancer.

  3. Photodynamic therapy for lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Charles B; Cengel, Keith A

    2014-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a form of non-ionizing radiation therapy that uses a drug, called a photosensitizer, combined with light to produce singlet oxygen ((1)O2) that can exert anti-cancer activity through apoptotic, necrotic, or autophagic tumor cell death. PDT is increasingly being used to treat thoracic malignancies. For early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), PDT is primarily employed as an endobronchial therapy to definitively treat endobronchial or roentgenographically occult tumors. Similarly, patients with multiple primary lung cancers may be definitively treated with PDT. For advanced or metastatic NSCLC and small cell lung cancer (SCLC), PDT is primarily employed to palliate symptoms from obstructing endobronchial lesions causing airway compromise or hemoptysis. PDT can be used in advanced NSCLC to attempt to increase operability or to reduce the extent of operation intervention required, and selectively to treat pleural dissemination intraoperatively following macroscopically complete surgical resection. Intraoperative PDT can be safely combined with macroscopically complete surgical resection and other treatment modalities for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) to improve local control and prolong survival. This report reviews the mechanism of and rationale for using PDT to treat thoracic malignancies, details prospective and major retrospectives studies of PDT to treat NSCLC, SCLC, and MPM, and describes improvements in and future roles and directions of PDT.

  4. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of malignant mesothelioma

    OpenAIRE

    Hegmans, Joost

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn late 1960’s, physician Dr. J. Stumphius identified twenty-five cases of a rare aggressive tumor known as mesothelioma among shipyard “Royal Schelde” workers due to asbestos exposure (1,2). Further observations showed an increase of mesothelioma cases among these workers. In 1974, the number of cases totaled 42; in 1978, the number rose to 57. The commercial use of asbestos in the Netherlands peaked in the 1970’s with the import of 50,000 tons of this ‘magic’ mineral and 150,000...

  5. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of malignant mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.J.J. Hegmans (Joost)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn late 1960’s, physician Dr. J. Stumphius identified twenty-five cases of a rare aggressive tumor known as mesothelioma among shipyard “Royal Schelde” workers due to asbestos exposure (1,2). Further observations showed an increase of mesothelioma cases among these workers. In 1974, t

  6. Solid propellants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Hutchison, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The basic principles underlying propulsion by rocket motor are examined together with the configuration of a solid propellant motor. Solid propellants and their preparation are discussed, giving attention to homogeneous propellants, composite propellants, energetic considerations in choosing a solid propellant, the processing of composite propellants, and some examples of new developments. The performance of solid propellants is investigated, taking into account characteristics velocity, the specific impulse, and performance calculations. Aspects of propellant development considered include nonperformance requirements for solid propellants, the approach to development, propellant mechanical properties, and future trends.

  7. Switching off malignant mesothelioma: exploiting the hypoxic microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Noushin; Bennewith, Kevin L; Churg, Andrew; Wang, Yuzhuo; Collins, Colin C; Mutti, Luciano

    2016-11-01

    Malignant mesotheliomas are aggressive, asbestos-related cancers with poor patient prognosis, typically arising in the mesothelial surfaces of tissues in pleural and peritoneal cavity. The relative unspecific symptoms of mesotheliomas, misdiagnoses, and lack of precise targeted therapies call for a more critical assessment of this disease. In the present review, we categorize commonly identified genomic aberrations of mesotheliomas into their canonical pathways and discuss targeting these pathways in the context of tumor hypoxia, a hallmark of cancer known to render solid tumors more resistant to radiation and most chemo-therapy. We then explore the concept that the intrinsic hypoxic microenvironment of mesotheliomas can be Achilles' heel for targeted, multimodal therapeutic intervention.

  8. Primary cerebello-pontine angle malignant melanoma : a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai K

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of primary malignant melanoma in the cerebello-pontine angle, in a 17 year old girl is presented. The patient presented with one month history of headache, diplopia, facial asymmetry and ataxia. The computerised tomography (CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a large cerebello-pontine angle mass with features suggestive of a melanoma. The typical black coloured, solid and vascular melanoma was excised completely. Cerebello-pontine angle melanoma are extremely rare tumours with dismal long term outcome in majority of these cases.

  9. Field study for disposal of solid wastes from Advanced Coal Processes: Ohio LIMB Site Assessment. Final report, April 1986--November 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, A.; Coel, B.J.; Butler, R.D.

    1994-10-01

    New air pollution regulations will require cleaner, more efficient processes for converting coal to electricity, producing solid byproducts or wastes that differ from conventional pulverized-coal combustion ash. Large scale landfill test cells containing byproducts were built at 3 sites and are to be monitored over at least 3 years. This report presents results of a 3-y field test at an ash disposal site in northern Ohio; the field test used ash from a combined lime injection-multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant. The landfill test cells used LIMB ash wetted only to control dusting in one cell, and LIMB ash wetted to optimize compaction density in the other cell. Both test cells had adequate load-bearing strength for landfill stability but had continuing dimensional instability. Heaving and expansion did not affect the landfill stability but probably contributed to greater permeability to infiltrating water. Leachate migration occurred from the base, but effects on downgradient groundwater were limited to increased chloride concentration in one well. Compressive strength of landfilled ash was adequate to support equipment, although permeability was higher and strength was lower than anticipated. Average moisture content has increased to about 90% (dry weight basis). Significant water infiltration has occurred; the model suggests that as much as 20% of the incident rainfall will pass through and exit as leachate. However, impacts on shallow ground water is minimal. Results of this field study suggest that LIMB ash from combustion of moderate to high sulfur coals will perform acceptably if engineering controls are used to condition and compact the materials, reduce water influx to the landfill, and minimize leachate production. Handling of the ash did not pose serious problems during cell construction; steaming and heat buildup were moderate.

  10. Treatment-related fatigue with sorafenib, sunitinib and pazopanib in patients with advanced solid tumors: an up-to-date review and meta-analysis of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Matteo; Conti, Alessandro; Massari, Francesco; Arnaldi, Giorgio; Iacovelli, Roberto; Rizzo, Mimma; De Giorgi, Ugo; Trementino, Laura; Procopio, Giuseppe; Tortora, Giampaolo; Cascinu, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is the most common symptom associated with cancer and cancer treatment. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis to determine the incidence and relative risk (RR) of fatigue in patients (pts) with cancer treated with sorafenib (SO), sunitinib (SU) and pazopanib (PZ). PubMed databases were searched for articles published till August 2013. Eligible studies were selected according to PRISMA statement. Summary incidence, RR and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random-effects or fixed-effects models based on the heterogeneity of selected studies. Fifteen studies were included in our analysis. A total of 6,996 pts was enrolled: 2,260 had renal cell carcinomas (RCC), 1,691 non-small cell lung cancers, 1,290 breast cancers, 823 hepatocellular carcinomas, 362 soft tissue sarcomas, 304 gastrointestinal solid tumors, 165 neuroendocrine tumors and 101 melanomas. When stratified by drug, SO registered lower incidence and RR of all and high-grade fatigue when compared to SU, whereas the difference between SO and PZ was significant only for all-grade fatigue (p < 0.001). The difference between SU and PZ was significant for high-grade (p < 0.001) but not for all-grade fatigue (p = 0.52). In RCC pts, PZ showed the lower incidence and RR of all and high-grade fatigue. The differences were significant for SU vs. SO (p < 0.001), SU vs. PZ (p < 0.001) and SO vs. PZ (p < 0.001). Treatment with SO, SU and PZ is associated with an increased incidence of fatigue in pts with cancer. Early and appropriate management is required to avoid unnecessary dose reductions and transitory or definitive treatment discontinuations.

  11. Vorinostat and Decitabine in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors or Relapsed or Refractory Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-26

    ; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  12. Malignancy in disorders of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrins, Martin; Kolon, Thomas F

    2016-10-01

    AFP (Oct3/4, TSPY, WT-1). The management of patients with DSD is complex and evaluation of tumor risk is aided by advances in genotyping for Y-chromosomal material not evident in traditional karyotyping. More complete genetic screening for DSD patients should increasingly become the standard of care. Developments in pathologic diagnosis will further challenge our traditional understanding of the oncologic management and surveillance of these patients. Future studies utilizing more advanced histologic examination of gonads will improve our understanding of the true incidences of malignancy in this diverse population.

  13. Photodynamic Therapy in Non-Gastrointestinal Thoracic Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biniam Kidane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy has a role in the management of early and late thoracic malignancies. It can be used to facilitate minimally-invasive treatment of early endobronchial tumours and also to palliate obstructive and bleeding effects of advanced endobronchial tumours. Photodynamic therapy has been used as a means of downsizing tumours to allow for resection, as well as reducing the extent of resection necessary. It has also been used successfully for minimally-invasive management of local recurrences, which is especially valuable for patients who are not eligible for radiation therapy. Photodynamic therapy has also shown promising results in mesothelioma and pleural-based metastatic disease. As new generation photosensitizers are being developed and tested and methodological issues continue to be addressed, the role of photodynamic therapy in thoracic malignancies continues to evolve.

  14. Malignant Melanoma of Nose and Paranasal Sinuses: 2 Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Bhagat

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is one of the rare and highly aggressive diseases of the sinonasal cavity. High index of suspicion is required for diagnosis as the patient usually presents with non specific signs and symptoms. In the natural course of the disease, higher rate of loco regional recurrences and distant metastasis are seen making the overall prognosis of disease very poor. In reviewing the various treatment modalities used in the past, surgical resection of the tumour with postoperative radiotherapy is preferred one. Advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy don’t have any impact on improved survival, which remains poor in this disease. We report two cases of malignant melanoma, which were treated at our institute.

  15. Endoscopic approach to malignant strictures at the hepatic hilum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni D De Palma; Giovanni Persico; Stefania Masone; Maria Rega; Immacolata Simeoli; Francesca Salvatori; Saverio Siciliano; Francesco Maione; Valerio Girardi; Marta Celiento

    2007-01-01

    Hilar tumors have proven to be a challenge to treat and manage because of their poor sensitivity to conventional therapies and our inability to prevent or to detect early tumor formation. Endoscopic stent drainage has been proposed as an alternative to biliary-enteric bypass surgery and percutaneous drainage to palliate malignant biliary obstruction. Prosthetic palliation of patients with malignant hilar stenoses poses particular difficulties,especially in advanced lesions (type Ⅱ lesions or higher). The risk of cholangitis after contrast injection into the biliary tree in cases where incomplete drainage is achieved is well known. The success rate of plastic stent insertion is around 80% in patients with proximal tumors. Relief of symptoms can be achieved in nearly all patients successfully stented.

  16. Fanconi's anemia and clinical radiosensitivity. Report on two adult patients with locally advanced solid tumors treated by radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremer, M.; Karstens, J.H. [Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Schindler, D.; Gross, M. [Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany). Inst. of Human Genetics; Doerk, T. [Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany). Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology; Morlot, S. [Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany). Inst. of Human Genetics

    2003-11-01

    Background: Patients with Fanconi's anemia (FA) may exhibit an increased clinical radiosensitivity of various degree, although detailed clinical data are scarce. We report on two cases to underline the possible challenges in the radiotherapy of FA patients. Case Report and Results: Two 24- and 32-year-old male patients with FA were treated by definitive radiotherapy for locally advanced squamous cell head and neck cancers. In the first patient, long-term tumor control could be achieved after delivery of 67 Gy with a - in part - hyperfractionated split-course treatment regimen and, concurrently, one course of carboplatin followed by salvage neck dissection. Acute toxicity was marked, but no severe treatment-related late effects occurred. 5 years later, additional radiotherapy was administered due to a second (squamous cell carcinoma of the anus) and third (squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck) primary, which the patient succumbed to. By contrast, the second patient experienced fatal acute hematologic toxicity after delivery of only 8 Gy of hyperfractionated radiotherapy. While the diagnosis FA could be based on flow cytometric analysis of a lymphocyte culture in the second patient, the diagnosis in the first patient had to be confirmed by hypersensitivity to mitomycin of a fibroblast cell line due to complete somatic lymphohematopoietic mosaicism. In this patient, phenotype complementation and molecular genetic analysis revealed a pathogenic mutation in the FANCA gene. The first patient has not been considered to have FA until he presented with his second tumor. Conclusion: FA has to be considered in patients presenting at young age with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck or anus. The diagnosis FA is of immediate importance for guiding the optimal choice of treatment. Radiotherapy or even radiochemotherapy seems to be feasible and effective in individual cases. (orig.)

  17. Effects of endostar thoracic hyperthermia perfusion on advanced lung cancer with malignant pleural effusion%恩度胸腔热灌注治疗晚期肺癌合并恶性胸腔积液患者的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 孟令新; 薛英杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察重组人血管内皮抑制素(恩度)胸腔热灌注治疗晚期肺癌合并胸腔积液的近期疗效、恩度局部应用的安全性、耐受性和护理方法.方法 对40例伴有恶性胸腔积液的晚期肺癌患者应用恩度胸腔热灌注给药(单药组),尽可能抽出胸腔内积液,缓慢注入恩度30 mg进行热疗,2次/周,每次60~90 min,治疗2~3周,待胸水量稳定后每周1次维持治疗.其中25例患者同时接受恩度联合足叶乙甙(VP-16)胸腔局部热灌注治疗(联合组).每21天为1个周期.评价近期疗效、生活质量及不良反应.结果 40例患者均可进行客观疗效评价及安全性评价,完全缓解(CR)4例,部分缓解(PR)17例,稳定(SD)11例,进展(PD)8例,客观有效率为52.5%,疾病控制率为80%.联合组客观有效率高于单药组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).全组患者生活质量有改善25例,占62.5%.药物相关性不良反应不明显.结论 恩度胸腔热灌注给药能较好地控制恶性胸腔积液,减轻临床症状.恩度与VP-16联合局部治疗可能具有一定协同作用,可改善患者的生活质量,安全性较好,不增加VP-16药物的不良反应.%Objective To observe the short-term treatment effects of recombinant human endostatin (endostar) hyperthermia perfusion on advanced lung cancer with malignant pleural effusion, endostar topical safety, tolerance and care. Methods Forty cases with malignant pleural effusion in patients with advanced lung cancer, the application delivery endostar thoracic hyperthermia perfusion (single drug group), draw out the pleural effusion as much as possible, were slowly injected into hyperthermia endostar 30 mg, 2 times every week, every 60-90 min one time, treat 2 to 3 weeks until the chest water stability keeping one time every week maintenance therapy. Fifteen patients receiving both of which endostar combined etoposide ( VP-16) pleural hyperthermia infusion of local heat treatment (combination group

  18. Mobilization and collection of autologous peripheral blood stem cells by CIE or IEV protocol in children With malignant solid tumors%CIE及IEV方案在恶性实体瘤儿童自体外周血干细胞动员和采集中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张谊; 张伟令; 黄东生; 杨怡平; 刘晓超; 吴怡平

    2011-01-01

    Objective Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT) is an important method for treatment of malignant solid tumors in children. The mobilization and collection of blood stem cells is crucial for APBSCT.This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of mobilization and collection of blood stem cells by CIE or IEV chemotherapy protocol in APBSCT in children with neuroblastoma (NB) or rhabdomyosarcoma. Methods The protocols of CIE (cisplatin, etoposide) and IEV (vincristine, dosfamide, etoposide ) were used as mobilization chemotherapy in 8 cases of NB with stage Ⅳ and 3 cases of rhabdomysacoma with stage Ⅲ, respectively. The results of the mobilization of blood stem cells were observed. Results Of the 11 cases, mononuclear cells (MNC) and CD34 + cells were successfully collected and the volume of MNC and CD34 averaged (5. 55 ± 1.43) × 108/kg and (4. 88 ± 2.48) × 106/kg,respectively. No severe complications were observed during the mobilization and collection. A rapid hemopoietic reconstitution was observed in 10 children after APBSCT. One with NB out of the 10 children died of left heart failure 32 days after APBSCT. Others (9 cases) showed a nearly normal result of routine peripheral blood test 60 days after APBSCT.Conclusions CIE or IEV protocol is effective and safe for the mobilization and collection of peripheral blood stem cells in children with NB or rhabdomysacoma.%目的 自体外周血干细胞移植(APBSC7)是治疗儿童恶性实体瘤的重要方法之一,干细胞动员与采集是决定造血重建的重要因素.本研究采用CIE及IEV动员方案对儿童神经母细胞瘤(NB)及横纹肌肉瘤进行干细胞动员和采集,并对临床效果进行评价.方法 8例Ⅳ期NB患儿采用CIE化疗方案动员.3例Ⅲ期横纹肌肉瘤患儿采用IEV方案.观察采集干细胞的效果.结果 11例患儿平均采集单个核细胞数(MNC)为(5.55 ±1.43)×108/kg,CD34+细胞数为(4.88±2.48)×106/kg,动员

  19. Physics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterson, John B

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive text covers the basic physics of the solid state starting at an elementary level suitable for undergraduates but then advancing, in stages, to a graduate and advanced graduate level. In addition to treating the fundamental elastic, electrical, thermal, magnetic, structural, electronic, transport, optical, mechanical and compositional properties, we also discuss topics like superfluidity and superconductivity along with special topics such as strongly correlated systems, high-temperature superconductors, the quantum Hall effects, and graphene. Particular emphasis is given to so-called first principles calculations utilizing modern density functional theory which for many systems now allow accurate calculations of the electronic, magnetic, and thermal properties.

  20. Olanzapine induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bichitra Nanda Patra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18 year old male diagnosed as a case of bipolar affective disorder (BPAD, developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS following treatment with olanzapine (20 mg per day, an atypical antipsychotic drug. NMS is usually seen with typical antipsychotic drugs. The patient was diagnosed as a case of NMS, offending agent was immediately withdrawn and prompt treatment with bromocriptine and levodopa produced a good recovery. The various features of the case are discussed in view of the potential mortality of the syndrome.

  1. Life insurance after malignant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, R H

    1981-11-01

    Forty-five life insurance companies responded to a questionnaire on insurance industry attitudes towards patients with a history of malignancy other than skin carcinoma. Although the criteria for acceptance, provisions of the policy, and philosophy about adjuvant treatment varied, all companies would underwrite such patients provided that at application there was no evidence of persistent or recurrent disease or severe complications of therapy. The concept of excess mortality (observed death rates versus standard expected death rates) is used with other factors in calculating premiums. Legal and ethical responsibilities of physicians associated with insurance applications are briefly discussed.

  2. HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF COLORECTAL MALIGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvesh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the most common cancer in men and in women worldwide. Incidence rates of colorectal cancer vary 10 - fold in both sexes worldwide, Within Asia, the incidence rates vary widely and are uniformly low in all south Asian countries and high i n all developed Asian countries. Fortunately, the age adjusted incidence rates of colorectal cancer in all the Indian cancer registries are very close to the lowest rates in the world. The present study is under taken to study the prevalence and types of c olorectal cancer among the patients in the rural population in and around Chidambaram. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of malignant colorectal neoplasms among the speci mens received in the Department of Pathology and the gross and histomorphological pa ttern of the lesions and finally to correlate the findings with clinical data. METHOD: The materials consisted of 68 specimens who were submitted to the Department of Pathology, during the period of Jan 2008 - Dec 2012. Data collected and entered in MS - Excel and were analyzed using SPSS - 16. RESULTS : Out of 8454 colonoscopic specimens, 68(0.8% showed colorectal malignancy. A higher frequency of colorectal was seen in 6 th decade. Out of 68 specimens of malignant neoplasms majority were Carcinoma of the Rectum (79.41% followed in decreasing order of frequency by malignant lesions of descending colon(8.82%, ascending and Sigmoid colon (4.41% each, recto - sigmoid (2.94% and cecum (2.63%, and transverse colon (2.63%. Youngest patient was 19 years old and the o ldest patient was 80 years old with a mean age of 49.5 years and median age of 50 years. CONCLUSION: Colorectal cancer is a common and lethal disease. The adenoma carcinoma. S equence offers a window of opportunity in which the precursor lesion or early car cinoma can be removed endoscopically to prevent systematic disease. The result of a careful and systematic examination of surgical specimens from patients with

  3. Advanced Solid-Contact Ion Selective Electrode Based on Electrically Conducting Polymers%导电聚合物构建的高性能固态离子选择电极

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄美荣; 谷国利; 丁永波; 付啸天; 李荣贵

    2012-01-01

    Advanced solid-contact ion selective electrodes (ISE) based on electrically conducting polymers are systematically summarized based on the latest literatures and our latest work. Conjugated conductive polymers can act as ion-to-electron transducer and therefore achieve sensing and detection for ions owing to their feature as both electronic and ionic conductivity. The solid-contact ISE based on conducting polymers, such as polyaniline, poly pyrrole and polythiophene, as intermediate layers could detect for ions at nanomolar level concentration. It can be expected that they could play an important role in many areas such as environmental monitoring, drug manufacturing, medical treatment and food safety.%基于最新研究文献和自身研究工作,系统总结了以导电聚合物构建的各种高性能固态离子选择电极.导电聚合物所特有的共轭结构以及电子导电和离子导电的双重导电功能使其可以作为离子-电子转换器,从而实现对离子的传感响应与探测.由聚苯胺、聚吡咯和聚噻吩等导电聚合物为转换中间层而构建的离子选择电极可以实现纳摩尔浓度水平的离子传感探测,有望在环境监测、药物医疗和食品安全等诸多方面发挥重要作用.

  4. A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of oral 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP, NSC #663249) in the treatment of advanced stage solid cancers – A California Cancer Consortium Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Joseph; Synold, Timothy W.; Morgan, Robert J.; Kunos, Charles; Longmate, Jeff; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Lim, Dean; Shibata, Stephen; Chung, Vincent; Stoller, Ronald G.; Belani, Chandra P.; Gandara, David R.; McNamara, Mark; Gitlitz, Barbara J.; Lau, Derick H.; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Davies, Angela; Espinoza-Delgado, Igor; Newman, Edward M.; Yen, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Background 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP) is a novel small molecule ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor. This study was designed to estimate the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and oral bioavailability of 3-AP in patients with advanced stage solid tumors. Methods Twenty patients received one dose of intravenous and subsequent cycles of oral 3-AP following a 3+3 patient dose-escalation. Intravenous 3-AP was administered to every patient at a fixed dose of 100 mg over a 2-hour infusion 1 week prior to the first oral cycle. Oral 3-AP was administered every 12 hours for 5 consecutive doses on days 1–3, days 8–10, and days 15–17 of every 28-day cycle. 3-AP was started at 50 mg with a planned dose escalation to 100, 150, and 200 mg. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) and bioavailability were evaluated. Results Twenty patients were enrolled. For dose level 1 (50mg), the second of three treated patients had a DLT of grade 3 hypertension. In the dose level 1 expansion cohort, three patients had no DLTs. No further DLTs were encountered during escalation until the 200 mg dose was reached. At the 200 mg 3-AP dose level, two treated patients had DLTs of grade 3 hypoxia. One additional DLT of grade 4 febrile neutropenia was subsequently observed at the de-escalated 150 mg dose. One DLT in 6 evaluable patients established the MTD as 150 mg per dose on this dosing schedule. Responses in the form of stable disease occurred in 5 (25%) of 20 patients. The oral bioavailability of 3-AP was 67 ± 29%, and was consistent with the finding that the MTD by the oral route was 33% higher than by the intravenous route. Conclusions Oral 3-AP is well-tolerated and has an MTD similar to its intravenous form after accounting for the oral bioavailability. Oral 3-AP is associated with a modest clinical benefit rate of 25% in our treated patient population with advanced solid tumors. PMID:22105720

  5. Giving AXL the axe: targeting AXL in human malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Carl M; Balaji, Kavitha; Byers, Lauren Averett

    2017-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL, activated by a complex interaction between its ligand growth arrest-specific protein 6 and phosphatidylserine, regulates various vital cellular processes, including proliferation, survival, motility, and immunologic response. Although not implicated as an oncogenic driver itself, AXL, a member of the TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is overexpressed in several haematologic and solid malignancies, including acute myeloid leukaemia, non-small cell lung cancer, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas, and breast and prostate cancers. In the context of malignancy, evidence suggests that AXL overexpression drives wide-ranging processes, including epithelial to mesenchymal transition, tumour angiogenesis, resistance to chemotherapeutic and targeted agents, and decreased antitumor immune response. As a result, AXL is an attractive candidate not only as a prognostic biomarker in malignancy but also as a target for anticancer therapies. Several AXL inhibitors are currently in preclinical and clinical development. This article reviews the structure, regulation, and function of AXL; the role of AXL in the tumour microenvironment; the development of AXL as a therapeutic target; and areas of ongoing and future investigation. PMID:28072762

  6. Solid lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1993-01-01

    The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.

  7. Duodenal stenting for malignant gastric outlet obstruction:Prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eduardo Guimar(a)es Hourneaux Moura; Flávio Coelho Ferreira; Spencer Cheng; Diogo Turiani Hourneaux Moura; Paulo Sakai; Bruno Zilberstain

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the results of duodenal stenting for palliation of gastroduodenal malignant obstruction by using a gastric outlet obstruction score (GOOS).METHODS:A prospective,non-randomized study was performed at a tertiary center between August 2005 and April 2010.Patients were eligible if they had malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) and were not candidates for surgical treatment.Medical history and patient demographics were collected at baseline.Scheduled interviews were made on the day of the procedure and 15,30,90 and 180 d later or unscheduled as necessary.RESULTS:Fifteen patients (6 male,9 female; median age 61 years) with GOO who had undergone duodenal stenting were evaluated.Ten patients had metastasis at baseline (66.6%) and 14 were unable to accept oral intake (93.33%),including 7 patients who were using a feeding tube.Laboratory data showed biliary obstruction in eight cases (53.33%); all were submitted to biliary drainage.Two patients developed obstructive symptoms due to tumor ingrowth after 30 d and another due to tumor overgrowth after 180 d.Two cases of stent migration occurred.A good response to treatment was observed,with a mean time of approximately 1 d (19 h) until toleration of a liquid diet and slightly more than 2 d for both soft solids (51 h) and a solid food/normal diet (55 h).The mean time to first failure to maintain liquid intake (GOOS ≥ 1) was 93 d.During follow-up,the mean time to first failure to maintain the previously achieved GOOS of 2-3 (solid/semi-solid food),considered technical failure,was 71 d.On the basis of oral intake a GOOS is defined:0 for no oral intake; 1 for liquids only; 2 for soft solids only; 3 for lowresidue or full diet.CONCLUSION:Enteral stenting to alleviate gastroduodenal malignant obstruction improves quality of life in patients with limited life expectancy,which can be evaluated by using a GOO scoring system.

  8. Mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis of "uncertain malignant potential" - an evolving concept: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Asli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis is a rare neoplasm, typically demonstrating frankly malignant morphology and aggressive behavior. Rare cases of well-differentiated papillary mesotheliomas have also been reported, which, in contrast, demonstrate indolent behavior. There are, however, cases which do not fit into the well-differentiated or diffuse malignant mesothelioma categories and can be considered mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis of "uncertain malignant potential", which is an emerging diagnostic category. A 57-year-old man presented with a neoplasm in a hydrocele sac. The neoplasm was non-invasive, but showed focal complex and solid growth and it was difficult to categorize either as well-differentiated papillary mesotheliomas or malignant mesothelioma. After the initial limited resection, the patient underwent radical orchiectomy with hemiscrotectomy and is alive and without disease progression after 6 years. Documentation of these rare tumors will allow their distinction from true malignant mesotheliomas and will facilitate the development of specific treatment recommendations.

  9. Research Progress of Advanced Preparation Technology for Semi-Solid Metal Slurry%半固态金属浆料先进制备技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛卫民

    2012-01-01

    总结了10多年来半固态金属浆料先进制备工艺的研究和应用现状,分别介绍了压室浆料、双螺旋机械搅拌浆料、低过热度倾斜板浇注浆料、低过热度浇注和弱机械搅拌浆料、连续流变转换浆料、低过热度浇注和弱电磁搅拌浆料、蛇形通道浇注浆料、熔体分散混合浆料、转桶搅拌浆料、波浪倾斜板浇注浆料、旋转倾斜圆筒浆料、超声振动浆料、倒锥形通道浇注浆料、自孕育浆料、偏旋热焓平衡浆料、气泡搅拌浆料、环状电磁搅拌浆料等金属浆料的先进制备工艺及其发展前景.%The research status of advanced preparation technologies for semi-solid metal slurry and their application in the recent decade were overviewed. The semi-solid slurry preparation in injection sleeve, the twin screw mechanical stirring process, the new rheocasting process, the low superheat pouring and weak mechanical stirring process, the continuous rheoconversion process, the low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring process, the serpentine channel pouring process, the melt spreading and mixing technique process, the rotating barrel stirring process, the wavelike sloping plate process, the low superheat pouring with a shear field process, the ultrasonic vibration process, the inverted cone channel pouring process, the self-inoculation process, the swirled enthalpy equilibration device process, the gas induced semi-solid process, the annular electromagnetic stirring process and so on were described, and the main characteristics and know-how of these slurry preparation technologies were also depicted and their prospects were analyzed.

  10. Computed tomography findings of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiota, Yutaro; Sato, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Ono, Tetsuya; Kaji, Masaro; Niiya, Harutaka (Kure Kyosai Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan))

    1994-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT) findings were assessed in 7 patients with malignant mesothelioma. CT findings were also reviewed in 9 patients with lung cancer and pleuritis carcinomatosa and in 11 patients with tuberculous pleuritis. Five patients with malignant mesothelioma underwent CT scans twice, on admission and from 1 to 7 months after admission. Tuberculous pleuritis could be distinguished from pleuritis carcinomatosa and malignant mesothelioma by the presence or absence of pleural nodularity and chest wall invasion. Although it was difficult to identify specific CT features clearly distinguishing malignant mesothelioma from pleuritis carcinomatosa, characteristic findings of malignant mesothelioma appeared to include the rapid development and progression of pleural rind and a tendency to spread directly into the chest wall. We divided the pleural into the four regions; upper anterior, upper posterior, lower anterior and lower posterior regions. Pleural changes were more frequently seen in the lower pleural regions than in the upper pleural regions in malignant mesothelioma. (author).

  11. Management of malignant hyperthermia: diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneiderbanger D

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Schneiderbanger, Stephan Johannsen, Norbert Roewer, Frank SchusterDepartment of Anaesthesia and Critical Care, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, GermanyAbstract: Malignant hyperthermia is a potentially lethal inherited disorder characterized by disturbance of calcium homeostasis in skeletal muscle. Volatile anesthetics and/or the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine may induce this hypermetabolic muscular syndrome due to uncontrolled sarcoplasmic calcium release via functionally altered calcium release receptors, resulting in hypoxemia, hypercapnia, tachycardia, muscular rigidity, acidosis, hyperkalemia, and hyperthermia in susceptible individuals. Since the clinical presentation of malignant hyperthermia is highly variable, survival of affected patients depends largely on early recognition of the symptoms characteristic of malignant hyperthermia, and immediate action on the part of the attending anesthesiologist. Clinical symptoms of malignant hyperthermia, diagnostic criteria, and current therapeutic guidelines, as well as adequate management of anesthesia in patients susceptible to malignant hyperthermia, are discussed in this review.Keywords: malignant hyperthermia, volatile anesthetics, succinylcholine, in vitro contracture test, genetics

  12. Oncolytic Virotherapy for Hematological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarna Bais

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematological malignancies such as leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma (MM, and the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs primarily affect adults and are difficult to treat. For high-risk disease, hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT can be used. However, in the setting of autologous HCT, relapse due to contamination of the autograft with cancer cells remains a major challenge. Ex vivo manipulations of the autograft to purge cancer cells using chemotherapies and toxins have been attempted. Because these past strategies lack specificity for malignant cells and often impair the normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, prior efforts to ex vivo purge autografts have resulted in prolonged cytopenias and graft failure. The ideal ex vivo purging agent would selectively target the contaminating cancer cells while spare normal stem and progenitor cells and would be applied quickly without toxicities to the recipient. One agent which meets these criteria is oncolytic viruses. This paper details experimental progress with reovirus, myxoma virus, measles virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, coxsackievirus, and vaccinia virus as well as requirements for translation of these results to the clinic.

  13. Implications of imaging criteria for the management and treatment of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms - benign versus malignant findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Thula Cannon; Steffen, Ingo G.; Stelter, Lars H.; Hamm, Bernd; Denecke, Timm; Grieser, Christian [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Maurer, Martin H. [Universitaetsklinik Bern, Universitaetsinstitut fuer Radiologe, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Bahra, Marcus; Faber, Wladimir; Klein, Fritz [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Allgemein-, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Blaeker, Hendrik [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institut fuer Pathologie, Campus Charite Mitte, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Evaluation of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for differentiation of pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) subtypes based on objective imaging criteria. Fifty-eight patients with 60 histologically confirmed IPMNs were included in this retrospective study. Eighty-three imaging studies (CT,n = 42; MRI,n = 41) were analysed by three independent blinded observers (O1-O3), using established imaging criteria to assess likelihood of malignancy (-5, very likely benign; 5, very likely malignant) and histological subtype (i.e., low-grade (LGD), moderate-grade (MGD), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), early invasive carcinoma (IPMC), solid carcinoma (CA) arising from IPMN). Forty-one benign (LGD IPMN,n = 20; MGD IPMN,n = 21) and 19 malignant (HGD IPMN,n = 3; IPMC,n = 6; solid CA,n = 10) IPMNs located in the main duct (n = 6), branch duct (n = 37), or both (n = 17) were evaluated. Overall accuracy of differentiation between benign and malignant IPMNs was 86/92 % (CT/MRI). Exclusion of overtly malignant cases (solid CA) resulted in overall accuracy of 83/90 % (CT/MRI). The presence of mural nodules and ductal lesion size ≥30 mm were significant indicators of malignancy (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively). Invasive IPMN can be identified with high confidence and sensitivity using CT and MRI. The diagnostic problem that remains is the accurate radiological differentiation of premalignant and non-invasive subtypes. (orig.)

  14. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroff, Stanley N; Campbell, E Cabrina; Sullivan, Kenneth A

    2007-04-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are widely and increasingly prescribed for neurobehavioral disorders in elderly patients. However, the efficacy of these drugs has not been consistently demonstrated in geriatric populations and there are continuing concerns regarding adverse effects. Among the latter are severe neurological disorders, including neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Although the incidence and mortality of neuroleptic malignant syndrome may have declined with heightened awareness of this disorder and the development of newer drugs, neuroleptic malignant syndrome still occurs in association with the use of antipsychotics. To enhance patient safety and clinical vigilance among practitioners, the authors present a clinical overview of neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

  15. B-Cell Hematologic Malignancy Vaccination Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-28

    Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance; Multiple Myeloma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Lymphocytosis; Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Hematological Malignancies

  16. Multidetector computed tomography analysis of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Caisong; Liu, Wei; Yang, Jun; Yang, Jing; Shao, Kangwei; Yuan, Lixin; Chen, Hairong; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) features of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT). MDCT findings, including the size, solid percentage, calcification, margin, capsule, anteroposterior-transverse diameter ratio as well as the mode and the degree of enhancement of 137 thyroid nodules in 127 CLT cases were retrospectively analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between MDCT findings and pathological results combined with the CT perfusion imaging was analyzed for the differences between benign and malignant nodules. A total of 77.5% (31/40) of malignant nodules were completely solid, and 33% (32/97) of benign nodules were predominantly cystic. Compared with the benign nodules, micro-calcification and internal calcification were more frequently observed in the malignant nodules (P0.05). MDCT features are useful in differentiating the benign and malignant nodules in CLT patients, and it may be essential for a radiologist to review the MDCT characteristics of nodules in the clinical practice.

  17. Alternating electric fields (TTFields) inhibit metastatic spread of solid tumors to the lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirson, Eilon D; Giladi, Moshe; Gurvich, Zoya; Itzhaki, Aviran; Mordechovich, Daniel; Schneiderman, Rosa S; Wasserman, Yoram; Ryffel, Bernhard; Goldsher, Dorit; Palti, Yoram

    2009-01-01

    Tumor treating fields (TTFields) are low intensity, intermediate frequency, alternating electric fields used to treat cancerous tumors. This novel treatment modality effectively inhibits the growth of solid tumors in vivo and has shown promise in pilot clinical trials in patients with advanced stage solid tumors. TTFields were tested for their potential to inhibit metastatic spread of solid tumors to the lungs in two animal models: (1) Mice injected with malignant melanoma cells (B16F10) into the tail vein, (2) New Zealand White rabbits implanted with VX-2 tumors within the kidney capsule. Mice and rabbits were treated using two-directional TTFields at 100-200 kHz. Animals were either monitored for survival, or sacrificed for pathological and histological analysis of the lungs. The total number of lung surface metastases and the absolute weight of the lungs were both significantly lower in TTFields treated mice then in sham control mice. TTFields treated rabbits survived longer than sham control animals. This extension in survival was found to be due to an inhibition of metastatic spread, seeding or growth in the lungs of TTFields treated rabbits compared to controls. Histologically, extensive peri- and intra-tumoral immune cell infiltration was seen in TTFields treated rabbits only. These results raise the possibility that in addition to their proven inhibitory effect on the growth of solid tumors, TTFields may also have clinical benefit in the prevention of metastatic spread from primary tumors.

  18. Use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Treating Malignant Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WenzhiChen; ZhibiaoWang; FengWu; JinBai; HuiZhu; JianzhongZou; KequanLi; FanglinXie; ZhilongWang

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the efficacy and side effects of high intensity focused ultrasound(HIFU) in the treatment of malignant solid tumors. METHODS Thirty patients who refused surgery and/or were refractory to chemotherapy were treated by HIFU alone, with the efficacy and side effects monitored as follows: observation of vital organ signs; functional assay of important organs; imaging examinations including: digital subtraction angiography (DSA), CT, MRI, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), large core needle biopsy, complications and metastasis. RESULTS After HIFU therapy, the vital signs remained stable and the functions of the heart, lung, kidney and liver were also normal. DSA images showed that small or larger arteries were not damaged. After a follow-up of 10-38 months(mean 23.1 months), 26 patients(87%) were alive. The volume of the tumor underwent complete regression in 10 patients. Shrinkage of the tumor volume ≥50% was observed in 13 patients. Eight of 13 patients were examined by large core needle biopsy, all showing necrosis and/or fibrosis though 3 patients(10%) had local recurrence. Two of these were retreated again by HIFU and the locally recurrent tumors were controlled. New metastases developed in 5 patients after H IFU. Two patients suffered from peripheral nerve injuriy and they have recovered during the follow-up. One patient developed skin injury. CONCLUSION High intensity focused ultrasound is effective and safe in the treatment of malignant solid tumors.

  19. Semi-quantitative analysis of post-transarterial radioembolization {sup 90}Y Microsphere position emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) images in advance liver malignancy: Comparison with {sup 99m}Tc macroaggregated albumin (MAA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Seung Hong; Kim, Sung Eun; Cho, Jae Hyuk; Park, Ju Kyung; Kim, Yun Hwan; Choe, Jae Gol [Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eo, Jae Seon; Park, So Yeon; Lee, Eun Sub [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation between pretreatment planning technetium-99m ({sup 99}mTc) macroaggregated albumin (MAA) SPECT images and posttreatment transarterial radioembolization (TARE) yttirum-90 ({sup 90}Y) PET/CT images by comparing the ratios of tumor-to-normal liver counts. Fifty-two patients with advanced hepatic malignancy who underwent {sup 90}Y microsphere radioembolization from January 2010 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients had undergone {sup 99}mTc MAA intraarterial injection SPECT for a pretreatment evaluation of microsphere distribution and therapy planning. After the administration of {sup 90}Y microspheres, the patients underwent posttreatment {sup 90}Y PET/CT within 24 h. For semiquantitative analysis, the tumor-to-normal uptake ratios in {sup 90}Y PET/CT (TNR-yp) and {sup 99}mTc MAA SPECT (TNR-ms) as well as the tumor volumes measured in angiographic CT were obtained and analyzed. The relationship of TNR-yp and TNR-ms was evaluated by Spearman's rank correlation and Wilcoxon's matched pairs test. In a total of 79 lesions of 52 patients, the distribution of microspheres was well demonstrated in both the SPECT and PET/CT images. A good correlation was observed of between TNR-ms and TNR-yp (rho value = 0.648, p < 0.001). The TNR-yp (median 2.78, interquartile range 2.43) tend to show significantly higher values than TNR-ms (median 2.49, interquartile range of 1.55) (p = 0.012). The TNR-yp showed weak correlation with tumor volume (rho = 0.230, p = 0.041). The 99mTc MAA SPECT showed a good correlation with {sup 90}Y PET/CT in TNR values, suggesting that {sup 99}mTc MAA can be used as an adequate pretreatment evaluation method. However, the {sup 99}mTc MAA SPECT image consistently shows lower TNR values compared to 90Y PET/CT, which means the possibility of underestimation of tumorous uptake in the partition dosimetry model using {sup 99}mTc MAA SPECT. Considering that

  20. CHIP: A new modulator of human malignant disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhe; Li, Guanqiao; Shao, Qianqian; Yang, Gang; Zheng, Lianfang; Zhang, Taiping; Zhao, Yupei

    2016-05-17

    Carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is known as a chaperone-associated E3 for a variety of protein substrates. It acts as a link between molecular chaperones and ubiquitin-proteasome system. Involved in the process of protein clearance, CHIP plays a critical role in maintaining protein homeostasis in diverse conditions. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of our current understanding of CHIP and summarize recent advances in CHIP biology, with a focus on CHIP in the setting of malignancies.