WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced self-cooled liquid

  1. Design analyses of self-cooled liquid metal blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trade-off study of liquid metal self-cooled blankets was carried out to define the performance of these blankets and to determine the potential to operate at the maximum possible values of the performance parameters. The main parameters considered during the course of the study were the tritium breeding ratio (TBR), the blanket energy multiplication factor, the energy fraction lost to the shield, the lithium-6 enrichment in the breeder material, the total blanket thickness, the reflector material selection, and the compositions of the different blanket zones. Also, a study was carried out to assess the impact of different reactor design choices on the reactor performance parameters. The design choices include the impurity control system (limiter or divertor), the material choice for the limiter, the elimination of tritium breeding from the inboard section of tokamak reactors, and the coolant choice for the nonbreeding inboard blanket. In addition, tritium breeding benchmark calculations were performed using different transport codes and nuclear data libraries. The importance of the TBR in the blanket design motivated the benchmark calculations

  2. Estimation of Nusselt number and the first wall heat extraction capability in self-cooled liquid metal blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-cooled liquid metal breeding blankets are in principle the simplest type of blankets that can be used in fusion reactors. Two critical issues in such blankets are strong magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects and the heat extraction capability from the first wall using liquid metals. In this work we estimate from first principles the MHD friction factors and Nusselt numbers applicable to convective cooling of the first wall using liquid metals. This is followed by a parametric, thermal-hydraulic study of the first wall cooling capability in self-cooled blankets with emphasis on coolant channel dimensions, dynamic pressure drop and heat removal rate to pumping power ratio. (author)

  3. Development of a direct insulation layer for a self-cooled liquid metal fusion reactor blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop in a self-cooled liquid metal fusion reactor blanket can be significantly reduced by means of electrical insulation of the flowing liquid metal against the structural material. Since alumina is chemically stable against Pb-17Li at up to 500 C, direct insulation of MANET steel was performed by aluminizing the steel, using a hot-dip process followed by high-temperature oxidation. The aluminide layer formed in this process was insulating and stable against corrosion in flowing Pb-17Li alloy at 450 C for 10000h. Several temperature changes during the corrosion tests did not cause any damage of the insulating layers. Thus, the process of hot-dip aluminizing followed by optimized oxidation at high temperature can provide a direct insulation layer to suppress MHD effects. (orig.)

  4. Trade-off study of liquid-metal self-cooled blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trade-off study of liquid-metal self-cooled blankets was carried out to define the performance of these blankets with respect to the main functions in a fusion reactor, and to determine the potential to operate at the maximum possible values of the performance parameters. The main purpose is to improve the reactor economics by maximizing the blanket energy multiplication factor, reduce the capital cost of the reactor, and satisfy the design requirements. The main parameters during the course of the study were the tritium breeding ratio (TBR), the blanket energy multiplication factor, the energy fraction lost to the shield, the 6Li enrichment in the breeder material, the total blanket thickness, the reflector material selection, and the compositions of the different blanket zones. Also, the impact of different reactor design choices on the performance parameters was analyzed. The effect of the impurity control system (limiter or divertor), the material choice for the limiter, the elimination of tritium breeding from the inboard section of tokamak reactors, the coolant choice for the nonbreeding inboard blanket, and the neutron source distribution were part of the trade-off study. In addition, tritium breeding benchmark calculations were performed to study the impact of the use of different transport codes and nuclear data libraries. The importance and the negative effect of high TBR on the energy multiplication motivated the benchmark calculations

  5. Effect of channel wall conductance on the performance characteristics of self-cooled liquid metal fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the critical issues in self-cooled liquid metal tritium breeding blankets in magnetically confined fusion reactors is strong MHD effects particularly when the channel walls are not electrically insulated from the flowing liquid metals. Another critical issue is the cooling of the first wall which is subjected to intense heat load from the fusion plasma. In this work we investigate the effect of channel wall conductance on the friction factor and Nusselt number. It is shown by solving the indication and linear momentum equations that even for relatively small channel wall conductance ratios, the friction factor increases by an order of magnitude for the typical Hartmann numbers encountered in fusion reactor blankets. Furthermore, by solving the temperature equation, it is shown that channel wall conductance has negligible effect on Nusselt number in spite of high velocity jets developing near the side walls. Taking into account these limitations, it is shown however, that the self-cooled liquid metal blankets remain a feasible proposition for both first wall heat extraction and bulk heat removal from the blanket. The most important thermal-hydraulic performance parameter -the heat removal rate to pumping power ratio- can still be kept quite high by suitably choosing the design variables of the liquid metal cooling system. The results are presented and compared for the three prime candidates for self-cooled liquid metal breeding blankets, i.e., lithium, lead-lithium, and tin-lithium alloys. (author)

  6. Comparison of lithium and the eutectic lead-lithium alloy, two candidate liquid metal breeder materials for self-cooled blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid metals are attractive candidates for both near-term and long-term fusion applications. The subjects of this comparison are the differences between the two candidate liquid metal breeder materials Li and LiPb for use in breeding blankets in the areas of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, tritium control, compatibility with structural materials, heat extraction system, safety and required research and development program. Both candidates appear to be promising for use in self-cooled breeding blankets which have inherent simplicity with the liquid metal serving as both breeder and coolant. Each liquid metal breeder has advantages and concerns associated with it, and further development is needed to resolve these concerns. The remaining feasibility question for both breeder materials is the electrical insulation between the liquid metal and the duct walls. Different ceramic coatings are required for the two breeders, and their crucial issues, namely self-healing of insulator cracks and tolerance to radiation-induced electrical degradation, have not yet been demonstrated. (orig.)

  7. Status report. KfK contribution to the development of DEMO-relevant test blankets for NET/ITER. Pt. 1: Self-cooled liquid metal breeder blanket. Vol. 2. Detailed version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A self-cooled liquid metal breeder blanket for a fusion DEMO-reactor and the status of the development programme is described as a part of the European development programme of DEMO relevant test blankets for NET/ITER. Volume 1 (KfK 4907) contains a summary. Volume 2 (KfK 4908) a more detailed version of the report. Both volumes contain sections on previous studies on self-cooled liquid metal breeder blankets, the reference blanket design for a DEMO-reactor, a typical test blanket design including the ancillary loop system and the building requirements for NET/ITER together with the present status of the associated RandD-programme in the fields of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, tritium removal and recovery, liquid metal compatibility and purification, ancillary loop system, safety and reliability. An outlook is given regarding the required RandD-programme for the self-cooled liquid metal breeder blanket prior to tests in NET/ITER and the relevant test programme to be performed in NET/ITER. (orig.)

  8. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  9. Thermohydraulics design and thermomechanics analysis of two European breeder blanket concepts for DEMO. Pt. 1 and Pt. 2. Pt. 1: BOT helium cooled solid breeding blanket. Pt. 2: Dual coolant self-cooled liquid metal blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two different breeding blanket concepts are being elaborated at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe within the framework of the DEMO breeding blanket development, the concept of a helium cooled solid breeding blanket and the concept of a self-cooled liquid metal blanket. The breeder material used in the first concept is Li4SiO4 as a pebble bed arranged separate from the beryllium pebble bed, which serves as multiplier. The breeder material zone is cooled by several toroidally-radially configurated helium cooling plates which, at the same time, act as reinforcements of the blanket structures. In the liquid metal blanket concept lead-lithium is used both as the breeder material and the coolant. It flows at low velocity in poloidal direction downwards and back in the blanket front zone. In both concepts the First Wall is cooled by helium gas. This report deals with the thermohydraulics design and thermomechanics analysis of the two blanket concepts. The performance data derived from the Monte-Carlo computations serve as a basis for the design calculations. The coolant inlet and outlet temperatures are chosen with the design criteria and the economics aspects taken into account. Uniform temperature distribution in the blanket structures can be achieved by suitable branching and routing of the coolant flows which contributes to reducing decisively the thermal stress. The computations were made using the ABAQUS computer code. The results obtained of the stresses have been evaluated using the ASME code. It can be demonstrated that all maximum values of temperature and stress are below the admissible limit. (orig.)

  10. Thermotropic liquid crystals recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusammy

    2007-01-01

    Covers developments in the field of thermotropic liquid crystals and and assesses their functional importance. This text includes chapters covering the applications of high-resolution methods, such as solid-state NMR, that have been used to understand the high-resolution structure, dynamics, orientation, and orientational order of these molecules.

  11. Advances in liquid phase technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jijin, P.J.A. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The liquid phase methanol (LPMEOH) process uses a slurry reactor to convert synthesis gas (primarily a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) to methanol. Through its superior heat management, the process is ultimately suitable to handle synthesis gas generated through gasification of natural gas and other materials, such as coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes and other environmentally disadvantaged hydrocarbon feedstocks. Apart from production of chemical grade methanol, the process provides economic advantages in the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation application. Coproduction of power and methanol via the IGCC and the LPMEOH process provides opportunities for energy storage for peak-shaving of electrical demand and/or clean fuel for export. The LPMEOH technology has been developed since the 1980`s, extensively proven in a process development unit in LaPorte, Texas and elected for demonstration under The Clean Coal Technology Program. The slurry reactor being demonstrated is also suitable for other exothermic synthesis gas conversion reactions, like synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and other alcohols/oxygenates. This paper presents an overview of LPMEOH and other liquid phase technology aspects and highlights the demonstration project at Eastman Chemical Company`s coal gasification facility in Kingsport, Tennessee. Commercial aspects of the LPMEOH process are also discussed.

  12. Development of Korea advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future nuclear power plants should not only have the features of improved safety and economic competitiveness but also provide a means to resolve spent fuel storage problems by minimizing volume of high level wastes. It is widely believed that liquid metal reactors (LMRs) have the highest potential of meeting these requirements. In this context, the LMR development program was launched as a national long-term R and D program in 1992, with a target to introduce a commercial LMR around 2030. Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (KALIMER), a 150 MWe pool-type sodium cooled prototype reactor, is currently under the conceptual design study with the target schedule to complete its construction by the mid-2010s. This paper summarizes the KALIMER development program and major technical features of the reactor system. (author)

  13. Self-cooling cryogenic microcalorimeters made of SINIS junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Furlan, M; Zehnder, A; Furlan, Miha; Kirk, Eugenie; Zehnder, Alex

    2005-01-01

    High quality low leakage SINIS devices made of Al-AlMn-Al layers were fabricated for energy dispersive single photon detection. Information on different heat flow channels was extracted from the measured dynamics of detector signals due to X-ray events. At the optimum operation point, the extracted effective electron temperature decreased from 88 mK down to 43 mK due to self-cooling, roughly doubling the detector sensitivity.

  14. Development of 160 m3/min large capacity sodium-immersed self-cooled electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large capacity sodium-immersed self-cooled electromagnetic pump (LEMP) was developed for application to the main circulation pumps of FBR. This advanced LEMP is a submergible annular linear induction pump designed to be self-cooled by immersing into sodium and applying high temperature electrical insulation. Almost all the internal electrical losses were transferred to the surrounding sodium, which can be recovered as electricity by turbine generators. The LEPM having specifications of 160m3/min flow rate, 0.28 MPa head and more than 40% efficiency at the rating was designed, fabricated and tested in the sodium pump test facility. The test involves magnetic field measurement in the air and a variety of sodium tests during 2.550h, which demonstrated good pump performance and flow controllability, and satisfied the design target. The boundary between flow stability and instability of the LEMP operation could be defined by peak position of the Q-H curve, which was specified by Rem x S (magnetic Reynolds' number times slip) of 1.4 to 1.5 at 335degC. Based on the test results, the applicability of the LEMP for the FBR was confirmed. (author)

  15. ALS liquid hydrogen turbopump: Advanced Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimp, Nancy R.; Claffy, George J.

    1989-01-01

    The point of departure (POD) turbopump concept was reviewed and finalized. The basis for the POD was the configuration presented in the Aerojet proposal. After reviewing this proposal concept, several modifications were made. These modifications include the following: (1) the dual pump discharge arrangement was changed to a single discharge; (2) commonality of the turbine inlet manifold with the advanced launch system (ALS) liquid oxygen (LOX) TPA was dropped for this program; (3) the turbine housing flange arrangement was improved by relocating it away from the first stage nozzles; (4) a ten percent margin (five percent diameter increase) was built into the impeller design to ensure meeting the required discharge pressure without the need for increasing speed; (5) a ten percent turbine power margin was imposed which is to be obtained by increasing turbine inlet pressure if required; and (6) the backup concept, as an alternative to the use of cast impellers, now incorporates forged/machined shrouded impellers, rather than the unshrouded type originally planned.

  16. Liquid Propellants for Advanced Gun Ammunitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Rao

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available With constant improvements, the conventional solid propellants for guns have almost reached their limit in performance. Liquid gun propellants are promising new comers capable of surpassing these performance limits and have numerous advantages over solid propellants. A method has been worked out to predict the internal ballistics of a liquid propellant gun and illustrated in a typical application.

  17. Liquid Propellants for Advanced Gun Ammunitions

    OpenAIRE

    K. P. Rao; A. S. Bartakke; R.G.K. Nair

    1987-01-01

    With constant improvements, the conventional solid propellants for guns have almost reached their limit in performance. Liquid gun propellants are promising new comers capable of surpassing these performance limits and have numerous advantages over solid propellants. A method has been worked out to predict the internal ballistics of a liquid propellant gun and illustrated in a typical application.

  18. Advances in Liquid Phase{trademark} technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.R.; Heydorn, E.C.; Moore, R.B.; Tijm, P.J.A.

    1998-07-01

    The Liquid Phase{trademark} Technology builds on the successful development by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. of the slurry phase bubble column technology. Air Products and Chemicals Liquid Phase{trademark} technology embodies several chemical processes including Liquid Phase Methanol{trademark} (LPMEOH{trademark}) and the Liquid Phase DiMethyl Ether{trademark} (LPDME{trademark}) and other alcohols/oxygenates. The LPMEOH{trademark} technology was developed during the 1980's with the financial support of the US department of Energy (DOE). The concept was proven in over 7,400 hours of test operation in a DOE-owned, 3,200 gallons (US) of methanol per day process development unit located at LaPorte, Texas. The first commercial-scale demonstration plant for the technology has been constructed, commissioned, and is now being operated at Eastman Chemical Company's coal gasification facility in Kingsport, Tennessee under the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program. Construction began in October of 1995 and was completed in January of 1997. After commissioning and startup activities were completed, operation began in April of 1997. Currently, the LPMEOH{trademark} plant is producing 80,000 gallons of methanol per day. Over the next four years, a program of operation will demonstrate the commercial advantages of the technology to include simulations of the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) coproduction of power and methanol application. This paper reviews the: Commercial Application for the LPMEOH{trademark} process technology; Operational Plans to demonstrate the commercial advantages of the plant; LPMEOH{trademark} Plant-Status, highlighting the integration of the LPMEOH{trademark} plant at Kingsport, and the accomplishments during the initial operating period; and Highlights of other Liquid Phase{trademark} Technology Developments.

  19. Advances in Liquid Phase{trademark} technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.R.; Heydorn, E.C.; Moore, R.B.; Tijm, P.J.A.

    1998-04-01

    The {open_quotes}Liquid Phase{trademark} Technology{close_quotes} builds on the successful development by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. of the slurry phase bubble column technology. Air Products and Chemicals Liquid Phase{trademark} technology embodies several chemical processes including Liquid Phase Methanol{trademark} (LPMEOH{trademark}) and the Liquid Phase DiMethyl Ether{trademark} (LPDME{trademark}) and other alcohols/oxygenates. The LPMEOH{trademark} technology was developed during the 1980`s with the financial support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The concept was proven in over 7,400 hours of test operation in a DOE-owned, 3,200 gallons (U.S.) of methanol per day process development unit located at LaPorte, Texas. The first commercial-scale demonstration plant for the technology has been constructed, commissioned, and is now being operated at Eastman Chemical Company`s coal gasification facility in Kingsport, Tennessee under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program. Construction began in October of 1995 and was completed in January of 1997. After commissioning and startup activities were completed, operation began in April of 1997. Currently, the LPMEOH{trademark} plant is producing 80,000 gallons of methanol per day. Over the next four years, a program of operation will demonstrate the commercial advantages of the technology to include simulations of the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) coproduction of power and methanol application. Air Products and Eastman formed the {open_quotes}Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Co., L.P.{close_quotes} partnership to execute the commercial-scale demonstration project. Most of the product methanol is refined to chemical-grade quality (99.85 wt% purity via distillation) and used by Eastman as chemical feedstock in the commercial facility. A portion of the product methanol will be withdrawn prior to purification (about 98 wt% purity) and used in off-site product-use tests.

  20. Advancing liquid metal reactor technology with nitride fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the use of nitride fuels in liquid metal fast reactors is presented. Past studies indicate that both uranium nitride and uranium/plutonium nitride possess characteristics that may offer enhanced performance, particularly in the area of passive safety. To further quantify these effects, the analysis of a mixed-nitride fuel system utilizing the geometry and power level of the US Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor as a reference is described. 18 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Ionic Liquids as Advanced Lubricant Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco-José Carrión

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (ILs are finding technological applications as chemical reaction media and engineering fluids. Some emerging fields are those of lubrication, surface engineering and nanotechnology. ILs are thermally stable, non-flammable highly polar fluids with negligible volatility, these characteristics make them ideal candidates for new lubricants under severe conditions, were conventional oils and greases or solid lubricants fail. Such conditions include ultra-high vacuum and extreme temperatures. Other very promising areas which depend on the interaction between IL molecules and material surfaces are the use of ILs in the lubrication of microelectromechanic and nanoelectromechanic systems (MEMS and NEMS, the friction and wear reduction of reactive light alloys and the modification of nanophases.

  2. Recent advances in magnetic liquid sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, K.; Stahl, P.; Bottenberg, W.; True, D.; Martis, G.; Zook, C.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper recent work in design and testing of two special magnetic liquid seals extending the state-of-the-art of ferrofluidic sealing is discussed. These custom seals are a moving belt edge seal and an exclusion seal. The first seal provides a hermetic barrier to solid particulates expected to be present in enclosed nuclear environments. The second seal is used on a magnetic disk drive spindle and reduces the particulate contaminants in the memory disk pack area by up to three orders of magnitude. In addition, bearing life in the spindle is found to be doubled due to reduction of operating temperature. The fundamentals of magnetic fluid sealing are presented in terms of magnetic circuit design and physical properties of ferrofluids.

  3. Vertical liquid film impinged on advanced reactor downcomer wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments are conducted to study the vertical film width and downcomer gap effects on impingement upon the vertical flat wall simulating the core barrel in the APR-1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe). This work is being carried out in ALPHA (Accelerated Liquid Phase Hydrodynamics Apparatus) at the Seoul National University. The results are to be integrated into a system code THEOS (Thermomechanics Hydrodynamics Eutectics Online Simulator). At larger distances from stagnation to the injection nozzle, the gap effect falls off. The data suggest that, for impingement nearing the stagnation point, the flow velocities can be computed by applying a turbulent correction factor to the laminar value calculated for velocities having the same pressure distribution as that present in the impingement region. To find the correction factor, one needs to obtain the liquid film thickness and breakup factors related to the turbulent flow. This is in contrast to the laminar flow, in which the liquid film thickness is uniform and the breakup is nonexistent. This work is particularly concerned with the liquid film thickness. Previous ALPHA experiments with varying nozzle diameters advocate that the correction factor is found to be a function of the injection speed rather than the Reynolds number. This paper documents on measurement of the radial liquid film thickness fluctuations and their point wise values at the same vertical height. It additionally reports on results of numerical calculation for the liquid film profiles. (authors)

  4. Optimizing advanced liquid metal reactors for burning actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the process to design an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) for burning the transuranic part of nuclear waste is discussed. The influence of design parameters on ALMR burner performance is studied and the results are incorporated in a design schedule for optimizing ALMRs for burning transuranics. This schedule is used to design a metallic and an oxide fueled ALMR burner to burn as much as possible transurancis. The two designs burn equally well. (orig.)

  5. Actinide transmutation in the advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored fast reactor design based on the Power Reactor, Innovative Small Module (PRISM) concept originated by General Electric. The current reference design is a 471 MWt modular reactor loaded with ternary metal fuel. This paper discusses actinide transmutation core designs that fit the design envelope of the ALMR and utilize spent LWR fuel as startup material and makeup. Actinide transmutation may be accomplished in the ALMR by using either a breeding or burning configuration. Lifetime actinide mass consumption is calculated as well as changes in consumption behaviour throughout the lifetime of the reactor. Impacts on system operational and safety performance are evaluated in a preliminary fashion. (author). 3 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  6. The advanced liquid metal reactor actinide recycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current U.S. National Energy Strategy includes four key goals for nuclear policy: enhance safety and design standards, reduce economic risk, reduce regulatory risk, and establish an effective high-level nuclear waste program. The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor Actinide Recycle System is consistent with these objectives. The system has the ability to fulfill multiple missions with the same basic design concept. In addition to providing an option for long-term energy security, the system can be effectively utilized for recycling of actinides in light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel, provide waste management flexibility, including the reduction in the waste quantity and storage time and utilization of the available energy potential of LWR spent fuel. The actinide recycle system is comprised of (1) a compact liquid metal (sodium) cooled reactor system with optimized passive safety characteristics, and (2) pyrometallurgical metal fuel cycle presently under development of Argonne National Laboratory. The waste reduction of LWR spent fuel is accomplished by transmutation or fissioning of the longer-lived transuranic isotopes to shorter-lived fission products in the reactor. In this presentation the economical and environmental incentive of the actinide recycle system is addressed and the status of development including licensing aspects is described. 3 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  7. Integrated Refrigeration and Storage for Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, A. M.; Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has used liquefied hydrogen (LH2) on a large scale since the beginning of the space program as fuel for the Centaur and Apollo upper stages, and more recently to feed the three space shuttle main engines. The LH2 systems currently in place at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch pads are aging and inefficient compared to the state-of-the-art. Therefore, the need exists to explore advanced technologies and operations that can drive commodity costs down, and provide increased capabilities. The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) was developed at KSC to pursue these goals by demonstrating active thermal control of the propellant state by direct removal of heat using a cryocooler. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The key technology challenge was efficiently integrating the cryogenic refrigerator into the LH2 storage tank. A Linde LR1620 Brayton cycle refrigerator is used to produce up to 900W cooling at 20K, circulating approximately 22 g/s gaseous helium through the hydrogen via approximately 300 m of heat exchanger tubing. The GODU-LH2 system is fully operational, and is currently under test. This paper will discuss the design features of the refrigerator and storage system, as well as the current test results.

  8. Advanced nanoparticle generation and excitation by lasers in liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcikowski, Stephan; Compagnini, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    Today, nanoparticles are widely implemented as functional elements onto surfaces, into volumes and as nano-hybrids, resulting for example in bioactive composites and biomolecule conjugates. However, only limited varieties of materials compatible for integration into advanced functional materials are available: nanoparticles synthesized using conventional gas phase processes are often agglomerated into micro powders that are hard to re-disperse into functional matrices. Chemical synthesis methods often lead to impurities of the nanoparticle colloids caused by additives and precursor reaction products. In the last decade, laser ablation and nanoparticle generation in liquids has proven to be a unique and efficient technique to generate, excite, fragment, and conjugate a large variety of nanostructures in a scalable and clean manner. This editorial briefly highlights selected recent advancements and critical aspects in the field of pulsed laser-based nanoparticle generation and manipulation, including exemplary strategies to harvest the unique properties of the laser-generated nanomaterials in the field of biomedicine and catalysis. The presented critical aspects address future assignments such as size control and scale-up. PMID:23138867

  9. NATO Advanced Study Institute International Advanced Course on The Liquid State and Its Electrical Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Christophorou, L; Luessen, L

    1988-01-01

    As the various disciplines of science advance, they proliferate and tend to become more esoteric. Barriers of specialized terminologies form, which cause scientists to lose contact with their colleagues, and differences in points-of-view emerge which hinder the unification of knowledge among the various disciplines, and even within a given discipline. As a result, the scientist, and especially the student, is in many instances offered fragmented glimpses of subjects that are funda­ mentally synthetic and that should be treated in their own right. Such seems to be the case of the liquid state. Unlike the other states of matter -- gases, solids, and plasmas -- the liquid state has not yet received unified treatment, probably because it has been the least explored and remains the least understood state of matter. Occasionally, events occur which help remove some of the barriers that separate scientists and disciplines alike. Such an event was the ASI on The Liquid State held this past July at the lovely Hotel T...

  10. Potential applications of robotics in advanced liquid-metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) design includes a range of robots and automation devices. They extend from stationary robots that are a part of the current design to more exotic concepts with mobile, autonomous units, which may become part of the design. Development of robotic application requirements is enhanced by using computer models of work spaces in three dimensions. The primary goals of the more autonomous machines are to: (1) extent and/or enhance one's capabilities in a hazardous environment; some tasks could encounter high temperatures (up to 800 degree F), high radiation (fields up to several hundred thousand roentgens per hour), rooms filled with inert gas and/or sodium aerosol, or combinations of these; (2) reduce operating and maintenance cost through inservice inspection (ISI) of various parts of the reactor, through consideration of as-low-as-reasonably achievable radiation levels, and through automation of some maintenance/processing operations. This paper discusses some applications in the fuel cycle, in refueling operations, and in inspection

  11. James Fergason, a Pioneer in Advancing of Liquid Crystal Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    James Lee Fergason (1934 - 2008) focused his research on the liquid crystals. His studies correspond to a relevant part of the history of soft matter science and technology of liquid crystals. Here a discussion of some of his researches.

  12. Advanced Ionic Liquid Monopropellant for Payload Ascent Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a monopropellant replacement for hydrazine using eutectic mixtures of ionic liquids (EILs). These liquids offer us the ability to tailor fluid...

  13. Treatment of low level liquid waste by modified advanced liquid waste distillation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes are generated mostly during mining and processing of ores, nuclear fuel cycle operation and production. Classification of these wastes is very helpful throughout their management phases from generation through collection, segregation, treatment, conditioning, storage, transportation to final disposal. Treatment is an important phase in the management of radioactive wastes, it aims to reduce the volume of generated wastes to enhance the safety and to reduce the costs of further management phases. A distillation unit is being installed for the treatment of low level liquid waste treatment at AFFF. Distillation rate must be high to treat such a large amount of liquid waste. The output rate of existing distillation unit is very slow due to natural cooling of condensing coil. For fast distillation rate a new system has been designed, fabricated and installed inside the glove box. The high output rate, air cooling condensation, high decontamination factor and inherently safe operation makes system an advanced one. This paper highlights the design aspects, optimization of operating parameters, safety considerations and the operational experience of the same. Approximately 400 liters of low level liquid waste having radioactivity level ∼ 10-1μCi/ml was treated and discharged into sump tanks after monitoring activity (gross alpha) and pH (Technical Specification Document, AFFF, BARC (T), 2013). The concentrate ∼ 3-4 liters has been solidified and de-nitrated in a glove box adapted muffle furnace. The solidified mass could be analyzed for Pu content by neutron well coincidence counting (NWCC) system or by WD-XRF method

  14. Tauro: a ceramic composite structural material self-cooled Pb-17Li breeder blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of a low-activation (LA) ceramic composite (CC) as structural material appears essential to demonstrate the potential of fusion power reactors for being inherently or, at least, passively safe. Tauro is a self-cooled Pb-17Li breeder blanket with a SiC/SiC composite as structure. This study determines the required improvements for existing industrial LA composites (mainly SiC/SiC) in order to render them acceptable for blanket operating conditions. 3D SiC/SiC CC, recently launched on the market, is a promising candidate. A preliminary evaluation of a possible joining technique for SiC/SiC is also described. (orig.)

  15. Studies of a self-cooled lead lithium blanket for HiPER reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the frame of the HiPER reactor, we propose and study a Self Cooled Lead Lithium blanket with two different cooling arrangements of the system First Wall - Blanket for the HiPER reactor: Integrated First Wall Blanket and Separated First Wall Blanket. We compare the two arrangements in terms of power cycle efficiency, operation flexibility in out-off-normal situations and proper cooling and acceptable corrosion. The Separated First Wall Blanket arrangement is superior in all of them, and it is selected as the advantageous proposal for the HiPER reactor blanket. However, it still has to be improved from the standpoint of proper cooling and corrosion rates. (authors)

  16. Economizer Based Data Center Liquid Cooling with Advanced Metal Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Chainer

    2012-11-30

    A new chiller-less data center liquid cooling system utilizing the outside air environment has been shown to achieve up to 90% reduction in cooling energy compared to traditional chiller based data center cooling systems. The system removes heat from Volume servers inside a Sealed Rack and transports the heat using a liquid loop to an Outdoor Heat Exchanger which rejects the heat to the outdoor ambient environment. The servers in the rack are cooled using a hybrid cooling system by removing the majority of the heat generated by the processors and memory by direct thermal conduction using coldplates and the heat generated by the remaining components using forced air convection to an air- to- liquid heat exchanger inside the Sealed Rack. The anticipated benefits of such energy-centric configurations are significant energy savings at the data center level. When compared to a traditional 10 MW data center, which typically uses 25% of its total data center energy consumption for cooling this technology could potentially enable a cost savings of up to $800,000-$2,200,000/year (assuming electricity costs of 4 to 11 cents per kilowatt-hour) through the reduction in electrical energy usage.

  17. Heavy Liquid Metal Corrosion of Structural Materials in Advanced Nuclear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, M.; Woloshun, K.; Rubio, F.; Maloy, S. A.; Hosemann, P.

    2013-08-01

    Interest in advanced nuclear concepts using liquid metal coolant has increased in the past few years. Liquid metal coolants have been proposed for the next generation of small-sized nuclear reactors, which offer exceptional safety and reliability, sustainability, nonproliferation, and economic competitiveness. Heavy liquid metal coolants are investigated for advanced fast reactors that operate at high temperatures, reaching high efficiencies. Lead and lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolants are also proposed as coolants and targets of accelerator driven systems. High temperature, corrosive environment, high fast neutron flux, high fluence, and radiation damage, among other physical phenomena, challenge the integrity of materials in these advanced systems. Excellent compatibility with the liquid coolant is recognized as a key factor in the selection of structural materials for advanced concepts. In this article, we review materials requirements for heavy metal cooled systems with emphasis on lead and LBE materials corrosion properties. We describe experimental corrosion tests currently ongoing at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Development of Lead Alloy Technical Applications (DELTA) loop. DELTA is a facility designed to study the long-term corrosive effects of LBE on structural materials under relevant conditions of chemistry, flow, and temperature. The research studies will provide data of corrosion rates and corrosion mechanisms in selected steel exposed to high velocity (above 2 m/s) in flowing LBE at 500°C. Fundamental research studies will help support conceptual design efforts and further the development of heavy liquid metals technology.

  18. Dancing with light advances in photofunctional liquid-crystalline materials

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in this field indicates that integrating photochromic molecules into LC materials enables one to photo-manipulate unique features such as photoinduced phase transition, photocontrolled alignment and phototriggered molecular cooperative motion, leading to their novel applications beyond displays. This book introduces readers to this field, from the primary- to the advanced level in photoresponsive LC materials. The subject is introduced step-by-step, including the basic knowledge of LCs, photoresponsive properties of LCs, and their detailed performances in the form of low-molecu

  19. Radiolysis Experiments for the Aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of Fusion Technology Task NAB 1.1 (Radiolytic Experiments for the ASCB), are reported . In the Aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket (ASCB) concept, an aqueous 6Li solution in a metallic structure is used as a shielding-breeding blanket for fusion reactors. Radiolysis could be very important with respect to the design and the use of an ASCB. The objectives of this project were to quantify the radiolytic decomposition of neutron irradiated aqueous lithium solutions and to demonstrate, if possible, the suppression of this decomposition by the initial addition of a small amount of hydrogen. Closed capsules, with the solutions and an inert gas or hydrogen as cover gas, were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a fission reactor. Radiolysis products hydrogen and oxygen (from hydrogen peroxide) as well as tritium were measured after irradiation. Tritium served as an internal dosimeter. The experimental results with LiNO3 , Li2SO4 and LiOH solutions indicate that the radiolytic gas production in an ASCB is proportional to the absorbed radiation energy. The observed radiation chemical yields allow the preliminary estimation of the radiolysis effects for a specific ASCB design. Contrary to the theoretical predictions, the use of hydrogen as a cover gas at up to 1 MPa had no measurable effect on the radiolytic gas production. Probably it will thus not be possible to suppress the radiolytic decomposition of a low-pressure ASCB by the addition of H2. Catalytic recombination will be required

  20. Advanced gas-to-liquids processes for syngas and liquid-phase conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, E.P.; Tijm, P.J.A.; Bennett, D.L. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Conventional technology options may lead to commercially viable gas-to-liquids (GTL) projects which are very large, have favorable site specific factors or very low natural gas costs. New and lower cost technology will be required to enable GTL, to be broadly useful for remote gas monetization as a liquid fuel. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is currently developing two separate technologies which would result in a significant reduction in the capital investment required for GTL, product plants. ITM Syngas is one of Air Products proprietary syngas technologies. It is in the early stages of development, but has the potential for very significant reductions in the cost of syngas, an important intermediate for GTL production. Air Products, along with its partners, have recently been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for an $85MM, three phase program to develop this ITM Syngas technology. The program will take eight years and culminate in a 15,000,000 SCFD pre-commercial syngas demonstration plant. In addition to ITM Syngas, in April 1997 Air Products started up a commercial scale Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) plant which converts coal derived syngas to methanol using a slurry bubble column reactor. This technology is expected to reduce the cost of liquid synthesis. It also produces an environmentally superior alternative fuel and/or chemical feedstocks. 7 refs.

  1. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advances in the Computer Simulations of Liquid Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Zannoni, Claudio

    2000-01-01

    Computer simulations provide an essential set of tools for understanding the macroscopic properties of liquid crystals and of their phase transitions in terms of molecular models. While simulations of liquid crystals are based on the same general Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics techniques as are used for other fluids, they present a number of specific problems and peculiarities connected to the intrinsic properties of these mesophases. The field of computer simulations of anisotropic fluids is interdisciplinary and is evolving very rapidly. The present volume covers a variety of techniques and model systems, from lattices to hard particle and Gay-Berne to atomistic, for thermotropics, lyotropics, and some biologically interesting liquid crystals. Contributions are written by an excellent panel of international lecturers and provides a timely account of the techniques and problems in the field.

  2. Acceptability of an Advance Directive That Limits Food and Liquids in Advanced Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volicer, Ladislav; Stets, Karen

    2016-02-01

    Some individuals fear living with advanced dementia and may even commit suicide if they receive dementia diagnosis. Living with advanced dementia could be prevented if a person who cannot feed himself or herself would not be fed by others. The purpose of the study was to find out how acceptable would be an advance directive that includes discontinuation of feeding at certain stage of dementia for relatives of persons who died with dementia. All participants of 2 focus groups would be willing to indicate at least 1 condition in which they would not want to be fed. Some of them would be willing to make a proxy decision to stop feeding in the absence of advance directives. PMID:25313239

  3. Improved thermal/MHD design of self-cooled blankets for high-power-density fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, an improved self-cooled blanket design is conceived that seeks to minimize the induced current and pressure loss, while maintaining effective cooling and power output. Standard solutions for fully developed MHD flows in rectangular ducts are utilized to describe the magnetic pressure drop in rectangular ducts in terms of the duct aspects ratio. A newly available analytical result for developing and fully developed temperatures is utilized in determining the maximum wall temperature and outlet temperature. Based on results from rectangular ducts, improved annular-type duct designs are proposed and evaluated. The results from the rectangular duct analysis indicate reduced pressure drop and increased thermal performance for large aspect ratio (ratio of duct width in the toroidal B-field direction to width normal to B-field). An infinite aspect ratio occurs for the annular duct design and it is shown that this configuration has superior characteristics as a self-cooled blanket design concept

  4. Advances in technologies for the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years the authorized maximum limits for radioactive discharges into the environment have been reduced considerably, and this, together with the requirement to minimize the volume of waste for storage or disposal and to declassify some wastes from intermediate to low level or to non-radioactive wastes, has initiated studies of ways in which improvements can be made to existing decontamination processes and also to the development of new processes. This work has led to the use of more specific precipitants and to the establishment of ion exchange treatment and evaporation techniques. Additionally, the use of combinations of some existing processes or of an existing process with a new technique such as membrane filtration is becoming current practice. New biotechnological, solvent extraction and electrochemical methods are being examined and have been proven at laboratory scale to be useful for radioactive liquid waste treatment. In this report an attempt has been made to review the current research and development of mature and advanced technologies for the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive liquid wastes, both aqueous and non-aqueous. Non-aqueous radioactive liquid wastes or organic liquid wastes typically consist of oils, reprocessing solvents, scintillation liquids and organic cleaning products. A brief state of the art of existing processes and their application is followed by the review of advances in technologies, covering chemical, physical and biological processes. 213 refs, 33 figs, 3 tabs

  5. The EU power plant conceptual study - neutronic design analyses for near term and advanced reactor models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A power plant conceptual study (PPCS) has been conducted in the framework of the European fusion programme with the main objective to demonstrate the safety and environmental advantages and the economic viability of fusion power. Power plant models with limited (''near term concepts'') and advanced plasma physics and technological extrapolations (''advanced concepts'') were considered. Two near term plant models were selected, one employing a water cooled lithium-lead (WCLL), and the other one a helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) blanket. Two variants were also considered for the advanced power plant models, one adopting a liquid metal blanket with a self-cooled lithium-lead breeder zone and a helium cooled steel structure (''dual coolant lithium lead'', DCLL), and the other one a self-cooled lithium-lead (SCLL) blanket with SiCf/SiC composite as structural material. This report provides a detailed documentation of the neutronics design analyses performed as part of the PPCS study for both the near term and advanced power plant models. Main issues are the assessment of the tritium breeding capability, the evaluation of the nuclear power generation and its spatial distribution, and the assessment and optimisation of the shielding performance. The analyses were based on three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculations with the MCNP code using suitable torus sector models developed for the different PPCS plant variants. (orig.)

  6. Cryogenic gaseous photomultipliers and liquid hole- multipliers: advances in THGEM-based sensors for future noble-liquid TPCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, L.; Coimbra, A. E. C.; Erdal, E.; Israelashvili, I.; Rappaport, M. L.; Shchemelinin, S.; Vartsky, D.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; A, Breskin

    2015-11-01

    Dual-phase noble-liquid TPCs are presently the most sensitive instruments for direct dark matter detection. Scaling up existing ton-scale designs to the multi-ton regime may prove to be technologically challenging. This includes both large-area coverage with affordable high-QE UV-photon detectors, and maintaining high precision in measuring the charge and light signals of rare events with keV-scale energy depositions. We present our recent advances in two complementary approaches to these problems: large-area cryogenic gaseous photomultipliers (GPM) for UV-photon detection, and liquid-hole multipliers (LHM) that provide electroluminescence light in response to ionization electrons and primary scintillation photons, using perforated electrodes immersed within the noble liquid. Results from a 10 cm diameter GPM coupled to a dual-phase liquid- xenon TPC demonstrate the feasibility of recording - for the first time - both primary (“S1”) and secondary (“S2”) scintillation signals, over a very broad dynamic range. The detector, comprising a triple-THGEM structure with CsI on the first element, has been operating stably at 180 K with gains larger than 105; it provided high single-photon detection efficiency - in the presence of massive alpha-particle induced S2 signals; S1 scintillation signals were recorded with time resolutions of 1.2 ns (RMS). Results with the LHM operated in liquid xenon yielded large photon gains, with a pulse-height resolution of 11% (RMS) for alpha-particle induced S2 signals. The detector response was stable over several months. The response of the S2 signals to rapid changes in pressure lead to the conclusion that the underlying mechanism for S2 light is electroluminescence in xenon bubbles trapped below the immersed THGEM electrode. Both studies have the potential of paving the way towards new designs of dual- and single-phase noble-liquid TPCs that could simplify the conception of future multi-ton detectors of dark matter and other rare

  7. Weathering Patterns of Ignitable Liquids with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Thomas J.; Allen, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    One can take advantage of the striking similarity of ignitable liquid vaporization (or weathering) patterns and the separation observed during distillation to predict the composition of residual compounds in fire debris. This is done with the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can...

  8. Comment on “The limits of flexoelectricity in liquid crystals” [AIP Advances 1, 032120 (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Palffy-Muhoray, P.

    2013-01-01

    In their paper, using the principle of energy conservation, F. Castles, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles [AIP Advances 1, 032120 (2011)]10.1063/1.3624725 establish inequalities involving the elastic and dielectric constants and flexoelectric coefficients of liquid crystals. They then argue that recently measured values of flexoelectric coefficients by Harden do not obey these inequalities, hence they violate the principle of energy conservation. In this comment, we point out that in their calcul...

  9. Advanced treatment of liquid radwaste at the Nine Mile Point Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Liquid Radwaste Treatment processes can be defined as those technologies which provide substantial solid radwaste reduction and improved water quality when compared to conventional processes such as demineralization and evaporation. Mine We Point - Unit 1(NMP1) has successfully processed over 2.35 million gallons of outage and non-outage generated floor drain water through an advanced treatment system, since January of this year. Operating results show that advanced systems are capable of processing widely varying waste water streams while lowering product water impurities and solid radwaste generation rates. This paper relates full scale operating experiences encountered since startup, as well as feed and effluent chemistry results. Information provided in this paper will specifically benefit two groups of nuclear facilities: (1) those operating under a zero-liquid discharge scenario, where restrictive product water quality standards are imposed and (2) those facilities that require less than minimum detectible activity (< MDA) concentrations of gamma emitting isotopes in the water discharged to the environment. Specific operational techniques used to maintain Total Organic Carbon (TOC) concentrations under 50 ppb and post UV-IC anion concentrations under 5 ppb are discussed. Advanced systems show promise for aiding nuclear facilities in meeting solid radwaste, fuel integrity, ALARA, and offsite dose goals

  10. Advances in liquid metal cooled ADS systems, and useful results for the design of IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaut, V.; Debruyn, D. [SCK CEN, Mol (Belgium); Decreton, M. [Ghent Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Liquid metal cooled Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) have a lot of design commonalities with the design of IFMIF. The use of a powerful accelerator and a liquid metal spallation source makes it similar to the main features of the IFMIF irradiator. Developments in the field of liquid metal ADS can thus be very useful for the design phase of IFMIF, and synergy between both domains should be enhanced to avoid dubbing work already done. The liquid metal ADS facilities are developed for testing materials under high fast (> 1 MeV) neutron flux, and also for studying the transmutation of actinides as foreseen in the P and T (Partitioning and Transmutation) strategy of future fission industry. The ADS are mostly constituted of a sub-critical fission fuel assembly matrix, a spallation source (situated at the centre of the fuel arrangement) and a powerful accelerator targeting the spallation source. In liquid metal ADS, the spallation source is a liquid metal (like Pb-Bi) which is actively cooled to remove the power generated by the particle beam, spallation reactions and neutrons. Based on an advanced ADS design (e.g. the MYRRHA/XT-ADS facility), the paper shows the various topics which are common for both facilities (ADS and IFMIF) and highlights their respective specificities, leading to focused R and D activities. This would certainly cover the common aspects related to high power accelerators, liquid metal targets and beam-target coupling. But problems of safety, radioprotection, source heating and cooling, neutrons shielding, etc... lead also to common features and developments. Results already obtained for the ADS development will illustrate this synergy. This paper will therefore allow to take profit of recent developments in both fission and fusion programs and enhance the collaboration among the R and D teams in both domains. (authors)

  11. Advances in liquid metal cooled ADS systems, and useful results for the design of IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Liquid metal cooled Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) have a lot of design commonalities with the design of IFMIF. The use of a powerful accelerator and a liquid metal spallation source makes it similar to the main features of the IFMIF irradiator. Developments in the field of liquid metal ADS can thus be very useful for the design phase of IFMIF, and synergy between both domains should be enhanced to avoid dubbing work already done. The liquid metal ADS facilities are developed for testing materials under high fast (> 1 MeV) neutron flux, and also for studying the transmutation of actinides as foreseen in the P and T (Partitioning and Transmutation) strategy of future fission industry. The ADS are mostly constituted of a sub-critical fission fuel assembly matrix, a spallation source (situated at the centre of the fuel arrangement) and a powerful accelerator targeting the spallation source. In liquid metal ADS, the spallation source is a liquid metal (like Pb-Bi) which is actively cooled to remove the power generated by the particle beam, spallation reactions and neutrons. Based on an advanced ADS design (e.g. the MYRRHA/XT-ADS facility), the paper shows the various topics which are common for both facilities (ADS and IFMIF) and highlights their respective specificities, leading to focused R and D activities. This would certainly cover the common aspects related to high power accelerators, liquid metal targets and beam-target coupling. But problems of safety, radioprotection, source heating and cooling, neutrons shielding, etc... lead also to common features and developments. Results already obtained for the ADS development will illustrate this synergy. This paper will therefore allow to take profit of recent developments in both fission and fusion programs and enhance the collaboration among the R and D teams in both domains. (authors)

  12. A flowing liquid lithium limiter for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, J.; Zuo, G. Z.; Hu, J. S.; Sun, Z.; Yang, Q. X.; Li, J. G.; Zakharov, L. E.; Xie, H.; Chen, Z. X.

    2015-02-01

    A program involving the extensive and systematic use of lithium (Li) as a "first," or plasma-facing, surface in Tokamak fusion research devices located at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was started in 2009. Many remarkable results have been obtained by the application of Li coatings in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) and liquid Li limiters in the HT-7 Tokamak—both located at the institute. In furtherance of the lithium program, a flowing liquid lithium (FLiLi) limiter system has been designed and manufactured for EAST. The design of the FLiLi limiter is based on the concept of a thin flowing film which was previously tested in HT-7. Exploiting the capabilities of the existing material and plasma evaluation system on EAST, the limiter will be pre-wetted with Li and mechanically translated to the edge of EAST during plasma discharges. The limiter will employ a novel electro-magnetic pump which is designed to drive liquid Li flow from a collector at the bottom of limiter into a distributor at its top, and thus supply a continuously flowing liquid Li film to the wetted plasma-facing surface. This paper focuses on the major design elements of the FLiLi limiter. In addition, a simulation of incoming heat flux has shown that the distribution of heat flux on the limiter surface is acceptable for a future test of power extraction on EAST.

  13. A flowing liquid lithium limiter for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, J; Zuo, G Z; Hu, J S; Sun, Z; Yang, Q X; Li, J G; Zakharov, L E; Xie, H; Chen, Z X

    2015-02-01

    A program involving the extensive and systematic use of lithium (Li) as a "first," or plasma-facing, surface in Tokamak fusion research devices located at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was started in 2009. Many remarkable results have been obtained by the application of Li coatings in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) and liquid Li limiters in the HT-7 Tokamak-both located at the institute. In furtherance of the lithium program, a flowing liquid lithium (FLiLi) limiter system has been designed and manufactured for EAST. The design of the FLiLi limiter is based on the concept of a thin flowing film which was previously tested in HT-7. Exploiting the capabilities of the existing material and plasma evaluation system on EAST, the limiter will be pre-wetted with Li and mechanically translated to the edge of EAST during plasma discharges. The limiter will employ a novel electro-magnetic pump which is designed to drive liquid Li flow from a collector at the bottom of limiter into a distributor at its top, and thus supply a continuously flowing liquid Li film to the wetted plasma-facing surface. This paper focuses on the major design elements of the FLiLi limiter. In addition, a simulation of incoming heat flux has shown that the distribution of heat flux on the limiter surface is acceptable for a future test of power extraction on EAST. PMID:25725839

  14. US advanced liquid metal reactor design and safety enhancements through teamwork with the NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a cost effective approach to providing electricity needs of the United States in the early 21st century through an integrated Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor System (ALMRS). The concept incorporates innovative design and passive safety features to achieve favourable safety and economics simultaneously. The synergistic components of the ALMRS, under development by the United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), are described. A key aspect of the programme is continuing interaction with US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) toward standard design certification. This interaction, and the results to date, are also addressed. (author)

  15. Comparative sodium void effects for different advanced liquid metal reactor fuel and core designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of metal-, oxide-, and nitride-fueled advanced liquid metal reactor cores was performed to investigate the calculated differences in sodium void reactivity, and to determine the relationship between sodium void reactivity and burnup reactivity swing using the three fuel types. The results of this analysis indicate that nitride fuel has the least positive sodium void reactivity for any given burnup reactivity swing. Thus, it appears that a good design compromise between transient overpower and loss of flow response is obtained using nitride fuel. Additional studies were made to understand these and other nitride advantages. (author)

  16. Advances in Micro-Ultrahigh-Preformance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry in Residue and Contaminant Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gerssen, A.; Mol, J.G.J.; Blokland, M. H.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in nano-ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (nUHPLC) and "plug-and-play" micro-UHPLC (µUHPLC) for the detection of veterinary drugs and steroids in porcine meat and urine respectively are described. Recent developments in "plug-and-play" µUHPLC devices offer several advantages compared to earlier micro-LC systems. As well as the ease of use, solvent consumption can be reduced by more than 95% and the amount of sample required can be reduced 10-fold. In addition, the performan...

  17. Safety aspects of the US advanced LMR [liquid metal reactor] design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cornerstones of the United States Advanced Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor (ALMR) program sponsored by the Department of Energy are: the plant design program at General Electric based on the PRISM (Power Reactor Innovative Small Module) concept, and the Integral Fast Reactor program (IFR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The goal of the US program is to produce a standard, commercial ALMR, including the associated fuel cycle. This paper discusses the US regulatory framework for design of an ALMR, safety aspects of the IFR program at ANL, the IFR fuel cycle and actinide recycle, and the ALMR plant design program at GE. 6 refs., 5 figs

  18. Electrically insulating coatings for V-Li self-cooled blanket in a fusion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Reed, C. B.; Uz, M.; Park, J. H.; Smith, D. L.

    2000-05-17

    The blanket system is one of the most important components in a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. The primary functions of the blanket in a deuterium/tritium-fueled fusion reactor are to convert the fusion energy into sensible heat and to breed tritium for the fuel cycle. The liquid-metal blanket concept requires an electrically insulating coating on the first-wall structural material to minimize the magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop that occurs during the flow of liquid metal in a magnetic field. Based on the thermodynamics of interactions between the coating and the liquid lithium on one side and the structural V-base alloy on the other side, several coating candidates are being examined to perform the insulating function over a wide range of temperatures and lithium chemistries.

  19. Reference site selection report for the advanced liquid metal reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Reference Site Selection Report was prepared by EG ampersand G, Idaho Inc., for General Electric (GE) to provide information for use by the Department of Energy (DOE) in selecting a Safety Test Site for an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor. Similar Evaluation studies are planned to be conducted at other potential DOE sites. The Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) Concept was developed for ALMR by GE. A ALMR Safety Test is planned to be performed on a DOE site to demonstrate features and meet Nuclear Regulatory Commission Requirements. This study considered possible locations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory that met the ALMR Prototype Site Selection Methodology and Criteria. Four sites were identified, after further evaluation one site was eliminated. Each of the remaining three sites satisfied the criteria and was graded. The results were relatively close. Thus concluding that the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a suitable location for an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor Safety Test. 23 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs

  20. Advanced two-photon photolithography for patterning of transparent, electrically conductive ionic liquid-polymer nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtina, Natalia A.; MacKinnon, Neil; Korvink, Jan G.

    2016-04-01

    A key challenge in micro- and nanotechnology is the direct patterning of functional structures. For example, it is highly desirable to possess the ability to create three-dimensional (3D), conductive, and optically transparent structures. Efforts in this direction have, to date, yielded less than optimal results since the polymer composites had low optical transparency over the visible range, were only slightly conductive, or incompatible with high resolution structuring. We have previously presented the novel cross-linkable, conductive, highly transparent composite material based on a photoresist (IP-L 780, OrmoComp, or SU-8) and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide. Material patterning by conventional and two-photon photolithography has been demonstrated as proof-of-concept. Aiming to increase the resolution and to extend the spectrum of exciting applications we continued our research into identifying new ionic liquid - polymer composites. In this paper, we report the precise 3D single-step structuring of optically transparent and electrically conductive ionic liquid - polymer nanostructures with the highest spatial resolution (down to 150 nm) achieved to date. This was achieved via the development of novel cross-linkable composite based on the photoresist IP-G 780 and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide. The successful combination of the developed material with the advanced direct laser writing technique enabled the time- and cost-saving direct manufacturing of transparent, electrically conductive components. We believe that the excellent characteristics of the structured material will open a wider range of exciting applications.

  1. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Incommensurate Crystals, Liquid Crystals, and Quasi-Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, N

    1988-01-01

    In this NATO-sponsored Advanced Research Workshop we succeeded in bringing together approximately forty scientists working in the three main areas of structurally incommensurate materials: incommensurate crystals (primarily ferroelectric insulators), incommensurate liquid crystals, and metallic quasi-crystals. Although these three classes of materials are quite distinct, the commonality of the physics of the origin and descrip­ tion of these incommensurate structures is striking and evident in these proceedings. A measure of the success of this conference was the degree to which interaction among the three subgroups occurred; this was facili­ tated by approximately equal amounts of theory and experiment in the papers presented. We thank the University of Colorado for providing pleasant housing and conference facilities at a modest cost, and we are especially grate­ ful to Ann Underwood, who retyped all the manuscripts into camera-ready form. J. F. Scott Boulder, Colorado N. A. Clark v CONTENTS PART I: INCO...

  2. Testing Dark Energy with the Advanced Liquid-Mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Corasaniti, P S; Crotts, A; Blake, C; Corasaniti, Pier Stefano; Verde, Marilena Lo; Crotts, Arlin; Blake, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid-Mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics (ALPACA) is a proposed 8-meter liquid mirror telescope surveying ~1000 square degree of the southern-hemisphere sky. It will be a remarkably simple and inexpensive telescope, that nonetheless will deliver a powerful sample of optical data for studying dark energy. The bulk of the cosmological data consists of nightly, high signal-to-noise, multiband light curves of SN Ia. At the end of the three-years run ALPACA is expected to collect >100,000 SNe Ia up to z~1. This will allow to accurately calibrate the standard-candle relation and reduce present systematic uncertainties. The survey will also provide several other datasets such as the detection of baryon acoustic oscillations in the matter power spectrum and shear weak lensing measurements. In this preliminary analysis we forecast constraints on dark energy parameters from SN Ia and baryon acoustic oscillations. The combination of these two datasets will provide competitive constraints...

  3. Liquid-assisted laser ablation of advanced ceramics and glass-ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Giron, A.; Sola, D.; Peña, J. I.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, results obtained by laser ablation of advanced ceramics and glass-ceramic materials assisted by liquids are reported. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at its fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm with pulse-width in the nanosecond range was used to machine the materials, which were immersed in water and ethylene glycol. Variation in geometrical parameters, morphology, and ablation yields were studied by using the same laser working conditions. It was observed that machined depth and removed volume depended on the thermal, optical, and mechanical features of the processed materials as well as on the properties of the surrounding medium in which the laser processing was carried out. Variation in ablation yields was studied in function of the liquid used to assist the laser process and related to refractive index and viscosity. Material features and working conditions were also related to the obtained results in order to correlate ablation parameters with respect to the hardness of the processed materials.

  4. Preapplication safety evaluation report for the Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) liquid-metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety evaluation report (SER) presents the final results of a preapplication design review for the Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) liquid metal reactor (Project 673). The SAFR conceptual design was submitted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) ''Statement of Policy for the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants'' (51 FR 24643 which provides for the early Commission review and interaction). The standard SAFR plant design consists of four identical reactor modules, referred to as ''paks,'' each with a thermal output rating of 900 MWt, coupled with four steam turbine-generator sets. The total electrical output was held to be 1400 MWe. This SER represents the NRC staff's preliminary technical evaluation of the safety features in the SAFR design. It must be recognized that final conclusions in all matters discussed in this SER require approval by the Commission. During the NRC staff review of the SAFR conceptual design, DOE terminated work on this design in September 1988. This SER documents the work done to that date and no additional work is planned for the SAFR

  5. The advanced liquid metal reactor: Towards component protection based automatic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As advanced computing technology becomes part of the control system for power plants, the opportunity arises to address the real goals of plant control. Digital control systems are able to monitor more information and to accomplish more simultaneous tasks than human operators. In future nuclear plants, intelligent supervisory control systems should be responsible for maneuvering the plant in a fashion to minimize the component stress damage. The control system should generate strategies based on traditional operational objectives and on the current plant state and the stress history of various components and transients. In this paper, the authors elaborate on the desirability of including component mechanical stress information in digital control systems. Explicit consideration of stress constraints in the control strategy can significantly reduce the impact of transients on critical components, providing a significant contribution towards meeting current lifetime design goals of approximately 60 years. For illustration, one of the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor design duty cycles events is discussed from this perspective for three hypothetical response scenarios. 7 refs., 4 figs

  6. Two-terminal longitudinal hotwire sensor for monitoring the position and speed of advancing liquid fronts in microfluidic channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a simple and practical sensor for monitoring both the absolute position and advancing speed of liquid front in a microfluidic channel. The sensor consists of a longitudinal hot wire element - a two-terminal electrical device, with its length spanning the entire channel. The design, materials, fabrication method, and use of this sensor are extremely simple. Characterization results are presented

  7. Advanced Supported Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Control in Cabin Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, David T.; Gleason, Kevin J.; Engel, Jeffrey R.; Chullen, Cinda

    2016-01-01

    The development of new, robust, life support systems is critical to NASA's continued progress in space exploration. One vital function is maintaining the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the cabin at levels that do not impair the health or performance of the crew. The CO2 removal assembly (CDRA) is the current CO2 control technology on-board the International Space Station (ISS). Although the CDRA has met the needs of the ISS to date, the repeated cycling of the molecular sieve sorbent causes it to break down into small particles that clog filters or generate dust in the cabin. This reduces reliability and increases maintenance requirements. Another approach that has potential advantages over the current system is a membrane that separates CO2 from air. In this approach, cabin air contacts one side of the membrane while other side of the membrane is maintained at low pressure to create a driving force for CO2 transport across the membrane. In this application, the primary power requirement is for the pump that creates the low pressure and then pumps the CO2 to the oxygen recovery system. For such a membrane to be practical, it must have high CO2 permeation rate and excellent selectivity for CO2 over air. Unfortunately, conventional gas separation membranes do not have adequate CO2 permeability and selectivity to meet the needs of this application. However, the required performance could be obtained with a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which consists of a microporous material filled with a liquid that selectively reacts with CO2 over air. In a recently completed Phase II SBIR project, Reaction Systems, Inc. fabricated an SLM that is very close to meeting permeability and selectivity objectives for use in the advanced space suit portable life support system. This paper describes work carried out to evaluate its potential for use in spacecraft cabin application.

  8. Analysis of primary pipe break for Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A postulated break in the primary pump discharge pipe is analyzed to assure the inherent safety of Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor, a pool-type liquid metal-cooled reactor generating the 392 MWth of power in the core. The main concern of the analysis is the amount of increase in the fuel and the coolant temperatures. The stabilization of the transient due to reactivity feedback is also important. In the present analysis it is assumed that one of the four pipes connecting the pump discharge to core inlet plenum is broken. The break is located at 3.7m below the pump outlet and the diameter of the break is 0.4 m. It is also assumed that the reactor is not scrammed after the initiation of the break, therefore, the pumps keep on running during the accident. The analysis is performed with SSC-K code, which is developed for the analysis of the transient system response of a pool-type reactor. As soon as the break occurs, the core flow decreases drastically to 65 % full flow in the base case. A more conservative case is also analyzed in which the core flow is reduced artificially to 50 % full flow. The reactor power stabilizes by the reactivity feedback effects in about 10 minutes. The increase of the fuel and coolant temperatures due to the sudden reduction of the core flow are also mitigated with a large margin to coolant saturation temperature. The gas expansion module plays an important role to provide the dominant reactivity feedback when the core flow is reduced less than 50% full power. It is convinced from these results that both a sufficient subcooling margin more than 400 K and a stable system response are maintained in the KALIMER design during the primary pipe break accident, which guarantees the inherent safety of KALIMER against a pipe break. (author)

  9. Advances in the electrodeposition of aluminum from ionic liquid based electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, Kirt C.

    . Advancements of this nonaqueous aluminum plating process have the potential to lead to a novel and competitive commercial aluminum deposition process. In this investigation aluminum electrodeposition from ionic liquid based electrolytes onto steel, copper and magnesium substrates without conversion coatings or strike layers was evaluated in six different ionic liquid based electrolytes in two technical setups. Three of which are commercially available aluminum plating electrolytes, three of which, discussed in literature were created on site by research personnel in the laboratory. The three commercially available electrolytes were: 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIm]Cl) * 1.5 AlCl3 with proprietary additives from IoLiTec, 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([EMIm]Cl) * 1.5 AlCl3 with proprietary additives from IoLiTec, and BasionicsTM AL-02, an aluminum plating electrolyte containing [EMIm]Cl * 1.5 AlCl3 with additives from BASF. The three electrolytes created on site were based on the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid with added 1.5 AlCl3 and one with added sodium dodecyl sulfate. Small scale plating tests in a 25-mL plating cell were conducted to provide a comparative analysis of the six different electrolytes considered. From these investigations, two were chosen to be evaluated in a larger 1-liter plating cell; designed and constructed to provide a more realistic evaluation of plating parameters with selected electrolytes to better portray industrial electroplating conditions. The effect of current density (10-40 mA/cm 2), temperature (30-90° Celsius) and plating bath agitation on current efficiency, corrosion resistance by the ASTM B117 method, adhesion, microstructure, and chemical composition (evaluated with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy) of the plated Al-layer was explored in both the 25-mL and 1-L plating cell investigations. In addition development of pre- and post-treatment processes for the metal substrates was attempted. While

  10. Robust Low Cost Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber by Advanced Vacuum Plasma Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Richard; Elam, Sandra; Ellis, David L.; McKechnie, Timothy; Hickman, Robert; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Next-generation, regeneratively cooled rocket engines will require materials that can withstand high temperatures while retaining high thermal conductivity. Fabrication techniques must be cost efficient so that engine components can be manufactured within the constraints of shrinking budgets. Three technologies have been combined to produce an advanced liquid rocket engine combustion chamber at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using relatively low-cost, vacuum-plasma-spray (VPS) techniques. Copper alloy NARloy-Z was replaced with a new high performance Cu-8Cr-4Nb alloy developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center (GRC), which possesses excellent high-temperature strength, creep resistance, and low cycle fatigue behavior combined with exceptional thermal stability. Functional gradient technology, developed building composite cartridges for space furnaces was incorporated to add oxidation resistant and thermal barrier coatings as an integral part of the hot wall of the liner during the VPS process. NiCrAlY, utilized to produce durable protective coating for the space shuttle high pressure fuel turbopump (BPFTP) turbine blades, was used as the functional gradient material coating (FGM). The FGM not only serves as a protection from oxidation or blanching, the main cause of engine failure, but also serves as a thermal barrier because of its lower thermal conductivity, reducing the temperature of the combustion liner 200 F, from 1000 F to 800 F producing longer life. The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate the technology to fabricate high-performance, robust, inexpensive combustion chambers for advanced propulsion systems (such as Lockheed-Martin's VentureStar and NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle, RLV) using the low-cost VPS process. VPS formed combustion chamber test articles have been formed with the FGM hot wall built in and hot fire tested, demonstrating for the first time a coating that will remain intact through the hot firing test, and with

  11. Advances in the Lightweight Air-Liquid Composite Heat Exchanger Development for Space Exploration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, E. Eugene; Johnston, J. Chris; Haas, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    An advanced, lightweight composite modular Air/Liquid (A/L) Heat Exchanger (HX) Prototype for potential space exploration thermal management applications was successfully designed, manufactured, and tested. This full-scale Prototype consisting of 19 modules, based on recommendations from its predecessor Engineering Development unit (EDU) but with improved thermal characteristics and manufacturability, was 11.2 % lighter than the EDU and achieves potentially a 42.7% weight reduction from the existing state-of-the-art metallic HX demonstrator. However, its higher pressure drop (0.58 psid vs. 0.16 psid of the metal HX) has to be mitigated by foam material optimizations and design modifications including a more systematic air channel design. Scalability of the Prototype design was validated experimentally by comparing manufacturability and performance between the 2-module coupon and the 19-module Prototype. The Prototype utilized the thermally conductive open-cell carbon foam material but with lower density and adopted a novel high-efficiency cooling system with significantly increased heat transfer contact surface areas, improved fabricability and manufacturability compared to the EDU. Even though the Prototype was required to meet both the thermal and the structural specifications, accomplishing the thermal requirement was a higher priority goal for this first version. Overall, the Prototype outperformed both the EDU and the corresponding metal HX, particularly in terms of specific heat transfer, but achieved 93.4% of the target. The next generation Prototype to achieve the specification target, 3,450W would need 24 core modules based on the simple scaling factor. The scale-up Prototype will weigh about 14.7 Kg vs. 21.6 Kg for the metal counterpart. The advancement of this lightweight composite HX development from the original feasibility test coupons to EDU to Prototype is discussed in this paper.

  12. Thermo-fluid dynamics and corrosion analysis of a self cooled lead lithium blanket for the HiPER reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, R.; Zanzi, C.; Hernández, J.; Sanz, J.

    2015-09-01

    The HiPER reactor is the HiPER project phase devoted to power production. To reach a preliminary reactor design, tritium breeding schemes need to be adapted to the HiPER project technologies selection: direct drive ignition, 150 \\text{MJ}/\\text{shot}× 10 Hz of power released through fusion reactions, and the dry first wall scheme. In this paper we address the main challenge of the HiPER EUROFER-based self cooled lead lithium blanket, which is related to the corrosive behavior of Pb-15.7Li in contact with EUROFER. We evaluate the cooling and corrosion behavior of the so-called separated first wall blanket (SFWB) configuration by performing thermo-fluid dynamics simulations using a large eddy simulation approach. Despite the expected improvement over the integrated first wall blanket, we still find an unsatisfactory cooling performance, expressed as a low outlet Pb-15.7Li temperature plus too high corrosion rates derived from local Pb-15.7Li high temperature and velocity, which can mainly be attributed to the geometry of the channels. Nevertheless, the analysis allowed us to devise future modifications of the SFWB to overcome the limitations found with the present design.

  13. Experimental testing of reduced-scale seismic isolation bearings for the advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of tests of reduced-scale seismic isolation bearings undertaken in support of the development of a seismic isolation concept for the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) is described. A procurement specification applicable to both full-size and reduced-scale bearings was developed by the program participants and used to purchase bearings of four different designs from two manufacturers. The high-damping rubber isolators were subjected to horizontal, vertical, and failure tests designed to quantify their mechanical properties both within the range of design loads and displacements as well as to establish their margins before failure. The test results show that bearings from both manufacturers provide stable and repeatable behavior with minor variations in stiffness and damping as a function of loading frequency and load history. None of the bearings showed substantial variation in properties due to changes in axial load. All of the bearings exhibited exceptional behavior when loaded beyond the design level, with displacement margins greater than 3 and force margins greater than 4. This test program provides a thorough data-set for further analytical and experimental validations of the seismic isolation concept for the ALMR. (author)

  14. Advancements in fabrication process of microelectrode array for a retinal prosthesis using Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joonsoo; Shin, Soowon; Lee, Geun Jae; Gwon, Tae Mok; Park, Jeong Hoan; Kim, Sung June

    2013-01-01

    Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) has been considered as an alternative biomaterial for implantable biomedical devices primarily for its low moisture absorption rate compared with conventional polymers such as polyimide, parylene and silicone elastomers. A novel retinal prosthetic device based on monolithic encapsulation of LCP is being developed in which entire neural stimulation circuitries are integrated into a thin and eye-conformable structure. Micromachining techniques for fabrication of a LCP retinal electrode array have been previously reported. In this research, however, for being used as a part of the LCP-based retinal implant, we developed advanced fabrication process of LCP retinal electrode through new approaches such as electroplating and laser-machining in order to achieve higher mechanical robustness, long-term reliability and flexibility. Thickened metal tracks could contribute to higher mechanical strength as well as higher long-term reliability when combined with laser-ablation process by allowing high-pressure lamination. Laser-thinning technique could improve the flexibility of LCP electrode. PMID:24110931

  15. Development of advanced membrane process for treatment of radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Development of advanced membrane process for treatment of radioactive liquid wastes'. 1. Surface modification technique of microfiltration membrane. Microporous hydrophobic polypropylene(PP) membrane were modified by radiation-induced grafting using hydrophilic monomers such as arylic acid(AAc), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate(HEMA) and styrenesulfonic acid(SSS). The effect of grafting conditions was investigated. Also, copolymeric condition of AAc and EGDMA for nylon membrane was studied. The structure of grafted PP membrane was examined by using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, SEM and contact angle. The grafted membrane was characterized by measureing the water flux, the ion exchange capacity or the binding capacity of the metal ions. A study on the permeation behavior of simulated waste water containing oil emulsion and characterization of membrane fouling was carried out in the crossflow membrane filtration process using capillary type PP microfiltration membrane modified by radiation induced grafting of HEMA. The effects of various operating parameters were investigated. 2. Electrofiltration Technology. In this section, the process conditions for fouling prevention of membrane by evaluating the effects of operational parameters such as external electric field strength, crossflow velocity, transmembrane pressure, etc. on the permeate flux in electrofiltration were established and the process applicability for oil emulsion wastes containing surfactant using parallel plate type electrofiltration module was evaluated

  16. Advanced liquid metal reactor development at Argonne National Laboratory during the 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL'S) effort to pursue the exploitation of liquid metal cooled reactor (LMR) characteristics has given rise to the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept, and has produced substantial technical advancement in concept implementation which includes demonstration of high burnup capability of metallic fuel, demonstration of injection casting fabrication, integral demonstration of passive safety response, and technical feasibility of pyroprocessing. The first half decade of the 90's will host demonstration of the IFR closed fuel cycle technology at the prototype scale. The EBR-II reactor will be fueled with ternary alloy fuel in HT-9 cladding and ducts, and pyroprocessing and injection casting refabrication of EBR-II fuel will be conducted using near-commercial sized equipment at the Fuel cycle Facility (FCF) which is co-located adjacent to EBR-II. Demonstration will start in 1992. The demonstration of passive safety response achievable with the IFR design concept, (already done in EBR-II in 1986) will be repeated in the mid 90's using the IFR prototype recycle fuel from the FCF. The demonstration of scrubbing of the reprocessing fission product waste stream, with recycle of the transuranics to the reactor for consumption, will also occur in the mid 90's. 30 refs

  17. Advances in liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry for quantitative and qualitative environmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceña, Jaume; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Pérez, Sandra; Barceló, Damià

    2015-08-01

    This review summarizes the advances in environmental analysis by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) during the last decade and discusses different aspects of their application. LC-HRMS has become a powerful tool for simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of organic pollutants, enabling their quantitation and the search for metabolites and transformation products or the detection of unknown compounds. LC-HRMS provides more information than low-resolution (LR) MS for each sample because it can accurately determine the mass of the molecular ion and its fragment ions if it can be used for MS-MS. Another advantage is that the data can be processed using either target analysis, suspect screening, retrospective analysis, or non-target screening. With the growing popularity and acceptance of HRMS analysis, current guidelines for compound confirmation need to be revised for quantitative and qualitative purposes. Furthermore, new commercial software and user-built libraries are required to mine data in an efficient and comprehensive way. The scope of this critical review is not to provide a comprehensive overview of the many studies performed with LC-HRMS in the field of environmental analysis, but to reveal its advantages and limitations using different workflows. PMID:26138893

  18. An investigation to adopt zero liquid discharge in textile dyeing using advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a novel idea of using ozone oxidation at the end of reactive dyeing process was explored in order to achieve zero discharge dyeing. An advanced oxidative treatment was given during the dyeing process to remove unfixed and hydrolyzed reactive dyes from cotton substrate. Three different shades were dyed using vinylsulphone reactive class of dyes. At the end of fixation step, washing of fabrics was carried out using appropriate quantities of ozone in the process. Ozone oxidation continued until the liquor was decolorized around 95-100% and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) was reduced about 80-90%, thus achieving zero liquid discharge dyeing process. The decolouration efficiency of wastewater was regarded as an indicative of removal of dyes from the textile materials because fabric was being washed continuously in the same liquor. Fabric samples dyed with conventional and new methods were compared in terms of change in shade, colourfastness properties, colour stripping, and fabric appearance. Overall results showed that the use of ozone during reactive dyeing can result in less water consumption, reduced process time, and zero discharge of coloured effluents from textile dyeing factories. (author)

  19. Sensor-model prediction, monitoring and in-situ control of liquid RTM advanced fiber architecture composite processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranbuehl, D.; Kingsley, P.; Hart, S.; Loos, A.; Hasko, G.; Dexter, B.

    In-situ frequency dependent electromagnetic sensors (FDEMS) and the Loos resin transfer model have been used to select and control the processing properties of an epoxy resin during liquid pressure RTM impregnation and cure. Once correlated with viscosity and degree of cure the FDEMS sensor monitors and the RTM processing model predicts the reaction advancement of the resin, viscosity and the impregnation of the fabric. This provides a direct means for predicting, monitoring, and controlling the liquid RTM process in-situ in the mold throughout the fabrication process and the effects of time, temperature, vacuum and pressure. Most importantly, the FDEMS-sensor model system has been developed to make intelligent decisions, thereby automating the liquid RTM process and removing the need for operator direction.

  20. Study of the advancing and receding contact angles: liquid sorption as a cause of contact angle hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, C N C; Wu, R; Li, D; Hair, M L; Neumann, A W

    2002-02-25

    Two types of experiments were used to study the behavior of both advancing and receding contact angles, namely the dynamic one-cycle contact angle (DOCA) and the dynamic cycling contact angle (DCCA) experiments. For the preliminary study, DOCA measurements of different liquids on different solids were performed using an automated axisymmetric drop shape analysis-profile (ADSA-P). From these experimental results, four patterns of receding contact angle were observed: (1) time-dependent receding contact angle; (2) constant receding contact angle; (3) 'stick/slip'; (4) no receding contact angle. For the purpose of illustration, results from four different solid surfaces are shown. These solids are: FC-732-coated surface; poly(methyl methacrylate/n-butyl methacrylate) [P(MMA/nBMA)]; poly(lactic acid) (DL-PLA); and poly(lactic/glycolic acid) 50/50 (DL-PLGA 50/50). Since most of the surfaces in our studies exhibit time dependence in the receding contact angle, a more extended study was conducted using only FC-732-coated surfaces to better understand the possible causes of decreasing receding contact angle and contact angle hysteresis. Contact angle measurements of 21 liquids from two homologous series (i.e. n-alkanes and 1-alcohols) and octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OCMTS) on FC-732-coated surfaces were performed. It is apparent that the contact angle hysteresis decreases with the chain length of the liquid. It was found that the receding contact angle equals the advancing angle when the alkane molecules are infinitely large. These results strongly suggest that the chain length and size of the liquid molecule could contribute to contact angle hysteresis phenomena. Furthermore, DCCA measurements of six liquids from the two homologous series on FC-732-coated surfaces were performed. With these experimental results, one can construe that the time dependence of contact angle hysteresis on relatively smooth and homogeneous surfaces is mainly caused by liquid retention

  1. Research advances of un-symmetric constitutive theory of anisotropic viscoelastic liquids and its hydrodynamic behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩式方

    2008-01-01

    Research advances of un-symmetric constitutive equation of anisotropic fluid,influence of un-symmetric stress tensor on material functions,vibrational shear flow of the fluid with small amplitudes and rheology of anisotropic suspension were reported.A new concept of simple anisotropic fluid was introduced.On the basis of anisotropic principle,the simple fluid stress behaviour was described by velocity gradient tensor F and spin tensor W instead of velocity gradient tensor D in the classic Leslie-Ericksen continuum theory.Two relaxation times analyzing rheological nature of the fluid and using tensor analysis a general form of the constitutive equation of co-rotational type was introduced.More general model LCP-H for the fluid was developed.The unsymmetry of the shear stress was predicted by the present continuum theory for anisotropic viscoelastic fluid-LC polymer liquids.The influence of the relaxation times on material functions was specially studied.It is important to study the unsteady vibrational rotating flow with small amplitudes,as it is a best way to obtain knowledge of elasticity of the LC polymer,i.e.dynamic viscoelasticity.For the shear-unsymmetric stresses,two shear stresses were obtained thus two complex viscosities and two complex shear modulus(i.e.first and second one) were introduced by the constitutive equation which was defined by rotating shear rate introduced by author.For the two stability problems of fluid,such as stability of hydrodynamic flow and orientational motion,were discussed.The results show that the polymer suspension systems exhibit anisotropic character.The PNC systems can exhibit significant shear-thinning effects.For more concentrated polymer nano-suspensions,the first normal stress difference change from positive to negative,which is similar to LC polymer behavior.

  2. Advancing the State-of-the-Practice for Liquid Rocket Engine Injector Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, P. K.; Kenny, R. J.; Richardson, B. R.; Anderso, W. E.; Austin, B. J.; Schumaker, S. A.; Muss, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Current shortcomings in both the overall injector design process and its underlying combustion stability assessment methodology are rooted in the use of empirically based or low fidelity representations of complex physical phenomena and geometry details that have first order effects on performance, thermal environments and combustion stability. The result is a design and analysis capability that is often inadequate to reliably arrive at a suitable injector design in an efficient manner. Specifically, combustion instability has been particularly difficult to predict and mitigate. Large hydrocarbon-fueled booster engines have been especially problematic in this regard. Where combustion instability has been a problem, costly and time-consuming redesign efforts have often been an unfortunate consequence. This paper presents an overview of a recently completed effort at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to advance the state-of-the-practice for liquid rocket engine injector design. Multiple perturbations of a gas-centered swirl coaxial (GCSC) element that burned gaseous oxygen and RP-1 were designed, assessed for combustion stability, and tested. Three designs, one stable, one marginally unstable and one unstable, were used to demonstrate both an enhanced overall injector design process and an improved combustion stability assessment process. High-fidelity results from state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics CFD simulations were used to substantially augment and improve the injector design methodology. The CFD results were used to inform and guide the overall injector design process. They were also used to upgrade selected empirical or low-dimensional quantities in the ROCket Combustor Interactive Design (ROCCID) stability assessment tool. Hot fire single element injector testing was used to verify both the overall injector designs and the stability assessments. Testing was conducted at the Air Force Research Laboratory and at Purdue University. Companion papers

  3. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Digby Macdonald; Brian Marx; Balaji Soundararajan; Morgan Smith

    2005-07-28

    The different tasks that have been carried out under the current program are as follows: (1) Theoretical and experimental assessment of general corrosion of iron/steel in borate buffer solutions by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and XPS techniques; (2) Development of a damage function analysis (DFA), which would help in predicting the accumulation of damage due to pitting corrosion in an environment prototypical of DOE liquid waste systems; (3) Experimental measurement of crack growth rate, acoustic emission signals, and coupling currents for fracture in carbon and low alloy steels as functions of mechanical (stress intensity), chemical (conductivity), electrochemical (corrosion potential, ECP), and microstructural (grain size, precipitate size, etc) variables in a systematic manner, with particular attention being focused on the structure of the noise in the current and its correlation with the acoustic emissions; (4) Development of fracture mechanisms for carbon and low alloy steels that are consistent with the crack growth rate, coupling current data and acoustic emissions; (5) Inserting advanced crack growth rate models for SCC into existing deterministic codes for predicting the evolution of corrosion damage in DOE liquid waste storage tanks; (6) Computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity on the surface of the steel samples in order to exactly predict the corrosion mechanisms; (7) Wavelet analysis of EC noise data from steel samples undergoing corrosion in an environment similar to that of the high level waste storage containers, to extract data pertaining to general, pitting and stress corrosion processes, from the overall data. The work has yielded a number of important findings, including an unequivocal demonstration of the role of chloride ion in passivity breakdown on nickel in terms of cation vacancy generation within the passive film, the first detection and characterization of individual micro fracture

  4. Recent advances in the use of ionic liquids for electrochemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, Debbie S

    2011-12-01

    Ionic Liquids are salts that are liquid at (or just above) room temperature. They possess several advantageous properties (e.g. high intrinsic conductivity, wide electrochemical windows, low volatility, high thermal stability and good solvating ability), which make them ideal as non-volatile electrolytes in electrochemical sensors. This mini-review article describes the recent uses of ionic liquids in electrochemical sensing applications (covering the last 3 years) in the context of voltammetric sensing at solid/liquid, liquid/liquid interfaces and carbon paste electrodes, as well as their use in gas sensing, ion-selective electrodes, and for detecting biological molecules, explosives and chemical warfare agents. A comment on the future direction and challenges in this field is also presented. PMID:22013585

  5. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Digby D. Macdonald; Brian M. Marx; Sejin Ahn; Julio de Ruiz; Balaji Soundararaja; Morgan Smith; and Wendy Coulson

    2008-01-15

    Various forms of general and localized corrosion represent principal threats to the integrity of DOE liquid waste storage tanks. These tanks, which are of a single wall or double wall design, depending upon their age, are fabricated from welded carbon steel and contain a complex waste-form comprised of NaOH and NaNO{sub 3}, along with trace amounts of phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, and chloride. Because waste leakage can have a profound environmental impact, considerable interest exists in predicting the accumulation of corrosion damage, so as to more effectively schedule maintenance and repair. The different tasks that are being carried out under the current program are as follows: (1) Theoretical and experimental assessment of general corrosion of iron/steel in borate buffer solutions by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and XPS techniques; (2) Development of a damage function analysis (DFA) which would help in predicting the accumulation of damage due to pitting corrosion in an environment prototypical of DOE liquid waste systems; (3) Experimental measurement of crack growth rate, acoustic emission signals and coupling currents for fracture in carbon and low alloy steels as functions of mechanical (stress intensity), chemical (conductivity), electrochemical (corrosion potential, ECP), and microstructural (grain size, precipitate size, etc) variables in a systematic manner, with particular attention being focused on the structure of the noise in the current and its correlation with the acoustic emissions; (4) Development of fracture mechanisms for carbon and low alloy steels that are consistent with the crack growth rate, coupling current data and acoustic emissions; (5) Inserting advanced crack growth rate models for SCC into existing deterministic codes for predicting the evolution of corrosion damage in DOE liquid waste storage tanks; (6) Computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity on the surface of the steel samples

  6. Recent advances in ultra-high performance liquid chromatography for the analysis of traditional chinese medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases for thousands of years in China. Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) is a relatively new technique offering new possibilities in liquid chromatography. This paper reviews recen...

  7. Advanced liquid and solid extraction procedures for ultratrace determination of rhenium by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizera, J.; Kučera, J.; Řanda, Z.; Lučaníková, M.

    2006-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) procedures for determination of Re at the ultratrace level based on use of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and extraction chromatography (EXC) have been developed. Two different LLE procedures were used depending on the way of sample decomposition using either 2-butanone or tetraphenylarsonium chloride in CHCl3. EXC employed new solid extractant materials prepared by incorporation of the liquid trioctyl-methyl-ammonium chloride into an inert polyacrylonitrile matrix. The RNAA procedures presented have been compared and applied for Re determination in several biological and environmental reference materials.

  8. Advanced liquid and solid extraction procedures for ultratrace determination of rhenium by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) procedures for determination of Re at the ultratrace level based on use of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and extraction chromatography (EXC) have been developed. Two different LLE procedures were used depending on the way of sample decomposition using either 2-butanone or tetraphenylarsonium chloride in CHCl3. EXC employed new solid extractant materials prepared by incorporation of the liquid trialkyl-methylammonium chloride into an inert polyacrylonitrile matrix. The RNAA procedures presented have been compared and applied for Re determination in several biological and environmental reference materials. (author)

  9. Lithium-vanadium advanced blanket development. ITER final report on U.S. contribution: Task T219/T220

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this task is to develop the required data base and demonstrate the performance of a liquid lithium-vanadium advanced blanket design. The task has two main activities related to vanadium structural material and liquid lithium system developments. The vanadium alloy development activity included four subtasks: (1.1) baseline mechanical properties of non irradiated base metal and weld metal joints; (1.2) compatibility with liquid lithium; (1.3) material irradiation tests; and (1.4) development of material manufacturing and joining methods. The lithium blanket technology activity included four subtasks: (2.1) electrical insulation development and testing for liquid metal systems; (2.2) MHD pressure drop and heat transfer study for self-cooled liquid metal systems; (2.3) chemistry of liquid lithium; and (2.4) design, fabrication and testing of ITER relevant size blanket mockups. A summary of the progress and results obtained during the period 1995 and 1996 in each of the subtask areas is presented in this report

  10. Lithium-vanadium advanced blanket development. ITER final report on U.S. contribution: Task T219/T220

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Mattas, R.F. [comps.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this task is to develop the required data base and demonstrate the performance of a liquid lithium-vanadium advanced blanket design. The task has two main activities related to vanadium structural material and liquid lithium system developments. The vanadium alloy development activity included four subtasks: (1.1) baseline mechanical properties of non irradiated base metal and weld metal joints; (1.2) compatibility with liquid lithium; (1.3) material irradiation tests; and (1.4) development of material manufacturing and joining methods. The lithium blanket technology activity included four subtasks: (2.1) electrical insulation development and testing for liquid metal systems; (2.2) MHD pressure drop and heat transfer study for self-cooled liquid metal systems; (2.3) chemistry of liquid lithium; and (2.4) design, fabrication and testing of ITER relevant size blanket mockups. A summary of the progress and results obtained during the period 1995 and 1996 in each of the subtask areas is presented in this report.

  11. Current Advances in the Carbon Nanotube/Thermotropic Main-Chain Liquid Crystalline Polymer Nanocomposites and Their Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of their extraordinary properties, such as high thermal stability, flame retardant, high chemical resistance and high mechanical strength, thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers (TLCPs have recently gained more attention while being useful for many applications which require chemical inertness and high strength. Due to the recent advance in nanotechnology, TLCPs are usually compounded with nanoparticles to form particulate composites to enhance their properties, such as barrier properties, electrical properties, mechanical properties and thermal properties. Carbon-based nanofillers such as carbon nanotube (CNT, graphene and graphene oxide are the most common fillers used for the TLCP matrices. In this review, we focus on recent advances in thermotropic main-chain liquid crystalline polymer nanocomposites incorporated with CNTs. However, the biggest challenges in the preparation of CNT/TLCP nanocomposites have been shown to be inherent in the dispersion of CNTs into the TLCP matrix, the alignment and control of CNTs in the TLCP matrix and the load-transfer between the TLCP matrix and CNTs. As a result, this paper reviews recent advances in CNT/TLCP nanocomposites through enhanced dispersion of CNTs in TLCPs as well as their improved interfacial adhesion with the TLCP matrices. Case studies on the important role of chemically modified CNTs in the TLCP/thermoplastic polymer blends are also included.

  12. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Computational Methods for Polymers and Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Pasini, Paolo; Žumer, Slobodan; Computer Simulations of Liquid Crystals and Polymers

    2005-01-01

    Liquid crystals, polymers and polymer liquid crystals are soft condensed matter systems of major technological and scientific interest. An understanding of the macroscopic properties of these complex systems and of their many and interesting peculiarities at the molecular level can nowadays only be attained using computer simulations and statistical mechanical theories. Both in the Liquid Crystal and Polymer fields a considerable amount of simulation work has been done in the last few years with various classes of models at different special resolutions, ranging from atomistic to molecular and coarse-grained lattice models. Each of the two fields has developed its own set of tools and specialized procedures and the book aims to provide a state of the art review of the computer simulation studies of polymers and liquid crystals. This is of great importance in view of a potential cross-fertilization between these connected areas which is particularly apparent for a number of experimental systems like, e.g. poly...

  13. Advanced Materials and Manufacturing for Low-Cost, High-Performance Liquid Rocket Combustion Chambers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Silicided niobium alloy (C103) combustion chambers have been used extensively in both NASA and DoD liquid rocket propulsion systems. Niobium alloys offer a good...

  14. Final Report Full-Scale Test of DWPF Advanced Liquid-Level and Density Measurement Bubblers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As requested by the Technical Task Request (1), a full-scale test was carried out on several different liquid-level measurement bubblers as recommended from previous testing (2). This final report incorporates photographic evidence (Appendix B) of the bubblers at different stages of testing, along with the preliminary results (Appendix C) which were previously reported (3), and instrument calibration data (Appendix D); while this report contains more detailed information than previously reported (3) the conclusions remain the same. The test was performed under highly prototypic conditions from November 26, 1996 to January 23, 1997 using the full-scale SRAT/SME tank test facilities located in the 672-T building at TNX. Two different types of advanced bubblers were subjected to approximately 58 days of slurry operation; 14 days of which the slurry was brought to boiling temperatures.The test showed that the large diameter tube bubbler (2.64 inches inside diameter) operated successfully throughout the2-month test by not plugging with the glass-frit ladened slurry which was maintained at a minimum temperature of 50 deg Cand several days of boiling temperatures. However, a weekly blow-down with air or water is recommended to minimize the slurry which builds up.The small diameter porous tube bubbler (0.62 inch inside diameter; water flow > 4 milliliters/hour = 1.5 gallons/day) operated successfully on a daily basis in the glass-frit ladened slurry which was maintained at a minimum temperature of 50 degrees C and several days of boiling temperatures. However, a daily blow-down with air, or air and water, is necessary to maintain accurate readings.For the small diameter porous tube bubbler (0.62 inch inside diameter; water flow > 4 milliliters/hour = 1.5 gallons/day) there were varying levels of success with the lower water-flow tubes and these tubes would have to be cleaned by blowing with air, or air and water, several times a day to maintain them plug free. This may be

  15. Final Report Full-Scale Test of DWPF Advanced Liquid-Level and Density Measurement Bubblers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Weeks, G.E.

    1999-07-01

    As requested by the Technical Task Request (1), a full-scale test was carried out on several different liquid-level measurement bubblers as recommended from previous testing (2). This final report incorporates photographic evidence (Appendix B) of the bubblers at different stages of testing, along with the preliminary results (Appendix C) which were previously reported (3), and instrument calibration data (Appendix D); while this report contains more detailed information than previously reported (3) the conclusions remain the same. The test was performed under highly prototypic conditions from November 26, 1996 to January 23, 1997 using the full-scale SRAT/SME tank test facilities located in the 672-T building at TNX. Two different types of advanced bubblers were subjected to approximately 58 days of slurry operation; 14 days of which the slurry was brought to boiling temperatures.The test showed that the large diameter tube bubbler (2.64 inches inside diameter) operated successfully throughout the2-month test by not plugging with the glass-frit ladened slurry which was maintained at a minimum temperature of 50 deg Cand several days of boiling temperatures. However, a weekly blow-down with air or water is recommended to minimize the slurry which builds up.The small diameter porous tube bubbler (0.62 inch inside diameter; water flow {gt} 4 milliliters/hour = 1.5 gallons/day) operated successfully on a daily basis in the glass-frit ladened slurry which was maintained at a minimum temperature of 50 degrees C and several days of boiling temperatures. However, a daily blow-down with air, or air and water, is necessary to maintain accurate readings.For the small diameter porous tube bubbler (0.62 inch inside diameter; water flow {gt} 4 milliliters/hour = 1.5 gallons/day) there were varying levels of success with the lower water-flow tubes and these tubes would have to be cleaned by blowing with air, or air and water, several times a day to maintain them plug free. This

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED ELECTROCHEMICAL EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY FOR MONITORING CORROSION IN SIMULATED DOE LIQUID WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Department of Energy currently stores millions of gallons of high level liquid radioactive waste in underground, carbon steel-lined concrete tanks at the Hanford Reservation in the state of Washington and at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Because of the indefinite...

  17. ANNUAL REPORT. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED ELECTROCHEMICAL EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY FOR MONITORING CORROSION IN SIMULATED DOE LIQUID WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current report summarizes work performed on the project over the past calendar year (2001). The work concentrated on four areas: the fracture of AISI 4340 steel simulating weld heat affected zones in DOE liquid waste storage tanks, investigation of the passive state on nickel...

  18. Advanced tip design for liquid phase vibration mode atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have fabricated polymer tips for atomic force microscopy in order to elucidate the effects of tip length and shape on cantilever vibration damping in liquids. The vibration damping is investigated by measuring the vibration amplitude of cantilevers as a function of tip-sample distance. The cantilever with a short tip provides a higher damping effect over long tip-sample distances. When the vibration amplitude was rescaled to show the effect of the cantilever width on oscillation damping, the vibration amplitude of cantilevers with various tip lengths was similarly obtained in a long distance range over 50 μm. This similarity is explained by an acoustic damping model in which an acoustic wave is generated by the cantilever. Finally, the results indicate a cantilever with a sufficiently long tip compared to the cantilever width can dramatically reduce the long-range damping effect in a liquid environment

  19. Advanced tip design for liquid phase vibration mode atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yuji; Shigeno, Masatsugu; Shirakawabe, Yoshiharu; Inoue, Akira; Kim, Woo-Sik; Kim, Seung Jin; Chang, Sang-Mok; Kim, Jong Min

    2008-03-24

    We have fabricated polymer tips for atomic force microscopy in order to elucidate the effects of tip length and shape on cantilever vibration damping in liquids. The vibration damping is investigated by measuring the vibration amplitude of cantilevers as a function of tip-sample distance. The cantilever with a short tip provides a higher damping effect over long tip-sample distances. When the vibration amplitude was rescaled to show the effect of the cantilever width on oscillation damping, the vibration amplitude of cantilevers with various tip lengths was similarly obtained in a long distance range over 50 microm. This similarity is explained by an acoustic damping model in which an acoustic wave is generated by the cantilever. Finally, the results indicate a cantilever with a sufficiently long tip compared to the cantilever width can dramatically reduce the long-range damping effect in a liquid environment. PMID:18328326

  20. Advances in the development of liquid-core waveguides for IR applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Joerg; Jung, Roland; Diemer, Stefan; Haisch, Michael; Fuss, Werner; Hering, Peter

    1996-04-01

    With the development of infrared transmitting fibers, medical applications such as minimally invasive surgery are becoming feasible. In particular we investigate liquid core waveguides with an Er:YAG laser at 2.94 micrometer. Because of their advantages like variability in diameter, high flexibility, and mechanical stability, liquid core waveguides appear to be an alternative to conventional IR waveguides. In this work we present two types of liquid CCl4 filled lightguides that have been developed with plastic tube and quartz capillary as cladding. The former with an inner diameter of 1.6 mm showed an attenuation of 2.6 dB/m at 2.94 micrometer. For the quartz glass capillary with an inner diameter of 550 micrometers an attenuation of approximately 4.8 dB/m was determined in first experimental results. Due to the great flexibility and the high mechanical stability of both lightguides, bending radii below 10 mm are possible. Transmission losses depending on bending radii are discussed. A comparison between measurements with an IR-spectrometer and an Er:YAG laser shows that a minimum transmission loss of 2 dB/m can be achieved.

  1. Efficient decomposition of liquid waste containing EDTA by advanced oxidation nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) present in the liquid waste was demonstrated by photocatalytic oxidation route by using nanoparticles of anatase titania. Nano sized titania photocatalyst was synthesized using sol-gel method coupled with ultrasonication mode and characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, BET, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and TG-DTA. A cylindrical photoreactor was employed for the degradation studies. Five milligram of the nano anatase TiO2 + 0.5 ml of 30% H2O2 were employed as catalysts for the degradation studies of 1,000 mg/L EDTA. EDTA degradation was followed by a complexometric titration method. Complete degradation of 1,000 mg/L EDTA could be achieved in 90 min and the photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized titania photocatalyst was higher than that of P-25 TiO2 for EDTA degradation. The influence of pH on the degradation of EDTA follow the order acidic > neutral > alkaline. More than ten fold increases in the decontamination factors were obtained for the chemical precipitation step for the liquid waste containing degraded EDTA compared to liquid waste without EDTA degradation. (author)

  2. Advances and perspectives in catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons in liquid phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This review article summarizes recent advances in catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons, especially presents two strategies for activation of C-H bonds or molecular oxygen. Based on our own research results, the applications of the two methods in the oxidation of cyclohexane, toluene and ethyl benzene, etc. are introduced, and the perspectives of the two methods are also discussed.

  3. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonal, Digby D.; Marx, Brian M.; Ahn, Sejin; Ruiz, Julio de; Soundararajan, Balaji; Smith, Morgan; Coulson, Wendy

    2005-06-15

    Various forms of general and localized corrosion represent principal threats to the integrity of DOE liquid waste storage tanks. These tanks, which are of a single wall or double wall design, depending upon their age, are fabricated from welded carbon steel and contain a complex waste-form comprised of NaOH and NaNO3, along with trace amounts of phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, and chloride. Because waste leakage can have a profound environmental impact, considerable interest exists in predicting the accumulation of corrosion damage, so as to more effectively schedule maintenance and repair.

  4. Design of the reactor vessel inspection robot for the advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consortium of four universities and Oak Ridge National Laboratory designed a prototype wall-crawling robot to perform weld inspection in an advanced nuclear reactor. The restrictions of the inspection environment presented major challenges to the team. These challenges were met in the prototype, which has been tested in a mock non-hostile environment and shown to perform as expected, as detailed in this report

  5. Advanced conceptual design report. Phase II. Liquid effluent treatment and disposal Project W-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Advanced Conceptual Design Report (ACDR) provides a documented review and analysis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR), WHC-SD-W252-CDR-001, June 30, 1993. The ACDR provides further design evaluation of the major design approaches and uncertainties identified in the original CDR. The ACDR will provide a firmer basis for the both the design approach and the associated planning for the performance of the Definitive Design phase of the project

  6. Advanced conceptual design report. Phase II. Liquid effluent treatment and disposal Project W-252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-31

    This Advanced Conceptual Design Report (ACDR) provides a documented review and analysis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR), WHC-SD-W252-CDR-001, June 30, 1993. The ACDR provides further design evaluation of the major design approaches and uncertainties identified in the original CDR. The ACDR will provide a firmer basis for the both the design approach and the associated planning for the performance of the Definitive Design phase of the project.

  7. Advanced techniques for analytic liquid wastes management in the Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JNFS Rokkasho reprocessing plant is a large scale commercial reprocessing plant. Liquid waste treatment relies on concentration by evaporation. The management of liquid wastes is rather sophisticated and implies, beside the organic wastes, sorting out between process and non-process, acidic and salt-bearing, tritiated and low tritiated streams and also according to their level of activity. A particular attention had to be paid to the analytical wastes, as their particularity is to contain not only a significant amount of radioactivity but also some fissile material and exotic chemicals which are useful for analytical purpose but unwanted in the main process mainly because of their corrosive and chelating properties. The analytical wastes are sorted out according to their activity level and fissile material content. On the one hand, a specific process has been developed to recover the bulk of plutonium from the analytical wastes. On the other hand, the foreseeable amount of unwanted chemicals (such as chloride ions) has been drastically reduced by carefully selecting all the analytical methods either by modification of already known methods or in some cases by working out new methods

  8. Gas and liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection for environmental speciation analysis — advances and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpunar, Joanna; McSheehy, Shona; Połeć, Kasia; Vacchina, Véronique; Mounicou, Sandra; Rodriguez, Isaac; Łobiński, Ryszard

    2000-07-01

    Recent advances in the coupling of gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) and their role in trace element speciation analysis of environmental materials are presented. The discussion is illustrated with three research examples concerning the following topics: (i) development and coupling of multicapillary microcolumn GC with ICP MS for speciation of organotin in sediment and biological tissue samples; (ii) speciation of arsenic in marine algae by size-exclusion-anion-exchange HPLC-ICP MS; and (iii) speciation of cadmium in plant cell cultures by size-exclusion HPLC-ICP MS. Particular attention is paid to the problem of signal identification in ICP MS chromatograms; the potential of electrospray MS/MS for this purpose is highlighted.

  9. An advanced multidimensional method for structural and hydrodynamic analysis of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced multidimensional method for structural and hydrodynamic analysis of piping systems of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors under various accident loads is described. The method couples a two-dimensional finite difference hydrodynamic technique with a three-dimensional finite element structural dynamics program. In the analysis, an elbow hydrodynamic model has been developed to account for the effect of global elbow motion. Treatment is provided for calculating fluid motion in the vicinity of the isolated flow region, rigid obstacle, and baffle plates, which commonly occurs in the in-line components. Also, an implicit time-integration scheme has been developed for structural analysis under long-duration accident loads. Three sample problems are given, dealing with analyses of (a) multidimensional fluid-structure interaction, (b) hydrodynamics in the in-line components, and (c) seismic response of a pipe-elbow loop

  10. Advanced Scintillator Detector Concept (ASDC): A Concept Paper on the Physics Potential of Water-Based Liquid Scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, J R; Bergevin, M; Bernstein, A; Bignell, L; Blucher, E; Calaprice, F; Conrad, J M; Descamps, F B; Diwan, M V; Dwyer, D A; Dye, S T; Elagin, A; Feng, P; Grant, C; Grullon, S; Hans, S; Jaffe, D E; Kettell, S H; Klein, J R; Lande, K; Learned, J G; Luk, K B; Maricic, J; Marleau, P; Mastbaum, A; McDonough, W F; Oberauer, L; Gann, G D Orebi; Rosero, R; Rountree, S D; Sanchez, M C; Shaevitz, M H; Shokair, T M; Smy, M B; Strait, M; Svoboda, R; Tolich, N; Vagins, M R; van Bibber, K A; Viren, B; Vogelaar, R B; Wetstein, M J; Winslow, L; Wonsak, B; Worcester, E T; Wurm, M; Yeh, M; Zhang, C

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of Water-based Liquid Scintillator (WbLS), and the concurrent development of high-efficiency and high-precision-timing light sensors, has opened up the possibility for a new kind of large-scale detector capable of a very broad program of physics. The program would include determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and observation of CP violation with long-baseline neutrinos, searches for proton decay, ultra-precise solar neutrino measurements, geo- and supernova neutrinos including diff?use supernova antineutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay. We outline here the basic requirements of the Advanced Scintillation Detector Concept (ASDC), which combines the use of WbLS, doping with a number of potential isotopes for a range of physics goals, high efficiency and ultra-fast timing photosensors, and a deep underground location. We are considering such a detector at the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) far site, where the ASDC could operate in conjunction with the liquid argon t...

  11. Measurement of film thickness and void fraction in stratified horizontal gas-liquid flow using an advanced ultrasonic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this work is to present the development and assembling of a new ultrasonic system for the dynamic measurements of liquid film thickness, void fraction and liquid speed of air-water two-phase flow in a horizontal circular pipe test section by using an advanced time averaging ultrasonic technique. Together we present the experimental results of the system tests and its performance on different static and dynamic conditions of stratified air-water flow. In a stratified air-water flow through the horizontal circular pipe, one part of ultrasound pulse discharged from an emitter-receiver transducer, placed at bottom of tube, will be transmitted through the water and then reflected back to the same transducer from air-water or tube wall-water interfaces. These signals can be acquired by an oscilloscope over a period of time, stored on a computer and then plotted as the waveforms. The transit time of a pulse is calculated and converted to the distance between the interfaces, as the sound velocity in water is known at a given temperature. In this way it is possible to determine both water film thickness and void fraction. Other parameters could be deduced too as the wall thickness and the inner diameter of pipe. To determine the liquid speed a pair of ultrasonic transducers were placed respectively upstream and downstream outside tube wall on the same side. The difference in the transit time between the pair of the transducers can be measured and is used to calculate the water speed in the tube. (author)

  12. Recent advances and trends in the liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, André; Venter, Pieter; Pasch, Harald

    2016-01-22

    Flavonoids have elicited significant attention as a result of their importance in plants, their influence on the properties of natural-product derived commodities and especially as a consequence of their purported health benefits. Research in all of these fields relies heavily on accurate analytical data, and in this LC-MS has come to play an influential role by allowing relatively fast tentative identification and accurate quantification of low levels of flavonoids in a variety of matrices. The field has undergone rapid expansion in the last decade due to important developments in both HPLC and MS instrumentation, which nowadays allow much faster and more accurate analysis of flavonoids. This contribution aims to provide an overview of these developments and their application in flavonoid analysis since 2009. The discussion is focussed first on methodologies which provide improved LC separation of flavonoids in terms of speed and/or resolution, including ultra high pressure LC (UHPLC), monolithic and superficially porous phases, high temperature LC (HTLC) and comprehensive two-dimensional LC (LC×LC). The fundamental background relevant to each of these will be briefly outlined, as well as the implications and promise of their hyphenation to MS. Secondly, the possibilities and limitations of a range of the latest MS instruments available in combination with advanced LC analysis will be discussed, including ion trap, triple quadrupole, time-of-flight, Orbitrap, ion mobility and various hybrid instruments. Examples from the latest literature will be used to illustrate the performance gains achievable in flavonoid analysis by the hyphenation of advanced LC separation and high-end MS instrumentation. PMID:26718188

  13. Liquid sloshing in gravity driven water pool of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor - pool liquid under design seismic load and slosh control studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloshing phenomenon is well understood in regular cylindrical and rectangular liquid tanks subjected to earthquake. However, seismic behaviour of water in complex geometry such as a sectored annular tank, e.g., Gravity Driven Water Pool (GDWP) which is located in Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) need to be investigated in detail in the view of safety significance. Initially, for validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) procedure, square and four sectored square tanks are taken. Slosh height and liquid pressure are calculated over time through theoretical and experimental procedures. Results from theoretical and experimental approaches are compared with CFD results and found to be in agreement. The present work has two main objectives. The first one is to investigate the sloshing behaviour in an un-baffled and baffled three dimensional single sector of GDWP of AHWR under sinusoidal excitation. Other one is to study the sloshing in GDWP water using simulated seismic load along the three orthogonal directions. This simulated seismic load is generated from design basis floor response spectrum data (FRS) of AHWR building. For this, the annular tank is modelled along with water and numerical simulation is carried out. The sinusoidal and earthquake excitations are applied as acceleration force along with gravity. For the earthquake case, acceleration-time history is generated compatible to the design FRS of AHWR building. The free surface is captured by Volume of Fluid (VOF) technique and the fluid domain is solved by finite volume method while the structural domain is solved by finite element approach. Un-baffled and baffled tank configurations are compared to show the reduction in wave height under excitation. The interaction between the fluid and pool wall deformation is simulated using a partitioned fluid-structure coupling. In the earthquake case, a user subroutine function is developed to convert FRS in to time history of acceleration in three directions

  14. Advanced far infrared blocked impurity band detectors based on germanium liquid phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, C. S.

    1998-01-01

    This research has shown that epilayers with residual impurity concentrations of 5 x 10(sup 13) cm(exp -3) can be grown by producing the purest Pb available in the world. These epilayers have extremely low minority acceptor concentrations, which is ideal for fabrication of IR absorbing layers. The Pb LPE growth of Ge also has the advantageous property of gettering Cu from the epilayer and the substrate. Epilayers have been grown with intentional Sb doping for IR absorption on lightly doped substrates. This research has proven that properly working Ge BIB detectors can be fabricated from the liquid phase as long as pure enough solvents are available. The detectors have responded at reach minimum wavenumbers. Optimization of the Sb doping concentration should further decrease the photoionization energy of these detectors. Ge BIB detectors have been fabricated that respond to 60 cm(exp -1) with low responsivity. Through reduction of the minority residual impurities, detector performance has reached responsivities of 1 A/W. These detectors have exhibited quantum efficiency and NEP values that rival conventional photoconductors and are expected to provide a much more sensitive tool for new scientific discoveries in a number of fields, including solid state studies, astronomy, and cosmology.

  15. Recent advances in low-level β-counting by liquid scintillation instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work attempts to solve problems for measurement 3H and 32P activity. A measurement of tritium activity in materials is desired for neutron experiments such as a fusion reactor blanket experiment and a neutron flux monitor with 6Li(n,α)3H reaction. In such studies, lithium-containing pellets are usually irradiated by neutrons and the tritium produced in them is measured with a liquid scintillation counter. Tritium technique for Li2CO3 is the subject of interest in the present study because this compound is well soluble and easy to use it. The 32P is important nuclide in the in-system neutron spectrometry due to the following reactions: 31P(n,γ)32P, 32S(n,p)32P and 35Cl(n,α)32P. For the reasons of similarity with Li2CO3, NH4PH2O2, CH3SO2CH3 and NH4Cl were selected for measurement of 32P activity. (J.P.N.)

  16. Recent advances in exploiting ionic liquids for biomolecules: Solubility, stability and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapragasam, Magaret; Moniruzzaman, Muhammad; Goto, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    The technological utility of biomolecules (e.g. proteins, enzymes and DNA) can be significantly enhanced by combining them with ionic liquids (ILs) - potentially attractive "green" and "designer" solvents - rather than using in conventional organic solvents or water. In recent years, ILs have been used as solvents, cosolvents, and reagents for biocatalysis, biotransformation, protein preservation and stabilization, DNA solubilization and stabilization, and other biomolecule-based applications. Using ILs can dramatically enhance the structural and chemical stability of proteins, DNA, and enzymes. This article reviews the recent technological developments of ILs in protein-, enzyme-, and DNA-based applications. We discuss the different routes to increase biomolecule stability and activity in ILs, and the design of biomolecule-friendly ILs that can dissolve biomolecules with minimum alteration to their structure. This information will be helpful to design IL-based processes in biotechnology and the biological sciences that can serve as novel and selective processes for enzymatic reactions, protein and DNA stability, and other biomolecule-based applications. PMID:27312484

  17. Advanced liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry interface based on electron ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiello, A; Famiglini, G; Pierini, E; Palma, P; Trufelli, H

    2007-07-15

    Major progress in interfacing liquid chromatography and electron ionization mass spectrometry is presented. The minimalism of the first prototype, called the Direct-EI interface, has been widely refined, improved, and applied to modern instrumentation. The simple interfacing principle is based on the straight connection between a nanoHPLC system and a mass spectrometer equipped with an EI source forming a solid and reliable unicum resembling the immediacy and straightforwardness of GC/MS. The interface shows a superior performance in the analysis of small-medium molecular weight compounds, especially when compared to its predecessors, and a unique trait that excels particularly in the following aspects: (1) It delivers high-quality, fully library matchable mass spectra of most sub-1 kDa molecules amenable by HPLC. (2) It is a chemical ionization free interface (unless operated intentionally) with accurate reproduction of the expected isotope ion abundances. (3) Response is never influenced by matrix components in the sample or in the mobile phase (nonvolatile salts are also well accepted). A deep evaluation of these aspects is presented and discussed in detail. Other characteristics of the interface performance such as limits of detections, range of linear response, and intra- and interday signal stability were also considered. The usefulness of the interface has been tested in a few real-world applications where matrix components played a detrimental role with other LC/MS techniques. PMID:17569502

  18. Advanced far infrared blocked impurity band detectors based on germanium liquid phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, C S [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Engineering Div.

    1998-05-01

    This research has shown that epilayers with residual impurity concentrations of 5 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3} can be grown by producing the purest Pb available in the world. These epilayers have extremely low minority acceptor concentrations, which is ideal for fabrication of IR absorbing layers. The Pb LPE growth of Ge also has the advantageous property of gettering Cu from the epilayer and the substrate. Epilayers have been grown with intentional Sb doping for IR absorption on lightly doped substrates. This research has proven that properly working Ge BIB detectors can be fabricated from the liquid phase as long as pure enough solvents are available. The detectors have responded at proper wavelengths when reversed biased even though the response did not quite reach minimum wavenumbers. Optimization of the Sb doping concentration should further decrease the photoionization energy of these detectors. Ge BIB detectors have been fabricated that respond to 60 cm{sup {minus}1} with low responsivity. Through reduction of the minority residual impurities, detector performance has reached responsivities of 1 A/W. These detectors have exhibited quantum efficiency and NEP values that rival conventional photoconductors and are expected to provide a much more sensitive tool for new scientific discoveries in a number of fields, including solid state studies, astronomy, and cosmology.

  19. Development of insulating coatings for liquid metal blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that self-cooled liquid metal blankets are feasible only with electrically insulating coatings at the duct walls. The requirements on the insulation properties are estimated by simple analytical models. Candidate insulator materials are selected based on insulating properties and thermodynamic consideration. Different fabrication technologies for insulating coatings are described. The status of the knowledge on the most crucial feasibility issue, the degradation of the resisivity under irradiation, is reviewed

  20. Advanced treatment of liquid swine manure using physico-chemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelme-Ayala, Pamela [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); El-Din, Mohamed Gamal, E-mail: mgamalel-din@ualberta.ca [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Smith, Richard [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Code, Kenneth R. [IOWC Technologies Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Leonard, Jerry [Edmonton Waste Management Centre of Excellence, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-02-28

    Research highlights: {yields} Swine manure was treated by coagulation/flocculation followed by an oxidation step. {yields} This physicochemical treatment removed suspended solids, total organic carbon and nutrients. {yields} Complete total coliforms reduction was achieved in diluted swine manure samples. {yields} Levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, and carbon dioxide gases were reduced. {yields} Reduced sludge production was achieved at natural swine manure pH. - Abstract: In this study, liquid swine manure was treated by physico-chemical treatment, including coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation followed by an oxidation step as a polishing treatment at a bench-scale level. A superabsorbent polymer (SAP) and a mineral and salt formulation able to generate molecular iodine were used as coagulant and oxidant agents, respectively. The results indicated that SAP at a concentration of 1.25 g/L was able to reduce 32% of the initial total suspended solids (TSS) in experiments using supernatant at its natural pH. Following the SAP application, 82% of initial ammonia (NH{sub 3}), 78% of initial total organic carbon (TOC), and 93% of the total coliforms were reduced using 40 mg/L of free iodine. In experiments performed with diluted supernatant (five-fold dilution), it was found that SAP at a concentration of 0.5 g/L was capable of reducing 80% of the initial TSS in experiments at pH 11. A leaching study was conducted to assess the safety of sludge disposal. From the leaching tests using non-diluted supernatant, it was found that 24% of the chloride (Cl{sup -}) and 50% of the phosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) ions retained in the sludge leached to the ultrapure water after 48 h. Potential contamination due to leaching of NH{sub 3}, nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) and nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) was found to be statistically insignificant.

  1. Advanced Liquid-Free, Piezoresistive, SOI-Based Pressure Sensors for Measurements in Harsh Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha-Duong Ngo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present and discuss two innovative liquid-free SOI sensors for pressure measurements in harsh environments. The sensors are capable of measuring pressures at high temperatures. In both concepts media separation is realized using a steel membrane. The two concepts represent two different strategies for packaging of devices for use in harsh environments and at high temperatures. The first one is a “one-sensor-one-packaging_technology” concept. The second one uses a standard flip-chip bonding technique. The first sensor is a “floating-concept”, capable of measuring pressures at temperatures up to 400 °C (constant load with an accuracy of 0.25% Full Scale Output (FSO. A push rod (mounted onto the steel membrane transfers the applied pressure directly to the center-boss membrane of the SOI-chip, which is placed on a ceramic carrier. The chip membrane is realized by Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE or Bosch Process. A novel propertied chip housing employing a sliding sensor chip that is fixed during packaging by mechanical preloading via the push rod is used, thereby avoiding chip movement, and ensuring optimal push rod load transmission. The second sensor can be used up to 350 °C. The SOI chips consists of a beam with an integrated centre-boss with was realized using KOH structuring and DRIE. The SOI chip is not “floating” but bonded by using flip-chip technology. The fabricated SOI sensor chip has a bridge resistance of 3250 Ω. The realized sensor chip has a sensitivity of 18 mV/µm measured using a bridge current of 1 mA.

  2. Advanced treatment of liquid swine manure using physico-chemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Swine manure was treated by coagulation/flocculation followed by an oxidation step. → This physicochemical treatment removed suspended solids, total organic carbon and nutrients. → Complete total coliforms reduction was achieved in diluted swine manure samples. → Levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, and carbon dioxide gases were reduced. → Reduced sludge production was achieved at natural swine manure pH. - Abstract: In this study, liquid swine manure was treated by physico-chemical treatment, including coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation followed by an oxidation step as a polishing treatment at a bench-scale level. A superabsorbent polymer (SAP) and a mineral and salt formulation able to generate molecular iodine were used as coagulant and oxidant agents, respectively. The results indicated that SAP at a concentration of 1.25 g/L was able to reduce 32% of the initial total suspended solids (TSS) in experiments using supernatant at its natural pH. Following the SAP application, 82% of initial ammonia (NH3), 78% of initial total organic carbon (TOC), and 93% of the total coliforms were reduced using 40 mg/L of free iodine. In experiments performed with diluted supernatant (five-fold dilution), it was found that SAP at a concentration of 0.5 g/L was capable of reducing 80% of the initial TSS in experiments at pH 11. A leaching study was conducted to assess the safety of sludge disposal. From the leaching tests using non-diluted supernatant, it was found that 24% of the chloride (Cl-) and 50% of the phosphate (PO43-) ions retained in the sludge leached to the ultrapure water after 48 h. Potential contamination due to leaching of NH3, nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) was found to be statistically insignificant.

  3. Principles, techniques and recent advances in fine particle aggregation for solid-liquid separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste water discharged from various chemical and nuclear processing operations contains dissolved metal species that are highly toxic and, in some cases, radioactive. When the waste is acidic in nature, neutralization using reagents such as lime is commonly practiced to reduce both the acidity and the amount of waste (Kuyucak et al.). The sludge that results from the neutralization process contains metal oxide or hydroxide precipitates that are colloidal in nature and is highly stable. Destabilization of colloidal suspensions can be achieved by aggregation of fines into larger sized agglomerates. Aggregation of fines is a complex phenomenon involving a multitude of forces that control the interparticle interaction. In order to understand the colloidal behavior of suspensions a fundamental knowledge of physicochemical properties that determine the various forces is essential. In this review, a discussion of basic principles governing the aggregation of colloidal fines, various ways in which interparticle forces can be manipulated to achieve the desired aggregation response and recent advances in experimental techniques to probe the interfacial characteristics that control the flocculation behavior are discussed

  4. Apparent dynamic contact angle of an advancing gas--liquid meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steady motion of an advancing meniscus in a gas-filled capillary tube involves a delicate balance of capillary, viscous, and intermolecular forces. The limit of small capillary numbers Ca (dimensionless speeds) is analyzed here with a matched asymptotic analysis that links the outer capillary region to the precursor film in front of the meniscus through a lubricating film. The meniscus shape in the outer region is constructed and the apparent dynamic contact angle Θ that the meniscus forms with the solid surface is derived as a function of the capillary number, the capillary radius, and the Hamaker's constant for intermolecular forces, under conditions of weak gas--solid interaction, which lead to fast spreading of the precursor film and weak intermolecular forces relative to viscous forces within the lubricating film. The dependence on intermolecular forces is very weak and the contact angle expression has a tight upper bound tan Θ=7.48 Ca1/3 for thick films, which is independent of the Hamaker constant. This upper bound is in very good agreement with existing experimental data for wetting fluids in any capillary and for partially wetting fluids in a prewetted capillary. Significant correction to the Ca1/3 dependence occurs only at very low Ca, where the intermolecular forces become more important and tan Θ diverges slightly from the above asymptotic behavior toward lower values

  5. Noncircular Orifice Holes and Advanced Fabrication Techniques for Liquid Rocket Injectors (Phases 1, 2, 3, and 4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchale, R. M.; Nurick, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive summary of the results of a cold-flow and hot-fire experimental study of the mixing and atomization characteristics of injector elements incorporating noncircular orifices is presented. Both liquid/liquid and gas/liquid element types are discussed. Unlike doublet and triplet elements (circular orifices only) were investigated for the liquid/liquid case while concentric tube elements were investigated for the gas/liquid case. It is concluded that noncircular shape can be employed to significant advantage in injector design for liquid rocket engines.

  6. Recent advances on multidimensional liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry for proteomics: From qualitative to quantitative analysis—A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We discuss progress of MDLC–MS systems in qualitative and quantitative proteomics. ► Both “Top-down” and “bottom-up” strategies are discussed in detail. ► On-line integrations of stable isotope labeling process are highlighted. ► This review gives insights into further directions for higher level integration. - Abstract: With the acceleration of proteome research, increasing attention has been paid to multidimensional liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (MDLC–MS) due to its high peak capacity and separation efficiency. Recently, many efforts have been put to improve MDLC-based strategies including “top-down” and “bottom-up” to enable highly sensitive qualitative and quantitative analysis of proteins, as well as accelerate the whole analytical procedure. Integrated platforms with combination of sample pretreatment, multidimensional separations and identification were also developed to achieve high throughput and sensitive detection of proteomes, facilitating highly accurate and reproducible quantification. This review summarized the recent advances of such techniques and their applications in qualitative and quantitative analysis of proteomes.

  7. Advanced fabrication method for the preparation of MOF thin films: Liquid-phase epitaxy approach meets spin coating method.

    KAUST Repository

    Chernikova, Valeriya

    2016-07-14

    Here we report a new and advanced method for the fabrication of highly oriented/polycrystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films. Building on the attractive features of the liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) approach, a facile spin coating method was implemented to generate MOF thin films in a high-throughput fashion. Advantageously, this approach offers a great prospective to cost-effectively construct thin-films with a significantly shortened preparation time and a lessened chemicals and solvents consumption, as compared to the conventional LPE-process. Certainly, this new spin-coating approach has been implemented successfully to construct various MOF thin films, ranging in thickness from a few micrometers down to the nanometer scale, spanning 2-D and 3-D benchmark MOF materials including Cu2(bdc)2•xH2O, Zn2(bdc)2•xH2O, HKUST-1 and ZIF-8. This method was appraised and proved effective on a variety of substrates comprising functionalized gold, silicon, glass, porous stainless steel and aluminum oxide. The facile, high-throughput and cost-effective nature of this approach, coupled with the successful thin film growth and substrate versatility, represents the next generation of methods for MOF thin film fabrication. Thereby paving the way for these unique MOF materials to address a wide range of challenges in the areas of sensing devices and membrane technology.

  8. Tests of reduced-scale seismic isolation bearings for the U.S. Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes a portion of a thorough series of tests on several different designs of reduced-scale high damping rubber isolators for the U.S. Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program. A formal procurement specification has been developed by the program participants for purchasing bearings of several different scale factors and designs. The reduced-scale bearings in the specification have geometric scale factors of 1/4 and 1/8 so that dynamic tests can be performed at realistic rates, The 1/8-scale bearings also have a range of rubber layer thicknesses so that the effects of shape factor on mechanical properties may be determined. Tests of bearings from two suppliers using one of the 1/8-scale bearing designs are summarized here. The test program includes horizontal shear tests to moderate and high shear strains at a range of axial loads and frequencies, as well as vertical tests and failure tests to quantify the margin of safety in the actual design. Load-History effects including short-term stiffness reduction and long-term stiffness recovery are also under study. The primary focus of these tests is on characterizing the behavior of the compounds proposed by the bearing suppliers

  9. Tests of reduced-scale seismic isolation bearings for the U.S. Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, P.W.; Aiken, I.D.; Kelly, J.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Earthquake Engineering Research Center; Gluekler, E.L. [General Electric Co., San Jose, CA (United States); Tajirian, F.F. [Bechtel National Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper summarizes a portion of a thorough series of tests on several different designs of reduced-scale high damping rubber isolators for the U.S. Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program. A formal procurement specification has been developed by the program participants for purchasing bearings of several different scale factors and designs. The reduced-scale bearings in the specification have geometric scale factors of 1/4 and 1/8 so that dynamic tests can be performed at realistic rates, The 1/8-scale bearings also have a range of rubber layer thicknesses so that the effects of shape factor on mechanical properties may be determined. Tests of bearings from two suppliers using one of the 1/8-scale bearing designs are summarized here. The test program includes horizontal shear tests to moderate and high shear strains at a range of axial loads and frequencies, as well as vertical tests and failure tests to quantify the margin of safety in the actual design. Load-History effects including short-term stiffness reduction and long-term stiffness recovery are also under study. The primary focus of these tests is on characterizing the behavior of the compounds proposed by the bearing suppliers.

  10. Advanced solvent extraction and ion-exchange processes for the treatment of low and medium level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exhaustive decontamination of three important heat generating and/or alpha bearing liquid wastes for decategorization purposes was investigated through the implementation of neutral bifunctional or macrocyclic extractants (CMPO or crown-ethers) using liquid-liquid solvent extraction, supported liquid membranes or extraction chromatography techniques. Suspended bed columns filled with very specific inorganic ion exchangers like ammonium molybdophosphate were also tested. Improvement of volume reduction techniques for radioactive liquid waste focused on the development and scaling-up of electrochemical ion exchange which demonstrated good capabilities to treat a wide range of radioactive liquid wastes

  11. Lithium-cooled blankets for advanced tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the Tokamak Power System Studies (TPSS) at Argonne National Lab. during fiscal year 1985 was to explore innovative design concepts that have the potential for significant enhancement of the attractiveness of a tokamak-based power plant. Activities in the area of plasma engineering resulted in a reference reactor concept, which served as a model for the impurity control and first-wall/blanket/shield studies. The liquid-metal-cooled first-wall/blanket/shield design activity was centered around the vanadium alloy structure and liquid-lithium coolant leading blanket concept as identified by the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study (BCSS). A ferritic steel structure and a LiPb breeder were considered as backup options. The magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) effects associated with self-cooled liquid-metal blanket/first-wall systems are substantially reduced by the lower magnetic fields required for higher plasmas, the lower neutron wall loading resulting from reduced power output, and the smaller reactor size of the TPSS model reactor. Therefore, improved performance characteristics of self-cooled liquid-metal blanket concepts are achievable mainly because the design constraints are more relaxed compared to the BCSS guidelines. Key aspects of the designs evaluated in the current study include the following: (1) design simplicity; (2) use of the first wall as an impurity control device; (3) modular first-wall/blanket/reflector/shield construction; and (4) integrated first-wall/blanket/reflector/shield

  12. Data management and communication networks for Man-Machine Interface System in Korea Advanced Liquid MEtal Reactor : its functionality and design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DAta management and Communication NETworks(DACONET), which it is designed as a subsystem for Man-Machine Interface System of Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor(KALIMER MMIS) and advanced design concept is approached, is described. The DACONET has its roles of providing the real-time data transmission and communication paths between MMIS systems, providing the quality data for protection, monitoring and control of KALIMER and logging the static and dynamic behavioral data during KALIMER operation. The DACONET is characterized as the distributed real-time system architecture with high performance. Future direction, in which advanced technology is being continually applied to Man-Machine Interface System development and communication networks of KALIMER MMIS

  13. Data management and communication networks for man-machine interface system in Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor : Its functionality and design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Kyung Ho; Park, Gun Ok; Suh, Sang Moon; Kim, Jang Yeol; Kwon, Kee Choon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The DAta management and COmmunication NETworks(DACONET), which it is designed as a subsystem for Man-Machine Interface System of Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor (KALIMER MMIS) and advanced design concept is approached, is described. The DACONET has its roles of providing the real-time data transmission and communication paths between MMIS systems, providing the quality data for protection, monitoring and control of KALIMER and logging the static and dynamic behavioral data during KALIMER operation. The DACONET is characterized as the distributed real-time system architecture with high performance. Future direction, in which advanced technology is being continually applied to Man-Machine Interface System development of Nuclear Power Plants, will be considered for designing data management and communication networks of KALIMER MMIS. 9 refs., 1 fig. (Author)

  14. Measurement and correlation of supercritical CO2 and ionic liquid systems for design of advanced unit operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi MACHIDA; Ryosuke TAGUCHI; Yoshiyuki SATO; Louw J.FLORUSSE; Cor J.PETERS; Richard L.SMITH,Jr

    2009-01-01

    Ionic liquids combined with supercritical fluid technology hold great promise as working solvents for developing compact processes. Ionic liquids, which are organic molten salts, typically have extremely low volatility and high functionality, but possess high viscos-ities, surface tensions and low diffusion coefficients, which can limit their applicability. CO2, on the other hand,especially in its supercritical state, is a green solvent that can be used advantageously when combined with the ionic liquid to provide viscosity and surface tension reduction and to promote mass transfer. The solubility of CO2 in the ionic liquid is key to estimating the important physical properties that include partition coefficients, viscosities,densities, interfacial tensions, thermal conductivities and heat capacities needed in contactor design. In this work, we examine a subset of available high pressure pure component ionic liquid PVT data and high pressure CO2-ionic liquid solubility data and report new correlations for CO2-ionic liquid systems with equations of state that have some industrial applications including: (1) general, (2) fuel desulfurization, (3) CO2 capture, and (4) chiral separation.New measurements of solubility data for the CO2 and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate, [bmim][OcSO4] system are reported and correlated. In the correlation of the CO2 ionic liquid phase behavior, the Peng-Robinson and the Sanchez-Lacombe equations of state were considered and are compared. It is shown that excellent correlation of CO2 solubility can be obtained with either equation and they share some common characteristics regarding inter-action parameters. In the Sanchez-Lacombe equation,parameters that are derived from the supercritical region were found to be important for obtaining good correlation of the CO2-ionic liquid solubility data.

  15. A study on the development of advanced models to predict the critical heat flux for water and liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon in the two-phase convective flows has been an important issue in the fields of design and safety analysis of light water reactor (LWR) as well as sodium cooled liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). Especially in the LWR application many physical aspects of the CHF phenomenon are understood and reliable correlations and mechanistic models to predict the CHF condition have been proposed. However, there are few correlations and models which are applicable to liquid metals. Compared with water, liquid metals show a divergent picture for boiling pattern. Therefore, the CHF conditions obtained from investigations with water cannot be applied to liquid metals. In this work a mechanistic model to predict the CHF of water and a correlation for liquid metals are developed. First, a mechanistic model to predict the CHF in flow boiling at low quality was developed based on the liquid sublayer dryout mechanism. In this approach the CHF is assumed to occur when a vapor blanket isolates the liquid sublayer from bulk liquid and then the liquid entering the sublayer falls short of balancing the rate of sublayer dryout by vaporization. Therefore, the vapor blanket velocity is the key parameter. In this work the vapor blanket velocity is theoretically determined based on mass, energy, and momentum balance and finally the mechanistic model to predict the CHF in flow boiling at low quality is developed. The accuracy of the present model is evaluated by comparing model predictions with the experimental data and tabular data of look-up tables. The predictions of the present model agree well with extensive CHF data. In the latter part a correlation to predict the CHF for liquid metals is developed based on the flow excursion mechanism. By using Baroczy two-phase frictional pressure drop correlation and Ledinegg instability criterion, the relationship between the CHF of liquid metals and the principal parameters is derived and finally the

  16. Advanced Materials and Manufacturing for Low-Cost, High-Performance Liquid Rocket Combustion Chambers, Phase II Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Silicided niobium alloy (C103) combustion chambers have been used extensively in both NASA and DoD liquid rocket propulsion systems. Niobium alloys offer a good...

  17. A theoretical model of the mean grain size evolution during the liquid phase sintering in CANDU advanced fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to enhance the fuel burnup in CANDU reactors, the microstructure of the fuel pellet must by modified, in order to accommodate the fission gas released during irradiation. A large grain size structure is able to retain a large fraction of the released gases. The addition of some oxides to the UO2 powder leads to the liquid phase ocarina during sintering. Starting from the basic theory of the grain growth in solid and liquid phase sintering and from the experimental microstructure characterization, a model of the mean size evolution in the presence of very small liquid fraction is proposed. As a function of dopant concentration, solubility limits and liquid phase composition, this model explicitly takes account of the continuous distribution of the additive into the matrix during grain growth process of the wetting properties of the liquid phase and of all transfer processes governing the microstructure evolution: grain boundary diffusion, surface reaction and diffusion through the liquid phase. The model validation was done for UO2-Nb2O3 and UO2-TiO2 systems, in isothermal treatment at 1700 deg. C. The model predictions are confirmed by the qualitative and quantitative experimental results, given by SEM, X-ray diffraction investigations. (authors)

  18. Noncircular orifice holes and advanced fabrication techniques for liquid rocket injectors. Phase 3: Analytical and cold-flow experimental evaluation of rectangular concentric tube injector elements for gas/liquid application. Phase 4: Analytical and experimental evaluation of noncircular injector elements for gas/liquid and liquid/liquid application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchale, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of a cold-flow and hot-fire experimental study of the mixing and atomization characteristics of injector elements incorporating noncircular orifices. Both liquid/liquid and gas/liquid element types are discussed. Unlike doublet and triplet elements (circular orifices only) were investigated for the liquid/liquid case while concentric tube elements were investigated for the gas/liquid case. It is concluded that noncircular shape can be employed to significant advantage in injector design for liquid rocket engines.

  19. Advanced control of liquid water region in diffusion media of polymer electrolyte fuel cells through a dimensionless number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Chen, Ken S.

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, a three-dimension (3-D) model of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is employed to investigate the complex, non-isothermal, two-phase flow in the gas diffusion layer (GDL). Phase change in gas flow channels is explained, and a simplified approach accounting for phase change is incorporated into the fuel cell model. It is found that the liquid water contours in the GDL are similar along flow channels when the channels are subject to two-phase flow. Analysis is performed on a dimensionless parameter Da0 introduced in our previous paper [Y. Wang and K. S. Chen, Chemical Engineering Science 66 (2011) 3557-3567] and the parameter is further evaluated in a realistic fuel cell. We found that the GDL's liquid water (or liquid-free) region is determined by the Da0 number which lumps several parameters, including the thermal conductivity and operating temperature. By adjusting these factors, a liquid-free GDL zone can be created even though the channel stream is two-phase flow. Such a liquid-free zone is adjacent to the two-phase region, benefiting local water management, namely avoiding both severe flooding and dryness.

  20. Conceptual design of power conversion system for a fusion power reactor with self-cooled LiPb-blanket. EFDA Task TW2-TRP-PPCS12 - Deliverable 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For FPRs with self-cooled LiPb-blanket and He-cooled first wall and divertor a conceptual design of the power conversion system is developed with emphasis on component feasibility, safety, reliability and thermal efficiency. The resulting power conversion system with a steam turbine is based on proven technology for Na- and He-cooled fission reactors and is assessed to yield an overall net thermal plant efficiency of ∼40 % provided the high primary coolant temperatures of ∼700 deg C can be achieved. The required complexity of the five linked cooling systems can be expected to influence plant cost and reliability

  1. Liquid-metal-cooled, curved-crystal monochromator for Advanced Photon Source bending-magnet beamline 1-BM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a horizontally focusing curved-crystal monochromator that invokes a 4-point bending scheme and a liquid-metal cooling bath. The device has been designed for dispersive diffraction and spectroscopy in the 5--20 keV range, with a predicted focal spot size of ≤ 100 microm. To minimize thermal distortions and thermal equilibration time, the 355 x 32 x 0.8 mm crystal will be nearly half submerged in a bath of Ga-In-Sn-Zn alloy. The liquid metal thermally couples the crystal to the water-cooled Cu frame, while permitting the required crystal bending. Calculated thermal profiles and anticipated focusing properties are discussed

  2. Human Factors Process Task Analysis: Liquid Oxygen Pump Acceptance Test Procedure at the Advanced Technology Development Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diorio, Kimberly A.; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on Human Factors Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (HF PFMEA). HF PFMEA includes the following 10 steps: Describe mission; Define System; Identify human-machine; List human actions; Identify potential errors; Identify factors that effect error; Determine likelihood of error; Determine potential effects of errors; Evaluate risk; Generate solutions (manage error). The presentation also describes how this analysis was applied to a liquid oxygen pump acceptance test.

  3. Janus Solid-Liquid Interface Enabling Ultrahigh Charging and Discharging Rate for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiaxin; Hou, Yuyang; Duan, Yandong; Song, Xiaohe; Wei, Yi; Liu, Tongchao; Hu, Jiangtao; Guo, Hua; Zhuo, Zengqing; Liu, Lili; Chang, Zheng; Wang, Xiaowei; Zherebetskyy, Danylo; Fang, Yanyan; Lin, Yuan; Xu, Kang; Wang, Lin-Wang; Wu, Yuping; Pan, Feng

    2015-09-01

    LiFePO4 has long been held as one of the most promising battery cathode for its high energy storage capacity. Meanwhile, although extensive studies have been conducted on the interfacial chemistries in Li-ion batteries,1-3 little is known on the atomic level about the solid-liquid interface of LiFePO4/electrolyte. Here, we report battery cathode consisted with nanosized LiFePO4 particles in aqueous electrolyte with an high charging and discharging rate of 600 C (3600/600 = 6 s charge time, 1 C = 170 mAh g(-1)) reaching 72 mAh g(-1) energy storage (42% of the theoretical capacity). By contrast, the accessible capacity sharply decreases to 20 mAh g(-1) at 200 C in organic electrolyte. After a comprehensive electrochemistry tests and ab initio calculations of the LiFePO4-H2O and LiFePO4-EC (ethylene carbonate) systems, we identified the transient formation of a Janus hydrated interface in the LiFePO4-H2O system, where the truncated symmetry of solid LiFePO4 surface is compensated by the chemisorbed H2O molecules, forming a half-solid (LiFePO4) and half-liquid (H2O) amphiphilic coordination environment that eases the Li desolvation process near the surface, which makes a fast Li-ion transport across the solid/liquid interfaces possible. PMID:26305572

  4. Allylic ionic liquid electrolyte-assisted electrochemical surface passivation of LiCoO2 for advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Junyoung; Yim, Taeeun; Park, Jang Hoon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Lee, Sang Young; Kim, Young Gyu; Oh, Seung M.

    2014-08-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes have attracted much attention for use in advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries (LIB) owing to their nonvolatility, high conductivity, and great thermal stability. However, LIBs containing RTIL-electrolytes exhibit poor cyclability because electrochemical side reactions cause problematic surface failures of the cathode. Here, we demonstrate that a thin, homogeneous surface film, which is electrochemically generated on LiCoO2 from an RTIL-electrolyte containing an unsaturated substituent on the cation (1-allyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, AMPip-TFSI), can avert undesired side reactions. The derived surface film comprised of a high amount of organic species from the RTIL cations homogenously covered LiCoO2 with a <25 nm layer and helped suppress unfavorable thermal reactions as well as electrochemical side reactions. The superior performance of the cell containing the AMPip-TFSI electrolyte was further elucidated by surface, electrochemical, and thermal analyses.

  5. Advancement in stationary phase for peptide separation helps in protein identification: application to atheroma plaque proteomics using nano-chip liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delporte, Cédric; Noyon, Caroline; Raynal, Pierre; Dufour, Damien; Nève, Jean; Abts, Frederic; Haex, Martin; Zouaoui Boudjeltia, Karim; Van Antwerpen, Pierre

    2015-03-13

    In the last decades, proteomics has largely progressed. Mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography (LC) are generally used in proteomics. These techniques enable proper separation of peptides and good identification and/or quantification of them. Later, nano-scaled liquid chromatography, improvements of mass spectrometry resolution and sensitivity brought huge advancements. Enhancements in chemistry of chromatographic columns also brought interesting results. In the present work, the potency of identification of proteins by different nano-chip columns was studied and compared with classical LC column. The present study was applied to cardiovascular field where proteomics has shown to be highly helpful in research of new biomarkers. Protein extracts from atheroma plaques were used and proteomics data were compared. Results show that fewer spectra were acquired by the mass spectrometer when nano-chip columns were used instead of the classical ones. However, approximately 40% more unique peptides were identified by the recently optimized chip named Polaris-HR-chip-3C18 column, and 20% more proteins were identified. This fact leads to the identification of more low-abundance proteins. Many of them are involved in atheroma plaque development such as apolipoproteins, ceruloplasmin, etc. In conclusion, present data shows that recent developments of nanoLC column chemistry and dimensions enabled the improved detection and identification of low-abundance proteins in atheroma plaques. Several of them are of major interest in the field of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25680550

  6. Advanced liquid extraction and solid extractant procedures for ultratrace determination of rhenium by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two radiochemical procedures for determination of Re at the ultratrace level have been developed recently in our laboratories, one based on liquid extraction, the other one on a solid extractant (SEX). Decomposition of an irradiated sample prior to radiochemical separation is common to both procedures. Depending on sample character it is either microwave assisted digestion in concentrated HNO3 followed by evaporation with HF, H2O2 and HCl, or alkaline oxidative fusion with NaOH and Na2O2 at 900 deg C. For the liquid extraction of Re(VII), several agents were tested including tetraphenylarsonium chloride in chloroform, 2-butanone, and isoamylalcohol. The SEX procedure employs trialkyl-methylammonium chloride incorporated in modified polyacrylonitrile. The chemical yield of separation was determined using 188Re or 184,184mRe radiotracers, reactivation of the added Re inactive carrier was also an alternative. In both procedures, Au and Mo co-extract with Re, thus preliminary extraction with Zn(DDC)2 was applied in the liquid extraction, while a pre-separation mixed-bed column containing Zn(DDC)2 and polyantimonic acid (for 24Na retention), and additional masking of Au with thiourea was used in the SEX procedure. The 99Mo daughter, 99mTc, is not removed in the pre-separation due to close chemical properties of pertechnetate and perrhenate, and its 140.5 keV gamma line would interfere with the 137.1 keV line of 186Re. A lower redox potential of Re compared to Tc allows to reduce selectively the latter to a lower oxidation state which is not co-extracted with Re(VII). From several reducing agents tested, SnCl2 turned out to be most effective and selective enough under controlled conditions. Both RNAA procedures have been compared in terms of detection limits attainable (in the sub-ng g-1 range) and the ease of performance, and applied for Re determination in several biological and environmental reference materials

  7. Recent Advances in Anhydrous Solvents for CO2 Capture: Ionic Liquids, Switchable Solvents, and Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Youngjune; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa; Petit, Camille

    2015-01-01

    CO2 capture by amine scrubbing, which has a high CO2 capture capacity and a rapid reaction rate, is the most employed and investigated approach to date. There are a number of recent large-scale demonstrations including the Boundary Dam Carbon Capture Project by SaskPower in Canada that have reported successful implementations of aqueous amine solvent in CO2 capture from flue gases. The findings from these demonstrations will significantly advance the field of CO2 capture in the coming years. ...

  8. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6: Improved Liquid Steel Feeding for Slab Casters; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the development, construction and testing of the Electromagnetic Valve System (EVS), conducted as a project entitled ''Improved Liquid Steel Feeding System for Slab Casters''. This program ran from November 1992 to January 1995. Many of the technical issues in bringing the EVS to the steel industry were identified and resolved during the course of the program. During this time, significant hardware improvements in Westinghouse's electromagnetic valve were made to easily integrate it with existing continuous casting processes,. An improved refractory nozzle was developed and tested which had superior thermal shock and anti-cracking performance. In addition, several trials were conducted with molten steel to verify the proof-of-principle of the electromagnetic valve and its auxiliary equipment. However, improvements in other conventional pouring technologies have greatly diminished the potential value of this project to the steel industry. A such, the program w as canceled by the American Iron and Steel Institute after the conclusion of Phase I

  9. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6: Improved Liquid Steel Feeding for Slab Casters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Isaacson; Mike Slepian; Thomas Richter

    1999-06-30

    This report describes the development, construction and testing of the Electromagnetic Valve System (EVS), conducted as a project entitled ''Improved Liquid Steel Feeding System for Slab Casters''. This program ran from November 1992 to January 1995. Many of the technical issues in bringing the EVS to the steel industry were identified and resolved during the course of the program. During this time, significant hardware improvements in Westinghouse's electromagnetic valve were made to easily integrate it with existing continuous casting processes,. An improved refractory nozzle was developed and tested which had superior thermal shock and anti-cracking performance. In addition, several trials were conducted with molten steel to verify the proof-of-principle of the electromagnetic valve and its auxiliary equipment. However, improvements in other conventional pouring technologies have greatly diminished the potential value of this project to the steel industry. A such, the program w as canceled by the American Iron and Steel Institute after the conclusion of Phase I

  10. Advance concepts for conversion of syngas to liquids. Quarterly progress report No. 4, July 30, 1995--October 29, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei-Shing Eugene Dai; Petty, R.H. [Texaco R& D, Port Arthur, TX (United States); Ingram, C.; Szostak, R. [Clark Atlanta Univ., GA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Substitution of transition metals for either aluminum and/or phosphorus in the AlPO{sub 4}-11 framework is found to afford novel heterogeneous catalysts for liquid phase hydroxylation of phenol with hydrogen peroxide. AlPO{sub 4}-11 is more active than SAPO-11 and MgAPO-11 for phenol conversion to hydroquinone. The Bronsted acid sites of SAPO-11 and MgAPO-11 may promote the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, thus leading to lower phenol conversions. Substitution of divalent and trivalent metal cations, such as Fe, Co and Mn appears to significantly improve the conversion of phenol. The activity follows the order of FeAPO-11>FeMnAPO-11>CoAPO-11>MnAPO-11{much_gt}ALPO{sub 4}-11. FeAPO-11, FeMnAPO-11 and AlPO{sub 4}-11 give similar product selectivities of about 1:1 hydroquitione (HQ) to catechol (CT). MnAPO-11 and CoAPO-11 favor the production of catechol, particularly at low conversions. FeAPO-11 and TS-1 (titanium silicate with MFI topology) are comparable for the phenol conversions with TS-1 giving higher selectivities toward hydroquinone. The external surfaces of the catalysts plays a significant role in these oxidation reactions. MeAPO molecular sieves may be complementary to the metal silicalite catalysts for the catalytic oxidations in the manufacture of fine chemicals.

  11. Human Factors Process Task Analysis Liquid Oxygen Pump Acceptance Test Procedure for the Advanced Technology Development Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diorio, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    A process task analysis effort was undertaken by Dynacs Inc. commencing in June 2002 under contract from NASA YA-D6. Funding was provided through NASA's Ames Research Center (ARC), Code M/HQ, and Industrial Engineering and Safety (IES). The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Engineering Development Contract (EDC) Task Order was 5SMA768. The scope of the effort was to conduct a Human Factors Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (HF PFMEA) of a hazardous activity and provide recommendations to eliminate or reduce the effects of errors caused by human factors. The Liquid Oxygen (LOX) Pump Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) was selected for this analysis. The HF PFMEA table (see appendix A) provides an analysis of six major categories evaluated for this study. These categories include Personnel Certification, Test Procedure Format, Test Procedure Safety Controls, Test Article Data, Instrumentation, and Voice Communication. For each specific requirement listed in appendix A, the following topics were addressed: Requirement, Potential Human Error, Performance-Shaping Factors, Potential Effects of the Error, Barriers and Controls, Risk Priority Numbers, and Recommended Actions. This report summarizes findings and gives recommendations as determined by the data contained in appendix A. It also includes a discussion of technology barriers and challenges to performing task analyses, as well as lessons learned. The HF PFMEA table in appendix A recommends the use of accepted and required safety criteria in order to reduce the risk of human error. The items with the highest risk priority numbers should receive the greatest amount of consideration. Implementation of the recommendations will result in a safer operation for all personnel.

  12. Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated Laundry System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated Laundry (AMCIL) is a microgravity compatible liquid / liquid vapor, two-phase laundry system with water jet...

  13. Argonne Liquid-Metal Advanced Burner Reactor : components and in-vessel system thermal-hydraulic research and testing experience - pathway forward.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K.; Grandy, C.; Chang, Y.; Khalil, H.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-06-30

    This white paper provides an overview and status report of the thermal-hydraulic nuclear research and development, both experimental and computational, conducted predominantly at Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne from the early 1970s through the early 1990s was the Department of Energy's (DOE's) lead lab for thermal-hydraulic development of Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs). During the 1970s and into the mid-1980s, Argonne conducted thermal-hydraulic studies and experiments on individual reactor components supporting the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR). From the mid-1980s and into the early 1990s, Argonne conducted studies on phenomena related to forced- and natural-convection thermal buoyancy in complete in-vessel models of the General Electric (GE) Prototype Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) and Rockwell International (RI) Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR). These two reactor initiatives involved Argonne working closely with U.S. industry and DOE. This paper describes the very important impact of thermal hydraulics dominated by thermal buoyancy forces on reactor global operation and on the behavior/performance of individual components during postulated off-normal accident events with low flow. Utilizing Argonne's LMR expertise and design knowledge is vital to the further development of safe, reliable, and high-performance LMRs. Argonne believes there remains an important need for continued research and development on thermal-hydraulic design in support of DOE's and the international community's renewed thrust for developing and demonstrating the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) reactor(s) and the associated Argonne Liquid Metal-Advanced Burner Reactor (LM-ABR). This white paper highlights that further understanding is needed regarding reactor design under coolant low-flow events. These safety-related events are associated with the transition

  14. Argonne Liquid-Metal Advanced Burner Reactor : components and in-vessel system thermal-hydraulic research and testing experience - pathway forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This white paper provides an overview and status report of the thermal-hydraulic nuclear research and development, both experimental and computational, conducted predominantly at Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne from the early 1970s through the early 1990s was the Department of Energy's (DOE's) lead lab for thermal-hydraulic development of Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs). During the 1970s and into the mid-1980s, Argonne conducted thermal-hydraulic studies and experiments on individual reactor components supporting the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR). From the mid-1980s and into the early 1990s, Argonne conducted studies on phenomena related to forced- and natural-convection thermal buoyancy in complete in-vessel models of the General Electric (GE) Prototype Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) and Rockwell International (RI) Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR). These two reactor initiatives involved Argonne working closely with U.S. industry and DOE. This paper describes the very important impact of thermal hydraulics dominated by thermal buoyancy forces on reactor global operation and on the behavior/performance of individual components during postulated off-normal accident events with low flow. Utilizing Argonne's LMR expertise and design knowledge is vital to the further development of safe, reliable, and high-performance LMRs. Argonne believes there remains an important need for continued research and development on thermal-hydraulic design in support of DOE's and the international community's renewed thrust for developing and demonstrating the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) reactor(s) and the associated Argonne Liquid Metal-Advanced Burner Reactor (LM-ABR). This white paper highlights that further understanding is needed regarding reactor design under coolant low-flow events. These safety-related events are associated with the transition from normal high

  15. Experimental characterization of the Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Cold Neutron Source spectrum of the NBSR reactor at the NIST Center for Neutron Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.C.; Barker, J.G.; Rowe, J.M.; Williams, R.E. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Mail Stop 6100, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6100 (United States); Gagnon, C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Lindstrom, R.M. [Scientist Emeritus, Chemical Sciences Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Mail Stop 8395, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8395 (United States); Ibberson, R.M.; Neumann, D.A. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Mail Stop 6100, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6100 (United States)

    2015-08-21

    The recent expansion of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research facility has offered a rare opportunity to perform an accurate measurement of the cold neutron spectrum at the exit of a newly-installed neutron guide. Using a combination of a neutron time-of-flight measurement, a gold foil activation measurement, and Monte Carlo simulation of the neutron guide transmission, we obtain the most reliable experimental characterization of the Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Cold Neutron Source brightness to date. Time-of-flight measurements were performed at three distinct fuel burnup intervals, including one immediately following reactor startup. Prior to the latter measurement, the hydrogen was maintained in a liquefied state for an extended period in an attempt to observe an initial radiation-induced increase of the ortho (o)-hydrogen fraction. Since para (p)-hydrogen has a small scattering cross-section for neutron energies below 15 meV (neutron wavelengths greater than about 2.3 Å), changes in the o- p hydrogen ratio and in the void distribution in the boiling hydrogen influence the spectral distribution. The nature of such changes is simulated with a continuous-energy, Monte Carlo radiation-transport code using 20 K o and p hydrogen scattering kernels and an estimated hydrogen density distribution derived from an analysis of localized heat loads. A comparison of the transport calculations with the mean brightness function resulting from the three measurements suggests an overall o- p ratio of about 17.5(±1) % o- 82.5% p for neutron energies<15 meV, a significantly lower ortho concentration than previously assumed.

  16. Experimental characterization of the Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Cold Neutron Source spectrum of the NBSR reactor at the NIST Center for Neutron Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J. C.; Barker, J. G.; Rowe, J. M.; Williams, R. E.; Gagnon, C.; Lindstrom, R. M.; Ibberson, R. M.; Neumann, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    The recent expansion of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research facility has offered a rare opportunity to perform an accurate measurement of the cold neutron spectrum at the exit of a newly-installed neutron guide. Using a combination of a neutron time-of-flight measurement, a gold foil activation measurement, and Monte Carlo simulation of the neutron guide transmission, we obtain the most reliable experimental characterization of the Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Cold Neutron Source brightness to date. Time-of-flight measurements were performed at three distinct fuel burnup intervals, including one immediately following reactor startup. Prior to the latter measurement, the hydrogen was maintained in a liquefied state for an extended period in an attempt to observe an initial radiation-induced increase of the ortho (o)-hydrogen fraction. Since para (p)-hydrogen has a small scattering cross-section for neutron energies below 15 meV (neutron wavelengths greater than about 2.3 Å), changes in the o- p hydrogen ratio and in the void distribution in the boiling hydrogen influence the spectral distribution. The nature of such changes is simulated with a continuous-energy, Monte Carlo radiation-transport code using 20 K o and p hydrogen scattering kernels and an estimated hydrogen density distribution derived from an analysis of localized heat loads. A comparison of the transport calculations with the mean brightness function resulting from the three measurements suggests an overall o- p ratio of about 17.5(±1) % o- 82.5% p for neutron energies<15 meV, a significantly lower ortho concentration than previously assumed.

  17. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  18. Argonne Liquid-Metal Advanced Burner Reactor : components and in-vessel system thermal-hydraulic research and testing experience - pathway forward.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K.; Grandy, C.; Chang, Y.; Khalil, H.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-06-30

    This white paper provides an overview and status report of the thermal-hydraulic nuclear research and development, both experimental and computational, conducted predominantly at Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne from the early 1970s through the early 1990s was the Department of Energy's (DOE's) lead lab for thermal-hydraulic development of Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs). During the 1970s and into the mid-1980s, Argonne conducted thermal-hydraulic studies and experiments on individual reactor components supporting the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR). From the mid-1980s and into the early 1990s, Argonne conducted studies on phenomena related to forced- and natural-convection thermal buoyancy in complete in-vessel models of the General Electric (GE) Prototype Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) and Rockwell International (RI) Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR). These two reactor initiatives involved Argonne working closely with U.S. industry and DOE. This paper describes the very important impact of thermal hydraulics dominated by thermal buoyancy forces on reactor global operation and on the behavior/performance of individual components during postulated off-normal accident events with low flow. Utilizing Argonne's LMR expertise and design knowledge is vital to the further development of safe, reliable, and high-performance LMRs. Argonne believes there remains an important need for continued research and development on thermal-hydraulic design in support of DOE's and the international community's renewed thrust for developing and demonstrating the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) reactor(s) and the associated Argonne Liquid Metal-Advanced Burner Reactor (LM-ABR). This white paper highlights that further understanding is needed regarding reactor design under coolant low-flow events. These safety-related events are associated with the transition

  19. Response to “Comment on ‘The limits of flexoelectricity in liquid crystals’” [AIP Advances 3, 019101 (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    F. Castles; Morris, S M; Coles, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    The Comment [AIP Advances 3, 019101 (2013)] appears to be based on a mistaken understanding of our argument. We believe that the inequalities in our Paper [AIP Advances 1, 032120 (2011)] are correct and that our conclusions are justified.

  20. Response to “Comment on ‘The limits of flexoelectricity in liquid crystals’” [AIP Advances 3, 019101 (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Castles

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Comment [AIP Advances 3, 019101 (2013] appears to be based on a mistaken understanding of our argument. We believe that the inequalities in our Paper [AIP Advances 1, 032120 (2011] are correct and that our conclusions are justified.

  1. 离子液体的工业应用研究进展%Advances in industrial application of ionic liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李臻; 陈静; 夏春谷

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest in academical and industrial circles due to their unique properties and have already become the frontier and hot topic of worldwide science and technology in recent years.They have demonstrated broad potential applications and prospect in many domains.This article provides an overview of industrial application of ionic liquids in China and the rest of the world in recent 20 years.Some typical industrial applications of ionic liquids to chemical processes,electrochemistry,performance additives,gas processing,analytical chemistry and energy field are elaborated.Finally,the authors’ opinions concerning the prospect of ionic liquids commercial application are presented,and several existing problems of ionic liquids before large-scale application,such as greenness,basic theory and cost control are analyzed.%离子液体以其特有的性质广受学术界和工业界关注,业已发展成为国际科技的前沿和热点,在诸多领域展示了广阔的应用潜力和前景。本文综述了近二十年来国内外离子液体工业应用进展情况,并对离子液体在化学工程、电化学、高性能添加剂、气体处理、分离分析以及能源领域中的工业化应用现状做了重点介绍。最后对离子液体工业化应用的前景做了展望,并分析了离子液体在实现大规模应用之前应重点解决绿色化、基础理论和成本控制问题。

  2. Research Advance in Liquid Crystalline Polysaccharides and Their Applications%液晶性多糖的研究进展及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高山俊; 张玲

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,liquid crystal polymer,its classifcation and characterization have been introduced. The study on liqiud crystalline polysaccharides is reviewed in detail,including cellulose and its derivatives,chitosan and its derivatives,xanthan,schizophyllan(SPG) and konjac glucomannan(KGM).The applications of liquid crystals of cellulose,chitosan and their derivatives are introduced.%介绍了高分子液晶及其分类和表征方法,综述了可以形成液晶的几种多糖,包括纤维素及其衍生物、壳聚糖及其衍生物、黄原胶、裂裥菌素(SPG)、魔芋葡苷聚糖(KGM)的研究进展,并对纤维素、壳聚糖及其衍生物液晶的应用进行了介绍.

  3. AFM study of advanced composite materials for organic photovoltaic cells with active layer based on P3HT:PCBM and chiral photosensitive liquid crystalline dopants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Iwan, A.; Sikora, A.; Hamplová, Věra; Bubnov, Alexej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 7 (2015), s. 964-972. ISSN 0267-8292 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB13PL041; GA ČR GA13-14133S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14007; GA MŠk 7AMB13PL038 Grant ostatní: AVČR(CZ) M100101204 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : AFM * chiral liquid crystal * organic solar cells * azo compounds * photovoltaics Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.486, year: 2014

  4. Methane Liquid Level Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Technologies Group, Inc. proposes the development of a Methane Liquid-Level Sensor, (MLS) for In-Space cryogenic storage capable of continuous monitoring...

  5. Advanced Worker Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs

  6. Advancement of sodium-water reaction and compressible multiphase flows analysis program SERAPHIM. Validation for a reactive gas jet in a liquid pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer program called SERAPHIM has been developed to calculate the multicomponent multiphase flow involving the sodium-water chemical reaction in a steam generator of sodium cooled fast reactors. In this study, numerical analysis of supersonic gas jets into liquid pools with or without chemical reaction was performed to validate the numerical methods. As validation for a non-reaction problem, the visualization experiment on the horizontal supersonic air jet into the water was analyzed. The behavior of the jet and the horizontal penetration length were reproduced very well. On the other hand, the experiment on the vertical supersonic chlorine jet into the Na-NaCl mixture was analyzed. The numerical result showed that the injected gas disappeared at a certain height. The estimated plume length showed good agreement with the experimental data. The numerical methods were found to be applicable to the multiphase flow with the supersonic gas jets and the chemical reaction. (author)

  7. Advance Liquid Metal Reactor Discrete Dynamic Event Tree/Bayesian Network Analysis and Incident Management Guidelines (Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Groth, Katrina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wheeler, Timothy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self-correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the system's design to manage the accident. Inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, but nonetheless extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety, thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayesian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR-14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at Argonne National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Idaho National Laboratory for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

  8. Challenges Related to the Use of Liquid Metal and Molten Salt Coolants in Advanced Reactors. Report of the collaborative project COOL of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was launched in 2000, based on a resolution by the IAEA General Conference (GC(44)/RES/21). INPRO aims at helping to ensure that nuclear energy is available in the twenty-first century in a sustainable manner, and seeks to bring together all interested Member States, both technology holders and technology users, to jointly consider actions to achieve desired innovations. INPRO is taking care of the specific needs of developing countries. One of the aims of INPRO is to develop options for enhanced sustainability through promotion of technical and institutional innovations in nuclear energy technology through collaborative projects among IAEA Member States. Collaboration among INPRO members is fostered on selected innovative nuclear technologies to bridge technology gaps. Collaborative projects have been selected so that they complement other national and international R and D activities. The INPRO Collaborative Project COOL on Investigation of Technological Challenges Related to the Removal of Heat by Liquid Metal and Molten Salt Coolants from Reactor Cores Operating at High Temperatures investigated the technological challenges of cooling reactor cores that operate at high temperatures in advanced fast reactors, high temperature reactors and accelerator driven systems by using liquid metals and molten salts as coolants. The project was initiated in 2008 and was led by India; experts from Brazil, China, Germany, India, Italy and the Republic of Korea participated and provided chapters of this report. The INPRO Collaborative Project COOL addressed the following fields of research regarding liquid metal and molten salt coolants: (i) survey of thermophysical properties; (ii) experimental investigations and computational fluid dynamics studies on thermohydraulics, specifically pressure drop and heat transfer under different operating conditions; (iii) monitoring and control of coolant

  9. Fractal Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Heinen, Marco; Schnyder, Simon K.; Brady, John F.; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    We introduce fractal liquids by generalizing classical liquids of integer dimensions d=1,2,3 to a fractal dimension df. The particles composing the liquid are fractal objects and their configuration space is also fractal, with the same non-integer dimension. Realizations of our generic model system include microphase separated binary liquids in porous media, and highly branched liquid droplets confined to a fractal polymer backbone in a gel. Here we study the thermodynamics and pair correlati...

  10. Liquid-liquid extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patent concerns liquid-liquid extraction columns in which solute transfer across the liquid-liquid interface sets up Marangoni instabilities which give rise to interfacial turbulence. The phenomenon has been observed to occur in the solvent extraction of uranium and/or plutonium from an aqueous nitric phase using tributyl phosphate with odourless kerosens. The invention provides a method of quantifying the degree of Marangoni instabilities in a column-type liquid-liquid extraction column, and determining a value for the solute free characteristic velocity parameter. The method also gives a measure of the extent to which the characteristic velocity is modified by the Marangoni instability. (U.K.)

  11. Liquid-liquid extraction columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batey, W.; Lonie, S.J.; Thompson, P.J.; Thornton, J.D.

    1987-11-11

    The patent concerns liquid-liquid extraction columns in which solute transfer across the liquid-liquid interface sets up Marangoni instabilities which give rise to interfacial turbulence. The phenomenon has been observed to occur in the solvent extraction of uranium and/or plutonium from an aqueous nitric phase using tributyl phosphate with odourless kerosens. The invention provides a method of quantifying the degree of Marangoni instabilities in a column-type liquid-liquid extraction column, and determining a value for the solute free characteristic velocity parameter. The method also gives a measure of the extent to which the characteristic velocity is modified by the Marangoni instability. (U.K.).

  12. Theory of simple liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Jean-Pierre

    1986-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of the theory of ""simple"" liquids. The new second edition has been rearranged and considerably expanded to give a balanced account both of basic theory and of the advances of the past decade. It presents the main ideas of modern liquid state theory in a way that is both pedagogical and self-contained. The book should be accessible to graduate students and research workers, both experimentalists and theorists, who have a good background in elementary mechanics.Key Features* Compares theoretical deductions with experimental r

  13. Liquid Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfic, Qutaiba A.

    2011-01-01

    Mammals have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases, as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV) is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixt...

  14. Advances in Research of Optimization of Liquid Fermentation Cultivation Conditions for Fungal Laccase Production%真菌液态发酵产漆酶的培养条件优化研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广慧; 戴明; 魏雅冬

    2012-01-01

    Laccase is a class of copper oxidase, able to degrade lignin, presenting in many plants, fungi, small insects and bacteria. It is widely used in wastewater treatment, dyeing and finishing technology, the food industry and other fields. The fungal laccase has better thermal stability and higher catalytic efficiency than that from other sources. Liquid fermentation is a commonly used method to produce fungal laccase. This study reviews recent advances in research of optimization of liolJid ferm~.ntutinn c~JJltiv~tlrm rrmrliti,~ne f~r ,-q,nr.M 1 .t,,~;~%漆酶是一类可降解木质素的含铜多酚氧化酶,存在于多种植物、真菌、少数昆虫和细菌中,被广泛应用于废水处理、染整工艺及食品工业等领域。同其它来源的漆酶相比,真菌漆酶具有更好的热稳定性及更高的催化效率。液态发酵是目前人们用来生产真菌漆酶比较常用的方法。研究综述了近几年在真菌液态发酵产漆酶培养条件优化方面的研究进展。

  15. Liquid Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qutaiba A. Tawfic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammals have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases, as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen, as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of theoretical advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. The potential for multiple clinical applications for liquid-assisted ventilation will be clarified and optimized in future. Keywords: Liquid ventilation; perfluorochemicals; perfluorocarbon; respiratory distress; surfactant.

  16. Advanced Passive Liquid Feed PEM Electrolyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) water electrolyzers have undergone continuous development for the generation of oxygen and hydrogen for commercial, military and...

  17. Subsidizing Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinova, Katya; Park, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    breakdown of trading fees between liquidity demanders and suppliers matters. Posted quotes adjust after the change in fee composition, but the transaction costs for liquidity demanders remain unaffected once fees are taken into account. However, as posted bid-ask spreads decline, traders (particularly...... retail) use aggressive orders more frequently, and adverse selection costs decrease....

  18. Liquid polymorphism

    CERN Document Server

    Stanley, H E

    2013-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series presents contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class de

  19. Liquid pearls

    CERN Document Server

    Bremond, Nicolas; Bibette, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video reports how to form liquid core capsules having a thin hydrogel elastic membrane named liquid pearls. These fish-egg like structures are initially made of a millimetric liquid drop, aqueous or not, coated with an aqueous liquid film containing sodium alginate that gels once the double drop enters a calcium chloride bath. The creation of such pearls with micrometer thick membrane requires to suppress mixing until gelling takes place. Here, we show that superimposing a two dimensional surfactant precipitation at the interface confers a transient rigidity that can damp the shear induced instability at impact. Based on this, pearls containing almost any type of liquids can be created. The video focuses on the dynamics of the entry of the compound drop into the gelling bath.

  20. Advances in capillary electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1980s, capillary electrophoresis (CE) developed rapidly into a first-class analytical separation technique. Its advances in instru-mentation and method development will not only enhance or complement existing mature separation techniques such as liquid chromatography and conventional slab gel electrophoresis, but will also severely challenge these separation methods. A brief overview of most striking achievement of CE in the 1980s is given, which illustrates the challenge to liquid chromatography and conventional slab gel electrophoresis, and some detailed discussions are presented to highlight the advantages of CE. New developments in CE that can be expected for the 1990s include especially column technology, separation chemistry and instrumentation, which will serve further to diversify and improve the applicability of this technique in areas which are poorly addressed by other separation methods. This paper considers and speculates on the technological advancements that can be expected to emerge for CE in the 1990s. (author). 95 refs.; 14 figs

  1. Recent Advances in Voltammetry

    OpenAIRE

    Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Kätelhön, Enno; Barnes, Edward O; Compton, Richard G.; Laborda, Eduardo; Molina, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in the theory and practice of voltammetry is surveyed and evaluated. The transformation over the last decade of the level of modelling and simulation of experiments has realised major advances such that electrochemical techniques can be fully developed and applied to real chemical problems of distinct complexity. This review focuses on the topic areas of: multistep electrochemical processes, voltammetry in ionic liquids, the development and interpretation of theories of electr...

  2. Advances in electroanalytical chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yijun; Compton, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This thesis concerns several advances in electroanalytical chemistry which are separated into four parts: the electrochemical investigation of diffusional behaviour, the mechanistic and kinetic study of electrochemistry with room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), the study of weakly-supported electrochemistry and a comparison of the Butler-Volmer and Marcus-Hush kinetic theories of electron transfer. A study of the diffusional behaviour of electroactive species is essential for further s...

  3. Advanced Small Rechargeable Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Lithium-based units offer highest performance. Paper reviews status of advanced, small rechargeable batteries. Covers aqueous systems including lead/lead dioxide, cadmium/nickel oxide, hydrogen/nickel oxide, and zinc/nickel oxide, as well as nonaqueous systems. All based on lithium anodes, nonaqueous systems include solid-cathode cells (lithium/molybdenum disulfide, lithium/titanium disulfide, and lithium/vanadium oxide); liquid-cathode cells (lithium/sulfur dioxide cells); and new category, lithium/polymer cells.

  4. Managing liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokutta, Sebastian; Schmaltz, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Large banking groups face the question of how to optimally allocate and generate liquidity: in a central liquidity hub or in many decentralized branches. We translate this question into a facility location problem under uncertainty. We show that volatility is the key driver behind (de-)centraliza......Large banking groups face the question of how to optimally allocate and generate liquidity: in a central liquidity hub or in many decentralized branches. We translate this question into a facility location problem under uncertainty. We show that volatility is the key driver behind (de......-)centralization. We provide an analytical solution for the 2-branch model and show that a liquidity center can be interpreted as an option on immediate liquidity. Therefore, its value can be interpreted as the price of information, i.e., the price of knowing the exact demand. Furthermore, we derive the threshold...... above which it is advantageous to open a liquidity center and show that it is a function of the volatility and the characteristic of the bank network. Finally, we discuss the n-branch model for real-world banking groups (10-60 branches) and show that it can be solved with high granularity (100 scenarios...

  5. The vanadium alloys technological and corrosion studies in construction and operation of liquid metal facilities for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vanadium-lithium test facility has been constructed to carry out corrosion tests of vanadium alloys in lithium flow, to evaluate the welding procedures and to develop electrically insulating coatings for lithium self-cooled blanket application. The corrosion tests were performed in a nonisothermal lithium flow with the flow rate up to 1 m/s at temperatures in the range 450-700 C. The results of development of the electrically insulating coatings are presented. The achieved specific resistance of AlN based coatings is 30-40 Ω m. The results of electron-beam and argon tungsten-arc welding methods are presented for welding sheets, rods and pipes of V-Ti-Cr type alloys. Solution of the vanadium alloys and vanadium alloys-stainless steels welding problems enabled construction of a liquid metal system satisfying all the necessary requirements. (orig.)

  6. 75 FR 12483 - Courtesy Notice of Liquidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... notices of liquidation. Courtesy notices of liquidation provide informal, advanced notice of the... number USCBP-2010-0008. Mail: Trade and Commercial Regulations Branch, Regulations and Rulings, Office of International Trade, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, 799 9th Street, NW. (Mint Annex), Washington, DC...

  7. Liquid-liquid contractor columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid-liquid contactor column has a solvent input and an aqueous phase input. Lighter phase liquid is discharged and heavier phase is moved by an air lift to a receiver. The air supply line to the air lift includes valve and a pressure sensing transducer senses pressure in line and sends electric signals to signal processing unit which may for example close down operation of the column, or effect other changes to maintain operating characteristics of the column. The column could be pulsed by means which also send signals to unit, and could deliver to an external settler. (author)

  8. Thermoelectricity in liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Said, Suhana; Nordin, Abdul Rahman; Abdullah, Norbani; Balamurugan, S.

    2015-09-01

    The thermoelectric effect, also known as the Seebeck effect, describes the conversion of a temperature gradient into electricity. A Figure of Merit (ZT) is used to describe the thermoelectric ability of a material. It is directly dependent on its Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity, and inversely dependent on its thermal conductivity. There is usually a compromise between these parameters, which limit the performance of thermoelectric materials. The current achievement for ZT~2.2 falls short of the expected threshold of ZT=3 to allow its viability in commercial applications. In recent times, advances in organic thermoelectrics been significant, improving by over 3 orders of magnitude over a period of about 10 years. Liquid crystals are newly investigated as candidate thermoelectric materials, given their low thermal conductivity, inherent ordering, and in some cases, reasonable electrical conductivity. In this work the thermoelectric behaviour of a discotic liquid crystal, is discussed. The DLC was filled into cells coated with a charge injector, and an alignment of the columnar axis perpendicular to the substrate was allowed to form. This thermoelectric behavior can be correlated to the order-disorder transition. A reasonable thermoelectric power in the liquid crystal temperature regime was noted. In summary, thermoelectric liquid crystals may have the potential to be utilised in flexible devices, as a standalone power source.

  9. Advanced Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The First Florida-Brazil Seminar on Materials and the Second State Meeting about new materials in Rio de Janeiro State show the specific technical contribution in advanced ceramic sector. The others main topics discussed for the development of the country are the advanced ceramic programs the market, the national technic-scientific capacitation, the advanced ceramic patents, etc. (C.G.C.)

  10. Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.

  11. Liquid marbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussillous, Pascale; Quéré, David

    2001-06-01

    The transport of a small amount of liquid on a solid is not a simple process, owing to the nature of the contact between the two phases. Setting a liquid droplet in motion requires non-negligible forces (because the contact-angle hysteresis generates a force opposing the motion), and often results in the deposition of liquid behind the drop. Different methods of levitation-electrostatic, electromagnetic, acoustic, or even simpler aerodynamic techniques-have been proposed to avoid this wetting problem, but all have proved to be rather cumbersome. Here we propose a simple alternative, which consists of encapsulating an aqueous liquid droplet with a hydrophobic powder. The resulting `liquid marbles' are found to behave like a soft solid, and show dramatically reduced adhesion to a solid surface. As a result, motion can be generated using gravitational, electrical and magnetic fields. Moreover, because the viscous friction associated with motion is very small, we can achieve quick displacements of the droplets without any leaks. All of these features are of potential benefit in microfluidic applications, and also permit the study of a drop in a non-wetting situation-an issue of renewed interest following the recent achievement of super-hydrophobic substrates.

  12. Advanced reactor licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1986 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a Policy Statement on the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants. As part of this policy advanced reactor designers were encouraged to interact with NRC early in the design process to obtain feedback regarding licensing requirements for advanced reactors. Accordingly, the staff has been interacting with the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors on the review of three advanced reactor conceptual designs: one modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) and two Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs). As a result of these interactions certain safety issues associated with these advanced reactor designs have been identified as key to the licensability of the designs as proposed by DOE. The major issues in this regard are: (1) selection and treatment of accident scenarios; (2) selection of siting source term; (3) performance and reliability of reactor shutdown and decay heat removal systems; (4) need for conventional containment; (5) need for conventional emergency evacuation; (6) role of the operator; (7) treatment of balance of plant; and (8) modular approach. This paper provides a status of the NRC review effort, describes the above issues in more detail and provides the current status and approach to the development of licensing guidance on each

  13. Liquid Marbles

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Kareem

    2012-12-01

    Granulation, the process of formation of granules from a combination of base powders and binder liquids, has been a subject of research for almost 50 years, studied extensively for its vast applications, primarily to the pharmaceutical industry sector. The principal aim of granulation is to form granules comprised of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API’s), which have more desirable handling and flowability properties than raw powders. It is also essential to ensure an even distribution of active ingredients within a tablet with the goal of achieving time‐controlled release of drugs. Due to the product‐specific nature of the industry, however, data is largely empirical [1]. For example, the raw powders used can vary in size by two orders of magnitude with narrow or broad size distributions. The physical properties of the binder liquids can also vary significantly depending on the powder properties and required granule size. Some significant progress has been made to better our understanding of the overall granulation process [1] and it is widely accepted that the initial nucleation / wetting stage, when the binder liquid first wets the powders, is key to the whole process. As such, many experimental studies have been conducted in attempt to elucidate the physics of this first stage [1], with two main mechanisms being observed – classified by Ivenson [1] as the “Traditional description” and the “Modern Approach”. See Figure 1 for a graphical definition of these two mechanisms. Recent studies have focused on the latter approach [1] and a new, exciting development in this field is the Liquid Marble. This interesting formation occurs when a liquid droplet interacts with a hydrophobic (or superhydrophobic) powder. The droplet can become encased in the powder, which essentially provides a protective “shell” or “jacket” for the liquid inside [2]. The liquid inside is then isolated from contact with other solids or liquids and has some

  14. Liquid-liquid extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid-liquid extraction for use for example, in the solvent extraction of uranium and/or plutonium from an aqueous phase, comprises a perforated plate packing in which each plate has flanges associated with its perforations, which flanges project upstream with respect to the disperse phase flow direction so as to define a collecting zone for disperse phase droplets which thereby form a film or layer of the disperse phase component on the upstream face of each plate. In this way, droplet formation at the perforations of each plate is not significantly influenced by variations of the wetting characteristics of the plate with time. (author)

  15. Liquid-liquid extraction columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonie, S.J.

    1986-10-15

    A liquid-liquid extraction for use for example, in the solvent extraction of uranium and/or plutonium from an aqueous phase, comprises a perforated plate packing in which each plate has flanges associated with its perforations, which flanges project upstream with respect to the disperse phase flow direction so as to define a collecting zone for disperse phase droplets which thereby form a film or layer of the disperse phase component on the upstream face of each plate. In this way, droplet formation at the perforations of each plate is not significantly influenced by variations of the wetting characteristics of the plate with time.

  16. Transport properties of organic liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Latini, G; Passerini, G

    2006-01-01

    The liquid state is possibly the most difficult and intriguing state of matter to model. Organic liquids are required, mainly as working fluids, in almost all industrial activities and in most appliances (e.g. in air conditioning). Transport properties (namely dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity) are possibly the most important properties for the design of devices and appliances. The aim of this book is to present both theoretical approaches and the latest experimental advances on the issue, and to merge them into a wider approach. It concentrates on applicability of models.This book is

  17. Dynamic properties of simple liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical framework appropriate to the discussion of the dynamics of a quantum (monatomic) fluid is first of all described. The most useful function for such a description is the relaxation function; its relationship both to the dynamic susceptibility and to the van Hove scattering function is also discussed. The carry-over to classical expressions is indicated. Recent theoretical advances, and recent experimental work, in the areas of liquid helium and classical monatomic fluids, are summarized in the remainder of the paper. The emphasis is on liquid helium, and in particular on 3He, which has only been studied using neutron scattering since 1974. (author)

  18. Liquid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, K R

    1959-01-01

    Originally published in 1959 as part of the Cambridge Monographs on Physics series, this book addresses liquid helium from the dual perspectives of statistical mechanics and hydrodynamics. Atkins looks at both Helium Three and Helium Four, as well as the properties of a combination of the two isotopes. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in the history of science and the study of one of the universe's most fundamental elements.

  19. Specific interface area and self-stirring in a two-liquid system experiencing intense interfacial boiling below the bulk boiling temperatures of both components

    CERN Document Server

    Goldobin, Denis S

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to theoretical assessment of the mean specific interface area $(\\delta{S}/\\delta{V})$ for a well-stirred system of two immiscible liquids experiencing interfacial boiling. The assessment is based on the balance of transformations of mechanical energy and the laws of the momentum and heat transfer in the turbulent boundary layer. The theory yields relations between the specific interface area and the characteristics of the system state. In particular, this allows us to derive the equations of self-cooling dynamics of the system in the absence of external heat supply. The results provide possibility for constructing a self-contained mathematical description of the process of interfacial boiling. In this study, we assume the volume fractions of two components to be similar as well as the values of their kinematic viscosity and molecular heat diffusivity.

  20. Advanced worker protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration

  1. Importance of liquid fragility for energy applications of ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, P.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Krohns, S.; Thoms, E.; Loidl, A.

    2015-09-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are salts that are liquid close to room temperature. Their possible applications are numerous, e.g., as solvents for green chemistry, in various electrochemical devices, and even for such “exotic” purposes as spinning-liquid mirrors for lunar telescopes. Here we concentrate on their use for new advancements in energy-storage and -conversion devices: Batteries, supercapacitors or fuel cells using ILs as electrolytes could be important building blocks for the sustainable energy supply of tomorrow. Interestingly, ILs show glassy freezing and the universal, but until now only poorly understood dynamic properties of glassy matter, dominate many of their physical properties. We show that the conductivity of ILs, an essential figure of merit for any electrochemical application, depends in a systematic way not only on their glass temperature but also on the so-called fragility, characterizing the non-canonical super-Arrhenius temperature dependence of their ionic mobility.

  2. The development of a direct insulation layer for the liquid metal cooled fusion reactor blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suppression of MHD pressure drops in the channels, in which liquid metal is flowing in a strong magnetic field, is necessary to get a sufficient cooling effect in the self-cooled liquid metal blanket or similar arrangements of a blanket structure. The MHD effects can significantly be reduced by means of electrical insulation of the flowing liquid metal against the structural material. The insulating material has to provide a resistivity of ≥ 25 Ωm, it has to be compatible with the liquid metal and should be sufficiently stable against irradiation damage and fracture due to thermal and mechanical cycling stresses. The liquid metal blanket fluid, Pb-17Li eutectic alloy, has the capacity to reduce the oxide layers which can be formed on austenitic and martensitic steels by means of high-temperature oxidation. It does not react with alumina in the temperature range of interest. Thus, the covering of structural material with alumina would be a solution of the problem of direct insulation of the structural material. Though several methods are known to cover steels with alumina layers, such methods do not appear to be feasible for the covering of the inner side of a large tubing system. The covering of the structural material with aluminum and the subsequent oxidation of this surface seems to open a way for the solution of this problem. Though the packing procedure of alitizing was known to offer a possibility to form surface layers rich in aluminum, the alternative method of hot-dip aluminizing was applied, since this procedure has the potential for the use in large dimensions and particularly for aluminizing inner sides of tubes

  3. ADVANCE PAYMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative Circular Nº 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  4. Advance payments

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2003-01-01

    Administrative Circular N 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  5. Advanced Microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This video looks at a spinoff application of the technology from advanced microsensors -- those that monitor and determine conditions of spacecraft like the Space Shuttle. The application featured is concerned with the monitoring of the health of premature babies.

  6. Advanced nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Razali

    2012-01-01

    While theories based on classical physics have been very successful in helping experimentalists design microelectronic devices, new approaches based on quantum mechanics are required to accurately model nanoscale transistors and to predict their characteristics even before they are fabricated. Advanced Nanoelectronics provides research information on advanced nanoelectronics concepts, with a focus on modeling and simulation. Featuring contributions by researchers actively engaged in nanoelectronics research, it develops and applies analytical formulations to investigate nanoscale devices. The

  7. Advances in magnetic resonance 6

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 6 focuses on the theoretical and practical aspects of applying magnetic resonance methods to various problems in physical chemistry, emphasizing the different aspects of the exegesis of these problems. This book discusses the gas phase magnetic resonance of electronically excited molecules; techniques for observing excited electronic states; NMR studies in liquids at high pressure; and effect of pressure on self-diffusion in liquids. The nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of organic free radicals; measurement of proton coupling constants by NMR; an

  8. AdvancED Flex 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Shashank; Schulze, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    AdvancED Flex 4 makes advanced Flex 4 concepts and techniques easy. Ajax, RIA, Web 2.0, mashups, mobile applications, the most sophisticated web tools, and the coolest interactive web applications are all covered with practical, visually oriented recipes. * Completely updated for the new tools in Flex 4* Demonstrates how to use Flex 4 to create robust and scalable enterprise-grade Rich Internet Applications.* Teaches you to build high-performance web applications with interactivity that really engages your users.* What you'll learn Practiced beginners and intermediate users of Flex, especially

  9. Recent advances of nanodosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosswendt, B

    2004-01-01

    The early damage to genes and cells due to ionizing radiation is initiated by the overlay of the track structure of charged particles and of the structure of radiosensitive sub-cellular volumes. As a result of this overlay, a specified number of ionizations (the ionization cluster size) is formed per primary particle. Therefore, one of the aims of nanodosimetry is to determine ionization cluster-size distributions in nanometric volumes of liquid water, as a substitute to sub-cellular structures. After a short description of the main aspects of cluster-size formation by charged particles, an overview of the advanced measuring techniques that use millimetric target volumes filled with a low-pressure gas to simulate nanometric target volumes at unit density is given. Afterwards, physical principles are discussed which are applicable to convert ionization cluster-size distributions measured in gases into those for liquid water. Finally, a tentative possibility is proposed of how to relate parameters derived from cluster-size distributions in liquid water to parameters derived from radiation-induced radiobiological experiments. PMID:15353748

  10. Recent advances of nanodosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early damage to genes and cells due to ionizing radiation is initiated by the overlay of the track structure of charged particles and of the structure of radiosensitive sub-cellular volumes. As a result of this overlay, a specified number of ionizations (the ionization cluster size) is formed per primary particle. Therefore, one of the aims of nanodosimetry is to determine ionization cluster-size distributions in nano-metric volumes of liquid water, as a substitute to sub-cellular structures. After a short description of the main aspects of cluster-size formation by charged particles, an overview of the advanced measuring techniques that use millimetric target volumes filled with a low-pressure gas to simulate nano-metric target volumes at unit density is given. Afterwards, physical principles are discussed which are applicable to convert ionization cluster-size distributions measured in gases into those for liquid water. Finally, a tentative possibility is proposed of how to relate parameters derived from cluster-size distributions in liquid water to parameters derived from radiation-induced radiobiological experiments. (authors)

  11. Continuous Liquid Interface Production (CLIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumbleston, John

    Continuous liquid interface production (CLIP) can rapidly produce 3D parts using a range of polymeric materials. A DLP-based form of additive manufacturing, CLIP proceeds via projecting a sequence of UV images through an oxygen-permeable, UV-transparent window below a liquid resin bath. A thin uncured liquid layer, or dead zone, is created above the window and maintains a liquid interface below the advancing part. Above the dead zone, the curing part is drawn out of the resin bath creating suction forces that renew reactive liquid resin. The dead zone is created due to oxygen inhibition of photopolymerization, a process that is traditionally a nuisance in other photopolymerization applications. However, for CLIP oxygen inhibition and creation of the dead zone allows for a continuous mode of printing where UV exposure, resin renewal, and part elevation are conducted simultaneously. This continual process is fundamentally different from traditional bottom-up stereolithography printers where these steps must be conducted in separate and discrete steps. Furthermore, the relatively gentle nature of CLIP due to the established dead zone enables the use of unique materials with a wide range of mechanical properties. This presentation will showcase the CLIP technology and provide a detailed picture of interactions between different resin and process parameters. New applications for 3D printing that span the micro- to macro-scale enabled by CLIP's combination of unique materials and part production speed will also be presented.

  12. Surface boiling of superheated liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A basic vaporization mechanism that possibly affects the qualitative and quantitative prediction of the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous superheated liquids was experimentally and analytically investigated. The studies are of relevance for the instantaneous failure of a containment vessel filled with liquefied gas. Even though catastrophical vessel failure is a rare event, it is considered to be a major technological hazard. Modeling the initial phase of depressurisation and vaporization of the contents is an essential step for the subsequent analysis of the spread and dispersion of the materials liberated. There is only limited understanding of this inertial expansion stage of the superheated liquid, before gravity and atmospheric turbulence begin to dominate the expansion. This work aims at a better understanding of the vaporization process and to supply more precise source-term data. It is also intended to provide knowledge for the prediction of the behavior of large-scale releases by the investigation of boiling on a small scale. Release experiments with butane, propane, R-134a and water were conducted. The vaporization of liquids that became superheated by sudden depressurisation was studied in nucleation-site-free glass receptacles. Several novel techniques for preventing undesired nucleation and for opening the test-section were developed. Releases from pipes and from a cylindrical geometry allowed both linear one-dimensional, and radial-front two-dimensional propagation to be investigated. Releases were made to atmospheric pressure over a range of superheats. It was found that, above a certain superheat temperature, the free surface of the metastable liquid rapidly broke up and ejected a high-velocity vapor/liquid stream. The zone of intense vaporization and liquid fragmentation proceeded as a front that advanced into the test fluids. No nucleation of bubbles in the bulk of the superheated liquid was observed. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  13. Surface boiling of superheated liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinke, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-01-01

    A basic vaporization mechanism that possibly affects the qualitative and quantitative prediction of the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous superheated liquids was experimentally and analytically investigated. The studies are of relevance for the instantaneous failure of a containment vessel filled with liquefied gas. Even though catastrophical vessel failure is a rare event, it is considered to be a major technological hazard. Modeling the initial phase of depressurisation and vaporization of the contents is an essential step for the subsequent analysis of the spread and dispersion of the materials liberated. There is only limited understanding of this inertial expansion stage of the superheated liquid, before gravity and atmospheric turbulence begin to dominate the expansion. This work aims at a better understanding of the vaporization process and to supply more precise source-term data. It is also intended to provide knowledge for the prediction of the behavior of large-scale releases by the investigation of boiling on a small scale. Release experiments with butane, propane, R-134a and water were conducted. The vaporization of liquids that became superheated by sudden depressurisation was studied in nucleation-site-free glass receptacles. Several novel techniques for preventing undesired nucleation and for opening the test-section were developed. Releases from pipes and from a cylindrical geometry allowed both linear one-dimensional, and radial-front two-dimensional propagation to be investigated. Releases were made to atmospheric pressure over a range of superheats. It was found that, above a certain superheat temperature, the free surface of the metastable liquid rapidly broke up and ejected a high-velocity vapor/liquid stream. The zone of intense vaporization and liquid fragmentation proceeded as a front that advanced into the test fluids. No nucleation of bubbles in the bulk of the superheated liquid was observed. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  14. STATIC AND DYNAMIC THEORIES OF LIQUID CRYSTALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林芳华; 刘春

    2001-01-01

    The study of liquid crystals givesrise to many fascinating but difficult mathematical problems. The purpose of this paper is to briefly summarize some recent advances, as well as to describe the present state of art of the theory of liquid crystals.For the static theory, we emphasis on the theory of defects and the theory of Smectic A materials. We will also study the Ericksen-Leslie theory for the liquid crystal flow.The well-posedness as well as the motion of the defects will be discussed.

  15. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Nickerson, HK; Steenrod, NE

    2011-01-01

    ""This book is a radical departure from all previous concepts of advanced calculus,"" declared the Bulletin of the American Mathematics Society, ""and the nature of this departure merits serious study of the book by everyone interested in undergraduate education in mathematics."" Classroom-tested in a Princeton University honors course, it offers students a unified introduction to advanced calculus. Starting with an abstract treatment of vector spaces and linear transforms, the authors introduce a single basic derivative in an invariant form. All other derivatives - gradient, divergent, curl,

  16. Fusion advanced studies Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful development of ITER and DEMO scenarios requires preparatory activities on devices that are smaller than ITER, sufficiently flexible and capable of investigating the peculiar physics of burning plasma conditions. The aim of the Fusion Advanced Studies Torus (FAST) proposal [2.1] (formerly FT3 [2.2]) is to show that the preparation of ITER scenarios and the development of new expertise for the DEMO design and RD can be effectively implemented on a new facility. FAST will a) operate with deuterium plasmas, thereby avoiding problems associated with tritium, and allow investigation of nonlinear dynamics (which are important for understanding alpha particle behaviour in burning plasmas) by using fast ions accelerated by heating and current drive systems; b) work in a dimensionless parameter range close to that of ITER; c) test technical innovative solutions, such as full-tungsten plasma-facing components and an advanced liquid metal divertor target for the first wall/divertor, directly relevant for ITER and DEMO; d) exploit advanced regimes with a much longer pulse duration than the current diffusion time; e) provide a test bed for ITER and DEMO diagnostics; f) provide an ideal framework for model and numerical code benchmarks, their verification and validation in ITER/ DEMO-relevant plasma conditions

  17. Advances in magnetic resonance 4

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 4 deals with the relaxation, irradiation, and other dynamical effects that is specific to systems having resolved structure in their magnetic resonance spectra. This book discusses the anisotropic rotation of molecules in liquids by NMR quadrupolar relaxation; rotational diffusion constants; alternating linewidth effect; and theoretical formulations of the problem. The line shapes in high-resolution NMR; matrix representations of the equations of motion; matrix representations of the equations of motion; and intramolecular hydrogen bonds are also delibera

  18. Advanced bioreactor systems for gaseous substrates: Conversion of synthesis gas to liquid fuels and removal of SO{sub X} and NO{sub X} from coal combustion gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvaraj, P.T.; Kaufman, E.N.

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this research program is the development and demonstration of a new generation of gaseous substrate based bioreactors for the production of liquid fuels from coal synthesis gas and the removal of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} species from combustion flue gas. This R&D program is a joint effort between the staff of the Bioprocessing Research and Development Center (BRDC) of ORNL and the staff of Bioengineering Resources, Inc. (BRI) under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). The Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology report entitled {open_quotes}Biotechnology for the 21st Century{close_quotes} and the recent Energy Policy Act of 1992 emphasizes research, development, and demonstration of the conversion of coal to gaseous and liquid fuels and the control of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in effluent streams. This R&D program presents an innovative approach to the use of bioprocessing concepts that will have utility in both of these identified areas.

  19. Study on solid-liquid interfacial phenomena and advancement of migration model in diffusion and migration processes of radionuclides in buffer materials and rock matrixes for disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed particularly focused on diffusive pathway and effects receive when nuclides and ions diffuse near solid-liquid interface, among various interactions occurring in the diffusion process of nuclides and ions in buffer material and rock matrix composing multi-barrier system of the geological disposal of radioactive wastes. This study was carried out with the following objectives. (1) To clarify the effects of porewater chemistry (particularly ionic strength) and changes in diffusive pathway and micropore structure on diffusion from the viewpoint of thermodynamics. (2) To obtain information with regard to porewater properties, particularly viscosity. (3) To apply for predictions of diffusivities and diffusion process by developing a model concerning electrostatic interaction with ions near solid-liquid interface and viscosity distribution. This report consists of 9 chapters. Chapter 1 is the introduction, in which the background and objectives for this study are explained. In chapter 2, it is reported on physical and chemical properties for sandstone (Shirahama sandstone), of which fundamental data and information for diffusion is quite limited and physical properties for bentonite, which is important as a buffer material. In chapter 3, it is discussed on the results studied using tritiated water and deuterated water for the orientation properties of clay particles and the effect of the orientation of clay particles on diffusive pathway in compacted bentonite. In chapter 4, it is discussed on the effects of the orientation of clay particles and ionic strength on diffusivities and activation energies for Cs+ and I- ions in compacted bentonite. In chapter 5, it is reported on the diffusion properties of Cs+ and I- ions in sandstone obtained by a non-steady state diffusion method and it is discussed on applicability of a solid-liquid interfacial model based on electric double layer theory. In chapter 6, it is reported on thermodynamic properties of

  20. Advanced ferroelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Blinc, R

    2011-01-01

    Advances in the field of ferroelectricity have implications both for basic physics and for technological applications such as memory devices, spintronic applications and electro-optic devices, as well as in acoustics, robotics, telecommunications and medicine. This book provides an account of recent developments in the field.

  1. Automatic liquid-liquid extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention concerns an automatic liquid-liquid extraction system ensuring great reproducibility on a number of samples, stirring and decanting of the two liquid phases, then the quantitative removal of the entire liquid phase present in the extraction vessel at the end of the operation. This type of system has many applications, particularly in carrying out analytical processes comprising a stage for the extraction, by means of an appropriate solvent, of certain components of the sample under analysis

  2. Liquid supercoiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribe, Neil; Habibi, Mehdi; Hosseini, Hossein; Hassan Khatami, Mohammad

    2011-11-01

    Supercoiling is defined as the large-scale secondary coiling of a slender body that is already coiled at a smaller scale (e.g., telephone cords and DNA strands). We demonstrate experimentally a novel fluid-mechanical form of supercoiling that occurs in the context of the familiar ``liquid rope coiling'' instability of a thin thread of viscous fluid falling onto a rigid surface. Under appropriate conditions, the coiling instability generates a tall pile of coils in the form of a hollow cylindrical column, which in turn becomes unstable to a secondary coiling instability with a frequency ~ 10 % of the primary one. To place this phenomenon in a broader context, we determine experimentally the phase diagram for the different possible behaviors of the thread (stagnation flow, simple coiling, rotatory folding, periodic column collapse, supercoiling) in the space of the fluid viscosity, the flow rate, and the fall height. We formulate a mathematical model for supercoiling by combining a thin-shell description of the column wall with a slender-thread description of the column as a whole. This leads to a set of coupled ordinary differential equations in one space dimension (the arclength along the axis of the coiling column) that we solve numerically using a continuation method. A comparison of the predicted and observed frequencies of secondary coiling will be shown.

  3. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of perfluorocarbons with fluorinated ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • (Liquid + liquid) equilibria perfluorocarbons and fluorinated ionic liquids. • Non-Random Two Liquid model was successfully applied. • Thermodynamic functions that describe the solvation process were calculated. -- Abstract: In order to evaluate the feasibility of partially replace perfluorocarbons (PFCs) with fluorinated ionic liquids (FILs) in PFCs-in-water emulsions, usually used for biomedical purposes, herein the (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria of FILs containing fluorinated chains longer than four carbons with PFCs were carried out in a wide range of temperatures. With this goal in mind, two PFCs (perfluorooctane and perfluorodecalin) were selected and the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of the binary mixtures of these PFCs and FILs were studied at atmospheric pressure in a temperature range from T (293.15 to 343.15) K. For these studies, FILs containing ammonium, pyridinium and imidazolium cations and different anions with fluorocarbon alkyl chains between 4 and 8 were included. Additionally, Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL) thermodynamic model was successfully applied to correlate the behaviour of the PFCs + FILs binary mixtures. Moreover, thermodynamic functions that describe the solvation process were calculated from the experimental data

  4. Advanced Virgo

    CERN Multimedia

    Virgo, a first-generation interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detector, located in the European Gravitational Observatory, EGO, Cascina (Pisa-Italy) and constructed by the collaboration of French and Italian institutes (CNRS and INFN) has successfully completed its long-duration data taking runs. It is now undergoing a fundamental upgrade that exploits available cutting edges technology to open an exciting new window on the universe, with the first detection of a gravitational wave signal. Advanced Virgo (AdV) is the project to upgrade the Virgo detector to a second-generation instrument. AdV will be able to scan a volume of the Universe 1000 times larger than initial Virgo. AdV will be hosted in the same infrastructures as Virgo. The Advanced VIRGO project is funded and at present carried on by a larger collaboration of institutes belonging to CNRS- France , RMKI - Hungary, INFN- Italy, Nikhef - The Netherlands Polish Academy of Science - Poland.

  5. Advanced Nanoemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryd, Michael M.; Mason, Thomas G.

    2012-05-01

    Recent advances in the growing field of nanoemulsions are opening up new applications in many areas such as pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. Moreover, highly controlled nanoemulsions can also serve as excellent model systems for investigating basic scientific questions about soft matter. Here, we highlight some of the most recent developments in nanoemulsions, focusing on methods of formation, surface modification, material properties, and characterization. These developments provide insight into the substantial advantages that nanoemulsions can offer over their microscale emulsion counterparts.

  6. Advanced LIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O.; Ain, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry–Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recyc...

  7. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  8. Plasma-Liquid Interaction: a New Way to Synthesize Nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Qiang; Li, Yongfeng; Zhang, Xianhui; Yang, Size

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we have summarized the recent advances and present conditions of the nanomaterials synthesis from the plasma-liquid interactions. A theoretical analysis for the nanomaterials synthesis process is presented by analyzing the experimental data. Besides the theoretical analysis, the practical applications in several nanomaterials syntheses of the the plasma-liquid interactions are also presented.

  9. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    2000-01-01

    This fifth volume of the successful series Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy continues to discuss and investigate the area of atomic spectroscopy.It begins with a description of the use of various atomic spectroscopic methods and applications of speciation studies in atomic spectroscopy. The emphasis is on combining atomic spectroscopy with gas and liquid chromatography. In chapter two the authors describe new developments in tunable lasers and the impact they will have on atomic spectroscopy. The traditional methods of detection, such as photography and the photomultiplier, and how they are being replaced by new detectors is discussed in chapter three. The very active area of glow discharge atomic spectrometry is presented in chapter four where, after a brief introduction and historical review, the use of glow discharge lamps for atomic spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are discussed. Included in this discussion is geometry and radiofrequency power. The future of this source in atomic spectroscopy is also dis...

  10. Active chemisorption sites in functionalized ionic liquids for carbon capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-07-25

    Development of novel technologies for the efficient and reversible capture of CO2 is highly desired. In the last decade, CO2 capture using ionic liquids has attracted intensive attention from both academia and industry, and has been recognized as a very promising technology. Recently, a new approach has been developed for highly efficient capture of CO2 by site-containing ionic liquids through chemical interaction. This perspective review focuses on the recent advances in the chemical absorption of CO2 using site-containing ionic liquids, such as amino-based ionic liquids, azolate ionic liquids, phenolate ionic liquids, dual-functionalized ionic liquids, pyridine-containing ionic liquids and so on. Other site-containing liquid absorbents such as amine-based solutions, switchable solvents, and functionalized ionic liquid-amine blends are also investigated. Strategies have been discussed for how to activate the existent reactive sites and develop novel reactive sites by physical and chemical methods to enhance CO2 absorption capacity and reduce absorption enthalpy. The carbon capture mechanisms of these site-containing liquid absorbents are also presented. Particular attention has been paid to the latest progress in CO2 capture in multiple-site interactions by amino-free anion-functionalized ionic liquids. In the last section, future directions and prospects for carbon capture by site-containing ionic liquids are outlined. PMID:27243042

  11. Theoretical studies on CO2 capture behavior of quaternary ammonium-based polymeric ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Ge, Kun; Chen, Kexian; Hou, Chenglong; Fang, Mengxiang

    2016-05-14

    Quaternary ammonium-based polymeric ionic liquids (PILs) are novel CO2 sorbents as they have high capacity, high stability and high binding energy. Moreover, the binding energy of ionic pairs to CO2 is tunable by changing the hydration state so that the sorbent can be regenerated through humidity adjustment. In this study, theoretical calculations were conducted to reveal the mechanism of the humidity swing CO2 adsorption, based on model compounds of quaternary ammonium cation and carbonate anions. The electrostatic potential map demonstrates the anion, rather than the cation, is chemically preferential for CO2 adsorption. Further, the proton transfer process from water to carbonate at the sorbent interface is successfully depicted with an intermediate which has a higher energy state. By determining the CO2 adsorption energy and activation energy at different hydration states, it is discovered that water could promote CO2 adsorption by reducing the energy barrier of proton transfer. The adsorption/desorption equilibrium would shift to desorption by adding water, which constitutes the theoretical basis for humidity swing. By analyzing the hydrogen bonding and structure of the water molecules, it is interesting to find that the CO2 adsorption weakens the hydrophilicity of the sorbent and results in release of water. The requirement of latent heat for the phase change of water could significantly reduce the heat of adsorption. The special "self-cooling" effect during gas adsorption can lower the temperature of the sorbent and benefit the adsorption isotherms. PMID:27115032

  12. Numerical simulation of liquid-metal-flows in radial-toroidal-radial bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetohydrodynamic flows in a U-bend and right-angle bend are considered with reference to the radial-toroidal-radial concept of a self-cooled liquid-metal blanket. The ducts composing bends have rectangular cross-section. The applied magnetic field is aligned with the toroidal duct and perpendicular to the radial ones. At high Hartmann number the flow region is divided into cores and boundary layers of different types. The magnetohydrodynamic equations are reduced to a system of partial differential equations governing wall electric potentials and the core pressure. The system is solved numerically by two different methods. The first method is iterative with iteration between wall potential and the core pressure. The second method is a general one for the solution of the core flow equations in curvilinear coordinates generated by channel geometry and magnetic field orientation. Results obtained are in good agreement. They show, that the 3D-pressure drop of MHD flows in a U-bend is not a critical issue for blanket applications. (orig./HP)

  13. Evaluation of Impinging Stream Vortex Chamber Concepts for Liquid Rocket Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu; Kopicz, Charles; Bullard, Brad; Michaels, Scott

    2003-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the U. S. Army are jointly investigating vortex chamber concepts for cryogenic oxygen/hydrocarbon fuel rocket engine applications. One concept, the Impinging Stream Vortex Chamber Concept (ISVC), has been tested with gel propellants at AMCOM at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. A version of this concept for the liquid oxygen (LOX)/hydrocarbon fuel (RP-1) propellant system is derived from the one for the gel propellant. An unlike impinging injector is employed to deliver the propellants to the chamber. MSFC has also designed two alternative injection schemes, called the chasing injectors, associated with this vortex chamber concept. In these injection techniques, both propellant jets and their impingement point are in the same chamber cross-sectional plane. One injector has a similar orifice size with the original unlike impinging injector. The second chasing injector has small injection orifices. The team has achieved their objectives of demonstrating the self-cooled chamber wall benefits of ISVC and of providing the test data for validating computational fluids dynamics (CFD) models. These models, in turn, will be used to design the optimum vortex chambers in the future.

  14. Plasmas in Multiphase Media: Bubble Enhanced Discharges in Liquids and Plasma/Liquid Phase Boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, Mark Jay [University of Michigan

    2014-07-10

    In this research project, the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas with multi-phase media was computationally investigated. Multi-phase media includes liquids, particles, complex materials and porous surfaces. Although this investigation addressed fundamental plasma transport and chemical processes, the outcomes directly and beneficially affected applications including biotechnology, medicine and environmental remediation (e.g., water purification). During this project, we made advances in our understanding of the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas in the form of dielectric barrier discharges and plasma jets with organic materials and liquids. We also made advances in our ability to use computer modeling to represent these complex processes. We determined the method that atmospheric pressure plasmas flow along solid and liquid surfaces, and through endoscopic like tubes, deliver optical and high energy ion activation energy to organic and liquid surfaces, and produce reactivity in thin liquid layers, as might cover a wound. We determined the mechanisms whereby plasmas can deliver activation energy to the inside of liquids by sustaining plasmas in bubbles. These findings are important to the advancement of new technology areas such as plasma medicine

  15. Advanced bioreactor systems for gaseous substrates: Conversion of synthesis gas to liquid fuels and removal of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} from coal combustion gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvaraj, P.T.; Kaufman, E.N.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the proposed research program is the development and demonstration of a new generation of gaseous substrate-based bioreactors for the production of liquid fuels from coal synthesis gas and the removal of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} species from combustion flue gas. Coal is thermochemically converted to synthesis gas consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Conventional catalytic upgrading of coal synthesis gas into alcohols or other oxychemicals is subject to several processing problems such as interference of the other constituents in the synthesis gases, strict CO/H{sub 2} ratios required to maintain a particular product distribution and yield, and high processing cost due to the operation at high temperatures and pressures. Recently isolated and identified bacterial strains capable of utilizing CO as a carbon source and coverting CO and H{sub 2} into mixed alcohols offer the potential of performing synthesis gas conversion using biocatalysts. Biocatalytic conversion, though slower than the conventional process, has several advantages such as decreased interference of the other constituents in the synthesis gases, no requirement for strict CO/H{sub 2} ratios, and decreased capital and oeprating costs as the biocatalytic reactions occur at ambient temperatures and pressures.

  16. Advanced DVI+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Tae Soon; Lee, S. T.; Euh, D. J.; Chu, I. C.; Youn, Y. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    A new advanced safety feature of DVI+ (Direct Vessel Injection Plus) for the APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus), to mitigate the ECC (Emergency Core Cooling) bypass fraction and to prevent switching an ECC outlet to a break flow inlet during a DVI line break, is presented for an advanced DVI system. In the current DVI system, the ECC water injected into the downcomer is easily shifted to the broken cold leg by a high steam cross flow which comes from the intact cold legs during the late reflood phase of a LBLOCA (Large Break Loss Of Coolant Accident). For the new DVI+ system, an ECBD (Emergency Core Barrel Duct) is installed on the outside of a core barrel cylinder. The ECBD has a gap (From the core barrel wall to the ECBD inner wall to the radial direction) of 3/25-7/25 of the downcomer annulus gap. The DVI nozzle and the ECBD are only connected by the ECC water jet, which is called a hydrodynamic water bridge, during the ECC injection period. Otherwise these two components are disconnected from each other without any pipes inside the downcomer. The ECBD is an ECC downward isolation flow sub-channel which protects the ECC water from the high speed steam crossflow in the downcomer annulus during a LOCA event. The injected ECC water flows downward into the lower downcomer through the ECBD without a strong entrainment to a steam cross flow. The outer downcomer annulus of the ECBD is the major steam flow zone coming from the intact cold leg during a LBLOCA. During a DVI line break, the separated DVI nozzle and ECBD have the effect of preventing the level of the cooling water from being lowered in the downcomer due to an inlet-outlet reverse phenomenon at the lowest position of the outlet of the ECBD.

  17. Advanced mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, CB; Kumar, V

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: This book `Advanced Mathematics` is primarily designed for B.Tech., IV Semester (EE and EC branch) students of Rajasthan Technical University. The subject matter is discussed in a lucid manner. The discussion is covered in five units: Unit I: deals with Numerical Analysis, Unit-II: gives different aspects of Numerical Analysis, Unit-III: Special Function, Unit-IV:Statistics and Probability, Calculus of Variation and Transforms are discussed in Unit V. All the theoretical concepts are explained through solved examples. Besides, a large number of unsolved problems on each top

  18. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2007-01-01

    This rigorous two-part treatment advances from functions of one variable to those of several variables. Intended for students who have already completed a one-year course in elementary calculus, it defers the introduction of functions of several variables for as long as possible, and adds clarity and simplicity by avoiding a mixture of heuristic and rigorous arguments.The first part explores functions of one variable, including numbers and sequences, continuous functions, differentiable functions, integration, and sequences and series of functions. The second part examines functions of several

  19. Spin liquids in graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Minh-Tien; Kim, Ki-Seok

    2010-01-01

    We reveal that local interactions in graphene allow novel spin liquids between the semi-metal and antiferromagnetic Mott insulating phases, identified with algebraic spin liquid and Z$_{2}$ spin liquid, respectively. We argue that the algebraic spin liquid can be regarded as the two dimensional realization of one dimensional spin dynamics, where antiferromagnetic correlations show exactly the same power-law dependence as valence bond correlations. Nature of the Z$_{2}$ spin liquid turns out t...

  20. On the phase-field modelling of a miscible liquid/liquid boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ruilin; Vorobev, Anatoliy

    2016-02-15

    Mixing of miscible liquids is essential for numerous processes in industry and nature. Mixing, i.e. interpenetration of molecules through the liquid/liquid boundary, occurs via interfacial diffusion. Mixing can also involve externally or internally driven hydrodynamic flows, and can lead to deformation or disintegration of the liquid/liquid boundary. At the moment, the mixing dynamics remains poorly understood. The classical Fick's law, generally accepted for description of the diffusion process, does not explain the experimental observations, in particular, the recent experiments with dissolution of a liquid solute by a liquid solvent within a horizontal capillary (Stevar and Vorobev, 2012). We present the results of the numerical study aimed at development of an advanced model for the dissolution dynamics of liquid/liquid binary mixtures. The model is based on the phase-field (Cahn-Hilliard) approach that is used as a physics-based model for the thermo- and hydrodynamic evolution of binary mixtures. Within this approach, the diffusion flux is defined through the gradient of chemical potential, and, in particular, includes the effect of barodiffusion. The dynamic interfacial stresses at the miscible interface are also taken into account. The simulations showed that such an approach can accurately reproduce the shape of the solute/solvent boundary, and some aspects of the diffusion dynamics. Nevertheless, all experimentally-observed features of the diffusion motion of the solute/solvent boundary, were not reproduced. PMID:26609922

  1. Advanced LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, ...

  2. Liquid helium boil-off measurements of heat leakage from sinter-forged BSCCO current leads under DC and AC conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid helium boil-off experiments are conducted to determine the heat leakage rate of a pair of BSCCO 2223 high-temperature superconductor current leads made by sinter forging. The experiments are carried out in both DC and AC conditions and with and without an intermediate heat intercept. Current ranges are from 0-500 A for DC tests and 0-1,000 Arms for AC tests. The leads are self-cooled. Results show that magnetic hysteresis (AC) losses for both the BSCCO leads and the low-temperature superconductor current jumper are small for the current range. It is shown that significant reduction in heat leakage rate (liquid helium boil-off rate) is realized by using the BSCCO superconductor leads. At 100 A, the heat leakage rate of the BSCCO/copper binary lead is approximately 29% of that of the conventional copper lead. Further reduction in liquid helium boil-off rate can be achieved by using an intermediate heat intercept. For example, at 500 K, the heat leakage rate of the BSCCO/copper binary lead is only 7% of that of the conventional copper lead when an intermediate heat intercept is used

  3. Liquid helium boil-off measurements of heat leakage from sinter-forged BSCCO current leads under DC and AC conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Y.S.; Niemann, R.C.; Hull, J.R.; Youngdahl, C.A.; Lanagan, M.T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nakade, M.; Hara, T. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Yokohama (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    Liquid helium boil-off experiments are conducted to determine the heat leakage rate of a pair of BSCCO 2223 high-temperature superconductor current leads made by sinter forging. The experiments are carried out in both DC and AC conditions and with and without an intermediate heat intercept. Current ranges are from 0-500 A for DC tests and 0-1,000 A{sub rms} for AC tests. The leads are self-cooled. Results show that magnetic hysteresis (AC) losses for both the BSCCO leads and the low-temperature superconductor current jumper are small for the current range. It is shown that significant reduction in heat leakage rate (liquid helium boil-off rate) is realized by using the BSCCO superconductor leads. At 100 A, the heat leakage rate of the BSCCO/copper binary lead is approximately 29% of that of the conventional copper lead. Further reduction in liquid helium boil-off rate can be achieved by using an intermediate heat intercept. For example, at 500 K, the heat leakage rate of the BSCCO/copper binary lead is only 7% of that of the conventional copper lead when an intermediate heat intercept is used.

  4. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  5. Theory of simple liquids with applications to soft matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage of topics in the theory of classical liquids Widely regarded as the standard text in its field, Theory of Simple Liquids gives an advanced but self-contained account of liquid state theory within the unifying framework provided by classical statistical mechanics. The structure of this revised and updated Fourth Edition is similar to that of the previous one but there are significant shifts in emphasis and much new material has been added. Major changes and Key Features in content include: Expansion of existing sections on simulation methods, liquid-vapour coexisten

  6. CASH AND LIQUIDITY/LIQUIDITY AND LIQUIDITY RATIO

    OpenAIRE

    BEATRIX LIGHEZAN BREUER; MIHAELA LESCONI FRUMUŞANU; ADELA BREUER; ANDRA MANCIU

    2012-01-01

    The present paper aims to present the correlation as well as the differences between liquidity/cash and liquidity ratio in terms of economic entities. Researches on this topic are based on the opinions of some specialists in accounting and in the economic-financial analysis, as well as on the national legal stipulations and the ones set out in the International Accounting Standards, the Financial report, respectively. The object of this paper is represented by the correlation between liquidit...

  7. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  8. Future advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celesia, Gastone G; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future advances in the auditory systems are difficult to predict, and only educated guesses are possible. It is expected that innovative technologies in the field of neuroscience will be applied to the auditory system. Optogenetics, Brainbow, and CLARITY will improve our knowledge of the working of neural auditory networks and the relationship between sound and language, providing a dynamic picture of the brain in action. CLARITY makes brain tissue transparent and offers a three-dimensional view of neural networks, which, combined with genetically labeling neurons with multiple, distinct colors (Optogenetics), will provide detailed information of the complex brain system. Molecular functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will allow the study of neurotransmitters detectable by MRI and their function in the auditory pathways. The Human Connectome project will study the patterns of distributed brain activity that underlie virtually all aspects of cognition and behavior and determine if abnormalities in the distributed patterns of activity may result in hearing and behavior disorders. Similarly, the programs of Big Brain and ENIGMA will improve our understanding of auditory disorders. New stem-cell therapy and gene therapies therapy may bring about a partial restoration of hearing for impaired patients by inducing regeneration of cochlear hair cells. PMID:25726297

  9. Securitization, transparency, and liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Pagano, M.; Volpin, P.

    2012-01-01

    We present a model in which issuers of asset backed securities choose to release coarse information to enhance the liquidity of their primary market, at the cost of reducing secondary market liquidity or even causing it to freeze. The degree of transparency is inefficiently low if the social value of secondary market liquidity exceeds its private value. We analyze various types of public intervention — mandatory transparency standards, provision of liquidity to distressed banks or secondary m...

  10. Liquid crystalline polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xin-Jiu

    2004-01-01

    This textbook consists of six chapters. The first chapter highlightsthe concept of liquid crystals, including chemical structure, phaseclassification, defect and texture, and continuum theory. It has beencarefully written to meet the needs of readers who do not specializein liquid crystals. The second chapter is related to the theoreticaldescription of liquid crystalline polymers, networks, and gels, whichdeals with subjects such as the formation of liquid crystallinity inthe polymer system, the phase transition and phase diagram, themolecular weight effect, chain conformation, physics proper

  11. Advances in magnetic resonance 9

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 9 describes the magnetic resonance in split constants and dipolar relaxation. This book discusses the temperature-dependent splitting constants in the ESR spectra of organic free radicals; temperature-dependent splittings in ion pairs; and magnetic resonance induced by electrons. The electron impact excitation of atoms and molecules; intramolecular dipolar relaxation in multi-spin systems; and dipolar cross-correlation problem are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the NMR studies of molecules oriented in thermotropic liquid crystals and diffusion

  12. ICONE-4: Proceedings. Volume 1 -- Part B: Basic technological advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of this conference are divided into 5 volumes. Volume one is divided into Parts A and B. Here in Part B, the following subjects are covered: advances in thermal hydraulic computer codes for reactor analysis; human health effects of low level radiation; advances in liquid metal reactor technology; computational and experimental developments; two-phase flow and heat transfer fundamentals; advances in flow field analysis and testing; advanced reactor thermal hydraulic safety; thermal hydraulics of nuclear safety and reliability; advances in numerical simulation of steam explosions; and computational and experimental two-phase flow developments. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume

  13. Liquid--liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This well-known phenomenon is called a ''vapor explosion.'' One method of producing intimate, liquid--liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. In this experiment cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials (mineral oil, silicone oil, water, mercury, molten Wood's metal or molten salt mixture). The main conclusion from the experimental study is that hydrodynamic effects may be very significant in any shock tube analyses, especially when multiple interactions are observed. A theoretical study was performed to check the possibility of vapor film squeezing (between a drop in film boiling and a surface) as a controlling mechanism for making liquid--liquid contact. Using experimental data, the film thickness was calculated and it was found to be too thick for any conceivable film rupture mechanism. It was suggested that the coalescence is a two-stage process, in which the controlling stage depends mainly on temperature and surface properties and can be described as the ability of cold liquid to spread on a hot surface

  14. Catalytic Methods in Asymmetric Synthesis Advanced Materials, Techniques, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gruttadauria, Michelangelo

    2011-01-01

    This book covers advances in the methods of catalytic asymmetric synthesis and their applications. Coverage moves from new materials and technologies to homogeneous metal-free catalysts and homogeneous metal catalysts. The applications of several methodologies for the synthesis of biologically active molecules are discussed. Part I addresses recent advances in new materials and technologies such as supported catalysts, supports, self-supported catalysts, chiral ionic liquids, supercritical fluids, flow reactors and microwaves related to asymmetric catalysis. Part II covers advances and milesto

  15. The ARIES Advanced and Conservative Tokamak Power Plant Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokamak power plants are studied with advanced and conservative design philosophies to identify the impacts on the resulting designs and to provide guidance to critical research needs. Incorporating updated physics understanding and using more sophisticated engineering and physics analysis, the tokamak configurations have developed a more credible basis compared with older studies. The advanced configuration assumes a self-cooled lead lithium blanket concept with SiC composite structural material with 58% thermal conversion efficiency. This plasma has a major radius of 6.25 m, a toroidal field of 6.0 T, a q95 of 4.5,a βtotalN of 5.75, an H98 of 1.65, an n/nGr of 1.0, and a peak divertor heat flux of 13.7 MW/m2. The conservative configuration assumes a dual-coolant lead lithium blanket concept with reduced-activation ferritic martensitic steel structural material and helium coolant, achieving a thermal conversion efficiency of 45%. The plasma has a major radius of 9.75 m, a toroidal field of 8.75 T, a q95 of 8.0, a βtotalN of 2.5, an H98 of 1.25, an n/nGr of 1.3, and a peak divertor heat flux of 10 MW/m2. The divertor heat flux treatment with a narrow power scrape-off width has driven the plasmas to larger major radius. Edge and divertor plasma simulations are targeting a basis for high radiated power fraction in the divertor, which is necessary for solutions to keep the peak heat flux in the range 10 to 15 MW/m2. Combinations of the advanced and conservative approaches show intermediate sizes. A new systems code using a database approach has been used and shows that the operating point is really an operating zone with some range of plasma and engineering parameters and very similar costs of electricity. Other papers in this issue provide more detailed discussion of the work summarized here

  16. Advanced isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Study Group briefly reviewed the technical status of the three Advanced Isotope Separation (AIS) processes. It also reviewed the evaluation work that has been carried out by DOE's Process Evaluation Board (PEB) and the Union Carbide Corporation-Nuclear Division (UCCND). The Study Group briefly reviewed a recent draft assessment made for DOE staff of the nonproliferation implications of the AIS technologies. The staff also very briefly summarized the status of GCEP and Advanced Centrifuge development. The Study Group concluded that: (1) there has not been sufficient progress to provide a firm scientific, technical or economic basis on which to select one of the three competing AIS processes for full-scale engineering development at this time; and (2) however, should budgetary restraints or other factors force such a selection, we believe that the evaluation process that is being carried out by the PEB provides the best basis available for making a decision. The Study Group recommended that: (1) any decisions on AIS processes should include a comparison with gas centrifuge processes, and should not be made independently from the plutonium isotope program; (2) in evaluating the various enrichment processes, all applicable costs (including R and D and sales overhead) and an appropriate discounting approach should be included in order to make comparisons on a private industry basis; (3) if the three AIS programs continue with limited resources, the work should be reoriented to focus only on the most pressing technical problems; and (4) if a decision is made to develop the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation process, the solid collector option should be pursued in parallel to alleviate the potential program impact of liquid collector thermal control problems

  17. Nanowire liquid pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian Yu; Lo, Yu-Chieh; Niu, Jun Jie; Kushima, Akihiro; Qian, Xiaofeng; Zhong, Li; Mao, Scott X.; Li, Ju

    2013-04-01

    The ability to form tiny droplets of liquids and control their movements is important in printing or patterning, chemical reactions and biological assays. So far, such nanofluidic capabilities have principally used components such as channels, nozzles or tubes, where a solid encloses the transported liquid. Here, we show that liquids can flow along the outer surface of solid nanowires at a scale of attolitres per second and the process can be directly imaged with in situ transmission electron microscopy. Microscopy videos show that an ionic liquid can be pumped along tin dioxide, silicon or zinc oxide nanowires as a thin precursor film or as beads riding on the precursor film. Theoretical analysis suggests there is a critical film thickness of ~10 nm below which the liquid flows as a flat film and above which it flows as discrete beads. This critical thickness is the result of intermolecular forces between solid and liquid, which compete with liquid surface energy and Rayleigh-Plateau instability.

  18. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  19. Liquid wastes processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable safety and easy evaporation of liquid components in contaminated radioactive liquid wastes, as well as to recover the cleaned-up vapors by way of distillation into liquid components. Constitution: After supplying neutralized radioactive liquid wastes into an evaporator, a vertical moving rack is adjusted so as to suck the contaminated airs in a glove box. The liquid wastes are evaporated by a heater and the vapors are cleaned up in an inclined filter element. Further, the cleaned up vapors are formed into liquid in a water cooled cooling cylinder and then introduced to a gas phase separation and liquid collection device. While on the other hand, gases are sent from a gas outlet through a vent pipe to a suction pump and discharged therefrom into a simple glove box. (Horiuchi, T.)

  20. Liquid/Gas Vortex Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, B. G.

    1986-01-01

    Liquid/gas separator vents gas from tank of liquid that contains gas randomly distributed in bubbles. Centrifugal force separates liquid and gas, forcing liquid out of vortex tube through venturi tube. Gas vented through exhaust port. When liquid detected in vent tube, exhaust port closed, and liquid/gas mixture in vent tube drawn back into tank through venturi.

  1. Advanced worker protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment

  2. Advanced worker protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J. [Oceaneering Space Systems, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  3. Effect of high temperature corrosion tests in be-liquid Li-V4Ti4Cr alloy system on mechanical properties of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Self-cooled lithium blanket is one of the promising concepts of breeding blanket for future fusion reactor. Beryllium proposed to be used in this design of blanket as a neutron multiplier and moderator for providing the required tritium breeding efficiency. Corrosion behavior of beryllium in liquid Li is important and at the same time not clearly understood aspect of beryllium application in fusion. Recent experimental results on beryllium corrosion behavior of two modem RF beryllium grades (DIP, TE-56) after testing in Be- liquid lithium - V4Ti4Cr alloy static system for 200-500 hours at temperatures from 600 to 800 deg. C are presented. The influences of test conditions (temperature, duration, lithium purity), beryllium characteristics (microstructure, grain size and chemical composition) and penetration of lithium into beryllium on compressive properties of beryllium are discussed. Compressive properties can be considered as an integral characteristic of grain boundaries weakening that is caused by penetration of lithium into beryllium during corrosion tests. The data obtained show that the stability of modem beryllium grades in lithium is much higher than that for the 'old' grades. (authors)

  4. Liquidity Trap and Stability of Taylor Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Le Riche, Antoine; Francesco MAGRIS; Parent, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    We study a productive economy with safe government bonds and fractional cash-in-advance constraint on consumption expenditures. Government issues bonds and levies taxes to finance public expenditures, while the Central Bank follows a feedback Taylor rules by pegging the nominal interest rate. We show that when the nominal interest rate is bound to be non-negative, under active policy rules a liquidity trap steady state does emerge besides the Leeper (1991) equilibrium. The stability of the tw...

  5. Liquid metal steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid metal heated steam generator is described which in the event of a tube failure quickly exhausts out of the steam generator the products of the reaction between the water and the liquid metal. The steam is generated in a plurality of bayonet tubes which are heated by liquid metal flowing over them between an inner cylinder and an outer cylinder. The inner cylinder extends above the level of liquid metal but below the main tube sheet. A central pipe extends down into the inner cylinder with a centrifugal separator between it and the inner cylinder at its lower end and an involute deflector plate above the separator so that the products of a reaction between the liquid metal and the water will be deflected downwardly by the deflector plate and through the separator so that the liquid metal will flow outwardly and away from the central pipe through which the steam and gaseous reaction products are exhausted. (U.S.)

  6. Holographic liquid crystal devices

    OpenAIRE

    Pavani, Kotakonda, (Thesis)

    2009-01-01

    Liquid crystals have become natural candidates for use in electro-optic devices for their ability to change the orientation of the director with the application of an electric field, and exhibiting large range of refractive index. The aim of the work presented in this thesis is to fabricate liquid crystal optoelectronic devices such as electrically switchable liquid crystal diffraction gratings and polarization rotators by exploiting the holographic surface relief effect in photopolymer and b...

  7. Harvesting contaminants from liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.

    2016-05-31

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus allowing the contaminants to be harvested.

  8. Debt, Taxes, and Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Bolton; Hui Chen; Neng Wang

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a model of optimal capital structure and liquidity choice based on a dynamic tradeoff theory for financially constrained firms. In addition to the classical tradeoff between the expected tax advantages of debt and bankruptcy costs, we introduce a cost of external financing for the firm, which generates a precautionary demand for liquidity and an optimal liquidity management policy for the firm. An important new cost of debt financing in this context is an endogenous debt servicing ...

  9. Liquidity risk management.

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Goodhart

    2008-01-01

    Liquidity and solvency are the heavenly twins of banking, frequently indistinguishable. An illiquid bank can rapidly become insolvent, and an insolvent bank illiquid. As Tim Congdon noted, (FT, September 2007), in the 1950s liquid assets were typically 30 percent of British clearing banks’ total assets, and these largely consisted of Treasury Bills and short dated government debt. Currently, such cash holdings are about ½ percent and traditional liquid assets about 1 percent of total liabilit...

  10. ROMANIAN BANKS LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATRANCEA MARIA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Most transactions or financial commitments have implications for a bank liquidity. Transactions are particularly vulnerable to liquidity problems at a specific institution. Therefore, one can deduce the importance of the correct calculation and liquidity indicator, not only for the bank concerned, but especially for NBR uses that bank risk management tool. That is why the authors took into consideration a sample of banks in Romania to show to what extent the banking crisis has influenced the development banks.

  11. Project B: Improved Liquid Steel Feed For Slab Casters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent S. Isaacson; Mike Slepian; Thomas Richter

    1998-10-01

    This report describes the completion of the development of an electromagnetic valve to control liquid steel flow for improved liquid steel feeding for slab casters. Achievements result from a joint research effort between Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, North American Refractories and U.S. Steel. This effort is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AISI) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and fifteen North American steel makers.

  12. Global Liquidity, Capital Inflows and House Prices in ASEAN Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew S. Yiu; Sahminan Sahminan

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative Easing (QE) policies, adopted by the advanced economies since 2009, have led to abundant global liquidity. In the same period, the ASEAN-5 economies (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand) have recorded strong capital inflows, particularly portfolio inflows. Asset prices, in particular house prices in these economies, have also experienced excess buoyancy. This paper studies the relationship between global liquidity, house prices and capital flows. Empirica...

  13. Turning a surface superrepellent even to completely wetting liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, T; Kim, CJ

    2014-01-01

    © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved. Superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surfaces have so far been made by roughening a hydrophobic material. However, no surfaces were able to repel extremely-low-energy liquids such as fluorinated solvents, which completely wet even the most hydrophobic material. We show how roughness alone, if made of a specific doubly reentrant structure that enables very low liquid-solid contact fraction, can render the surface...

  14. Liquid explosives detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Lowell J.

    1994-03-01

    A Liquid Explosives Screening System capable of scanning unopened bottles for liquid explosives has been developed. The system can be operated to detect specific explosives directly, or to verify the labeled or bar-coded contents of the container. In this system nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used to interrogate the liquid. NMR produces an extremely rich data set and many parameters of the NMR response can be determined simultaneously. As a result, multiple NMR signatures may be defined for any given set of liquids, and the signature complexity then selected according to the level of threat.

  15. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Dennis M.; Hinz, William R.

    2010-09-28

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  16. Remotely controllable liquid marbles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2012-07-26

    Liquid droplets encapsulated by self-organized hydrophobic particles at the liquid/air interface - liquid marbles - are prepared by encapsulating water droplets with novel core/shell-structured responsive magnetic particles, consisting of a responsive block copolymer-grafted mesoporous silica shell and magnetite core (see figure; P2VP-b-PDMS: poly(2-vinylpyridine-b- dimethylsiloxane)). Desirable properties of the liquid marbles include that they rupture upon ultraviolet illumination and can be remotely manipulated by an external magnetic field. 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Avances en la Predicción de Propiedades Físicas, Físico-Químicas y de Transporte de Líquidos Iónicos Advances in the Prediction of Physical, Physicochemical and Transport Properties of Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O Valderrama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta y discute los avances del grupo de investigación de la Universidad de La Serena sobre la estimación de las propiedades físicas, fisicoquímicas y de transporte de líquidos iónicos (LIs. Aunque se ha sostenido que los métodos usuales que se aplican a fluidos orgánicos no pueden ser aplicados a los LIs y que se requiere un nuevo formalismo que explique el comportamiento especialmente diferente de los LIs, el grupo de trabajo de La Serena ha demostrado que esto no es correcto. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de varios métodos tradicionales para estimar las propiedades de fluidos que han sido aplicados a los LIs; en particular, técnicas de contribución de grupos, correlaciones generalizadas, correlaciones empíricas, y redes neuronales. De esta forma se han correlacionado y predicho hasta la fecha las propiedades críticas, la presión de vapor, la densidad y la viscosidad de líquidos iónicos.The advances done by the research group in La Serena-Chile on the estimation of several physical, physicochemical, and transport properties of ionic liquids (ILs are presented and analyzed. Although it has been mentioned in the literature that the methods usually applicable to organic fluids cannot be used to estimate the properties of ILs and a new formalism to explain the especial behavior of ILs should be formulated, the group in La Serena has demonstrated that this is not correct. This work presents the results of applying several traditional methods for estimating some properties of ILs; in particular, group contribution techniques, generalized correlation, empirical correlations, and neural networks have been employed. Until now, the critical properties, the vapor pressure, the density and the viscosity of ILs have been correlated and predicted.

  18. How Water Advances on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, Frank; Encinas, Noemí; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Superliquid repellency can be achieved by nano- and microstructuring surfaces in such a way that protrusions entrap air underneath the liquid. It is still not known how the three-phase contact line advances on such structured surfaces. In contrast to a smooth surface, where the contact line can advance continuously, on a superliquid-repellent surface, the contact line has to overcome an air gap between protrusions. Here, we apply laser scanning confocal microscopy to get the first microscopic videos of water drops advancing on a superhydrophobic array of micropillars. In contrast to common belief, the liquid surface gradually bends down until it touches the top face of the next micropillars. The apparent advancing contact angle is 180°. On the receding side, pinning to the top faces of the micropillars determines the apparent receding contact angle. Based on these observations, we propose that the apparent receding contact angle should be used for characterizing superliquid-repellent surfaces rather than the apparent advancing contact angle and hysteresis.

  19. How Water Advances on Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, Frank; Encinas, Noemí; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Superliquid repellency can be achieved by nano- and microstructuring surfaces in such a way that protrusions entrap air underneath the liquid. It is still not known how the three-phase contact line advances on such structured surfaces. In contrast to a smooth surface, where the contact line can advance continuously, on a superliquid-repellent surface, the contact line has to overcome an air gap between protrusions. Here, we apply laser scanning confocal microscopy to get the first microscopic videos of water drops advancing on a superhydrophobic array of micropillars. In contrast to common belief, the liquid surface gradually bends down until it touches the top face of the next micropillars. The apparent advancing contact angle is 180°. On the receding side, pinning to the top faces of the micropillars determines the apparent receding contact angle. Based on these observations, we propose that the apparent receding contact angle should be used for characterizing superliquid-repellent surfaces rather than the apparent advancing contact angle and hysteresis. PMID:26991185

  20. A decade of advances in metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant advances in the understanding of behavior and performance of metallic fuels to high burnup have been achieved over the past four decades. Metallic fuels were the first fuels for liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors (LMR) but in the late 1960's worldwide interest turned toward ceramic fuels before the full potential of metallic fuel could be achieved. Now metallic fuels are recognized as a preferred viable option with regard to safety, integral fuel cycle, waste minimization and deployment economics. This paper reviews the key advances in the last decade and highlights the behavior and performance features which have demonstrated a much greater potential than previously expected

  1. GPU Pro 5 advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    In GPU Pro5: Advanced Rendering Techniques, section editors Wolfgang Engel, Christopher Oat, Carsten Dachsbacher, Michal Valient, Wessam Bahnassi, and Marius Bjorge have once again assembled a high-quality collection of cutting-edge techniques for advanced graphics processing unit (GPU) programming. Divided into six sections, the book covers rendering, lighting, effects in image space, mobile devices, 3D engine design, and compute. It explores rasterization of liquids, ray tracing of art assets that would otherwise be used in a rasterized engine, physically based area lights, volumetric light

  2. Recent advances in centrifugal contactors design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in thedesign of the Argonne centrifugal contactor for solvent extaction are being realized as these contactors are built, tested, and used to implement the TRUEX process for the cleanup of nuclear waste liquids. These advances include (1) using off-the-shelf, face-mounted motors, (2) modifying the contractor so that relatively volatile solvents can be used, (3) adding a high-level liquid detector that can be used to alert the plant operator of process upsets, (4) providing secondary feed ports, (5) optimizing support frame design, (6) maintaining a linear design with external interstage lines so the stages can be allocated as needed for extraction, scrub, strip, and solvent cleanup operations, and (7) developing features that facilitate contractor operation in remote facilities. 11 refs., 8 figs

  3. Liquid-liquid extraction. Choice, calculation and design of devices; Extraction liquide-liquide. Choix, calcul et conception des appareils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leybros, J. [CEA Vallee du Rhone, Departement de Technologie du Cycle du combustible, 26 - Pierrelatte (France)

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this work is to study the problematic due to the choice of an equipment, to its size and to its industrial bringing into operation. Besides its efficiency to carry out a mass transfer, the economical interest of an industrial device will be proportional to its specific rate (volume treated by surface unit of the cross section of the extractor). Nevertheless, as it seems to be logic to maximize the three parameters which have an influence on it (transfer coefficient, interfacial surface and transfer potential), there exists no device which can modify separately any of these parameters. In order to satisfy these aims, a great diversity of devices have been put on the market. Indeed, it exists about twenty different industrial devices. This diversity leads the engineer, during the design of a solvent extraction device, to take difficult and subjective decisions without pilot experiment on the considered system. The main problem of an economical and optimized calculation of the liquid-liquid extractors from theoretical data has still not found totally satisfying solutions. Thus, except in some cases where we have empirical correlations, the recourse to prototype experiments is required and the most recent advances have resulted essentially to define more reliable rules for the extrapolation of these experiments for the size of industrial devices. (O.M.)

  4. [Liquid Biopsy and Laboratory Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Koh

    2015-09-01

    Recent progress in cancer biology has revealed the fact that molecular profiles of primary and metastatic cancer are not necessarily the same. Furthermore, evidence of intra-tumor heterogeneity has been disclosed repeatedly. In addition to these, acquiring resistances to chemoradiation therapy is far more rapid than typical predictions. Under these circumstances, physicians are realizing that one biopsy is not enough to predict the direction of cancer progression or extension. Repeated biopsy was proposed in this context. For "re-biopsy", acquiring blood is much easier compared to regular biopsies of acquiring body tissues. Therefore, CTC or Cell-free DNA is one of the hot topics in clinical and molecular diagnostic fields. The term "liquid biopsy" is used to include these two materials. We utilized a CTC isolation device based on microfluidic principles. Procedures for the extraction of DNA from plasma (Cell-free DNA) is also available. Based on this background, we performed a feasibility study of NGS (Next Generation Sequencing) by analyzing materials from advanced gastrointestinal cancer patients. We have successfully acquired NGS results using these liquid biopsies. We have also investigated the possibility of storing CTCs by evaluating procedures after cytospin using H1975 cells with various fixation conditions under a DIC microscope examination. Because of the paucity of the number of isolated CTCs, H1975 cells were used for this purpose. After cytospin, 95% ETOH and then -80 degrees C storage provided the best results. Attempts at not only NGS but also storage in this sequence of studies have opened new fields of liquid biopsy in clinical laboratories. PMID:26731900

  5. Diffusion in liquids a theoretical and experimental study

    CERN Document Server

    Tyrrell, H J V

    1984-01-01

    Diffusion in Liquids: A Theoretical and Experimental Study aims to discuss the principles, applications, and advances in the field of diffusion, thermal diffusion, and thermal conduction in liquid systems. The book covers topics such as the principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics; diffusion in binary and multicompetent systems; and experimental methods of studying diffusion processes in liquids. Also covered in the book are topics such as the theoretical interpretations of diffusion coefficients; hydrodynamic and kinetic theories; and diffusion in electrolyte systems. The text is recommen

  6. Structure and oil repellency: Textiles with liquid repellency to hexane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Stuart A.; Willis, Colin R.

    2008-08-01

    Combining structure and liquid repellent coatings to optimise non-wettability is a well-established field. However, the area in recent years has been dominated by data on water repellency. The work here provides data on how certain plant structures can be used to develop surfaces that provide repellency towards both polar and non-polar, low surface tension fluids. Combining fluoropolymer coatings with 'hairy' fibres is particularly beneficial for providing liquid-repellent textiles. None of these surfaces can however be regarded as super-repellent to low surface tension liquids (i.e. with little difference in advancing and receding contact angles).

  7. Liquid Chromatography in 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, David H.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews trends in liquid chromatography including apparatus, factors affecting efficient separation of a mixture (peak sharpness and speed), simplified problem-solving, adsorption, bonded phase chromatography, ion selectivity, and size exclusion. The current trend is to control chemical selectivity by the liquid phase. (Author/JN)

  8. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine Laschat; Axenov, Kirill V

    2011-01-01

    The last five years’ achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed.

  9. The Liquid Vapour Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1985-01-01

    In this short review we are concerned with the density variation across the liquid-vapour interface, i.e. from the bulk density of the liquid to the essentially zero density of the vapour phase. This density variation can in principle be determined from the deviation of the reflectivity from...

  10. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  11. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  12. Propulsion Systems Definition for a Liquid Fly-back Booster

    OpenAIRE

    Sippel, Martin; Herbertz, Armin

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the final design status of a partially reusable space transportation system which has been under study for more than five years within the German future launcher technology research program ASTRA. It consists of dual booster stages, which are attached to an advanced expendable core. The design of the reference liquid fly-back boosters (LFBB) is based on LOX/LH2 propellant and a future advanced gas-generator cycle rocket motor. In focus are the four different p...

  13. Liquidity and Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Holmström, Bengt; Tirole, Jean

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a model of the interaction between risk-management practices and market liquidity. On one hand, tighter risk management reduces the maximum position an institution can take, thus the amount of liquidity it can offer to the market. On the other hand, risk managers can take into account that lower liquidity amplifies the effective risk of a position by lengthening the time it takes to sell it. The main result of the paper is that a feedback effect can arise: tighter risk man...

  14. Extreme Downside Liquidity Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ruenzi, Stefan; Ungeheuer, Michael; Weigert, Florian

    2013-01-01

    We merge the literature on downside return risk with that on systematic liquidity risk and introduce the concept of extreme downside liquidity (EDL) risk. We show that the cross-section of expected stock returns reflects a premium for EDL risk. Strong EDL risk stocks deliver a positive risk premium of more than 4% p.a. as compared to weak EDL risk stocks. The effect is more pronounced after the market crash of 1987. It is not driven by linear liquidity risk or by extreme downside return risk,...

  15. Advances in water resources engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The Handbook of Environmental Engineering is a collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. A sister volume to Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, this volume focuses on the theory and analysis of various water resources systems including watershed sediment dynamics and modeling, integrated simulation of interactive surface water and groundwater systems, river channel stabilization with submerged vanes, non-equilibrium sediment transport, reservoir sedimentation, and fluvial processes, minimum energy dissipation rate theory and applications, hydraulic modeling development and application, geophysical methods for assessment of earthen dams, soil erosion on upland areas by rainfall and overland flow, geofluvial modeling methodologies and applications, and an environmental water engineering glossary. This critical volume will serve as a valuable reference work for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, designers of...

  16. Advances in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on inertial confinement fusion which has made a great progress. In fact several significant scientific developments have been achieved in the last few years. These have presented the ICF community with the opportunity to advance to a new step in the ICF research. The key issues of laser fusion are to attain a high absorption of laser light in a plasma, to prevent preheating of the fuel during the compression and to achieve highly efficient implosion by the ablation and uniform compression of the fuel due to the homogeneous deposition of laser energy on the pellet surface. Direct drive and indirect drive have been investigated. The progress in both schemes is described. The neutron yield reaches 1013 per shot and the compressed fuel density is now about 600 times of the liquid density

  17. Advanced Cogeneration Technology Economic Optimization Study (ACTEOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, P.; Ansu, Y.; Manuel, E. H., Jr.; Price, W. G., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced cogeneration technology economic optimization study (ACTEOS) was undertaken to extend the results of the cogeneration technology alternatives study (CTAS). Cost comparisons were made between designs involving advanced cogeneration technologies and designs involving either conventional cogeneration technologies or not involving cogeneration. For the specific equipment cost and fuel price assumptions made, it was found that: (1) coal based cogeneration systems offered appreciable cost savings over the no cogeneration case, while systems using coal derived liquids offered no costs savings; and (2) the advanced cogeneration systems provided somewhat larger cost savings than the conventional systems. Among the issues considered in the study included: (1) temporal variations in steam and electric demands; (2) requirements for reliability/standby capacity; (3) availability of discrete equipment sizes; (4) regional variations in fuel and electricity prices; (5) off design system performance; and (6) separate demand and energy charges for purchased electricity.

  18. Water: A Tale of Two Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Paola; Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Angell, Charles Austen; Anisimov, Mikhail Alexeevich; Caupin, Frédéric; Chakravarty, Charusita; Lascaris, Erik; Loerting, Thomas; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Zois; Russo, John; Sellberg, Jonas Alexander; Stanley, Harry Eugene; Tanaka, Hajime; Vega, Carlos; Xu, Limei; Pettersson, Lars Gunnar Moody

    2016-07-13

    Water is the most abundant liquid on earth and also the substance with the largest number of anomalies in its properties. It is a prerequisite for life and as such a most important subject of current research in chemical physics and physical chemistry. In spite of its simplicity as a liquid, it has an enormously rich phase diagram where different types of ices, amorphous phases, and anomalies disclose a path that points to unique thermodynamics of its supercooled liquid state that still hides many unraveled secrets. In this review we describe the behavior of water in the regime from ambient conditions to the deeply supercooled region. The review describes simulations and experiments on this anomalous liquid. Several scenarios have been proposed to explain the anomalous properties that become strongly enhanced in the supercooled region. Among those, the second critical-point scenario has been investigated extensively, and at present most experimental evidence point to this scenario. Starting from very low temperatures, a coexistence line between a high-density amorphous phase and a low-density amorphous phase would continue in a coexistence line between a high-density and a low-density liquid phase terminating in a liquid-liquid critical point, LLCP. On approaching this LLCP from the one-phase region, a crossover in thermodynamics and dynamics can be found. This is discussed based on a picture of a temperature-dependent balance between a high-density liquid and a low-density liquid favored by, respectively, entropy and enthalpy, leading to a consistent picture of the thermodynamics of bulk water. Ice nucleation is also discussed, since this is what severely impedes experimental investigation of the vicinity of the proposed LLCP. Experimental investigation of stretched water, i.e., water at negative pressure, gives access to a different regime of the complex water diagram. Different ways to inhibit crystallization through confinement and aqueous solutions are

  19. Upgrading of raw oil into advanced fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of the research effort is the determination of the minimum processing requirements to produce high energy density fuels (HEDF) having acceptable fuel specifications. The program encompasses assessing current technology capability; selecting acceptable processing and refining schemes; and generating samples of advanced test fuels. The Phase I Baseline Program is intended to explore the processing alternatives for producing advanced HEDF from two raw synfuel feedstocks, one from Mild Coal Gasification as exemplified by the COALITE process and one from Colorado shale oil. Eight key tasks have been identified as follows: (1) Planning and Environmental Permitting; (2) Transporting and Storage of Raw Fuel Sources and Products; (3) Screening of Processing and Upgrading Schemes; (4) Proposed Upgrading Schemes for Advanced Fuel; (5) Upgrading of Raw Oil into Advanced Fuel (6) Packaging and Shipment of Advanced Fuels; (7) Updated Technical and Economic Assessment; and, (8) Final Report of Phase I Efforts. This topical report summarizes the operations and results of the Phase I Task 5 sample preparation program. The specific objectives of Task 5 were to: Perform laboratory characterization tests on the raw COALITE feed, the intermediate liquids to the required hydroprocessing units and final advanced fuels and byproducts; and produce a minimum of 25-gal of Category I test fuel for evaluation by DOE and its contractors.

  20. Diet - full liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liquid when they are at room temperature, like ice cream. It also includes: Strained creamy soups Tea Juice ... Butter, margarine, oil, cream, custard, and pudding Plain ice cream, frozen yogurt, and sherbet. Fruit ices and popsicles ...

  1. What is Liquid? Foreword

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Henderson, D.; Holovko, M.; Nezbeda, Ivo; Trokhymchuk, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2015), 10101-1-10101-4. ISSN 1607-324X Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : fluid * liquid * physics modelling Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.748, year: 2014

  2. Corporate governance and liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Derrabi, Mohamed; Naciri, Monir

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on liquidity in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain. Using turnover as a proxy for liquidity, we document significant difference in liquidity between the pre- and the...... post-crisis periods in the MENA region. In addition, our results show that bulk of this reduction in turnover can be explained due to weaknesses of corporate governance mechanisms. For example, that dividend payout ratio and choice of auditors – proxies for agency problems – can explain the entire...... difference in liquidity between the two periods. Furthermore, our results indicate that more than 50% of this difference between the two periods can be explained by operational and informational complexity of a firm – proxy for transparency. We argue that poor corporate governance mechanisms increase...

  3. Wettability by Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongliang; Jiang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have become particularly attractive recently because they have demonstrated themselves to be important construction units in the broad fields of chemistry and materials science, from catalysis and synthesis to analysis and electrochemistry, from functional fluids to clean energy, from nanotechnology to functional materials. One of the greatest issues that determines the performance of ILs is the wettability of correlated surfaces. In this concept article, the key developments and issues in IL wettability are surveyed, including the electrowetting of ILs in gas-liquid-solid systems and liquid-liquid-solid systems, ILs as useful probe fluids, the superwettability of Ils, and future directions in IL wettability. This should generate extensive interest in the field and encourage more scientists to engage in this area to tackle its scientific challenges. PMID:26619157

  4. Ionic Liquids in Tribology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Minami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Current research on room-temperature ionic liquids as lubricants is described. Ionic liquids possess excellent properties such as non-volatility, non-flammability, and thermo-oxidative stability. The potential use of ionic liquids as lubricants was first proposed in 2001 and approximately 70 articles pertaining to fundamental research on ionic liquids have been published through May 2009. A large majority of the cations examined in this area are derived from 1,3-dialkylimidazolium, with a higher alkyl group on the imidazolium cation being beneficial for good lubrication, while it reduces the thermo-oxidative stability. Hydrophobic anions provide both good lubricity and significant thermo-oxidative stability. The anions decompose through a tribochemical reaction to generate metal fluoride on the rubbed surface. Additive technology to improve lubricity is also explained. An introduction to tribology as an interdisciplinary field of lubrication is also provided.

  5. Dynamics of liquid nanofilms

    CERN Document Server

    Gouin, Henri

    2008-01-01

    The van der Waals forces across a very thin liquid layer (nanofilm) in contact with a plane solid wall make the liquid nonhomogeneous. The dynamics of such flat liquid nanofilms is studied in isothermal case. The Navier-Stokes equations are unable to describe fluid motions in very thin films. The notion of surface free energy of a sharp interface separating gas and liquid layer is disqualified. The concept of disjoining pressure replaces the model of surface energy. In the nanofilm a supplementary free energy must be considered as a functional of the density. The equation of fluid motions along the nanofilm is obtained through the Hamilton variational principle by adding, to the conservative forces, the forces of viscosity in lubrication approximation. The evolution equation of the film thickness is deduced and takes into account the variation of the disjoining pressure along the layer.

  6. Dynamics in liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five types of reorientational motions for molecules in liquid crystals are discussed on the basis of a comparison of the neutron scattering and the dielectric relaxation methods. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

  7. Ferrofluid Based Deformable Mirrors - a New Approach to Adaptive Optics Using Liquid Mirrors

    OpenAIRE

    Laird, P.; Bergamasco, R.; Berube, V.; Borra, E. F.; Ritcey, A.; Rioux, M.; Robitaille, N.; Thibault, S.; Silva Jr, L. Vieira da; Yockell-Lelievre, H.

    2002-01-01

    The trend towards ever larger telescopes and more advanced adaptive optics systems is driving the need for deformable mirrors with a large number of low cost actuators. Liquid mirrors have long been recognized a potential low cost alternative to conventional solid mirrors. By using a water or oil based ferrofluid we are able to benefit from a stronger magnetic response than is found in magnetic liquid metal amalgams and avoid the difficulty of passing a uniform current through a liquid. Depos...

  8. Adaptive micro-optical phase modulators based on liquid crystal technology

    OpenAIRE

    Algorri Genaro, José Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This thesis began with the project “Advanced Devices of Liquid Crystal and Electroluminescent Organic Diodes. Hybrid Applications for 3D Vision” funded by the Spanish government. The goal of this project was the development of optical devices to achieve 3D vision in portable devices without glasses or external elements. In order to achieve the goals of this project, solutions based on liquid crystal are considered. Specifically, adaptive micro-optical phase modulators based on liquid crystal ...

  9. Photoluminescence analysis of self induced planer alignment in azo dye dispersed nematic liquid crystal complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed azo dye doped nematic liquid crystal complex for advanced photonic liquid crystal display technology aspects. Disperse orange azo dye self introduced planer alignment in the nematic liquid crystal without any surface anchoring treatment. Planer alignment was characterized by optical polarizing microscopy. The electro-optical switching response of dye disperse planer aligned nematic cell was investigated as a function of applied voltage with the help of photoluminescence spectrophotometer for the tuning of photoluminescence contrast

  10. Bubble growth constants for liquid hydrogen and liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubble growth constants are calculated for liquid H2 and liquid He at various pressures and liquid superheats for spherically symmetric growth using Scrivens' solution (Chem. Eng. Sci.; 10 (1959)). The constants are shown to be applicable to bubble growth at a heated wall during boiling of cryogenic liquids. (author)

  11. Liquidity and Shareholder Activism

    OpenAIRE

    Norli, Øyvind; Østergaard, Charlotte; Schindele, Ibolya

    2009-01-01

    Blockholders' incentives to intervene in corporate governance are weakened by free-rider problems and high costs of activism. Theory suggests activists may recoup expenses through informed trading of target rms' stock when stocks are liquid. We show that stock liquidity increases the probability of activism but does less so for potentially overvalued rms for which privately informed blockholders may have greater incentives to sell their stake than to intervene. We also document ...

  12. Liquid Chromatography on chip

    OpenAIRE

    Faure, Karine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Liquid chromatography is one of the most powerful separation techniques as illustrated by its leading role in analytical sciences through both academic and industrial communities. Its implementation in microsystems appears to be crucial in the development of ?TAS. If electrophoretic techniques have been widely used in miniaturized devices, liquid chromatography has faced multiple challenges in the downsizing process. During the past five years significant breakthroughs...

  13. Liquid Level Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Wiley, John T. (Inventor); Duffell, Amanda G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A liquid level sensing system includes waveguides disposed in a liquid and distributed along a path with a gap between adjacent waveguides. A source introduces electromagnetic energy into the waveguides at a first end of the path. A portion of the electromagnetic energy exits the waveguides at a second end of the path. A detector measures the portion of the electromagnetic energy exiting the second end of the path.

  14. Living liquid crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Shuang; Sokolov, Andrey; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Aranson, Igor S.

    2014-01-01

    Collective motion of self-propelled organisms or synthetic particles often termed active fluid has attracted enormous attention in broad scientific community because of it fundamentally non-equilibrium nature. Energy input and interactions among the moving units and the medium lead to complex dynamics. Here we introduce a new class of active matter, living liquid crystals (LLCs) that combine living swimming bacteria with a lyotropic liquid crystal. The physical properties of LLCs can be contr...

  15. Meandering of liquid rivulets on partially wetting inclines

    CERN Document Server

    Couvreur, Stéphanie

    2012-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video illustrates recent advances in the understanding of the mechanism which causes the sinuous path formed by liquid rivulets on partially wetting inclines. The images themselves show how a simple lighting set-up using a large Fresnel lens can be used to obtain high contrast images of large transparent objects.

  16. A review of liquid metal anode solid oxide fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIYA TOLEUOVA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses recent advances in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC variant that uses liquid metal electrodes (anodes with the advantage of greater fuel tolerance and the ability to operate on solid fuel. Key features of the approach are discussed along with the technological and research challenges that need to be overcome for scale-up and commercialisation.

  17. A review of liquid metal anode solid oxide fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    ALIYA TOLEUOVA; VLADIMIR YUFIT; STEFAAN SIMONS; Maskell, William C.; Brett, Daniel J. L.

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses recent advances in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) variant that uses liquid metal electrodes (anodes) with the advantage of greater fuel tolerance and the ability to operate on solid fuel. Key features of the approach are discussed along with the technological and research challenges that need to be overcome for scale-up and commercialisation.

  18. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Prigogine, Ilya

    2009-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of chemical physics.

  19. Electrically actuated liquid iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Miao; Ren, Hongwen; Lin, Yi-Hsin

    2015-03-01

    We report an adaptive iris using dielectric liquids and a radial-interdigitated electrode. A black liquid is confined by a circular gasket with a donut shape. The surrounding of the black liquid is filled with an immiscible liquid. In the relaxing state, the black liquid obtains the largest clear aperture. By applying a voltage, the surface of the black liquid is stretched by the generated dielectric force, resulting in a reduction of its aperture. For the demonstrated iris, the diameter of the aperture can be changed from ∼4.7  mm to ∼1.2  mm when the voltage is applied from 0 to 70  V(rms). The aperture ratio is ∼94%. Owing to the radial-interdigitated electrode, the aperture size of the iris can be effectively switched with a reasonably fast response time. The optical switch is polarization-insensitive. The potential applications of our iris are light shutters, optical attenuators, biomimicry, and wearable devices. PMID:25723444

  20. The advanced controls program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), is conducting research that will lead to advanced, automated control of new liquid-metal-reactor (LMR) nuclear power plants. Although this program of research (entitled the ''Advanced Controls Program'') is focused on LMR technology, it will be capable of providing control design, test, and qualification capability for other advanced reactor designs (e.g., the advanced light water reactor [ALWR] and high temperature gas-cooled reactor [HTGR] designs), while also benefiting existing nuclear plants. The Program will also have applicability to complex, non-nuclear process control environments (e.g., petrochemical, aerospace, etc.). The Advanced Controls Program will support capabilities throughout the entire plant design life cycle, i.e., from the initial interactive first-principle dynamic model development for the process, systems, components, and instruments through advanced control room qualification. The current program involves five principal areas of research activities: (1) demonstrations of advanced control system designs, (2) development of an advanced controls design environment, (3) development of advanced control strategies, (4) research and development (R ampersand D) in human-system integration for advanced control system designs, and (5) testing and validation of advanced control system designs. Discussion of the research in these five areas forms the basis of this paper. Also included is a description of the research directions of the program. 8 refs

  1. Structural stability and self-healing capability of Er2O3 in situ coating on V-4Cr-4Ti in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in situ Er2O3 insulating coating is under development for the self-cooled Li/V-alloy type fusion blanket. In this study, the structural stability and self-healing capability of the coating are investigated. Since the cracking in the coating was not observed after exposure when Li was removed with a weak lotion (liquid NH3), the cracking observed in the previous studies is not a practical issue in a real blanket. The re-exposure of the coating in pure Li showed that the coating once formed in Li (Er) is thought to be stable in pure Li. Thus, coating has the possibility to be serviced in a Li environment without an Er supply. By prior exposure to Li (Er) at 873 K, the exhaustion of the oxygen storage in V-alloy substrate during exposure at 973 K could be delayed effectively. The self-healing capability of the coating was demonstrated by the examination with the re-exposing cracked coating in Li (Er)

  2. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine;

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an...

  3. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  4. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  5. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  6. Asset Pricing with Liquidity Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Viral V; Lasse Heje Pedersen

    2004-01-01

    This Paper solves explicitly a simple equilibrium asset pricing model with liquidity risk – the risk arising from unpredictable changes in liquidity over time. In our liquidity-adjusted capital asset pricing model, a security’s required return depends on its expected liquidity as well as on the covariances of its own return and liquidity with market return and market liquidity. In addition, the model shows how a negative shock to a security’s liquidity, if it is persistent, results in low con...

  7. ACR-700 advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A successful advanced reactor plant will have optimized economics including reduced operating and maintenance costs, improved performance, and enhanced safety. Incorporating improvements based on advanced technologies ensures cost, safety and operational competitiveness of the ACR-700. These advanced technologies include modern configuration management; construction technologies; operational technology for the control centre and information systems for plant monitoring and analysis. This paper summarizes the advanced technologies used to achieve construction and operational improvements to enhance plant economic competitiveness, advances in the operational technology used for reactor control, and presents the development of the Smart CANDU suite of tools and its application to existing operating reactors and to the ACR-700. (author)

  8. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2012-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics field with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of chemical physics. This volume explores: Quantum Dynamical Resonances in Ch

  9. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2012-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series presents contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study o

  10. Advanced information society (12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsuzaki, Seisuke

    In this paper, the original Japanese idea of "advanced information society" was reviewed at the first step. Thus, advancement of information/communication technology, advancement of information/communication needs and tendency of industrialization of information" were examined. Next, by comparing studies on advanced information society in various countries, the Japanese characteristics of consensus building was reviewed. Finally, in pursuit of prospect and tasks for the society, advancement of innovation and convergence information/communication technology, information/communication needs, institutional environment for utilization of information/communication and countermeasures against information pollution. Matching of information/communication technology and needs, besides with countermeasures against information pollution were discussed.

  11. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2011-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series offers contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of che

  12. Advances in chemical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2011-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series offers contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of che

  13. Beyond dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Mei-I; Fuh, Ming-Ren; Huang, Shang-Da

    2014-03-28

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and other dispersion liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) methods have been developed since the first DLLME method was reported in 2006. DLLME is simple, rapid, and affords high enrichment factor, this is due to the large contact surface area of the extraction solvent. DLLME is a method suitable for the extraction in many different water samples, but it requires using chlorinated solvents. In recent years, interest in DLLME or dispersion LPME has been focused on the use of low-toxicity solvents and more conveniently practical procedures. This review examines some of the most interesting developments in the past few years. In the first section, DLLME methods are separated in two categories: DLLME with low-density extraction solvent and DLLME with high-density extraction solvent. Besides these methods, many novel special devices for collecting low-density extraction solvent are also mentioned. In addition, various dispersion techniques with LPME, including manual shaking, air-assisted LPME (aspirating and injecting the extraction mixture by syringe), ultrasound-assisted emulsification, vortex-assisted emulsification, surfactant-assisted emulsification, and microwave-assisted emulsification are described. Besides the above methods, combinations of DLLME with other extraction techniques (solid-phase extraction, stir bar sorptive extraction, molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion and supercritical fluid extraction) are introduced. The combination of nanotechnique with DLLME is also introduced. Furthermore, this review illustrates the application of DLLME or dispersion LPME methods to separate and preconcentrate various organic analytes, inorganic analytes, and samples. PMID:24582396

  14. The Empirical Analysis of Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, Craig W.; Stacey Jacobsen; Avanidhar Subrahmanyam

    2014-01-01

    We provide a synthesis of the empirical evidence on market liquidity. The liquidity measurement literature has established standard measures of liquidity that apply to broad categories of market microstructure data. Specialized measures of liquidity have been developed to deal with data limitations in specific markets, to provide proxies from daily data, and to assess institutional trading programs. The general liquidity literature has established local cross-sectional patterns, global cross-...

  15. Liquidity Risk and Syndicate Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Evan Gatev; Philip Strahan

    2008-01-01

    We offer a new explanation of loan syndicate structure based on banks' comparative advantage in managing systematic liquidity risk. When a syndicated loan to a rated borrower has systematic liquidity risk, the fraction of passive participant lenders that are banks is about 8% higher than for loans without liquidity risk. In contrast, liquidity risk does not explain the share of banks as lead lenders. Using a new measure of ex-ante liquidity risk exposure, we find further evidence that syndica...

  16. RECENT ADVANCES IN STUDIES ON MULTIPHASE AND REACTING FLOWS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周力行

    2002-01-01

    The recent developments and advances of studies on multiphase and reacting flows, including gas-solid, gas-liquid, liquid-solid and reacting flows, in China are reviewed. Special emphasis is laid on the fundamental studies and numerical models. Some important experimental results are also reported. But measurement techniques are not covered.

  17. Process for treatment of detergent-containing radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detergent-containing radioactive liquid waste originating from atomic power plants is concentrated to have about 10 wt. % detergent concentration, then dried in a thin film evaporator, and converted into powder. Powdered activated carbon is added to the radioactive waste in advance to prevent the liquid waste from foaming in the evaporator by the action of surface active agents contained in the detergent. The activated carbon is added in accordance with the COD concentration of the radioactive liquid waste to be treated, and usually at a concentration 2-4 times as large as the COD concentration of the liquid waste to be treated. A powdery product having a moisture content of not more than 15 wt. % is obtained from the evaporator, and pelletized and then packed into drums to be stored for a predetermined period

  18. Liquid Radioactive Wastes Treatment: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Tse Hung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Radioactive wastes are generated during nuclear fuel cycle operation, production and application of radioisotope in medicine, industry, research, and agriculture, and as a byproduct of natural resource exploitation, which includes mining and processing of ores, combustion of fossil fuels, or production of natural gas and oil. To ensure the protection of human health and the environment from the hazard of these wastes, a planned integrated radioactive waste management practice should be applied. This work is directed to review recent published researches that are concerned with testing and application of different treatment options as a part of the integrated radioactive waste management practice. The main aim from this work is to highlight the scientific community interest in important problems that affect different treatment processes. This review is divided into the following sections: advances in conventional treatment of aqueous radioactive wastes, advances in conventional treatment of organic liquid wastes, and emerged technological options.

  19. The SAFR liquid metal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) modular reactor concept is being developed by the team of Rockwell International, Combustion Engineering, and Bechtel under the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) program. The SAFR plant would provide a viable alternate to light water reactors, especially for applications favoring small incremental capacity additions. SAFR is also a logical step to facilitate the later transition to LMFBRs. The SAFR plant concept employs multiple 350-MWe LMR Power Pak modules. Each Power Pak is a standardized, shop-fabricated unit that can be barge-shipped to the plant site for installation. The 350-MWe size allows SAFR to capitalize on all the inherent safety features provided by small reactors and factory fabrication, while still preserving some economy of scale. Shop fabrication minimizes nuclear-grade field fabrication and minimizes the overall plant construction schedule and capital cost. Each Power Pak consists of one reactor assembly and associated heat transfer equipment coupled to a single turbine generator. The reactor core employs mixed uranium-plutonium zirconium alloy metal fuel. The metal-alloy fuel (which has been used in EBR-II) has cost, safety, and safeguard advantages. The intrinsic properties of the sodium coolant (e.g., high boiling point, low vapor pressure, and strong natural convection), blended together with the pool-type LMR concept and the metal fuel, result in an inherently safe plant. Passive inherent features provide both public safety and plant investment protection. Refueling is carried out annually on each Power Pak, replacing one-fourth of the core over a 6-day refueling outage. A colocated pyroprocessing fuel cycle facility can be accommodated at the site such that no off-site shipments are required. (J.P.N.)

  20. Novelties in design and construction of the advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced pressurized water reactors (APWR), advanced boiling water reactors (ABWR), advanced liquid metal reactors (ALMR), and modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGR), as well as heavy water reactors (AHWR), are analyzed taking into account those characteristics which make them less complex, but safer than their current homologous ones. This fact simplifies their construction which reduces completion periods and costs, increasing safety and protection of the plants. It is demonstrated how the accumulated operational experience allows to find more standardized designs with some enhancement in the material and component technology and thus achieve also a better use of computerized systems

  1. Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Annual Report -- 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.; DeVoto, D.; Moreno, G.; Rugh, J.; Waye, S.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the research into advanced liquid cooling, integrated power module cooling, high temperature air cooled power electronics, two-phase cooling for power electronics, and electric motor thermal management by NREL's Power Electronics group in FY13.

  2. Thermohydraulics in liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottowski, H. M.

    Heat transfer problems in single-phase and two-phase liquid metal forced convection flow are reviewed. Liquid metal boiling heat transfer in pool flow; and dry out heat fluxes are considered. It is shown that in technological plants working with liquid metals, superheating up to 150 C occurs, and can lead to nonstationary hydraulic transition between the single-phase and established two-phase flows. Boiling phases relative to subcooled boiling and bubble boiling have no importance for technological processes. Piston, slug and annular flow patterns dominate. On the basis of the flow patterns observed during boiling, the separate flow model principle is the only one suitable for calculating the two-phase flow pressure drop. Using this model and total pressure drop measurements, a relationship for the two-phase frictional pressure characteristic, valid for tubular and annular geometry, can be determined.

  3. Functional ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the thesis at hand, new functional ionic liquids were investigated. Main focus was attended to their structure property relations and the structural features leading to a decrease of the melting point. New compounds of the type 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(N,Ndialkyldithiocarbamato) uranylate with variously substituated dithiocarbamato ligands were synthesized and characterized. Ligands with asymmetrical substitution pattern proved to be most suitable for ionic liquid formation. The single-crystal X-ray structures revealed the interactions in the solid state. Here, the first spectroscopic investigation of the U-S bond in sulfur donated uranyl complexes, up to now only observed in single-crystal X-ray structures, is presented, and the participation of the uranium f-orbitals is shown by theoretical calculations. Electrochemical investigations showed the accessibility of the respective UVO2+ compounds. As well, ionic liquids with [FeCl4]- and [Cl3FeOFeCl3]2- as anion were synthesized. Both of these anions contain high-spin Fe(III) centres in distorted tetrahedral environment, but exhibit different magnetic behaviour. The tetrachloroferrates show the usual paramagnetism, the m-oxobis(trichloroferrate) exhibits unexpectedly strong antiferromagnetic coupling, as was observed by NMR experiments and susceptibility measurements. To investigate structure-property relations in functionalized ionic liquids, a set of protic, primary alkylammonium and aprotic, quarternary trimethylalkylammonium based ionic liquids was synthesized, and characterized. The length of the alkyl chain was systematically varied, and all compounds were synthesized with and without hydroxyl group, as well as formate and bis(triflyl)amide salts, aiming at getting insight into the influence of the different structure parts on the respective ionic liquid's properties.

  4. Instabilities in liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis contains theoretical work dealing with the effects of magnetic and electric fields on samples of nematic, smectic A and smectic C liquid crystals. Some background material along with the continuum theory is introduced in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3 we consider the effect on the director within an infinite sample of nematic liquid crystal which is subjected to crossed electric and magnetic fields. In particular we examine the stability of the travelling waves which describe the director motion by considering the behaviour of the stable perturbations as time increases. The work of Chapter 4 examines a bounded sample of smectic A liquid crystal in two dimensions which is subjected to a magnetic field. It can be shown that layer undulations may occur after a critical threshold is reached. The effects of various forms of pressure are also studied and in the case when pressure is included it is shown that layer undulations will always occur regardless of the field strength. Chapter 5 extends the work of Chapter 4 to three dimensions. We consider the effect of adding a dynamical term and study the stability of these solutions. Also we examine how the layers undulate when the sample of smectic A liquid crystal is confined to various cylindrical geometries and subjected to a magnetic field and a uniform pressure. In Chapter 6 we consider a sample of smectic C liquid crystal which is subjected to an oscillatory electric field. The motion of the c-director is complicated and we examine the differences which occur for differing dielectric anisotropies. Finally, in Chapter 7 we study how a sample of smectic C liquid crystal behaves when it is subjected to a uniform shear flow within the smectic plane. We find travelling wave solutions for the behaviour of the c-director and adapt these solutions to incorporate the effects of an applied field. (author)

  5. Recent advances in vacuum sciences and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in vacuum sciences and applications are reviewed. Novel optical interferometer cavity devices enable pressure measurements with ppm accuracy. The innovative dynamic vacuum standard allows for pressure measurements with temporal resolution of 2 ms. Vacuum issues in the construction of huge ultra-high vacuum devices worldwide are reviewed. Recent advances in surface science and thin films include new phenomena observed in electron transport near solid surfaces as well as novel results on the properties of carbon nanomaterials. Precise techniques for surface and thin-film characterization have been applied in the conservation technology of cultural heritage objects and recent advances in the characterization of biointerfaces are presented. The combination of various vacuum and atmospheric-pressure techniques enables an insight into the complex phenomena of protein and other biomolecule conformations on solid surfaces. Studying these phenomena at solid–liquid interfaces is regarded as the main issue in the development of alternative techniques for drug delivery, tissue engineering and thus the development of innovative techniques for curing cancer and cardiovascular diseases. A review on recent advances in plasma medicine is presented as well as novel hypotheses on cell apoptosis upon treatment with gaseous plasma. Finally, recent advances in plasma nanoscience are illustrated with several examples and a roadmap for future activities is presented. (topical review)

  6. Recent advances in vacuum sciences and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozetič, M.; Ostrikov, K.; Ruzic, D. N.; Curreli, D.; Cvelbar, U.; Vesel, A.; Primc, G.; Leisch, M.; Jousten, K.; Malyshev, O. B.; Hendricks, J. H.; Kövér, L.; Tagliaferro, A.; Conde, O.; Silvestre, A. J.; Giapintzakis, J.; Buljan, M.; Radić, N.; Dražić, G.; Bernstorff, S.; Biederman, H.; Kylián, O.; Hanuš, J.; Miloševič, S.; Galtayries, A.; Dietrich, P.; Unger, W.; Lehocky, M.; Sedlarik, V.; Stana-Kleinschek, K.; Drmota-Petrič, A.; Pireaux, J. J.; Rogers, J. W.; Anderle, M.

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in vacuum sciences and applications are reviewed. Novel optical interferometer cavity devices enable pressure measurements with ppm accuracy. The innovative dynamic vacuum standard allows for pressure measurements with temporal resolution of 2 ms. Vacuum issues in the construction of huge ultra-high vacuum devices worldwide are reviewed. Recent advances in surface science and thin films include new phenomena observed in electron transport near solid surfaces as well as novel results on the properties of carbon nanomaterials. Precise techniques for surface and thin-film characterization have been applied in the conservation technology of cultural heritage objects and recent advances in the characterization of biointerfaces are presented. The combination of various vacuum and atmospheric-pressure techniques enables an insight into the complex phenomena of protein and other biomolecule conformations on solid surfaces. Studying these phenomena at solid-liquid interfaces is regarded as the main issue in the development of alternative techniques for drug delivery, tissue engineering and thus the development of innovative techniques for curing cancer and cardiovascular diseases. A review on recent advances in plasma medicine is presented as well as novel hypotheses on cell apoptosis upon treatment with gaseous plasma. Finally, recent advances in plasma nanoscience are illustrated with several examples and a roadmap for future activities is presented.

  7. Design Integration of Liquid Surface Divertors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygren, R E; Cowgill, D F; Ulrickson, M A; Nelson, B E; Fogarty, P J; Rognlien, T D; Rensink, M E; Hassanein, A; Smolentsev, S S; Kotschenreuther, M

    2003-11-13

    The US Enabling Technology Program in fusion is investigating the use of free flowing liquid surfaces facing the plasma. We have been studying the issues in integrating a liquid surface divertor into a configuration based upon an advanced tokamak, specifically the ARIES-RS configuration. The simplest form of such a divertor is to extend the flow of the liquid first wall into the divertor and thereby avoid introducing additional fluid streams. In this case, one can modify the flow above the divertor to enhance thermal mixing. For divertors with flowing liquid metals (or other electrically conductive fluids) MHD (magneto-hydrodynamics) effects are a major concern and can produce forces that redirect flow and suppress turbulence. An evaluation of Flibe (a molten salt) as a working fluid was done to assess a case in which the MHD forces could be largely neglected. Initial studies indicate that, for a tokamak with high power density, an integrated Flibe first wall and divertor does not seem workable. We have continued work with molten salts and replaced Flibe with Flinabe, a mixture of lithium and sodium fluorides, that has some potential because of its lower melting temperature. Sn and Sn-Li have also been considered, and the initial evaluations on heat removal with minimal plasma contamination show promise, although the complicated 3-D MHD flows cannot yet be fully modeled. Particle pumping in these design concepts is accomplished by conventional means (ports and pumps). However, trapping of hydrogen in these flowing liquids seems plausible and novel concepts for entrapping helium are also being studied.

  8. Liquid air cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosevear, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  9. Bicontinuous liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, Mathew L

    2005-01-01

    PrefaceIntroduction AcknowledgmentsBicontinuous Cubic Liquid Crystalline Materials: A Historical Perspective and Modern Assessment; Kr̄e LarssonIntermediate Phases; Michael C. Holmes and Marc S. LeaverCubic Phases and Human Skin: Theory and Practice; Steven Hoath and Lars NorlňThe Relationship between Bicontinuous Inverted Cubic Phases and Membrane Fusion; D.P. SiegelAspects of the Differential Geometry and Topology of Bicontinuous Liquid-Crystalline Phases; Robert W. CorkeryNovel L3 Phases and Their Macroscopic Properties; R. Beck and H. HoffmannBicontinuous Cubic Phases of Lipids with Entra

  10. Liquid metal detection apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensing instrument for use in detecting the presence or absence of liquid metal in a non-magnetic pipe or container comprises a pair of electromagnetic elements, each having a magnetic core and a primary induction coil, a third magnetic core bridging the end faces of the cores and a secondary induction coil wound about the third magnetic core on an axis normal to the axis of the pair of magnetic cores. Applied to nuclear reactors cooled by liquid metals eg. sodium or lead. (U.K.)

  11. Contacting solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solids/liquid (or slurry/liquid) contactor is described comprising a container through which the phases flow, rotatable discs with a rotor dividing the container into a series of interconnected compartments and, in at least some of the compartments, receptacles extending between the discs to effect phase transfer. At least one of the compartments is free of receptacles or has receptacles arranged on a smaller diameter than in other compartments to form a settling chamber. The contactor may be used in the extraction of oil-sands or uranium or purification of china clay. (author)

  12. Rheology of liquid foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid foams can behave like solids or liquids, depending on the applied stress and on the experimental timescale. Understanding the origin of this complex rheology which gives rise to many applications and which resembles that of many other forms of soft condensed matter made of closely packed soft units requires challenging theoretical questions to be solved. We briefly recall the basic physics and physicochemistry of foams and review the experiments, numerical simulations and theoretical models concerning foam rheology published in recent years. (topical review)

  13. Improved Capacitive Liquid Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Francis A.

    1992-01-01

    Improved capacitive sensor used to detect presence and/or measure thickness of layer of liquid. Electrical impedance or admittance of sensor measured at prescribed frequency, and thickness of liquid inferred from predetermined theoretical or experimental relationship between impedance and thickness. Sensor is basically a three-terminal device. Features interdigitated driving and sensing electrodes and peripheral coplanar ground electrode that reduces parasitic effects. Patent-pending because first to utilize ground plane as "shunting" electrode. System less expensive than infrared, microwave, or refractive-index systems. Sensor successfully evaluated in commercial production plants to characterize emulsions, slurries, and solutions.

  14. Air/liquid collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Olesen, Ole; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    1997-01-01

    This report determine efficiency equations for combined air/liquid solar collectors by measurements on to different air/liquid collectors. Equations which contain all relevant informations on the solar collectors. A simulation program (Kviksol) has been modified in order to be able to handle this...... kind of collectors. The modified simulation program has been used for the determination of the surplus in performance which solar heating systems with this type of solar collectors for combined preheating of ventilation air and domestic hot water will have. The simulation program and the efficiency...

  15. Neutron scattering in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barocchi, F. [Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica

    1996-12-31

    Together with X-rays, thermal neutrons are the ideal probe to study the microscopic structure of condensed matter, however the precision attainable usually with neutrons for the measurement of atomic position correlation functions in liquids is, at least, one order of magnitude better than for X-rays. In order to measure properly the microscopic dynamics a wide range of momentum transfer with corresponding energy transfer must be available in the range of liquid state excitations. This again is only attainable, with good resolution, with neutrons. (author) 7 figs., 3 refs.

  16. Advances in Applied Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Applied Mechanics draws together recent significant advances in various topics in applied mechanics. Published since 1948, Advances in Applied Mechanics aims to provide authoritative review articles on topics in the mechanical sciences, primarily of interest to scientists and engineers working in the various branches of mechanics, but also of interest to the many who use the results of investigations in mechanics in various application areas, such as aerospace, chemical, civil, en...

  17. Editorial: Advanced learning technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Ju Lan; Gang-Shan Fu; Stephen J.H. Yang; Jeff J.S. Huang

    2012-01-01

    Recent rapid development of advanced information technology brings high expectations of its potential to improvement and innovations in learning. This special issue is devoted to using some of the emerging technologies issues related to the topic of education and knowledge sharing, involving several cutting edge research outcomes from recent advancement of learning technologies. Advanced learning technologies are the composition of various related technologies and concepts such as mobile tech...

  18. Liquid crystalline order in polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Blumstein, Alexandre

    1978-01-01

    Liquid Crystalline Order in Polymers examines the topic of liquid crystalline order in systems containing rigid synthetic macromolecular chains. Each chapter of the book provides a review of one important area of the field. Chapter 1 discusses scattering in polymer systems with liquid crystalline order. It also introduces the field of liquid crystals. Chapter 2 treats the origin of liquid crystalline order in macromolecules by describing the in-depth study of conformation of such macromolecules in their unassociated state. The chapters that follow describe successively the liquid crystalli

  19. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Integrated Power and Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, Brian; Ryan, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    The proposed paper will cover ongoing work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) on integrated power and propulsion for advanced human exploration. Specifically, it will present findings of the integrated design, testing, and operational challenges of a liquid oxygen / liquid methane (LOx/LCH4) propulsion brassboard and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system. Human-Mars architectures point to an oxygen-methane economy utilizing common commodities, scavenged from the planetary atmosphere and soil via In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), and common commodities across sub-systems. Due to the enormous mass gear-ratio required for human exploration beyond low-earth orbit, (for every 1 kg of payload landed on Mars, 226 kg will be required on Earth) increasing commonality between spacecraft subsystems such as power and propulsion can result in tremendous launch mass and volume savings. Historically, propulsion and fuel cell power subsystems have had little interaction outside of the generation (fuel cell) and consumption (propulsion) of electrical power. This was largely due to a mismatch in preferred commodities (hypergolics for propulsion; oxygen & hydrogen for fuel cells). Although this stove-piped approach benefits from simplicity in the design process, it means each subsystem has its own tanks, pressurization system, fluid feed system, etc. increasing overall spacecraft mass and volume. A liquid oxygen / liquid methane commodities architecture across propulsion and power subsystems would enable the use of common tankage and associated pressurization and commodity delivery hardware for both. Furthermore, a spacecraft utilizing integrated power and propulsion could use propellant residuals - propellant which could not be expelled from the tank near depletion due to hydrodynamic considerations caused by large flow demands of a rocket engine - to generate power after all propulsive maneuvers are complete thus utilizing

  20. Advanced Launch System Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: Area 1-120 consists of three liquid rocket stands, with five firing positions, a control center and various support facilities. Vertical Stand 1A is a...

  1. Evaluating advanced LMR reactivity feedbacks using SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses of the PRISM and SAFR liquid metal reactor transients, using SSC, are discussed. These two advanced reactors incorporate innovative approaches to safety, utilizing passive rather than active engineered safety systems. A key feature of these designs is their reliance on the inherent negative reactivity feedbacks of the metal fuel to accommodate unscrammed events passively. These feedbacks include Doppler, sodium density, and thermal expansion of the reactor and the control rod drive lines. Each of these feedbacks is discussed, as is the modeling implemented into the SSC code. These calculations provide an independent evaluation of the proposed reactors, and show how the reactivity feedbacks can provide an inherent shutdown in response to key anticipated events. The results from the SSC calculations support the contention that the inherent reactivity feedbacks can provide an extra degree of safety for the proposed liquid metal reactors

  2. Advanced transport systems analysis, modeling, and evaluation of performances

    CERN Document Server

    Janić, Milan

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a systematic analysis, modeling and evaluation of the performance of advanced transport systems. It offers an innovative approach by presenting a multidimensional examination of the performance of advanced transport systems and transport modes, useful for both theoretical and practical purposes. Advanced transport systems for the twenty-first century are characterized by the superiority of one or several of their infrastructural, technical/technological, operational, economic, environmental, social, and policy performances as compared to their conventional counterparts. The advanced transport systems considered include: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) systems in urban area(s), electric and fuel cell passenger cars, high speed tilting trains, High Speed Rail (HSR), Trans Rapid Maglev (TRM), Evacuated Tube Transport system (ETT), advanced commercial subsonic and Supersonic Transport Aircraft (STA), conventionally- and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2)-fuelled commercial air trans...

  3. Ionic and Molecular Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Prezhdo, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    Because of their outstanding versatility, room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are utilized in an ever increasing number of novel and fascinating applications, making them the Holy Grail of modern materials science. In this Perspective, we address the fundamental research and prospective...

  4. Liquidating a China Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RICHARD; HOFFMANN

    2009-01-01

    With the global economic crisis hitting some businesses in China very hard as export sales dry up, now is a timely occasion to remind executives of affected businesses of their responsibilities when having to liquidate a business. China-based subsidiaries may

  5. Vapor liquid fraction determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention describes a method of measuring liquid and vapor fractions in a non-homogeneous fluid flowing through an elongate conduit, such as may be required with boiling water, non-boiling turbulent flows, fluidized bed experiments, water-gas mixing analysis, and nuclear plant cooling. (UK)

  6. Liquid curtains: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption of mass by a liquid curtain is determined both analytically and numerically as a function of the Froude and Peclet numbers, pressure difference, convergence parameter, initial thickness-to-radius ratio and nozzle exit angle. Two analytical methods have been used. The first one considers the finite thickness of the liquid curtain, whereas the second method calculates the mass absorption rate by assuming that the curtain is a semi-infinite medium. The mass absorption rate was also determined numerically by accounting for the velocity distribution across the liquid curtain. The results of the two analytical methods agree very well with the numerical results for high Peclet numbers; however, the predictions of the semi-infinite medium approximation are inaccurate at low Peclet numbers and for positive nozzle exit angles. It is shown that the mass absorption rates are mainly a function of the liquid curtain convergence length and thickness, and increase as the Froude number, convergence parameter and nozzle exit angle are increased, but decrease as the pressure coefficient, initial thickness-to-radius ratio and Peclet number are decreased. (author)

  7. Liquid Modernity & Late Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.

    In Liquid Modernity, Bauman portrays Adorno and the rest of the early Frankfurt School as sociologists and thinkers belonging to the ‘heavy’ phase of modernity. In other words, they are deemed irrelevant to the discussion of current sociological time diagnoses and the purpose of critique under co...

  8. Liquids shape up nicely

    OpenAIRE

    McHale, Glen

    2007-01-01

    Decorating a surface with a forest of microposts can either make it repel water or cause it to be sucked into the spaces between posts. In the latter case, the shape of a liquid on the surface can be controlled using simple design principles.

  9. Liquid crystal display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved liquid crystal display device is described which can display letters, numerals and other necessary patterns in the night time using a minimized amount of radioactive material. To achieve this a self-luminous light source is placed in a limited region corresponding to a specific display area. (U.K.)

  10. Liquid crystalline dihydroazulene photoswitches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ugleholdt; Jevric, Martyn; Mandle, Richard J.; Davis, Edward J.; Cowling, Stephen J.; Goodby, John W.; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2015-01-01

    DHA where the alignment is maintained. The systematic structural variation has revealed that a biaryl spacer between the DHA and the alkyl chain is needed for liquid crystallinity and that the one aromatic ring in the spacer cannot be substituted by a triazole. This work presents an important step...

  11. Structure of liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron diffraction experiments, made at a steady-state reactor source, were used to study the structure of liquid 7Li at temperatures of 197, 452 and 595 deg. C. A careful data analysis procedure was undertaken in which specific issues taken into account include (i) the influence of Brillouin modes on the measured diffraction pattern at small scattering vectors, (ii) inelasticity corrections that are significant for light atom systems, such as lithium, and (iii) the effects caused by the diffractometer resolution function. Data sets taken for the same liquid temperature using different incident neutron energies yield ion-ion partial structure factors, SII(k), that are in agreement within the statistical errors. The SII(k) are compared with previous experimental results and with the results obtained from liquid state theory and molecular dynamics methods made using several different local pseudopotentials. Finally, the valence electron form factor, ρ(k), is estimated by combining SII(k) with x-ray diffraction data and the ion-valence electron partial structure factor, SIe(k), is calculated by combining SII(k) with the ρ(k) obtained from both experiment and theory. The results show that the extraction of ρ(k) and SIe(k) by a combination of neutron and x-ray diffraction methods is feasible in practice, but demonstrates a need for new x-ray diffraction experiments on liquid lithium

  12. Ionization in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1987--1990 reporting period, studies were conducted that entailed the direct measurement of the transport and reaction properties of excess electrons in nonpolar liquids through the use of pulse-conductivity techniques. The results obtained from these studies should be applicable toward the development of a better understanding of the primary ionizing event in liquids as well as to providing physico-chemical information that is pertinent to electron-transfer processes that are ubiquitous in biological systems. Progress was also made in developing a better understanding of electron attachment reactions in liquids through measurements of the electron attachment rate constants, kes, of a variety of electron-attaching solutes. The effects of several functional groups substituted at different positions on benzene were studied in liquid cyclohexane and isooctane. The electron-attaching properties of chemicals having well characterized carcinogenic properties were studied in cyclohexane to determine if the measure of electron-accepting potential that ke provides can elucidate the role that electrons play in the initiation step of carcinogenesis. The kes that were measured indicate that the ke-carcinogenicity correlation that was observed can be used to complement short-term carcinogen-screening bioassays to identify potential carcinogens. 115 refs., 6 tabs

  13. Solidity of viscous liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    1999-01-01

    Recent NMR experiments on supercooled toluene and glycerol by Hinze and Böhmer show that small rotation angles dominate with only a few large molecular rotations. These results are here interpreted by assuming that viscous liquids are solidlike on short length scales. A characteristic length, the...

  14. Liquid metal hydrogen barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen barriers are disclosed which comprise liquid metals in which the solubility of hydrogen is low and which have good thermal conductivities at operating temperatures of interest. Such barriers are useful in nuclear fuel elements containing a metal hydride moderator which has a substantial hydrogen dissociation pressure at reactor operating temperatures. 2 claims, 3 figures

  15. Metal fire implications for advanced reactors. Part 1, literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public safety and acceptance is extremely important for the nuclear power renaissance to get started. The Advanced Burner Reactor and other potential designs utilize liquid sodium as a primary coolant which provides distinct challenges to the nuclear power industry. Fire is a dominant contributor to total nuclear plant risk events for current generation nuclear power plants. Utilizing past experience to develop suitable safety systems and procedures will minimize the chance of sodium leaks and the associated consequences in the next generation. An advanced understanding of metal fire behavior in regards to the new designs will benefit both science and industry. This report presents an extensive literature review that captures past experiences, new advanced reactor designs, and the current state-of-knowledge related to liquid sodium combustion behavior

  16. Metal fire implications for advanced reactors. Part 1, literature review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Radel, Ross F.; Hewson, John C.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-10-01

    Public safety and acceptance is extremely important for the nuclear power renaissance to get started. The Advanced Burner Reactor and other potential designs utilize liquid sodium as a primary coolant which provides distinct challenges to the nuclear power industry. Fire is a dominant contributor to total nuclear plant risk events for current generation nuclear power plants. Utilizing past experience to develop suitable safety systems and procedures will minimize the chance of sodium leaks and the associated consequences in the next generation. An advanced understanding of metal fire behavior in regards to the new designs will benefit both science and industry. This report presents an extensive literature review that captures past experiences, new advanced reactor designs, and the current state-of-knowledge related to liquid sodium combustion behavior.

  17. Microfabricated Liquid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Alan H.; Joppin, C.; Kerrebrock, J. L.; Schneider, Steven J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Under NASA Glenn Research Center sponsorship, MIT has developed the concept of micromachined, bipropellant, liquid rocket engines. This is potentially a breakthrough technology changing the cost-performance tradeoffs for small propulsion systems, enabling new applications, and redefining the meaning of the term low-cost-access-to-space. With this NASA support, a liquid-cooled, gaseous propellant version of the thrust chamber and nozzle was designed, built, and tested as a first step. DARPA is currently funding MIT to demonstrate turbopumps and controls. The work performed herein was the second year of a proposed three-year effort to develop the technology and demonstrate very high power density, regeneratively cooled, liquid bipropellant rocket engine thrust chamber and nozzles. When combined with the DARPA turbopumps and controls, this work would enable the design and demonstration of a complete rocket propulsion system. The original MIT-NASA concept used liquid oxygen-ethanol propellants. The military applications important to DARPA imply that storable liquid propellants are needed. Thus, MIT examined various storable propellant combinations including N2O4 and hydrazine, and H2O2 and various hydrocarbons. The latter are preferred since they do not have the toxicity of N2O4 and hydrazine. In reflection of the newfound interest in H2O2, it is once again in production and available commercially. A critical issue for the microrocket engine concept is cooling of the walls in a regenerative design. This is even more important at microscale than for large engines due to cube-square scaling considerations. Furthermore, the coolant behavior of rocket propellants has not been characterized at microscale. Therefore, MIT designed and constructed an apparatus expressly for this purpose. The report details measurements of two candidate microrocket fuels, JP-7 and JP-10.

  18. The effect of liquid film on liquid droplet impingement erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Liquid droplet impingement erosion is studied experimentally using high-speed conical spray. • Erosion rate is increased with decreasing the liquid film thickness. • Erosion model is proposed considering the influence of liquid film thickness. -- Abstract: In the present paper, the pipe-wall thinning due to liquid droplet impingement erosion is studied experimentally by using a high-speed conical spray under the influences of liquid film on the target specimen. The size of the droplets considered is an order of tens of micrometers in diameter, which is the same order as those expected in the pipeline of nuclear/fossil power plants. In order to evaluate the erosion rate by the liquid droplet impingement under the influence of liquid film, the experiments are conducted by various combinations of the specimen diameters and the standoff distances of the spray from the nozzle. The experimental results show that the erosion depth increases linearly with the local flow volume, indicating the presence of terminal stage of erosion. The present results indicate that the erosion rate increases with decreasing the specimen diameter and increases slightly with increasing the standoff distance. This result combined with the theoretical consideration of the liquid film on the specimen leads to the conclusion that the erosion rate increases with decreasing the liquid film thickness, which supports the numerical result of liquid droplet impingement erosion in literature. Then, the erosion model for predicting the erosion rate by the liquid droplet impingement is proposed considering the influence of the liquid film

  19. Bubble wake dynamics in liquids and liquid-solid suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Liang-Shih; Brenner, Howard

    1990-01-01

    This book is devoted to a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamic nature of a bubble wake, more specifically the primary wake, in liquids and liquid-solid suspensions, an dto the role it plays in various important flow phenomena of multiphase systems. Examples of these phenomena are liquid/solids mixing, bubble coalescence and disintergration, particle entrainment to the freeboard, and bed contraction.

  20. Advances in PHWR design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances by AECL in improved performance, cost reduction and safety improvement of CANDU reactors are described. Topics include: computer-aided design tools, up-front licensing, site utilization, plant life management, construction techniques, plant control, safety-critical software, advanced fuels, human-machine interface, heat sinks, radiation protection, feedback to design, emergency core cooling and probabilistic safety assessment

  1. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2008-01-01

    This series provides the chemical physics field with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. This stand-alone special topics volume reports recent advances in electron-transfer research with significant, up-to-date chapters by internationally recognized researchers.

  2. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  3. Advanced uranium enrichment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Gas Centrifuge and Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation methods are described. The status and potential of the technologies are summarized, the programs outlined, and the economic incentives are noted. How the advanced technologies, once demonstrated, might be deployed so that SWV costs in the 1990s can be significantly reduced is described

  4. Development of Electrochemical Oxygen Sensors for Liquid Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the theory, design, and performance of galvanic cell oxygen concentration sensors for use in high temperature liquid sodium. These sensors are crucial both in the evaluation of high temperature materials being tested in liquid sodium and monitoring of advanced sodium cooled fast reactors. Performance of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as an electrolyte for the sensor is analyzed. Construction techniques are also presented to address difficulties encountered in the development of a galvanic cell. Response times and sensitivity to changes in oxygen concentration are analyzed with observed limiting factors to cell performance. (author)

  5. Predictions of Physicochemical Properties of Ionic Liquids with DFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Karu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, density functional theory (DFT-based high-throughput computational approach is becoming more efficient and, thus, attractive for finding advanced materials for electrochemical applications. In this work, we illustrate how theoretical models, computational methods, and informatics techniques can be put together to form a simple DFT-based throughput computational workflow for predicting physicochemical properties of room-temperature ionic liquids. The developed workflow has been used for screening a set of 48 ionic pairs and for analyzing the gathered data. The predicted relative electrochemical stabilities, ionic charges and dynamic properties of the investigated ionic liquids are discussed in the light of their potential practical applications.

  6. Liquid-state physical chemistry fundamentals, modeling, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    de With, Gijsbertus

    2013-01-01

    For many processes and applications in science and technology a basic knowledge of liquids and solutions is a must. Gaining a better understanding of the behavior and properties of pure liquids and solutions will help to improve many processes and to advance research in many different areas. This book provides a comprehensive, self-contained and integrated survey of this topic and is a must-have for many chemists, chemical engineers and material scientists,ranging from newcomers in the field to more experienced researchers. The author offers a clear, well-structured didactic approach and pr

  7. Ownership, control and market liquidity.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamon, Jacques; Ginglinger, Edith

    2012-01-01

    We examine how ownership concentration and the separation of ownership and control affect secondary-market liquidity in France. We find that firms with a large insider blockholder exhibit significantly lower liquidity. However, different methods of enhancing control affect liquidity in different ways. Pyramid structures impair market liquidity. Double voting right shares, a French specific means of control enhancement rewarding long-term shareholders and restraining insiders from trading thei...

  8. Economic Valuation of Liquidity Timing

    OpenAIRE

    Karstanje, Dennis; Sojli, Elvira; Tham, Wing Wah; van der Wel, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This discussion paper resulted in a publication in the 'Journal of Banking and Finance' (2013). Vol. 37, issue 12, pages 5073-5087. This paper conducts a horse-race of different liquidity proxies using dynamic asset allocation strategies to evaluate the short-horizon predictive ability of liquidity on monthly stock returns. We assess the economic value of the out-of-sample power of empirical models based on different liquidity measures and find three key results: liquidity timing leads to tan...

  9. Igniters for Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Robin J.; Elam, Sandra K.; Peschel, William P.

    2008-01-01

    As part of NASA's technology development of liquid methane / liquid oxygen engines for future exploration missions, two different igniters were recently studied at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The first igniter tested was an impinging injection, spark-initiated torch igniter, and the second was a microwave-generated plasma igniter. The purpose of the ignition tests was to define the ignition limits under vacuum conditions and characterize the transient start-up performance as a function of propellant mixture ratio (MR), mass flow rates, inlet temperatures, and pre-ignition chamber pressure. In addition, for the impinging igniter two different spark plugs were tested, and for the microwave igniter the magnetron filament warm-up time and the magnetron input power were both varied. The results gathered from these tests indicated that the impinging igniter is capable of operating over an MR range of 2 - 27, with methane and oxygen inlet temperatures as low as -161 F and -233 F, respectively. The microwave igniter was tested over an MR range of 2 - 9, with methane and oxygen inlet temperatures as low as -90 F and -200 F, respectively. The microwave igniter achieved ignition over this range, although an upper ignition limit was determined for the oxidizer mass flow rate. In general, the torch exhaust temperatures for the microwave igniter were not as high as those attained with the impinging igniter. The microwave igniter, however, was hot-fired 17 times and was still operational, whereas the impinging igniter spark plugs experienced thermal shock and erosion over nine hot-fire tests. It was concluded that for the microwave igniter better mixing of the propellants might be required in order to both raise the torch exhaust temperature and decrease the required magnetron input power, and for the impinging igniter the spark plug position within the igniter chamber should be varied in future tests to identify a more optimal location. All of the igniter tests were

  10. Liquidity regulation and bank behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonner, C.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the 2007-08 financial crisis, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision proposed two liquidity standards to reinforce banks’ resilience to liquidity risks. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the impact of liquidity regulation on bank behavior. The first of four main chapters an

  11. Applications of functionalized ionic liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuehui; ZHAO Dongbin; FEI Zhaofu; WANG Lefu

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments of the synthesis and applications of functionalized ionic liquids(including dual-functionalized ionic liquids) have been highlighted in this review. Ionic liquids are attracting attention as alternative solvents in green chemistry, but as more functionalized ILs are prepared, a greater number of applications in increasingly diverse fields are found.

  12. Radiation chemistry of ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionic liquids are expected as a replacement of processing media for the nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, an understanding of the interactions of ionizing radiations and photons with ionic liquids is strongly needed. However, the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids is still a relatively unexplored topic although there has been a significant increase in the number of researchers in the field recently. (author)

  13. Risk allocation under liquidity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csóka, P.; Herings, P.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Risk allocation games are cooperative games that are used to attribute the risk of a financial entity to its divisions. In this paper, we extend the literature on risk allocation games by incorporating liquidity considerations. A liquidity policy specifies state-dependent liquidity requirements that

  14. Liquid/Gas Flow Mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabris, Gracio

    1994-01-01

    Improved devices mix gases and liquids into bubbly or foamy flows. Generates flowing, homogeneous foams or homogeneous dispersions of small, noncoalescing bubbles entrained in flowing liquids. Mixers useful in liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic electric-power generator, froth flotation in mining industry, wastewater treatment, aerobic digestion, and stripping hydrocarbon contaminants from ground water.

  15. Liquid Crystal Motion Picture Projector①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIYongji

    1997-01-01

    A liquid crystal moving picture projector and method are described.Light incident on a liquid crystal display-type device is selectively scattered or transmitted by respective portions of liquid crystal display,and a projection mechanism projects an image formed by either such scattered light or such transmitted light.A liquid cystal moving picture projector includes a liquid crystal display for creating characteristics of an image,and projecttion optics for projecting images sequentially created by the display.The display includes a liquid crystal material capable of temporary storing information at respective areas.The temporary storage may be a function of charge storing directly on liquid crystal material.A method of projecting plural images in sequence includes:creating an image or characteristics of an image in a liquid crystal material,storing such image in such liquid crystal material,directing light at such liquid crystal material,projecting such image as a function of light transmitted through or scattered by such liquid crystal material,and creating a further image in such liquid crystal material for subsequent projection.

  16. Advanced lubrication systems and materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, S.

    1998-05-07

    This report described the work conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology under an interagency agreement signed in September 1992 between DOE and NIST for 5 years. The interagency agreement envisions continual funding from DOE to support the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine technologies in terms of lubrication, friction, and wear control encountered in the development of advanced transportation technologies. However, in 1994, the DOE office of transportation technologies was reorganized and the tribology program was dissolved. The work at NIST therefore continued at a low level without further funding from DOE. The work continued to support transportation technologies in the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine development. Under this program, significant progress has been made in advancing the state of the art of lubrication technology for advanced engine research and development. Some of the highlights are: (1) developed an advanced high temperature liquid lubricant capable of sustaining high temperatures in a prototype heat engine; (2) developed a novel liquid lubricant which potentially could lower the emission of heavy duty diesel engines; (3) developed lubricant chemistries for ceramics used in the heat engines; (4) developed application maps for ceramic lubricant chemistry combinations for design purpose; and (5) developed novel test methods to screen lubricant chemistries for automotive air-conditioning compressors lubricated by R-134a (Freon substitute). Most of these findings have been reported to the DOE program office through Argonne National Laboratory who manages the overall program. A list of those reports and a copy of the report submitted to the Argonne National Laboratory is attached in Appendix A. Additional reports have also been submitted separately to DOE program managers. These are attached in Appendix B.

  17. Liquid crystal orientation control in photonic liquid crystal fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chychlowski, M. S.; Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, E.; Woliński, T. R.

    2011-05-01

    Similarly to liquid crystal displays technology in photonic liquid crystal fibers (PLCFs) a molecular orientation control is a crucial issue that influences proper operation of PLCF-based devices. The paper presents two distinct configurations: planar and radial escaped orientation of the LC molecules inside capillaries as well as methods of their application to photonic liquid crystal fibers. Possibilities of LC orientation control influence both: attenuation and transmitting spectra of the PLCF The orienting method is based on creation of an additional orienting layer on the inner surface of the capillary or air hole of the photonic liquid crystal fiber. Aligning materials used in the experiment are commercially available polyimides SE1211 and SE130 which induce liquid crystal homeotropic and planar anchoring conditions. The orienting layer increase an order parameter of the liquid crystal improving propagation properties and stability of photonic liquid crystal fiber-based devices.

  18. Liquid curtains: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model of liquid curtains which accounts for gravity, surface tension, pressure differences and nozzle exit geometry is presented. Analytical solutions are obtained in the absence of friction and compared with the results of numerical calculations; differences of at most three percent in the convergence length, are obtained between the numerical and analytical results even for nozzle exit angles of thirty degrees. It is shown that the convergence length is a monotonically increasing function of the Froude number, initial thickness to initial radius ratio, pressure difference and nozzle exit angle. The convergence length increases as the Weber number is increased. It is also shown that very small pressure differences between the gas enclosed by and the gas surrounding the liquid curtain are required to dramatically increase the convergence length. Pressure differences higher than a critical value which is related to the Froude and Weber numbers, are shown to result in flow divergence. (author)

  19. Corporate Demand for Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Heitor Almeida; Murillo Campello; Michael S. Weisbach

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a theory of corporate liquidity demand and provides new evidence on corporate cash policies. Firms have access to valuable investment opportunities, but potentially cannot fund them with the use of external finance. Firms that are financially unconstrained can undertake all positive NPV projects regardless of their cash position, so their cash positions are irrelevant. In contrast, firms facing financial constraints have an optimal cash position determined by the value of ...

  20. Precautionary Corporate Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiji Chen; Zheng Song; Yikai Wang

    2015-01-01

    We develop a theory of corporate liquidity demand, capturing the fact that a firm's borrowing capacity depends on news on future investment profitability. In our model, bad news on future investment profitability reduces a firm's borrowing capacity and therefore increases the need for internal finance. Consequently, the firm's cash savings respond negatively to news on future profitability. This negative correlation is strongly supported by our empirical evidence using a combined data set of ...

  1. Precautionary corporate liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiji Chen; Zheng Song; Yikai Wang

    2010-01-01

    We develop a theory of corporate liquidity demand, capturing the fact that a firm'snborrowing capacity depends on news on future investment profitability. In our model, bad news on future investment profitability reduces a firm's borrowing capacity and therefore increases the need for internal finance. Consequently, the firm's cash savings respond negatively to news on future profitability. This negative correlation is strongly supported by our empirical evidence using a combined data set of ...

  2. Liquidity, Welfare and Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Gil Samuel

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a dynamic general equilibrium model where wealth distribution is endogenous. I provide channels of causality that suggest a complex relationship between financial markets and the real activity which breaks down the classical dichotomy. As a consequence, the Friedman rule does not hold. In terms of the current events taking place in the world economy, this paper provides a rationale to advert against the perils of an economy satiated with liquidity. Efficiency and dist...

  3. Liquids with permanent porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Nicola; Del Pópolo, Mario G.; Melaugh, Gavin; Greenaway, Rebecca L.; Rätzke, Klaus; Koschine, Tönjes; Pison, Laure; Gomes, Margarida F. Costa; Cooper, Andrew I.; James, Stuart L.

    2015-11-01

    Porous solids such as zeolites and metal-organic frameworks are useful in molecular separation and in catalysis, but their solid nature can impose limitations. For example, liquid solvents, rather than porous solids, are the most mature technology for post-combustion capture of carbon dioxide because liquid circulation systems are more easily retrofitted to existing plants. Solid porous adsorbents offer major benefits, such as lower energy penalties in adsorption-desorption cycles, but they are difficult to implement in conventional flow processes. Materials that combine the properties of fluidity and permanent porosity could therefore offer technological advantages, but permanent porosity is not associated with conventional liquids. Here we report free-flowing liquids whose bulk properties are determined by their permanent porosity. To achieve this, we designed cage molecules that provide a well-defined pore space and that are highly soluble in solvents whose molecules are too large to enter the pores. The concentration of unoccupied cages can thus be around 500 times greater than in other molecular solutions that contain cavities, resulting in a marked change in bulk properties, such as an eightfold increase in the solubility of methane gas. Our results provide the basis for development of a new class of functional porous materials for chemical processes, and we present a one-step, multigram scale-up route for highly soluble ‘scrambled’ porous cages prepared from a mixture of commercially available reagents. The unifying design principle for these materials is the avoidance of functional groups that can penetrate into the molecular cage cavities.

  4. Cyclic phosphonium ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon I. Lall-Ramnarine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (ILs incorporating cyclic phosphonium cations are a novel category of materials. We report here on the synthesis and characterization of four new cyclic phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylamide ILs with aliphatic and aromatic pendant groups. In addition to the syntheses of these novel materials, we report on a comparison of their properties with their ammonium congeners. These exemplars are slightly less conductive and have slightly smaller self-diffusion coefficients than their cyclic ammonium congeners.

  5. Liquid sodium oxygenmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of test runs of two design varieties of liquid sodium oxygenmeter in sodium loops are described. The accuracy and sensitivity are discussed reached using this instrument within 1 and 10 p.p.m. of oxygen concentration. A change in the used reference system is proposed based on practical experiences and thermochemical calculations. Ceramic electrolyte corrosion is analysed and the possible interpretation of the corrosion effect on the galvanic cell electromotive force is suggested. (author)

  6. Nematic liquid crystal bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Susannah; Ellis, Perry; Vallamkondu, Jayalakshmi; Danemiller, Edward; Vernon, Mark; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    We study the effects of confining a nematic liquid crystal between two parallel glass plates with homeotropic boundary conditions for the director at all bounding surfaces. We find that the free surface of the nematic bridge is a surface of constant mean curvature. In addition, by changing the distance between the plates and the contact angle with the glass plates, we transition between loops and hedgehogs that can be either radial or hyperbolic.

  7. Jets of incipient liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, A. V.; Mazheiko, N. A.; Skripov, V. P.

    2000-05-01

    Jets of incipient water escaping into the atmosphere through a short channel are photographed. In some experiments. complete disintegration of the jet is observed. The relationship of this phenomenon with intense volume incipience is considered. The role of the Coanda effect upon complete opening of the jet is revealed. Measurement results of the recoil force R of the jets of incipient liquids are presented. Cases of negative thrust caused by the Coanda effect are noted. Generalization of experimental data is proposed.

  8. Textures of liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Dierking, Ingo

    2006-01-01

    A unique compendium of knowledge on all aspects of the texture of liquid crystals, providing not just detailed information on texture formation and determination, but also an in-depth discussion of different characterization methods. Experts as well as graduates entering the field will find all the information they need in this handbook, while the magnitude of the color images make it valuable hands-on-reference.

  9. Liquid cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A construction is described for a liquid metal cooled fast reactor, in which the core is supported in a pool of liquid coolant, wherein a catchment tray is provided for any debris falling from the core. The tray comprises a complex of open top collecting vessels with central support struts, the vessels being spaced apart and arranged in layers in a lattice pitch. The lattice pitches of the vessels in each layer are off-set to the lattice pitches of the vessels in the other layers, so that upper vessels partially overlap lower vessels, and the support struts extend through interspaces defined by the vessels in off-set pitch to a common supporting sub-structure. The complex of vessels offers a complete catchment area for falling debris, whilst being pervious to liquid coolant circulating upwardly by convection. The collecting vessels preferably comprise conical dishes and are arranged in triangular lattice pitch in each layer, and the complex of vessels comprises three layers. Alternatively the collecting vessels may be rectilinear and arranged on a square lattice. The catchment tray may comprise two or more such complexes in stacked array. (U.K.)

  10. Laundry liquid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laundry liquid waste contains 99% of Co-60, Cs-137 and 1% of Mn-54, Cr-51 arising at decontamination workshops was treated using 3 stages of operation which are Reverse Osmosis (RO), Falling-Film Evaporation (FE) and Microwave - Oven Solidification (MO). The liquid waste from decontamination of clothes and surfaces which the activity is 2 pressure the reverse osmosis is occurred. The RO concentrate is passed through the steam heating at 140 C of FE process and finally the FE concentrate is automatically transferred to 25 lW 915 MHz of MO process. The concentrated wastes are dried, incinerated, solidified with glass powder and boric acid in 30 litre stainless steel drum. The solidified material is put in 200 litre concrete -lining drum for the concrete embedding and final storage. The condensate is sent to liquid waste facility after radioactive monitoring, for the further treatment or discharge to environment. After treatments, it is found that decontamination efficiencies are> 97% and the total volume reduction is 1:1,000 (RO 1:20, FE 1:5 and MO 1:10), which show the high effective and appreciative results

  11. Electrowetting of liquid marbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, M I; Herbertson, D L; Elliott, S J; Shirtcliffe, N J; McHale, G [School of Biomedical and Natural Sciences, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham NG11 8NS (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-07

    Electrowetting of water drops on structured superhydrophobic surfaces are known to cause an irreversible change from a slippy (Cassie-Baxter) to a sticky (Wenzel) regime. An alternative approach to using a water drop on a superhydrophobic surface to obtain a non-wetting system is to use a liquid marble on a smooth solid substrate. A liquid marble is a droplet coated in hydrophobic grains, which therefore carries its own solid surface structure as a conformal coating. Such droplets can be considered as perfect non-wetting systems having contact angles to smooth solid substrates of close to 180{sup 0}. In this work we report the electrowetting of liquid marbles made of water coated with hydrophobic lycopodium grains and show that the electrowetting is completely reversible. Marbles are shown to return to their initial contact angle for both ac and dc electrowetting and without requiring a threshold voltage to be exceeded. Furthermore, we provide a proof-of-principle demonstration that controlled motion of marbles on a finger electrode structure is possible.

  12. Electrowetting of liquid marbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrowetting of water drops on structured superhydrophobic surfaces are known to cause an irreversible change from a slippy (Cassie-Baxter) to a sticky (Wenzel) regime. An alternative approach to using a water drop on a superhydrophobic surface to obtain a non-wetting system is to use a liquid marble on a smooth solid substrate. A liquid marble is a droplet coated in hydrophobic grains, which therefore carries its own solid surface structure as a conformal coating. Such droplets can be considered as perfect non-wetting systems having contact angles to smooth solid substrates of close to 1800. In this work we report the electrowetting of liquid marbles made of water coated with hydrophobic lycopodium grains and show that the electrowetting is completely reversible. Marbles are shown to return to their initial contact angle for both ac and dc electrowetting and without requiring a threshold voltage to be exceeded. Furthermore, we provide a proof-of-principle demonstration that controlled motion of marbles on a finger electrode structure is possible

  13. Liquid metal storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a liquid metal storage tank used for an FBR type reactor plant. It comprises a tank main body disposed in a pit chamber, a sealing tub disposed at an upper outer circumferential surface of the tank main body, a roof portion which closes the opening a the upper end of the pit chamber, a sealing partitioning cylinder suspended from the lower surface of the roof and having its lower end extended to the inside of the tub and a sealing liquid metal filled in the tub. The tank main body is kept at a high temperature by the liquid metal while the roof in the upper portion of the pit chamber is kept at a low temperature. Further, since the tank main body and the inside of the pit chamber are sealed by the sealing partitioning cylinder, no large thermal stresses are caused to the wall of the tank main body. Even if hydrogen gases are generated in the tank main body, since they can be released to the inside of the pit chamber, the integrity of the tank can be maintained, even if abrupt pressure elevation is caused in the tank main body. (I.S.)

  14. Living liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang; Sokolov, Andrey; Lavrentovich, Oleg D; Aranson, Igor S

    2014-01-28

    Collective motion of self-propelled organisms or synthetic particles, often termed "active fluid," has attracted enormous attention in the broad scientific community because of its fundamentally nonequilibrium nature. Energy input and interactions among the moving units and the medium lead to complex dynamics. Here, we introduce a class of active matter--living liquid crystals (LLCs)--that combines living swimming bacteria with a lyotropic liquid crystal. The physical properties of LLCs can be controlled by the amount of oxygen available to bacteria, by concentration of ingredients, or by temperature. Our studies reveal a wealth of intriguing dynamic phenomena, caused by the coupling between the activity-triggered flow and long-range orientational order of the medium. Among these are (i) nonlinear trajectories of bacterial motion guided by nonuniform director, (ii) local melting of the liquid crystal caused by the bacteria-produced shear flows, (iii) activity-triggered transition from a nonflowing uniform state into a flowing one-dimensional periodic pattern and its evolution into a turbulent array of topological defects, and (iv) birefringence-enabled visualization of microflow generated by the nanometers-thick bacterial flagella. Unlike their isotropic counterpart, the LLCs show collective dynamic effects at very low volume fraction of bacteria, on the order of 0.2%. Our work suggests an unorthodox design concept to control and manipulate the dynamic behavior of soft active matter and opens the door for potential biosensing and biomedical applications. PMID:24474746

  15. Solidification of radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To decrease the amount of surface active agents required for solidifying sodium sulfate-containing concentrated radioactive liquid wastes with asphalts. Method: Water soluble calcium compounds (calcium nitrate, etc.) are added to alkaline radioactive concentrated liquid wastes essentially consisting of sodium sulfate to adjust the pH value of the liquid wastes to 4.5 - 8.5. The addition amount of the water soluble calcium compounds (based on the weight of the calcium ions) is set to about 2 - 5% of the sulfate ions in the liquid wastes. Then, surface active agents are added by 3 - 10 weight % to the solid contents in the liquid wastes. (Ikeda, J.)

  16. Liquid Dynamics from Neutron Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockhouse, Bertram N.; Bergsma, J.; Dasannacharya, B. A.; Pope, N. K.

    1962-10-01

    Recent experiments carried out at Chalk River on the dynamics of liquids using neutron inelastic scattering are reviewed, including one by Sakamoto et al., in which the Van Hove self-correlation functions in water at 25 and 75 deg C were determined, and another in which the correlation functions in liquid argon near its triple point were studied. The possible occurrence of short wavelength phonons in classical liquids is discussed, in analogy with their existence in the quantum liquid He4, and in connection with incomplete experiments on liquid tin. (auth)

  17. Liquid Crystal Thermography Measurement Uncertainty Analysis and Its Application to Turbulent Heat Transfer Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystal thermography is an advanced nonintrusive measurement technique, which is capable of providing a high-accuracy continuous temperature field measurement, especially for a complex structured heat transfer surface. The first part of the paper presents a comprehensive introduction to the thermochromic liquid crystal material and the related liquid crystal thermography technique. Then, based on the aythors' experiences in using the liquid crystal thermography for the heat transfer measurement, the parameters affecting the measurement uncertainty of the liquid crystal thermography have been discussed in detail through an experimental study. The final part of the paper describes the applications of the steady and transient liquid crystal thermography technique in the study of the turbulent flow heat transfer related to the aeroengine turbine blade cooling.

  18. Corrosion by liquid lead and lead-bismuth: experimental results review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinsuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Liquid metal technologies for liquid lead and lead-bismuth alloy are under wide investigation and development for advanced nuclear energy systems and waste transmutation systems. Material corrosion is one of the main issues studied a lot recently in the development of the liquid metal technology. This study reviews corrosion by liquid lead and lead bismuth, including the corrosion mechanisms, corrosion inhibitor and the formation of the protective oxide layer. The available experimental data are analyzed by using a corrosion model in which the oxidation and scale removal are coupled. Based on the model, long-term behaviors of steels in liquid lead and lead-bismuth are predictable. This report provides information for the selection of structural materials for typical nuclear reactor coolant systems when selecting liquid lead or lead bismuth as heat transfer media.

  19. Ferrofluid Based Deformable Mirrors - a New Approach to Adaptive Optics Using Liquid Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Laird, P; Berube, V; Borra, E F; Ritcey, A; Rioux, M; Robitaille, N; Thibault, S; Yockell-Lelievre, H

    2002-01-01

    The trend towards ever larger telescopes and more advanced adaptive optics systems is driving the need for deformable mirrors with a large number of low cost actuators. Liquid mirrors have long been recognized a potential low cost alternative to conventional solid mirrors. By using a water or oil based ferrofluid we are able to benefit from a stronger magnetic response than is found in magnetic liquid metal amalgams and avoid the difficulty of passing a uniform current through a liquid. Depositing a thin silver colloid known as a metal liquid-like film (MELLF) on the ferrofluid surface solves the problem of low reflectivity of pure ferrofluids. This combination provides a liquid optical surface that can be precisely shaped in a magnetic field. We present experimental results obtained with a prototype deformable liquid mirror based on this combination.

  20. Ferrofluid based deformable mirrors: a new approach to adaptive optics using liquid mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Phil R.; Bergamasco, R.; Bérubé, Vincent; Borra, Ermanno F.; Gingras, Julie; Ritcey, Anna-Marie R.; Rioux, Myriam; Robitaille, Nathalie; Thibault, Simon; Vieira da Silva, L., Jr.; Yockell-Lelièvre, Helene

    2003-02-01

    The trend towards ever larger telescopes and more advanced adaptive optics systems is driving the need for deformable mirrors with a large number of low cost actuators. Liquid mirrors have long been recognized a potential low cost alternative to conventional solid mirrors. By using a water or oil based ferrofluid we are able to benefit from a stronger magnetic response than is found in magnetic liquid metal amalgams and avoid the difficulty of passing a uniform current through a liquid. Depositing a thin silver colloid known as a metal liquid like film (MELLF) on the ferrofluid surface solves the problem of low reflectivity of pure ferrofluids. This combination provides a liquid optical surface that can be precisely shaped in a magnetic field. We present experimental results obtained with a prototype deformable liquid mirror based on this combination.

  1. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Liquid Injection into Vapour-Dominated Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, S.D.; Woods, W.

    1995-01-01

    We analyze the injection of liquid into a depleted geothermal reservoir using numerical, analytical and experimental techniques. We first investigate the injection of liquid at the base of a uniformly heated reservoir and show how an ascending liquid layer develops. Ahead of the liquid-vapor interface the temperature rises sharply and, for cases in which the permeability is sufficiently high, the vapor is approximately isobaric. The region immediately behind the advancing liquid-vapor interface is approximately isothermal and therefore, the fraction vaporizing is dependent on the reservoir superheat. When the reservoir is overlain by a supercooled zone, some of the vapor produced at the ascending liquid-vapor interface condenses. As a result, the amount of newly formed vapor available for subsequent extraction can be significantly reduced.

  2. Advanced Aircraft Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Prince

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been long debate on “advanced aircraft material” from past decades & researchers too came out with lots of new advanced material like composites and different aluminum alloys. Now days a new advancement that is in great talk is third generation Aluminum-lithium alloy. Newest Aluminum-lithium alloys are found out to have low density, higher elastic modulus, greater stiffness, greater cryogenic toughness, high resistance to fatigue cracking and improved corrosion resistance properties over the earlier used aircraft material as mentioned in Table 3 [1-5]. Comparison had been made with nowadays used composite material and is found out to be more superior then that

  3. Advanced materials-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 10th International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM) was held from 3-7 September, 2007. From this symposium, material scientists and engineers can keep abreast with recent technologies involving advanced structural and functional materials. The proceeding of ISAM includes 94 papers which have been divided into six different sections: i) Development in material processing ii) Surface Engineering iii) phase transformation iv) advances in magnetic materials v) Nanotechnology and vi) reliability and life assessment. ISAM provides the opportunity to exchange technical know-how amongst Scientists, Engineers and researchers. (A.B.)

  4. Editorial: Advanced learning technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Lan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent rapid development of advanced information technology brings high expectations of its potential to improvement and innovations in learning. This special issue is devoted to using some of the emerging technologies issues related to the topic of education and knowledge sharing, involving several cutting edge research outcomes from recent advancement of learning technologies. Advanced learning technologies are the composition of various related technologies and concepts such as mobile technologies and social media towards learner centered learning. This editorial note provides an overview of relevant issues discussed in this special issue.

  5. Advanced healthcare materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Advanced materials are attracting strong interest in the fundamental as well as applied sciences and are being extensively explored for their potential usage in a range of healthcare technological and biological applications. Advanced Healthcare Nanomaterials summarises the current status of knowledge in the fields of advanced materials for functional therapeutics, point-of-care diagnostics, translational materials, up and coming bio-engineering devices. The book highlights the key features which enable engineers to design stimuli-responsive smart nanoparticles, novel biomaterials, nan

  6. A High Temperature Liquid Plasma Model of the Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a liquid model of the Sun is presented wherein the entire solar mass is viewed as a high density/high energy plasma. This model challenges our current understanding of the densities associated with the internal layers of the Sun, advocating a relatively constant density, almost independent of radial position. The incompressible nature of liquids is advanced to prevent solar collapse from gravitational forces. The liquid plasma model of the Sun is a non-equilibrium approach, where nuclear reactions occur throughout the solar mass. The primary means of addressing internal heat transfer are convection and conduction. As a result of the convective processes on the solar surface, the liquid model brings into question the established temperature of the solar photosphere by highlighting a violation of Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission. Along these lines, the model also emphasizes that radiative emission is a surface phenomenon. Evidence that the Sun is a high density/high energy plasma is based on our knowledge of Planckian thermal emission and condensed matter, including the existence of pressure ionization and liquid metallic hydrogen at high temperatures and pressures. Prior to introducing the liquid plasma model, the historic and scientific justifications for the gaseous model of the Sun are reviewed and the gaseous equations of state are also discussed.

  7. Microplates based on liquid bridges between glass rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Brandon Huey-Ping; Lye, Jonathan Kok Keung; Backhous, Scott; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2013-05-01

    Microplating that (i) does not necessitate complex or precise machinery to dispense small liquid volumes, (ii) enables fluorescent optical diagnosis, and (iii) permits simple analyte mixing mechanically is desirable. We advance here a novel approach that employs the formation of a liquid bridge held in place by capillary forces between glass rod tubes located parallel to each other. Experimental investigations made on liquid filling characteristics show conformance to theoretical notions. Analytical development showed the presence of regions of minimal uncertainty in the cross-sectional area of the liquid body arising from variations in the contact angle which permit consistent fluorescence measurements. Cyclical translation of the rods relative to each other, which cause rupture and reattachment of the liquid bridge, was found to engender good mixing. Strong linear trends were found in fluorescence signals relative to EGFP fluorophore concentration using standard and optical fiber (which offer targeted) excitation illumination. The open nature of liquid handling in the approach reported here and the positive results obtained portend the ability for development as integrated lab-on-a-chip devices. PMID:23484766

  8. Extended Smoluchowski models for interpreting relaxation phenomena in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interpretation of the dynamical behaviour of single molecules or collective modes in liquids has been increasingly centered, in the last decade, on complex liquid systems, including ionic solutions, polymeric liquids, supercooled fluids and liquid crystals. This has been made necessary by the need of interpreting dynamical data obtained by advanced experiments, like optical Kerr effect, time dependent fluorescence shift experiments, two-dimensional Fourier-transform and high field electron spin resonance and scattering experiments like quasi-elastic neutron scattering. This communication is centered on the definition, treatment and application of several extended stochastic models, which have proved to be very effective tools for interpreting and rationalizing complex relaxation phenomena in liquids structures. First, applications of standard Fokker-Planck equations for the orientational relaxation of molecules in isotropic and ordered liquid phase are reviewed. In particular attention will be focused on the interpretation of neutron scattering in nematics. Next, an extended stochastic model is used to interpret time-domain resolved fluorescence emission experiments. A two-body stochastic model allows the theoretical interpretation of dynamical Stokes shift effects in fluorescence emission spectra, performed on probes in isotropic and ordered polar phases. Finally, for the case of isotropic fluids made of small rigid molecules, a very detailed model is considered, which includes as basic ingredients a Fokker-Planck description of the molecular vibrational motion and the slow diffusive motion of a persistent cage structure together with the decay processes related to the changing structure of the cage. (author)

  9. Investigating materials formation with liquid-phase and cryogenic TEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Yoreo, J. J.; N. A. J. M., Sommerdijk

    2016-08-01

    The recent advent of liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and advances in cryogenic TEM are transforming our understanding of the physical and chemical mechanisms underlying the formation of materials in synthetic, biological and geochemical systems. These techniques have been applied to study the dynamic processes of nucleation, self-assembly, crystal growth and coarsening for metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles, (bio)minerals, electrochemical systems, macromolecular complexes, and organic and inorganic self-assembling systems. New instrumentation and methodologies that are currently on the horizon promise new opportunities for advancing the science of materials synthesis.

  10. Advanced Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2010-01-01

    -to-weight ratio. This presentation will discuss potential space fission propulsion options ranging from first generation systems to highly advanced systems. Ongoing research that shows promise for enabling second generation NTP systems with Isp greater than 1000 s will be discussed, as will the potential for liquid, gas, or plasma core systems. Space fission propulsion systems could also be used in conjunction with simple (water-based) propellant depots to enable routine, affordable missions to various destinations (e.g. moon, Mars, asteroids) once in-space infrastructure is sufficiently developed. As fuel and material technologies advance, very high performance Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) systems may also become viable. These systems could enable sophisticated science missions, highly efficient cargo delivery, and human missions to numerous destinations. Commonalities between NTP, fission power systems, and NEP will be discussed.

  11. Managing Advanced Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well.” 11 Managing Advanced Parkinson Disease DENTAL CARE Oral hygiene should remain an important part of the daily routine in order to prevent serious dental problems and the development of other illnesses. The ...

  12. [Advanced resuscitation of adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, F.K.; Lauritsen, T.L.; Torp-Pedersen, C.

    2008-01-01

    International and European Resuscitation Council (ERC) Guidelines for Resuscitation 2005 implicate major changes in resuscitation, including new universal treatment algorithms. This brief summary of Guidelines 2005 for advanced resuscitation of adult cardiac arrest victims is based upon the ERC...

  13. Advance Care Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... put on a breathing machine. Organ and tissue donation allows organs or body parts from a generally healthy person ... to your driver’s license. Some people also include organ donation in their advance care planning documents. At the ...

  14. Advanced functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    This book reviews the results of recent research on new materials arising from progress in polymer, ceramic, sensor, and fuel cell technology, including advanced inorganic-organic-hybrid polymeric materials, high functional sensor, and microbial fuel cells.

  15. Advanced Lab Consortium ``Conspiracy''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Jonathan F.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced Laboratory instruction is a time-honored and essential element of an undergraduate physics education. But, from my vantage point, it has been neglected by the two major professional societies, APS and AAPT. At some schools, it has been replaced by ``research experiences,'' but I contend that very few of these experiences in the research lab, particularly in the junior year, deliver what they promise. It is time to focus the attention of APS, AAPT, and the NSF on the advanced lab. We need to create an Advanced Lab Consortium (ALC) of faculty and staff to share experiments, suppliers, materials, pedagogy, ideas, in short to build a professional network for those committed to advanced lab instruction. The AAPT is currently in serious discussions on this topic and my company stands ready with both financial and personnel resources to support the effort. This talk is a plea for co-conspirators.

  16. Advance Payment ACO Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Advance Payment Model is designed for physician-based and rural providers who have come together voluntarily to give coordinated high quality care to the...

  17. Advanced Missile Signature Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Missile Signature Center (AMSC) is a national facility supporting the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and other DoD programs and customers with analysis,...

  18. Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippone, Antonino

    1999-01-01

    "Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics" is a comprehensive electronic guide to aerodynamics,computational fluid dynamics, aeronautics, aerospace propulsion systems, design and relatedtechnology. We report data, tables, graphics, sketches,examples, results, photos, technical andscientific literature, for...

  19. Advances in Numerical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mastorakis, Nikos E

    2009-01-01

    Features contributions that are focused on significant aspects of current numerical methods and computational mathematics. This book carries chapters that advanced methods and various variations on known techniques that can solve difficult scientific problems efficiently.

  20. Advanced Welding Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  1. The Advanced Energy Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, JoAnn; Joseck, Fred; Wang, Michael; Yuzugullu, Elvin

    The President's Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI), launched in 2006, addresses the challenges of energy supply and demand facing our Nation by supporting research and development of advanced technologies for transportation and stationary power generation. The AEI portfolio includes clean coal, nuclear and renewable energy technologies (solar and wind) for stationary power generation and advanced battery technologies, cellulosic ethanol as a fuel and hydrogen fuel cells for transportation. These research and development programs are underpinned by comprehensive life-cycle analysis efforts using models such as Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) and Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) to enable a better understanding of the characteristics and trade-offs associated with advanced energy options and to help decision makers choose viable pathways for clean, reliable and affordable energy.

  2. Advances in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Doménech i De Soria, Josep; LLORET ALOS, JAIME; Vincent Vela, Maria Cinta; ZURIAGA AGUSTÍ, ELENA; Poza Plaza, Elena de la

    2016-01-01

    Higher education institutions play an important role as leaders in knowledge creation and dissemination by setting the grounds for society to advance and to improve welfare. Despite the long-standing tradition of some higher education systems, Higher Education continuously evolves to adapt to the challenges that current societies open up to. The objective of this book is to capture some recent advances made in Higher Education by addressing these challenges. To do so, some specific topics...

  3. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in advanced packaging in recent years. Several new packaging techniques have been developed and new packaging materials have been introduced. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in this industry, particularly in the areas of microelectronics, optoelectronics, digital health, and bio-medical applications. The book discusses established techniques, as well as emerging technologies, in order to provide readers with the most up-to-date developments in advanced packaging.

  4. Joining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Messler, Robert W

    1993-01-01

    Provides an unusually complete and readable compilation of the primary and secondary options for joining conventional materials in non-conventional ways. Provides unique coverage of adhesive bonding using both organic and inorganic adhesives, cements and mortars. Focuses on materials issues without ignoring issues related to joint design, production processing, quality assurance, process economics, and joining performance in service.Joining of advanced materials is a unique treatment of joining of both conventional and advanced metals andalloys, intermetallics, ceramics, glasses, polymers, a

  5. Advances in Plastic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Harold D.; Luis O. Vasconez

    1982-01-01

    Recent progress in plastic surgery has been rapid and many new techniques have been developed. Reconstructive procedures have been advanced by a better understanding of the anatomy of the blood supply to skin and muscle, with the subsequent development of the use of axial flaps, musculocutaneous flaps and neurosensory flaps. Burn treatment has advanced greatly, making it possible to successfully treat larger and more complicated burns. The development of microsurgery has made possible free-fl...

  6. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2008-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in advanced packaging in recent years. Several new packaging techniques have been developed and new packaging materials have been introduced. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in this industry, particularly in the areas of microelectronics, optoelectronics, digital health, and bio-medical applications. The book discusses established techniques, as well as emerging technologies, in order to provide readers with the most up-to-date developments in advanced packaging.

  7. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1997-01-01

    This series describes selected advances in the area of atomic spectroscopy. It is primarily intended for the reader who has a background in atmoic spectroscopy; suitable to the novice and expert. Although a widely used and accepted method for metal and non-metal analysis in a variety of complex samples, Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy covers a wide range of materials. Each Chapter will completely cover an area of atomic spectroscopy where rapid development has occurred.

  8. Advanced Welding Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the applications of advanced welding techniques are shown in this poster presentation. Included are brief explanations of the use on the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicle and on the Space Shuttle Launch vehicle. Also included are microstructural views from four advanced welding techniques: Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) weld (fusion), self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW), conventional FSW, and Tube Socket Weld (TSW) on aluminum.

  9. Advances in bistatic radar

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Advances in Bistatic Radar updates and extends bistatic and multistatic radar developments since publication of Willis' Bistatic Radar in 1991. New and recently declassified military applications are documented. Civil applications are detailed including commercial and scientific systems. Leading radar engineers provide expertise to each of these applications. Advances in Bistatic Radar consists of two major sections: Bistatic/Multistatic Radar Systems and Bistatic Clutter and Signal Processing. Starting with a history update, the first section documents the early and now declassified military

  10. Role of advanced reactors in further nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the national long-term nuclear R and D program launched in 1992, an endeavor has been made in Korea to develop advanced nuclear reactor systems with significantly enhanced safety and economics from those of the current generation nuclear power plants. The advanced PWR nuclear reactor systems under development in Korea include 1300 MWe Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR), 330 MWt Integral Type System Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART) for nuclear cogeneration, and 330 MWe Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (KALIMER) in addition to the evolutionary enhancement of the 1000 MWt KSNPP (Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant). Three point design philosophy has been adopted for the development of the advanced reactors in Korea : enhancements on safety, economics and public acceptance of nuclear power. To enhance the safety of the advanced reactor systems, a strategy has been adopted to employ advanced design features as well as the passive safety design features. Economically viable design concepts also have been implemented in the evolutionary KSNPP, KNGR, and the SMART development. Economic competitiveness against the fossil plants also has been set as a major objective of the ALWR development program in Korea. These safer and more economical advanced reactors will better promote the public acceptance of the commercial use of the nuclear power and thus could be utilized to meet the forecasted national energy need in the early 21st century. International cooperation in the areas of ALWR development as well as improving public acceptance of the nuclear power is required. (author)

  11. Probing liquid surface waves, liquid properties and liquid films with light diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Barik, T K; Kar, S; Roy, A; Barik, Tarun Kr.; Chaudhuri, Partha Roy; Kar, Sayan; Roy, Anushree

    2005-01-01

    Surface waves on liquids act as a dynamical phase grating for incident light. In this article, we revisit the classical method of probing such waves (wavelengths of the order of mm) as well as inherent properties of liquids and liquid films on liquids, using optical diffraction. A combination of simulation and experiment is proposed to trace out the surface wave profiles in various situations (\\emph{eg.} for one or more vertical, slightly immersed, electrically driven exciters). Subsequently, the surface tension and the spatial damping coefficient (related to viscosity) of a variety of liquids are measured carefully in order to gauge the efficiency of measuring liquid properties using this optical probe. The final set of results deal with liquid films where dispersion relations, surface and interface modes, interfacial tension and related issues are investigated in some detail, both theoretically and experimentally. On the whole, our observations and analyses seem to support the claim that this simple, low--c...

  12. Analytical concepts for health management systems of liquid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard; Tulpule, Sharayu; Hawman, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Substantial improvement in health management systems performance can be realized by implementing advanced analytical methods of processing existing liquid rocket engine sensor data. In this paper, such techniques ranging from time series analysis to multisensor pattern recognition to expert systems to fault isolation models are examined and contrasted. The performance of several of these methods is evaluated using data from test firings of the Space Shuttle main engines.

  13. Liquid metal target studies for high-power proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Proton beams with an average beam power of several MW are needed to produce the high secondary particle flux required by future accelerator centres like neutrino factories or neutron spallation sources. In such scenarios, the secondary beams are produced via conversion targets and the high power involved imposes the need for advanced target concepts. The use of liquid metal is a natural solution to the stresses and fatigue, induced by the proton beam, that eventually lead to the destruction of most solid targets. A liquid jet would provide a 'new' target for each proton pulse if the material disrupted by the proton beam can be evacuated within the proton pulse interval. Such a target configuration is presently considered for the pion production target of a neutrino superbeam or a neutrino factory. We present experimental results on the impact of proton beam pulses on free-surface liquid metal targets. These tests were performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. (author)

  14. Variational method for liquids moving on a substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianmin; Di, Yana; Doi, Masao

    2016-08-01

    A new variational method is proposed to calculate the evolution of liquid film and liquid droplet moving on a solid substrate. A simple time evolution equation is obtained for the contact angle of a liquid film that starts to move on a horizontal substrate. The equation indicates the dynamical transition at the receding side and the ridge formation at the advancing side. The same method is applied for the evolution of a droplet that starts to move on an inclined solid surface, and again the characteristic shape change of the droplet is obtained by solving a simple ordinary differential system. We will show that this method has a potential application to a wide class of problems of droplets moving on a substrate.

  15. Nanosecond liquid crystalline optical modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borshch, Volodymyr; Shiyanovskii, Sergij V.; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    2016-07-26

    An optical modulator includes a liquid crystal cell containing liquid crystal material having liquid crystal molecules oriented along a quiescent director direction in the unbiased state, and a voltage source configured to apply an electric field to the liquid crystal material wherein the direction of the applied electric field does not cause the quiescent director direction to change. An optical source is arranged to transmit light through or reflect light off the liquid crystal cell with the light passing through the liquid crystal material at an angle effective to undergo phase retardation in response to the voltage source applying the electric field. The liquid crystal material may have negative dielectric anisotropy, and the voltage source configured to apply an electric field to the liquid crystal material whose electric field vector is transverse to the quiescent director direction. Alternatively, the liquid crystal material may have positive dielectric anisotropy and the voltage source configured to apply an electric field to the liquid crystal material whose electric field vector is parallel with the quiescent director direction.

  16. Liquid class predictor for liquid handling of complex mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seglke, Brent W.; Lekin, Timothy P.

    2008-12-09

    A method of establishing liquid classes of complex mixtures for liquid handling equipment. The mixtures are composed of components and the equipment has equipment parameters. The first step comprises preparing a response curve for the components. The next step comprises using the response curve to prepare a response indicator for the mixtures. The next step comprises deriving a model that relates the components and the mixtures to establish the liquid classes.

  17. Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies (ASAT) will facilitate exploration of the moon surface, and other planetary bodies. ASAT will create an Advanced Situation...

  18. Advanced Polymeric Materials for High-tech Innovations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG BenZhong

    2001-01-01

    @@ High technology is advancing our society and modernizing our life and advanced materials play an important role in the technological innovations. My research group has been working on the development of advanced polymeric materials and in this talk I will report our recent work on the creation of new conjugated polymers with novel molecular structures and unique materials properties.1-18 Our work include the design of molecular structures of monomeric building blocks, development of stable, effective and environmentally benign "green” polymerization catalysts, discovery of new polymerization reactions, synthesis of functional macromolecules, fabrication of nanodimensional composites, assembly and control of hierarchical structures, and construction of electrooptical devices. We have revealed the liquid crystallinity, light emission, photoconductivity, optical limiting, nano-hybridization, solvatochromism, optical activity, self-organization, and biological activity of the linear polyacetylenes and hyperbranched polyarylenes. The utilization of the advanced polymers and their interesting materials properties for high-tech innovations will be discussed.

  19. Advanced Polymeric Materials for High-tech Innovations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG; BenZhong

    2001-01-01

    High technology is advancing our society and modernizing our life and advanced materials play an important role in the technological innovations. My research group has been working on the development of advanced polymeric materials and in this talk I will report our recent work on the creation of new conjugated polymers with novel molecular structures and unique materials properties.1-18 Our work include the design of molecular structures of monomeric building blocks, development of stable, effective and environmentally benign "green” polymerization catalysts, discovery of new polymerization reactions, synthesis of functional macromolecules, fabrication of nanodimensional composites, assembly and control of hierarchical structures, and construction of electrooptical devices. We have revealed the liquid crystallinity, light emission, photoconductivity, optical limiting, nano-hybridization, solvatochromism, optical activity, self-organization, and biological activity of the linear polyacetylenes and hyperbranched polyarylenes. The utilization of the advanced polymers and their interesting materials properties for high-tech innovations will be discussed.  ……

  20. Mass diffusion in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, H. U.

    Dimensionless number analysis indicates that diffusion-controlled conditions with liquid samples having characteristic dimensions larger than one millimetre can only be established under microgravity conditions.Consequently, heat and mass transport properties of fluids can only be quantitatively investigated in space.Results obtained from experiments on selfdiffusion, interdiffusion and thermodiffusion carried out during the SL-1 and D-1 Spacelab missions clearly demonstrate the potential of space platforms to determine such properties with a precision unattainable on earth. These results imply also that crystal growth from solutions, vapours and melts in the diffusive regime can be realised in space only.

  1. Cavitation in liquid helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, R. D.; Kagiwada, R.; Barmatz, M.; Rudnick, I.

    1963-11-15

    Ultrasonic cavitation was induced in liquid helium over the temperature range 1.2 to 2.3 deg K, using a pair of identical transducers. The transducers were calibrated using a reciprocity technique and the cavitation threshold was determined at 90 kc/s. It was found that this threshold has a sharp peak at the lambda point, but is, at all temperatures quite low, with an approximate range of 0.001 to 0.01 atm. The significance of the results is discussed. (auth)

  2. Liquid argon neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Battistoni, G

    2001-01-01

    The liquid argon imaging technique, as proposed for the ICARUS detector, offers the possibility to perform complementary and simultaneous measurements of neutrinos, as those of CERN to Gran Sasso beam (CNGS) and those from cosmic ray events. For the currently allowed values of the Super-Kamiokande results, the combination of both CNGS and atmospheric data will provide a precise determination of the oscillation parameters. Since one can observe and unambiguously identify nu /sub e/, nu /sub mu / and nu /sub tau / components, this technology allows to explore the full (3*3) mixing matrix. The same class of detector can be proposed for high precision measurements at a neutrino factory. (3 refs).

  3. Liquidity, welfare and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Gil Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a dynamic general equilibrium model where wealth distribution is endogenous. I provide channels of causality that suggest a complex relationship between financial markets and the real activity which breaks down the classical dichotomy. As a consequence, the Friedman rule does not hold. In terms of the current events taking place in the world economy, this paper provides a rationale to advert against the perils of an economy satiated with liquidity. Efficiency and distribution cannot thus be considered as separate attributes once we account for the interactions between financial markets and the economic performance.

  4. Molecular Relaxation in Liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Bagchi, Biman

    2012-01-01

    This book brings together many different relaxation phenomena in liquids under a common umbrella and provides a unified view of apparently diverse phenomena. It aligns recent experimental results obtained with modern techniques with recent theoretical developments. Such close interaction between experiment and theory in this area goes back to the works of Einstein, Smoluchowski, Kramers' and de Gennes. Development of ultrafast laser spectroscopy recently allowed study of various relaxation processes directly in the time domain, with time scales going down to picosecond (ps) and femtosecond (fs

  5. Berry Fermi Liquid Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    We develop an extension of the Landau Fermi liquid theory to systems of interacting fermions with non-trivial Berry curvature. We propose a kinetic equation and a constitutive relation for the electromagnetic current that together encode the linear response of such systems to external electromagnetic perturbations, to leading and next-to-leading orders in the expansion over the frequency and wave number of the perturbations. We analyze the Feynman diagrams in a large class of interacting quantum field theories and show that, after summing up all orders in perturbation theory, the current-current correlator exactly matches with the result obtained from the kinetic theory.

  6. Antiferroelectric liquid crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Benguigui, L.; Hardouin, F.

    1981-01-01

    Dielectric investigations have been undertaken in two thermotropic liquid crystal systems exhibiting a smectic A2 phase (i.e. with the layer spacing equal to twice the molecular length). The postulated antiferroelectric ordering has been supported by these measurements. There are anomalies in the dielectric constants ε∥ and ε〉 at the N-S A2 transition and an unusual low frequency relaxation, with a slight temperature dependence, appears around this transition and in the S A phases of these sy...

  7. Tunable Liquid Dielectric Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Raj Singh Rajoriya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents on modified the dielectric properties of liquid with varying salinity that was based on monopole structure. Dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs can be made with a wide range of materials and allow many excitation methods [2]. Pure water does not work at high frequency (> 1 GHz but increase in the salinity of water modifies the dielectric properties of water. Here proposed antenna shows that when the salinity increases in form of molar solution, the antenna was tuned at different frequency with increases return loss.

  8. Separation of Asphaltenes by Polarity using Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar

    1997-01-01

    In order to investigate the nature of petroleum asphaltenes in terms of polarity a process was developed using initial liquid-liquid extraction of the oil phase followed by precipitation of the asphaltenes using n-heptane. The liquid-liquid extraction was performed using toluene-methanol mixtures...... with increasing content of toluene. Although large fractions of the crude oil (Alaska ´93) was extracted in the higher polarity solvents (high concentration of methanol), the asphaltene content of the dissolved material was low. As the toluene content increased more asphaltenes were transferred to the...... extracted in the high polarity solvents....

  9. Recruit and ADVANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Sue V.

    2007-04-01

    Beginning in 2001, the National Science Foundation launched the ADVANCE Initiative, which has now awarded more than 70 million to some thirty institutions for transformations to advance women. Results of studies on how to attract and retain women students and faculty underpinned our ADVANCE Institutional Transformation grant funded by the NSF for 3.7 million for five years, beginning in 2001. As co-principal investigator on this grant, I insured that this research informed the five major threads of the grant: 1) Four termed ADVANCE professors to mentor junior women faculty in each college; 2) Collection of MIT-Report-like data indicators to assess whether advancement of women really occurs during and after the institutional transformation undertaken through ADVANCE; 3) Family-friendly policies and practices to stop the tenure clock and provide active service, modified duties, lactation stations and day care; 4) Mini-retreats to facilitate access for tenure-track women faculty to male decision-makers and administrators for informal conversations and discussion on topics important to women faculty; 5) Removal of subtle gender, racial, and other biases in promotion and tenure. The dynamic changes resulting from the grant in quality of mentoring, new understanding of promotion and tenure, numbers of women retained and given endowed chairs, and emergence of new family friendly policies gave me hope for genuine diversification of leadership in science and technology. As the grant funding ends, the absence of NSF prestige and monitoring, coupled with a change in academic leadership at the top, provide new challenges for institutionalization, recruitment, and advancement of women into leadership positions in science and engineering.

  10. Improving Alberta's electricity market liquidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors affecting liquidity in Alberta's electricity market. i.e. the ability of the market to absorb a reasonably large buy or sell order without unduly impacting price, thus signifying the existence of a reasonable 'depth' in the market, and other key elements of the market, are explained. The current situation in Alberta with respect to these key elements (many buyers and sellers, transparent price signal, absence of market power), are reviewed in order to gauge liquidity. The conclusion is that large marketers, attractive loads and generators can move energy with relative ease, but smaller loads, unattractive profiles suggest that the market is not liquid enough. Examples of indicators supporting the notion of imperfect liquidity are cited and discussed. The overall conclusion is that despite apparent weaknesses, the liquidity situation appears to be improving. Another prediction/conclusion is that prospects for further progress towards greater liquidity will be enhanced by careful handling of MAP II auctions, and by greater involvement from loads

  11. Liquid marbles: Physics and applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nachiketa Janardan; Mahesh V Panchagnula; Edward Bormashenko

    2015-05-01

    Liquid marbles are formed by encapsulating microscale volume of liquid in a particulate sheath. The marble thus formed is robust and resists rupture if the particulate layer covers the entire volume of liquid and prevents contact between the liquid and the substrate. Liquid marbles have been objects of study over the past decade. Research has been focused on understanding their formation and properties – both static and dynamic. A range of particulate materials as well as liquids have been employed to make these objects. This paper summarizes the state of the art in this regard and discusses new developments that are being discussed. Finally, some directions are proposed based on lacunae observed in the community’s understanding – both in terms of the science as well as on the application front.

  12. Radioactive liquid waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a device for processing radioactive liquid wastes generated in a facility of a nuclear power plant, especially suitable to liquid wastes at relatively high electroconductivity and solid content concentration. Namely, the device comprises a vessel for receiving radioactive liquid wastes, a device for concentrating the radioactive liquid wastes and a device for solidifying the liquid wastes. The concentrated liquid wastes can be charged from the concentration device to the receiving container. The concentration device has a precipitation separation function and comprises a supernatant withdrawing section and a solid content withdrawing section. In addition, the concentration device is connected with the receiving device for transferring the supernatant in the concentration device. Further, the receiving device is connected to the solidification device by way of a solid content transferring line, and the precipitated and separated solid content is transferred to a cement solidification device, plastic solidification device, asphalt solidification device, a glass solidification device etc. (I.S.)

  13. Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria of {trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate based ionic liquids + thiophene + heptane}: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria for 3 ionic liquid + thiophene + heptane systems. • The influence of ionic liquid structure on phase diagrams is discussed. • Influence of IL structure on S and β for heptane/thiophene separation is discussed. - Abstract: Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria for 3 systems containing ionic liquids {(1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate, 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate, ethyl-dimethyl-(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate) + thiophene + heptane} have been determined at T = 298.15 K. The selectivity and solute distribution ratio were calculated for investigated systems and compared with literature values obtained for other systems containing ionic liquids with [FAP]− anions and [emim]+ cations. In each system, high solubility of thiophene and low solubility of heptane in the ionic liquid are observed. The experimental results have been correlated using NRTL model. The influence of the structure of ionic liquid on phase equilibria, selectivity and solute distribution ratio is discussed

  14. Liquid waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a liquid waste processing device for processing living water wastes discharged from nuclear power plant facilities through a filtration vessel and a sampling vessel, a filtration layer disposed in the filtration vessel is divided into a plurality of layers along planes vertical to the direction of flow and the size of the filter material for each of the divided layers is made finer toward the downstream. Further, the thickness of the filtration material in each of the divided layers is also reduced toward the downstream. The filter material is packed such that the porosity in each of the divided layers is substantially identical. Further, the filtration material is packed in a mesh-like bag partitioned into a desired size and laid with no gaps to the planes vertical to the direction of the flow. Thus, liquid wastes such as living water wastes can be processed easily and simply so as to satisfy circumstantial criteria without giving undesired effects on the separation performance and life time and with easy replacement of filter. (T.M.)

  15. Oscillating annular liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of annular liquid membranes (e.g. used as protection systems in laser fusion reactors) to sinusoidal mass flow rate fluctuations at the nozzle exit is analyzed as a function of the amplitude and frequency of the axial velocity fluctuations at the nozzle exit and thermodynamic compression of the gas enclosed by the membrane. The pressure of the gases enclosed by the annular membrane and the axial distance at which the annular membrane merges on the symmetry axis are periodic functions of time which have the same period as that of the mass flow rate fluctuations at the nozzle exit. They are also nearly sinusoidal functions of time for small amplitudes of the mass flow rate fluctuations at the nozzle exit, and exhibit delay and lag times with respect to the sinusoidal axial velocity fluctuations at the nozzle exit. The delay and the lag times are functions of the amplitude and frequency of the mass flow rate fluctuations at the nozzle exit and the polytropic exponent. The amplitudes of both the pressure of the gases enclosed by the annular liquid membrane and the convergence length increase and decrease, resp., as the amplitude and frequency of the mass flow rate fluctuations at the nozzle exit, resp., are increased. They also increase as the polytropic exponent is increased. (orig.)

  16. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  17. Solid-liquid interfacial premelting

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yang; Asta, Mark; Laird, Brian B.

    2012-01-01

    We report the observation of a premelting transition at chemically sharp solid-liquid interfaces using molecular-dynamics simulations. The transition is observed in the solid-Al/liquid-Pb system and involves the formation of a liquid interfacial film of Al with a width that grows logarithmically as the bulk melting temperature is approached from below, consistent with current theories of premelting. The premelting behavior leads to a sharp change in the temperature dependence of the diffusion...

  18. Excess capital and liquidity management

    OpenAIRE

    Toporowski , Jan

    2008-01-01

    These notes present a new approach to corporate finance, one in which financing is not determined by prospective income streams but by financing opportunities, liquidity considerations, and prospective capital gains. This approach substantially modifies the traditional view of high interest rates as a discouragement to speculation; the Keynesian and Post-Keynesian theory of liquidity preference as the opportunity cost of investment; and the notion of the liquidity premium as a factor in deter...

  19. IONIC LIQUIDS: PREPARATIONS AND LIMITATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Dzulkefly Kuang Abdullah; Ahmad Adlie Shamsuri

    2010-01-01

    Ionic liquids are considered as an ideal alternative to volatile organic solvents and chemical industries in the future,because they are non-volatile. Ionic liquids are also considered as new novel chemical agents and widely regarded as agreener alternative to many commonly used solvents. Ionic liquids have been studied for a wide range of syntheticapplications and have attracted considerable interest for use as electrolytes in the areas of organic synthesis, catalysis,solar cell, fuel cells,...

  20. Nanoparticle Confinement in Anomalous Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Strekalova, Elena G.; Luo, Jiayuan; Stanley, H. Eugene; Franzese, Giancarlo; Buldyrev, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate using molecular dynamics the effect of the structure of nanoconfinement for liquids with water-like anomalies and liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT). We find that if the confinement is in an ordered matrix of nanoparticles (NPs) the anomalies are preserved, although the LLPT shifts to lower temperatures, higher pressures and higher densities with respect to bulk. On the contrary, if the NPs matrix is disordered, we find a drastically different phase diagram: the LLPT occurs ...

  1. Ten propositions about liquidity crises

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio E. V. Borio

    2015-01-01

    What are liquidity crises? And what can be done to address them? This short paper brings together some personal reflections on this issue, largely based on previous work. In the process, it questions a number of commonly held beliefs that have become part of the conventional wisdom. The paper is organised around ten propositions that cover the following issues: the distinction between idiosyncratic and systematic elements of liquidity crises; the growing reliance on funding liquidity in a mar...

  2. Prudential liquidity standards in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Ho

    2011-01-01

    Since the outbreak of the global financial crisis, regulators have increased their focus on the ability of banks to measure and manage liquidity risk. In December 2009, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (the Basel Committee) identified ineffective liquidity management as a key characteristic of the crisis and highlighted the lack of attention that liquidity risk received relative to other risks prior to the crisis. Recognizing the key role of illiquidity in the crisis, the Basel Comm...

  3. Forces in Liquid Metal Contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Using rather well known theory about capillary bridges between two electrodes we calculate the tensile force that can be applied to liquid metal contacts in the micrometer regime. Assuming circular symmetry, full wetting of the electrodes, and neglecting gravity, we present a brief review...... of the necessary theory and find numerically the forces to be in the 100μN range for liquid metals as mercury and liquid Gallium suspended between electrodes of 20μm radius....

  4. Market liquidity and financial stability.

    OpenAIRE

    CROCKETT, A.

    2008-01-01

    Stability in financial institutions and in financial markets are closely intertwined. Banks and other financial institutions need liquid markets through which to conduct risk management. And markets need the back-up liquidity lines provided by financial institutions. Market liquidity depends not only on objective, exogenous factors, but also on endogenous market dynamics. Central banks responsible for systemic stability need to consider how far their traditional responsibility for the health ...

  5. Cavitation pressure in liquid helium

    OpenAIRE

    Caupin, Frederic; Balibar, Sebastien

    2001-01-01

    Recent experiments have suggested that, at low enough temperature, the homogeneous nucleation of bubbles occurs in liquid helium near the calculated spinodal limit. This was done in pure superfluid helium 4 and in pure normal liquid helium 3. However, in such experiments, where the negative pressure is produced by focusing an acoustic wave in the bulk liquid, the local amplitude of the instantaneous pressure or density is not directly measurable. In this article, we present a series of measur...

  6. Surface Tension Confines Cryogenic Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, Stephen H.; Schein, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    New type of Dewar provides passive, constant-temperature cryogenic cooling for scientific instruments under normal-to low-gravity conditions. Known as Surface-Tension-Contained Liquid Cryogen Cooler (STCLCC), keeps liquid cryogen in known location inside the Dewar by trapping liquid inside spongelike material. Unique sponge material fills most of volume of inner tank. Sponge is all-silica, open-cell material similar to that used for Space Shuttle thermal-protection tiles.

  7. Ionic Liquids and Cellulose: Dissolution, Chemical Modification and Preparation of New Cellulosic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Isik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to its abundance and a wide range of beneficial physical and chemical properties, cellulose has become very popular in order to produce materials for various applications. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of new cellulose materials and technologies using ionic liquids. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids has been used to develop new processing technologies, cellulose functionalization methods and new cellulose materials including blends, composites, fibers and ion gels.

  8. Liquid-cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen can be added to nuclear reactors with a liquid hydrogen-containing coolant on the suction side of a high pressure pump in the purification system. According to the invention this is performed by means of a liquid jet condenser which uses the coolant as liquid and which is preferably charged from the pressure side of the high pressure pump and conveys the liquid to a mixer connected in series with the high pressure pump. The invention is to be used especially in pressurized water reactors. (orig./PW)

  9. Liquid-cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen can be added to nuclear reactors with a liquid hydrogen-containing coolant on the suction side of a high pressure pump in the purification system. According to the invention this is performed by means of a liquid jet condenser which uses the coolant as liquid and which is preferably charged from the pressure side of the high pressure pump and conveys the liquid to a mixer connected in series with the high pressure pump. The invention is to be used especially in pressurized water reactors. (orig.)

  10. Advancement & Promotion Review: 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Advancement, exceptional advancement and promotion decisions were made at the end of June, following the procedures published in Weekly Bulletin No. 13/2003. These decisions were included, where applicable, in the salaries for the month of July 2003. The award of the periodic step was communicated to staff by the salary shown on the July salary slip. All other decisions are communicated by separate notification. The names of staff receiving exceptional advancements or promotions are now published on the HR Division website and are accessible for consultation only at the following address: http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/personnel/advlist_2003.asp It is recalled that change of career path proposals submitted to the Technical Engineers and Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) or to Human Resources Division are being examined with a view to preparing the latters' recommendations by the end of September 2003. Final decisions will be applied retroactively to 1 July 2003. Human Resources Division Tel:...

  11. ADVANCEMENT & PROMOTION REVIEW: 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Advancement, exceptional advancement and promotion decisions were made at the beginning of July, under the new career structure scheme and following the procedures published in Weekly Bulletin No. 11/2002. These decisions were included, where applicable, in the salaries for the month of July 2002. The award of the periodic step was communicated to staff by the salary shown on the July salary slip. All other decisions are communicated by separate notification. The names of staff receiving exceptional advancements or promotions will be published this year on the HR Division website and are accessible for consultation only at the following address : http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/personnel/advlist.asp It is recalled that change of career path proposals submitted to the Technical Engineers and Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) or to Human Resources Division are being examined with a view to preparing the latters' recommendations by the end of September 2002. Final decisions will be applied retroactivel...

  12. Advanced flip chip packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Yi-Shao; Wong, CP

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Flip Chip Packaging presents past, present and future advances and trends in areas such as substrate technology, material development, and assembly processes. Flip chip packaging is now in widespread use in computing, communications, consumer and automotive electronics, and the demand for flip chip technology is continuing to grow in order to meet the need for products that offer better performance, are smaller, and are environmentally sustainable. This book also: Offers broad-ranging chapters with a focus on IC-package-system integration Provides viewpoints from leading industry executives and experts Details state-of-the-art achievements in process technologies and scientific research Presents a clear development history and touches on trends in the industry while also discussing up-to-date technology information Advanced Flip Chip Packaging is an ideal book for engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in the field of flip chip packaging.

  13. Advances in business ICT

    CERN Document Server

    Pełech-Pilichowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Futurists and scientists alike profess the coming of a new era in the history – the knowledge era. The notion of knowledge is as old as humans’ self-consciousness, but new challenges appear. The meaning of the word “knowledge” is changing from cognitive notion to a technical term denoting a structured economic resource to be actively managed. This contributed volume is a result of vivid and extremely valuable discussions held at 3rd International Workshop on Advances in Business ICT (ABICT) in Wrocław, Poland, September 9-12, 2012. The workshop focused on Advances in Business ICT approached from a multidisciplinary perspective. It provided an international forum for scientists/experts from academia and industry to discuss and exchange current results, applications, new ideas of ongoing research and experience on all aspects of Business Intelligence. ABICT has also been an opportunity to demonstrate different ideas and tools for developing and supporting organizational creativity, as well as advances ...

  14. Advanced instrumentation for reprocessing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2005-10-01

    Recent interest in reprocessing nuclear fuel in the U.S. has led to advanced separations processes that employ continuous processing and multiple extraction steps. These advanced plants will need to be designed with state-of-the-art instrumentation for materials accountancy and control. This research examines the current and upcoming instrumentation for nuclear materials accountancy for those most suited to the reprocessing environment. Though this topic has received attention time and again in the past, new technologies and changing world conditions require a renewed look and this subject. The needs for the advanced UREX+ separations concept are first identified, and then a literature review of current and upcoming measuring techniques is presented. The report concludes with a preliminary list of recommended instruments and measurement locations.

  15. Advanced materials-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 9. International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM) was held from 19-22 September, 2005. This popular biennial event is one of the prime international forums in South Asia where material scientists and engineers can keep abreast with recent technologies involving advanced structural and functional materials. The technical committee of ISAM received 213 papers, 49 from abroad 164 from within the country. These papers were submitted in response to five important topics; i) Processing, Production and Developments, ii) Surface Engineering, iii) Phase Transformation and Characterization, iv) Advances in Magnetic Materials and v) Reliability and Life Assessment. The proceedings of the 9. ISAM consists of 108 reviewed papers. This symposium provided an ideal opportunity for exchange of information amongst scientists, engineers, and researchers. (A.B.)

  16. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, John [Siemens Energy, Inc., Orlando, FL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  17. The Advanced LIGO Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschel, Peter

    2016-03-01

    After decades of development, the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are now operating, and they completed their first observational run in early 2016. Advanced LIGO consists of two 4-km scale interferometric detectors located at separate sites in the US. The first year of detector commissioning that led to the first observation run produced instruments that have several times better sensitivity to gravitational-wave strain than previous instruments. At their final design sensitivity, the detectors will be another factor of 2-3x more sensitive than current performance. This talk will cover the design of Advanced LIGO, explain how the sensitivity improvements have been achieved, and lay out the path to reaching final design sensitivity.

  18. Advanced Magnetic Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmyer, David

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Magnetic Nanostructures is devoted to the fabrication, characterization, experimental investigation, theoretical understanding, and utilization of advanced magnetic nanostructures. Focus is on various types of 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' artificial nanostructures, as contrasted to naturally occurring magnetic nanostructures, such as iron-oxide inclusions in magnetic rocks, and to structures such as perfect thin films. Chapter 1 is an introduction into some basic concepts, such as the definitions of basic magnetic quantities. Chapters 2-4 are devoted to the theory of magnetic nanostructures, Chapter 5 deals with the characterization of the structures, and Chapters 6-10 are devoted to specific systems. Applications of advanced magnetic nanostructures are discussed in Chapters11-15 and, finally, the appendix lists and briefly discusses magnetic properties of typical starting materials. Industrial and academic researchers in magnetism and related areas such as nanotechnology, materials science, and theore...

  19. Directional Solidification Assisted by Liquid Metal Cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian ZHANG; Langhong LOU

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the development and current status of the directional solidification process assisted by liquid metal cooling (LMC) has been presented in this paper. The driving force of the rapid development of the LMC process has been analyzed by considering the demands of (1) newer technologies that can provide higher thermal gradients for alleviated segregation in advanced alloy systems, and (2) better production yield of the large directionally solidified superalloy components. The brief history of the industrialization of the LMC process has been reviewed, followed by the discussion on the LMC parameters including selection of the cooling media, using of the dynamic baffle, and the influence of withdrawal rates and so on. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the traditional superalloys processed by LMC, as well as the new alloys particularly developed for LMC process were then described. Finally, future aspects concerning the LMC process have been summarized.

  20. Gas To Liquids Technology: A Futuristic View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worldwide efforts aimed to the formulation of environment friendly diesel fuels able to meet the advanced fuel specifications of the 21 st century and able to meet the global demand on diesel fuels. Synthetically derived gas to-liquid (GTL) diesel fuel promises to meet these challenges and spearhead the way to the future. This technology will produce almost zero sulfur, high cetane, low aromatic diesel and naphtha which will be sold regionally and internationally. GTL fuel is cleaner than any conventional fuel which will help the environment. It can be used in conventional diesel engines to give reductions in emission levels. Construction of such technology will reduce the gap between production and consumption by maximizing the gross profitability of natural gas