WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced secondary recovery

  1. Waste Heat Recovery from the Advanced Test Reactor Secondary Coolant Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna Post Guillen

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using a waste heat recovery system (WHRS) to recover heat from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) secondary coolant system (SCS). This heat would be used to preheat air for space heating of the reactor building, thus reducing energy consumption, carbon footprint, and energy costs. Currently, the waste heat from the reactor is rejected to the atmosphere via a four-cell, induced-draft cooling tower. Potential energy and cost savings are 929 kW and $285K/yr. The WHRS would extract a tertiary coolant stream from the SCS loop and pump it to a new plate and frame heat exchanger, from which the heat would be transferred to a glycol loop for preheating outdoor air supplied to the heating and ventilation system. The use of glycol was proposed to avoid the freezing issues that plagued and ultimately caused the failure of a WHRS installed at the ATR in the 1980s. This study assessed the potential installation of a new WHRS for technical, logistical, and economic feasibility.

  2. Advanced fracture modeling in the Uinta Basin (Utah) for optimized primary and secondary recovery. Final report, September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The completed study focused on an area fracture-controlled highly unpredictable, fracture-controlled production near the Duchesne Fault Zone, Uinta Basin, in northeastern Utah. Production is seriously influenced by numerous high-angle faults and associated fractures--represented at the surface by a set of parallel, N80{degree}W-trending lineaments, and intricate fracture patterns in outcrop. Specific production is erratic and secondary recovery design is difficult because well-specific structural characterization and local fracture patterns are poorly understood. Furthermore, numerical models to simulate fluid flow in fractured reservoirs were either overly simplistic (did not adequately account for mechanical contrasts between matrix and fractures) or were extremely complex, requiring volumes of data typically not available to the operator. The contractors proposed implementing advanced geological, geomechanical and reservoir engineering methods to recognize and model the complex fracture networks exhibited at the surface and suggested in the shallow subsurface in the Duchesne Fault Zone. The intended methodology was to be developed in a data-limited environment, recognizing that operators in the basin will not have the financial resources or motivation to perform sophisticated and expensive reservoir engineering programs. User-friendly models for permeability, stress, and production using key geological and geophysical data, developed in this study can then be used to determine: economic placement of future operations, assessment of recoverable hydrocarbons, and forecasting of primary and secondary recovery.

  3. Advanced space recovery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wailes, William K.

    1989-01-01

    The design evolution of a space recovery system designed by a NASA-contracted study is described, with particular attention given to the design of a recovery system for a propulsion/avionics module (P/AM), which weighs 60,000 lb at the recovery initiation and achieves subsonic terminal descent at or above 50,000 ft msl. The components of the recovery system concept are described together with the operational sequences of the recovery. The recovery system concept offers low cost, low weight, good performance, a potential for pinpoint landing, and an operational flexibility.

  4. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States. Appendix, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This volume contains appendices for the following: Overview of improved oil recovery methods (enhanced oil recovery methods and advanced secondary recovery methods); Benefits of improved oil recovery, selected data for the analyzed states; and List of TORIS fields and reservoirs.

  5. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/ Heat Recovery Systems - Workshop Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, P.

    2001-06-15

    This CD ROM brings together proceedings of the Annex 26 Workshop 'Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/ Heat Recovery Systems' held in Sweden, 2-3 October 2000. Sessions at the workshop were: Session 1: The supermarket as a system, Session 2: Analysis and modeling, Session 3: Field experiences, Session 4: Energy-efficient equipment. Annex 26 investigates candidate advanced system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption for both refrigeration and heating/ air conditioning in supermarkets. Advanced supermarket refrigeration system concepts to be considered include, but are not limited to secondary loop systems, distributed compressors systems, and self-contained display cases.

  6. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, VAN

    2003-05-19

    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case

  7. Mifepristone Accelerates HPA Axis Recovery in Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Context. Transient secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) is an expected complication following successful adenomectomy of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas or unilateral adrenalectomy for cortisol-secreting adrenal adenomas. To date, no pharmacological therapy has been shown to hasten recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in this clinical scenario. Case Description. A 33-year-old woman underwent uncomplicated unilateral adrenalectomy for a 3.7 cm cortisol-secreting adrenal adenoma. Postoperatively, she developed SAI and was placed on hydrocortisone 15 mg/day, given in divided doses. In the ensuing six years, the patient's HPA axis failed to recover and she remained corticosteroid-dependent. Quarterly biochemical testing (after withholding hydrocortisone for 18 hours) consistently yielded undetectable serum cortisol and subnormal plasma ACTH levels. While she was on hydrocortisone 15 mg/day, mifepristone was initiated and gradually titrated to a maintenance dose of 600 mg/day after 5 months. Rapid recovery of the HPA axis was subsequently noted with ACTH rising into the supranormal range at 4 months followed by a subsequent rise in cortisol levels into the normal range. After 6 months, the dose of hydrocortisone and mifepristone was lowered and both were ultimately stopped after 8 months. The HPA axis remains normal after an additional 16 months of follow-up. Conclusion. Mifepristone successfully restored the HPA axis in a woman with prolonged secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) after adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome (CS). PMID:27516913

  8. Mifepristone Accelerates HPA Axis Recovery in Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, Pejman

    2016-01-01

    Context. Transient secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) is an expected complication following successful adenomectomy of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas or unilateral adrenalectomy for cortisol-secreting adrenal adenomas. To date, no pharmacological therapy has been shown to hasten recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in this clinical scenario. Case Description. A 33-year-old woman underwent uncomplicated unilateral adrenalectomy for a 3.7 cm cortisol-secreting adrenal adenoma. Postoperatively, she developed SAI and was placed on hydrocortisone 15 mg/day, given in divided doses. In the ensuing six years, the patient's HPA axis failed to recover and she remained corticosteroid-dependent. Quarterly biochemical testing (after withholding hydrocortisone for 18 hours) consistently yielded undetectable serum cortisol and subnormal plasma ACTH levels. While she was on hydrocortisone 15 mg/day, mifepristone was initiated and gradually titrated to a maintenance dose of 600 mg/day after 5 months. Rapid recovery of the HPA axis was subsequently noted with ACTH rising into the supranormal range at 4 months followed by a subsequent rise in cortisol levels into the normal range. After 6 months, the dose of hydrocortisone and mifepristone was lowered and both were ultimately stopped after 8 months. The HPA axis remains normal after an additional 16 months of follow-up. Conclusion. Mifepristone successfully restored the HPA axis in a woman with prolonged secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) after adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome (CS). PMID:27516913

  9. Mifepristone Accelerates HPA Axis Recovery in Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, Pejman

    2016-01-01

    Context. Transient secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) is an expected complication following successful adenomectomy of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas or unilateral adrenalectomy for cortisol-secreting adrenal adenomas. To date, no pharmacological therapy has been shown to hasten recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in this clinical scenario. Case Description. A 33-year-old woman underwent uncomplicated unilateral adrenalectomy for a 3.7 cm cortisol-secreting adrenal adenoma. Postoperatively, she developed SAI and was placed on hydrocortisone 15 mg/day, given in divided doses. In the ensuing six years, the patient's HPA axis failed to recover and she remained corticosteroid-dependent. Quarterly biochemical testing (after withholding hydrocortisone for 18 hours) consistently yielded undetectable serum cortisol and subnormal plasma ACTH levels. While she was on hydrocortisone 15 mg/day, mifepristone was initiated and gradually titrated to a maintenance dose of 600 mg/day after 5 months. Rapid recovery of the HPA axis was subsequently noted with ACTH rising into the supranormal range at 4 months followed by a subsequent rise in cortisol levels into the normal range. After 6 months, the dose of hydrocortisone and mifepristone was lowered and both were ultimately stopped after 8 months. The HPA axis remains normal after an additional 16 months of follow-up. Conclusion. Mifepristone successfully restored the HPA axis in a woman with prolonged secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) after adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome (CS).

  10. Biotechnological recovery of heavy metals from secondary sources-An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoque, Md E., E-mail: enamul.hoque@nottingham.edu.my [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Philip, Obbard J., E-mail: esejpo@nus.edu.sg [Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 119260 (Singapore)

    2011-03-12

    The demand for heavy metals is ever increasing with the advance of the industrialized world, whereas worldwide reserves of high-grade ores are diminishing. However, there exist large stockpiles of low and lean grade ores that are yet to be exploited. In addition, heavy metals that are present in a spectrum of waste streams including mine drainage, industrial effluents, river sediments, electronic scraps and ashes are also available for recovery and utilization. Heavy metal recovery from low and lean grade ores using conventional techniques such as pyrometallurgy, etc. chemical metallurgy encompass several inherent constraints like, high energy and capital inputs, and high risk of secondary environmental pollution. As environmental regulations become ever more stringent, particularly regarding the disposal of toxic wastes, the costs for ensuring environmental protection will continue to rise. Therefore, there is a need to utilize more efficient technologies to recover heavy metals from secondary sources in order to minimize capital outlay, environmental impact and to respond to increased demand. Biohydrometallurgy, which exploits microbiological processes to recover heavy metal ions, is regarded as one of the most promising and revolutionary biotechnologies. The products of such processes are deposited in aqueous solution thereby rendering them to be more amenable to containment, treatment and recovery. On top of this, biohydrometallurgy can be conducted under mild conditions, usually without the use of any toxic chemicals. Consequently, the application of biohydrometallurgy in recovery of heavy metals from lean grade ores, and wastes, has made it an eco-friendly biotechnology for enhanced heavy metal production.

  11. Biotechnological recovery of heavy metals from secondary sources-An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand for heavy metals is ever increasing with the advance of the industrialized world, whereas worldwide reserves of high-grade ores are diminishing. However, there exist large stockpiles of low and lean grade ores that are yet to be exploited. In addition, heavy metals that are present in a spectrum of waste streams including mine drainage, industrial effluents, river sediments, electronic scraps and ashes are also available for recovery and utilization. Heavy metal recovery from low and lean grade ores using conventional techniques such as pyrometallurgy, etc. chemical metallurgy encompass several inherent constraints like, high energy and capital inputs, and high risk of secondary environmental pollution. As environmental regulations become ever more stringent, particularly regarding the disposal of toxic wastes, the costs for ensuring environmental protection will continue to rise. Therefore, there is a need to utilize more efficient technologies to recover heavy metals from secondary sources in order to minimize capital outlay, environmental impact and to respond to increased demand. Biohydrometallurgy, which exploits microbiological processes to recover heavy metal ions, is regarded as one of the most promising and revolutionary biotechnologies. The products of such processes are deposited in aqueous solution thereby rendering them to be more amenable to containment, treatment and recovery. On top of this, biohydrometallurgy can be conducted under mild conditions, usually without the use of any toxic chemicals. Consequently, the application of biohydrometallurgy in recovery of heavy metals from lean grade ores, and wastes, has made it an eco-friendly biotechnology for enhanced heavy metal production.

  12. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery - Advanced Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie

    of the relative permeabilities. Overall, these methods produce similar results. Separate investigations of the surfactant effect have been performed through exemplifying simulation cases, where no biofilm is formed. The water phase saturation profiles are found to contain a waterfront initially following...... the saturation profile for pure waterflooding. At the oil mobilization point -- where the surfactant effect starts to take place -- a sufficient surfactant concentration has been built up in order to mobilize the residual oil. A second waterfront is produced, and an oil bank is created. The recovery curve...... consists of several parts. Initially, the recovery curve follows pure waterflooding recovery until breakthrough of the oil bank. The next part of the recovery curve continues until breakthrough of the second waterfront. The incline is still relatively steep due to a low water cut. In the last part...

  13. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery - Advanced Reservoir Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2010-01-01

    In this project, a generic model has been set up to include the two main mechanisms in the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) process; reduction of the interfacial tension (IFT) due to surfactant production, and microscopic fluid diversion as a part of the overall fluid diversion mechanism due to formation of biofilm. The construction of a one-dimensional simulator enables us to investigate how the different mechanisms and the combination of these influence the displacement processes, the...

  14. Microbial enhancement of oil recovery: Recent advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Woodhead, A.D.; Vivirito, K.J. (eds.)

    1992-01-01

    During recent years, systematic, scientific, and engineering effort by researchers in the United States and abroad, has established the scientific basis for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology. The successful application of MEOR technology as an oil recovery process is a goal of the Department of Energy (DOE). Research efforts involving aspects of MEOR in the microbiological, biochemical, and engineering fields led DOE to sponsor an International Conference at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1992, to facilitate the exchange of information and a discussion of ideas for the future research emphasis. At this, the Fourth International MEOR Conference, where international attendees from 12 countries presented a total of 35 papers, participants saw an equal distribution between research'' and field applications.'' In addition, several modeling and state-of-the-art'' presentations summed up the present status of MEOR science and engineering. Individual papers in this proceedings have been process separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems. Country Report, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard; Christensen, K. G.

    conclusions as far energy conservation and TEWI reduction is concerned. The conclusion justify that advanced supermarket systems with heat recovery should receive great attention and support. And there is still further research needed in several areas. The Annex also included a thorough system analyses...... provide valuable information for practitioners (designers, installers) and manufactures of supermarket refrigeration systems....

  16. Recovery dynamics of secondary forests with different disturbance intensity in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjie Xu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the underlying processes of secondary forest recovery after disturbances such as logging is essential for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem rehabilitation. We surveyed 12 forest plots (1 ha in size with different extents of anthropogenic disturbances in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve and explored the community dynamics of secondary forest recovery by applying multivariate statistical analysis. We found significant differences in community composition among various recovery phases, whereas high similarities of community composition were observed within the same recovery phase. No significant difference in species richness was observed among recovery stages, but species richness tended to increase during the recovery process. Species evenness in Chinese fir forests was relatively low whereas no significant difference occurred in other forests. The main differences in community composition and species diversity were found in the canopy layer. Respective indicator species were found in shrubs and regeneration layers during different recovery phases. The most representative indicator species were deciduous shrubs or heliophilous trees for plantation forests of Chinese fir, evergreen shrubs or small trees for young secondary forests, sub-canopy evergreen trees for old secondary forests, and canopy species for old-growth forests, respectively. Overall, species diversity recovered rigorously. Also the life-form composition of saplings in the same recovery phase presented consistent trends in spite of complex and unpredictable changes in species composition during the recovery process.

  17. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration / Heat Recovery Systems. Annex 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings (16 papers) of a workshop (held in Stockholm, Sweden, 2-3 October 2000) on Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/ Heat Recovery Systems. Sessions at the workshop discussed: The supermarket as a system, Analysis and modelling, Field experiences and Energy-efficient equipment. The 16 papers presented at the workshop provide a useful information source for all involved in supermarket refrigeration.

  18. Operations management system advanced automation: Fault detection isolation and recovery prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Matt

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to address the global fault detection, isolation and recovery (FDIR) requirements for Operation's Management System (OMS) automation within the Space Station Freedom program. This shall be accomplished by developing a selected FDIR prototype for the Space Station Freedom distributed processing systems. The prototype shall be based on advanced automation methodologies in addition to traditional software methods to meet the requirements for automation. A secondary objective is to expand the scope of the prototyping to encompass multiple aspects of station-wide fault management (SWFM) as discussed in OMS requirements documentation.

  19. Reviews of Metallurgical Technology to Recovery Platinum Group Metals from Secondary Resource in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Junmei; HE Xiaotang; WANG Huan; WU Xilong; ZHAO Yu; LI Yong; LI Kun; HAN Shouli

    2012-01-01

    China is extremely poor in mineral resources of Platinum Group Metals (PGMs),productive output of PGMs from mineral resource is 2.5 tons per year.At the same time,China is the biggest PGMs consumption country in the world,the mineral resource of PGMs is critical shortage,it shows the importance of recycling the secondary resource of PGMs.Sino-Platinum Metals Resource (Yimen) Co.,Ltd.is the leader in recycling of PGMs from secondary resource,and has made outstanding contributions to China PGMs secondary resources recycling.This article elucidates the current situation of secondary resources recovery and development of metallurgical technology for PGMs.

  20. Secondary oil recovery process. [two separate surfactant slugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgatter, W.S.

    1969-01-14

    Oil recovery by two separate surfactant slugs is greater than for either one alone. One slug contains a surfactant(s) in either oil or water. The other slug contains surfactant(s) in thickened water. The surfactants are sodium petroleum sulfonate (Promor SS20), polyoxyethylene sorbitan trioleate (Tween 85), lauric acid diethanolamide (Trepoline L), and sodium tridecyl sulfate polyglycol ether (Trepenol S30T). The thickener is carboxymethyl cellulose (Hercules CMC 70-S Medium thickener) or polyvinyl alcohol (Du Pont Elvanol 50-42). Consolidated sandstone cores were flooded with water, followed with Hawes crude, and finally salt water (5 percent sodium chloride) which recovered about 67 percent of the crude. A maximum of 27.5 percent of the residual oil was recovered by surfactant(s) in oil or water followed by fresh water, then surfactant(s) plus thickener in water followed by fresh water. Either surfactant slug may be injected first. Individually, each of the surfactant slugs can recover from about 3 to 11 percent less residual oil than their total recovery when used consecutively.

  1. HIGH-YIELD PROTEIN RECOVERY FROM SECONDARY SLUDGE OF PAPER MILL EFFLUENT AND ITS CHARACTERIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Pervaiz; Mohini Sain

    2012-01-01

    Maximizing recovery and characterization of extractable proteins from secondary paper sludge is essential to explore the potential value from utilization of readily available waste products from pulp and paper mills. A multistep physicochemical recovery process was used, involving optimum alkaline solubilization of protein into an aqueous phase followed by augmented physical disruption of cell membranes. The final precipitation of solubilised protein was carried out using different acidic med...

  2. Weldability and Strength Recovery of NUCu-140 Advanced Naval Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Jason T.

    NUCu-140 is a ferritic copper-precipitation strengthened steel that is a candidate material for use in many naval and structural applications. Previous work has shown that the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and fusion zone (FZ) of NUCu-140 exhibit softening that is due to dissolution of the copper-rich precipitates. This study aims to recover the FZ and HAZ strength by re-precipitation of the copper-rich precipitates through either multiple weld passes or an isothermal post-weld heat treatment (PWHT). The potential use of multiple thermal cycles was investigated with HAZ simulations using a Gleeble thermomechanical simulator. The HAZ simulations represented two weld thermal cycles with different combinations of peak temperatures during the initial and secondary weld passes. To investigate the potential for a PWHT for strength recovery, gas tungsten arc weld (GTAW) samples were isothermally heated for various times and temperatures. Microhardness measurements revealed no strength recovery in the multipass HAZ samples. The time dependent precipitate characteristics were modeled under the HAZ thermal cycle conditions, and the results showed that the lack of strength recovery could be attributed to insufficient time for re-precipitation during the secondary weld pass. Conversely, full strength recovery in the HAZ was observed in the isothermally heat treated samples. Atom-probe tomography (APT) analysis correlated this strength recovery to re-precipitation of the copper-rich precipitates during the isothermal PWHT. The experimental naval steel known as NUCu-140 and an established naval steel HSLA-100 were subjected to stress-relief cracking (SRC) and hot-ductility testing to assess their relative cracking susceptibilities during the welding process and post weld heat treatment. NUCu-140 exhibited a longer time-to-failure (TTF) and a lower temperature of minimum TTF during SRC testing when compared to HSLA-100, indicating better resistance to SRC for the NUCu-140 steel. The

  3. Collimation Cleaning at the LHC with Advanced Secondary Collimator Materials

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085459; Bruce, Roderik; Mereghetti, Alessio; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, A

    2015-01-01

    The LHC collimation system must ensure efficient beam halo cleaning in all machine conditions. The first run in 2010-2013 showed that the LHC performance may be limited by collimator material-related concerns, such as the contribution from the present carbon-based secondary collimators to the machine impedance and, consequently, to the beam instability. Novel materials based on composites are currently under development for the next generation of LHC collimators to address these limitations. Particle tracking simulations of collimation efficiency were performed using the Sixtrack code and a material database updated to model these composites. In this paper, the simulation results will be presented with the aim of studying the effect of the advanced collimators on the LHC beam cleaning.

  4. Computational experiment approach to advanced secondary mathematics curriculum

    CERN Document Server

    Abramovich, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    This book promotes the experimental mathematics approach in the context of secondary mathematics curriculum by exploring mathematical models depending on parameters that were typically considered advanced in the pre-digital education era. This approach, by drawing on the power of computers to perform numerical computations and graphical constructions, stimulates formal learning of mathematics through making sense of a computational experiment. It allows one (in the spirit of Freudenthal) to bridge serious mathematical content and contemporary teaching practice. In other words, the notion of teaching experiment can be extended to include a true mathematical experiment. When used appropriately, the approach creates conditions for collateral learning (in the spirit of Dewey) to occur including the development of skills important for engineering applications of mathematics. In the context of a mathematics teacher education program, this book addresses a call for the preparation of teachers capable of utilizing mo...

  5. Recovery Act - Sustainable Transportation: Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caille, Gary

    2013-12-13

    The collective goals of this effort include: 1) reach all facets of this society with education regarding electric vehicles (EV) and plug–in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), 2) prepare a workforce to service these advanced vehicles, 3) create web–based learning at an unparalleled level, 4) educate secondary school students to prepare for their future and 5) train the next generation of professional engineers regarding electric vehicles. The Team provided an integrated approach combining secondary schools, community colleges, four–year colleges and community outreach to provide a consistent message (Figure 1). Colorado State University Ventures (CSUV), as the prime contractor, plays a key program management and co–ordination role. CSUV is an affiliate of Colorado State University (CSU) and is a separate 501(c)(3) company. The Team consists of CSUV acting as the prime contractor subcontracted to Arapahoe Community College (ACC), CSU, Motion Reality Inc. (MRI), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and Ricardo. Collaborators are Douglas County Educational Foundation/School District and Gooru (www.goorulearning.org), a nonprofit web–based learning resource and Google spin–off.

  6. ADVANCED TREATMENT OF SAHEBGHARANIEH SECONDARY EFFLUENT BY OZONATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vaezi

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical oxidation is one of the most suitable treatment methods for reducing organic pollutants and the number of pathogens remaining in secondary effluents. Ozone is the most powerful oxidizing agent commonly used because of it's many advantages over chlorination. In this study the efficiency of ozonation in advanced wastewater treatment of Sahebgharanieh Plant has been determined. Ozone generation has been performed by irradiation of compressed air with 4 special UV lamps. The total output of these lamps was determined to be 0.74 mg ozone per minute at established conditions. Considering 3 periods of ozonation of effluent samples (30, 60 and 120 min and ozone transfer coefficient of 95%, the concentrations of applied ozone for wastewater treatment were specified to be 10.5, 21 and 42 mg/l, respectively. Ozonation of secondary effluents at these periods has resulted in 17, 24 and 30 percent reduction in average COD and about 20, 18 and 32 percent decrease in BOD5. It is believed that the 2 percent increase observed in BOD after 30 minutes is caused by changing some amount of COD to BOD5 by applied ozone. According to the prescribed reduction values it could be concluded that the final effluent of a typical treatment plant would become better qualified for water reuse in irrigation. But it should be declared that the effluent might not be completely disinfected irrespective of about 99.0% decrease determined in MPN of total coliforms. Also it must be noted that this degree of disinfection was accomplished only for 62.5% of samples. Ozonation of effluent samples has caused an increase in pH value which was at least 0.4 of a pH unit.

  7. Advanced Water Recovery Technologies for Long Duration Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Scan X.

    2005-01-01

    Extended-duration space travel and habitation require recovering water from wastewater generated in spacecrafts and extraterrestrial outposts since the largest consumable for human life support is water. Many wastewater treatment technologies used for terrestrial applications are adoptable to extraterrestrial situations but challenges remain as constraints of space flights and habitation impose severe limitations of these technologies. Membrane-based technologies, particularly membrane filtration, have been widely studied by NASA and NASA-funded research groups for possible applications in space wastewater treatment. The advantages of membrane filtration are apparent: it is energy-efficient and compact, needs little consumable other than replacement membranes and cleaning agents, and doesn't involve multiphase flow, which is big plus for operations under microgravity environment. However, membrane lifespan and performance are affected by the phenomena of concentration polarization and membrane fouling. This article attempts to survey current status of membrane technologies related to wastewater treatment and desalination in the context of space exploration and quantify them in terms of readiness level for space exploration. This paper also makes specific recommendations and predictions on how scientist and engineers involving designing, testing, and developing space-certified membrane-based advanced water recovery technologies can improve the likelihood of successful development of an effective regenerative human life support system for long-duration space missions.

  8. Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, James H. [University of North Florida; Cox, Philip [University of North Florida; Harrington, William J [University of North Florida; Campbell, Joseph L [University of North Florida

    2013-09-03

    ABSTRACT Project Title: Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing PROJECT OBJECTIVE The objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell system technology towards the commercial targets of power density, energy density and lifetime. These targets were laid out in the DOE’s R&D roadmap to develop an advanced direct methanol fuel cell power supply that meets commercial entry requirements. Such a power supply will enable mobile computers to operate non-stop, unplugged from the wall power outlet, by using the high energy density of methanol fuel contained in a replaceable fuel cartridge. Specifically this project focused on balance-of-plant component integration and miniaturization, as well as extensive component, subassembly and integrated system durability and validation testing. This design has resulted in a pre-production power supply design and a prototype that meet the rigorous demands of consumer electronic applications. PROJECT TASKS The proposed work plan was designed to meet the project objectives, which corresponded directly with the objectives outlined in the Funding Opportunity Announcement: To engineer the fuel cell balance-of-plant and packaging to meet the needs of consumer electronic systems, specifically at power levels required for mobile computing. UNF used existing balance-of-plant component technologies developed under its current US Army CERDEC project, as well as a previous DOE project completed by PolyFuel, to further refine them to both miniaturize and integrate their functionality to increase the system power density and energy density. Benefits of UNF’s novel passive water recycling MEA (membrane electrode assembly) and the simplified system architecture it enabled formed the foundation of the design approach. The package design was hardened to address orientation independence, shock, vibration, and environmental requirements. Fuel cartridge and fuel subsystems were improved to ensure effective fuel

  9. Depth controller utilized in a mechanical pump system for the recovery of high viscosity oil. [Secondary recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, A.S.; Reza, M.G.

    1972-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find a solution to the problem of more effectively producing high viscosity oil which is found in the fields of Ebano and Cacalilao of the Northern District, and also to improve the system of secondary recovery. The device utilized is, in effect, a type of anchor or landing nipple. It is described in detail, together with mechanical drawings with the specifications shown for 3-1/2-in. tubing. Two types of well installations are described, the difference being, essentially, the gas/oil ratio. The limitations for the application of this system rests on the diameter of the well casing. In general, the use of the depth controller or anchor device, will result in the following: (1) eliminate the effects of flotation; (2) increase the velocity of the pump; (3) increase the production of oil; and (4) savings in the consumption of fuel.

  10. Clinical experience of intrapleural administration of fibrin glue for secondary pneumothorax with advanced lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secondary pneumothorax with advanced lung cancer is an intractable and serious pathosis, which directly aggravates patients' Quality of Life (QOL) and prognosis. We first select the intrapleural administration of fibrin glue for secondary pneumothorax with advanced lung cancer. From April 2009 to May 2012, we encountered 5 patients who developed secondary pneumothorax during treatment for advanced lung cancer. Their average age was 60.8 years old, and 4 of them had squamous cell carcinoma, 1 had adenocarcinoma, and all had unresectable advanced lung cancer. In 4 of them, the point of air leakage could be detected by pleurography, and leakage could be stopped by the intrapleural administration of fibrin glue. All of them could receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy after treatment for secondary pneumothorax. The intrapleural administration of fibrin glue may be an effective and valid treatment for intractable secondary pneumothorax with advanced lung cancer. (author)

  11. Variants of Secondary Control with Power Recovery for Loading Hydraulic Driving Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xiaoye

    2015-01-01

    Current high power load simulators are generally incapable of obtalning both high loading performance and high energy efficiency. Simulators with high energy efficiency are used to simulate static-state load, and those with high dynamic performance typically have low energy efficiency. In this paper, the variants of secondary control (VSC) with power recovery are developed to solve this problem for loading hydraulic driving devices that operate under variable pressure, unlike classical secondary control (CSC) that operates in constant pressure network. Hydrostatic secondary control units are used as the loading components, by which the absorbed mechanical power from the tested device is converted into hydraulic power and then fed back into the tested system through 4 types of feedback passages (FPs). The loading subsystem can operate in constant pressure network, controlled variable pressure network, or the same variable pressure network as that of the tested device by using different FPs. The 4 types of systems are defined, and their key techniques are analyzed, including work principle, simulating the work state of original tested device, static operation points, loading performance, energy efficiency, and control strategy, etc. The important technical merits of the 4 schemes are compared, and 3 of the schemes are selected, designed, simulated using AMESim and evaluated. The researching results show that the investigated systems can simulate the given loads effectively, realize the work conditions of the tested device, and furthermore attaln a high power recovery efficiency that ranges from 0.54 to 0.85, even though the 3 schemes have different loading performances and energy efficiencies. This paper proposes several loading schemes that can achieve both high dynamic performance and high power recovery efficiency.

  12. Protein Recovery from Secondary Paper Sludge and Its Potential Use as Wood Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaiz, Muhammad

    Secondary sludge is an essential part of biosolids produced through the waste treatment plant of paper mills. Globally paper mills generate around 3.0 million ton of biosolids and in the absence of beneficial applications, the handling and disposal of this residual biomass poses a serious environmental and economic proposition. Secondary paper sludges were investigated in this work for recovery of proteins and their use as wood adhesive. After identifying extracellular polymeric substances as adhesion pre-cursors through analytical techniques, studies were carried out to optimize protein recovery from SS and its comprehensive characterization. A modified physicochemical protocol was developed to recover protein from secondary sludge in substantial quantities. The combined effect of French press and sonication techniques followed by alkali treatment resulted in significant improvement of 44% in the yield of solubilized protein compared to chemical methods. The characterization studies confirmed the presence of common amino acids in recovered sludge protein in significant quantities and heavy metal concentration was reduced after recovery process. The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed the presence of both low and high molecular weight protein fractions in recovered sludge protein. After establishing the proof-of-concept in the use of recovered sludge protein as wood adhesive, the bonding mechanism of protein adhesives with cellulose substrate was further elucidated in a complementary protein-modification study involving soy protein isolate and its glycinin fractions. The results of this study validated the prevailing bonding theories by proving that surface wetting, protein structure, and type of wood play important role in determining final adhesive strength. Recovered sludge protein was also investigated for its compatibility to formulate hybrid adhesive blends with formaldehyde and bio-based polymers. Apart from chemical

  13. Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, James H. [University of North Florida; Cox, Philip [University of North Florida; Harrington, William J [University of North Florida; Campbell, Joseph L [University of North Florida

    2013-09-03

    ABSTRACT Project Title: Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing PROJECT OBJECTIVE The objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell system technology towards the commercial targets of power density, energy density and lifetime. These targets were laid out in the DOE’s R&D roadmap to develop an advanced direct methanol fuel cell power supply that meets commercial entry requirements. Such a power supply will enable mobile computers to operate non-stop, unplugged from the wall power outlet, by using the high energy density of methanol fuel contained in a replaceable fuel cartridge. Specifically this project focused on balance-of-plant component integration and miniaturization, as well as extensive component, subassembly and integrated system durability and validation testing. This design has resulted in a pre-production power supply design and a prototype that meet the rigorous demands of consumer electronic applications. PROJECT TASKS The proposed work plan was designed to meet the project objectives, which corresponded directly with the objectives outlined in the Funding Opportunity Announcement: To engineer the fuel cell balance-of-plant and packaging to meet the needs of consumer electronic systems, specifically at power levels required for mobile computing. UNF used existing balance-of-plant component technologies developed under its current US Army CERDEC project, as well as a previous DOE project completed by PolyFuel, to further refine them to both miniaturize and integrate their functionality to increase the system power density and energy density. Benefits of UNF’s novel passive water recycling MEA (membrane electrode assembly) and the simplified system architecture it enabled formed the foundation of the design approach. The package design was hardened to address orientation independence, shock, vibration, and environmental requirements. Fuel cartridge and fuel subsystems were improved to ensure effective fuel

  14. HIGH-YIELD PROTEIN RECOVERY FROM SECONDARY SLUDGE OF PAPER MILL EFFLUENT AND ITS CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Pervaiz,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Maximizing recovery and characterization of extractable proteins from secondary paper sludge is essential to explore the potential value from utilization of readily available waste products from pulp and paper mills. A multistep physicochemical recovery process was used, involving optimum alkaline solubilization of protein into an aqueous phase followed by augmented physical disruption of cell membranes. The final precipitation of solubilised protein was carried out using different acidic media. The optimization studies revealed that the best removal of intercellular contents from sludge can be achieved at pH 12; at this level, up to 88% of available protein is solubilised into the aqueous phase. Of all the precipitating agents used, sulphuric acid proved most effective by recovering 90% of disrupted protein. The combined effect of french press and sonication techniques resulted in significant improvement in the overall yield of recovered sludge protein (RSP. The characterization studies showed the presence of common and essential amino acids in RSP in significant quantities; it also showed that the recovery process can significantly reduce or eliminate heavy metals present in the sludge. The molecular weights (MW of extractable proteins were determined by PAGE, and it was observed that RSP contains both low and high MW fractions.

  15. Risk Factors and Impact of Secondary Failure of Platelet Recovery After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahoshi, Yu; Kanda, Junya; Gomyo, Ayumi; Hayakawa, Jin; Komiya, Yusuke; Harada, Naonori; Kameda, Kazuaki; Ugai, Tomotaka; Wada, Hidenori; Ishihara, Yuko; Kawamura, Koji; Sakamoto, Kana; Sato, Miki; Terasako-Saito, Kiriko; Kimura, Shun-Ichi; Kikuchi, Misato; Nakasone, Hideki; Kako, Shinichi; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2016-09-01

    Secondary failure of platelet recovery (SFPR), a late decrease in the platelet count after primary platelet recovery that is not due to relapse or graft rejection, occasionally occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The risk factors and impact of SFPR on transplantation outcomes are not well known in the clinical setting. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated 184 adult patients who underwent their first allogeneic HSCT and achieved primary platelet recovery. The cumulative incidence of SFPR, defined as a decrease in the platelet count to below 20,000/µL for more than 7 days, was 12.2% at 3 years, with a median onset of 81 days (range, 39 to 729) after HSCT. Among patients who developed SFPR (n = 23), 19 (82.6%) showed recovery to a sustained platelet count of more than 20,000/µL without transfusion support, and the median duration of SFPR was 23 days (range, 7 to 1048 days). A multivariate analysis showed that in vivo T cell depletion (hazard ratio [HR], 6.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.31 to 20.7; P < .001), grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (HR, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.52 to 10.5; P = .005), and the use of ganciclovir or valganciclovir (HR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.05 to 7.77; P = .039) were associated with an increased risk for SFPR. The occurrence of SFPR as a time-dependent covariate was significantly associated with inferior overall survival (HR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.18 to 4.46; P = .015) in a multivariate analysis. These findings may help to improve the management and treatment strategy for SFPR. PMID:27288954

  16. Microbial enhancement of oil recovery: Recent advances. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Woodhead, A.D.; Vivirito, K.J. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    During recent years, systematic, scientific, and engineering effort by researchers in the United States and abroad, has established the scientific basis for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology. The successful application of MEOR technology as an oil recovery process is a goal of the Department of Energy (DOE). Research efforts involving aspects of MEOR in the microbiological, biochemical, and engineering fields led DOE to sponsor an International Conference at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1992, to facilitate the exchange of information and a discussion of ideas for the future research emphasis. At this, the Fourth International MEOR Conference, where international attendees from 12 countries presented a total of 35 papers, participants saw an equal distribution between ``research`` and ``field applications.`` In addition, several modeling and ``state-of-the-art`` presentations summed up the present status of MEOR science and engineering. Individual papers in this proceedings have been process separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery/Advanced Recovery Concepts Awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, M.J.; Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; Nagle, Jr., D.P.; Sharma, P.K.; Jackson, B.E.

    2002-05-28

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  18. Microbial polysaccharide produced from crude oil and its applicability in secondary oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China); Wang, C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with a strain of bacterium Brevibacterium viscogenes nov. sp. 74-230, which produces extracellular polysaccharide from curde oil and its fractions. The effects of ages of the inoculum, several kinds of crude oil and its fractions, and contents of crude oil on the synthesis of polysaccharide were investigated. When crude oil was used as the sole carbon source (12%, w/v) in 50 or 240 1 fermentors, 8.0 g/1 of polysaccharide was obtained. The changes of hydrocarbon components after fermentation were analysed. They indicated that the bacterium strain mainly had utilized n-alkane. The fermented gummy solution was diluted and used as a driving fluid in laboratory scale model experiments. When the injection volume corresponds to 20% of the pore volume, the secondary oil recovery was enhanced to about 9% of the initial reserves.

  19. Energy recovery from secondary pulp/paper-mill sludge and sewage sludge with supercritical water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linghong; Xu, Chunbao Charles; Champagne, Pascale

    2010-04-01

    Secondary pulp/paper-mill sludge (SPP) and sewage sludges (primary, secondary, and digested sewage sludges) were treated in supercritical water at temperatures ranging between 400 degrees Celsius and 550 degrees Celsius over 20-120 min for energy recovery. Low temperature and short reaction time favored the formation of heavy oil (HO) products, which were mainly composed of a variety of phenol and phenolic compounds, as well as some nitrogen-containing compounds, long-chain alkenes and alcohols, etc., with high gross calorific values (>36 MJ/kg). By contrast, the formation of synthetic gases, a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, and other light hydrocarbons, were not significantly affected by reaction time but greatly enhanced with increasing temperature. The highest gas yield was obtained at 550 degrees Celsius, where 37.7 wt.% of the SPP (on dry basis) was converted into gases, with hydrogen yields as high as 14.5 mol H(2)/kg SPP (on a dry basis). In comparison to sewage sludges, SPP exhibited a greater capability for the production of HO and gases owing to its higher contents of volatiles and alkali metals, indicating a prospective utilization potential for SPP as a source of bio-energy. PMID:20044251

  20. [Advances in the secondary prevention of cardioembolic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjuan, Jaime

    2012-10-01

    Non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is the main cause of cardioembolic stroke. Classically, prevention consists of oral antivitamin-K anticoagulants (AVK), which, despite their demonstrated efficacy, continue to be underused due to their numerous drawbacks. Recently, a new generation of oral anticoagulants has been shown to have a better safety profile and greater efficacy than AVK. The studies that have compared rivoraxaban, dabigatran and apixaban with warfarin have also included a substantial proportion of patients who had previously had a stroke. The results of the substudies performed in this population with a high risk of hemorrhagic and embolic events have been consistent with those in the overall populations in these studies. The new anticoagulants are a feasible alternative to AVK in the secondary prevention of ictus in patients with NVAF. When anticoagulant therapy is contraindicated, percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage could be an alternative.

  1. Modeling forest disturbance and recovery in secondary subtropical dry forests of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, J. A.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.; Van Bloem, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Because of human pressures, the need to understand and predict the long-term dynamics of subtropical dry forests is urgent. Through modifications to the ZELIG vegetation demographic model, including the development of species- and site-specific parameters and internal modifications, the capability to predict forest change within the Guanica State Forest in Puerto Rico can now be accomplished. One objective was to test the capability of this new model (i.e. ZELIG-TROP) to predict successional patterns of secondary forests across a gradient of abandoned fields currently being reclaimed as forests. Model simulations found that abandoned fields that are on degraded lands have a delayed response to fully recover and reach a mature forest status during the simulated time period; 200 years. The forest recovery trends matched predictions published in other studies, such that attributes involving early resource acquisition (i.e. canopy height, canopy coverage, density) were the fastest to recover, but attributes used for structural development (i.e. biomass, basal area) were relatively slow in recovery. Biomass and basal area, two attributes that tend to increase during later successional stages, are significantly lower during the first 80-100 years of recovery compared to a mature forest, suggesting that the time scale of resilience in subtropical dry forests needs to be partially redefined. A second objective was to investigate the long and short-term effects of increasing hurricane disturbances on vegetation structure and dynamics, due to hurricanes playing an important role in maintaining dry forest structure in Puerto Rico. Hurricane disturbance simulations within ZELIG-TROP predicted that increasing hurricane intensity (i.e. up to 100% increase) did not lead to a large shift in long-term AGB or NPP. However, increased hurricane frequency did lead to a 5-40% decrease in AGB, and 32-50% increase in NPP, depending on the treatment. In addition, the modeling approach used

  2. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark B. Murphy

    2005-09-30

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico was a cost-shared field demonstration project in the U.S. Department of Energy Class III Program. A major goal of the Class III Program was to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques were used at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP) project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. The objective of the project was to demonstrate that a development program, which was based on advanced reservoir management methods, could significantly improve oil recovery at the NDP. Initial goals were (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to other oil and gas producers. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geological, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description was used as a risk reduction tool to identify 'sweet spots' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well stimulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir. An

  3. [Biomass recovery through secondary succession in the Cordillera Central de los Andes, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle, Jorge Ignacio; Restrepo, Héctor Iván; Londoño, Mónica María

    2011-09-01

    Estimations on biomass recovery rates by secondary tropical forests are needed to understand the complex tropical succession, and their importance on CO2 capture, to offset the warming of the planet. We conducted the study in the Porce River Canyon between 550 and 1 700m.a.s.l. covering tropical and premontane moist belts. We established 33 temporary plots of 50m x 20m in secondary forests, including fallows to succesional forests, and ranging between 3 and 36 years old; we measured the diameter at breast height (D) of all woody plants with D > or = 5cm. In each one of these plots we established five 10m x 10m subplots, in which we measured the diameter betweem 1cm woody plants. We estimated the biomass of pastures by harvesting 54 plots of 2m x 2m, and of shrubs in the fallows by harvesting the biomass in 18 plots of 5m x 2m. We modeled Bav (above ground live biomass of woody plants) and Brg (coarse root biomass) as a function of succesional age (t) with the growth model of von Bertalanffy, using 247t/ha and 66t/ha as asymptote, respectively. Besides, we modeled the ratios brg/bav = f(D) and Brg/Bav = f(t). The model estimated that 87 years are required to recover the existing Bav of primary forests through secondary succession, and 217 years for the Brg of the primary forest. The maximum instantaneous growth rate of the Bav was 6.95 t/ha/yr at age 10. The maximum average growth rate of the Bav was 6.26 t/ha/yr at age 17. The weighted average of the absolute growth rate of the Bav reached 4.57t/ha/yr and the relative growth rate 10% annually. The ratio brg/bav decreases with increasing D. The ratio Brg/Bav initially increases very rapidly until age 5 (25%), then decreases to reach 25 years (18%) and increases afterwards until the ratio reaches the asymptote (26.7%). PMID:22017137

  4. Pumped for Action: Using coiled tubing as sucker rod may improve economics of secondary recovery wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2003-11-01

    An oil production system involving coiled tubing, used as a hollow sucker rod to improve the economics of secondary recovery wells, is described. The system is designed to work with a beam pump, or pump jack, the dual displacement pump which would produce oil and water on both the upstroke and the downstroke. The coiled tubing would act both as a sucker rod string, as well as a production string: as a sucker rod string moving the plunger up and down, and as a production string through which oil and water would flow. In its only field test to date the prototype fell far short of expectations, producing less than 600 bbls a day of water and oil, instead of the expected 1,000 bbls; also, there have been various mechanical problems with the pump, necessitating it having to be pulled six times during the test. Regardless of the poor performance, the pump proved that it can pump both on the upstroke and the downstroke. Improvements are being made, and further testing is awaiting a new sponsor.

  5. How does uncertainty shape patient experience in advanced illness? A secondary analysis of qualitative data

    OpenAIRE

    Etkind, Simon Noah; Bristowe, Katherine Rachel; Bailey, Katharine; Selman, Lucy Ellen; Murtagh, Felicity Fliss

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uncertainty is common in advanced illness but is infrequently studied in this context. If poorly addressed, uncertainty can lead to adverse patient outcomes.AIM: We aimed to understand patient experiences of uncertainty in advanced illness and develop a typology of patients' responses and preferences to inform practice.DESIGN: Secondary analysis of qualitative interview transcripts. Studies were assessed for inclusion and interviews were sampled using maximum-variation sampling. A...

  6. Recovery Act. Advanced Load Identification and Management for Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yi [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Casey, Patrick [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Du, Liang [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); He, Dawei [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States)

    2014-02-12

    , in particular, advanced power strips (APSs) was studied. The project evaluated the market potential for Smart Power Strips (SPSs) with load identification and the likely impact of a load identification feature on APS adoption and effectiveness. The project also identified other success factors required for widespread APS adoption and market acceptance. Even though the developed technology is applicable for both residential and commercial buildings, this project is focused on effective plug-in load control and management for commercial buildings, accomplished through effective load identification. The project has completed Smart Receptacle (SR) prototype development with integration of Load ID, Control/Management, WiFi communication, and Web Service. Twenty SR units were built, tested, and demonstrated in the Eaton lab; eight SR units were tested in the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) for one-month of field testing. Load ID algorithm testing for extended load sets was conducted within the Eaton facility and at local university campuses. This report is to summarize the major achievements, activities, and outcomes under the execution of the project.

  7. Pick it up with light! An advanced summer program for secondary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Manoj; Kumar, S. C.; Valencia, Alejandra; Volpe, Giorgio; Volpe, Giovanni; Carrasco, Silvia

    2014-07-01

    A project to introduce secondary school students to statistical physics and biophotonics by means of an optical tweezers is presented. Interestingly, the project is completely experimental and no advanced calculus or physics knowledge is necessary. The project starts from the construction of the optical tweezers itself and therefore is also useful to introduce basic concepts of optics.

  8. Recent advances in secondary ion mass spectrometry of solid acid catalysts : Large zeolite crystals under bombardment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, Jan P.; Rohnke, Marcus; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2014-01-01

    This Perspective aims to inform the heterogeneous catalysis and materials science community about the recent advances in Time-of-Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to characterize catalytic solids by taking large model H-ZSM-5 zeolite crystals as a showcase system. SIMS-based techniqu

  9. Natural stone muds as secondary raw materials: towards a new sustainable recovery process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichella, Lorena; Tori, Alice; Bellopede, Rossana; Marini, Paola

    2016-04-01

    The production of residual sludge is a topical issue, and has become essential to recover and reuse the materials, both for the economics and the environmental aspect. According to environmental EU Directives, in fact ,the stone cutting and processing should characterized by following objectives, targets and actions: the reduction of waste generated, the decreasing of use of critical raw material, the zero landfilling of sludge and decreasing in potential soil contamination, the prevention of transport of dangerous waste, the reduction of energy consumption, the zero impact on air pollution and the cost reduction . There are many industrial sector in which residual sludge have high concentrations of metals and/or elements deemed harmful and therefore hazardous waste. An important goal, for all industrial sectors, is an increase in productivity and a parallel reduction in costs. The research leads to the development of solutions with an always reduced environmental impact. The possibility to decrease the amount of required raw materials and at the same time the reduction in the amount of waste has become the aim for any industrial reality. From literature there are different approaches for the recovery of raw and secondary materials, and are often used for the purpose chemical products that separate the elements constituting the mud but at the same time make additional pollutants. The aim of the study is to find solutions that are environmentally sustainable for both industries and citizens. The present study is focused on three different Piedmont rocks: Luserna, Diorite from Traversella and Diorite from Vico, processed with three different stone machining technologies: cutting with diamond wire in quarry (blocks), in sawmill (slabs) and surface polishing. The steps are: chemical analysis, particle size analysis and mineralogical composition and characterization of the sludge obtained from the various machining operations for the recovery of the metal material by

  10. Tritium recovery and separation from CTR plasma exhausts and secondary containment atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experimental successes have generated increased interest in the development of thermonuclear reactors as power sources for the future. This paper examines tritium containment problems posed by an operating CTR and sets forth some processing schemes currently being evaluated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. An appreciation of the CTR tritium management problem can best be realized by recalling that tritium production rates for various fission reactors range from 2 x 104 to 9 x 105 Ci/yr per 1000 MW(e). Present estimates of tritium production in a CTR blanket exceed 109 Ci/yr for the same level of power generation, and tritium process systems may handle 10 to 20 times that amount. Tritium's high permeability through most materials of construction at high temperatures makes secondary containment mandatory for most piping. Processing of these containment atmospheres will probably involve conversion of the tritium to a nonpermeating form (T2O) followed by trapping on conventional beds of desiccant material. In a similar fashion, all purge streams and process fluid vent gases will be subjected to tritium recovery prior to atmospheric release. Two tritium process systems will be required, one to recover tritium produced by breeding in the blanket and another to recover unburned tritium in the plasma exhaust. Plasma exhaust processing will be unconventional since the exhaust gas pressure will lie between 10-3 and 10-6 torr. Treatment of this gas stream will entail the removal of small quantities of protium and helium from a much larger deuterium-tritium mixture which will be recycled. (U.S.)

  11. Robotics, Stem Cells and Brain Computer Interfaces in Rehabilitation and Recovery from Stroke; Updates and Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boninger, Michael L; Wechsler, Lawrence R.; Stein, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the current state and latest advances in robotics, stem cells, and brain computer interfaces in rehabilitation and recovery for stroke. Design The authors of this summary recently reviewed this work as part of a national presentation. The paper represents the information included in each area. Results Each area has seen great advances and challenges as products move to market and experiments are ongoing. Conclusion Robotics, stem cells, and brain computer interfaces all have tremendous potential to reduce disability and lead to better outcomes for patients with stroke. Continued research and investment will be needed as the field moves forward. With this investment, the potential for recovery of function is likely substantial PMID:25313662

  12. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  13. Experimental Investigation of a Three-Bed Adsorption Refrigeration Chiller Employing an Advanced Mass Recovery Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi Akisawa; Yuki Ueda; Aep Saepul Uyun; Takahiko Miyazaki

    2009-01-01

    The performance of an advanced three-bed adsorption chiller with a mass recovery cycle has been experimentally investigated in the present study. The temperature and pressure of various components of the chiller were monitored to observe the dynamic behaviour of the chiller. The performances in terms of the coefficient of performance (COP) and specific cooling power (SCP) were compared with a conventional single stage. The results show that the proposed cycle produces COP and SCP values super...

  14. A comparative study of conventional and supercritical fluid extraction methods for the recovery of secondary metabolites from Syzygium campanulatum Korth#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Abdul Hakeem; Hamil, Mohammad Shahrul Ridzuan; Laghari, Madeeha; Rithwan, Fahim; Zhari, Salman; Saeed, Mohammed Ali Ahmed; Ismail, Zhari; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Syzygium campanulatum Korth is a plant, which is a rich source of secondary metabolites (especially flavanones, chalcone, and triterpenoids). In our present study, three conventional solvent extraction (CSE) techniques and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) techniques were performed to achieve a maximum recovery of two flavanones, chalcone, and two triterpenoids from S. campanulatum leaves. Furthermore, a Box-Behnken design was constructed for the SFE technique using pressure, temperature, and particle size as independent variables, and yields of crude extract, individual and total secondary metabolites as the dependent variables. In the CSE procedure, twenty extracts were produced using ten different solvents and three techniques (maceration, soxhletion, and reflux). An enriched extract of five secondary metabolites was collected using n-hexane:methanol (1:1) soxhletion. Using food-grade ethanol as a modifier, the SFE methods produced a higher recovery (25.5%‒84.9%) of selected secondary metabolites as compared to the CSE techniques (0.92%‒66.00%). PMID:27604860

  15. A comparative study of conventional and supercritical fluid extraction methods for the recovery of secondary metabolites from Syzygium campanulatum Korth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Abdul Hakeem; Hamil, Mohammad Shahrul Ridzuan; Laghari, Madeeha; Rithwan, Fahim; Zhari, Salman; Saeed, Mohammed Ali Ahmed; Ismail, Zhari; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

    2016-09-01

    Syzygium campanulatum Korth is a plant, which is a rich source of secondary metabolites (especially flavanones, chalcone, and triterpenoids). In our present study, three conventional solvent extraction (CSE) techniques and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) techniques were performed to achieve a maximum recovery of two flavanones, chalcone, and two triterpenoids from S. campanulatum leaves. Furthermore, a Box-Behnken design was constructed for the SFE technique using pressure, temperature, and particle size as independent variables, and yields of crude extract, individual and total secondary metabolites as the dependent variables. In the CSE procedure, twenty extracts were produced using ten different solvents and three techniques (maceration, soxhletion, and reflux). An enriched extract of five secondary metabolites was collected using n-hexane:methanol (1:1) soxhletion. Using food-grade ethanol as a modifier, the SFE methods produced a higher recovery (25.5%‒84.9%) of selected secondary metabolites as compared to the CSE techniques (0.92%‒66.00%). PMID:27604860

  16. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark B. Murphy

    2005-09-30

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico was a cost-shared field demonstration project in the U.S. Department of Energy Class III Program. A major goal of the Class III Program was to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques were used at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP) project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. The objective of the project was to demonstrate that a development program, which was based on advanced reservoir management methods, could significantly improve oil recovery at the NDP. Initial goals were (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to other oil and gas producers. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geological, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description was used as a risk reduction tool to identify 'sweet spots' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well stimulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir. An

  17. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Ren, W.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of the research is to provide databases and design criteria to assist in the selection of optimum alloys for construction of components needed to contain process streams in advanced heat recovery and hot-gas cleanup systems. Typical components include: steam line piping and superheater tubing for low emission boilers (600 to 700{degrees}C), heat exchanger tubing for advanced steam cycles and topping cycle systems (650 to 800{degrees}C), foil materials for recuperators, on advanced turbine systems (700 to 750{degrees}C), and tubesheets for barrier filters, liners for piping, cyclones, and blowback system tubing for hot-gas cleanup systems (850 to 1000{degrees}C). The materials being examined fall into several classes, depending on which of the advanced heat recovery concepts is of concern. These classes include martensitic steels for service to 650{degrees}C, lean stainless steels and modified 25Cr-30Ni steels for service to 700{degrees}C, modified 25Cr-20Ni steels for service to 900{degrees}C, and high Ni-Cr-Fe or Ni-Cr-Co-Fe alloys for service to 1000{degrees}C.

  18. Study on an advanced adsorption desalination cycle with evaporator–condenser heat recovery circuit

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the efficacy of a silica gel-water based advanced adsorption desalination (AD) cycle with internal heat recovery between the condenser and the evaporator. A mathematical model of the AD cycle was developed and the performance data were compared with the experimental results. The advanced AD cycle is able to produce the specific daily water production (SDWP) of 9.24 m3/tonne of silica gel per day at 70 °C hot water inlet temperature while the corresponding performance ratio (PR) is comparatively high at 0.77. It is found that the cycle can be operational at 50 °C hot water temperature with SDWP 4.3. The SDWP of the advanced cycle is almost twice that of the conventional AD cycle. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: (1) Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; (2) Fracture characterization; (3) reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and (4) CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field

  20. Advanced reservoir characterization for improved oil recovery in a New Mexico Delaware basin project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.D.; Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M. [Dave Martin and Associates, Inc., Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration site in the Department of Energy Class III program. The basic problem at the Nash Draw Pool is the low recovery typically observed in similar Delaware fields. By comparing a control area using standard infill drilling techniques to a pilot area developed using advanced reservoir characterization methods, the goal of the project is to demonstrate that advanced technology can significantly improve oil recovery. During the first year of the project, four new producing wells were drilled, serving as data acquisition wells. Vertical seismic profiles and a 3-D seismic survey were acquired to assist in interwell correlations and facies prediction. Limited surface access at the Nash Draw Pool, caused by proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes, limits development with conventional drilling. Combinations of vertical and horizontal wells combined with selective completions are being evaluated to optimize production performance. Based on the production response of similar Delaware fields, pressure maintenance is a likely requirement at the Nash Draw Pool. A detailed reservoir model of pilot area was developed, and enhanced recovery options, including waterflooding, lean gas, and carbon dioxide injection, are being evaluated.

  1. Seagrass burial by dredged sediments: benthic community alteration, secondary production loss, biotic index reaction and recovery possibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu Do, V; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Blanchet, Hugues; Lavesque, Nicolas

    2012-11-01

    In 2005, dredging activities in Arcachon Bay (France) led in burying 320,000 m(2) of Zostera noltii intertidal seagrass. Recovery by macrobenthos and seagrass was monitored. Six months after works, seagrass was absent and macrobenthos drastically different from surrounding vegetated stations. Rapidly and due to sediment dispersal, disposal area was divided into a sandflat with a specific benthic community which maintained its difference until the end of the survey (2010), and a mudflat where associated fauna became similar to those in adjacent seagrass. Macrobenthic community needs 3 years to recover while seagrass needs 5 years to recover in the station impacted by mud. The secondary production loss due to works was low. In this naturally carbon enriched system, univariate biotic indices did not perform well to detect seagrass destruction and recovery. Multivariate index MISS gave more relevant conclusions and a simplified version was tested with success, at this local scale.

  2. Recent advances in nutrient removal and recovery in biological and bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancharaiah, Y V; Venkata Mohan, S; Lens, P N L

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorous are key pollutants in wastewater to be removed and recovered for sustainable development. Traditionally, nitrogen removal is practiced through energy intensive biological nitrification and denitrification entailing a major cost in wastewater treatment. Recent innovations in nitrogen removal aim at reducing energy requirements and recovering ammonium nitrogen. Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) are promising for recovering ammonium nitrogen from nitrogen rich waste streams (urine, digester liquor, swine liquor, and landfill leachate) profitably. Phosphorus is removed from the wastewater in the form of polyphosphate granules by polyphosphate accumulating organisms. Alternatively, phosphorous is removed/recovered as Fe-P or struvite through chemical precipitation (iron or magnesium dosing). In this article, recent advances in nutrients removal from wastewater coupled to recovery are presented by applying a waste biorefinery concept. Potential capabilities of BES in recovering nitrogen and phosphorous are reviewed to spur future investigations towards development of nutrient recovery biotechnologies. PMID:27053446

  3. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary and Crystalline Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Mike S. [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Detwiler, Russell L. [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Lao, Kang [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Serajian, Vahid [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Elkhoury, Jean [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Diessl, Julia [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); White, Nicky [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada)

    2012-12-13

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. The primary objectives of this DOE research effort are to develop and document optimum design configurations and operating practices to produce geothermal power from hot permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations using advanced horizontal well recirculation systems. During Phase I of this research project Terralog Technologies USA and The University of California, Irvine (UCI), have completed preliminary investigations and documentation of advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. We have also identified significant geologic resources appropriate for application of such technology. The main challenge for such recirculation systems is to optimize both the design configuration and the operating practices for cost-effective geothermal energy recovery. These will be strongly influenced by sedimentary formation properties, including thickness and dip, temperature, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, permeability, and porosity; and by working fluid properties.

  4. Experimental Investigation of a Three-Bed Adsorption Refrigeration Chiller Employing an Advanced Mass Recovery Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Akisawa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The performance of an advanced three-bed adsorption chiller with a mass recovery cycle has been experimentally investigated in the present study. The temperature and pressure of various components of the chiller were monitored to observe the dynamic behaviour of the chiller. The performances in terms of the coefficient of performance (COP and specific cooling power (SCP were compared with a conventional single stage. The results show that the proposed cycle produces COP and SCP values superior to those of the conventional single stage cycle for heat source temperature below 75 °C.

  5. Advanced conceptual design report: T Plant secondary containment and leak detection upgrades. Project W-259

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hookfin, J.D.

    1995-05-12

    The T Plant facilities in the 200-West Area of the Hanford site were constructed in the early 1940s to produce nuclear materials in support of national defense activities. T Plant includes the 271-T facility, the 221-T facility, and several support facilities (eg, 2706-T), utilities, and tanks/piping systems. T Plant has been recommended as the primary interim decontamination facility for the Hanford site. Project W-259 will provide capital upgrades to the T Plant facilities to comply with Federal and State of Washington environmental regulations for secondary containment and leak detection. This document provides an advanced conceptual design concept that complies with functional requirements for the T Plant Secondary Containment and Leak Detection upgrades.

  6. Advanced conceptual design report: T Plant secondary containment and leak detection upgrades. Project W-259

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The T Plant facilities in the 200-West Area of the Hanford site were constructed in the early 1940s to produce nuclear materials in support of national defense activities. T Plant includes the 271-T facility, the 221-T facility, and several support facilities (eg, 2706-T), utilities, and tanks/piping systems. T Plant has been recommended as the primary interim decontamination facility for the Hanford site. Project W-259 will provide capital upgrades to the T Plant facilities to comply with Federal and State of Washington environmental regulations for secondary containment and leak detection. This document provides an advanced conceptual design concept that complies with functional requirements for the T Plant Secondary Containment and Leak Detection upgrades

  7. Reuse and recycling of secondary effluents in refineries employing advanced multi-barrier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnsteiner, J; Mittal, R

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the reclamation and reuse of municipal secondary effluents, as well as the reclamation and recycling of refinery secondary effluents, are technically and economically evaluated. It is shown that both practices are feasible and sustainable, and that the reclamation costs depend largely on specific circumstances such as legal requirements, price policy, reuse application, raw water composition, etc. The reclaimed water is reused, or respectively recycled, as boiler make-up. Therefore both reclamation plants employ advanced multi-barrier systems including ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis. The employed processes have shown excellent performance with regard to the removal of critical parameters such as silica. For example, this parameter was reduced from 13 mg/l in the raw water to 7 μg/l in the boiler make-up.

  8. To Fly or Not to Fly: Teaching Advanced Secondary School Students about Principles of Flight in Biological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Renée B.; Bohland, Cynthia L.; Schmale, David G., III.

    2015-01-01

    Biological flight mechanics is typically taught in graduate level college classes rather than in secondary school classes. We developed an interdisciplinary unit for advanced upper-level secondary school students (ages 15-18) to teach the principles of flight and applications to biological systems. This unit capitalised on the tremendous…

  9. Swift BAT Thermal Recovery After Loop Heat Pipe #0 Secondary Heater Controller Failure in October 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    The Swift BAT LHP #0 primary heater controller failed on March 31, 2010. It has been disabled. On October 31, 2015, the secondary heater controller of this LHP failed. On November 1, 2015, the LHP #0 CC temperature increased to as 18.6 C, despite that the secondary heater controller set point was 8.8 C. It caused the average DM XA1 temperature to increase to 25.9 C, which was 5 C warmer than nominal. As a result, the detectors became noisy. To solve this problem, the LHP #1 secondary heater controller set point was decreased in 0.5 C decrements to 2.2 C. The set-point decrease restored the average DM XA1 temperature to a nominal value of 19.7 C on November 21.

  10. Recent advances in genome mining of secondary metabolites in Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clay Chia Chun Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi are rich resources of secondary metabolites (SMs with a variety of interesting biological activities. Recent advances in genome sequencing and techniques in genetic manipulation have enabled researchers to study the biosynthetic genes of these SMs. Aspergillus terreus is the well-known producer of lovastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug. This fungus also produces other SMs, including acetylaranotin, butyrolactones and territram, with interesting bioactivities. This review will cover recent progress in genome mining of SMs identified in this fungus. The identification and characterization of the gene cluster for these SMs, as well as the proposed biosynthetic pathways, will be discussed in depth.

  11. The advancing timberline on Mt. Fuji: natural recovery or climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakio, Hitoshi; Masuzawa, Takehiro

    2012-07-01

    The alpine timberline on Mt. Fuji (central Japan) is at 2,400-2,500 m above sea level. Over a 21-year period (1978-1999), we tracked changes in this vegetation boundary on a transect at a site impacted by the 1707 volcanic eruption. The timberline advanced rapidly upwards during this time period. Dominant tree species at the timberline (Alnus maximowiczii, Salix reinii, and Larix kaempferi) colonized sites that were initially largely free of vegetation at higher altitudes. Seedlings of L. kaempferi were particularly abundant at the border of advancing vegetation. According to tree age, we found that this was the first canopy species in the colonized areas. L. kaempferi is drought resistant, and this probably contributes to its establishment capability in the high-altitude climate. Most seedlings of Abies veitchii invaded patches of herbs and shrubs. These vegetation patches in the upper kampfzone provide important shelter for seedlings of invading tree species. We predict that the upward advance of the alpine timberline is a recovery process following the volcanic eruption, and that climate change may accelerate this advance.

  12. ADVANCED OIL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVED RECOVERY FROM SLOPE BASIN CLASTIC RESERVOIRS, NASH DRAW BRUSHY CANYON POOL, EDDY COUNTY, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark B. Murphy

    2001-10-31

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool (NDP) in southeast New Mexico is one of the nine projects selected in 1995 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for participation in the Class III Reservoir Field Demonstration Program. The goals of the DOE cost-shared Class Program are to: (1) extend economic production, (2) increase ultimate recovery, and (3) broaden information exchange and technology application. Reservoirs in the Class III Program are focused on slope basin and deep-basin clastic depositional types. Production at the NDP is from the Brushy Canyon formation, a low-permeability turbidite reservoir in the Delaware Mountain Group of Permian, Guadalupian age. A major challenge in this marginal-quality reservoir is to distinguish oil-productive pay intervals from water-saturated non-pay intervals. Because initial reservoir pressure is only slightly above bubble-point pressure, rapid oil decline rates and high gas/oil ratios are typically observed in the first year of primary production. Limited surface access, caused by the proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes, prohibits development with conventional drilling. Reservoir characterization results obtained to date at the NDP show that a proposed pilot injection area appears to be compartmentalized. Because reservoir discontinuities will reduce effectiveness of a pressure maintenance project, the pilot area will be reconsidered in a more continuous part of the reservoir if such areas have sufficient reservoir pressure. Most importantly, the advanced characterization results are being used to design extended reach/horizontal wells to tap into predicted ''sweet spots'' that are inaccessible with conventional vertical wells. The activity at the NDP during the past year has included the completion of the NDP Well No.36 deviated/horizontal well and the completion of additional zones in three wells, the design of the NDP No.33 directional/horizontal well, The planning and

  13. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration - Heat Recovery Systems. Annex 26. Final report. Volume 2. Country reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    Annex 26 has produced three deliverables: (1) Workshop (October 2000) proceedings Stockholm, Sweden, on CD-ROM (HPP-AN26-1); (2) Final report, Volume 1, Executive Summary, as report (HPP-AN26-2); and (3) Final report, Volume 2, Country reports (described in this record). Each of these reports, available from the HPC, provide valuable information for practitioners (designers, installers) and manufacturers of supermarket refrigeration systems. Annex 26 is the first international project under the IEA Heat Pump Programme that links refrigeration and heat pump technology. Recovering heat from advanced supermarket refrigeration systems for space and water heating purposes seems obvious and is beneficial for owners and operators. Because there are world-wide a great number of supermarkets that offer frozen and chilled food and further growth of this sector may be expected, the amount of energy used for refrigeration is enormous and will likely increase substantially in the near future. Annex 26 analysed several advanced supermarket refrigeration systems and came to remarkable conclusions as far as energy conservation and TEWI reduction is concerned. The conclusions justify that advanced supermarket systems with heat recovery should receive great attention and support. And there is still further research needed in several areas. The Annex also included a thorough system cost analyses and proposals for cost reductions are given.

  14. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration - Heat Recovery Systems. Annex 26. Final report. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. (ed.) [Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Annex 26 has produced three deliverables: (1) Workshop (October 2000) proceedings Stockholm, Sweden, on CD-ROM (HPP-AN26-1); (2) Final report, described in this record; and (3) Final report, Volume 2, Country reports, on CD-ROM (HPP-AN26-3). Each of these reports, available from the HPC, provide valuable information for practitioners (designers, installers) and manufacturers of supermarket refrigeration systems. Annex 26 is the first international project under the IEA Heat Pump Programme that links refrigeration and heat pump technology. Recovering heat from advanced supermarket refrigeration systems for space and water heating purposes seems obvious and is beneficial for owners and operators. Because there are world-wide a great number of supermarkets that offer frozen and chilled food and further growth of this sector may be expected, the amount of energy used for refrigeration is enormous and will likely increase substantially in the near future. Annex 26 analysed several advanced supermarket refrigeration systems and came to remarkable conclusions as far as energy conservation and TEWI reduction is concerned. The conclusions justify that advanced supermarket systems with heat recovery should receive great attention and support. And there is still further research needed in several areas. The Annex also included a thorough system cost analyses and proposals for cost reductions are given.

  15. An empirical study on the human error recovery failure probability when using soft controls in NPP advanced MCRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Many researchers have tried to understand human recovery process or step. • Modeling human recovery process is not sufficient to be applied to HRA. • The operation environment of MCRs in NPPs has changed by adopting new HSIs. • Recovery failure probability in a soft control operation environment is investigated. • Recovery failure probability here would be important evidence for expert judgment. - Abstract: It is well known that probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) today consider not just hardware failures and environmental events that can impact upon risk, but also human error contributions. Consequently, the focus on reliability and performance management has been on the prevention of human errors and failures rather than the recovery of human errors. However, the recovery of human errors is as important as the prevention of human errors and failures for the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). For this reason, many researchers have tried to find a human recovery process or step. However, modeling the human recovery process is not sufficient enough to be applied to human reliability analysis (HRA), which requires human error and recovery probabilities. In this study, therefore, human error recovery failure probabilities based on predefined human error modes were investigated by conducting experiments in the operation mockup of advanced/digital main control rooms (MCRs) in NPPs. To this end, 48 subjects majoring in nuclear engineering participated in the experiments. In the experiments, using the developed accident scenario based on tasks from the standard post trip action (SPTA), the steam generator tube rupture (SGTR), and predominant soft control tasks, which are derived from the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and the excess steam demand event (ESDE), all error detection and recovery data based on human error modes were checked with the performance sheet and the statistical analysis of error recovery/detection was then

  16. Direct Energy Recovery from Primary and Secondary Sludges by Supercritical Water Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svanstroem, Magdalena; Modell, Michael; Tester, Jefferson

    2003-07-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) oxidizes organic and biological materials virtually completely to benign products without the need for stack gas scrubbing. Heavy metals are recovered as stabilized solid, along with the sand and clay that is present in the feed. The technology has been under development for twenty years. The major obstacle to commercialization has been developing reactors that are not clogged by inorganic solid deposits. That problem has been solved by using tubular reactors with fluid velocities that are high enough to keep solids in suspension. Recently, system designs have been created that reduce the cost of processing sewage sludges below that of incineration. At 10 wt-% dry solids, sludge can be oxidized with virtually complete recovery of the sludge heating value as hot water or high-pressure steam. Liquid carbon dioxide of high purity can be recovered from the gaseous effluent and excess oxygen can be recovered for recycle. The net effect is to reduce the stack to a harmless vent with minimal flow rate of a clean gas. Complete simulations have been developed using physical property models that accurately simulate the thermodynamic properties of sub- and supercritical water in mixtures with O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}. and organics. Capital and operating cost estimates are given for sewage sludge treatment, which are less costly than incineration. The scenario of direct recovery of energy from sludges has inherent benefits compared to other gasification or liquefaction options. (author)

  17. Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexin Wang

    2011-12-19

    The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer

  18. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot-gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Materials properties were collected for the design and construction of structural components for use in advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems. Alloys systems included 9Cr-1Mo-V steel, modified 316 stainless steel, modified type 310 stainless steel, modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel, and modified alloy 800. Experimental work was undertaken to expand the databases for potentially useful alloys. Types of testing included creep, stress-rupture, creep-crack growth, fatigue, and post-exposure short-time tensile tests. Because of the interest in relatively inexpensive alloys for service at 700 C and higher, research emphasis was placed on a modified type 310 stainless steel and a modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel. Both steels were found to have useful strength to 925 C with good weldability and ductility.

  19. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Ren, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Alloys for design and construction of structural components needed to contain process streams and provide internal structures in advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems were examined. Emphasis was placed on high-strength, corrosion-resistant alloys for service at temperatures above 1000 {degrees}F (540{degrees}C). Data were collected that related to fabrication, joining, corrosion protection, and failure criteria. Alloys systems include modified type 310 and 20Cr-25Ni-Nb steels and sulfidation-resistance alloys HR120 and HR160. Types of testing include creep, stress-rupture, creep crack growth, fatigue, and post-exposure short-time tensile. Because of the interest in relatively inexpensive alloys for high temperature service, a modified type 310 stainless steel was developed with a target strength of twice that for standard type 310 stainless steel.

  20. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Ren, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Materials properties were collected for the design and construction of structural components for use in advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems. Alloys systems included 9Cr-1Mo-V steel, modified 316 stainless steel, modified type 310 stainless steel, modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel, modified alloy 800, and two sulfidation resistant alloys: HR160 and HR120. Experimental work was undertaken to expand the databases for potentially useful alloys. Types of testing included creep, stress-rupture, creep-crack growth, fatigue, and post-exposure short-time tensile tests. Because of the interest in relatively inexpensive alloys for service at 700{degrees}C and higher, research emphasis was placed on a modified type 310 stainless steel and a modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel. Both steels were found to have useful strength to 925{degrees}C with good weldability and ductility.

  1. Advanced echocardiography in adult zebrafish reveals delayed recovery of heart function after myocardial cryoinjury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina J Hein

    Full Text Available Translucent zebrafish larvae represent an established model to analyze genetics of cardiac development and human cardiac disease. More recently adult zebrafish are utilized to evaluate mechanisms of cardiac regeneration and by benefiting from recent genome editing technologies, including TALEN and CRISPR, adult zebrafish are emerging as a valuable in vivo model to evaluate novel disease genes and specifically validate disease causing mutations and their underlying pathomechanisms. However, methods to sensitively and non-invasively assess cardiac morphology and performance in adult zebrafish are still limited. We here present a standardized examination protocol to broadly assess cardiac performance in adult zebrafish by advancing conventional echocardiography with modern speckle-tracking analyses. This allows accurate detection of changes in cardiac performance and further enables highly sensitive assessment of regional myocardial motion and deformation in high spatio-temporal resolution. Combining conventional echocardiography measurements with radial and longitudinal velocity, displacement, strain, strain rate and myocardial wall delay rates after myocardial cryoinjury permitted to non-invasively determine injury dimensions and to longitudinally follow functional recovery during cardiac regeneration. We show that functional recovery of cryoinjured hearts occurs in three distinct phases. Importantly, the regeneration process after cryoinjury extends far beyond the proposed 45 days described for ventricular resection with reconstitution of myocardial performance up to 180 days post-injury (dpi. The imaging modalities evaluated here allow sensitive cardiac phenotyping and contribute to further establish adult zebrafish as valuable cardiac disease model beyond the larval developmental stage.

  2. Advanced secondary recovery demonstration for the Sooner Unit. Annual report, October 1992--May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippel, M.; Junkin, J.; Pritchett, R. [and others

    1995-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to demonstrate the effectiveness of a multi-diciplinary approach to targeted infill drilling and improved reservoir management. The first phase involves geophysical, geological, and engineering data acquisition and analysis to identify optimum well sites and to develop a reservoir operations plan. This report summarizes activities concerned with phase I of the Sooner Unit Project.

  3. Rapid recovery from catastrophic paraneoplastic anti-NMDAR encephalitis secondary to an ovarian teratoma following ovarian cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantipalakorn, Charuwan; Soontornpun, Atiwat; Pongsuvareeyakul, Tip; Tongsong, Theera

    2016-01-01

    This report is aimed to describe a life-threatening case of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis secondary to ovarian teratoma with rapid recovery in 1 day after the removal of the tumour. A 23-year-old woman presented with sudden headache, personality changes and seizure. After neurological assessment, limbic or herpes encephalitis was provisionally diagnosed and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin, acyclovir and steroids. The patient had progressive severe neurological symptoms, requiring prolonged intubation and mechanical ventilation. An anti-NMDAR antibody test revealed positive in serum and cerebrospinal fluid at 3 weeks of admission. Pelvic ultrasound examination and CT scan revealed bilateral small ovarian teratomas. Bilateral ovarian cystectomy was performed by open surgery. The patient showed rapid improvement and no longer needed intubation 2 days after the operation. In conclusion, we described a catastrophic case of ovarian teratoma-associated encephalitis with delayed diagnosis but rapid recovery after ovarian cystectomy. This information can probably be helpful to neurologists and gynaecologists. PMID:27511754

  4. Development of Advanced Nuclide Separation and Recovery Methods using Ion-Exchanhge Techniques in Nuclear Backend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hitoshi

    The development of compact separation and recovery methods using selective ion-exchange techniques is very important for the reprocessing and high-level liquid wastes (HLLWs) treatment in the nuclear backend field. The selective nuclide separation techniques are effective for the volume reduction of wastes and the utilization of valuable nuclides, and expected for the construction of advanced nuclear fuel cycle system and the rationalization of waste treatment. In order to accomplish the selective nuclide separation, the design and synthesis of novel adsorbents are essential for the development of compact and precise separation processes. The present paper deals with the preparation of highly functional and selective hybrid microcapsules enclosing nano-adsorbents in the alginate gel polymer matrices by sol-gel methods, their characterization and the clarification of selective adsorption properties by batch and column methods. The selective separation of Cs, Pd and Re in real HLLW was further accomplished by using novel microcapsules, and an advanced nuclide separation system was proposed by the combination of selective processes using microcapsules.

  5. Resource recovery potential from secondary components of segregated municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanakya, H N; Ramachandra, T V; Vijayachamundeeswari, M

    2007-12-01

    Fermentable components of municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW), leaf litter, paddy straw, cane bagasse, cane trash and paper are generated in large quantities at various pockets of the city. These form potential feedstocks for decentralized biogas plants to be operated in the vicinity. We characterized the fermentation potential of six of the above MSW fractions for their suitability to be converted to biogas and anaerobic compost using the solid-state stratified bed (SSB) process in a laboratory study. FVW and leaf litter (paper mulberry leaves) decomposed almost completely while paddy straw, sugarcane trash, sugarcane bagasse and photocopying paper decomposed to a lower extent. In the SSB process between 50-60% of the biological methane potential (BMP) could be realized. Observations revealed that the SSB process needs to be adapted differently for each of the feedstocks to obtain a higher gas recovery. Bagasse produced the largest fraction of anaerobic compost (fermentation residue) and has the potential for reuse in many ways. PMID:17503209

  6. The Advanced Exploration Systems Water Recovery Project: Innovation on 2 Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam M.; Neumeyer, Derek; Shull, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    As NASA looks forward to sending humans farther away from Earth, we will have to develop a transportation architecture that is highly reliable and that can sustain life for long durations without the benefit of Earth s proximity for continuous resupply or even operational guidance. NASA has consistently been challenged with performing great feats of innovation, but particularly in this time of economic stress, we are challenged to go farther with less. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) projects were implemented to address both of these needs by not only developing innovative technologies, but by incorporating innovative management styles and processes that foster the needed technical innovation given a small amount of resources. This presentation explains how the AES Water Recovery Project is exhibiting innovation on both fronts; technical and process. The AES Water Recovery Project (WRP) is actively engineering innovative technologies in order to maximize the efficiency of water recovery. The development of reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support (ECLS) is critical to enable long-duration human missions outside of low-Earth orbit. Recycling of life support consumables is necessary to reduce resupply mass and provide for vehicle autonomy. To address this, the WRP is working on a rotary distiller that has shown enhanced performance over the state-of-the-art (SOA). Additionally, the WRP is looking at innovative ways to address issues present in the state-of-the-art (SOA) systems pertaining to toxicity and calcium scale buildup. As an AES project, the WRP has a more streamlined Skunk Works like approach to technology development intended to reduce overhead but achieve a more refined end product. The project has incorporated key partnerships between NASA centers as well as between NASA and industry. A minimal project management style has been implemented such that risks are managed and

  7. The development of leadership outcome-indicators evaluating the contribution of clinical specialists and advanced practitioners to health care: a secondary analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Elliott, Naomi

    2014-05-01

    To report a secondary analysis of data collected from the case study phase of a national study of advanced practitioners and to develop leadership outcome-indicators appropriate for advanced practitioners.

  8. Secondary Heat Exchanger Design and Comparison for Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Ali Siahpush; Michael McKellar; Michael Patterson; Eung Soo Kim

    2012-06-01

    The goals of next generation nuclear reactors, such as the high temperature gas-cooled reactor and advance high temperature reactor (AHTR), are to increase energy efficiency in the production of electricity and provide high temperature heat for industrial processes. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and the industrial process heat transport system. The need for efficiency, compactness, and safety challenge the boundaries of existing heat exchanger technology, giving rise to the following study. Various studies have been performed in attempts to update the secondary heat exchanger that is downstream of the primary heat exchanger, mostly because its performance is strongly tied to the ability to employ more efficient conversion cycles, such as the Rankine super critical and subcritical cycles. This study considers two different types of heat exchangers—helical coiled heat exchanger and printed circuit heat exchanger—as possible options for the AHTR secondary heat exchangers with the following three different options: (1) A single heat exchanger transfers all the heat (3,400 MW(t)) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants; (2) Two heat exchangers share heat to transfer total heat of 3,400 MW(t) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants, each exchanger transfers 1,700 MW(t) with a parallel configuration; and (3) Three heat exchangers share heat to transfer total heat of 3,400 MW(t) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants. Each heat exchanger transfers 1,130 MW(t) with a parallel configuration. A preliminary cost comparison will be provided for all different cases along with challenges and recommendations.

  9. Strategic Alliance to Advanced Technological Education through Enhanced Mathematics, Science, Technology, and English Education at the Secondary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Jule Dee

    2004-01-01

    This document (book) reports on the Strategic Alliance to Advance Technological Education through Enhanced Mathematics, Science, Technology, and English Education at the Secondary Level, funded by National Science Foundation. It was a collaborative partnership involving the Rockford Public Schools, Rock Valley College, and Northern Illinois…

  10. Advances in computational modeling of catalytic systems used in Claus sulfur recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, P.D.; Lo, J. [Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Center for Applied Catalysis and Industrial Sulfur Chemistry

    2010-01-15

    This poster session discussed advances in computation modeling of catalytic systems used in Claus sulfur recovery, focusing on the hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) and sulphur dioxide (S{sub O}2) absorption of non-alumina Claus active metal oxides, such as titanium oxide and vanadium oxide. These metal oxides were chosen because they promote carbon disulphide (CS{sub 2}) conversion and have a potential use in olefin chemistry. The redox process of H{sub 2}S dissociation on vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 2}) can take place in single-site reaction or multiple site reactions. Both mechanisms lead to the production of V{sub 2}O{sub 4}S, water (H{sub 2}O) and other species. The overall process of forming VO{sub 4}S is neutral, but kinetics is a controlling factor. The surface sulfidation to form V{sub 2}O{sub 3}S{sub 2} requires a small energy cost but possesses a huge reaction barrier. The formation of H{sub 2}S{sub 2} is energetically favorable. The silica (SiO{sub 2})-supported V{sub 2}O{sub 2} catalyst was described. A proposed mechanism of H{sub 2}S conversion to H{sub 2}O and V=S group was presented along with another reaction route in which the dissociative absorption of H{sub 2}S takes place on O-bridges instead of V=O. Two vanadia catalysts were compared: V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}. 7 figs.

  11. Advances in uranium ore processing and recovery from non-conventional resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main topics covered by the technical sessions were: in situ and heap leaching, improvements in conventional acid and alkaline uranium ore processing, recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid and recovery of uranium from coal and from natural waters. The technical sessions concluded with three panel discussions dealing with pre-concentration and benefication, in situ and heap leaching, and recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid. The present volume includes 18 of the 27 presented papers. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  12. Advancement of education and training with secondary system visual display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NTC makes effort to improve and complete knowledge and understanding of various nuclear plants condition and dynamics for operator. It is important to understand the behavior of secondary system of nuclear plant. Therefore, we have developed a secondary system visual display system. We would introduce this training system and a part of training materials. (author)

  13. Technology Development Roadmap for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor Secondary Heat Exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; M. McCllar; A. Siahpush; D. Clark; M. Patterson; J. Collins

    2012-09-01

    This Technology Development Roadmap (TDRM) presents the path forward for deploying large-scale molten salt secondary heat exchangers (MS-SHX) and recognizing the benefits of using molten salt as the heat transport medium for advanced high temperature reactors (AHTR). This TDRM will aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for: power production (the first anticipated process heat application), hydrogen production, steam methane reforming, methanol to gasoline production, or ammonia production. This TDRM (a) establishes the current state of molten salt SHX technology readiness, (b) defines a path forward that systematically and effectively tests this technology to overcome areas of uncertainty, (c) demonstrates the achievement of an appropriate level of maturity prior to construction and plant operation, and (d) identifies issues and prioritizes future work for maturing the state of SHX technology. This study discusses the results of a preliminary design analysis of the SHX and explains the evaluation and selection methodology. An important engineering challenge will be to prevent the molten salt from freezing during normal and off-normal operations because of its high melting temperature (390°C for KF ZrF4). The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The need for efficiency, compactness, and safety challenge the capabilities of existing heat exchanger technology. The description of potential heat exchanger configurations or designs (such as printed circuit, spiral or helical coiled, ceramic, plate and fin, and plate type) were covered in an earlier report (Sabharwall et al. 2011). Significant future work, much of which is suggested in this report, is needed before the benefits and full potential of the AHTR can be realized. The execution of this TDRM will focuses

  14. Locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Chemoradiotherapy, reevaluation and secondary resection; Adenocarcinomes pancreatiques localement evolues. Chimioradiotherapie, reevaluation et resection secondaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpero, J.R.; Turrini, O. [Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Dept. de chirurgie, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2006-11-15

    Induction chemoradiotherapy (CRT) may down-stage locally advanced pancreatic tumors but secondary resections are unfrequent. However some responders' patients may benefit of a RO resection. Patients and methods. We report 18 resections among 29 locally advanced pancreatic cancers; 15 patients were treated with neo-adjuvant 5-FU-cisplatin based (13) or taxotere based (2 patients) chemoradiotherapy (45 Gy), and 3 patients without histologically proven adenocarcinoma were resected without any preoperative treatment. Results. The morbidity rate was 28% and the mortality rate was 7%; one patient died after resection (5.5%) and one died after exploration (9%). The RO resection rate was 50%. The median survival for the resected patients was not reached and the actuarial survival at 3 years was 59%. Two specimens showed no residual tumor and the two patients were alive at 15 and 46 months without recurrence; one specimen showed less than 10% viable tumoral cells and the patient was alive at 36 months without recurrence. A mesenteric infarction was the cause of a late death at 3 years in a disease free patient (radiation induced injury of the superior mesenteric artery). The median survival of the 11 non-resected patients was 21 months and the actuarial survival at 2 years was 0%. When the number of the resected patients (18) was reported to the entire cohort of the patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer treated during the same period in our institution, the secondary resectability rate was 9%. Conclusion. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy identifies poor surgical candidates through observation and may enhance the margin status of patients undergoing secondary resection for locally advanced tumors. However it remains difficult to evaluate the results in the literature because of the variations in the definitions of resectability. The best therapeutic strategy remains to be defined, because the majority of patients ultimately succumb with distant metastatic

  15. Air Evaporation closed cycle water recovery technology - Advanced energy saving designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasko, Gwyndolyn; Putnam, David F.; Bagdigian, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Air Evaporation water recovery system is a visible candidate for Space Station application. A four-man Air Evaporation open cycle system has been successfully demonstrated for waste water recovery in manned chamber tests. The design improvements described in this paper greatly enhance the system operation and energy efficiency of the air evaporation process. A state-of-the-art wick feed design which results in reduced logistics requirements is presented. In addition, several design concepts that incorporate regenerative features to minimize the energy input to the system are discussed. These include a recuperative heat exchanger, a heat pump for energy transfer to the air heater, and solar collectors for evaporative heat. The addition of the energy recovery devices will result in an energy reduction of more than 80 percent over the systems used in earlier manned chamber tests.

  16. Optimization of Surfactant Mixtures and Their Interfacial Behavior for Advanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, Prof. P.

    2001-02-27

    The goal of this report is to develop improved extraction processes to mobilize and produce the oil left untapped using conventional techniques. Current chemical schemes for recovering the residual oil have been in general less than satisfactory. High cost of the processes as well as significant loss of chemicals by adsorption on reservoir materials and precipitation has limited the utility of chemical-flooding operations. There is a need to develop cost-effective, improved reagent schemes to increase recovery from domestic oil reservoirs. The goal of the report was to develop and evaluate novel mixtures of surfactants for improved oil recovery.

  17. Design and modeling of an advanced marine machinery system including waste heat recovery and removal of sulphur oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    consists of a two-stroke diesel engine, the wet sulphuric process for sulphur removal and an advanced waste heat recovery system including a conventional steam Rankine cycle and an organic Rankine cycle. The results are compared with those of a state-of-the-art machinery system featuring a two.......9% and the combined cycle thermal efficiency by 2.6%. The findings indicates that the technology has an energetic and environmental potential in marine applications, while still further research and development need to be done before it can be put into operation on ships....

  18. DOES URINARY DIVERSION IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF LIFE IN OBSTRUCTIVE UROPATHY SECONDARY TO ADVANCED PELVIC MALIGNANCY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivashankarappa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The incidence of patients presenting with advanced pelvic malignancy with obstructive uropathy is high in our country. Relentless progress of the malignancy will cause deterioration of renal function, aggravation of pain, infection, deterioration of Quality of Life (QOL, uremia and death. Decreased renal function is considered as a contraindication for palliative chemo and radiotherapy. However urinary diversion in these patients will lead to improvement in renal function and may help in administration of palliative therapy and thus, improve the quality of life of these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study includes the obstructive uropathy patients secondary to pelvic malignancy referred to our institution for urinary diversion between Jan 2010 to Dec 2014. Total 40 patients were included, of which, 25 patients underwent PCN, 9 patients retrograde DJ stenting, 4 patients refused the treatment, 2 patients were not fit for any intervention due to coagulopathy & comorbid conditions. Of 34 treated patients, 30 were female patients and 4 were male patients. All the patients were explained about the procedure and proper consent taken. Laboratory investigations like CBC, coagulation profile, LFT, routine urine analysis, urine C&S and serum electrolytes were carried out. Haemodialysis was done for 10 patients whose serum creatinine was >6mg% & potassium >6meq. USG guided PCN insertion was done in 8 patients, and in those who failed in this procedure, fluoroscopic C-ARM guided PCN insertion done in 17 patients. Post operatively RFT and serum electrolytes were assessed on 3, 7, 15, & 30th day. PCN catheter was changed once in 3 months. RESULTS 8 patients succeeded in USG guided PCN insertion and 17 patients who failed USG PCN insertion, was done under C–Arm guidance. 3 patients received blood transfusion. No deaths were seen during or post procedure in the hospital. Renal functions improved and normalised in most of the

  19. Advancements in Spacecraft Brine Water Recovery: Development of a Radial Vaned Capillary Drying Tray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Pickerin, Karen D.; Weislogel, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Technology improvements in the recovery of water from brine are critical to establishing closedloop water recovery systems, enabling long duration missions, and achieving a sustained human presence in space. A genre of 'in-place drying' brine water recovery concepts, collectively referred to herein as Brine Residual In-Containment (BRIC), are under development which aim to increase the overall robustness and reliability of the brine recovery process by performing drying inside the container used for final disposal of the solid residual waste. Implementation of in-place drying techniques have been demonstrated for applications where gravity is present and phase separation occurs naturally by buoyancy induced effects. In this work, a microgravity compatible analogue of the gravity-driven phase separation process is considered by exploiting capillarity in the form of surface wetting, surface tension, and container geometry. The proposed design consists of a series of planar radial vanes aligned about a central slotted core. Preliminary testing of the fundamental geometry in a reduced gravity environment has shown the device to spontaneously fill and saturate rapidly creating a free surface from which evaporation and phase separation can occur similar to a 1-g like 'cylindrical pool' of fluid. Mathematical modeling and analysis of the design suggest predictable rates of filling and stability of fluid containment as a function of relevant system dimensions, e.g., number of vanes, vane length, width, and thickness. A description of the proposed capillary design solution is presented along with preliminary results from testing, modeling and analysis of the system.

  20. Advances in Spacecraft Brine Water Recovery: Development of a Radial Vaned Capillary Drying Tray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Pickering, Karen D.; Weislogel, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    Technology improvements in the recovery of water from brine are critical to establishing closed-loop water recovery systems, enabling long-duration missions, and achieving a sustained human presence in space. A genre of 'in-place drying' brine water recovery concepts, collectively referred to herein as Brine Residual In-Containment, are under development. These brine water recovery concepts aim to increase the overall robustness and reliability of the brine recovery process by performing drying inside the container used for final disposal of the solid residual waste. Implementation of in-place drying techniques have been demonstrated for applications where gravity is present and phase separation occurs naturally by buoyancy-induced effects. In this work, a microgravity-compatible analogue of the gravity-driven phase separation process is considered by exploiting capillarity in the form of surface wetting, surface tension, and container geometry. The proposed design consists of a series of planar radial vanes aligned about a central slotted core. Preliminary testing of the fundamental geometry in a reduced gravity environment has shown the device to spontaneously fill and saturate rapidly, thereby creating a free surface from which evaporation and phase separation can occur similar to a terrestrial-like 'cylindrical pool' of fluid. Mathematical modeling and analysis of the design suggest predictable rates of filling and stability of fluid containment as a function of relevant system dimensions; e.g., number of vanes, vane length, width, and thickness. A description of the proposed capillary design solution is presented along with preliminary results from testing, modeling, and analysis of the system.

  1. Advances in Homogeneous Catalysis Using Secondary Phosphine Oxides (SPOs): Pre-ligands for Metal Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achard, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The secondary phosphine oxides are known to exist in equilibrium between the pentavalent phosphine oxides (SPO) and the trivalent phosphinous acids (PA). This equilibrium can be displaced in favour of the trivalent tautomeric form upon coordination to late transition metals. This tutorial review provides the state of the art of the use of secondary phosphine oxides as pre-ligands in transition metal-catalysed reactions. Using a combination of SPOs and several metals such as Pd, Pt, Ru, Rh and Au, a series of effective and original transformations have been obtained and will be discussed here.

  2. Advanced Air Evaporation System with Reusable Wicks for Water Recovery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A microgravity-compatible Advanced Air Evaporation System (AAES) is proposed for recovering nearly 100% of water from highly contaminated wastewater without concern...

  3. Advance Organizers in Secondary Special Education Resource Classrooms: Effects on Student Engagement Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Student engagement and appropriate behaviors are essential for effective instruction in secondary special education classrooms. Research suggests that proactive engagement strategies and interventions can have a greater effect on overall classroom behaviors than negative consequences. A single case experiment measured the effects of…

  4. Recovery of iron after Fenton-like secondary treatment of olive mill wastewater by nano-filtration and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochando-Pulido, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performances of novel nano-filtration (NF and low-pressure reverse osmosis (RO polymeric membranes were examined with the aim of recovering the iron used as catalyst in former secondary treatment based on the Fenton-like advanced oxidation of olive mill wastewater (OMW. Results highlight that both membranes exhibit a good performance towards the rejection of iron (99.1% for the NF membrane vs. 100% for the low-pressure RO membrane in the secondary-treated OMW effluent, thus permitting the recovery of iron in the concentrate stream in order to recycle it back into the oxidation reactor to reduce catalyst consumption. Finally, the permeate streams could be re-used for irrigation. Major productivity was observed by the selected NF membrane, about 47.4 L/hm2 upon 9 bar, whereas 30.9 L/hm2 could be yielded with the RO membrane under an operating pressure of 8 bar. Moreover, a sensibly lower fouling index was measured on the NF membrane (0.0072 in contrast with 0.065, which ensures major steady-state performance on this membrane and a longer service lifetime. This also results in lower required membrane area and membrane plant over dimension (4 modules in case of RO operation whereas only 2 modules for NF.En este trabajo, se examinó el rendimiento de membranas modernas de nanofiltración (NF y ósmosis inversa (OI poliméricas con el objetivo de recuperar el hierro utilizado como catalizador en un tratamiento secundario previo de agua residual oleícola (OMW basado en oxidación avanzada tipo Fenton. Los resultados ponen de relieven que ambas membranas exhiben buen rendimiento en cuanto al rechazo de hierro (99.1 % para la membrana de NF vs. 100 % para la membrana de OI de bajas presiones en el efluente oleícola tras tratamiento secundario, permitiendo en consecuencia la recuperación de hierro en la corriente de concentrado para su recirculación de nuevo al reactor de oxidación para reducir el consumo de catalizador. Finalmente

  5. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improve Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool,Eddy County,NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.B.

    1997-10-31

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico is a field demonstration in the U. S. Department of Energy Class IH Program. Advanced reservoir characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geological, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir description was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. As a result of the analysis, a proposed pilot area was reconsidered. Comparison of seismic data and engineering data have shown evidence of discontinuities in the area surrounding the proposed injector. Analysis of the 3-D seismic has shown that wells in the proposed pilot are in an area of poor quality amplitude development. The implication is that since amplitude attenuation is a function of porosity, then this is not the best area to be attempting a pilot pressure maintenance project. Because the original pilot area appears to be compartmentalized, the lateral continuity between the pilot wells could be reduced. The 3-D seismic interpretation indicates other areas may be better suited for the initial pilot area. Therefore, the current focus has shifted more to targeted drilling, and the pilot injection will be considered in a more continuous area of the NDP in the future. Results of reservoir simulation studies indicate that pressure maintenance should be started early when reservoir pressure is still high.

  6. Recovery of Information from the Fast Flux Test Facility for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Deborah L.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Wootan, David W.; Butner, R. Scott; Omberg, Ronald P.

    2009-09-30

    The Fast Flux Test Facility is the most recent Liquid Metal Reactor to operate in the United States. Information from the design, construction, and operation of this reactor was at risk as the facilities associated with the reactor are being shut down. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative is a program managed by the Office of Nuclear Energy of the U.S. Department of Energy with a mission to develop new fuel cycle technologies to support both current and advanced reactors. Securing and preserving the knowledge gained from operation and testing in the Fast Flux Test Facility is an important part of the Knowledge Preservation activity in this program.

  7. The recovery boiler advisor. Combination of practical experience and advanced thermodynamic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, R. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland); Eriksson, G. [LTH/RWTH (Germany); Sundstroem, K. [Tampella Power Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The Aabo Advisor is a computer based program intended to provide information about the high temperature ash and fluegas chemistry in pulping spent black liquor recovery boilers of kraft pulp mills. The program can be used for predictions of a variety of furnace and flue gas phenomena, such as fireside fouling of the heat exchanger surfaces caused by the flue gas particulate matter, emissions of SO{sub 2}(g), HCl(g) and NO{sub x}(g) with the flue gas etc. The program determines the composition of the fluegas as well as the amount and composition of the two typical fly ash fractions found in recovery boiler fluegases, the condensed fly ash particles and the carry over particles. These data are used for calculating the melting behavior of the fly ash present at different locations in the boiler and this characteristic behavior is used for the fireside fouling predictions. The program may also be used for studying how different mill processes affecting the black liquor composition affects on the fireside chemistry of the recovery boiler. As input data for the calculations only a few boiler operation parameters and the composition of the black liquor is required. The calculations are based on a one-dimensional, multi-stage chemistry model where both thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and stoichiometric material balances are used. The model calculates at first the chemistry in the lower furnace and smelt after which it moves to the upper furnace and the radiative parts of the fluegas channel. As the last block the program calculates the chemistry in the convective part, the electrostatic precipitator cath and stack. The results from each block are presented in tables, key numbers and melt curves representing the fluegas or fly ash fraction present at each location

  8. Optimization of Surfactant Mixtures and Their Interfacial Behavior for Advanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, Prof. P.

    2002-03-04

    The objective of this project was to develop a knowledge base that is helpful for the design of improved processes for mobilizing and producing oil left untapped using conventional techniques. The main goal was to develop and evaluate mixtures of new or modified surfactants for improved oil recovery. In this regard, interfacial properties of novel biodegradable n-alkyl pyrrolidones and sugar-based surfactants have been studied systematically. Emphasis was on designing cost-effective processes compatible with existing conditions and operations in addition to ensuring minimal reagent loss.

  9. Advanced oil recovery technologies for improved recovery from slope basin clastic reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1996 (fifth quarter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-31

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program--based on advanced reservoir management methods--can significantly improve oil recovery. The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques while comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program, can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the US oil and gas industry. Results so far are described on geology, engineering, 3-D seismic, reservoir characterization and simulation, and technology transfer.

  10. Fermentation broth components influence droplet coalescence and hinder advanced biofuel recovery during fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, A.S.; Schroën, K.; Heijnen, J.J.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.; Cuellar, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Developments in synthetic biology enabled the microbial production of long chain hydrocarbons, which can be used as advanced biofuels in aviation or transportation. Currently, these fuels are not economically competitive due to their production costs. The current process offers room for improvement:

  11. Advanced Placement in Studio Art and Secondary Art Education Policy: Countering the Null Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mark A.; Sims-Gunzenhauser, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Because of education reform policy and misconceptions about artistry and artistic assessment, visual art education remains in the margins of high school education. One response to the lack of supportive arts education policy is the Advanced Placement (AP) Studio Art Program, a visual arts assessment at the high school level that engages large…

  12. Performance investigation of advanced adsorption desalination cycle with condenser-evaporator heat recovery scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2013-01-01

    Energy or heat recovery schemes are keys for the performance improvement of any heat-activated cycles such as the absorption and adsorption cycles. We present two innovative heat recovery schemes between the condensing and evaporating units of an adsorption desalination (AD) cycle. By recovering the latent heat of condenser and dumping it into the evaporative process of the evaporator, it elevates the evaporating temperature and hence the adsorption pressure seen by the adsorbent. From isotherms, this has an effect of increasing the vapour uptake. In the proposed configurations, one approach is simply to have a run-about water circuit between the condenser and the evaporator and a pump is used to achieve the water circulation. This run-around circuit is a practical method for retrofitting purposes. The second method is targeted towards a new AD cycle where an encapsulated condenser-evaporator unit is employed. The heat transfer between the condensing and evaporative vapour is almost immediate and the processes occur in a fully integrated vessel, thereby minimizing the heat transfer resistances of heat exchangers. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  13. Targeted technology applications for infield reserve growth: A synopsis of the Secondary Natural Gas Recovery project, Gulf Coast Basin. Topical report, September 1988--April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levey, R.A.; Finley, R.J.; Hardage, B.A.

    1994-06-01

    The Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR): Targeted Technology Applications for Infield Reserve Growth is a joint venture research project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the State of Texas through the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin, with the cofunding and cooperation of the natural gas industry. The SGR project is a field-based program using an integrated multidisciplinary approach that integrates geology, geophysics, engineering, and petrophysics. A major objective of this research project is to develop, test, and verify those technologies and methodologies that have near- to mid-term potential for maximizing recovery of gas from conventional reservoirs in known fields. Natural gas reservoirs in the Gulf Coast Basin are targeted as data-rich, field-based models for evaluating infield development. The SGR research program focuses on sandstone-dominated reservoirs in fluvial-deltaic plays within the onshore Gulf Coast Basin of Texas. The primary project research objectives are: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities cause, even in reservoirs of conventional permeability, reservoir compartmentalization and hence incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas Gulf Coast Basin as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields.

  14. A comparison of advanced heat recovery power cycles in a combined cycle for large ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Sigthorsson, Oskar; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Strong motivation exists within the marine sector to reduce fuel expenses and to comply with ever stricter emission regulations. Heat recovery can address both of these issues. The ORC (organic Rankine cycle), the Kalina cycle and the steam Rankine cycle have received the majority of the focus...... in the literature. In the present work we compare these cycles in a combined cycle application with a large marine two-stroke diesel engine. We present an evaluation of the efficiency and the environmental impact, safety concerns and practical aspects of each of the cycles. A previously validated numerical engine...... model is combined with a turbocharger model and bottoming cycle models written in Matlab. Genetic algorithm optimisation results suggest that the Kalina cycle possess no significant advantages compared to the ORC or the steam cycle. While contributing to very high efficiencies, the organic working...

  15. Advanced Membrane Separation Technologies for Energy Recovery from Industrial Process Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, J. R.; Wang, D. [Gas Technology Institute; Bischoff, B.; Ciora, [Media and Process Technology; Radhakrishnan, B.; Gorti, S. B.

    2013-01-14

    Recovery of energy from relatively low-temperature waste streams is a goal that has not been achieved on any large scale. Heat exchangers do not operate efficiently with low-temperature streams and thus require such large heat exchanger surface areas that they are not practical. Condensing economizers offer one option for heat recovery from such streams, but they have not been widely implemented by industry. A promising alternative to these heat exchangers and economizers is a prototype ceramic membrane system using transport membrane technology for separation of water vapor and recovery of heat. This system was successfully tested by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) on a natural gas fired boiler where the flue gas is relatively clean and free of contaminants. However, since the tubes of the prototype system were constructed of aluminum oxide, the brittle nature of the tubes limited the robustness of the system and even limited the length of tubes that could be used. In order to improve the robustness of the membrane tubes and make the system more suitable for industrial applications, this project was initiated with the objective of developing a system with materials that would permit the system to function successfully on a larger scale and in contaminated and potentially corrosive industrial environments. This required identifying likely industrial environments and the hazards associated with those environments. Based on the hazardous components in these environments, candidate metallic materials were identified that are expected to have sufficient strength, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance to permit production of longer tubes that could function in the industrial environments identified. Tests were conducted to determine the corrosion resistance of these candidate alloys, and the feasibility of forming these materials into porous substrates was assessed. Once the most promising metallic materials were identified, the ability to form an alumina

  16. A comparison of advanced heat recovery power cycles in a combined cycle for large ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong motivation exists within the marine sector to reduce fuel expenses and to comply with ever stricter emission regulations. Heat recovery can address both of these issues. The ORC (organic Rankine cycle), the Kalina cycle and the steam Rankine cycle have received the majority of the focus in the literature. In the present work we compare these cycles in a combined cycle application with a large marine two-stroke diesel engine. We present an evaluation of the efficiency and the environmental impact, safety concerns and practical aspects of each of the cycles. A previously validated numerical engine model is combined with a turbocharger model and bottoming cycle models written in Matlab. Genetic algorithm optimisation results suggest that the Kalina cycle possess no significant advantages compared to the ORC or the steam cycle. While contributing to very high efficiencies, the organic working fluids possess high global warming potentials and hazard levels. It is concluded that the ORC has the greatest potential for increasing the fuel efficiency, and the combined cycle offers very high thermal efficiency. While being less efficient, the steam cycle has the advantages of being well proven, harmless to the environment as well as being less hazardous in comparison. - Highlights: • We compare steam, ORC (organic Rankine cycle) and Kalina cycles for waste heat recovery in marine engines. • We evaluate the efficiency and important qualitative differences. • The Kalina cycle presents no apparent advantages. • The steam cycle is well known, harmless and has a high efficiency. • The ORC has the highest efficiency but also important drawbacks

  17. Advanced treatment of oil recovery wastewater from polymer flooding by UV/H2O2/O3 and fine filtration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Guang-meng; SUN De-zhi; Jong Shik CHUNK

    2006-01-01

    In order to purify oil recovery wastewater from polymer flooding (ORWPF) in tertiary oil recovery in oil fields, advanced treatment of UV/H2O2/O3 and fine filtration were investigated. The experimental results showed that polyacrylamide and oil remaining in ORWPF after the conventional treatment process could be effectively removed by UV/H2O2/O3 process. Fine filtration gave a high performance in eliminating suspended solids. The treated ORWPF can meet the quality requirement of the wastewater-bearing polymer injection in oilfield and be safely re-injected into oil reservoirs for oil recovery.

  18. Advances in obsidian hydration dating by secondary ion mass spectrometry: World examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liritzis, I. [University of the Aegean, Dept. of Mediterranean Studies, Laboratory of Archaeometry, 1 Demokratias Ave., Rhodes 85100 (Greece)], E-mail: liritzis@rhodes.aegean.gr; Laskaris, N. [University of the Aegean, Dept. of Mediterranean Studies, Laboratory of Archaeometry, 1 Demokratias Ave., Rhodes 85100 (Greece)

    2009-01-15

    Since 1960 the potential of obsidian as a chronometer in archaeology has been subjected to several drawbacks and studies. While economical, simple and fast, obsidian hydration dating today is generally unreliable. A novel approach towards obsidian hydration dating, named SIMS-SS, has recently been initiated based on modelling the hydrogen profile acquired by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), following Fick's diffusion law, and the rationale of surface saturation (SS) with water molecules. The new nuclear method is presented with significant refinement regarding numerical calculation of age parameters, the suitability criteria of the sampling area and the spectral shape of the concentration dependant H{sup +} profile. A reappraisal is applied to thirteen obsidian specimens from all over the world ranging some 100's to 30,000 years old. The results reinforce the precision and reliability of the SIMS-SS method, enhancing its wide applicability.

  19. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems Vol 1 - Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-15

    Annex 26 is the first international project under the IEA Heat Pump Programme that links refrigeration and heat pump technology. Recovering heat from advanced supermarket refrigeration systems for space and water heating purposes seems obvious and is beneficial for owners and operators. Because there are world-wide a great number of supermarkets that offer frozen and chilled food under further growth of this sector may be expected, the amount of energy used for refrigeration is enormous and will likely increase substantially in the near future. This volume of the IEA Annex 26 final report contains a detailed summary of the Annex activities including principal conclusions from each participant.

  20. Advanced signal separation and recovery algorithms for digital x-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Imbaby I.; El-Tokhy, Mohamed S., E-mail: engtokhy@gmail.com

    2015-02-11

    X-ray spectroscopy is widely used for in-situ applications for samples analysis. Therefore, spectrum drawing and assessment of x-ray spectroscopy with high accuracy is the main scope of this paper. A Silicon Lithium Si(Li) detector that cooled with a nitrogen is used for signal extraction. The resolution of the ADC is 12 bits. Also, the sampling rate of ADC is 5 MHz. Hence, different algorithms are implemented. These algorithms were run on a personal computer with Intel core TM i5-3470 CPU and 3.20 GHz. These algorithms are signal preprocessing, signal separation and recovery algorithms, and spectrum drawing algorithm. Moreover, statistical measurements are used for evaluation of these algorithms. Signal preprocessing based on DC-offset correction and signal de-noising is performed. DC-offset correction was done by using minimum value of radiation signal. However, signal de-noising was implemented using fourth order finite impulse response (FIR) filter, linear phase least-square FIR filter, complex wavelet transforms (CWT) and Kalman filter methods. We noticed that Kalman filter achieves large peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and lower error than other methods. However, CWT takes much longer execution time. Moreover, three different algorithms that allow correction of x-ray signal overlapping are presented. These algorithms are 1D non-derivative peak search algorithm, second derivative peak search algorithm and extrema algorithm. Additionally, the effect of signal separation and recovery algorithms on spectrum drawing is measured. Comparison between these algorithms is introduced. The obtained results confirm that second derivative peak search algorithm as well as extrema algorithm have very small error in comparison with 1D non-derivative peak search algorithm. However, the second derivative peak search algorithm takes much longer execution time. Therefore, extrema algorithm introduces better results over other algorithms. It has the advantage of recovering and

  1. Recovery Act: Advanced Interaction, Computation, and Visualization Tools for Sustainable Building Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Donald P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Hencey, Brandon M. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Current building energy simulation technology requires excessive labor, time and expertise to create building energy models, excessive computational time for accurate simulations and difficulties with the interpretation of the results. These deficiencies can be ameliorated using modern graphical user interfaces and algorithms which take advantage of modern computer architectures and display capabilities. To prove this hypothesis, we developed an experimental test bed for building energy simulation. This novel test bed environment offers an easy-to-use interactive graphical interface, provides access to innovative simulation modules that run at accelerated computational speeds, and presents new graphics visualization methods to interpret simulation results. Our system offers the promise of dramatic ease of use in comparison with currently available building energy simulation tools. Its modular structure makes it suitable for early stage building design, as a research platform for the investigation of new simulation methods, and as a tool for teaching concepts of sustainable design. Improvements in the accuracy and execution speed of many of the simulation modules are based on the modification of advanced computer graphics rendering algorithms. Significant performance improvements are demonstrated in several computationally expensive energy simulation modules. The incorporation of these modern graphical techniques should advance the state of the art in the domain of whole building energy analysis and building performance simulation, particularly at the conceptual design stage when decisions have the greatest impact. More importantly, these better simulation tools will enable the transition from prescriptive to performative energy codes, resulting in better, more efficient designs for our future built environment.

  2. Sulphidation behaviour of advanced materials for elevated kraft recovery boiler conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yli-Olli, S.; Pohjanne, P.; Heikinheimo, L.; Kinnunen, T.; Pankakoski, P.H. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2007-06-15

    The behaviour of new kraft recovery boiler materials in reducing conditions has been evaluated in this study. Sanicro 38, Sanicro 36Mo, Sanicro 65, 4C54 and HR11N were tested in gas mixtures containing hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) and carbon monoxide (CO) with and without water vapour. Steel 304L and a basic carbon steel were used as reference materials. A thin (max. 1 'm) oxide layer, probably a spinel (FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}), was observed on some of the exposed materials in the tests with 15% water vapour. This layer protected the materials from sulphidation. The protective effect of water vapour was not eliminated by the increase in temperature from 400 deg C to 440 deg C or in H{sub 2}S concentration from 500 to 5000 ppm. However, water vapour did not protect carbon steel. Without water vapour, sulphidation started at low levels of H{sub 2}S and was accelerated by increasing H{sub 2}S concentration. The reference material 304L and Sanicro 36 Mo showed the best sulphidation resistance. The formed layers of corrosion products were analysed with EDS and compared to thermodynamic modelling by FactSage. In most cases the thermodynamic predictions agreed very well with the EDS analyses. The results suggest that alloying with molybdenum will restrain sulphidation. (orig.)

  3. Recovery of benthic-invertebrate communities in the White River near Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, following implementation of advanced treatment of municipal wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Charles G.; Wangsness, David J.

    1992-01-01

    The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, completed construction of advanced-wastewater-treatment systems to enlarge and upgrade existing secondary-treatment processes at the City’s two municipal wastewater-treatment plants in 1983. These plants discharge their effluent to the White River. A study was begun in 1981 to evaluate the effects of municipal wastewater on the quality of the White River near Indianapolis. As part of this study, benthic-invertebrate samples were collected from one riffle upstream and two riffles downstream from the treatment plants annually from 1981 through 1987 (2 times before and 5 times after the plant improvements became operational). Samples were collected during periods of late-summer or early-fall low streamflow with a Surber sampler. Upstream from the wastewater-treatment plants, mayflies and caddisflies were the predominant organisms in the benthic-invertebrate community (from 32 to 93 percent of all organisms; median value is 67 percent) with other insects and mollusks also present. Before implementation of advanced wastewater-treatment, the benthic-invertebrate community downstream from the wastewater treatment plants was predominantly chironomids and oligochaetes (more than 98 percent of all organisms)-organisms that generally are tolerant of organic wastes. Few intolerant species, such as mayflies or caddisflies were found. Following implementation of advanced wastewater treatment, mayflies and caddisflies became numerically dominant in samples collected downstream from the plants. By 1986, these organisms accounted for more than 90 percent of all organisms found at the two downstream sites. The diversity of benthic invertebrates found in these samples resembled that at the upstream site. The improvement in the quality of municipal wastewater effluent resulted in significant improvements in the water quality of the White River downstream from Indianapolis. These changes in river quality, in turn, have resulted in a shift from

  4. On the Secondary Cementing and Oil Recovery Technique of the Small Cannulas%浅析小套管二次固井、采油技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘进财; 孙晓华

    2015-01-01

    在社会主义市场经济快速发展的大环境下,科学技术取得飞速发展,各种新技术、新设备以及新工艺在各行各业的发展建设过程中取得广泛应用,并产生了良好的应用效果。油田企业要想在激烈的市场竞争中站稳脚跟就必须结合现代科技手段不断创新和优化企业内部各种生产和开采技术,为进一步提升油田企业的综合实力打下坚实的基础。本文从小套管二次固井采油技术的思路和特点着手,对小套管二次固井、采油技术做了简单介绍。%Under the circumstances of the rapid development of socialist market economy, science and technology develop very fast, all kinds of new technologies, equipment and techniques are widely used in the development and construction process of all walks of life, and they get good application effects. The oilfield enterprise should combine with the modern means of science and technology to constantly innovate and optimize all kinds of production and exploitation technology to stand firm in the fierce market competition and lay solid foundations for the further improvement of the comprehensive strength. This paper introduces the secondary cementing and oil recovery technique of the small cannulas by the mentalities and characteristics of the secondary cementing oil recovery technique of the small cannulas.

  5. INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES UTILIZING SECONDARY/TERTIARY RECOVERY TECHNIQUES ON SMALL RESERVOIRS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from shallow-shelf carbonate buildups or mounds within the Desert Creek zone of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. Five fields in southeastern Utah were evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. The Desert Creek zone includes three generalized facies belts: (1) open-marine, (2) shallow-shelf and shelf-margin, and (3) intra-shelf, salinity-restricted facies. These deposits have modern analogs near the coasts of the Bahamas, Florida, and Australia, respectively, and outcrop analogs along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. The analogs display reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, and lithofacies geometry observed in the fields; thus, these properties were incorporated in the reservoir simulation models. Productive carbonate buildups consist of three types: (1) phylloid algal, (2) coralline algal, and (3) bryozoan. Phylloid-algal buildups have a mound-core interval and a supra-mound interval. Hydrocarbons are stratigraphically trapped in porous and permeable lithotypes within the mound-core intervals of the lower part of the buildups and the more heterogeneous supramound intervals. To adequately represent the observed spatial heterogeneities in reservoir properties, the phylloid-algal bafflestones of the mound-core interval and the dolomites of the overlying supra-mound interval were subdivided into ten architecturally distinct lithotypes, each of which

  6. Advancing the Use of Secondary Inputs in Geopolymer Binders for Sustainable Cementitious Composites: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Obonyo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of concerns over the construction industry‘s heavy use of cement and the general dissatisfaction with the performance of building envelopes with respect to durability, there is a growing demand for a novel class of ―green‖ binders. Geopolymer binders have re-emerged as binders that can be used as a replacement for Portland cement given their numerous advantages over the latter including lower carbon dioxide emissions, greater chemical and thermal resistance, combined with enhanced mechanical properties at both normal and extreme exposure conditions. The paper focuses on the use of geopolymer binders in building applications. It discusses the various options for starting materials and describes key engineering properties associated with geopolymer compositions that are ideal for structural applications. Specific properties, such as compressive strength, density, pore size distribution, cumulative water absorption, and acid resistance, are comparable to the specifications for structures incorporating conventional binders. This paper presents geopolymer binders, with their three dimensional microstructure, as material for structural elements that can be used to advance the realization of sustainable building systems.

  7. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO2) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  8. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-06-16

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  9. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah. Technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-04-30

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO{sub 2}-)flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  10. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, the authors have planned a structured program including: Market/process/cost/evaluation; Lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; Lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; Bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and Utility review. Progress is reported from all three organizations.

  11. Enhancement of methane production in mesophilic anaerobic digestion of secondary sewage sludge by advanced thermal hydrolysis pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelleira-Pereira, Jose M; Pérez-Elvira, Sara I; Sánchez-Oneto, Jezabel; de la Cruz, Roberto; Portela, Juan R; Nebot, Enrique

    2015-03-15

    Studies on the development and evolution of anaerobic digestion (AD) pretreatments are nowadays becoming widespread, due to the outstanding benefits that these processes could entail in the management of sewage sludge. Production of sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is becoming an extremely important environmental issue. The work presented in this paper is a continuation of our previous studies with the aim of understanding and developing the advanced thermal hydrolysis (ATH) process. ATH is a novel AD pretreatment based on a thermal hydrolysis (TH) process plus hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) addition that takes advantage of a peroxidation/direct steam injection synergistic effect. The main goal of the present research was to compare the performance of TH and ATH, conducted at a wide range of operating conditions, as pretreatments of mesophilic AD with an emphasis on methane production enhancement as a key parameter and its connection with the sludge solubilization. Results showed that both TH and ATH patently improved methane production in subsequent mesophilic BMP (biochemical methane potential) tests in comparison with BMP control tests (raw secondary sewage sludge). Besides other interesting results and discussions, a promising result was obtained since ATH, operated at temperature (115 °C), pretreatment time (5 min) and pressure (1 bar) considerably below those typically used in TH (170 °C, 30 min, 8 bar), managed to enhance the methane production in subsequent mesophilic BMP tests [biodegradability factor (fB) = cumulative CH4production/cumulative CH4production (Control) = 1.51 ± 0.01] to quite similar levels than conventional TH pretreatment [fB = 1.52 ± 0.03].

  12. Bioenergy, material, and nutrients recovery from household waste: Advanced material, substance, energy, and cost flow analysis of a waste refinery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We modeled material, substance, energy, and cost flows of a waste refinery process. • Ca. 56% of 1 Mg dry waste input can be recovered as bioliquid yielding 6.2 GJ biogas. • Nutrients and carbon recovery in the bioliquid was estimated to 81–89%. • The biogenic carbon in the input waste was 63% of total carbon based on 14C analyses. • The quality of the digestate may be critical with respect to use on land. - Abstract: Energy, materials, and resource recovery from mixed household waste may contribute to reductions in fossil fuel and resource consumption. For this purpose, legislation has been enforced to promote energy recovery and recycling. Potential solutions for separating biogenic and recyclable materials are offered by waste refineries where a bioliquid is produced from enzymatic treatment of mixed waste. In this study, potential flows of materials, energy, and substances within a waste refinery were investigated by combining sampling, analyses, and modeling. Existing material, substance, and energy flow analysis was further advanced by development of a mathematical optimization model for determination of the theoretical recovery potential. The results highlighted that the waste refinery may recover ca. 56% of the dry matter input as bioliquid, yielding 6.2 GJ biogas-energy. The potential for nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and biogenic carbon recovery was estimated to be between 81% and 89% of the input. Biogenic and fossil carbon in the mixed household waste input was determined to 63% and 37% of total carbon based on 14C analyses. Additional recovery of metals and plastic was possible based on further process optimization. A challenge for the process may be digestate quality, as digestate may represent an emission pathway when applied on land. Considering the potential variability of local revenues for energy outputs, the costs for the waste refinery solution appeared comparable with alternatives such as direct incineration

  13. Sulfonamide antibiotic removal and nitrogen recovery from synthetic urine by the combination of rotating advanced oxidation contactor and methylene urea synthesis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahori, S; Fujiwara, T; Ito, R; Funamizu, N

    2015-01-01

    The combination of nitrogen recovery and pharmaceutical removal processes for livestock urine treatment were investigated to suppress the discharge of pollutants and recover nitrogen as resources. We combined methylene urea synthesis from urea and adsorption and photocatalytic decomposition of sulfonamide antibiotic using rotating advanced oxidation contactor (RAOC) contained for obtaining both safe fertilizer and reclaimed water. The methylene urea synthesis could recover urea in synthetic urine, however, almost all sulfonamide antibiotic was also incorporated, which is unfavorable from a safety aspect if the methylene urea is to be used as fertilizer. Conversely, RAOC could remove sulfonamide antibiotic without consuming urea. It was also confirmed that the methylene urea could be synthesized from synthetic urine treated by RAOC. Thus, we concluded that RAOC should be inserted prior to the nitrogen recovery process for effective treatment of urine and safe use of methylene urea as fertilizer.

  14. Optimization of Surfactant Mixtures and Their Interfacial Behavior for Advanced Oil Recovery, Annual Report, September 30, 1999-September 30, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, Prof. P.

    2001-04-04

    The goal of this report is to develop improved extraction processes to mobilize and produce the oil left untapped using conventional techniques. Current chemical schemes for recovering the residual oil have been in general less than satisfactory. High cost of the processes as well as significant loss of chemicals by adsorption on reservoir materials and precipitation has limited the utility of chemical-flooding operations. There is a need to develop cost-effective, improved reagent schemes to increase recovery from domestic oil reservoirs. The goal of the report was to develop and evaluate novel mixtures of surfactants for improved oil recovery.

  15. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of California. Volume 2, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As a part of this larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of California. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to California's known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD ampersand D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD ampersand D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, California oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of California and the nation as a whole

  16. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of New Mexico and Wyoming. Volume 4, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of New Mexico and Wyoming. Individual reports for six other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to New Mexico's known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD ampersand D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD ampersand D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the states of New Mexico and Wyoming and the nation as a whole

  17. Decolouration of H2SO4 leachate from phosphorus-saturated alum sludge using H2O2 and advanced oxidation processes in phosphorus recovery strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. Q.

    2009-01-01

    As a part of attempt for phosphorus (P) recovery from P-saturated alum sludge, which was used as a low-cost P-adsorbent in treatment reed bed for wastewater treatment, decolouration of H2SO4 leachate obtained from previous experiment, possessing a great deal of P, aluminum and red-brown coloured materials (RBCMs), by using H2O2 and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) was investigated. The use of H2O2 and AOPs in the forms of Fenton (H2O2/Fe2+) and photo-Fenton (UV/H2O2/Fe2+) were tested. The ...

  18. Micropollutant degradation, bacterial inactivation and regrowth risk in wastewater effluents: Influence of the secondary (pre)treatment on the efficiency of Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Voumard, Margaux; Grandjean, Dominique; Magnet, Anoys; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Pulgarin, César

    2016-10-01

    In this work, disinfection by 5 Advanced Oxidation Processes was preceded by 3 different secondary treatment systems present in the wastewater treatment plant of Vidy, Lausanne (Switzerland). 5 AOPs after two biological treatment methods (conventional activated sludge and moving bed bioreactor) and a physiochemical process (coagulation-flocculation) were tested in laboratory scale. The dependence among AOPs efficiency and secondary (pre)treatment was estimated by following the bacterial concentration i) before secondary treatment, ii) after the different secondary treatment methods and iii) after the various AOPs. Disinfection and post-treatment bacterial regrowth were the evaluation indicators. The order of efficiency was Moving Bed Bioreactor > Activated Sludge > Coagulation-Flocculation > Primary Treatment. As far as the different AOPs are concerned, the disinfection kinetics were: UVC/H2O2 > UVC and solar photo-Fenton > Fenton or solar light. The contextualization and parallel study of microorganisms with the micropollutants of the effluents revealed that higher exposure times were necessary for complete degradation compared to microorganisms for the UV-based processes and inversed for the Fenton-related ones. Nevertheless, in the Fenton-related systems, the nominal 80% removal of micropollutants deriving from the Swiss legislation, often took place before the elimination of bacterial regrowth risk.

  19. Micropollutant degradation, bacterial inactivation and regrowth risk in wastewater effluents: Influence of the secondary (pre)treatment on the efficiency of Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Voumard, Margaux; Grandjean, Dominique; Magnet, Anoys; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Pulgarin, César

    2016-10-01

    In this work, disinfection by 5 Advanced Oxidation Processes was preceded by 3 different secondary treatment systems present in the wastewater treatment plant of Vidy, Lausanne (Switzerland). 5 AOPs after two biological treatment methods (conventional activated sludge and moving bed bioreactor) and a physiochemical process (coagulation-flocculation) were tested in laboratory scale. The dependence among AOPs efficiency and secondary (pre)treatment was estimated by following the bacterial concentration i) before secondary treatment, ii) after the different secondary treatment methods and iii) after the various AOPs. Disinfection and post-treatment bacterial regrowth were the evaluation indicators. The order of efficiency was Moving Bed Bioreactor > Activated Sludge > Coagulation-Flocculation > Primary Treatment. As far as the different AOPs are concerned, the disinfection kinetics were: UVC/H2O2 > UVC and solar photo-Fenton > Fenton or solar light. The contextualization and parallel study of microorganisms with the micropollutants of the effluents revealed that higher exposure times were necessary for complete degradation compared to microorganisms for the UV-based processes and inversed for the Fenton-related ones. Nevertheless, in the Fenton-related systems, the nominal 80% removal of micropollutants deriving from the Swiss legislation, often took place before the elimination of bacterial regrowth risk. PMID:27403873

  20. Design and modeling of an advanced marine machinery system including waste heat recovery and removal of sulphur oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    that an ORC placed after the conventional waste heat recovery system is able to extract the sulphuric acid from the exhaust gas, while at the same time increase the combined cycle thermal efficiency by 2.6%. The findings indicate that the technology has potential in marine applications regarding both energy...

  1. Selective arterial embolization for control of haematuria secondary to advanced or recurrent transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, D

    2014-05-02

    Haematuria is a common symptom in patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. We report our experience of selective pelvic embolization using gelfoam as an embolic agent to treat intractable haematuria in these patients.

  2. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Texas: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Texas. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Texas` known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Texas oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of Texas and the nation as a whole.

  3. Reduction of organic trace compounds and fresh water consumption by recovery of advanced oxidation processes treated industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbaum, S; Öller, H-J; Kersten, A; Klemenčič, A Krivograd

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O(3)) has been used successfully in advanced wastewater treatment in paper mills, other sectors and municipalities. To solve the water problems of regions lacking fresh water, wastewater treated by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) can substitute fresh water in highly water-consuming industries. Results of this study have shown that paper strength properties are not impaired and whiteness is slightly impaired only when reusing paper mill wastewater. Furthermore, organic trace compounds are becoming an issue in the German paper industry. The results of this study have shown that AOPs are capable of improving wastewater quality by reducing organic load, colour and organic trace compounds.

  4. Diploma course “ICT and informational advanced competences for in-service primary and secondary teachers in Mexico”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Julia Castellanos Quintero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the comprehensive reform of basic education in Mexico the subject that concerns the research implies the need to train, update and specialize in service-teachers of basic education. This diploma course is based on CEyA methodology created by the authors of the project. CEyA methodology is proposed as an alternative that contributes to the process of design, implementation, revision, adaptation, monitoring and evaluating the diploma course for in-service primary and secondary school teachers in Mexico.

  5. Advanced simulations of energy demand and indoor climate of passive ventilation systems with heat recovery and night cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    with little energy consumption and with satisfying indoor climate. The concept is based on using passive measures like stack and wind driven ventilation, effective night cooling and low pressure loss heat recovery using two fluid coupled water-to-air heat exchangers developed at the Technical University......In building design the requirements for energy consumption for ventilation, heating and cooling and the requirements for increasingly better indoor climate are two opposing factors. This paper presents the schematic layout and simulation results of an innovative multifunctional ventilation concept...... of Denmark. Through building integration in high performance offices the system is optimized to incorporate multiple functions like heating, cooling and ventilation, thus saving the expenses of separate cooling and heating systems. The simulation results are derived using the state-of-the-art building...

  6. Advanced phosphorus recovery using a novel SBR system with granular sludge in simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong-Ze; Wang, Hou-Feng; Kotsopoulos, Thomas A; Zeng, Raymond J

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a novel process for phosphorus (P) recovery without excess sludge production from granular sludge in simultaneous nitrification-denitrification and P removal (SNDPR) system is presented. Aerobic microbial granules were successfully cultivated in an alternating aerobic-anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for removing P and nitrogen (N). Dense and stable granular sludge was created, and the SBR system showed good performance in terms of P and N removal. The removal efficiency was approximately 65.22 % for N, and P was completely removed under stable operating conditions. Afterward, new operating conditions were applied in order to enhance P recovering without excess sludge production. The initial SBR system was equipped with a batch reactor and a non-woven cloth filter, and 1.37 g of CH3COONa·3H2O was added to the batch reactor after mixing it with 1 L of sludge derived from the SBR reactor to enhance P release in the liquid fraction, this comprises the new system configuration. Under the new operating conditions, 93.19 % of the P contained in wastewater was released in the liquid fraction as concentrated orthophosphate from part of granular sludge. This amount of P could be efficiently recovered in the form of struvite. Meanwhile, a deterioration of the denitrification efficiency was observed and the granules were disintegrated into smaller particles. The biomass concentration in the system increased firstly and then maintained at 4.0 ± 0.15 gVSS/L afterward. These results indicate that this P recovery operating (PRO) mode is a promising method to recover P in a SNDPR system with granular sludge. In addition, new insights into the granule transformation when confronted with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) load were provided. PMID:26728017

  7. Bioenergy, material, and nutrients recovery from household waste: Advanced material, substance, energy, and cost flow analysis of a waste refinery process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Dorini, Gianluca Fabio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    are offered by waste refineries where a bioliquid is produced from enzymatic treatment of mixed waste. In this study, potential flows of materials, energy, and substances within a waste refinery were investigated by combining sampling, analyses, and modeling. Existing material, substance, and energy flow...... analysis was further advanced by development of a mathematical optimization model for determination of the theoretical recovery potential. The results highlighted that the waste refinery may recover ca. 56% of the dry matter input as bioliquid, yielding 6.2GJ biogas-energy. The potential for nitrogen...... process optimization. A challenge for the process may be digestate quality, as digestate may represent an emission pathway when applied on land. Considering the potential variability of local revenues for energy outputs, the costs for the waste refinery solution appeared comparable with alternatives...

  8. Recovery of resources for advanced life support space applications: effect of retention time on biodegradation of two crop residues in a fed-batch, continuous stirred tank reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Alazraki, M. P.; Cook, K.; Garland, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Bioreactor retention time is a key process variable that will influence costs that are relevant to long distance space travel or long duration space habitation. However. little is known about the effects of this parameter on the microbiological treatment options that are being proposed for Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. Two bioreactor studies were designed to examine this variable. In the first one, six retention times ranging from 1.3 to 21.3 days--were run in duplicate, 81 working-volume continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) that were fed ALS wheat residues. Ash-free dry weight loss, carbon mineralization, soluble TOC reduction, changes in fiber content (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin), bacterial numbers, and mineral recoveries were monitored. At short retention times--1.33 days--biodegradation was poor (total: 16-20%, cellulose - 12%, hemicellulose - 28%) but soluble TOC was decreased by 75-80% and recovery of major crop inorganic nutrients was adequate, except for phosphorus. A high proportion of the total bacteria (ca. 83%) was actively respiring. At the longest retention time tested, 21.3 days, biodegradation was good (total: 55-60%, cellulose ca. 70%, hemicellulose - ca. 55%) and soluble TOC was decreased by 80%. Recovery of major nutrients, except phosphorus, remained adequate. A very low proportion of total bacteria was actively respiring (ca. 16%). The second bioreactor study used potato residue to determine if even shorter retention times could be used (range 0.25-2.0 days). Although overall biodegradation deteriorated, the degradation of soluble TOC continued to be ca. 75%. We conclude that if the goal of ALS bioprocessing is maximal degradation of crop residues, including cellulose, then retention times of 10 days or longer will be needed. If the goal is to provide inorganic nutrients with the smallest volume/weight bioreactor possible, then a retention time of 1 day (or less) is sufficient.

  9. 中风后恢复与康复研究的进展%Recent advances in post-stroke recovery and rehabilitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪国新

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability .With improvement in acute stroke care ,many stroke victims sur-vive.However,substantial dysfunctions also left at the same time .In the last decade,great advances have been made in stroke recovery and rehabilitation.In this review,the author introduces major determinants of post-stroke recovery,some key issues in post-stroke reha-bilitation,as well as several emerging rehabilitation modalities .Potential future directions in research are also addressed .%中风是一种严重危害生命与功能的常见疾病,临床处理技术的进步使得很多的中风患者得以存活,但同时也遗留了大量的功能障碍。最近十年在中风后恢复与康复方面取得了巨大的进展,本文从影响中风后恢复的主要因素、中风后康复的几个关键问题以及新的康复治疗技术等方面进行了介绍,并对今后的研究进行了展望。

  10. Integrated distillation-membrane process for bio-ethanol and bio-butanol recovery from actual fermentation broths: Separation energy efficiency and fate of secondary fermentation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hybrid process integrating vapor stripping with vapor compression and vapor permeation membrane separation, termed Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was evaluated for recovery and dehydration of ethanol and/or 1-butanol from aqueous solution as an alternative to convent...

  11. Research advances and challenges in one-dimensional modeling of secondary settling tanks--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ben; Stenstrom, M K

    2014-11-15

    Sedimentation is one of the most important processes that determine the performance of the activated sludge process (ASP), and secondary settling tanks (SSTs) have been frequently investigated with the mathematical models for design and operation optimization. Nevertheless their performance is often far from satisfactory. The starting point of this paper is a review of the development of settling theory, focusing on batch settling and the development of flux theory, since they played an important role in the early stage of SST investigation. The second part is an explicit review of the established 1-D SST models, including the relevant physical law, various settling behaviors (hindered, transient, and compression settling), the constitutive functions, and their advantages and disadvantages. The third part is a discussion of numerical techniques required to solve the governing equation, which is usually a partial differential equation. Finally, the most important modeling challenges, such as settleability description, settling behavior understanding, are presented.

  12. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in locally advanced prostate cancer: secondary analysis of radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) 8610

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angiogenesis is a key element in solid-tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. VEGF is among the most potent angiogenic factor thus far detected. The aim of the present study is to explore the potential of VEGF (also known as VEGF-A) as a prognostic and predictive biomarker among men with locally advanced prostate cancer. The analysis was performed using patients enrolled on RTOG 8610, a phase III randomized control trial of radiation therapy alone (Arm 1) versus short-term neoadjuvant and concurrent androgen deprivation and radiation therapy (Arm 2) in men with locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Tissue samples were obtained from the RTOG tissue repository. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed, and paraffin blocks were immunohistochemically stained for VEGF expression and graded by Intensity score (0–3). Cox or Fine and Gray’s proportional hazards models were used. Sufficient pathologic material was available from 103 (23%) of the 456 analyzable patients enrolled in the RTOG 8610 study. There were no statistically significant differences in the pre-treatment characteristics between the patient groups with and without VEGF intensity data. Median follow-up for all surviving patients with VEGF intensity data is 12.2 years. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated no statistically significant correlation between the intensity of VEGF expression and overall survival, distant metastasis, local progression, disease-free survival, or biochemical failure. VEGF expression was also not statistically significantly associated with any of the endpoints when analyzed by treatment arm. This study revealed no statistically significant prognostic or predictive value of VEGF expression for locally advanced prostate cancer. This analysis is among one of the largest sample bases with long-term follow-up in a well-characterized patient population. There is an urgent need to establish multidisciplinary initiatives for coordinating further research in the area of

  13. Transplant related ocular surface disorders: Advanced techniques for ocular surface rehabilitation after ocular complications secondary to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Erin D; Mahomed, Faheem; Hans, Amneet K; Dalal, Jignesh D

    2016-05-01

    HSCT has been linked to the development of an assortment of ocular surface complications with the potential to lead to permanent visual impairment if left untreated or if not treated early in the course of disease. Strategies for therapy include maintenance of lubrication and tear preservation, prevention of evaporation, decreasing inflammation, and providing epithelial support. The ultimate aim of treatment is to prevent permanent ocular sequelae through prompt ophthalmology consultation and the use of advanced techniques for ocular surface rehabilitation. We describe several rehabilitation options of ocular surface complications occurring secondarily during the post-HSCT course.

  14. Advanced cell technology for high performance Li-A1/FeS{sub 2} secondary batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, G. L.

    1998-07-10

    In early 1993. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) initiated a major R and D effort to develop bipolar Li-Al/LiCl-LiBr-KBr/FeS{sub 2} batteries for electric vehicles, targeting the USABC Long-Term Goals. Significant advancements were achieved in the areas of (i) chemical purity, (ii) electrode and electrolyte additives, and (iii) peripheral seals. It was determined that key chemical constituents contained undesirable impurities. ANL developed new chemical processes for preparing Li{sub 2}S, FeS, and CoS{sub 2} that were >98.5% pure. We evaluated a large variety of electrode and electrolyte additives for reducing cell area specific impedance (ASI). Candidate positive electrode additives offered increased electronic conductivity, enhanced reaction kinetics, and/or improved porous electrode morphology. CoS{sub 2}, CuFeS{sub 2}, MgO, and graphite (fibers) were identified as the most beneficial impedance-reducing positive electrode additives. Although electronically conductive carbon and graphite additives produced measurable ASI reductions in the negative electrode, they degraded its structural integrity and were deemed impractical. Lil and LiF were identified as beneficial electrolyte additives, that enhance positive electrode kinetics. ANL refined its baseline metal/ceramic peripheral seal and increased its strength by a factor of three (achieving a safety factor >10). In parallel, ANL developed a high-strength advanced metal/ceramic seal that offers appreciable cost reductions.

  15. Dimethylamine as a replacement for ammonia dosing in the secondary circuit of an advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Chris; Mitchell, Malcolm S. [EDF Energy, Hartlepool Power Station, Hartlepool (United Kingdom); Bull, Andrew E.A.; Quirk, Graham P.; Rudge, Andy [EDF Energy Nuclear Generation, Barnwood, Gloucester (United Kingdom). Central Technical Organisation; Woolsey, Ian S.

    2012-06-15

    Increasing flow resistance observed over recent years within the helical once-through boilers in the four advanced gas-cooled reactors at Hartlepool and Heysham 1 Power Stations have reduced boiler performance, resulting in reductions in feedwater flow, steam temperatures, and power output and in the need to carry out periodic chemical cleaning. The root cause is believed to be the development of magnetite deposits with high flow impedance in the 9Cr1Mo evaporator section of the boiler tubing. To prevent continued increases in boiler flow resistance, dimethylamine is being trialled, in one of the four affected units, as a replacement to the conventional ammonia dosing. Dimethylamine increases the pH at temperature around the secondary circuit and, based on full scale boiler rig simulations, is expected to reduce iron transport and prevent flow resistance increases within the evaporator section of the boiler. The dimethylamine plant trial commenced in January 2011 and is ongoing. The feedwater concentration of dimethylamine has been increased progressively towards a final target value of 900 {mu}g . kg{sup -1} and its effect on iron transport and boiler pressure loss is being closely monitored. The high steam temperature (> 500 C) of the secondary circuit leads to some decomposition of dimethylamine, which is being carefully monitored at various locations around the circuit. The decomposition products identified with dimethylamine dosing include ammonia, methylamine, formic acid, carbon dioxide and, as yet, unidentified neutral organic species. The effect of dimethylamine dosing on iron transport and boiler pressure drops and its decomposition behaviour around the secondary circuit during the plant trial will be presented in this paper. (orig.)

  16. FeS anchored reduced graphene oxide nanosheets as advanced anode material with superior high-rate performance for alkaline secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Enbo; Guo, Litan; Li, Fei; Wang, Qin; Li, Jing; Li, Quanmin; Chang, Zhaorong; Yuan, Xiao-Zi

    2016-09-01

    A new nanocomposite formulation of the iron-based anode for alkaline secondary batteries is proposed. For the first time, FeS nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets are synthesized via a facile, environmentally friendly direct-precipitation approach. In this nanocomposite, FeS nanoparticles are anchored uniformly and tightly on the surface of RGO nanosheets. As an alkaline battery anode, the FeS@RGO electrode delivers a superior high-rate charge/discharge capability and outstanding cycling stability, even at a condition without any conductive additives and a high electrode loading of ∼40 mg cm-2. At high charge/discharge rates of 5C, 10C and 20C (6000 mA g-1), the FeS@RGO electrode presents a specific capacity of ∼288, 258 and 220 mAh g-1, respectively. Moreover, the FeS@RGO electrode exhibits an admirable long cycling stability with a superior capacity retention of 87.6% for 300 cycles at a charge/discharge rate of 2C. The excellent electrochemical properties of the FeS@RGO electrode can be stemmed from the high specific surface area, peculiar electric conductivity and robust sheet-anchored structure of the FeS@RGO nanocomposite. By virtue of its superior fast charge/discharge properties, the FeS@RGO nanocomposite is suitable as an advanced anode material for high-performance alkaline secondary batteries.

  17. Study on Comprehensive Recovery of Low Arsenic Secondary Zinc Oxide Dust%低砷次氧化锌烟尘综合回收工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易超; 鲁兴武; 马爱军

    2012-01-01

    对锌冶炼含铟窑渣综合回收新工艺进行优化,考察酸度、液固比、时间、温度等对锌和铟浸出率的影响以及不同酸度下金属铟的走向,得到最优工艺条件.在二段浸出后铟综合回收率为82.8%.%A new comprehensive recovery process from zinc smelting slag with indium content was optimized. The effects of acidity, ratio of liquid to solid, time, temperature on the leaching rate of zinc and indium were investigated, and whereabouts of metal indium with a variety of acidity were studied. The optimal process conditions were obtained. The results show that the overall recovery of indium is 82. 8% after two step leaching.

  18. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebecca Egg

    2002-09-30

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the fifth and sixth annual reporting periods (8/3/98-8/2/00) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the cross well seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted, the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction was conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and ten wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  19. Current concepts on burn wound conversion-A review of recent advances in understanding the secondary progressions of burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salibian, Ara A; Rosario, Angelica Tan Del; Severo, Lucio De Almeida Moura; Nguyen, Long; Banyard, Derek A; Toranto, Jason D; Evans, Gregory R D; Widgerow, Alan D

    2016-08-01

    Burn wound conversion describes the process by which superficial partial thickness burns convert into deeper burns necessitating surgical intervention. Fully understanding and thus controlling this phenomenon continues to defy burn surgeons. However, potentially guiding burn wound progression so as to obviate the need for surgery while still bringing about healing with limited scarring is the major unmet challenge. Comprehending the pathophysiologic background contributing to deeper progression of these burns is an essential prerequisite to planning any intervention. In this study, a review of articles examining burn wound progression over the last five years was conducted to analyze trends in recent burn progression research, determine changes in understanding of the pathogenesis of burn conversion, and subsequently examine the direction for future research in developing therapies. The majority of recent research focuses on applying therapies from other disease processes to common underlying pathogenic mechanisms in burn conversion. While ischemia, inflammation, and free oxygen radicals continue to demonstrate a critical role in secondary necrosis, novel mechanisms such as autophagy have also been shown to contribute affect significantly burn progression significantly. Further research will have to determine whether multiple mechanisms should be targeted when developing clinical therapies.

  20. Investing American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Funds to Advance Capability, Reliability, and Performance in NASA Wind Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydnor, Goerge H.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) is implementing five significant ground-based test facility projects across the nation with funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The projects were selected as the best candidates within the constraints of the ARRA and the strategic plan of ATP. They are a combination of much-needed large scale maintenance, reliability, and system upgrades plus creating new test beds for upcoming research programs. The projects are: 1.) Re-activation of a large compressor to provide a second source for compressed air and vacuum to the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at the Ames Research Center (ARC) 2.) Addition of high-altitude ice crystal generation at the Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Laboratory Test Cell 3, 3.) New refrigeration system and tunnel heat exchanger for the Icing Research Tunnel at the Glenn Research Center, 4.) Technical viability improvements for the National Transonic Facility at the Langley Research Center, and 5.) Modifications to conduct Environmentally Responsible Aviation and Rotorcraft research at the 14 x 22 Subsonic Tunnel at Langley Research Center. The selection rationale, problem statement, and technical solution summary for each project is given here. The benefits and challenges of the ARRA funded projects are discussed. Indirectly, this opportunity provides the advantages of developing experience in NASA's workforce in large projects and maintaining corporate knowledge in that very unique capability. It is envisioned that improved facilities will attract a larger user base and capabilities that are needed for current and future research efforts will offer revenue growth and future operations stability. Several of the chosen projects will maximize wind tunnel reliability and maintainability by using newer, proven technologies in place of older and obsolete equipment and processes. The projects will meet NASA's goal of

  1. Advanced oil recovery technologies for improved recovery from slope basin clastic reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM. Second annual technical progress report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration in the US Department of Energy Class III Program. Advanced reservoir characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geological, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir description was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. As a result of the analysis, a proposed pilot area was reconsidered. Comparison of seismic data and engineering data have shown evidence of discontinuities in the area surrounding the proposed injector. Analysis of the 3-D seismic has shown that wells in the proposed pilot are in an area of poor quality amplitude development. The implication is that since amplitude attenuation is a function of porosity, then this is not the best area to be attempting a pilot pressure maintenance project. Because the original pilot area appears to be compartmentalized, the lateral continuity between the pilot wells could be reduced. The 3-D seismic interpretation indicates other areas may be better suited for the initial pilot area. Therefore, the current focus has shifted more to targeted drilling, and the pilot injection will be considered in a more continuous area of the NDP in the future. Results of reservoir simulation studies indicate that pressure maintenance should be started early when reservoir pressure is still high.

  2. A ventricular assist device as a bridge to recovery, decision making, or transplantation in patients with advanced cardiac failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neragi-Miandoab, Siyamek

    2012-10-01

    Despite many advances in the management of patients with heart failure, acute cardiogenic shock and progressive congestive heart failure remain serious problems with dismal prognoses. Both temporary and permanent mechanical support has been gaining wide clinical application in this patient population. Although mechanical circulatory support technology is rapidly evolving, this approach is associated with multiple issues such as the optimal duration of temporary support, ideal timing to bridge these patients to a long-term device, and selection of the right device for the right patient. The currently available devices are categorized into two major groups: temporary and long-term devices (including destination therapy). Heart failure is a dynamic condition, and the therapeutic approach may need to be modified depending on the patient's condition. Furthermore, the patient's preexisting morbidity, age, socioeconomic status, and family support are confounding factors that need to be considered when making such decisions. Clinical trials including prospective studies, as well as meticulous analysis of existing data, may help develop universal guidelines to select the right device. This manuscript will review the most widely used ventricular assist devices. PMID:22814623

  3. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, Daniel [USDOE Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  4. Design of the Secondary Heat Exchange Device for Waste Heat Recovery of Air Compressor%空压机余热回收二次换热装置的设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳畏畏; 陈雷田; 徐新恒; 赵新红

    2013-01-01

    随着能源紧张与环境污染等问题的出现,余热回收利用技术变得尤为重要。在余热回收技术领域中,喷油螺杆式空压机余热回收越来越受重视。余热回收装置作为空压机余热回收技术中较为重要的设备,对其进行设计研究很有必要。通过理论计算,集成了对应160 kW喷油螺杆空压机的余热回收二次换热装置,该装置可实现油温自动控制,并有效降低板换结垢的风险,对其进行热回收特性实验研究,结果表明在一次侧进出口水温70℃/50℃、二次侧进出口水温45℃/60℃工况下,热回收能量为99.85 kW,高于空压机额定功率的50%。为空压机余热回收系统设计提供参考依据,对系统施工安装起到了一定的促进作用。%The waste heat recycling technology is particularly important with the emergence of energy tension and environmental pollu-tion. The heat recovery of injection screw air compressor is more and more crucial in the waste heat recovery technology field, so it is neces-sary to research waste heat recovery device. Through the theoretical calculation, integrating the waste heat recovery of secondary heat exchange device on the injection screw air compressor with the corresponding power is 160kw. The device can realize the automatic control of oil tem-perature; meanwhile, it also can effectively reduce the risk of plate in scaling. Results from the experimental research on the heat recovery characteristics show that in the condition of import and export water temperature is 70℃/50℃ of the primary side, or import and export water temperature is 45℃/60℃of the secondary side, the heat recovery power is 99.85kW. It is higher than 50% of the air compressor power rating. This paper provides reference for air compressor heat recovery system design and also plays a certain role in promoting the system installation.

  5. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf San Andres Reservoir. Quarterly Report for the period: 1 April - 30 June 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO2) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  6. ASSESSING AND FORECASTING, BY PLAY, NATURAL GAS ULTIMATE RECOVERY GROWTH AND QUANTIFYING THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY ADVANCEMENTS IN THE TEXAS GULF COAST BASIN AND EAST TEXAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Fisher; Eugene M. Kim

    2000-12-01

    A detailed natural gas ultimate recovery growth (URG) analysis of the Texas Gulf Coast Basin and East Texas has been undertaken. The key to such analysis was determined to be the disaggregation of the resource base to the play level. A play is defined as a conceptual geologic unit having one or more reservoirs that can be genetically related on the basis of depositional origin of the reservoir, structural or trap style, source rocks and hydrocarbon generation, migration mechanism, seals for entrapment, and type of hydrocarbon produced. Plays are the geologically homogeneous subdivision of the universe of petroleum pools within a basin. Therefore, individual plays have unique geological features that can be used as a conceptual model that incorporates geologic processes and depositional environments to explain the distribution of petroleum. Play disaggregation revealed important URG trends for the major natural gas fields in the Texas Gulf Coast Basin and East Texas. Although significant growth and future potential were observed for the major fields, important URG trends were masked by total, aggregated analysis based on a broad geological province. When disaggregated by plays, significant growth and future potential were displayed for plays that were associated with relatively recently discovered fields, deeper reservoir depths, high structural complexities due to fault compartmentalization, reservoirs designated as tight gas/low-permeability, and high initial reservoir pressures. Continued technology applications and advancements are crucial in achieving URG potential in these plays.

  7. Use of geostatistic techniques to describe a reservoir to be submitted into a secondary recovery process field case: {open_quotes}Eocene B-Inferior/VLG-3659, Ceuta, Venezuela{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, T.; Poquioma, W. [Maraven, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

    1997-08-01

    This study presents the results of an integrated reservoir study of the Eocene B-Inferior/VLG-3659, Area 7, Ceuta filed. This field located in the Maracaibo Lake in the western side of Venezuela. The objective was to evaluating the feasibility to implement a secondary recovery project by means of water flooding. Core information was used for this study (194 ft), PVT analysis, RFI, build-up and statistic`s pressure analysis, modem logs and production history data. Using geostatistical techniques (Kriging) it was defined a low uncertainty geological model that was validated by means of a black oil simulator (Eclipse). The results showed a good comparison of historical pressure of the reservoir against those obtained from the model, without the need of {open_quotes}history matching{close_quotes}. It means without modifying neither the initial rock properties nor reservoir fluids. The results of this study recommended drilling in two new locations, also the reactivation of four producing wells and water flooding under peripherical array by means of four injection wells, with the recovery of an additional 30.2 MMSTB. The economical evaluation shows an internal return rate of 31.4%.

  8. Clinical features and hyperplastic patterns of parathyroid glands in hemodialysis patients with advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism refractory to maxacalcitol treatment and required parathyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Yoshihiro; Matsuoka, Susumu; Sato, Tetsuhiko; Uno, Nobuyuki; Goto, Norihiko; Katayama, Akio; Haba, Toshihito

    2007-08-01

    We have previously suggested that when parathyroid glands progress to nodular hyperplasia, secondary hyperparathyroidism (2HPT) may be refractory to medical treatments, including treatment with Maxacalcitol (OCT). In the present study we evaluated the clinical features and hyperplastic patterns of parathyroid glands in patients who underwent parathyroidectomy (PTx) after being withdrawn from OCT. One hundred and eighty-seven advanced 2HPT patients who had been withdrawn from OCT and required PTx were enrolled. At the start of OCT treatment, the patients had a mean age of 55.3 years and had been receiving hemodialysis (HD) for a mean period of 149 months. At the start of OCT treatment and at PTx, the mean intact PTH (i-PTH) levels were 772.8 +/- 446.0 and 855.5 +/- 420.5 pg/mL, respectively. The main reasons for withdrawal of OCT treatment were persistently high PTH (n = 148), hypercalcemia (n = 79), hyperphosphatemia (n = 65), and progressive symptoms (n = 60). We classified the parathyroid glands by hyperplastic pattern into four categories: diffuse hyperplastic gland (D), early nodularity in diffuse hyperplastic gland (EN), nodular hyperplastic gland (N), and single nodular gland (SN). The mean total excised gland weight was 2592.6 mg. Out of a total of 706 glands, 118 were classified as D, 66 as EN, 436 as N, and 86 as SN. All patients had at least one nodular hyperplastic gland or single nodular gland. The mean number of nodular hyperplastic glands and/or single nodular glands was 2.9. All hemodialysis patients with advanced OCT-refractory 2HPT who underwent PTx had at least one nodular hyperplastic gland or single nodular gland.

  9. Decision Point 3 of Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) “Recovery Act: Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Integration with Advanced Industrial Systems”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Phillip

    2012-03-01

    Air Products is carrying out a scope of work under Phase 5 of the ITM Oxygen Cooperative Agreement to design, build, and operate a ceramic membrane fabrication facility (the -CerFabII) to enable production of membrane modules to supply a conceptual 2000 ton per day (TPD) ITM Oxygen facility (the -ITM Oxygen Development FacilityII), and to perform supporting development tasks in materials development and engineering development toward industrial, carbon capture and sequestration applications. Air Products is executing this project under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) with the objective to accelerate the adoption of ITM Oxygen technology to help meet the country’s goals for deploying clean power plants. The objective of this Topical Report is to address the requirements of Decision Point 3 (DP3), which pertains to the status of all Tasks within Phase 5 and most notably the project status of the CerFab (Task 30) prior to authorization of funds for equipment purchase and construction of the facility. The intent of the DP3 is to provide the opportunity for DOE-NETL to review the status of these tasks and to make recommendations on forward project direction, including a recommendation to pass into Budget Period 8. In the area of Materials Development, Air Products has specified a high pressure dilatometer system which will enable measurements of material expansion of ITM ceramic compounds at very high oxygen partial pressures consistent with CCS applications. Under Task 28.2, subcontractor Ceramatec has made significant progress since DP2 in materials selection and process development and improvement for advanced architecture module fabrication. Ceramatec has determined a materials specification, and has selected a process for making the material. Ceramatec has further developed and selected the process for applying the membrane to unsintered advanced architecture wafers with a Two Step process. Ceramatec has built submodules meeting leak rate

  10. Impact of weight loss on survival after chemoradiation for locally advanced head and neck Cancer: secondary results of a randomized phase III trial (SAKK 10/94)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the impact of weight loss before and during chemoradiation on survival outcomes in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer. From 07/1994-07/2000 a total of 224 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were randomized to either hyperfractionated radiation therapy alone or the same radiation therapy combined with two cycles of concomitant cisplatin. The primary endpoint was time to any treatment failure (TTF); secondary endpoints were locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and overall survival (OS). Patient weight was measured 6 months before treatment, at treatment start and treatment end. The proportion of patients with >5% weight loss was 32% before, and 51% during treatment, and the proportion of patients with >10% weight loss was 12% before, and 17% during treatment. After a median follow-up of 9.5 years (range, 0.1 – 15.4 years) weight loss before treatment was associated with decreased TTF, LRRFS, DMFS, cancer specific survival and OS in a multivariable analysis. However, weight loss during treatment was not associated with survival outcomes. Weight loss before and during chemoradiation was commonly observed. Weight loss before but not during treatment was associated with worse survival

  11. Recent technological advances in the application of nano-catalytic technology to the enhanced recovery and upgrading of bitumen and heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Almao, P. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Schulich School of Engineering

    2013-11-01

    Advances in Nanotechnology, such as manufacturing of nano-catalysts allow the online (during processing) and on site production of nano-catalysts for heavy oils upgrading. These inventions have also facilitated the development of two lines of heavy oils upgrading processes that make use of nano-catalysts for producing upgraded oil: In Situ Upgrading and Field Upgrading. Producing chemical upgrading of heavy oils is achievable and economically viable at lower temperatures and lower pressures than used in most upgraders if the use of nano-catalysts were implemented. The spontaneity of thermal, steam and hydro processing reactions for converting the different chemical families of hydrocarbons present in the heaviest fractions of heavy oils and bitumen (HO-B) into lighter products was shown recently. Spontaneity was measured by the value of the change of free energy at low pressure. These undesirable paths are spontaneous and uncontrollable under thermal cracking conditions, and require providing years of residence time for intermolecular hydrogen redistribution to minimize olefins polymerization, if at all possible. Instead, hydroprocessing in the presence of hydrogen activating catalysts would create an abundance of hydrogen radicals impeding large molecules condensation and olefins proliferation. In Situ Upgrading: performs coupled Enhanced Oil Recovery with In Reservoir Upgrading via Hot Fluid Injection (HFI). The heat handling of this HFI process and the production of transportable oil with no need of diluent from the start of operation completes the originality of it. This technology uses heavy fractions separated from produced oil to reintroduce heat into the reservoir along with suspended nano-catalysts and hydrogen. These components react in the well bore and inside the reservoir to release more heat (hydroprocessing reactions are exothermic) producing light gases and volatile hydrocarbons that contribute to increase oil detachment from the rock resulting in

  12. Influence of Continuous Flow Microwave Pre-Treatment on Anaerobic Digestion of Secondary Thickened Sludge for Sustainable Energy Recovery in Sewage Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hephzibah, D.; Kumaran, P.; Saifuddin, N. M.

    2016-03-01

    This work elucidates the effects of pre-treatment of secondary thickened sludge (STS) for enhancement of biogas production that has great potential to generate energy for the utilization of the sewage treatment plant (STP) itself. Microwave pre-treatment has been adopted for this study. Experiment works have been designed and conducted to examine the effectiveness of continuous flow microwave pre-treatment on the solubility of STS, digestibility of STS and biogas production at a power level of 80 W for 5, 10 and 15 minutes. A few characteristics of the sewage sludge were monitored daily to identify the effect of pre-treatment on the sludge. The soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)/total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) ratio increased by 0.1, 1.0 and 1.8%, while the volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration of the pre-treated sludge improved by 4.4, 5.1, 5.9% at the irradiation time of 5, 10 and 15 minutes, respectively at a microwave power level of 80 W. Besides that, the digestate also indicates that the pre-treated sludge undergoes efficient VS removal and TCOD removal after anaerobic digestion compared to the untreated sludge. Moreover, the biogas quantity increased by an average of 19.2, 24.1 and 32.2% in 5, 10 and 15 minutes irradiation time respectively compared to the untreated sludge. The additional quantity of biogas generated has shown a great potential for sustainable energy generation that can be utilized internally by the STP.

  13. Recovery of aluminium from secondary aluminum dross using low-temperature alkaline smelting%二次铝灰低温碱性熔炼研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭学益; 李菲; 田庆华; 计坤

    2012-01-01

    The process of extracting aluminum from secondary aluminum dross vising low-temperature alkaline smelting was studied. The factors, including alkali dross ratio, the addition of different addictive, salt dross ratio, smelting temperature, smelting time, and different mix methods in smelting, were addressed during the transfer of AI into water soluble salt. The results show that the optimum conditions of the process are determined as follows: alkali dross ratio 1.3, salt dross ratio 0.7 (NaNO3) or 0.4 (Na2O2), smelting temperature 500 ℃, smelting time 60 min. Wet mixture of the sample can improve the leaching efficiency of aluminum. 87.52% of Al might be leached in water with dry mixing of the sample, while 92.71% of Al may be leached with wet mixing by using NaNO3 as addictive in smelting process, and 92.76% of Al can be dissolved with Na2O2 as additive.%研究利用低温碱性熔炼法提取二次铝灰中铝的过程.探讨碱灰质量比、盐灰质量比、熔炼温度、熔炼时间、不同添加剂和不同混料方式等因素对铝浸出率的影响.研究结果表明:优化条件为:碱灰质量比1.3、盐灰质量比0.7(NaNO3)或0.4(Na2O2)、熔炼温度500℃、熔炼时间60 min.湿混料可以提高铝浸出率,以NaNO3为添加剂干混料铝浸出率最高可达87.52%,以NaNO3为添加剂湿混料铝浸出率最高可达92.71%,以Na2O2为添加剂湿混料铝浸出率最高可达92.76%.

  14. Advanced Research on MicroRNAs and EGFR-TKIs Secondary Resistance%MiRNAs与EGFR-TKIs继发性耐药机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明; 孙震宇; 黄礼年

    2015-01-01

    肺癌是癌症致死率最高的疾病,关于这个疾病的发生机制已得到部分阐明,其中表皮生长因子受体(epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR)信号通路研究最为深入,在肺癌的发生中起着至关重要的作用。而有效地抑制EGFR信号通路的药物已用于非小细胞肺癌(non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC)的靶向治疗中,伴有EGFR基因突变的患者使用EGFR酪氨酸激酶抑制剂(EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, EGFR-TKIs)治疗后获得不错的临床收益,但大部分患者在使用该药治疗10个月后出现耐药现象。MiRNAs(microRNAs)是一种非编码蛋白的RNA,参与转录后水平基因的表达调控。越来越多的研究发现miRNAs与EGFR-TKIs继发性耐药有关,miRNAs可作为逆转EGFR-TKIs耐药及评估EGFR-TKIs有效性的生物指标。本文就NSCLC中miRNAs与EGFR-TKIs继发性耐药机制之间的相关性研究进展做简要的综述。%Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Several molecular pathways underlying mechanisms of this disease have been partly elucidated, among which the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is one of the well-known signaling cascades that plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. hTe strategies to effectively inhibit EGFR signaling pathway have been used in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) targeted therapy. Patients withEGFR mutations beneift fromEGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) treatment. However, most of TKIs-treated patients eventually suffer drug resistant atfer 10-month treatments. MiRNAs (microRNAs) is a non coding RNA and protein involved in regulating gene expression in the transcription level. More and more studies have found that miRNAs are correlated with EGFR-TKIs second-ary resistance. MiRNAs may serve as novel targets to circumvent the resistance and promising predictive biomarkers for EGFR-TKIs. In this paper, we reviewed brielfy advanced research on miRNAs and

  15. First closed-loop visible AO test results for the advanced adaptive secondary AO system for the Magellan Telescope: MagAO's performance and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Kopon, Derek A.; Gasho, Victor; Follette, Katherine B.; Hinz, Phil; Morzinski, Katie; Uomoto, Alan; Hare, Tyson; Riccardi, Armando; Esposito, Simone; Puglisi, Alfio; Pinna, Enrico; Busoni, Lorenzo; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Quiros-Pacheco, Fernando; Argomedo, Javier

    2012-07-01

    The heart of the 6.5 Magellan AO system (MagAO) is a 585 actuator adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) with response times (0.7 ms typically). This adaptive secondary will allow low emissivity and high-contrast AO science. We fabricated a high order (561 mode) pyramid wavefront sensor (similar to that now successfully used at the Large Binocular Telescope). The relatively high actuator count (and small projected ~23 cm pitch) allows moderate Strehls to be obtained by MagAO in the “visible” (0.63-1.05 μm). To take advantage of this we have fabricated an AO CCD science camera called "VisAO". Complete “end-to-end” closed-loop lab tests of MagAO achieve a solid, broad-band, 37% Strehl (122 nm rms) at 0.76 μm (i’) with the VisAO camera in 0.8” simulated seeing (13 cm ro at V) with fast 33 mph winds and a 40 m Lo locked on R=8 mag artificial star. These relatively high visible wavelength Strehls are enabled by our powerful combination of a next generation ASM and a Pyramid WFS with 400 controlled modes and 1000 Hz sample speeds (similar to that used successfully on-sky at the LBT). Currently only the VisAO science camera is used for lab testing of MagAO, but this high level of measured performance (122 nm rms) promises even higher Strehls with our IR science cameras. On bright (R=8 mag) stars we should achieve very high Strehls (>70% at H) in the IR with the existing MagAO Clio2 (λ=1-5.3 μm) science camera/coronagraph or even higher (~98% Strehl) the Mid-IR (8-26 microns) with the existing BLINC/MIRAC4 science camera in the future. To eliminate non-common path vibrations, dispersions, and optical errors the VisAO science camera is fed by a common path advanced triplet ADC and is piggy-backed on the Pyramid WFS optical board itself. Also a high-speed shutter can be used to block periods of poor correction. The entire system passed CDR in June 2009, and we finished the closed-loop system level testing phase in December 2011. Final system acceptance (

  16. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Louisiana and Texas. Volume 3, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of Louisiana and Texas. Individual reports for six other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS)

  17. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Louisiana and Texas. Volume 3, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of Louisiana and Texas. Individual reports for six other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS).

  18. Recent advances in genes involved in secondary metabolite synthesis, hyphal development, energy metabolism and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zongyi; Zhu, Wei; Su, Hao; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Yang, Jinkui

    2014-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus, Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae), is the most common causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease for cereal crops worldwide. F. graminearum produces ascospores (sexual spores) and conidia (asexual spores), which can serve as disease inocula of FHB. Meanwhile, Fusarium-infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as trichothecenes (TRIs), fumonisins, and zearalenones, among which TRIs are related to the pathogenicity of F. graminearum, and these toxins are hazardous to humans and livestock. In recent years, with the complete genome sequencing of F. graminearum, an increasing number of functional genes involved in the production of secondary metabolites, hyphal differentiation, sexual and asexual reproduction, virulence and pathogenicity have been identified from F. graminearum. In this review, the secondary metabolite synthesis, hyphal development and pathogenicity related genes in F. graminearum were thoroughly summarized, and the genes associated with secondary metabolites, sexual reproduction, energy metabolism, and pathogenicity were highlighted.

  19. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J.; Egg, Rebecca

    2001-08-07

    The Oxy operated Class 2 Project at West Welch Project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO2 injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir demonstration characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO2 flood design based on the reservoir characterization.

  20. Optimisation of Ultrasonic Conditions as an Advanced Extraction Technique for Recovery of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity from Macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla) Skin Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Dailey; Quan V. Vuong

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of tons of macadamia skin waste are generated annually with very limited utilisation of this extensive by-product. The aim of this study was to develop optimal ultrasonic extraction conditions for maximized recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties from macadamia skin using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Three ultrasonic parameters, including temperature (30–50 °C), time (10–50 min) and power (150–250 W), were tested for their impact on the extraction of total p...

  1. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic, social, and political benefits of improved oil recovery to the nation as a whole. Individual reports for major oil producing states have been separately published. The individual state reports include California, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wyoming. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). TORIS is a tested and verified system maintained and operated by the Department of Energy's Bartlesville Project Office. The TORTS system was used to evaluate over 2,300 major reservoirs in a consistent manner and on an individual basis, the results of which have been aggregated to arrive at the national total

  2. Backup & Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Preston, W

    2009-01-01

    Packed with practical, freely available backup and recovery solutions for Unix, Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X systems -- as well as various databases -- this new guide is a complete overhaul of Unix Backup & Recovery by the same author, now revised and expanded with over 75% new material.

  3. Recovery Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in 1935, programs offering opportunity for recovery from alcoholism and other addictions have undergone vast changes. The Internet has created nearly limitless opportunities for recovering people and those seeking recovery to find both meetings and places where they can gather virtually and discuss…

  4. [Secondary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yuichi; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is a common disease and a crucial predisposing factor of cardiovascular diseases. Approximately 10% of hypertensive patients are secondary hypertension, a pathogenetic factor of which can be identified. Secondary hypertension consists of endocrine, renal, and other diseases. Primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism result in endocrine hypertension. Renal parenchymal hypertension and renovascular hypertension result in renal hypertension. Other diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are also very prevalent in secondary hypertension. It is very crucial to find and treat secondary hypertension at earlier stages since most secondary hypertension is curable or can be dramatically improved by specific treatment. One should keep in mind that screening of secondary hypertension should be done at least once in a daily clinical practice. PMID:26619670

  5. Integrated Resource Management and Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    . Over the recent decades, DTU Environment has worked extensively both with resource recovery technologies and life cycle assessment (LCA) models (www.EASETECH.dk) dedicated to evaluating resource management and recovery systems. Advanced sustainability assessments of resource recovery and utilization...... resources, i.e. security of supply, but also the need for efficient recovery of the same resources after the use-phase of the products. While this recovery may appear simple, considerable challenges exist. Management and recovery of resources in waste materials, or in general residual streams in society...... have been carried out e.g. in relation to household and industrial waste systems, biomass residues from agriculture and forestry, energy producing technologies as well as entire energy systems. The presentation provides an introduction to key challenges in relation to sustainability assessment...

  6. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  7. Tech Prep Early Childhood Professions Advanced Specialty Curriculum Guide for Postsecondary Colleges. Part of an Articulated Program for Secondary & Postsecondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriman, Marilyn Williams

    The Tech Prep Early Childhood Professions Program is designed to provide high school and community college students in Texas with the necessary training and skills to find employment in the child care and education professions as teachers, directors, or special needs paraprofessionals. This Advanced Speciality Curriculum Guide is designed for…

  8. IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY FROM UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER CARBONATES THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AT WOMACK HILL OIL FIELD, CHOCTAW AND CLARKE COUNTIES, EASTERN GULF COASTAL PLAIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-05-20

    Pruet Production Co. and the Center for Sedimentary Basin Studies at the University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, Mississippi State University, University of Mississippi, and Wayne Stafford and Associates are undertaking a focused, comprehensive, integrated and multidisciplinary study of Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonates (Class II Reservoir), involving reservoir characterization and 3-D modeling and an integrated field demonstration project at Womack Hill Oil Field Unit, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. The principal objectives of the project are: increasing the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. The principal research efforts for Year 3 of the project have been recovery technology analysis and recovery technology evaluation. The research focus has primarily been on well test analysis, 3-D reservoir simulation, microbial core experiments, and the decision to acquire new seismic data for the Womack Hill Field area. Although Geoscientific Reservoir Characterization and 3-D Geologic Modeling have been completed and Petrophysical and Engineering Characterization and Microbial Characterization are essentially on schedule, a no-cost extension until September 30, 2003, has been granted by DOE so that new seismic data for the Womack Hill Field can be acquired and interpreted to assist in the determination as to whether Phase II of the project should be implemented.

  9. Adding disturbance information from landsat and lidar to an advanced ecosystem model to investigate spatial and temporal disturbance and recovery dynamics on regional forest structure and carbon fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, K.; Hurtt, G. C.; Huang, C. C.; Dubayah, R.; Masek, J. G.; Duncanson, L.; Zhao, F.; Fisk, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    Forest disturbance and recovery are critical mechanisms for transferring carbon between the land surface and the atmosphere, yet the role of forest disturbance within the terrestrial carbon cycle still remains uncertain and only recently have these events been accounted for within regional-scale and global carbon models. Adding ecological disturbance into biogeochemical models is noted as critical to estimating current and future carbon stocks and fluxes. The long history of optical remote sensing combined with emerging active remote sensing technologies, such as lidar, provide powerful tools to study forest disturbance and recovery. This research is utilizing Landsat time-series data run through the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT), and the Ecosystem Demography model (ED) in conjunction with lidar, and regional forest inventories to study disturbance impacts on vegetation structure and carbon over spatial and temporal gradients. The research is conducted in three regions of the United States; the Northeast, Southeast and Western US, representing different dominant mechanisms of forest disturbance ranging from land conversion, clear-cuts, wind damage, fire and pest outbreaks.

  10. Effect of advanced oxidation processes on the micropollutants and the effluent organic matter contained in municipal wastewater previously treated by three different secondary methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Gamarra Vives, Franco Alejandro; Grandjean, Dominique; Magnet, Anoys; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Pulgarin, César

    2015-11-01

    In this study, wastewater from the output of three different secondary treatment facilities (Activated Sludge, Moving Bed Bioreactor and Coagulation-Flocculation) present in the municipal wastewater treatment plant of Vidy, Lausanne (Switzerland), was further treated with various oxidation processes (UV, UV/H2O2, solar irradiation, Fenton, solar photo-Fenton), at laboratory scale. For this assessment, 6 organic micropollutants in agreement with the new environmental legislation requirements in Switzerland were selected (Carbamazepine, Clarithromycin, Diclofenac, Metoprolol, Benzotriazole, Mecoprop) and monitored throughout the treatment. Also, the overall removal of the organic load was assessed. After each secondary treatment, the efficiency of the AOPs increased in the following order: Coagulation-Flocculation Bioreactor, in almost all cases. From the different combinations tested, municipal wastewater subjected to biological treatment followed by UV/H2O2 resulted in the highest elimination levels. Wastewater previously treated by physicochemical treatment demonstrated considerably inhibited micropollutant degradation rates. The degradation kinetics were determined, yielding: k (UV) photo-Fenton). Finally, the evolution of global pollution parameters (COD & TOC elimination) was followed and the degradation pathways for the effluent organic matter are discussed. PMID:26255127

  11. Effect of advanced oxidation processes on the micropollutants and the effluent organic matter contained in municipal wastewater previously treated by three different secondary methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Gamarra Vives, Franco Alejandro; Grandjean, Dominique; Magnet, Anoys; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Pulgarin, César

    2015-11-01

    In this study, wastewater from the output of three different secondary treatment facilities (Activated Sludge, Moving Bed Bioreactor and Coagulation-Flocculation) present in the municipal wastewater treatment plant of Vidy, Lausanne (Switzerland), was further treated with various oxidation processes (UV, UV/H2O2, solar irradiation, Fenton, solar photo-Fenton), at laboratory scale. For this assessment, 6 organic micropollutants in agreement with the new environmental legislation requirements in Switzerland were selected (Carbamazepine, Clarithromycin, Diclofenac, Metoprolol, Benzotriazole, Mecoprop) and monitored throughout the treatment. Also, the overall removal of the organic load was assessed. After each secondary treatment, the efficiency of the AOPs increased in the following order: Coagulation-Flocculation wastewater subjected to biological treatment followed by UV/H2O2 resulted in the highest elimination levels. Wastewater previously treated by physicochemical treatment demonstrated considerably inhibited micropollutant degradation rates. The degradation kinetics were determined, yielding: k (UV) UV/H2O2) and k (Fenton) < k (solar irradiation) < k (photo-Fenton). Finally, the evolution of global pollution parameters (COD & TOC elimination) was followed and the degradation pathways for the effluent organic matter are discussed.

  12. Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-12-31

    Pruet Production Co. and the Center for Sedimentary Basin Studies at the University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, Mississippi State University, University of Mississippi, and Wayne Stafford and Associates proposed a three-phase, focused, comprehensive, integrated and multidisciplinary study of Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonates (Class II Reservoir), involving reservoir characterization and 3-D modeling (Phase I) and a field demonstration project (Phases II and III) at Womack Hill Field Unit, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. Phase I of the project has been completed. The principal objectives of the project are: increasing the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. The major tasks of the project included reservoir characterization, recovery technology analysis, recovery technology evaluation, and the decision to implement a demonstration project. Reservoir characterization consisted of geoscientific reservoir characterization, petrophysical and engineering property characterization, microbial characterization, and integration of the characterization data. Recovery technology analysis included 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir simulation, and microbial core experiments. Recovery technology evaluation consisted of acquiring and evaluating new high quality 2-D seismic data, evaluating the existing pressure maintenance project in the Womack Hill Field Unit, and evaluating the concept of an immobilized enzyme technology project for the Womack Hill Field Unit. The decision to implement a demonstration project essentially resulted in the decision on whether to conduct an infill drilling project in Womack Hill Field. Reservoir performance

  13. Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Eastern Gulf Costal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-05-31

    Pruet Production Co. and the Center for Sedimentary Basin Studies at the University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, Mississippi State University, University of Mississippi, and Wayne Stafford and Associates proposed a three-phase, focused, comprehensive, integrated and multidisciplinary study of Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonates (Class II Reservoir), involving reservoir characterization and 3-D modeling (Phase I) and a field demonstration project (Phases II and III) at Womack Hill Field Unit, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. Phase I of the project has been completed. The principal objectives of the project are: increasing the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. The major tasks of the project included reservoir characterization, recovery technology analysis, recovery technology evaluation, and the decision to implement a demonstration project. Reservoir characterization consisted of geoscientific reservoir characterization, petrophysical and engineering property characterization, microbial characterization, and integration of the characterization data. Recovery technology analysis included 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir simulation, and microbial core experiments. Recovery technology evaluation consisted of acquiring and evaluating new high quality 2-D seismic data, evaluating the existing pressure maintenance project in the Womack Hill Field Unit, and evaluating the concept of an immobilized enzyme technology project for the Womack Hill Field Unit. The decision to implement a demonstration project essentially resulted in the decision on whether to conduct an infill drilling project in Womack Hill Field. Reservoir performance

  14. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery - Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, M. [American Oil Recovery, Inc., Decatur, IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Phase I results of a C0{sub 2}-assisted oil recovery demonstration project in selected Cypress Sandstone reservoirs at Mattoon Field, Illinois are reported. The design and scope of this project included C0{sub 2} injectvity testing in the Pinnell and Sawyer units, well stimulaton treatments with C0{sub 2} in the Strong unit and infill well drilling, completion and oil production. The field activities were supported by extensive C0{sub 2}-oil-water coreflood experiments, CO{sub 2} oil-phase interaction experiments, and integrated geologic modeling and reservoir simulations. The progress of the project was made public through presentations at an industry meeting and a DOEs contractors` symposium, through quarterly reports and one-to-one consultations with interested operators. Phase II of this project was not implemented. It would have been a water-alternating-gas (WAG) project of longer duration.

  15. Advances in Study on Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Seagrasses%海草生物活性成分的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽丝; 贺飞; 王萍; 漆淑华

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarized the research progress of bioactive secondary metabolites from seagrasses. Their chemical constituents mainly included phenolics.flavonoids and diterpenoids,and biological activities included antibacterial, anb'oxidant,antiviral,cytotoxic,antialgal and antifouling activities,et al.%本文综述了海草中生物活性成分的研究进展,其化学成分类型主要是苯酚类、黄酮类和二萜类化合物,生物活性主要包括抗菌、抗氧化、抗病毒、细胞毒性、抑制海藻生长和抗污损等.

  16. Lower blood glucose and variability are associated with earlier recovery from renal injury caused by episodic urinary tract infection in advanced type 2 diabetic chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Fang Chiu

    Full Text Available In our previous study, type 2 diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD patients with glomerular filtration rates of 9 days, Group B groups. The differences in the continuous and categorical variables of the two groups were assessed separately. The mean glucose levels and their variability (using the standard deviation and the coefficient of standard deviation were compared at the fasting, midday pre-meal, evening pre-meal, and evening post-meal time points during hospitalization. We have organized the manuscript in a manner compliant with the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statement.Acute kidney injury occurred within the two groups (p = 0.007 and p = 0.001, respectively. The early-morning blood glucose levels (149.7±44.0 mg/dL and average blood glucose levels (185.6±52.0 mg/dL were better in Group A (p = 0.01, p = 0.02. Group A patients also had lower glucose variability than Group B at the different time points (p<0.05. Group A also had earlier renal recovery. More relevant pathogens were identified from blood in Group B (p = 0.038.Early-morning fasting and mean blood glucose levels and their variability can be good indicators of severe infection and predictors of renal outcome in type 2 diabetic patients with CKD and UTI.

  17. Recovery Spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kurtz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A. and other secular, spiritual, and religious frameworks of long-term addiction recovery. The present paper explores the varieties of spiritual experience within A.A., with particular reference to the growth of a wing of recovery spirituality promoted within A.A. It is suggested that the essence of secular spirituality is reflected in the experience of beyond (horizontal and vertical transcendence and between (connection and mutuality and in six facets of spirituality (Release, Gratitude, Humility, Tolerance, Forgiveness, and a Sense of Being-at-home shared across religious, spiritual, and secular pathways of addiction recovery. The growing varieties of A.A. spirituality (spanning the “Christianizers” and “Seculizers” reflect A.A.’s adaptation to the larger diversification of religious experience and the growing secularization of spirituality across the cultural contexts within which A.A. is nested.

  18. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2002-01-09

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the fifth and sixth annual reporting periods (8/3/98-8/2/00) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the cross well seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted, the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction was conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and ten wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  19. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Beebe

    2003-05-05

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the seventh annual reporting period (8/3/00-8/2/01) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the interwell seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted and the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction were conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and six wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  20. Advanced development of fine coal desulfurization and recovery technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1976--December 31, 1976. [53 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R.W.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1977-02-01

    The improvement and technical development of promising methods for desulfurizing and recovering fine coal underway includes froth flotation, selective oil agglomeration, pelletization, and a chemical desulfurization process which involves leaching fine coal with a hot dilute solution of sodium carbonate containing dissolved oxygen under pressure. A preliminary assessment of the state of the art and review of the technical literature has been made. Equipment and apparatus have been assembled for small-scale laboratory experiments in froth flotation, oil agglomeration and chemical desulfurization. Preliminary froth flotation tests have been carried out on an Iowa coal to establish baseline data. Quite unexpectedly these tests indicated that aluminum nitrate may be an activator for coal because it served to increase the recovery of coal. Several potential flotation depressants for pyrite have been screened by measurement at the zeta potential and floatability of pyrite or coal in aqueous suspensions containing the potential depressants. The following reagents show some promise as pyrite depressants: ferric chloride, sodium cyanide, ammonium thiocyanate, and the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Preliminary plans have been prepared for a continuous flow bench-scale system to demonstrate the process. This system will include equipment for grinding and pretreating the coal as well as equipment for demonstrating froth flotation, selective oil agglomeration and pelletization. An investigation of coal microstructure as it relates to coal beneficiation methods has also been initiated. The distribution of various forms of pyrite by size and crystal structure has been determined for two cannel samples of coal through application of scanning electron microscope techniques.

  1. Spontaneous Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Spontaneous recovery from extinction is one of the most basic phenomena of Pavlovian conditioning. Although it can be studied by using a variety of designs, some procedures are better than others for identifying the involvement of underlying learning processes. A wide range of different learning mechanisms has been suggested as being engaged by…

  2. [Secondary dyslipidemias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargová, V; Pytliak, M; Mechírová, V

    2012-03-01

    Dyslipidemias rank among the most important preventabile factors of atherogenesis and its progression. This topic is increasingly being discussed as e.g. more than 50% of Slovak population die on atherosclerotic complications. According to etiology we distinguish primary dyslipidemias with strictly genetic background and secondary ones with origin in other disease or pathological state. Secondary dyslipidemias accompany various diseases, from common (endocrinopathies, renal diseases etc) to rare ones (thesaurismosis etc.) and represents one of symptoms of these diseases. Apart from particular clinical follow up of diagnosed dysipidemias, basic screening and secondary causes as well as treatment due to updated guidelines is recuired. In this review we present the most frequent dyslipidemias of clinical practice.

  3. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lewis R

    2010-06-01

    Two-thirds of the oil ever found is still in the ground even after primary and secondary production. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the tertiary methods purported to increase oil recovery. Since 1946 more than 400 patents on MEOR have been issued, but none has gained acceptance by the oil industry. Most of the literature on MEOR is from laboratory experiments or from field trials of insufficient duration or that lack convincing proof of the process. Several authors have made recommendations required to establish MEOR as a viable method to enhance oil recovery, and until these tests are performed, MEOR will remain an unproven concept rather than a highly desirable reality. PMID:20149719

  4. Ampere Average Current Photoinjector and Energy Recovery Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Calaga, R; Cameron, P; Chang, X; Gassner, D M; Hahn, H; Hershcovitch, A; Hseuh, H C; Johnson, P; Kayran, D; Kewisch, J; Lambiase, R F; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; McIntyre, G; Nicoletti, A; Rank, J; Roser, T; Scaduto, J; Smith, K; Srinivasan-Rao, T; Wu, K C; Zaltsman, A; Zhao, Y

    2004-01-01

    High-power Free-Electron Lasers were made possible by advances in superconducting linac operated in an energy-recovery mode, as demonstrated by the spectacular success of the Jefferson Laboratory IR-Demo. In order to get to much higher power levels, say a fraction of a megawatt average power, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. BNL’s Collider-Accelerator Department is pursuing some of these technologies for a different application, that of electron cooling of high-energy hadron beams. I will describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun employing a new secondary-emission multiplying cathode and an accelerator cavity, both capable of producing of the order of one ampere average current.

  5. Advanced Wastewater Photo-oxidation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pioneer Astronautics proposes an advanced photocatalytic oxidation reactor for enhancing the reliability and performance of Water Recovery Post Processing systems...

  6. Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO2 enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey Formation siliceous shales. Annual report, February 7, 1997--February 6, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morea, M.F.

    1998-06-01

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery project in the antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The proposed pilot consists of four existing producers on 20 acre spacing with a new 10 acre infill well drilled as the pilot CO{sub 2} injector. Most of the reservoir characterization during Phase 1 of the project will be performed using data collected in the pilot pattern wells. During this period the following tasks have been completed: laboratory wettability; specific permeability; mercury porosimetry; acoustic anisotropy; rock mechanics analysis; core description; fracture analysis; digital image analysis; mineralogical analysis; hydraulic flow unit analysis; petrographic and confocal thin section analysis; oil geochemical fingerprinting; production logging; carbon/oxygen logging; complex lithologic log analysis; NMR T2 processing; dipole shear wave anisotropy logging; shear wave vertical seismic profile processing; structural mapping; and regional tectonic synthesis. Noteworthy technological successes for this reporting period include: (1) first (ever) high resolution, crosswell reflection images of SJV sediments; (2) first successful application of the TomoSeis acquisition system in siliceous shales; (3) first detailed reservoir characterization of SJV siliceous shales; (4) first mineral based saturation algorithm for SJV siliceous shales, and (5) first CO{sub 2} coreflood experiments for siliceous shale. Preliminary results from the CO{sub 2} coreflood experiments (2,500 psi) suggest that significant oil is being produced from the siliceous shale.

  7. Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans; Aide, T Mitchell; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Broadbent, Eben N; Chazdon, Robin L; Craven, Dylan; de Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S; Cabral, George A L; de Jong, Ben H J; Denslow, Julie S; Dent, Daisy H; DeWalt, Saara J; Dupuy, Juan M; Durán, Sandra M; Espírito-Santo, Mario M; Fandino, María C; César, Ricardo G; Hall, Jefferson S; Hernandez-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C; Junqueira, André B; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G; Licona, Juan-Carlos; Lohbeck, Madelon; Marín-Spiotta, Erika; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R F; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; de Oliveira, Alexandre A; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, I Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B; Steininger, Marc K; Swenson, Nathan G; Toledo, Marisol; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D M; Vester, Hans F M; Vicentini, Alberto; Vieira, Ima C G; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G Bruce; Rozendaal, Danaë M A

    2016-02-11

    Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major environmental gradients in the Neotropics. The studied secondary forests are highly productive and resilient. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years was on average 122 megagrams per hectare (Mg ha(-1)), corresponding to a net carbon uptake of 3.05 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), 11 times the uptake rate of old-growth forests. Aboveground biomass stocks took a median time of 66 years to recover to 90% of old-growth values. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years varied 11.3-fold (from 20 to 225 Mg ha(-1)) across sites, and this recovery increased with water availability (higher local rainfall and lower climatic water deficit). We present a biomass recovery map of Latin America, which illustrates geographical and climatic variation in carbon sequestration potential during forest regrowth. The map will support policies to minimize forest loss in areas where biomass resilience is naturally low (such as seasonally dry forest regions) and promote forest regeneration and restoration in humid tropical lowland areas with high biomass resilience.

  8. Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans; Aide, T. Mitchell; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M.; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M.; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H. S.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Chazdon, Robin L.; Craven, Dylan; de Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S.; Cabral, George A. L.; de Jong, Ben H. J.; Denslow, Julie S.; Dent, Daisy H.; Dewalt, Saara J.; Dupuy, Juan M.; Durán, Sandra M.; Espírito-Santo, Mario M.; Fandino, María C.; César, Ricardo G.; Hall, Jefferson S.; Hernandez-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C.; Junqueira, André B.; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G.; Licona, Juan-Carlos; Lohbeck, Madelon; Marín-Spiotta, Erika; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A.; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R. F.; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; de Oliveira, Alexandre A.; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A.; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S.; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, I. Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B.; Steininger, Marc K.; Swenson, Nathan G.; Toledo, Marisol; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D. M.; Vester, Hans F. M.; Vicentini, Alberto; Vieira, Ima C. G.; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G. Bruce; Rozendaal, Danaë M. A.

    2016-02-01

    Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major environmental gradients in the Neotropics. The studied secondary forests are highly productive and resilient. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years was on average 122 megagrams per hectare (Mg ha-1), corresponding to a net carbon uptake of 3.05 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, 11 times the uptake rate of old-growth forests. Aboveground biomass stocks took a median time of 66 years to recover to 90% of old-growth values. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years varied 11.3-fold (from 20 to 225 Mg ha-1) across sites, and this recovery increased with water availability (higher local rainfall and lower climatic water deficit). We present a biomass recovery map of Latin America, which illustrates geographical and climatic variation in carbon sequestration potential during forest regrowth. The map will support policies to minimize forest loss in areas where biomass resilience is naturally low (such as seasonally dry forest regions) and promote forest regeneration and restoration in humid tropical lowland areas with high biomass resilience.

  9. Advanced treatment of secondary effluent from sewage treatment plant by O3/UV process%O3/UV工艺深度处理污水厂二级出水的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丹; 汤利华; 丁琦

    2012-01-01

    以合肥市望塘污水处理厂二级出水作为试验原水,采用O3/UV深度处理工艺,通过静态试验考察了O3、UV和O3/JV对水中有机物的处理效果.结果表明:波长为254 nm的紫外线和O3对水体中有机物的深度处理过程具有协同作用,在O3投加量为2.0 L/min和15 W的VUV作用50 min后,CODCr去除率可以达到72.2%.从经济和节能的角度出发,通过改变紫外灯作用时间点和作用时长对O3/UV工艺进行优化,可以采用紫外灯间歇式开启,选用间隔时间为3min,处理效果仍可达到预期要求.%With the secondary effluent from Wangtang Sewage Treatment Plant in Hefei as the raw water, using 03 /UV as the advanced treatment technology, a static test was carried out, and the effects of 03, UV and 03 /UV processes on organic matters removal were investigated. The results showed that: ultraviolet with a wavelength of 254 nm played a synergistic role with 03 during the advanced treatment of organic matters in water, after 50 min of reaction under the condition that, the dosage of 03 was 2.0 L/min and intensity of VUV was 15 W, the removal rate of CODcr reached 72.2%. From the economic and energy-saving point of view, (V UV process was modified through changing the points and the length of irradiation time of the UV lamp. It could be seen that, using the UV lamp with a intermittent switch mode, and choosing 3 min as the interval time, the treatment effect could still satisfy the expected requirement.

  10. Effects of modified operation combined with secondary disc method in benign tumor of parotid gland on sensory recovery of auricular lobule and auricle skin%改良术式结合二次翻瓣法在腮腺良性肿瘤治疗中对耳垂及外耳廓区皮肤感觉恢复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文泽; 孙道成; 邹家华

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较腮腺良性肿瘤改良术式结合二次翻瓣法较传统术式对患者耳垂及外耳廓区皮肤感觉恢复的影响。方法选择2005年7月至2014年6月在我院行腮腺良性肿瘤切除术患者22例,随机分为实验组和对照组,每组11例。实验组行保留腮腺咬肌筋膜,二次翻瓣法,解剖并保留耳大神经耳后、耳垂支和腮腺区域性切除术的腮腺良性肿瘤改良手术方式。对照组按常规行腮腺肿瘤及腮腺浅叶或全叶切除术。术后观察、随访6个月。采用SPSS 13.0统计软件包中的检验,对两组患者术后耳垂及外耳廓区皮肤感觉恢复情况进行χ2比较。结果实验组中患者耳垂及外耳廓区感觉恢复情况明显优于对照组,差异具有显著性(P<0.05)。结论改良术式结合二次翻瓣法比传统手术方式在腮腺良性肿瘤治疗中对保存耳垂及外耳廓皮肤感觉具有明显优势。%Objective To compare the effects of modified operation combined with secondary disc method in benign tumor of parotid gland and traditional surgery on the sensory recovery of the auricular lobule and auricle skin.Methods 22 patients with parotid benign tumor who received parotidectomy in our hospital from2005.7 to 201.6 were randomly divided into experimental group ( n =11 ) and control group ( n =11 ) .In experimental group, the modified operation of benign tumor in parotid gland included regional ectomy of parotid, secondary disc method, reservation of fascia parotidea masseterica and dissection and reservation of the post aurem and auricular lobule branches of great auricular nerve.In the control group, the 11 patients were operated by the conventional technique.After 6 months, the effects of 2 groups on the sensory recovery of the skin of the auricular lobule and auricle region were evaluated.The data were analyzed with SPSS 13.0 software package for x2test. Results The sensory recovery of the skin of the auricular

  11. Onondaga 10 unit. Enhanced oil and gas recovery in Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollom, R.J.; Layton, F.L.; Lorenz, J.S.; Matzkanin, A.D.; Tefertiller, R.A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The Onondage 10 unit is the first Salina-Niagaran reservoir reported in the Secondary Recovery Report series and is the first waterflood pressure maintenance project in Michigan. The term pressure maintenance as used in this study is not synonymous with the term secondary recovery. A secondary recovery operation is initiated some time near the depletion of estimated primary reserves for the purpose or recovering residual oil in place. In contrast, a pressure maintenance operation is begun before the reservoir pressure has dropped to a level requiring secondary recovery. This project, begun in Aug. 1973, is monitored through a computerized field instrumentation system to assure maximum production efficiency. The field has produced 4.5 million bbl of oil through June 1977, a quantity far in excess of the original primary production estimates of 2.7 million bbl.

  12. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Recovery FAQs Updated:Aug 24,2016 Most people ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers What treatments will I ...

  13. Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.; Bongers, F.; Aide, T.M.; Almeyda Zambrano, A.M.; Balvanera, P.; Becknell, J.M.; Boukill, V.; Brancalion, P.H.S.; Jakovac, A.C.; Braga Junqueira, A.; Lohbeck, M.W.M.; Pena Claros, M.; Rozendaal, Danae

    2016-01-01

    Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle1. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates a

  14. Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans; Aide, T.M.; Almeyda Zambrano, A.M.; Balvanera, Patricia; Jakovac, C.C.; Braga Junqueira, A.; Lohbeck, Madelon; Penã-Claros, Marielos; Rozendaal, D.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates

  15. Electrokinetic treatment of environmental matrices. Contaminants removal and phosphorus recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes, Paula Alexandra Rodrigues e Araújo

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to develop viable techniques for removal and recovery organic and inorganic compounds from environmental matrices, due to their ecotoxicity, regulatory obligations or potential supplies as secondary materials. In this dissertation, electro –removal and –recovery techniques were applied to five different contaminated environmental matrices aiming phosphorus (P) recovery and/or contaminants removal. In a first phase, the electrokinetic process (EK) was carried out in soils fo...

  16. Monoparesis secondary to herpes zoster.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bilal, S

    2011-06-01

    We describe a 90-year-old woman with right upper limb monoparesis secondary to varicella zoster virus infection as a result of extensive inflammatory involvement of the entire brachial plexus at root level. To our knowledge, this is the first report of entire brachial plexus involvement in a living patient of such advanced age. Despite a delay in presentation and thus initiation of treatment, a favourable clinical response was observed.

  17. A review on applications of nanotechnology in the enhanced oil recovery part A: effects of nanoparticles on interfacial tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghian, Goshtasp; Hendraningrat, Luky

    2016-01-01

    Chemical enhanced oil recovery is another strong growing technology with the potential of a step change innovation, which will help to secure future oil supply by turning resources into reserves. While Substantial amount of crude oil remains in the reservoir after primary and secondary production, conventional production methods give access to on average only one-third of original oil in place, the use of surfactants and polymers allows for recovery of up to another third of this oil. Chemical flooding is of increasing interest and importance due to high oil prices and the need to increase oil production. Research in nanotechnology in the petroleum industry is advancing rapidly and an enormous progress in the application of nanotechnology in this area is to be expected. Nanotechnology has the potential to profoundly change enhanced oil recovery and to improve mechanism of recovery. This paper, therefore, focuses on the reviews of the application of nano technology in chemical flooding process in oil recovery and reviews the application nano in the polymer and surfactant flooding on the interfacial tension process.

  18. Joining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Messler, Robert W

    1993-01-01

    Provides an unusually complete and readable compilation of the primary and secondary options for joining conventional materials in non-conventional ways. Provides unique coverage of adhesive bonding using both organic and inorganic adhesives, cements and mortars. Focuses on materials issues without ignoring issues related to joint design, production processing, quality assurance, process economics, and joining performance in service.Joining of advanced materials is a unique treatment of joining of both conventional and advanced metals andalloys, intermetallics, ceramics, glasses, polymers, a

  19. 30 CFR 250.1165 - What must I do for enhanced recovery operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Supervisor and receive approval for pressure maintenance, secondary or tertiary recovery, cycling, and... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do for enhanced recovery operations... Requirements Other Requirements § 250.1165 What must I do for enhanced recovery operations? (a) You...

  20. Obesity accelerates secondary sexual maturity in girls

    OpenAIRE

    Meiriani Sari; Endy Paryanto Prawirohartono; Madarina Julia

    2012-01-01

    Background Worldwide incidence of obesity in children is increasing. Obesity may have many health effects including advancement of sexual maturity. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the timing of secondary sexual maturation in obese vs. non-obese girls. Methods Subjects were 105 obese and 105 non-obese girls, aged 7 to 8 years who had not entered puberty. Breast and pubic hair growth, secondary sexual characteristics, were assessed at baseline and every 4 months for two ye...

  1. Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans; Aide, T Mitchell; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Broadbent, Eben N; Chazdon, Robin L; Craven, Dylan; de Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S; Cabral, George A L; de Jong, Ben H J; Denslow, Julie S; Dent, Daisy H; DeWalt, Saara J; Dupuy, Juan M; Durán, Sandra M; Espírito-Santo, Mario M; Fandino, María C; César, Ricardo G; Hall, Jefferson S; Hernandez-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C; Junqueira, André B; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G; Licona, Juan-Carlos; Lohbeck, Madelon; Marín-Spiotta, Erika; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R F; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; de Oliveira, Alexandre A; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, I Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B; Steininger, Marc K; Swenson, Nathan G; Toledo, Marisol; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D M; Vester, Hans F M; Vicentini, Alberto; Vieira, Ima C G; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G Bruce; Rozendaal, Danaë M A

    2016-02-11

    Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major environmental gradients in the Neotropics. The studied secondary forests are highly productive and resilient. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years was on average 122 megagrams per hectare (Mg ha(-1)), corresponding to a net carbon uptake of 3.05 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), 11 times the uptake rate of old-growth forests. Aboveground biomass stocks took a median time of 66 years to recover to 90% of old-growth values. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years varied 11.3-fold (from 20 to 225 Mg ha(-1)) across sites, and this recovery increased with water availability (higher local rainfall and lower climatic water deficit). We present a biomass recovery map of Latin America, which illustrates geographical and climatic variation in carbon sequestration potential during forest regrowth. The map will support policies to minimize forest loss in areas where biomass resilience is naturally low (such as seasonally dry forest regions) and promote forest regeneration and restoration in humid tropical lowland areas with high biomass resilience. PMID:26840632

  2. 大气中二次有机气溶胶估算方法研究进展%Advances in the estimation methods of secondary organic aerosol in atmospheric environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶文媛; 吴琳; 冯银厂; 朱坦

    2011-01-01

    This paper is inclined to present a comprehensive review of the research advances concerning the assessment methods of Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA). So far as we know, the following assessment methods prove more popular, including EC-tracer method;reactive chemical transport modeling approach; non-reactive chemical transport modeling approach; as well as the organic tracer-based receptor modeling method. Among the above mendoned methods, the indirect estimation methods are widely used for the time being thanks to their being free from direct measurement of SOA. As is known, the Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) proves to result from Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) being oxidized by ozone and the OH and NO3 radicals, thus fonning low-volatility species that partly condense on the existing aerosols and thereby generating SOA. Studying their generating principles and comparing advantages and disadvantages of the different methods so far existing can help us to provide proper basis for better choice of different estimation methods, which can be broadly divided in the following categories: (1) empirical, mainly dependent on measurements; (2) mechanistic, mainly involving an environmental model; (3) the class that can be put into semi-empirical, which combines measurements with environmental model together. Literately speaking, empirical methods consist of EC-tracer method and panicle-phase OC-tracer method, etc. The so-called EC-tracer method is widely used perhaps because it depends primarily on the ambient measurements of EC and OC, which can be easily obtained. The drawbacks of this method lie in that it is hard to accurately obtain the ratio of POA to EC. Since mechanistic environmental models are important means for evaluating POA and SOA concentrations with high-span coverage of space and time, they are thought of as the unique means to assess the concentrations of POA and SOA from future emission or climate changes. However, rigorous inputs are needed in this

  3. EPA Recovery Mapper

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Recovery Mapper is an Internet interactive mapping application that allows users to discover information about every American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

  4. Resource recovery: research development and demonstration plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaramelli, A B

    1979-10-01

    Implementation of resource recovery is being retarded by technological uncertainties and institutional impediments. Development and commercialization of new competitive technologies are not proceeding rapidly because a structured development program for the industry is lacking. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized these problems, and as part of its overall program in energy recovery from urban waste, it is developing a near- and longer-term research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program to accelerate commercialization of promising resource recovery technologies. The MITRE Corporation was contracted to develop a near-term RD and D Plan for resource recovery which identifies actions which should be taken over the next three years to accelerate commercialization of existing and developing technologies. The research needs presented in this Plan exist in the industry today. The resolution, however, is not necessarily the sole responsibility of DOE, but rather calls for a combination of public and private sector efforts. An individual research program is presented for each resource recovery technology. A program consists of a combination of bench-, pilot-, demonstration-, and full-scale process and equipment evaluations as well as qualitative and quantitative studies. Each research program is tailored to alleviate the problems of a technology such that their resolution will accelerate the rate at which the technology advances toward commercial readiness and realizes commercial implementation. All the research needs identified are actions which should be taken in the next three years to advance the field of resource recovery.

  5. Recovery from mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Friis, Vivi Soegaard; Haxholm, Birthe Lodahl;

    2015-01-01

    Mental health services strive to implement a recovery-oriented approach to rehabilitation. Little is known about service users' perception of the recovery approach. The aim is to explore the service user's perspectives on facilitators and barriers associated with recovery. Twelve residents living...

  6. Heat recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat transfer is a living science and technical advances are constantly being made. However, in many cases, progress is limited by the equipment that is available on the market, rather than by knowledge of the heat transfer process. A case in point is the design of economizers: in such equipment a small quantity of water (with a relatively good heat transfer coefficient) is heated by a large quantity of low-pressure gas (with an inherently low heat transfer coefficient). As a first step in design finned tubing is used to lessen the discrepancy in coefficients. From this point, it becomes apparent that the equipment consists of a small number of tubes (to maintain good velocity on the water side) of considerable length (to provide sufficient area). In the process industries the base pressure, though low, may be in the region of 0.5 bar, and there is no convenient flue in which to place the heat recovery coil. It is therefore contained in a flat-sided enclosure, which is ill-fitted to pressure containment and is therefore reinforced with a plethora of structural sections. Such inelegant construction is quite common in North America; in Europe, cylindrical containments of vast size have been supplied for the same purposes. The real shortcoming is a successful marriage of different disciplines to produce reliable and efficient heat transfer equipment suitably contained

  7. RECOVERY OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED PRIMARY AND SECONDARY WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective removal of mercury contamination from water is a complex and difficult problem. In particular, mercury treatment of natural waters is difficult because of the low regulatory standards. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency has established a national ambient water quality standard of 12 parts-per-trillion (ppt), whereas the standard is 1.8 ppt in the Great Lakes Region. In addition, mercury is typically present in several different forms, but sorption processes are rarely effective with more than one or two of these forms. To meet the low regulatory discharge limits, a sorption process must be able to address all forms of mercury present in the water. One approach is to apply different sorbents in series depending on the mercury speciation and the regulatory discharge limits. Four new sorbents have been developed to address the variety of mercury species present in industrial discharges and natural waters. Three of these sorbents have been field tested on contaminated creek water at the Y-12 Plant. Two of these sorbents have demonstrated very high removal efficiencies for soluble mercury species, with mercury concentrations at the outlet of a pilot-scale system less than 12 ppt for as long as six months. The other sorbent tested at the Y-12 Plant is targeted at colloidal mercury that is not removed by standard sorption or filtration processes. At the Y-12 Plant, colloidal mercury appears to be associated with iron, so a sorbent that removes mercury-iron complexes in the presence of a magnetic field was evaluated. Field results indicate good removal of this mercury fraction from the Y-12 waters. In addition, this sorbent is easily regenerated by simply removing the magnetic field and flushing the columns with water. The fourth sorbent is still undergoing laboratory development, but results to date indicate exceptionally high mercury sorption capacity. The sorbent is capable of removing all forms of mercury typically present in natural and industrial waters, including Hg21, elemental mercury, methyl mercury, and colloidal mercury. The process is also showing very fast kinetics, which allows for higher flow rates and smaller treatment units

  8. World Economy:Experiencing an Unbalancing Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ As the world is still trying to bounce back from the global economic crisis, the recovery remains fragile and uneven. For example, the unemployment remains a major economic and social challenge: more than 210 million people across the globe may be unemployed, an increase of more than 30 million since 2007. Three-fourths of the increase has occurred in advanced economies.

  9. Wireless Hybrid Identification and Sensing Platform for Equipment Recovery (WHISPER) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Systems & Technologies proposed WHISPER (Wireless Hybrid Identification and Sensing Platform for Equipment Recovery) solution to NASA's need for...

  10. Department of Energy Recovery Act Investment in Biomass Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-11-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) provided more than $36 billion to the Department of Energy (DOE) to accelerate work on existing projects, undertake new and transformative research, and deploy clean energy technologies across the nation. Of this funding, $1029 million is supporting innovative work to advance biomass research, development, demonstration, and deployment.

  11. 海洋微生物次级代谢产物抗菌作用研究进展%Antimicrobial activity of the secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms:research advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹慢慢; 刘炎东; 张黎明

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to review the research progress on the secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms in recent years and to summarize its application in antimicrobial activity. We have earched and collected the published articles which are focused on the secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms; analysed the structure and function of the secondary metabolites and summed up the antimicrobial activities of the production from marine microorganisms; in addition,investigated the mechanism of action about the antimicrobial activities of the secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms. The secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms have rich structural diversity and different mechanisms of action. Marine microorganisms have the potential to produce large numbers of bioactive metabolites, among which the antimicrobial substance is the most prominent,making it an important resource in the development of novel marine drugs.%海洋微生物次级代谢产物种类繁多,具有丰富的结构多样性和不同的抗菌功能。其中以抗菌活性物质最为突出,已经成为近年来新药筛选的重要资源,在药品开发应用中具有良好的发展前景。本文结合近年关于海洋微生物次级代谢产物的报道,分析海洋微生物次级代谢产物的结构和功能;并对海洋微生物次级代谢产物在抗菌方面的作用及其抗菌作用机制的研究进展进行总结。

  12. From the rhetoric to the real: A critical review of how the concepts of recovery and social inclusion may inform mental health nurse advanced level curricula - the eMenthe project.

    OpenAIRE

    DOYLE, LOUISE; Keogh, Brian

    2015-01-01

    PUBLISHED Objectives: This critical review addresses the question of how the concepts of recovery and social inclusion may inform mental health nurse education curricula at Master's level in order to bring about significant and positive change to practice. Design: This is a literature-based critical review incorporating a rapid review. It has been said that if done well, this approach can be highly relevant to health care studies and social interventions, and has substantial cl...

  13. Predicting Functional Recovery after Acute Ankle Sprain

    OpenAIRE

    Sean R O'Connor; Bleakley, Chris M; Tully, Mark A; McDonough, Suzanne M

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:Ankle sprains are among the most common acute musculoskeletal conditions presenting to primary care. Their clinical course is variable but there are limited recommendations on prognostic factors. Our primary aim was to identify clinical predictors of short and medium term functional recovery after ankle sprain.METHODS:A secondary analysis of data from adult participants (N = 85) with an acute ankle sprain, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial was undertaken. The predictive v...

  14. Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Quarterly technical progress report, December 22, 1993--March 21, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

    1994-06-01

    The overall goal of this research is the development of advanced water-soluble copolymers for use in enhanced oil recovery. This report summarizes technical progress for the following tasks: advanced copolymer synthesis; and characterization of molecular structure of copolymers.

  15. Multicultural Upper Secondary School Life in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    secondary school as a micro-sociological laboratory of the multicultural processes and developments taking place in society at large. It is recommended to reflect upon and implement different strategies that could support a ‘citizenship education' which is needed in order to advance the cohesion...

  16. Metal recycle and recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Zaib-un-nisa

    1999-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The development of techniques for the removal and recovery of metals from industrial effluent taking account of the consequences of the definition of waste in the Basel Convention on transfrontier shipment of waste is reported. The use of fluidised bed cell electrolysis in the recovery of metals from dilute solutions is investigated, and the conditions for recovery optimised. For the first...

  17. Beyond enhanced recovery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Kehlet, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    We read with great interest the special article by Smart and Daniels discussing several important topics of perioperative care, especially regarding lack of consensus on the definition of "postoperative recovery", and need for further understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms. However, we disagree...... that a "new, clearly defined standard of what "recovery" actually is", demands "a look beyond enhanced recovery"(1) for several reasons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  18. 柳珊瑚及其共生微生物活性代谢产物的研究进展%Advances in studies on bioactive secondary metabolites from gorgonian and microbial symbionts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温露; 韦啟球; 蔡隽妮; 陈钢; 张世倡

    2012-01-01

    柳珊瑚中含有许多结构新颖、生物活性多种多样的次生代谢产物,引起了人们对其化学成分及药理活性研究的极大兴趣.共生菌是长期与宿主共同生活的一大类群的特殊微生物,因长期与宿主共进化,其生理生化特点更加鲜明、次生代谢产物合成更具特色.近几年,柳珊瑚共生微生物活性代谢产物的研究越来越多地受到人们的关注.本文综述了2000年至2010年间有关柳珊瑚及其共生微生物中化学成分及生物活性研究的进展,并在此基础上对柳珊瑚共生微生物潜在的药用前景进行了展望.%Gorgonian is a rich source of bioactive substances with intriguing and unique structural feature as well as potential pharmaceutical applications. Symbionts are microorganisms living inside hosts (mostly multicellular organisms) during a variable period of their life. During the long-time co-evolution with their hosts , symbionts have more chances to acquire unique traits in their biochemistry, physiology and secondary metabolite production. In recent years, bioactive secondary metabolites from symbiotic microorganisms of gorgonian have been caused wide public concern. The present paper reviews the progress in the chemistry and bioactivities of the secondary metabolites from gorgonian and symbiotic microorganisms. On basis, a perspective on the pharmaceutical potential of the bioactive compounds from gorgonian microbial symbionts is made.

  19. Advancement of early diagnosis and monitoring in secondary caries research using OCT%OCT用于继发龋早期诊断与监测的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林朴; 姚晖

    2011-01-01

    光学相干断层成像术(OCT)是20世纪90年代出现的一种非创伤性的对透明与半透明的表层生物组织结构成像的技术.近年来,OCT在口腔医学领域进行了深入的研究,可用于检测口腔软硬组织早期病变的表层结构改变,尤其是对较为隐匿、常规临床诊断技术难以发现的充填体下早期继发龋的检测与诊断具有独到之处.从OCT技术的原理与相关研究进展、继发龋的病因与诊断、OCT检测牙修复体周围早期继发龋的成像观察、继发龋病变危险因素的监测等方面进行了简要综述,证明OCT技术是一项很有潜力的继发龋早期诊断技术.%Optical coherence tomography (OCT) which was brought into existence in early 90s of 20 century is a noninvasive technique for creating cross-sectional images of transparent or semi-transparent internal biological tissue structure.In recent years applicability research in the field of stomatology has made great progress.The micro structure changes of surface layer of the lesions in oral hard and soft tissues could be detected by this technique,with its unique feature to detect insidious secondary caries beneath dental restorations that couldn't be found by current clinical techniques easily.In this review,secondary caries etiopathogenisis and diagnosis,principle were discussed firstly and then imaging observation of OCT to detect early second caries around dental restoration and monitoring on risk factors inducing secondary caries are reviewed.It indicated that OCT technique has great potential on diagnosis of secondary caries.

  20. Pharmacogenetics of neural injury recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson-Fuhrhop, Kristin M; Cramer, Steven C

    2013-10-01

    Relatively few pharmacological agents are part of routine care for neural injury, although several are used or under consideration in acute stroke, chronic stroke, traumatic brain injury and secondary stroke prevention. Tissue plasminogen activator is approved for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, and genetic variants may impact the efficacy and safety of this drug. In the chronic phase of stroke, several drugs such as L-dopa, fluoxetine and donepezil are under investigation for enhancing rehabilitation therapy, with varying levels of evidence. One potential reason for the mixed efficacy displayed by these drugs may be the influence of genetic factors that were not considered in prior studies. An understanding of the genetics impacting the efficacy of dopaminergic, serotonergic and cholinergic drugs may allow clinicians to target these potential therapies to those patients most likely to benefit. In the setting of stroke prevention, which is directly linked to neural injury recovery, the most highly studied pharmacogenomic interactions pertain to clopidogrel and warfarin. Incorporating pharmacogenomics into neural injury recovery has the potential to maximize the benefit of several current and potential pharmacological therapies and to refine the choice of pharmacological agent that may be used to enhance benefits from rehabilitation therapy.

  1. Issues of ICT Usage among Malaysian Secondary School English Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Arumugam; Mohamed, Abdul Halim

    2013-01-01

    This study explored on perception, usage and obstacles of using ICT in teaching English Language among secondary school English teachers. The advancement of technology has given a space for teachers to boost teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools. It is believed that integration of ICT could enhance quality of teaching and…

  2. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner

    2004-04-29

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  3. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner; Iraj Ershaghi

    2002-04-30

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful redevelopment and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  4. Advances in influence of UV-B radiation on medicinal plant secondary metabolism%UV-B辐射对药用植物次生代谢的影响研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴洋; 房敏峰; 岳明; 柴永福; 王慧; 李易非

    2012-01-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion results in an increased level of solar UV-B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 ran) reaching the earth surface. By the effect of UV-B radiation, various medicinal active ingredients changed because of the change of gene expression , enzyme activity and secondary metabolism, clinical effect is also changed. The research status of UV-B radiation and the accumulation of plant secondary metabolites in the past 10 years were summarized in this paper to supply reference for cultivation and exploitation of the medicinal plants.%平流层臭氧稀薄导致到达地面的中波紫外辐射( UV-B,280 ~ 320 nm)增加.受UV-B辐射影响,药用植物的基因表达、酶活性及次生代谢发生改变,导致多种药用活性成分含量变化从而影响临床疗效.该文综述了近10年来国内外学者对UV-B辐射与植物次生代谢产物积累方面的研究成果,为药用植物的栽培和开发提供参考.

  5. Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey Formation siliceous shales. Annual report, February 12, 1996--February 11, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toronyi, R.M.

    1997-12-01

    The Buena Vista Hills field is located about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield, in Kern County, California, about two miles north of the city of Taft, and five miles south of the Elk Hills field. The Antelope Shale zone was discovered at the Buena Vista Hills field in 1952, and has since been under primary production. Little research was done to improve the completion techniques during the development phase in the 1950s, so most of the wells are completed with about 1000 ft of slotted liner. The proposed pilot consists of four existing producers on 20 acre spacing with a new 10 acre infill well drilled as the pilot CO{sub 2} injector. Most of the reservoir characterization of the first phase of the project will be performed using data collected in the pilot pattern wells. This is the first annual report of the project. It covers the period February 12, 1996 to February 11, 1997. During this period the Chevron Murvale 653Z-26B well was drilled in Section 26-T31S/R23E in the Buena Vista Hills field, Kern County, California. The Monterey Formation equivalent Brown and Antelope Shales were continuously cored, the zone was logged with several different kinds of wireline logs, and the well was cased to a total depth of 4907 ft. Core recovery was 99.5%. Core analyses that have been performed include Dean Stark porosity, permeability and fluid saturations, field wettability, anelastic strain recovery, spectral core gamma, profile permeametry, and photographic imaging. Wireline log analysis includes mineral-based error minimization (ELAN), NMR T2 processing, and dipole shear wave anisotropy. A shear wave vertical seismic profile was acquired after casing was set and processing is nearly complete.

  6. Assessment of Feasibility of the Beneficial Use of Waste Heat from the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna P. Guillen

    2012-07-01

    This report investigates the feasibility of using waste heat from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). A proposed glycol waste heat recovery system was assessed for technical and economic feasibility. The system under consideration would use waste heat from the ATR secondary coolant system to preheat air for space heating of TRA-670. A tertiary coolant stream would be extracted from the secondary coolant system loop and pumped to a new plate and frame heat exchanger, where heat would be transferred to a glycol loop for preheating outdoor air in the heating and ventilation system. Historical data from Advanced Test Reactor operations over the past 10 years indicates that heat from the reactor coolant was available (when needed for heating) for 43.5% of the year on average. Potential energy cost savings by using the waste heat to preheat intake air is $242K/yr. Technical, safety, and logistics considerations of the glycol waste heat recovery system are outlined. Other opportunities for using waste heat and reducing water usage at ATR are considered.

  7. DNA damage checkpoint recovery and cancer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell cycle checkpoints were initially presumed to function as a regulator of cell cycle machinery in response to different genotoxic stresses, and later found to play an important role in the process of tumorigenesis by acting as a guard against DNA over-replication. As a counterpart of checkpoint activation, the checkpoint recovery machinery is working in opposition, aiming to reverse the checkpoint activation and resume the normal cell cycle. The DNA damage response (DDR) and oncogene induced senescence (OIS) are frequently found in precancerous lesions, and believed to constitute a barrier to tumorigenesis, however, the DDR and OIS have been observed to be diminished in advanced cancers of most tissue origins. These findings suggest that when progressing from pre-neoplastic lesions to cancer, DNA damage checkpoint barriers are overridden. How the DDR checkpoint is bypassed in this process remains largely unknown. Activated cytokine and growth factor-signaling pathways were very recently shown to suppress the DDR and to promote uncontrolled cell proliferation in the context of oncovirus infection. In recent decades, data from cell line and tumor models showed that a group of checkpoint recovery proteins function in promoting tumor progression; data from patient samples also showed overexpression of checkpoint recovery proteins in human cancer tissues and a correlation with patients' poor prognosis. In this review, the known cell cycle checkpoint recovery proteins and their roles in DNA damage checkpoint recovery are reviewed, as well as their implications in cancer development. This review also provides insight into the mechanism by which the DDR suppresses oncogene-driven tumorigenesis and tumor progression. - Highlights: • DNA damage checkpoint works as a barrier to cancer initiation. • DDR machinary response to genotoxic and oncogenic stress in similar way. • Checkpoint recovery pathways provide active signaling in cell cycle control. • Checkpoint

  8. DNA damage checkpoint recovery and cancer development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haiyong [First affiliated hospital, Zhejiang University, School of medicine, Cancer Center, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Zhang, Xiaoshan [Department of Genetics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Genetics Unit 1010, 1515 Holcombe Blvd. Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Teng, Lisong, E-mail: lsteng@zju.edu.cn [First affiliated hospital, Zhejiang University, School of medicine, Cancer Center, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Legerski, Randy J., E-mail: rlegersk@mdanderson.org [Department of Genetics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Genetics Unit 1010, 1515 Holcombe Blvd. Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2015-06-10

    Cell cycle checkpoints were initially presumed to function as a regulator of cell cycle machinery in response to different genotoxic stresses, and later found to play an important role in the process of tumorigenesis by acting as a guard against DNA over-replication. As a counterpart of checkpoint activation, the checkpoint recovery machinery is working in opposition, aiming to reverse the checkpoint activation and resume the normal cell cycle. The DNA damage response (DDR) and oncogene induced senescence (OIS) are frequently found in precancerous lesions, and believed to constitute a barrier to tumorigenesis, however, the DDR and OIS have been observed to be diminished in advanced cancers of most tissue origins. These findings suggest that when progressing from pre-neoplastic lesions to cancer, DNA damage checkpoint barriers are overridden. How the DDR checkpoint is bypassed in this process remains largely unknown. Activated cytokine and growth factor-signaling pathways were very recently shown to suppress the DDR and to promote uncontrolled cell proliferation in the context of oncovirus infection. In recent decades, data from cell line and tumor models showed that a group of checkpoint recovery proteins function in promoting tumor progression; data from patient samples also showed overexpression of checkpoint recovery proteins in human cancer tissues and a correlation with patients' poor prognosis. In this review, the known cell cycle checkpoint recovery proteins and their roles in DNA damage checkpoint recovery are reviewed, as well as their implications in cancer development. This review also provides insight into the mechanism by which the DDR suppresses oncogene-driven tumorigenesis and tumor progression. - Highlights: • DNA damage checkpoint works as a barrier to cancer initiation. • DDR machinary response to genotoxic and oncogenic stress in similar way. • Checkpoint recovery pathways provide active signaling in cell cycle control. • Checkpoint

  9. SECONDARY BRAIN INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Ayu Basmatika

    2013-01-01

    Secondary brain injury is a condision that occurs at some times after the primary impact and can be largely prevented and treated. Most brain injury ends with deadly consequences which is caused by secondary damage to the brain. Traumatic brain injured still represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals under the age of 45 years in the world. The classification of secondary brain injured is divided into extracranial and intracranial causes. The cause of extracranial s...

  10. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  11. The Advancement of CO2 Biological Trapping and Wastewater Ecological Recovery Based on Microalgae Cultivation.%微藻在CO2生物捕集及废水生态修复领域的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小红; 常影; 黄和; 高振; 尹继龙; 纪晓俊

    2011-01-01

    温室效应、水资源短缺和能源危机是21世纪人类面临的三大挑战.微藻是一种水生植物,在CO2减排、废水生态修复及生物能源领域已成为全球研究热点.综述了微藻在CO2生物捕集和废水生态修复的应用研究进展.微藻生物柴油现已成为全球研发热点,但研究主要集中在某个单元的最优化设计,而对各单元之间相互作用和耦合的重要性缺乏充分认知,提出了将CO2生物捕集、废水生态修复、生物柴油制备、藻渣替代水煤浆与煤共气化的理念,这对微藻生物过程的高效全局优化和环境综合治理具有重要意义,是未来我国发展低碳经济的有效途径,并在此基础上对微藻产业规模化的未来核心研究方向进行了展望.%Greenhouse effect, water resource crisis and energy crisis are the three major challenges in front of human beings in the 21st century. Microalgae, as a kind of aquatic plant, have become a hot global research topic in the field of CO2 emission reduction, wastewater ecological recovery and biological energy. The application research progress in using microalgae in the field of CO2 biological trapping and wastewater ecological recovery is summarized. Based on microalgal biological processes research concentrating on optimum design of one unit and lacking of fully cognition toward the importance of interconnection, The conception of coupling these factors are putted forward. The new biofuel strategy is biodiesel production of high oil content microalgae coupled with wastewater treatment and flue gas, then algal residue and coal both vaporize. Efficient global optimization and environmental comprehensive control is important. To develop low carbon economy is an effective way in China, The future research emphasis and prospect of microalgae interconnection are also mentioned.

  12. Waste Heat Recovery. Technology and Opportunities in U.S. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Ilona [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States); Choate, William T. [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States); Davidson, Amber [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States)

    2008-03-01

    This study was initiated in order to evaluate RD&D needs for improving waste heat recovery technologies. A bottomup approach is used to evaluate waste heat quantity, quality, recovery practices, and technology barriers in some of the largest energyconsuming units in U.S. manufacturing. The results from this investigation serve as a basis for understanding the state of waste heat recovery and providing recommendations for RD&D to advance waste heat recovery technologies.

  13. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. End of budget period report, August 3, 1994--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.R.; Hinterlong, G.; Watts, G.; Justice, J.; Brown, K.; Hickman, T.S.

    1997-12-01

    The Oxy West Welch project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. The research and design phase primarily involves advanced reservoir characterization and accelerating the production response. The demonstration phase will implement the reservoir management plan based on an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood as designed in the initial phase. During Budget Period 1, work was completed on the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatments and the hydraulic fracture design. Analysis of the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatment provided a methodology for predicting results. The hydraulic fracture treatment proved up both the fracture design approach a and the use of passive seismic for mapping the fracture wing orientation. Although the 3-D seismic interpretation is still being integrated into the geologic model and interpretation of borehole seismic is still underway, the simulator has been enhanced to the point of giving good waterflood history matches. The simulator-forecasted results for an optimal designed miscible CO{sub 2} flood in the demonstration area gave sufficient economics to justify continuation of the project into Budget Period 2.

  14. Solvent recycle/recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffhausen, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Ugaki, S.N.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes Phase I of the Solvent Recycle/Recovery Task of the DOE Chlorinated Solvent Substitution Program for the US Air Force by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., through the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The purpose of the task is to identify and test recovery and recycling technologies for proposed substitution solvents identified by the Biodegradable Solvent Substitution Program and the Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping Program with the overall objective of minimizing hazardous wastes. A literature search to identify recycle/recovery technologies and initial distillation studies has been conducted. 4 refs.

  15. Current perspectives on RNA secondary structure probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Julia; Prestwood, Liam; Lever, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    The range of roles played by structured RNAs in biological systems is vast. At the same time as we are learning more about the importance of RNA structure, recent advances in reagents, methods and technology mean that RNA secondary structural probing has become faster and more accurate. As a result, the capabilities of laboratories that already perform this type of structural analysis have increased greatly, and it has also become more widely accessible. The present review summarizes established and recently developed techniques. The information we can derive from secondary structural analysis is assessed, together with the areas in which we are likely to see exciting developments in the near future. PMID:25110033

  16. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a search site for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  17. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  18. A Bumpy Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN FENGYING

    2010-01-01

    @@ The world economic situation has been extremely complicated in 2010. This year saw fluctuating market confidence,changing commodity prices, imbalanced economic recovery, diverse economic policies, lingering trade protectionism, and fierce currency battles.

  19. Disaster Debris Recovery Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 3,500 composting facilities, demolition contractors, haulers, transfer...

  20. RECOVERY OF RUTHENIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummitt, W.E.; Hardwick, W.H.

    1961-01-01

    A process is given for the recovery of ruthenium from its aqueous solutions by oxidizing the ruthenium to the octavalent state and subsequently extracting the ruthenium into a halogen-substituted liquid paraffin.

  1. Recovery Audit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Recovery Audit Programs mission is to identify and correct Medicare improper payments through the efficient detection and collection of overpayments made on...

  2. Biosurfactant-producing Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples enhance oil recovery at lab scale

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; L. R. Rodrigues; J.A. Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    Biosurfactant-producing Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples enhance oil recovery at lab scale Eduardo J Gudiña, Lígia R. Rodrigues, José A. Teixeira IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from reservoirs beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using micro...

  3. 混凝沉淀深度处理混合化工污水二级出水的研究%Advanced treatment of secondary effluent of mixed chemical wastewater by coagulation and sedimentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王申; 许立群; 张有仓; 陈恒宝

    2012-01-01

    The experiment on treatment of secondary effluent of mixed chemical wastewater by coagulation and sedimentation was studied. The results showed that: the best coagulation effect was obtained with the mixed addition of PAC and PAM, the optimal dosage of the two agents were 100 and 1 mg/L respectively, the optimal reaction time was 30 min. Under the above condition, the average mass concentration of CODo and TP of the effluent water reached 68 and 0.35 mg/L respectively, the chroma was 31 degree. The effluent water quality met the specification for grade 1 in DB 32/939-2006 Jiangsu Provincial Discharge Standard of Main Water pollutants for Chemical Industry, the total additional cost for the treatment was 0.33 yuan/m3.%利用混凝沉淀工艺对混合化工污水二级出水进行试验研究,结果表明:采用PAC和PAM混合投加混凝效果最佳,最佳投加量分别为100、1 mg/L,最佳反应时间为30 min.在此工况下,出水CODCr、TP的质量浓度可分别达到68、0.35 mg/L,色度可达31度,满足江苏省DB 32/939-2006《化学工业主要水污染物排放标准》中的一级标准要求,新增总处理成本为0.33元/m3.

  4. Teaching secondary mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Rock, David

    2013-01-01

    Solidly grounded in up-to-date research, theory and technology,?Teaching Secondary Mathematics?is a practical, student-friendly, and popular text for secondary mathematics methods courses. It provides clear and useful approaches for mathematics teachers, and shows how concepts typically found in a secondary mathematics curriculum can be taught in a positive and encouraging way. The thoroughly revised fourth edition combines this pragmatic approach with truly innovative and integrated technology content throughout. Synthesized content between the book and comprehensive companion websi

  5. Microwave Plasma Hydrogen Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, James; Wheeler, Richard, Jr.; Dahl, Roger; Hadley, Neal

    2010-01-01

    A microwave plasma reactor was developed for the recovery of hydrogen contained within waste methane produced by Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA), which reclaims oxygen from CO2. Since half of the H2 reductant used by the CRA is lost as CH4, the ability to reclaim this valuable resource will simplify supply logistics for longterm manned missions. Microwave plasmas provide an extreme thermal environment within a very small and precisely controlled region of space, resulting in very high energy densities at low overall power, and thus can drive high-temperature reactions using equipment that is smaller, lighter, and less power-consuming than traditional fixed-bed and fluidized-bed catalytic reactors. The high energy density provides an economical means to conduct endothermic reactions that become thermodynamically favorable only at very high temperatures. Microwave plasma methods were developed for the effective recovery of H2 using two primary reaction schemes: (1) methane pyrolysis to H2 and solid-phase carbon, and (2) methane oligomerization to H2 and acetylene. While the carbon problem is substantially reduced using plasma methods, it is not completely eliminated. For this reason, advanced methods were developed to promote CH4 oligomerization, which recovers a maximum of 75 percent of the H2 content of methane in a single reactor pass, and virtually eliminates the carbon problem. These methods were embodied in a prototype H2 recovery system capable of sustained high-efficiency operation. NASA can incorporate the innovation into flight hardware systems for deployment in support of future long-duration exploration objectives such as a Space Station retrofit, Lunar outpost, Mars transit, or Mars base. The primary application will be for the recovery of hydrogen lost in the Sabatier process for CO2 reduction to produce water in Exploration Life Support systems. Secondarily, this process may also be used in conjunction with a Sabatier reactor employed to

  6. Ehanced oil recovery under simulated reservoir conditions using an indigenous Bacillus subtilis strain

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Pereira, Jorge F. B.; Costa, A R; L. R. Rodrigues; Coutinho, J.A.P.; J.A. Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from reservoirs beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using microorganisms and their metabolites. In situ stimulation of microorganisms that produce biosurfactants and degrade heavy oil fractions reduces the capillary forces that retain the oil inside the reservoir and decreases oil viscosity, thus promoting its flow and increasing oil production. Bacillus subtilis #573, isolated from crude oil s...

  7. Microbial degradation of hydrocarbons and its applications to enhanced oil recovery at lab scale

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Jorge F. B.; Gudiña, Eduardo J.; L. R. Rodrigues; J.A. Teixeira; Coutinho, J.A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The renewed interest in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques as a consequence of the current oil prices is boosting the development of the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR). This technique is useful to recover incremental oil from a reservoir beyond primary and secondary recovery operations and can be carried by the injection of exogenous or stimulation of indigenous microorganisms. This last approach is here investigated. In this work we address the isolation and identification of mic...

  8. Isolation and study of microorganisms from oil samples for application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Pereira, Jorge F. B.; L. R. Rodrigues; Coutinho, João A. P.; J.A. Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from a reservoir beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using microorganisms and their metabolites. Stimulation of bacterial growth for biosurfactant production and degradation of heavy oil fractions by indigenous microorganisms can enhance the fluidity and reduce the capillary forces that retain the oil into the reservoir. MEOR offers major advantages over conventional EOR, namely low...

  9. Novel bioemulsifier produced by a Paenibacilus sp. strain and its applicability in microbial enhanced oil recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; L. R. Rodrigues; J.A. Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from reservoirs beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using microorganisms and their metabolites. In situ stimulation of microorganisms that produce surface active compounds reduces the capillary forces that retain the oil inside the reservoir, thus promoting its flow and increasing oil production. Paenibacillus sp. #510, isolated from crude oil samples obtained from a Brazilian oil field, produc...

  10. Feasibility of waste-to-energy recovery technoligies in Lahore, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Abdul Samad

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste remained a no longer more problem with establishment of innovate waste-to-energy recovery technologies. In this study, try to find out the most promising energy recovery technology among the other available options for the recovery of energy from generated solid waste. The primary and secondary data on composition and quantity of waste, socio-economic, environmental related issues and on waste-to-energy technologies were collected from concerned departments by reviewing their year...

  11. Síndrome de Fournier secundária a adenocarcinoma de próstata avançado: relato de caso Fournier's syndrome secondary to advanced prostatic adenocarcinoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rocha Batista

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A Síndrome de Fournier é uma fasciite necrotizante rapidamente progressiva que acomete a genitália e região perineal. Mesmo com os avanços na terapêutica, a morbidade e a mortalidade desta afecção permanecem elevadas. É relatado caso de paciente masculino, 70 anos, com diagnóstico de adenocarcinoma de próstata avançado. Há um dia com dor e aumento de volume escrotal associado a febre. Ao exame físico, paciente séptico com gangrena gasosa do pênis e escroto; ao toque retal, lesão ulcero-vegetante em parede anterior do reto estendendo-se de 3 a 7 cm da borda anal. Realizado desbridamento cirúrgico, com identificação de fístula reto-escrotal transtumoral. Estudo histo-patológico da lesão retal confirmou infiltração por adenocarcinoma de próstata. Recebeu alta hospitalar no vigésimo dia de internação, atualmente em acompanhamento oncológico ambulatorial.Fournier's syndrome is a rapidly progressive necrotizing fasciitis affecting the genitalia and perineal region. Even with the advances in therapy, morbidity and mortality of this disease remain high. We report the case of male patient, 70 years old, diagnosed with advanced adenocarcinoma of the prostate. A day with pain and swelling near scrotum associated with fever. The physical examination revealed septic patient with gas gangrene of the penis and scrotum; on digital rectal examination, a vegetative and ulcerated lesion on the anterior wall of the rectum extending from 3 to 7 cm from the anal edge. Performed surgical debridement, with identification of scrotal-rectal fistula transtumoral. Histo-pathological study of the lesion confirmed rectal infiltration by adenocarcinoma of prostate. Was discharged from the hospital on the twentieth day of hospitalization, outpatient cancer currently monitoring.

  12. Secondary extinctions of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Jedediah F; Aslan, Clare E; Rogers, Haldre S; Redford, Kent H; Maron, John L; Bronstein, Judith L; Groves, Craig R

    2014-12-01

    Extinctions beget further extinctions when species lose obligate mutualists, predators, prey, or hosts. Here, we develop a conceptual model of species and community attributes affecting secondary extinction likelihood, incorporating mechanisms that buffer organisms against partner loss. Specialized interactors, including 'cryptic specialists' with diverse but nonredundant partner assemblages, incur elevated risk. Risk is also higher for species that cannot either evolve new traits following partner loss or obtain novel partners in communities reorganizing under changing environmental conditions. Partner loss occurs alongside other anthropogenic impacts; multiple stressors can circumvent ecological buffers, enhancing secondary extinction risk. Stressors can also offset each other, reducing secondary extinction risk, a hitherto unappreciated phenomenon. This synthesis suggests improved conservation planning tactics and critical directions for research on secondary extinctions. PMID:25445878

  13. Proceedings of Symposium on Utilization of Waste Glass in Secondary Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Papers are reported which were presented at the conference on waste glass recovery and re-use in secondary products. The uses considered include: road surfacing, asphaltic concretes, road construction, terrazzo, cement concrete, pozzolan, glass wool, glass-polymer composites, and tiles. Problems of recycling glass in remote areas, and the economics and markets for secondary glass products are discussed.

  14. Bacteriophage secondary infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen; T; Abedon

    2015-01-01

    Phages are credited with having been first described in what we now, officially, are commemorating as the 100 th anniversary of their discovery. Those one-hundred years of phage history have not been lacking in excitement, controversy, and occasional convolution. One such complication is the concept of secondary infection, which can take on multiple forms with myriad consequences. The terms secondary infection and secondary adsorption, for example, can be used almost synonymously to describe virion interaction with already phage-infected bacteria, and which can result in what are described as superinfection exclusion or superinfection immunity. The phrase secondary infection also may be used equivalently to superinfection or coinfection, with each of these terms borrowed from medical microbiology, and can result in genetic exchange between phages, phage-on-phage parasitism, and various partial reductions in phage productivity that have been termed mutual exclusion, partial exclusion, or the depressor effect. Alternatively, and drawing from epidemiology, secondary infection has been used to describe phage population growth as that can occur during active phage therapy as well as upon phage contamination of industrial ferments. Here primary infections represent initial bacterial population exposure to phages while consequent phage replication can lead to additional, that is, secondary infections of what otherwise are not yet phage-infected bacteria. Here I explore the varying meanings and resultant ambiguity that has been associated with the term secondary infection. I suggest in particular that secondary infection, as distinctly different phenomena, can in multiple ways influence the success of phage-mediated biocontrol of bacteria, also known as, phage therapy.

  15. Unrelated cord blood transplantation for patients with primary or secondary myelofibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Marie; Giannotti, Federica; Deconinck, Eric; Mohty, Mohamad; Michallet, Mauricette; Sanz, Guillermo; Chevallier, Patrice; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Legrand, Faezeh; Rovira, Montserrat; Passweg, Jakob; Sierra, Jorge; Nguyen, Stephanie; Maillard, Natacha; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Linkesch, Werner; Cannell, Paul; Marcatti, Magda; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Chalandon, Yves; Kröger, Nicolaus; Gluckman, Eliane; Rocha, Vanderson; Olavarria, Eduardo; Ruggeri, Annalisa

    2014-11-01

    To determine whether umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) is an alternative cure for myelofibrosis (MF), we evaluated 35 UCBTs reported to Eurocord. Seven patients had secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at UCBT, and median age at UCBT was 54 years. Twenty-four patients received a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen, and 17 of 35 patients received total body irradiation (2 to 12 Gy)-fludarabine-cyclophosphamide (TCF) conditioning. The median follow-up was 24 months. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil recovery at 60 days was 80%. Fifteen patients relapsed after UCBT. The 2-year overall survival and event-free-survival (EFS) rates were 44% and 30%, respectively. All patients given TCF achieved neutrophil and platelet recovery, and the use of TCF was associated with superior EFS in the RIC population (44% versus 0%, P = .001). Patients with transformation to AML had similar outcomes to patients with less advanced stages. In conclusion, despite graft failure remaining a major concern, the role of UCBT in the management of MF, especially using RIC TCF-based regimens, deserves further investigation to improve results. PMID:24946719

  16. SECONDARY BRAIN INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Basmatika

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary brain injury is a condision that occurs at some times after the primary impact and can be largely prevented and treated. Most brain injury ends with deadly consequences which is caused by secondary damage to the brain. Traumatic brain injured still represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals under the age of 45 years in the world. The classification of secondary brain injured is divided into extracranial and intracranial causes. The cause of extracranial such as hipoxia, hypotensi, hyponatremia, hypertermia, hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. The cause of intracranial such as extradural, subdural, intraserebral, intraventrikular, dan subarachnoid hemorrhage. Beside that secondary injury can also be caused by edema and infection. Post-traumatic cerebral injured is characterized by direct tissue damage, impaired regulation of cerebral blood flow (cerebral blood flow / CBF, and disruption of metabolism. Manifestations of secondary brain injured include increased intracranial pressure, ischemic brain damage, cerebral hypoxia and hypercarbi, as well as disruption of cerebral autoregulation. The first priority is to stabilize the patient's cervical spine injury, relieve and maintain airway, ensure adequate ventilation (breathing, and making venous access for fluid resuscitation pathways (circulation and assessing the level of awareness and disability. This steps is crucial in patients with head injured to prevent hypoxia and hypotension, which is the main cause of secondary brain injury.

  17. Secondary pool boiling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, C.; Tsubaki, A.; Zuhlke, C.; Anderson, T.; Alexander, D.; Gogos, G.; Ndao, S.

    2016-02-01

    A pool boiling phenomenon referred to as secondary boiling effects is discussed. Based on the experimental trends, a mechanism is proposed that identifies the parameters that lead to this phenomenon. Secondary boiling effects refer to a distinct decrease in the wall superheat temperature near the critical heat flux due to a significant increase in the heat transfer coefficient. Recent pool boiling heat transfer experiments using femtosecond laser processed Inconel, stainless steel, and copper multiscale surfaces consistently displayed secondary boiling effects, which were found to be a result of both temperature drop along the microstructures and nucleation characteristic length scales. The temperature drop is a function of microstructure height and thermal conductivity. An increased microstructure height and a decreased thermal conductivity result in a significant temperature drop along the microstructures. This temperature drop becomes more pronounced at higher heat fluxes and along with the right nucleation characteristic length scales results in a change of the boiling dynamics. Nucleation spreads from the bottom of the microstructure valleys to the top of the microstructures, resulting in a decreased surface superheat with an increasing heat flux. This decrease in the wall superheat at higher heat fluxes is reflected by a "hook back" of the traditional boiling curve and is thus referred to as secondary boiling effects. In addition, a boiling hysteresis during increasing and decreasing heat flux develops due to the secondary boiling effects. This hysteresis further validates the existence of secondary boiling effects.

  18. Advanced Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The First Florida-Brazil Seminar on Materials and the Second State Meeting about new materials in Rio de Janeiro State show the specific technical contribution in advanced ceramic sector. The others main topics discussed for the development of the country are the advanced ceramic programs the market, the national technic-scientific capacitation, the advanced ceramic patents, etc. (C.G.C.)

  19. On Slow Advancement of Primary and Secondary School Students’Media Literacy Education and Countermeasures%我国中小学生媒介素养教育推进缓慢问题与解决策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王言锋

    2014-01-01

    Under the new circumstances of our country,the problems caused by the contact of media by the youth are more and more serious,but the media literacy education advances slowly because of lack of policy,the edge status,guidance shortage and understanding deviation.To enhance media literacy,it is necessary for administrative departments at all levels to formulate corresponding policies,give full play to administrative guidance,and strengthen schools’lead role in media literacy education,thus forming a so-cial integrated force comprised of school,family,community and media to secure the fast implementation of media literacy education in the whole society.%当前社会下,我国青少年因媒介接触而产生的问题愈加严重,但是媒介素养教育因缺乏政策依据、地位边缘、指导缺位、认识偏差等问题,推进较为缓慢。推进我国媒介素养教育,需要各级行政部门制定相关的政策为依据,积极发挥行政主导作用,强化学校作为媒介素养教育主力的作用,形成包括学校、家庭、社区、媒体在内的社会合力,保障媒介素养教育在全社会快速展开。

  20. Enhanced oil recovery under laboratory conditions using biosurfactant-producing microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Pereira, Jorge F. B.; L. R. Rodrigues; Coutinho, J.A.P.; J.A. Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Oil recovery comprises a primary phase, which produces oil using the natural pressure drive of the reservoir, and a secondary phase, which includes the injection of water to improve the flow of oil to the wellhead [1,2]. While primary recovery produces 5-10% of the original oil in place, recovery efficiencies in the secondary stage vary from 10% to 40% [1]. Most of the unrecovered oil (up to two-thirds of the total oil reserves) is trapped in the reservoir pores by high capillary forces [2]. ...

  1. Ecological recovery in ERA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Scientific Committee (Scientific Committee); Topping, Christopher John

    2016-01-01

    recognises the importance of more integrated ERAs considering both the local and landscape scales, as well as the possible co-occurrence of multiple potential stressors that fall under the remit of EFSA, which are important when addressing ecological recovery. In this scientific opinion, the Scientific...... Committee gathered scientific knowledge on the potential for the recovery of non-target organisms for the further development of ERA. Current EFSA guidance documents and opinions were reviewed on how ecological recovery is addressed in ERA schemes. In addition, this scientific opinion is based on expert...... knowledge and data retrieved from the literature. Finally, the information presented in this opinion was reviewed by experts from the relevant EFSA Panels, European risk assessment bodies and through an open consultation requesting input from stakeholders. A conceptual framework was developed to address...

  2. Congenital Cataract:Progress in Surgical Treatment and Postoperative Recovery of Visual Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingyue Wang; Wei Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a common cause of childhood low vi-sion or blindness worldwide..Early surgery should be per-formed in sensitive vision development period to avoid vision deprivation in cases of strabismus and nystagmus develop-ment. Postoperative recovery of visual function is of great sig-nificance for these patients and should include proper postop-erative aphakia correction by the application of a contact lens and secondary implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL). Pa-tients should receive amblyopic training after surgery to im-prove their postoperative visual acuity..Although recent ad-vances in surgery techniques and materials have brought better postoperative visual acuity and less complications , a few post-operative complications can still hamper vision condition and vision development,.including posterior capsule opacification and secondary glaucoma. Surgery in early infancy are risk fac-tors for these two complications..Life-long follow-up is essen-tial for these patients..Further study will continue to address the surgery timing issue and methods that prevent postopera-tive complications.

  3. An econometric model of the U.S. secondary copper industry: Recycling versus disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, a theoretical model of secondary recovery is developed that integrates microeconomic theories of production and cost with a dynamic model of scrap generation and accumulation. The model equations are estimated for the U.S. secondary copper industry and used to assess the impacts that various policies and future events have on copper recycling rates. The alternatives considered are: subsidies for secondary production, differing energy costs, and varying ore quality in primary production. ?? 1990.

  4. Orimulsion containment and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommerville, M. [Briggs Marine Environmental Services, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the need for examination of Orimulsion fuel and its spill behaviour in the light of the anticipated increase in consumption of this fuel which comprises bitumen dispersed in water with addition of a small amount of surfactant. The behaviour and fate of Orimulsion at sea, and observations from experimental and sea trials are examined. The identification of spill control techniques, spill detection, the predictive modeling of the spill and response, sub-surface plume measurement, and containment and deflection are considered. Recovery of the bitumen produced from an Orimulsion spill, combined containment and recovery, dispersed Orimulsion, and beach cleaning are addressed. The properties of Orimulsion are tabulated. (UK)

  5. Recovery in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X...... are represented as strings. To identify the strings a combination of a 5D connected component type algorithm and multi-peak fitting was found to be superior. The first use of the method was a study of recovery of a deformed aluminium alloy (AA1050). The aluminium alloy was deformed by cold rolling to a thickness...

  6. Psychosocial Recovery and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antai-Otong, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses a psychosocial recovery and rehabilitation recovery model that uses an intensive case management approach. The approach offers an interdisciplinary model that integrates pharmacotherapy, social skills training, cognitive remediation, family involvement, and community integration. This evidence-based plan of care instills hope and nurtures one's capacity to learn and improve function and quality of life. It is cost-effective and offers psychiatric nurses opportunities to facilitate symptomatic remission, facilitate self-efficacy, and improve communication and social cognition skills. Nurses in diverse practice settings must be willing to plan and implement innovative treatment models that provide seamless mental health care across the treatment continuum. PMID:27229282

  7. Secondary Particles Produced by Hadron Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkazem Ansarinejad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Use of hadron therapy as an advanced radiotherapy technique is increasing. In this method, secondary particles are produced through primary beam interactions with the beam-transport system and the patient’s body. In this study, Monte Carlo simulations were employed to determine the dose of produced secondary particles, particularly neutrons during treatment. Materials and Methods In this study, secondary particles, produced by proton and ion beams, were simulated for a cancer treatment plan. In particular, we evaluated the distribution of secondary neutrons, produced by a 400 MeV/u carbon beam on an electronic crate, which was exposed to radiation field under radioactive conditions. The level of major secondary particles, particularly neutrons, irradiating the target, was evaluated, using FLUKA Monte Carlo code. Results The fluences and radiation doses were applied to determine the shielding efficiency of devices and the probability of radiation damage to nearby electronic systems. According to the results, by using maximum-energy carbon ions (400 MeV/u, electronic devices are exposed to a dose rate of 0.05 µSv/s and an integrated dose of about 34 mSv, each year. Conclusion The simulation results could provide significant information about radiation assessment; they could also be a major help for clinical facilities to meet shielding requirements. Moreover, such simulations are essential for determining the radiation level, which is responsible for radiation-induced damages.

  8. Solar refractive secondary concentrator technology overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refractive secondary concentrators, coupled with advanced primary concentrators, can efficiently convert solar energy to heat for a wide variety of space applications including power generation, thermal propulsion, and furnaces. These applications typically require very high temperatures (as high as 2000 K) and high concentration ratios (10,000 to 1). To enable concentration systems that meet these requirements, the NASA Glenn Research Center is developing the refractive secondary concentrator, which uses refraction and total internal reflection to concentrate and direct solar energy. Presented is an overview of the refractive secondary concentrator technology development effort, including a description of benefits, past accomplishments, and future plans. Highlighted is a recent proof-of-concept test of a prototype sapphire refractive secondary concentrator performed in a solar vacuum environment that demonstrated throughput efficiency of 87%. It is anticipated that the application of an optical coating to the inlet surface of the refractive secondary to reduce the reflection losses at this surface can improve the throughput efficiency to 93%. Plans to conduct additional solar thermal vacuum tests to demonstrate high temperatures and high throughput power are also presented (up to 2000 K and 5 kW)

  9. Enzymes for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasiri, Hamidreza

    2011-04-15

    Primary oil recovery by reservoir pressure depletion and secondary oil recovery by waterflooding usually result in poor displacement efficiency. As a consequence there is always some trapped oil remaining in oil reservoirs. Oil entrapment is a result of complex interactions between viscous, gravity and capillary forces. Improving recovery from hydrocarbon fields typically involves altering the relative importance of the viscous and capillary forces. The potential of many EOR methods depends on their influence on fluid/rock interactions related to wettability and fluid/fluid interactions reflected in IFT. If the method has the potential to change the interactions favorably, it may be considered for further investigation, i.e. core flooding experiment, pilot and reservoir implementation. Enzyme-proteins can be introduced as an enhanced oil recovery method to improve waterflood performance by affecting interactions at the oil-water-rock interfaces. An important part of this thesis was to investigate how selected enzymes may influence wettability and capillary forces in a crude oil-brine-rock system, and thus possibly contribute to enhanced oil recovery. To investigate further by which mechanisms selected enzyme-proteins may contribute to enhance oil recovery, groups of enzymes with different properties and catalytic functions, known to be interfacially active, were chosen to cover a wide range of possible effects. These groups include (1) Greenzyme (GZ) which is a commercial EOR enzyme and consists of enzymes and stabilizers (surfactants), (2) The Zonase group consists of two types of pure enzyme, Zonase1 and Zonase2 which are protease enzymes and whose catalytic functions are to hydrolyze (breakdown) peptide bonds, (3) The Novozyme (NZ) group consists of three types of pure enzyme, NZ2, NZ3 and NZ6 which are esterase enzymes and whose catalytic functions are to hydrolyze ester bonds, and (4) Alpha-Lactalbumin ( -La) which is an important whey protein. The effect of

  10. Moving rehabilitation research forward: Developing consensus statements for rehabilitation and recovery research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Julie; Borschmann, Karen; Boyd, Lara; Thomas Carmichael, S; Corbett, Dale; Cramer, Steven C; Hoffmann, Tammy; Kwakkel, Gert; Savitz, Sean I; Saposnik, Gustavo; Walker, Marion; Ward, Nick

    2016-06-01

    Stroke recovery is the next frontier in stroke medicine. While growth in rehabilitation and recovery research is exponential, a number of barriers hamper our ability to rapidly progress the field. Standardized terminology is absent in both animal and human research, methods are poorly described, recovery biomarkers are not well defined, and we lack consistent timeframes or measures to examine outcomes. Agreed methods and conventions for developing, monitoring, evaluating and reporting interventions directed at improving recovery are lacking, and current approaches are often not underpinned by biology. We urgently need to better understand the biology of recovery and its time course in both animals and humans to translate evidence from basic science into clinical trials. A new international partnership of stroke recovery and rehabilitation experts has committed to advancing the research agenda. In May 2016, the first Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable will be held, with the aim of achieving an agreed approach to the development, conduct and reporting of research. A range of methods will be used to achieve consensus in four priority areas: pre-clinical recovery research; biomarkers of recovery; intervention development, monitoring and reporting; and measurement in clinical trials. We hope to foster a global network of researchers committed to advancing this exciting field. Recovery from stroke is challenging for many survivors. They deserve effective treatments underpinned by our evolving understanding of brain recovery and human behaviour. Working together, we can develop game-changing interventions to improve recovery and quality of life in those living with stroke. PMID:27073187

  11. 污泥减量化工艺:HA-A/A-MCO的除磷性能及磷回收%Characteristics of Phosphorus Removal and Phosphorus Recovery in Advanced Sludge Reduction Process HA-A/A-MCO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左宁; 吉芳英; 黄力彦; 宗述安

    2009-01-01

    针对污泥减量技术中对氮、磷去除能力低的问题,开发了一种具有强化脱氮除磷功能、污泥减量化的HA-A/A-MCO工艺,其通过回流释磷污泥的水解酸化来刺激磷的厌氧释放并辅以外排富磷污水进行化学固定的方式除磷.研究发现:当进入水解酸化池的厌氧释磷污泥量为进水量的2%时,水解产生的VFA导致释磷量达57 mg/L,聚磷菌的生长得到促进而聚糖菌则受到抑制;当控制侧流除磷液量为进水量的13%、化学除磷池出水磷为5 mg/L时,系统处理出水TP<0.5 mg/L;提高厌氧释磷浓度并控制化学除磷池的出水磷浓度为5 mg/L,可以提高化学药剂利用率、减少药剂用量并提高化学污泥的含磷量,HA-A/A-MCO系统产生的化学污泥含磷率高达18%,接近纯含磷化合物的含磷率,可直接用作生产磷肥的原料.%In order to improve phosphorous and nitrogen removal in sludge reduction technologies, an advanced process combining excess sludge reduction and phosphorous and nitrogen removal was devel-oped. It is the hydrolysis acidification-anaerobic/anoxic-muhistep continuous oxic (HA-A/A-MCO) process. It realizes phosphorous removal through the hydrolysis acidification of returned P-release sludge, which improves anaerobic P-release level, and through discharging phosphorus-rich sewage. The results show that when the amount of anaerobic P-release sludge entering the hydrolysis acidification tank is about 2% of the total influent flow, VFA from hydrolysis acidification process is able to induce phosphorus con-tent reaching 57 mg/L from anaerobic release. Meanwhile, the growth of phosphate-accumulating organ-isms (PAOs) in the system is improved greatly while that of glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) is inhibited. When the amount of side-stream phosphorus removal sewage is 13% of the total influent flow, and the effluent phosphorus content of the chemical phosphorus removal tank is 5 mg/L, the effluent TP of the

  12. A Bumpy Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The world economy crawls ahead amid risk and uncertainty The world economic situation has been extremely complicated in 2010. This year saw fluctuating market confidence,changing commodity prices, imbalanced economic recovery, diverse economic policies, lingering trade protectionism, and fierce currency battles.

  13. Recovery of Interdependent Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Di Muro, M A; Stanley, H E; Havlin, S; Braunstein, L A

    2015-01-01

    Recent network research has focused on the cascading failures in a system of interdependent networks and the necessary preconditions for system collapse. An important question that has not been addressed is how to repair a failing system before it suffers total breakdown. Here we introduce a recovery strategy of nodes and develop an analytic and numerical framework for studying the concurrent failure and recovery of a system of interdependent networks based on an efficient and practically reasonable strategy. Our strategy consists of repairing a fraction of failed nodes, with probability of recovery $\\gamma$, that are neighbors of the largest connected component of each constituent network. We find that, for a given initial failure of a fraction $1-p$ of nodes, there is a critical probability of recovery above which the cascade is halted and the system fully restores to its initial state and below which the system abruptly collapses. As a consequence we find in the plane $\\gamma-p$ of the phase diagram three ...

  14. Recovery post ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christina

    2014-10-01

    Many ICU patients struggle to recovery following critical illness and may be left with physical, cognitive and psychological problems, which have a negative impact on their quality of life. Gross muscle mass loss and weakness can take some months to recover after the patients' Intensive Care Unit (ICU) discharge, in addition critical illness polyneuropathies can further complicate physical recovery. Psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common and have an negative impact on the patients' ability to engage in rehabilitation after ICU discharge. Finally cognitive deficit affecting memory can be a significant problem. The first step in helping patients to recover from such a devastating illness is to recognise those who have the greatest need and target interventions. Research now suggests that there are interventions that can accelerate physical recovery and reduce the incidence of psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and PTSD. Cognitive rehabilitation, however, is still in its infancy. This review will look at the research into patients' recovery and what can be done to improve this where needed.

  15. Sulfur recovery further improved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsboom, J.; Grinsven, M. van; Warners, A. van [Jacobs Nederland B.V., (Netherlands); Nisselrooy, P. van [Gastec N.V., (Netherlands)

    2002-04-01

    The original 100-year-old Claus process for producing sulfur from hydrogen sulfide in acid gas is described together with improvements which have been made over the years. The most recent modification, EUROCLAUS, achieves sulfur recoveries of 99-99.9 per cent. Five commercial units are being designed.

  16. Disaster Recovery: Courting Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    An inadequate or nonexistent disaster recovery plan can have dire results. Fire, power outage, and severe weather all can brin down the best of networks in an instant. This article draws on the experiences of the Charlotte County Public Schools (Port Charlotte, Florida), which were able to lessen the damage caused by Hurricane Charley when it hit…

  17. Cost Recovery Through Depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Robert T.; Wesolowski, Leonard V.

    1983-01-01

    The approach of adopting depreciation rather than use allowance in order to recover more accurately the cost of college buildings and equipment used on federal projects is considered. It is suggested that depreciation will offer most colleges and universities a higher annual recovery rate, and an opportunity for better facilities planning. For…

  18. Spatially Dispersed Employee Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders; Torfadóttir, Embla

    2014-01-01

    Employee recovery addresses either employee well-being or management's practices in aiding employees in recovering themselves following a service failure. This paper surveys the cabin crew at a small, European, low-cost carrier and investigates employees' perceptions of management practices to ai...

  19. The Road of Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Guangdong, one of China's largest exporting provinces and one of the world's most important manufacturing bases, was severely affected by the international financial crisis. Business was unusual for the past year, and while there are still many difficulties for 2010,we are on the way to recovery.

  20. Recovery in the East

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As robust as the economic recovery in East Asia has been in recent months,attention must now be turned to managing emerging risks challenging macroeconomic stability,said World Bank’s latest East Asia and Pacific Economic Update released on October 19.Edited excerpts follow

  1. Secondary drowning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J H

    1980-10-25

    Secondary drowning (and near-drowning) is one of the post-immersion respiratory syndromes. It is defined as deterioration of pulmonary function that follows deficient gas exchange due to loss or inactivation of surfactant. A review of 94 consecutive cases of near-drowning in childhood showed that this syndrome occurred in five (5%) cases. Its onset was usually rapid and characterised by a latent period of one to 48 hours of relative respiratory well-being. It occurred more rapidly after immersion in fresh water. The two children immersed in salt water died of secondary drowning, while the three immersed in fresh water recovered completely. If it is anticipated, recognised, and treated vigorously prognosis of secondary drowning is good in fresh water cases but bad after salt water immersion.

  2. Geothermal Energy Production With Innovative Methods Of Geothermal Heat Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, Allen [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Darlow, Rick [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Sanchez, Angel [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Pierce, Michael [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Sellers, Blake [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States)

    2014-12-19

    The ThermalDrive™ Power System (“TDPS”) offers one of the most exciting technological advances in the geothermal power generation industry in the last 30 years. Using innovations in subsurface heat recovery methods, revolutionary advances in downhole pumping technology and a distributed approach to surface power production, GeoTek Energy, LLC’s TDPS offers an opportunity to change the geothermal power industry dynamics.

  3. Atypical Phimosis Secondary to a Preputial Metastasis from Rectal Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Goris Gbenou, Maximilien C.; Wahidy, Tawfik; Llinares, Karine; Cracco, Dominique; Perrot, Alain; Riquet, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Background Cutaneous metastases from colorectal cancer are uncommon, accounting for 6.5% of all secondary skin lesions. They occur in advanced disease. The most common site is the abdomen. The penis is a rare site. Case Report We report the case of a 79-year-old patient who presented, two years after rectocolectomy for a rectal adenocarcinoma, obstructive renal failure secondary to a presacral recurrence, as well as symptomatic phimosis associated with papulonodules invading the penis, scrotu...

  4. Advance care directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advance directive; Do-not-resuscitate - advance directive; Durable power of attorney - advance care directive; POA - advance care directive; Health care agent - advance care directive; Health care proxy - ...

  5. Recovery potential of German sewage sludge ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Oliver; Adam, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Incineration of sewage sludge is expected to increase in the future due to growing concerns about the direct use of sludge in agriculture. Sewage sludge is the pollutant sink of wastewater treatment and thus loaded with contaminants that might pose environmental hazards. Incineration degrades organic pollutants efficiently, but since the ash is currently mostly disposed of, all valuable component like phosphorus (P) and technologically relevant metals present in the sewage sludge ash (SSA) are removed from the economic cycle entirely. We conducted a complete survey of SSA from German mono-incineration facilities and determined the theoretical recovery potential of 57 elements. German SSA contains up to 19,000 t/a P which equals approximately 13% of phosphorus applied in the German agriculture in form of phosphate rock based mineral fertilizers. Thus, SSA is an important secondary resource of P. However, its P-solubility in ammonium citrate solution, an indicator for the bioavailability, is only about 26%. Treatment of SSA is recommended to enhance P bioavailability and remove heavy metals before it is applied as fertilizer. The recovery potential for technologically relevant metals is generally low, but some of these elements might be recovered efficiently in the course of P recovery exploiting synergies. PMID:25697389

  6. Illness management and recovery (IMR) in Danish community mental health centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Helle Stentoft; Korsbek, Lisa; Mikkelsen, John Hagel;

    2011-01-01

    mental illness in facilitating recovery. Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) is a curriculum-based psychosocial intervention designed as structured program with a recovery-oriented approach. The aim of IMR is to rehabilitate people with severe mental illnesses by helping them acquire knowledge...... of functioning at the end of treatment. The secondary outcomes are disease symptoms; use of alcohol/drugs; individual meaning of recovery; hope; hospital admissions and out-patient psychiatric treatment at the end of treatment and the abovementioned and level of functioning at follow-up 21 months after baseline...

  7. Cosmetology. Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Michael D.; And Others

    This curriculum guide is designed to offer guidelines along with supporting resources and teaching ideas from which the local secondary instructor can extract a cosmetology curriculum that meets local needs. Following an outline of the philosophy and goals underlying state and local vocational education programs in Georgia, the purpose and…

  8. Modernising Portugal's Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitor, Teresa V.

    2008-01-01

    Portugal has a total of 477 public secondary schools. Some date from the end of the 19th century but the majority were built after 1970, reflecting the period of expansion in the school network and the extension of compulsory schooling. The schools are heterogeneous in terms of building types, architectural features and quality. An assessment of…

  9. Secondary Dance Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD. Dept. of Instructional Planning and Development.

    This manual provides guidelines for dance teachers in secondary schools. A brief statement is made on the purpose and philosophy of dance education, and activities and instructional suggestions are presented for various dance forms: (1) group dance--folk/ethnic, square dance, and social dance; (2) aerobic dance; (3) jazz dance; (4) modern dance;…

  10. Scheduling the Secondary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Richard A.; Traverso, Henry P.

    This "how-to-do-it" manual on the intricacies of school scheduling offers both technical information and common sense advice about the process of secondary school scheduling. The first of six chapters provides an overview of scheduling; chapter 2 examines specific considerations for scheduling; chapter 3 surveys the scheduling models and their…

  11. Suicide among Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coder, Tamara L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated incidence of adolescent suicide in Kansas and assessed prevention guidelines and services dealing with adolescent suicide, and perceived needs of Kansas secondary school counselors in the area of teenage suicide. Findings from 484 school counselors indicated increase in suicide rates with age and need for suicide prevention programing…

  12. Secondary Education in Liechtenstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Franz

    This booklet provides a brief description of secondary education in Liechtenstein. The publication is part of a series that seeks to make the public aware of the education systems and traditions in all signatory states to the European Cultural Convention and to outline the essential problems these systems presently are facing. This short booklet…

  13. Dynamics of secondary forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugel, van M.

    2007-01-01

    The succession of tropical secondary forests on abandoned agricultural fields has been studied since long, most often by comparing stands of different age since abandonment. These so-called chronosequence studies have yielded much insight in general patterns of succession and the constraints and con

  14. Integrated heat recovery. Kilns - spray dryer - spray dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, A.; Goncalves, V.; Vaz Serra, A.

    1992-08-01

    This work is about the operating conditions of a system for the preparation of atomized powder aiming at the improvement of its energetic efficiency in relation to the traditional processes. Alternative solutions were studied for the recovery of energy of the different gaseous effluents existing in the plant so as to improve the energetic efficiency of the drying process. The implantation of a system with pre-heating of heat-generator secondary air worth double recovery was choosen, by using high efficiency glass tubes heat-exchangers. Through such system it is intended to get a 9.5% reduction of LPG consumed in the heat-generator. (orig.).

  15. Cost recovery by Government agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Productivity Commission

    2002-01-01

    The Commonwealth Government asked the Productivity Commisison to review cost recovery arrangements across the Government's regulatory,administrative and information agencies,and to develop guidelines for the future application of cost recovery.

  16. Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This recovery plan has been prepared by the Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Team under the leadership of Dr. David Andow, University of Minnesota-St. Paul. Dr. John...

  17. Estimation of creep and recovery behavior of a shape memory polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takenobu; Tao, Takayuki; Somiya, Satoshi

    2015-11-01

    The shape recovery and shape fixity properties of shape memory polymers (SMPs), advanced functional materials, were investigated in this study. Although the shape recovery behavior of these polymers has been examined from a viscoelastic point of view, questions remain with regard to quantifying the recovery behavior of SMPs. SMPs can recover their shape after the molding process; this recovery occurs via creep recovery and/or shape recovery; an estimation of SMP recovery requires a good understanding of both processes. In this study, the time-temperature superposition principle was applied to the creep and shape recovery behavior of SMPs. The creep behavior was estimated using an experimentally obtained master curve and time-temperature shift factors. Our estimated results were in good agreement with the experimental data. However, the estimation of the creep recovery with changing temperature below or above the glass transition temperature was not successful due to the lack of consideration of the shape recovery behavior. The time and temperature dependency of the shape recovery were confirmed for creep behavior, using the master curve for the recovery ratio and the corresponding shift factors for shape recovery. The values of the shape recovery shift factors differed from those for the time-temperature shift factors obtained for creep behavior. Therefore, these shape recovery shift factors were used in the estimation of creep and shape recovery behavior using the master curve for the creep tests. The estimated results were closer to the results obtained experimentally. Moreover, our results indicated that the recovery behavior above Tg was dominated by shape recovery as a result of polymer viscoelasticity.

  18. Ventilation with heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the experiences from the use of ventilation with heat recovery in several experimental single-family houses developed and built within the last four years to meet the new Danish energy requirements of 2005. Included are descriptions of the ventilation system components...... and the main functional demands as well as measurements of the thermal efficiency, electricity consumptions and building air tightness. The paper addresses the aspects of minimizing the heat loss from the duct system and the heat recovery unit (when placed in an unheated attic space) in order to obtain...... an acceptable efficiency. Furthermore, solutions to secure the air tightness of the building envelope are suggested. The paper does not address problems with condensate of water in the exchanger that may freeze in cold climate conditions. This complex of problem is dealt with in a separate paper....

  19. Water recovery in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamponnet, C; Savage, C J; Amblard, P; Lasserre, J C; Personne, J C; Germain, J C

    1999-03-01

    In the absence of recycling, water represents over 90% of the life-support consumables for a manned spacecraft. In addition, over 90% of the waste water generated can be classified as moderately or slightly contaminated (e.g. shower water, condensate from the air-conditioning system, etc.). The ability to recover potable water from moderately contaminated waste water hence enables significant savings to be made in resupply costs. A development model of such a water-recovery system, based on membrane technology has been produced and tested using "real waste water" based on used shower water Results indicate some 95% recovery of potable water meeting ESA standards, with total elimination of microbial contaminants such as bacteria, spores and viruses. PMID:11725802

  20. Flight guidance research for recovery from microburst wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Research is in progress to develop flight strategy concepts for avoidance and recovery from microburst wind shears. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the performance of various strategies for recovery from wind shear encountered during the approach-to-landing, examine the associated piloting factors, and evaluate the payoff of forward-look sensing. Both batch and piloted simulations are utilized. The industry-recommended manual recovery technique is used as a baseline strategy. Two advanced strategies were selected for the piloted tests. The first strategy emulates the recovery characteristics shown by prior optimal trajectory analysis, by initially tracking the glideslope, then commanding a shallow climb. The second strategy generates a flight path angle schedule that is a function of airplane energy state and the instantaneous shear strength. All three strategies are tested with reactive sensing only and with forward-look sensing. Piloted simulation tests are in progress. Tentative results indicate that, using only reactive alerts, there appears to be little difference in performance between the various strategies. With forward-look alerts, the advanced guidance strategies appear to have advantages over the baseline strategy. Relatively short forward-look alert times, on the order of 10 or 15 seconds, produce a far greater recovery benefit than optimizing a recovery from a reactive alert.

  1. Recovery in aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Gundlach, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X-ray diffraction technique for studies of the evolution of grains within polycrystalline materials. The much smaller volume of the crystallites of interest here in comparison to grains implies that the ...

  2. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved design of a sludge recovery apparatus used in the fabrication of nuclear fuel is described. This apparatus provides for automatic separation of sludge from the grinder coolant, drying of the sludge into a flowable powder and transfer of the dry powder to a salvage container. It can be constructed to comply with criticality-safe-geometry requirements and to obviate need for operating personnel in its immediate vicinity. (UK)

  3. Superconducting energy recovery linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2016-10-01

    High-average-power and high-brightness electron beams from a combination of laser photocathode electron guns and a superconducting energy recovery linac (ERL) is an emerging accelerator science with applications in ERL light sources, high repetition rate free electron lasers , electron cooling, electron ion colliders and more. This paper reviews the accelerator physics issues of superconducting ERLs, discusses major subsystems and provides a few examples of superconducting ERLs.

  4. Anatomically Correct Surface Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Larsen, Rasmus;

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for 3D surface recovery in partial surface scans. The method is based on an Active Shape Model, which is used to predict missing data. The model is constructed using a bootstrap framework, where an initially small collection of hand-annotated samples is used to fit......-of-the-art surface reconstruction algorithm, the presented method gives matching prediction results for the synthetic evaluation samples and superior results for the direct scanner data....

  5. The Recovery Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen A. Ross

    2011-01-01

    We can only estimate the distribution of stock returns but we observe the distribution of risk neutral state prices. Risk neutral state prices are the product of risk aversion - the pricing kernel - and the natural probability distribution. The Recovery Theorem enables us to separate these and to determine the market's forecast of returns and the market's risk aversion from state prices alone. Among other things, this allows us to determine the pricing kernel, the market risk premium, the pro...

  6. Recovery of the Education System in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hayden And Richard Martin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Myanmar's education system is in a very weakened state. The physical condition and human resource capacity of the system is poor by any standard, and teachers, whether in schools, colleges or universities, have few opportunities and little incentive for professional development. A process of recovery is getting underway, but it will take years before significant improvements are evident. Major cultural change is required in the style of leadership and management at all levels of government, and there is also a desperate need for more financial resources. This paper documents the current state of the education system in Myanmar and advances three priority areas for immediate attention.

  7. Enhanced oil recovery projects data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pautz, J.F.; Sellers, C.A.; Nautiyal, C.; Allison, E.

    1992-04-01

    A comprehensive enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project data base is maintained and updated at the Bartlesville Project Office of the Department of Energy. This data base provides an information resource that is used to analyze the advancement and application of EOR technology. The data base has extensive information on 1,388 EOR projects in 569 different oil fields from 1949 until the present, and over 90% of that information is contained in tables and graphs of this report. The projects are presented by EOR process, and an index by location is provided.

  8. Example-Based Human Pose Recovery under Predicted Partial Occlusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald; Babuska, Robert; Groen, Frans C A.

    2010-01-01

    For human pose recovery, the presence of occlusions due to objects or other persons in the scene remains a difficult problem to cope with. However, recent advances in the area of human detection allow for simultaneous segmentation of humans and the prediction of occluded regions. In this chapter, we

  9. MRI texture heterogeneity in the optic nerve predicts visual recovery after acute optic neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Tissue heterogeneity may be a potential measure of functional outcome in ON patients and advanced analysis of the texture in standard MRI could provide insights into mechanisms of injury and recovery in patients with similar disorders.

  10. Energy sector methane recovery and use: the importance of policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Kerr; Michelle Hershman

    2009-08-15

    To raise awareness about appropriate policy options to advance methane recovery and use in the energy sector, the IEA has conducted a series of analyses and studies over the past few years. This report continues IEA efforts by providing policy makers with examples and best practices in methane mitigation policy design and implementation. This report offers an overview of four types of methane mitigation projects that have the strongest links to the energy sector: oil and gas methane recovery and reduction of leaks and losses; coal mine methane; landfill methane; and manure methane recovery and use. It identifies successful policies that have been used to advance these important projects. This information is intended to guide policy makers as they search for low-cost, near-term solutions to climate change. 38 refs., 10 figs., 1 app.

  11. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge by an electrokinetic process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, A.B.; Couto, N.; Mateus, E.P.;

    to supply P for the next ca. 80 years. Additionally, the quality of this raw material has deteriorated due to contamination, which has increased processing costs of mineral P fertilizers. The recovery of nutrients, like P, from secondary resources urges. Waste streams as sewage sludge (SS) and sewage sludge...... ash (SSA) may contain contaminants or unwanted elements regarding specific applications, but they also contain secondary resources of high value (e.g. elements with fertilizer value). The incineration of SS is an highly used technique, namely in the Northern part of Europe. With SS incineration...

  12. Secondary Waste Form Development and Optimization—Cast Stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, S. K.; Parker, Kent E.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Pitman, Stan G.; Chun, Jaehun; Chung, Chul-Woo; Kimura, Marcia L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Um, Wooyong; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-07-14

    Washington River Protection Services is considering the design and construction of a Solidification Treatment Unit (STU) for the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at Hanford. The ETF is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-permitted, multi-waste, treatment and storage unit and can accept dangerous, low-level, and mixed wastewaters for treatment. The STU needs to be operational by 2018 to receive secondary liquid wastes generated during operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The STU to ETF will provide the additional capacity needed for ETF to process the increased volume of secondary wastes expected to be produced by WTP.

  13. Dutch analysis for P-recovery from municipal wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeleveld, Paul; Loeffen, Patricia; Temmink, Hardy; Klapwijk, Bram

    2003-07-01

    There is a considerable practical interest in phosphorus recovery from water authorities, elementary P-industry, fertilizer industry and regulators in a number of countries. Due to a handful of full-scale plants worldwide, P-recovery can be seen as technically feasible. However, the economic feasibility of P-recovery from sewage can still be judged as dubious. Most important reason for this is that the prices of the techniques (in Euro/tonne P) are much higher compared to the prices of phosphate rock. In this paper an analysis is given to recover phosphate from municipal wastewater for the elementary P-industry Thermphos International B.V. and the fertiliser industry Amsterdam Fertilizers B.V. in The Netherlands. Several scenarios are evaluated and the end products of these scenarios are compared to the quality required by both industries. From a Dutch study it became clear that all end products from the final sludge treatment do not provide a good source of secondary phosphate. As a consequence of this, the most preferred possibility for P-recovery is to extract phosphate before sludge goes to the final sludge treatment. Different scenario's can be selected based on the position of P-recovery in the WWTP configuration, the type of P-recovery product, and the precipitation technique. Local conditions will determine which scenario is the most expedient. Because it is more realistic to judge a practical situation instead of theoretical estimations based on literature, some local situations have to be assessed in sufficient detail to gain more feeling for the expenses and possible savings of P-recovery. One important actor that should be involved in the process management around P-recovery, is the national government. Especially they have the responsibility for a sustainable development and should have attention for some stimulation of P-recovery in The Netherlands. Water authorities and the P- and fertilizer industry made already some good steps. (author)

  14. Processes and problems in secondary star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments relating the conditions in molecular clouds to star formation triggered by a prior stellar generation are reviewed. Primary processes are those that lead to the formation of a first stellar generation. The secondary processes that produce stars in response to effects caused by existing stars are compared and evaluated in terms of the observational data presently available. We discuss the role of turbulence to produce clumpy cloud structures and introduce new work on colliding inter-cloud gas flows leading to non-linear inhomogeneous cloud structures in an intially smooth cloud. This clumpy morphology has important consequences for secondary formation. The triggering processes of supernovae, stellar winds, and H II regions are discussed with emphasis on the consequences for radiation driven implosion as a promising secondary star formation mechanism. Detailed two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamic calculations of radiation driven implosion are discussed. This mechanism is shown to be highly efficient in synchronizing the formation of new stars in congruent to 1-3 x 104 years and could account for the recent evidence for new massive star formation in several UCHII regions. It is concluded that, while no single theory adequately explains the variety of star formation observed, a uniform description of star formation is likely to involve several secondary processes. Advances in the theory of star formation will require multiple dimensional calculations of coupled processes. The important non-linear interactions include hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and magnetic fields

  15. Processes and problems in secondary star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, R.I.; Whitaker, R.W.; Sandford M.T. II

    1984-03-01

    Recent developments relating the conditions in molecular clouds to star formation triggered by a prior stellar generation are reviewed. Primary processes are those that lead to the formation of a first stellar generation. The secondary processes that produce stars in response to effects caused by existing stars are compared and evaluated in terms of the observational data presently available. We discuss the role of turbulence to produce clumpy cloud structures and introduce new work on colliding inter-cloud gas flows leading to non-linear inhomogeneous cloud structures in an intially smooth cloud. This clumpy morphology has important consequences for secondary formation. The triggering processes of supernovae, stellar winds, and H II regions are discussed with emphasis on the consequences for radiation driven implosion as a promising secondary star formation mechanism. Detailed two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamic calculations of radiation driven implosion are discussed. This mechanism is shown to be highly efficient in synchronizing the formation of new stars in congruent to 1-3 x 10/sup 4/ years and could account for the recent evidence for new massive star formation in several UCHII regions. It is concluded that, while no single theory adequately explains the variety of star formation observed, a uniform description of star formation is likely to involve several secondary processes. Advances in the theory of star formation will require multiple dimensional calculations of coupled processes. The important non-linear interactions include hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and magnetic fields.

  16. The daily commute from work to home: Examining employees' experiences in relation to their recovery status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M.L.M. van

    2015-01-01

    Sufficient recovery after daily effort expenditure at work is important to protect employee health and well-being. However, the role of commuting in the daily effort-recovery process is still not very well understood. The present study aimed to advance insight in this respect by examining if relaxat

  17. Microbial enhanced oil recovery: Entering the log phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technology has advanced internationally since 1980 from a laboratory-based evaluation of microbial processes to field applications. In order to adequately support the decline in oil production in certain areas, research on cost-effective technologies such as microbial enhanced oil recovery processes must focus on both near-term and long-term applications. Many marginal wells are desperately in need of an inexpensive improved oil recovery technology today that can assist producers in order to prevent their abandonment. Microbial enhanced waterflooding technology has also been shown to be an economically feasible technology in the United States. Complementary environmental research and development will also be required to address any potential environmental impacts of microbial processes. In 1995 at this conference, the goal is to further document and promote microbial processes for improved oil recovery and related technology for solving environmental problems.

  18. Paralysis recovery in humans and model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, V. Reggie; Roy, Roland R.

    2002-01-01

    Considerable evidence now demonstrates that extensive functional and anatomical reorganization following spinal cord injury occurs in centers of the brain that have some input into spinal motor pools. This is very encouraging, given the accumulating evidence that new connections formed across spinal lesions may not be initially functionally useful. The second area of advancement in the field of paralysis recovery is in the development of effective interventions to counter axonal growth inhibition. A third area of significant progress is the development of robotic devices to quantify the performance level of motor tasks following spinal cord injury and to 'teach' the spinal cord to step and stand. Advances are being made with robotic devices for mice, rats and humans.

  19. Secondary victims of rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels......Rape is often a very traumatic experience, which affects not only the primary victim (PV) but also his/her significant others. Studies on secondary victims of rape are few and have almost exclusively studied male partners of female rape victims. This study examined the impact of rape on 107...... of traumatization, and it was estimated that approximately one quarter of the respondents suffered from posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). Degree of traumatization was associated with a more recent assault, higher efforts to support the PV, recurrent thoughts about having been able to prevent the assault, a lack...

  20. ADVANCE PAYMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative Circular Nº 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  1. Advance payments

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2003-01-01

    Administrative Circular N 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  2. Secondary retroperitoneal teratoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, P; Danse, E; Thys, F; Cosyns, J P; Wese, F X

    2011-01-01

    Retroperitonal teratomas are rare. We report on a case of a retroperitoneal secondary localisation of a gonadal teratoma in a patient who had developed primary testicular teratoma 12 years previously. The retroperitoneal mass was detected with an abdominal CT requested for the management of a non-specific abdominal pain. CT and MRI examinations showed cystic retroperitoneal masses combined with calcifications and peripheral enhancement. Review of the literature is presented, including the common differential diagnoses to be considered. PMID:22338389

  3. Dynamics of secondary forests

    OpenAIRE

    Breugel, van, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The succession of tropical secondary forests on abandoned agricultural fields has been studied since long, most often by comparing stands of different age since abandonment. These so-called chronosequence studies have yielded much insight in general patterns of succession and the constraints and conditions that affect the course of succession (shortly reviewed in chapter 1). Successional dynamics, however, are inferred rather than directly monitored in such studies; i.e. direction and rates o...

  4. Umbilical Cable Recovery Load Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shu-wang; JIA Zhao-lin; FENG Xiao-wei; LI Shi-tao

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field.The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work.Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system.Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem.The tension load at the mudline must be known first,and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation.The recovery analysis also involves umbilicalsoil interaction and becomes more complicated.Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed.The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  5. Glucose counterregulation in diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, S; Hilsted, J; Philipsen, E K;

    1990-01-01

    Glucose counterregulation and hormonal responses after insulin-induced hypoglycemia were investigated in six patients with diabetes mellitus secondary to chronic pancreatitis, in seven with insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes mellitus, and in seven healthy subjects. Glucose counterregulation...... was identical in type I patients and in the patients with chronic pancreatitis, whereas both groups had impaired glucose recovery compared with the healthy subjects. The patients with chronic pancreatitis had no glucagon response to hypoglycemia, whereas epinephrine increased significantly. In an additional...... experiment, glucose recovery did not occur after hypoglycemia during concomitant beta-adrenoceptor blockade in these patients. In conclusion, glucose counterregulation is preserved but slightly impaired in patients with diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis, and the combination of total glucagon...

  6. Advancement into the Arctic Region for Bioactive Sponge Secondary Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hamann

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Porifera have long been a reservoir for the discovery of bioactive compounds and drug discovery. Most research in the area has focused on sponges from tropical and temperate waters, but more recently the focus has shifted to the less accessible colder waters of the Antarctic and, to a lesser extent, the Arctic. The Antarctic region in particular has been a more popular location for natural products discovery and has provided promising candidates for drug development. This article reviews groups of bioactive compounds that have been isolated and reported from the southern reaches of the Arctic Circle, surveys the known sponge diversity present in the Arctic waters, and details a recent sponge collection by our group in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. The collection has yielded previously undescribed sponge species along with primary activity against opportunistic infectious diseases, malaria, and HCV. The discovery of new sponge species and bioactive crude extracts gives optimism for the isolation of new bioactive compounds from a relatively unexplored source.

  7. MANDARIN SECONDARY PREDICATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Shibagaki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first part, I provide some data of secondary predicates in English and Mandarin on consequence-depictives (SUBJ-oriented and resultatives (OBJ-oriented, which adopt an intransitive verb/adjective for their secondary predicate. In the second half, I present an account of the linking issue on “resultative” compound predicates in Mandarin Chinese, building on the LFG/LMT work of Her (2007, who assumed that the argument structures of each predicate merge to give a composite structure, which determines whether a resultative sentence is semantically causative or not, and from which the arguments link to grammatical functions. I argue here that the facts require a more articulated semantics, for unlike Her’s analysis, the determination of causativity and the linking of the arguments of the two predicates is fully an issue of semantics; specifically, I argue that there are two types of secondary predicates in terms of their semantics, namely those with internally- and externally-caused changes of state (see Levin and Rappaport Hovav: 1995, McKoon and Macfarland: 2000, which are respectively “indirect-causative” and “direct-causative”; causativity should be categorised into three types, non-causative, indirect-causative, and direct causative. I further argue that the argument undergoing internally-caused change always links to Actor and that the one undergoing externally-caused change (a truly “affected” argument always links to Undergoer.

  8. Oil recovery with vinyl sulfonic acid-acrylamide copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1973-12-18

    An aqueous polymer flood containing sulfomethylated alkali metal vinyl sulfonate-acrylamide copolymers was proposed for use in secondary or tertiary enhanced oil recovery. The sulfonate groups on the copolymers sustain the viscosity of the flood in the presence of brine and lime. Injection of the copolymer solution into a waterflooded Berea core, produced 30.5 percent of the residual oil. It is preferred that the copolymers are partially hydrolyzed.

  9. Ionic liquid technology for recovery and separation of rare earths

    OpenAIRE

    Binnemans, Koen

    2015-01-01

    End-of-life neodymium-iron-boron and samarium-cobalt permanent magnets, fluorescent lamps and metal hydride batteries are valuable secondary resources of rare earths. These resources are characterised by relatively small volumes, but high concentrations of rare earths [1]. On the other hand, industrial process residues such as bauxite residue (red mud) and phosphogypsum contain low concentrations of rare earths, but are available in huge volumes [2]. Recovery of rare earths from end-of-life c...

  10. Reduced time as a unified parameter determining fixity and free recovery of shape memory polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Ge, Qi; Qi, H Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Shape memory polymers are at the forefront of recent materials research. Although the basic concept has been known for decades, recent advances in the research of shape memory polymers demand a unified approach to predict the shape memory performance under different thermo-temporal conditions. Here we report such an approach to predict the shape fixity and free recovery of thermo-rheologically simple shape memory polymers. The results show that the influence of programming conditions to free recovery can be unified by a reduced programming time that uniquely determines shape fixity, which consequently uniquely determines the shape recovery with a reduced recovery time. Furthermore, using the time-temperature superposition principle, shape recoveries under different thermo-temporal conditions can be extracted from the shape recovery under the reduced recovery time. Finally, a shape memory performance map is constructed based on a few simple standard polymer rheology tests to characterize the shape memory performance of the polymer. PMID:24423789

  11. Energy Recovery Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolitsa Merminga

    2007-06-01

    The success and continuing progress of the three operating FELs based on Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), the Jefferson Lab IR FEL Upgrade, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) FEL, and the Novosibirsk High Power THz FEL, have inspired multiple future applications of ERLs, which include higher power FELs, synchrotron radiation sources, electron cooling devices, and high luminosity electron-ion colliders. The benefits of using ERLs for these applications are presented. The key accelerator physics and technology challenges of realizing future ERL designs, and recent developments towards resolving these challenges are reviewed.

  12. Waste heat recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Konzen in-house designed anaerobic digester system for the POME (Palm Oil Mill Effluent) treatment process is one of the registered Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in Malaysia. It is an organic wastewater treatment process which achieves excellent co-benefits objectives through the prevention of water pollution and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, which is estimated to be 40,000 to 50,000 t-CO2 per year. The anaerobic digester was designed in mesophile mode with temperature ranging from 37 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius. A microorganisms growth is optimum under moderately warm temperature conditions. The operating temperature of the anaerobic digester needs to be maintained constantly. There are two waste heat recovery systems designed to make the treatment process self-sustaining. The heat recovered will be utilised as a clean energy source to heat up the anaerobic digester indirectly. The first design for the waste heat recovery system utilises heat generated from the flue gas of the biogas flaring system. A stainless steel water tank with an internal water layer is installed at the top level of the flare stack. The circulating water is heated by the methane enriched biogas combustion process. The second design utilizes heat generated during the compression process for the biogas compressor operation. The compressed biogas needs to be cooled before being recycled back into the digester tank for mixing purposes. Both the waste heat recovery systems use a design which applies a common water circulation loop and hot water tank to effectively become a closed loop. The hot water tank will perform both storage and temperature buffer functions. The hot water is then used to heat up recycled sludge from 30 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius with the maximum temperature setting at 50 degree Celsius. The recycled sludge line temperature will be measured and monitored by a temperature sensor and transmitter, which will activate the

  13. Advanced nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Razali

    2012-01-01

    While theories based on classical physics have been very successful in helping experimentalists design microelectronic devices, new approaches based on quantum mechanics are required to accurately model nanoscale transistors and to predict their characteristics even before they are fabricated. Advanced Nanoelectronics provides research information on advanced nanoelectronics concepts, with a focus on modeling and simulation. Featuring contributions by researchers actively engaged in nanoelectronics research, it develops and applies analytical formulations to investigate nanoscale devices. The

  14. A biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strain enhances oil recovery under simulated reservoir conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Pereira, J. F.; Costa, Rita; L. R. Rodrigues; Coutinho, João A. P.; J.A. Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from reservoirs beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using microorganisms and their metabolites. In situ stimulation of microorganisms that produce biosurfactants and degrade heavy oil fractions reduces the capillary forces that retain the oil inside the reservoir and decreases oil viscosity, thus promoting its flow and increasing oil production. Bacillus subtilis #573, isolated from crude oil s...

  15. Condensed tannins increase nitrogen recovery by trees following insect defoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madritch, Michael D; Lindroth, Richard L

    2015-10-01

    While the importance of plant secondary metabolites to belowground functioning is gaining recognition, the perception remains that secondary metabolites are produced for herbivore defense, whereas their belowground impacts are ecological by-products, or 'afterlife' effects. However, plants invest a significant amount of resources into production of secondary metabolites that have minimal effects on herbivore resistance (e.g. condensed tannins and insect herbivores). We show that genetically mediated variation in condensed tannin concentration is correlated with plant nitrogen recovery following a severe defoliation event. We used single-tree mesocosms labeled with (15) N to track nitrogen through both the frass and litter cycling pathways. High concentrations of leaf tannins in Populus tremuloides were correlated with (15) N recovery from frass within the same growing season and in the following growing season. Likewise, leaf tannin concentrations were also correlated with (15) N recovery from the litter of defoliated trees in the growing season following the defoliation event. Conversely, tannins were not well correlated with nitrogen uptake under conditions of nominal herbivory. Our results suggest that tannins may confer benefits in response to herbivore pressure through conserved belowground nitrogen cycling, rather than via defensive properties. Consequently, tannins may be considered as chemical mediators of tolerance rather than resistance.

  16. AdvancED Flex 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Shashank; Schulze, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    AdvancED Flex 4 makes advanced Flex 4 concepts and techniques easy. Ajax, RIA, Web 2.0, mashups, mobile applications, the most sophisticated web tools, and the coolest interactive web applications are all covered with practical, visually oriented recipes. * Completely updated for the new tools in Flex 4* Demonstrates how to use Flex 4 to create robust and scalable enterprise-grade Rich Internet Applications.* Teaches you to build high-performance web applications with interactivity that really engages your users.* What you'll learn Practiced beginners and intermediate users of Flex, especially

  17. Obesity accelerates secondary sexual maturity in girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiriani Sari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Worldwide incidence of obesity in children is increasing. Obesity may have many health effects including advancement of sexual maturity. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the timing of secondary sexual maturation in obese vs. non-obese girls. Methods Subjects were 105 obese and 105 non-obese girls, aged 7 to 8 years who had not entered puberty. Breast and pubic hair growth, secondary sexual characteristics, were assessed at baseline and every 4 months for two years. Onset of puberty was defined as Tanner stage for secondary sexual maturation of ≥ breast Tanner stage II (B2 and/or ≥ pubic hair Tanner stage II (P2. Survival analyses were used to estimate time to puberty in both groups. Cox regressions were used to analyze possible factors affecting secondary sexual maturation. Results Mean onset of breast budding (B2 was 7.8 (95% CI 7.7 to 7.8 years in obese girls vs. 8.6 (95% CI 8.5 to 8.6 years in non-obese girls (P<0.001. Mean onset of pubarche (P2 was 8.7 (95% CI 8.6 to 8.8 years in obese girls vs. 9.0 (95% CI 8.9 to 9.0 years in non-obese girls (P<0.001. Hazard ratios of obese girls to experience an earlier secondary sexual maturation at maturity level B2, B3 and P2 were 1.34 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.52, 6.91 (95% CI 3.90 to 12.24 and 3.78 (95% CI 2.42 to 5.89, respectively. Conclusions Obesity was associated with earlier onset of puberty in girls. Obese girls entered puberty approximately 3 to 9 months earlier than their non-obese peers.

  18. [Secondary cutaneous plasmacytoma revealing multiple myeloma: about a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngolet, Lydie Ocini; N'soundhat, Norbert Lamini; Ndounga, Eliane; Kocko, Innocent; Kidédé, Daphtone Chabel Nkouala; Ntsiba, Honoré

    2016-01-01

    Secondary metastatic cutaneous plasmacytoma is a multiple extramedullary plasma cell proliferation involving skin. Its diagnosis is based on the identification of malignant plasma cells proliferation in the bone marrow and in the skin. Its occurrence is associated with advanced myeloma and a poor prognosis. PMID:27642385

  19. The Global Landscape of GIS in Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerski, Joseph J.; Demirci, Ali; Milson, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the status of GIS in schools in thirty-three countries and proposes recommendations for advancing the implementation and effectiveness of GIS in secondary education from an international perspective. Thirty-three countries have been evaluated in the study to assess the global landscape of educational GIS by analyzing how GIS is…

  20. Implementing Performance Competitive Logical Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Lomet, David; Zwilling, Michael

    2011-01-01

    New hardware platforms, e.g. cloud, multi-core, etc., have led to a reconsideration of database system architecture. Our Deuteronomy project separates transactional functionality from data management functionality, enabling a flexible response to exploiting new platforms. This separation requires, however, that recovery is described logically. In this paper, we extend current recovery methods to work in this logical setting. While this is straightforward in principle, performance is an issue. We show how ARIES style recovery optimizations can work for logical recovery where page information is not captured on the log. In side-by-side performance experiments using a common log, we compare logical recovery with a state-of-the art ARIES style recovery implementation and show that logical redo performance can be competitive.

  1. Robust Disaster Recovery System Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Highly security-critical system should possess features of continuous service. We present a new Robust Disaster Recovery System Model (RDRSM). Through strengthening the ability of safe communications, RDRSM guarantees the secure and reliable command on disaster recovery. Its self-supervision capability can monitor the integrality and security of disaster recovery system itself. By 2D and 3D real-time visible platform provided by GIS, GPS and RS, the model makes the using, management and maintenance of disaster recovery system easier. RDRSM possesses predominant features of security, robustness and controllability. And it can be applied to highly security-critical environments such as E-government and bank. Conducted by RDRSM, an important E-government disaster recovery system has been constructed successfully. The feasibility of this model is verified by practice. We especially emphasize the significance of some components of the model, such as risk assessment, disaster recovery planning, system supervision and robust communication support.

  2. Recovery of Sparsely Corrupted Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Studer, Christoph; Pope, Graeme; Bölcskei, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the recovery of signals exhibiting a sparse representation in a general (i.e., possibly redundant or incomplete) dictionary that are corrupted by additive noise admitting a sparse representation in another general dictionary. This setup covers a wide range of applications, such as image inpainting, super-resolution, signal separation, and recovery of signals that are impaired by, e.g., clipping, impulse noise, or narrowband interference. We present deterministic recovery guarantees based on a novel uncertainty relation for pairs of general dictionaries and we provide corresponding practicable recovery algorithms. The recovery guarantees we find depend on the signal and noise sparsity levels, on the coherence parameters of the involved dictionaries, and on the amount of prior knowledge on the support sets of signal and noise. We finally identify situations under which the recovery guarantees are tight.

  3. Fatal thalamic abscess secondary to dental infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, Shadi; Sharma, Valmiki; Santhanam, Vijay; Ferro, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of poor neurological recovery and subsequent death secondary to a thalamic abscess in a 53-year-old man. This patient initially presented with sudden dysarthria and left hemiparesis while driving. Neuroimaging showed a multilobular abscess involving the right thalamus with oedema extending to the basal ganglionic region and brainstem. The source of the abscess was initially unknown and it required draining multiple times while the different causes were being explored. The patient's neurological state along with intubation made for a difficult and inconclusive oral examination. It was only after neuroimaging included tooth-bearing areas that it became evident that this patient had extensive periodontal disease with multiple areas of periapical radiolucencies. The patient underwent complete dental clearance alongside repeated drainage of the abscess. Despite initial postoperative improvement, the patient never recovered from the neurological damage and died 3 weeks later. PMID:26678690

  4. Teaching recovery to medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Feeney, Larkin

    2013-03-01

    Community mental health services are evolving toward more holistic, patient-centered, recovery-based practices. This change necessitates an attitudinal shift from mental health workers, and training in recovery principles is helpful in achieving this change. Medical students often have narrow, doctor-centered concepts of mental health care. Traditional clinical placements in psychiatry do little to address this. We evaluated a recovery-focused teaching program for medical students in psychiatry.

  5. Loop transfer recovery for general observer architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Søgaard-Andersen, Per; Stoustrup, Jakob

    1991-01-01

    A general and concise formulation is given of the loop transfer recovery (LTR) design problem based on recovery errors. Three types of recovery errors are treated: open loop recovery, sensitivity recovery and input-output recovery errors. The three corresponding versions of the asymptotic recovery...... problem tum out to be equivalent, since the minimization of the recovery errors all amount to the minimization of a certain matrix, the recovery matrix. Using the recovery error definitions, simple necessary and sufficient conditions for the controllers are derived both for the exact and asymptotic...

  6. [Primary and secondary hypocholesterolemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun-xian; Ren, Jing-yi; Chen, Hong

    2010-10-18

    Hypocholesterolemia is characterized by serum total cholesterol that is lower than the 5th percentile for age and sex, or the cut-off value which predicts the adverse prognosis by epidemiological study. Unlike hypercholesterolemia, physicians pay less attention to the morbidity, causes and consequences of hypocholesterolemia in clinical practice. In fact, hypocholesterolemia is a common dislipidemia, and mainly results from secondary factors. The causes of primary hypocholesterolemia are some disorders owing to genetic mutation in the pathway of cholesterol absorption, biosynthesis or metabolism, including abetalipoproteinemia, hypobetalipoproteinemia, Tangier disease, chylomicron retention disease and inherited disorders of cholesterol biosynthesis. The causes of secondary hypocholesterolemia comprise anemia, hyperthyroidism, malignancy, live disease, critical illness, serious stress, malabsorption or malnutrition, acute or chronic infection, chronic inflammation, and use of some drugs. In addition, what's more important is that hypocholesterolemia can result in some adverse events, such as increased mortality, intracerebral hemorrhage, cancer, infection, adrenal failure, suicide and mental disorder. Therefore, with the practice of intensive lipid-lowering treatment and the tendency to the increased indications of statins, it's high time that physicians attached more importance to hypocholesterolemia. PMID:20957025

  7. Secondary aortoduodenal fistula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Girolamo Geraci; Franco Pisello; Francesco Li Volsi; Tiziana Facella; Lina Platia; Giuseppe Modica; Carmelo Sciumè

    2008-01-01

    Aorto-duodenal fistulae (ADF) are the most frequent aorto-enteric fistulae (80%), presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We report the first case of a man with a secondary aorto-duodenal fistula presenting with a history of persistent occlusive syndrome. A 59-year old man who underwent an aortic-bi-femoral bypass 5 years ago, presented with dyspepsia and biliary vomiting. Computed tomography scan showed in the third duodenal segment the presence of inflammatory tissue with air bubbles between the duodenum and prosthesis, adherent to the duodenum. The patient was submitted to surgery, during which the prosthesis was detached from the duodenum, the intestine failed to close and a gastro-jejunal anastomosis was performed. The post-operative course was simple, secondary ADF was a complication (0.3%-2%) of aortic surgery. Mechanical erosion of the prosthetic material into the bowel was due to the lack of interposed retroperitoneal tissue or the excessive pulsation of redundantly placed grafts or septic procedures. The third or fourth duodenal segment was most frequently involved. Diagnosis of ADF was difficult. Surgical treatment is always recommended by explorative laparotomy. ADF must be suspected whenever a patient with aortic prosthesis has digestive bleeding or unexplained obstructive syndrome. Rarely the clinical picture of ADF is subtle presenting as an obstructive syndrome and in these cases the principal goal is to effectively relieve the mechanical bowel obstruction.

  8. Predicting functional recovery after acute ankle sprain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean R O'Connor

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Ankle sprains are among the most common acute musculoskeletal conditions presenting to primary care. Their clinical course is variable but there are limited recommendations on prognostic factors. Our primary aim was to identify clinical predictors of short and medium term functional recovery after ankle sprain. METHODS: A secondary analysis of data from adult participants (N = 85 with an acute ankle sprain, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial was undertaken. The predictive value of variables (age, BMI, gender, injury mechanism, previous injury, weight-bearing status, medial joint line pain, pain during weight-bearing dorsiflexion and lateral hop test recorded at baseline and at 4 weeks post injury were investigated for their prognostic ability. Recovery was determined from measures of subjective ankle function at short (4 weeks and medium term (4 months follow ups. Multivariate stepwise linear regression analyses were undertaken to evaluate the association between the aforementioned variables and functional recovery. RESULTS: Greater age, greater injury grade and weight-bearing status at baseline were associated with lower function at 4 weeks post injury (p<0.01; adjusted R square=0.34. Greater age, weight-bearing status at baseline and non-inversion injury mechanisms were associated with lower function at 4 months (p<0.01; adjusted R square=0.20. Pain on medial palpation and pain on dorsiflexion at 4 weeks were the most valuable prognostic indicators of function at 4 months (p< 0.01; adjusted R square=0.49. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study provide further evidence that ankle sprains have a variable clinical course. Age, injury grade, mechanism and weight-bearing status at baseline provide some prognostic information for short and medium term recovery. Clinical assessment variables at 4 weeks were the strongest predictors of recovery, explaining 50% of the variance in ankle function at 4 months. Further

  9. Register file soft error recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Wait, Charles D.; Muff, Adam J.; Watson, III, Alfred T.

    2013-10-15

    Register file soft error recovery including a system that includes a first register file and a second register file that mirrors the first register file. The system also includes an arithmetic pipeline for receiving data read from the first register file, and error detection circuitry to detect whether the data read from the first register file includes corrupted data. The system further includes error recovery circuitry to insert an error recovery instruction into the arithmetic pipeline in response to detecting the corrupted data. The inserted error recovery instruction replaces the corrupted data in the first register file with a copy of the data from the second register file.

  10. Personalizing Treatment: Between Primary and Secondary Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, Michael J

    2016-09-15

    Current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for the management of patients with elevated blood cholesterol increasingly emphasize assessment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in deciding when to initiate pharmacotherapy. The decision to treat is based primarily on mathematical integration of traditional risk factors, including age, sex, race, lipid values, systolic blood pressure, hypertension therapy, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. Advanced risk testing is selectively endorsed for patients when the decision to treat is otherwise uncertain, or more broadly interpreted as those patients who are at so-called "intermediate risk" of ASCVD events using traditional risk factors alone. These new guidelines also place new emphasis on a clinician-patient risk discussion, a process of shared decision making in which patient and physician consider the potential benefits of treatment, risk of adverse events, and patient preferences before making a final decision to initiate treatment. Advanced risk testing is likely to play an increasingly important role in this process as weaknesses in exclusive reliance on traditional risk factors are recognized, new non-statin therapies become available, and guidelines are iteratively updated. Comparative efficacy studies of the various advanced risk testing options suggest that coronary artery calcium scoring is most strongly predictive of ASCVD events. Most importantly, coronary artery calcium scoring appears to identify an important subgroup of patients with advanced subclinical atherosclerosis-who are "between" primary and secondary prevention-that might benefit from the most aggressive lipid-lowering pharmacotherapy. PMID:27620358

  11. Desulfurisation and sulfur recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P.; Finn, A.; Scott, L. [Costain Oil, Gas and Process Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-01

    This article highlights technical issues associated with different sulphur recovery processes in the hydrocarbon processing industry. Details are given of the Stretford process developed by British Gas for the removal of low concentrations of hydrogen sulphide from natural gas and other hydrocarbon gases; the SulFerox process developed by Shell and Dow for removing moderate amounts of sulphur from contaminated gases using a proprietary iron salt for extracting the sulphur; solvent systems for removing moderately high concentrations of hydrogen sulphide in sour gas or liquid petroleum gases (LPG); the simple Claus process involving the partial combustion of hydrogen sulphide forming sulphur dioxide which reacts with hydrogen sulphide to form sulphur; and enhanced Claus processes. Sour water stripping processes for hydrogen sulphide contaminated water from hydrocarbon processing, tail gas treatment of Claus plant offgases, and hydrotreating are also discussed.

  12. Forerunner of Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    It has been an accepted fact that the sweeping financial crisis has thrown the world economy into a tailspin.Some Western countries are succumbing to a deepening recession.In China,the chilly winds blowing through the global economy have even put a damper on this year’s lunar New Year. The looming question now is which country will be the first to bottom out-the United States or China?Have they laid the groundwork for recovery?Zuo Xiaolei,chief economist at China Galaxy Securities Co.Ltd.in Beijing,discussed these questions in a recent article in the China Securities Journal.Edited excerpts follow

  13. Gas recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to decontaminate a gas stream containing radioactive krypton, a preliminary step of removing oxygen and oxides of nitrogen by catalytic reaction with hydrogen is performed. The gas stream is then passed serially through a drier, a carbon dioxide adsorber and a xenon adsorber to remove sequentially water, CO2 and xenon therefrom. The gas exiting the xenon adsorber is passed to a krypton recovery plant wherein krypton is concentrated to a first level in a primary distillation column by contact with a reflux liquid in a packed section of the column. The liquid and vapour collecting at the bottom of the column is passed to a separator in which the liquid is separated from the vapour. The liquid is partially evaporated in a vessel to increase concentration thereof and is brought to a concentration of approximately 90 mole % or greater in a second distillation column thereby enabling efficient storage of a radioactive krypton product. (author)

  14. Planning tiger recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilting, Andreas; Courtiol, Alexandre; Christiansen, Per;

    2015-01-01

    approaches to plan tiger recovery are partly impeded by the lack of a consensus on the number of tiger subspecies or management units, because a comprehensive analysis of tiger variation is lacking. We analyzed variation among all nine putative tiger subspecies, using extensive data sets of several traits...... two subspecies: the Sunda tiger, Panthera tigris sondaica, and the continental tiger, Panthera tigris tigris, which consists of two (northern and southern) management units. Conservation management programs, such as captive breeding, reintroduction initiatives, or trans-boundary projects, rely......, which will have profound implications for the management of in situ and ex situ tiger populations and boost conservation efforts by facilitating a pragmatic approach to tiger conservation management worldwide....

  15. Face lift postoperative recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe what I have studied and experienced, mainly regarding the control and prediction of the postoperative edema; how to achieve an agreeable recovery and give positive support to the patient, who in turn will receive pleasant sensations that neutralize the negative consequences of the surgery.After the skin is lifted, the drainage flow to the flaps is reversed abruptly toward the medial part of the face, where the flap bases are located. The thickness and extension of the flap determines the magnitude of the post-op edema, which is also augmented by medial surgeries (blepharo, rhino) whose trauma obstruct their natural drainage, increasing the congestion and edema. To study the lymphatic drainage, the day before an extended face lift (FL) a woman was infiltrated in the cheek skin with lynfofast (solution of tecmesio) and the absorption was observed by gamma camera. Seven days after the FL she underwent the same study; we observed no absorption by the lymphatic, concluding that a week after surgery, the lymphatic network was still damaged. To study the venous return during surgery, a fine catheter was introduced into the external jugular vein up to the mandibular border to measure the peripheral pressure. Following platysma plication the pressure rose, and again after a simple bandage, but with an elastic bandage it increased even further, diminishing considerably when it was released. Hence, platysma plication and the elastic bandage on the neck augment the venous congestion of the face. There are diseases that produce and can prolong the surgical edema: cardiac, hepatic, and renal insufficiencies, hypothyroidism, malnutrition, etc. According to these factors, the post-op edema can be predicted, the surgeon can choose between a wide dissection or a medial surgery, depending on the social or employment compromises the patient has, or the patient must accept a prolonged recovery if a complex surgery is necessary. Operative

  16. Speech recovery device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2004-04-20

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  17. Speech recovery device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2000-10-19

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  18. RECOVERY OF LOWER DISCOPATHIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Paraschita

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Discopathy lumbar (DVL is characterized by localized back pain in the lumbar region and radiating to the buttocks and along the leg, under certain nerve pathways. The purpose of this study was to find the best treatment for improving pronounced as back pain in lumbar-sacral and cervical region. In the study took part two women aged 42 to 55 years, with disease acquired due to requesting or incorrect posture, one being a former athlete, the other being an accountant and sitting a lot on the chair because the profession. Patients with lower discopathies can improve spinal mobility and may relieve back pain through chiropractic methods, massage and electrotherapy. It is necessary to apply as early as possible a comprehensive program of recovery (Exercise WILLIAMS, showing continuity in time and aim to reduce or eliminate pain patient.

  19. Recovery of heavy metals from MSW molten fly ash by CIP method

    OpenAIRE

    Alorro, Richard Diaz; Hiroyoshi, Naoki; Ito, Mayumi; Tsunekawa, Masami

    2009-01-01

    Molten fly ash (MFA), generated by the melting process of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) solid residues in Japan, contains considerable amounts of heavy metals such as Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd. Therefore, MFA is classified as a hazardous waste and needs treatment for detoxification or recovery of heavy metals as secondary sources. Carrier-in-Pulp (CIP) method, which is similar in principle with the Carbon-in-Pulp technology for gold recovery from ores, was proposed to recover these heavy ...

  20. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Nickerson, HK; Steenrod, NE

    2011-01-01

    ""This book is a radical departure from all previous concepts of advanced calculus,"" declared the Bulletin of the American Mathematics Society, ""and the nature of this departure merits serious study of the book by everyone interested in undergraduate education in mathematics."" Classroom-tested in a Princeton University honors course, it offers students a unified introduction to advanced calculus. Starting with an abstract treatment of vector spaces and linear transforms, the authors introduce a single basic derivative in an invariant form. All other derivatives - gradient, divergent, curl,

  1. The significance of student voice: female students interpretations of failure in Tanzanian secondary education

    OpenAIRE

    Posti-Ahokas, Hanna; Lehtomäki, Elina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: In Tanzania, the national examinations are used as the primary tools for selection and transition from lower to upper secondary education. Female students are more likely to fail in the national exams and to drop out from education. This article examines the perspectives of female students concerning their advancement in secondary education. Two sets of qualitative data, responses to a research questionnaire from 100 female lower secondary school students and follow-up interviews wi...

  2. Individual to Collaborative: Guided Group Work and the Role of Teachers in Junior Secondary Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Dennis; Lui, Wai-mei

    2016-01-01

    This paper, through discussion of a teaching intervention at two secondary schools in Hong Kong, demonstrates the learning advancement brought about by group work and dissects the facilitating role of teachers in collaborative discussions. One-hundred and fifty-two Secondary Two (Grade 8) students were divided into three pedagogical groups, namely…

  3. The Significance of Student Voice: Female Students' Interpretations of Failure in Tanzanian Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posti-Ahokas, Hanna; Lehtomäki, Elina

    2014-01-01

    In Tanzania, the national examinations are used as the primary tools for selection and transition from lower to upper secondary education. Female students are more likely to fail in the national exams and to drop out from education. This article examines the perspectives of female students concerning their advancement in secondary education. Two…

  4. CNIASuggested that Secondary Lead Enterprises should Continue to Implement Appropriate Simultaneous Levy-refund Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The CNIA Recycling Metal Branch published a report on August 23,which put forward proposal to improve secondary lead recycling&utilization fiscal and taxation policies,establish advanced and standardized secondary lead recycling and utilization system,and suggest to

  5. Technological Advancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The influx of technology has brought significant improvements to school facilities. Many of those advancements can be found in classrooms, but when students head down the hall to use the washrooms, they are likely to find a host of technological innovations that have improved conditions in that part of the building. This article describes modern…

  6. Advanced ferroelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Blinc, R

    2011-01-01

    Advances in the field of ferroelectricity have implications both for basic physics and for technological applications such as memory devices, spintronic applications and electro-optic devices, as well as in acoustics, robotics, telecommunications and medicine. This book provides an account of recent developments in the field.

  7. The clinical analysis of secondary hypertension patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-hong Wang; Wen-feng Wang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the situation of secondary hypertension caused by different etiology and its treatment status so as to improve its treatment. Methods Totally 580 patients with secondary hypertension selected with strict criteria were divided into 4 groups in accordance with the etiology. The data were dealt with SPSS 13.0. We analyzed the sex, age, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure and positive incidence of family history of all the secondary hypertension patients in each group, and compared their usage of every unilateral preparation. Results The average age of renal parenchymal disease was more advanced than that of adrenal disease and other diseases. The administration of diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) in renal parenchymal disease group, αβ receptor blocking agents and calcium antagonists in kidney-artery disease group, a antagonists in adrenal disease and compound antihyportensive agents in other diseases groups all affected advantage of the ratio. Conclusion Diuretics and ACEI are suitable for hypertension caused by renal parenchymal disease, αβ receptor blocking agents and calcium antagonists are suitable for that caused by kidney artery disease, but a receptor blocking agents are suitable for that caused by adrenal disease.

  8. Tegument Assembly and Secondary Envelopment of Alphaherpesviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle J. Owen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alphaherpesviruses like herpes simplex virus are large DNA viruses characterized by their ability to establish lifelong latent infection in neurons. As for all herpesviruses, alphaherpesvirus virions contain a protein-rich layer called “tegument” that links the DNA-containing capsid to the glycoprotein-studded membrane envelope. Tegument proteins mediate a diverse range of functions during the virus lifecycle, including modulation of the host-cell environment immediately after entry, transport of virus capsids to the nucleus during infection, and wrapping of cytoplasmic capsids with membranes (secondary envelopment during virion assembly. Eleven tegument proteins that are conserved across alphaherpesviruses have been implicated in the formation of the tegument layer or in secondary envelopment. Tegument is assembled via a dense network of interactions between tegument proteins, with the redundancy of these interactions making it challenging to determine the precise function of any specific tegument protein. However, recent studies have made great headway in defining the interactions between tegument proteins, conserved across alphaherpesviruses, which facilitate tegument assembly and secondary envelopment. We summarize these recent advances and review what remains to be learned about the molecular interactions required to assemble mature alphaherpesvirus virions following the release of capsids from infected cell nuclei.

  9. Electrochemical removal and recovery of humic-like substances from wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Kliaugaitė, Daina; Yasadi, Kamuran; Euverink, Gert-Jan; Bijmans, Martijn F.M.; Racys, Viktoras

    2013-01-01

    The secondary effluent from paper and food industry wastewater still contains a high chemical oxygen demand and color intensity caused by the presence of difficult degradable organic compounds. These compounds are mostly humic-like substances. This study focused on two promising electrochemical methods for removal and recovery of humic like substances from industrial secondary effluent: membrane electrolysis and electro-coagulation. Membrane electrolysis removed 70% of the color at energy con...

  10. Transitions in Secondary Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Østergaard; Jensen, Leif; Pilegaard Jensen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate educational choices and attainment of children who experience social problems during their upbringing. The study explores the extent to which social problems can help explain the gaps in entry and dropout rates in upper secondary education in Denmark...... statistical model of educational progression. By using this method, we parcel educational attainment into a series of transitions and the model is able to control for educational selection and unobserved heterogeneity. We apply counterfactual analyses to allow a formal decomposition of the effects of social...... problems. The results show that social problems during upbringing have a large and significant effect on children's educational outcome and that the indicators of social problems explain about 20–30 per cent of the class differences in the students’ educational outcomes....

  11. Secondary restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEN Yun

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed the latest findings related to secondary restless legs syndrome (RLS systematically. There were a variety of causes. Renal failure, injury of spinal cord and peripheral nerve were related risk factors. During pregnancy, the levels of folic acid and iron diminished and many hormone levels underwent significant changes, which might also be predisposing factors for RLS. The underlying dopamine dysfunction might affect Pakinson's disease (PD patients with RLS symptoms. In addition, there were some evidences which would illustrate some drugs (mainly antidepressants, antipsychotics, histamine receptor antagonist, smoking, caffeine, alcohol and migraine might be associated with the prevalence of RLS, or even the severity of the disease. Clinicians should pay more attention to early diagnosis and treatment plan to improve the quality of life of these patients.

  12. HANARO secondary coolant management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the basic theory for management of water quality, environmental factors influencing to the coolant, chemicals and its usage for quality control of coolant are mentioned, and water balance including the loss rate by evaporation (34.3 m3/hr), discharge rate (12.665 m3/hr), concentration ratio and feed rate (54.1 m3/hr) are calculated at 20 MW operation. Also, the analysis data of HANSU Limited for HANARO secondary coolant (feed water and circulating coolant) - turbidity, pH, conductivity, M-alkalinity, Ca-hardness, chloride ion, total iron ion, phosphoric ion and conversion rate are reviewed. It is confirmed that the feed water has good quality and the circulating coolant has been maintained within the control specification in general, but some items exceeded the control specification occasionally. Therefore it is judged that more regular discharge of coolant is needed. (author). 6 refs., 17 tabs., 18 figs

  13. The Private Equity Secondaries Market During the Financial Crisis and the “Valuation Gap”

    OpenAIRE

    Hege, Ulrich; Nuti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive paper analyzes the performance of the private equity secondaries market during the financial crisis 2008-2009, in order to understand the effective liquidity of private equity investments during this episode of market stress. We document that the secondaries market followed the development of the crisis very closely, with effective market liquidity contracting in early 2009 to only a fraction of the volume earlier, and a quick recovery afterwards that showed no signs of more...

  14. The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Vaaben, Bo;

    Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker...

  15. Untreated Recovery from Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This retrospective study explored the experience of recovery from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa without professional treatment. A nine-question open-ended electronic survey was posted for a period of four months at a mid-western university. Sixteen female and two male respondents reported recovery from adolescent-onset full syndrome…

  16. Chapter V: Secondary landscape structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter deals with the secondary landscape structure of the Slovak Republic. It consists of next subchapters: (1) Land use pattern; (2) Special landscape structures; (3) Real vegetation. The secondary landscape structure consists of the elements influenced by man, created or recreated. They represent material elements with a particular spatial delimitation in the landscape. Vegetation, above all forest vegetation, is the indispensable part of the secondary landscape structure. Special space was given to the historical landscape structure

  17. Oral Manifestations of Secondary Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Barbosa de Paulo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Known as “the great imitator,” secondary syphilis may clinically manifest itself in myriad ways, involving different organs including the oral mucosa, and mimicking, both clinically and histologically, several diseases, thereby making diagnosis a challenge for clinicians. We highlight the clinical aspects of oral manifestation in 7 patients with secondary syphilis. Clinicians should consider secondary syphilis in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative and/or white oral lesions.

  18. Souls in Extremis: Enacting Processes of Recovery from Homelessness Among Older African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, David P; Washington, Olivia G M

    2016-06-01

    In a midwestern city of the USA, the authors implemented the Leaving Homelessness Intervention Research Project-and its eight subprojects-to further understand homelessness as experienced by older minority women, develop intervention strategies to facilitate the movement of the participants out of homelessness, and illuminate the women's recovery process. After reviewing the social issue of homelessness among older African American women in the USA, and offering a framework on recovery and qualitative themes of recovery among participants involved in the Telling My Story subproject, the authors present a four-factor model of recovery-focused practice. The model reflects two recovery paradigms: one that is responsive to the negative consequences people experience as a result of their exposure to extreme situations, such as homelessness, and a proactive one in which assistance is designed to help people in recovery advance their own self-development and move forward their process of individuation. PMID:26781673

  19. LHC Report: Rocky Recovery

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    The last technical stop finished on Friday 8 July, but the machine returned to its pre-stop performance level over a week later.   Efficiency of LHC fills between 16 July and 20 July, 2011. The cryogenics team had the entire ring cold by Saturday morning and the usual post-technical stop tests with circulating beams started soon after. Unfortunately, they were interrupted by a major perturbation to CERN’s electrical network caused by an impressive thunderstorm that swept over the Pays de Gex. There were major knock-on effects, including the loss of cooling to the cryogenics and an inevitable recovery period once normal service had been re-established. The beams were circulating again by Tuesday afternoon and the post-technical stop checks continued, beefed up with further tests to address a number of issues related to the power cut.  Before the stop, the LHC had managed to get 1380 bunches per beam into collisions and the plan was to ramp back up relatively quickly to this leve...

  20. Immune recovery vitritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dujić Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Immune recovery vitritis (IRV is symptomatic vitritis of > 1+ severity associated with inactive cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis. It is an opportunistic infection of the eye, in the patients who suffer from AIDS, and is treated with a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. As a result of this therapy, there is an immune reconstitution in the body and inflammation of the vitreous body. Objective The aim of the study was to show the incidence of IRV in patients treated with HAART. Method A retrospective study was conducted in patients who suffered from CMV retinitis. Twenty-one were treated with HAART and had the diagnosis of CMV retinitis, as well. All of them were examined by the same ophthalmologist who peformed slit lamp examination with mydriasis and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Results Nine of 21 patients developed IRV as a complication of HAART, two had cystoid macular edema (CMO. Conclusion CMV retinitis develops when the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes drops below 50/mm3. This results in necrotic retinitis which, if untreated, leads to complete loss of vision. With the introduction of HAART, we learned that the reconstitution of immune status was achieved as well as life expectancy, but there was a dramatic decline in the opportunistic infection, including CMV retinitis, as well. With the immune reconstitution, the inflammation develops in the eye, known as IRV. Sometimes, it is necessary to treat this condition, but in the case of our patients, the inflammation was mild, and no treatment was necessary.

  1. Advanced Virgo

    CERN Multimedia

    Virgo, a first-generation interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detector, located in the European Gravitational Observatory, EGO, Cascina (Pisa-Italy) and constructed by the collaboration of French and Italian institutes (CNRS and INFN) has successfully completed its long-duration data taking runs. It is now undergoing a fundamental upgrade that exploits available cutting edges technology to open an exciting new window on the universe, with the first detection of a gravitational wave signal. Advanced Virgo (AdV) is the project to upgrade the Virgo detector to a second-generation instrument. AdV will be able to scan a volume of the Universe 1000 times larger than initial Virgo. AdV will be hosted in the same infrastructures as Virgo. The Advanced VIRGO project is funded and at present carried on by a larger collaboration of institutes belonging to CNRS- France , RMKI - Hungary, INFN- Italy, Nikhef - The Netherlands Polish Academy of Science - Poland.

  2. Advanced Nanoemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryd, Michael M.; Mason, Thomas G.

    2012-05-01

    Recent advances in the growing field of nanoemulsions are opening up new applications in many areas such as pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. Moreover, highly controlled nanoemulsions can also serve as excellent model systems for investigating basic scientific questions about soft matter. Here, we highlight some of the most recent developments in nanoemulsions, focusing on methods of formation, surface modification, material properties, and characterization. These developments provide insight into the substantial advantages that nanoemulsions can offer over their microscale emulsion counterparts.

  3. Advanced LIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O.; Ain, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry–Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recyc...

  4. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  5. Nuclear energy as a subsurface heavy oil recovery technique (Project Athabasca). [Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, S.D.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear energy may become an acceptable thermal recovery technique in the subsurface heavy oil deposits of N. Alberta. The subterranean detonation cavern also may facilitate secondary and tertiary in situ recovery methods, steam injection, and fireflood. Less than 5% of Canada's heavy oil reserves, variously estimated at up to 600-billion bbl, are producible by surface mining. Recovery theory is simple--the nuclear detonation releases both thermal and shock energy to convert otherwise immobile viscous heavy oil deposits into conventionally recoverable hydrocarbons. The proposed Project Athabaska, to employ a 10-kt device, requires exhaustive planning to overcome formidable technical, political, and environmental concerns. Technically, precedent shows that project cost is practically indepencent of yield. The crude oil production unit will comprise a central detonation or emplacement well and several peripheral production wells. Each successive recovery technique will benefit from vastly improved permeability resulting from the prior recovery method.

  6. Advance in MicroRNAs and EGFR-TKIs Secondary Resistance Research in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer%非小细胞肺癌中microRNAs与EGFR-TKIs继发性耐药机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段晓阳; 史健

    2014-01-01

    近年来,在非小细胞肺癌(non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC)靶向治疗中,尤其是伴有表皮生长因子受体(epidermal growth factor receptor,EGFR)基因突变的患者,EGFR酪氨酸激酶抑制剂(tyrosine kinase inhibitor, TKI)越来越多地进入到临床治疗,但EGFR-TKI耐药的产生不仅影响药物敏感性,甚至出现疾病进展,成为制约其疗效的主要瓶颈。微小RNA(microRNAs, miRNAs)是一种非编码蛋白的RNA,参与转录后水平基因的表达调控,最近研究发现,miRNAs参与了EGFR-TKIs耐药,影响肿瘤细胞对吉非替尼的敏感性。本文就NSCLC中miRNAs与EGFR-TKIs继发性耐药之间的相关性研究进展做简要的综述。%In recent years, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) targeted therapy, especially in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) more and more come into the clinical treatment, but EGFR-TKI resistance not only inlfuence the drug sensitivity, appear even disease progression, become the main bottleneck of its curative effect. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) is a non coding RNA and protein involved in regulating gene expression in the transcription level. Recent studies found that miRNAs involved in EGFR-TKIs resistance, which affect the sensitivity of tumor cells to treatment. In this paper, we reviewed brielfy advance in miRNAs and EGFR-TKIs secondary resis-tance research in NSCLC.

  7. The CEOS Recovery Observatory Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford, S.; Proy, C.; Giros, A.; Eddy, A.; Petiteville, I.; Ishida, C.; Gaetani, F.; Frye, S.; Zoffoli, S.; Danzeglocke, J.

    2015-04-01

    Over the course of the last decade, large populations living in vulnerable areas have led to record damages and substantial loss of life in mega-disasters ranging from the deadly Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 and Haiti earthquake of 2010; the catastrophic flood damages of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Tohoku tsunami of 2011, and the astonishing extent of the environmental impact of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in 2009. These major catastrophes have widespread and long-lasting impacts with subsequent recovery and reconstruction costing billions of euros and lasting years. While satellite imagery is used on an ad hoc basis after many disasters to support damage assessment, there is currently no standard practice or system to coordinate acquisition of data and facilitate access for early recovery planning and recovery tracking and monitoring. CEOS led the creation of a Recovery Observatory Oversight Team, which brings together major recovery stakeholders such as the UNDP and the World Bank/Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, value-adding providers and leading space agencies. The principal aims of the Observatory are to: 1. Demonstrate the utility of a wide range of earth observation data to facilitate the recovery and reconstruction phase following a major catastrophic event; 2. Provide a concrete case to focus efforts in identifying and resolving technical and organizational obstacles to facilitating the visibility and access to a relevant set of EO data; and 3. Develop dialogue and establish institutional relationships with the Recovery phase user community to best target data and information requirements; The paper presented here will describe the work conducted in preparing for the triggering of a Recovery Observatory including support to rapid assessments and Post Disaster Needs Assessments by the EO community.

  8. From recovery values to recovery-oriented practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Helle; Pedersen, Inge Kryger; Cunningham, Harry;

    2015-01-01

    facilitating a recovery-oriented rehabilitation program. The research question is howdo HCPs experience a change in their attitude and practicewhen applying recovery-oriented programs? Methods: This paper draws on semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with 16 HCPs experienced...... in facilitating a recovery-oriented rehabilitation program in either the USA or Denmark. Results: Three themes emerged from the HCPs' reflections on changes in attitudes and practices: “Hopeful Attitude” captures a change in the HCPs' attitude toward a more positive view on the future for clients' living......Introduction: The recovery model has influenced mental health services and fostered new standards for best practice. However, knowledge about how mental health care professionals (HCPs) experience recoveryoriented programs is sparse. Aim/Question: This paper explores HCPs' experiences when...

  9. Osteoporosis secundarias Secondary osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lafita

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se denomina osteoporosis secundaria a aquella que es causada por patologías o medicaciones, distintas a la pérdida ósea explicable por la etapa postmenopáusica o envejecimiento. Las posibles patologías que pueden condicionar la pérdida de masa ósea son muy variadas: endocrinológicas, digestivas, genéticas, hematológicas, reumáticas, post-transplante, farmacológicas y un amplio grupo misceláneo. En el artículo se revisan esencialmente las causas endocrinológicas, con especial énfasis en los aspectos más controvertidos en la actualidad, seguidos de una aproximación clínica para el diagnóstico sistemático de estas patologías, frecuentes en los casos etiquetados inicialmente de osteoporosis primaria.Secondary osteoporosis is caused by pathologies or medications, differing from the bone loss explainable by the post-menopausal stage or by ageing. The possible pathologies that can condition the loss of bone mass are very varied: endocrinological, digestive, genetic, haematological, rheumatic, post-transplant, pharmacological and a wide miscellaneous group. This article essentially reviews the endocrinological causes, with special emphasis on the more controversial aspects, followed by a clinical approach for the systematic diagnosis of these pathologies, which are frequent in cases initially labelled as primary osteoporosis.

  10. Professionalism: secondary goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raschke RA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Please recall my lengthy disclaimer from Part 1 of this series. In part two, we reviewed the Oath of Maimonides. We considered our profession as a sacred vocation. We defined professionalism: A good doctor can be trusted to always place his/her individual patient’s best interest first, with ability, good judgment, and a caring attitude. We determined that we should be willing to make sacrifices in our commitment to our primary goal (as critical care physicians – getting our patients and their families through their illness with as little disability and suffering as possible. Now, my second disclaimer – I am going to express my opinions from atop my Ivory Tower – as I am not in private practice, and protected a bit from the harsh reality of the business world. I am going to express my possibly somewhat naive perspective on secondary goals related to our profession. These are not necessarily bad, but ...

  11. Prediction of Recovery from Coma After CPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PATIENTS AND THEIR FAMILIES PREDICTION OF RECOVERY FROM COMA AFTER CPR This summary will provide you with ... tests that help doctors predict poor recovery from coma after CPR. In this case, poor recovery means ...

  12. Secondary electron emission under electron bombardment from graphene nanoplatelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, Isabel, E-mail: imontero@icmm.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-CSIC (Spain); Aguilera, Lydya; Dávila, María E. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-CSIC (Spain); Nistor, Valentin C.; González, Luis A.; Galán, Luis [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain); Raboso, David [European Space Agency/ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Ferritto, R. [NanoInnova Technologies, UAM, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-02-01

    We present novel strategies for obtaining materials with low secondary electron emission under electron beam irradiation for advanced technological applications. Apart from the promising low secondary electron emission yield (SEY) of amorphous carbon coatings deposited on rough surfaces, graphene nanoplatelets are shown to be very effective in reducing the SEY even over flat substrates. Here, we report very low SEY from coatings of graphene platelets exposed to the air, indicating a 60% reduction of the SEY respect to the uncoated flat surfaces. The shape of the SEY curve as a function of primary energy looks like the inverted image of a typical SEY curve.

  13. Energy Recovery Linacs for Light Source Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil

    2011-04-01

    Energy Recovery Linacs are being considered for applications in present and future light sources. ERLs take advantage of the continuous operation of superconducting rf cavities to accelerate high average current beams with low losses. The electrons can be directed through bends, undulators, and wigglers for high brightness x ray production. They are then decelerated to low energy, recovering power so as to minimize the required rf drive and electrical draw. When this approach is coupled with advanced continuous wave injectors, very high power, ultra-short electron pulse trains of very high brightness can be achieved. This paper will review the status of worldwide programs and discuss the technology challenges to provide such beams for photon production.

  14. Rare Earth Metals: Resourcefulness and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijie

    2013-10-01

    When we appreciate the digital revolution carried over from the twentieth century with mobile communication and the Internet, and when we enjoy our high-tech lifestyle filled with iDevices, hybrid cars, wind turbines, and solar cells in this new century, we should also appreciate that all of these advanced products depend on rare earth metals to function. Although there are only 136,000 tons of annual worldwide demand, (Cho, Rare Earth Metals, Will We Have Enough?)1 rare earth metals are becoming such hot commodities on international markets, due to not only to their increasing uses, including in most critical military hardware, but also to Chinese growth, which accounts for 95% of global rare earth metal production. Hence, the 2013 technical calendar topic, planned by the TMS/Hydrometallurgy and Electrometallurgy Committee, is particularly relevant, with four articles (including this commentary) contributed to the JOM October Issue discussing rare earth metals' resourcefulness and recovery.

  15. Sun, shade, and secondary metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    My research program focuses on understanding plant primary and secondary metabolites. Grape secondary metabolites, such as phenolics, have long been valuable for the organoleptic properties they impart to fruit and wine, and, more recently, for their possible health benefits. These compounds develop...

  16. "Smart" Multifunctional Polymers for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles McCormick; Andrew Lowe

    2007-03-20

    Recent recommendations made by the Department of Energy, in conjunction with ongoing research at the University of Southern Mississippi, have signified a need for the development of 'smart' multi-functional polymers (SMFPs) for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes. Herein we summarize research from the period of September 2003 through March 2007 focusing on both Type I and Type II SMFPs. We have demonstrated the synthesis and behavior of materials that can respond in situ to stimuli (ionic strength, pH, temperature, and shear stress). In particular, Type I SMFPs reversibly form micelles in water and have the potential to be utilized in applications that serve to lower interfacial tension at the oil/water interface, resulting in emulsification of oil. Type II SMFPs, which consist of high molecular weight polymers, have been synthesized and have prospective applications related to the modification of fluid viscosity during the recovery process. Through the utilization of these advanced 'smart' polymers, the ability to recover more of the original oil in place and a larger portion of that by-passed or deemed 'unrecoverable' by conventional chemical flooding should be possible.

  17. Cellular compartmentalization of secondary metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Corby eKistler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungal secondary metabolism is often considered apart from the essential housekeeping functions of the cell. However, there are clear links between fundamental cellular metabolism and the biochemical pathways leading to secondary metabolite synthesis. Besides utilizing key biochemical precursors shared with the most essential processes of the cell (e.g. amino acids, acetyl CoA, NADPH, enzymes for secondary metabolite synthesis are compartmentalized at conserved subcellular sites that position pathway enzymes to use these common biochemical precursors. Co-compartmentalization of secondary metabolism pathway enzymes also may function to channel precursors, promote pathway efficiency and sequester pathway intermediates and products from the rest of the cell. In this review we discuss the compartmentalization of three well-studied fungal secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways for penicillin G, aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol, and summarize evidence used to infer subcellular localization. We also discuss how these metabolites potentially are trafficked within the cell and may be exported.

  18. Adventitious Roots and Secondary Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hosakatte Niranjana Murthy; Eun Joo Hahn; Kee Yoeup Paek

    2008-01-01

    Plants are a rich source of valuable secondary metabolites and in the recent years plant cell, tissue and organ cultures have been developed as an important alternative sources for the production of these compounds. Adventitious roots have been successfully induced in many plant species and cultured for the production of high value secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and industrial importance. Adoption of elicitation methods have shown improved synthesis of secondary metabolites in adventitious root cultures. Development of large-scale culture methods using bioreactors has opened up feasibilities of production of secondary metabolites at the industrial levels. In the present review we summarize the progress made in recent past in the area of adventitious root cultures for the production of secondary metabolites.

  19. Advanced DVI+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Tae Soon; Lee, S. T.; Euh, D. J.; Chu, I. C.; Youn, Y. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    A new advanced safety feature of DVI+ (Direct Vessel Injection Plus) for the APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus), to mitigate the ECC (Emergency Core Cooling) bypass fraction and to prevent switching an ECC outlet to a break flow inlet during a DVI line break, is presented for an advanced DVI system. In the current DVI system, the ECC water injected into the downcomer is easily shifted to the broken cold leg by a high steam cross flow which comes from the intact cold legs during the late reflood phase of a LBLOCA (Large Break Loss Of Coolant Accident). For the new DVI+ system, an ECBD (Emergency Core Barrel Duct) is installed on the outside of a core barrel cylinder. The ECBD has a gap (From the core barrel wall to the ECBD inner wall to the radial direction) of 3/25-7/25 of the downcomer annulus gap. The DVI nozzle and the ECBD are only connected by the ECC water jet, which is called a hydrodynamic water bridge, during the ECC injection period. Otherwise these two components are disconnected from each other without any pipes inside the downcomer. The ECBD is an ECC downward isolation flow sub-channel which protects the ECC water from the high speed steam crossflow in the downcomer annulus during a LOCA event. The injected ECC water flows downward into the lower downcomer through the ECBD without a strong entrainment to a steam cross flow. The outer downcomer annulus of the ECBD is the major steam flow zone coming from the intact cold leg during a LBLOCA. During a DVI line break, the separated DVI nozzle and ECBD have the effect of preventing the level of the cooling water from being lowered in the downcomer due to an inlet-outlet reverse phenomenon at the lowest position of the outlet of the ECBD.

  20. Advanced mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, CB; Kumar, V

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: This book `Advanced Mathematics` is primarily designed for B.Tech., IV Semester (EE and EC branch) students of Rajasthan Technical University. The subject matter is discussed in a lucid manner. The discussion is covered in five units: Unit I: deals with Numerical Analysis, Unit-II: gives different aspects of Numerical Analysis, Unit-III: Special Function, Unit-IV:Statistics and Probability, Calculus of Variation and Transforms are discussed in Unit V. All the theoretical concepts are explained through solved examples. Besides, a large number of unsolved problems on each top

  1. Advanced trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Durell, C V

    2003-01-01

    This volume will provide a welcome resource for teachers seeking an undergraduate text on advanced trigonometry, when few are readily available. Ideal for self-study, this text offers a clear, logical presentation of topics and an extensive selection of problems with answers. Contents include the properties of the triangle and the quadrilateral; equations, sub-multiple angles, and inverse functions; hyperbolic, logarithmic, and exponential functions; and expansions in power-series. Further topics encompass the special hyperbolic functions; projection and finite series; complex numbers; de Moiv

  2. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2007-01-01

    This rigorous two-part treatment advances from functions of one variable to those of several variables. Intended for students who have already completed a one-year course in elementary calculus, it defers the introduction of functions of several variables for as long as possible, and adds clarity and simplicity by avoiding a mixture of heuristic and rigorous arguments.The first part explores functions of one variable, including numbers and sequences, continuous functions, differentiable functions, integration, and sequences and series of functions. The second part examines functions of several

  3. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers - KML

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a KML file for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  4. Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Congress established the Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund (PCSRF) to monitor the restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and...

  5. Uncovering Recovery: The Resistible Rise of Recovery and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harper

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Discourses of recovery and resilience have risen to positions of dominance in the mental health field. Models of recovery and resilience enjoy purchase, in both policy and practice, across a range of settings from self-described psychiatric survivors through to mental health charities through to statutory mental health service providers. Despite this ubiquity, there is confusion about what recovery means. In this article we problematize notions of recovery and resilience, and consider what, if anything, should be recovered from these concepts. We focus on three key issues, i individualization, ii the persistence of a deficit model, and iii collective approaches to recovery. Through documentary analysis we consider these issues across third sector organizations, and public and mental health policy. Firstly, definitional debates about recovery reflect wider ideological debates about the nature of mental health. The vagueness of these concepts and implicit assumptions inherent in dominant recovery and resilience discourses render them problematic because they individualize what are social problems. Secondly, these discourses, despite being seen as inherently liberatory are conceptually dependent on a notion of deficit in that talk of “positives” and “strengths” requires the existence of “negatives” and “weaknesses” for these concepts to make sense.  We argue that this does little to substantially transform dominant understandings of psychological distress. Thirdly, these issues combine to impact upon the progressive potential of recovery. It comes to be seen as an individualistic experiential narrative accompaniment to medical understandings where the structural causes of distress are obscured. This in turn impacts upon the potential for recovery to be used to explore more collective, political aspects of emotional distress. Drawing on the work of Fraser, we use this critique to characterize “recovery” as a “struggle for

  6. Recovery of conservation values in Central African rain forest after logging and shifting cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemerden, van B.S.; Shu, G.N.; Olff, H.

    2003-01-01

    Secondary forests in Central Africa are increasing in importance for biodiversity conservation as old growth forests outside the few protected areas are disappearing rapidly. We examined vegetation recovery in a lowland rain forest area in Cameroon based on a detailed botanical survey of old growth

  7. Brain plasticity and stroke recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Laaksonen, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Brain plasticity and stroke recovery Recovery from stroke is based on the capability of the brain to reorganize its structure and function after lesion. An acute stroke triggers a cascade of time-dependent metabolic and physiological reactions, which enable changes in the organization and function of widespread cortical regions. A wide range of studies, using various functional imaging methods, have thrown light on the reorganizational changes after stroke. However, less is known about t...

  8. CRISIS FOCUS: Risks to Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A sustained recovery of the global economy at a slow but steady pace should be expected in the first quarter of 2010, according to the quarterly report on global economic and financial outlook compiled by the International Finance Research Institute of the Bank of China. But three risks stand out, the report said, that threaten recovery efforts: the sovereign credit crisis, growing inflation pressures and increasing numbers of small and medium-sized U.S. banks filing for bankruptcy.

  9. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  10. Optimizing the procedure for mercury recovery from dental amalgam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Godoy Iano

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury, as any other heavy metal, may cause environmental damages due to its accumulation and biotransformation. Dental offices, whether private or institutional, use dental amalgam as a restorative material on a daily basis. Dental amalgam is composed of mercury (50%, silver (30% and other metals. Approximately 30% of the amalgam prepared in dental offices (0.6 g per capsule are wasted and inadequately discarded without any treatment. Methods for mercury recovery have been proposed previously, using high temperatures through exposure to direct flame (650°C, long processing time, and hazardous reagents as potassium cyanide. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to replace the direct flame by an electrical mantle in the process of mercury recovery. Results showed an average mercury recovery of 90% from 2 kg of amalgam after 30 minutes of processing time, thus optimizing the procedure. The proposed modifications allowed a significant reduction in processing time and a mercury recovery with high purity. The modified process also provided minimization of operator exposure to physical, chemical and ergonomic hazards, representing a technological advance compared to the risks inherent to the original method. It also provided environmental health and economy of energy resources by replacing a finite energy source (fossil and organic by a more environmentally appropriate electric source, resulting in significant improvement of the procedure for mercury recovery from dental amalgam.

  11. Advanced LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, ...

  12. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies. PMID:27214029

  13. Developing a Regional Recovery Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Clark, Rebecca; Kelly, Heather; Sheline, Jim; Tietje, Grant; Williamson, Mark; Woodcock, Jody

    2011-09-01

    Abstract A biological attack would present an unprecedented challenge for local, state, and federal agencies; the military; the private sector; and individuals on many fronts ranging from vaccination and treatment to prioritization of cleanup actions to waste disposal. To prepare the Seattle region to recover from a biological attack, the Seattle Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) partners collaborated with military and federal agencies to develop a Regional Recovery Framework for a Biological Attack in the Seattle Urban Area. The goal was to reduce the time and resources required to recover and restore wide urban areas, military installations, and other critical infrastructure following a biological incident by providing a coordinated systems approach. Based on discussions in small workshops, tabletop exercises, and interviews with emergency response agency staff, the partners identified concepts of operation for various areas to address critical issues the region will face as recovery progresses. Key to this recovery is the recovery of the economy. Although the Framework is specific to a catastrophic, wide-area biological attack using anthrax, it was designed to be flexible and scalable so it could also serve as the recovery framework for an all-hazards approach. The Framework also served to coalesce policy questions that must be addressed for long-term recovery. These questions cover such areas as safety and health, security, financial management, waste management, legal issues, and economic development.

  14. Chemically enhanced in situ recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, T. [CH2M Hill, Denver, CO (United States); Pitts, M.; Wyatt, K. [Surtek, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Chemically enhanced recovery is a promising alternative to current technologies for management of subsurface releases of organic liquids. Through the inclusion of surfactants, solvents, polymers, and/or alkaline agents to a waterflood, the transport of targeted organic compounds can be increased and rates of recovery enhanced. By far, the vast majority of work done in the field of chemically enhanced recovery has been at a laboratory scale. The following text focuses on chemically enhanced recovery from a field application perspective with emphasis given to chlorinated solvents in a low permeability setting. While chlorinated solvents are emphasized, issues discussed are also relevant to organic liquids less dense than water such as petroleum products. Topics reviewed include: (1) Description of technology; (2) General technology considerations; (3) Low permeability media considerations; (4) Cost and reliability considerations; (5) Commercial availability; and (6) Case histories. Through this paper an appreciation is developed of both the potential and limitations of chemically enhanced recovery. Excluded from the scope of this paper is the in situ destruction of organic compounds through processes such as chemical or biological oxidation, chemically enhanced recovery of inorganic compounds, and ex situ soil treatment processes. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Interaction between Fingering and Heterogeneity during Viscous Oil Recovery in Carbonate Rocks (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, K. K.; Doorwar, S.

    2013-12-01

    Due to the fast depleting conventional oil reserves, research in the field of petroleum engineering has shifted focus towards unconventional (viscous and heavy) oils. Many of the viscous oil reserves are in carbonate rocks. Thermal methods in carbonate formations are complicated by mineral dissolution and precipitation. Non-thermal methods should be developed for viscous oils in carbonates. In viscous oil reservoirs, oil recovery due to water flood is low due to viscous fingering. Polymer flood is an attractive process, but the timing of the polymer flood start is an important parameter in the optimization of polymer floods. Vuggy Silurian dolomite cores were saturated with formation brine and reservoir oil (150-200 cp). They were then displaced by either a polymeric solution (secondary polymer flood) or brine followed the polymeric solution (tertiary polymer flood). The amount of brine injection was varied as a parameter. Oil recovery and pressure drop was monitored as a function of the starting point of the polymer flood. To visualize the displacement at the pore-scale, two types of micromodels were prepared: one with isolated heterogeneity and the other with connected heterogeneity. The wettability of the micromodels was either water-wet or oil-wet. The micromodels were saturated with formation brine and oil. A series of water flood and polymer flood was conducted to identify the mechanism of fluid flow. Dolomite corefloods show that a tertiary polymer flood following a secondary water flood recovers a substantial amount of oil unlike what is observed in typical sandstone cores with light oil. The tertiary oil recovery plus the secondary waterflood recovery can exceed the oil recovery in a secondary polymer flood in dolomite-viscous oil-brine system. These experiments were repeated in a Berea-oil-brine system which showed that the oil recovered in the secondary polymer flood was similar to the cumulative oil recovery in the tertiary polymer flood. The high

  16. The Design and Verification of Disaster Recovery Strategies in Cloud Disaster Recovery Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available  Disaster recovery is an important means to ensure business continuity. However, the disaster recovery investment is so huge that the cloud disaster recovery becomes a best choice for enterprises, especially for SMEs. This paper discusses the necessity and importance of the cloud disaster recovery center and the vital indicators of disaster recovery by analyzing the classification and selecting principle of cloud disaster recovery strategy, developing disaster recovery strategy based on major disaster recovery strategy finally. In the end, this paper verifies the feasibility of the disaster recovery strategy by two specific cases of disaster recovery implementation.

  17. Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.

    2009-01-29

    Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is making plans to dispose of 54 million gallons of radioactive tank wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The high-level wastes and low-activity wastes will be vitrified and placed in permanent disposal sites. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents, and these need to be processed and disposed of also. The Department of Energy Office of Waste Processing sponsored a meeting to develop a roadmap to outline the steps necessary to design the secondary waste forms. Representatives from DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, the Oregon Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, technical experts from the DOE national laboratories, academia, and private consultants convened in Richland, Washington, during the week of July 21-23, 2008, to participate in a workshop to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with the treatment and disposal of the secondary wastes and to develop a roadmap for addressing those risks and uncertainties. This report describes the results of the roadmap meeting in Richland. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. The secondary waste roadmap workshop focused on the waste streams that contained the largest fractions of the 129I and 99Tc that the Integrated Disposal Facility risk assessment analyses were showing to have the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater. Thus, the roadmapping effort was to focus on the scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids with 99Tc to be sent to the Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and solidification and the silver mordenite and carbon beds with the captured 129I to be packaged and sent to the IDF. At the highest level, the secondary waste roadmap includes elements addressing regulatory and

  18. Conserved secondary structures in Aspergillus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Manson McGuire

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that the number and variety of functional RNAs (ncRNAs as well as cis-acting RNA elements within mRNAs is much higher than previously thought; thus, the ability to computationally predict and analyze RNAs has taken on new importance. We have computationally studied the secondary structures in an alignment of six Aspergillus genomes. Little is known about the RNAs present in this set of fungi, and this diverse set of genomes has an optimal level of sequence conservation for observing the correlated evolution of base-pairs seen in RNAs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the results of a whole-genome search for evolutionarily conserved secondary structures, as well as the results of clustering these predicted secondary structures by structural similarity. We find a total of 7450 predicted secondary structures, including a new predicted approximately 60 bp long hairpin motif found primarily inside introns. We find no evidence for microRNAs. Different types of genomic regions are over-represented in different classes of predicted secondary structures. Exons contain the longest motifs (primarily long, branched hairpins, 5' UTRs primarily contain groupings of short hairpins located near the start codon, and 3' UTRs contain very little secondary structure compared to other regions. There is a large concentration of short hairpins just inside the boundaries of exons. The density of predicted intronic RNAs increases with the length of introns, and the density of predicted secondary structures within mRNA coding regions increases with the number of introns in a gene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There are many conserved, high-confidence RNAs of unknown function in these Aspergillus genomes, as well as interesting spatial distributions of predicted secondary structures. This study increases our knowledge of secondary structure in these aspergillus organisms.

  19. Thermal enhanced oil recovery in Indonesia. Prospect of HTGR application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the next future, Indonesia will face oil scarcity. The present reserves are estimated to be depleted in 20 years. However, after primary and secondary recovery processes, there are still more than 50% of original oil in place remaining in the reservoir, and this could be recovered by using tertiary recovery method or which is known as enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. Among the three major methods of EOR, steam flooding is a thermal recovery method into which High Temperature Reactor (HTR) module can be integrated for producing steam. However, the feasibility of application of HTR as an alternative to conventional oil-fired steam generator will depend strongly on the price of oil. This paper discusses EOR screening for Indonesian oil fields to identify the appropriate oil reservoirs for steam flooding application as well as the possibility of steam supply by HTR module. Also reviewed is the previous study on HTR application for Duri Steam Flood Project. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  20. Microbial surfactant-enhanced mineral oil recovery under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoloi, N K; Konwar, B K

    2008-05-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to recover incremental oil from a reservoir being beyond primary and secondary recovery operations. Effort has been made to isolate and characterize natural biosurfactant produced by bacterial isolates collected from various oil fields of ONGC in Assam. Production of biosurfactant has been considered to be an effective major index for the purpose of enhanced oil recovery. On the basis of the index, four promising bacterial isolates: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC7815), P. aeruginosa (MTCC7814), P. aeruginosa (MTCC7812) and P. aeruginosa (MTCC8165) were selected for subsequent testing. Biosurfactant produced by the promising bacterial isolates have been found to be effective in the recovery of crude oil from saturated column under laboratory conditions. Two bacterial strains: P. aeruginosa (MTCC7815) and P. aeruginosa (MTCC7812) have been found to be the highest producer of biosurfactant. Tensiometer studies revealed that biosurfactants produced by these bacterial strains could reduce the surface tension (sigma) of the growth medium from 68 to 30 mN m(-1) after 96 h of growth. The bacterial biosurfactants were found to be functionally stable at varying pH (2.5-11) conditions and temperature of 100 degrees C. The treatment of biosurfactant containing, cell free culture broth in crude oil saturated sand pack column could release about 15% more crude oil at 90 degrees C than at room temperature and 10% more than at 70 degrees C under laboratory condition. PMID:18164187

  1. Exergy analysis of aluminum recovery from municipal solid waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyzinkarova, Dana; Allegrini, Elisa; Laner, D.;

    Two main challenges, associated with the recovery of aluminum from state-of-the-art municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants, are yield as well as quality losses of metallic aluminum due to particle surface oxidation and presence of impurities. Yet, in the framework of life cycle assessment...... (LCA) a direct measure for expressing the quality of primary and secondary resources is missing. In view of a possible solution, exergy has been proposed as a concept to evaluate the quality of resources. In this paper, LCA and exergy analyses for two waste treatment approaches are conducted...... in parallel to each other, with a goal to evaluate the added value of exergy for LCA studies in the resource recovery context. The functional unit is the treatment of 1 ton MSW. Two alternative approaches for recovering aluminum from MSW directed to a waste-to-energy plant are considered. A) MSW is treated...

  2. Secondary abdominal appendicular ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nama, Vivek; Gyampoh, Bright; Karoshi, Mahantesh; McRae, Reynold; Opemuyi, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    Although the case fatality rate for ectopic pregnancies has decreased to 0.08% in industrialized countries, it still represents 3.8% of maternal mortality in the United States alone. In developing countries, the case fatality rate varies from 3% to 27%. Laparoscopic management of tubal pregnancies is now the standard form of treatment where this technology is available. Abdominal pregnancies are rare, and secondary implantation of tubal ectopic pregnancies is the most common cause of abdominal gestations. We present an interesting case of secondary implantation of a tubal ectopic pregnancy to highlight the appendix as a possible secondary implantation site after a tubal ectopic pregnancy. PMID:17630175

  3. Targets and Secondary Beam Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Etam

    2014-02-01

    Several applications make use of secondary beams of particles generated by the interaction of a primary beam of particles with a target. Spallation neutrons, bremsstrahlung photon-produced neutrons, radioactive ions and neutrinos are available to users at state-of-the-art facilities worldwide. Plans for even higher secondary beam intensities place severe constraints on the design of targets. This article reports on the main targetry challenges and highlights a variety of solutions for targetry and secondary beam extraction. Issues related to target station layout, instrumentation at the beam-target interface, safety and radioprotection are also discussed.

  4. Unusual manifestations of secondary urothelial carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaohui Lisa Zhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma regularly invades the bladder wall, adjacent prostate, seminal vesicles, ureters, vagina, rectum, retroperitoneum, and regional lymph nodes. In advanced stages, it may disseminate to the liver, lungs, and bone marrow. On rare occasions, unusual metastatic foci like skin have been reported. The incidence of urothelial carcinoma has increased with associated rise in variants of urothelial carcinoma and unusual metastatic foci. It is imperative that urologists and pathologists are aware of the unusual variants and unusual metastatic locations to expedite the diagnostic process. Hereby we report an unusual case of secondary involvement of spinal nerve by conventional urothelial carcinoma. Also a second case of rhabdoid variant of urothelial carcinoma showing synchronous involvement of bladder and subcutaneous tissue of upper extremity is presented.

  5. Secondary plant succession on disturbed sites at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angerer, J.P.; Ostler, W.K.; Gabbert, W.D.; Schultz, B.W.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of a study of secondary plant succession on disturbed sites created during initial site investigations in the late 1970s and early 1980s at Yucca Mountain, NV. Specific study objectives were to determine the rate and success of secondary plant succession, identify plant species found in disturbances that may be suitable for site-specific reclamation, and to identify environmental variables that influence succession on disturbed sites. During 1991 and 1992, fifty seven disturbed sites were located. Vegetation parameters, disturbance characteristics and environmental variables were measured at each site. Disturbed site vegetation parameters were compared to that of undisturbed sites to determine the status of disturbed site plant succession. Vegetation on disturbed sites, after an average of ten years, was different from undisturbed areas. Ambrosia dumosa, Chrysothamnus teretifolius, Hymenoclea salsola, Gutierrezia sarothrae, Atriplex confertifolia, Atriplex canescens, and Stephanomeria pauciflora were the most dominant species across all disturbed sites. With the exception of A. dumosa, these species were generally minor components of the undisturbed vegetation. Elevation, soil compaction, soil potassium, and amounts of sand and gravel in the soil were found to be significant environmental variables influencing the species composition and abundance of perennial plants on disturbed sites. The recovery rate for disturbed site secondary succession was estimated. Using a linear function (which would represent optimal conditions), the recovery rate for perennial plant cover, regardless of which species comprised the cover, was estimated to be 20 years. However, when a logarithmic function (which would represent probable conditions) was used, the recovery rate was estimated to be 845 years. Recommendations for future studies and site-specific reclamation of disturbances are presented.

  6. Knowledge and attitudes of Irish Mental Health Professionals to the concept of recovery from mental illness - five years later.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2016-07-21

    WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE SUBJECT?: The Advancing Recovery in Ireland (ARI) project (Health Service Executive, 2012) promotes recovery-orientated services. A previous study of Irish mental health practitioners (Cleary & Dowling ) identified the need to improve knowledge and attitudes towards recovery. To facilitate implementation of ARI and monitor progress, this study provided a \\'benchmark\\' of current knowledge and attitudes to recovery. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: The study provides important baseline information on recovery knowledge and attitudes which can be used to assess the impact of the ARI Project. It also provides valuable information that can be compared to recovery approaches employed in other countries. Despite the increased emphasis on recovery in Ireland, knowledge and attitudes of health care practitioners towards recovery remain relatively unchanged between 2007 and 2013. Working in dual settings, being a non-nurse, and training was associated with better RKI scores. Training appears to be the strongest factor in predicting better recovery knowledge. The findings suggest that knowledge levels and attitude changes following education may not be sustained over time and ongoing training may be required. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: There is considerable scope to improve recovery knowledge. Key recommendations include the need for more recovery training, evaluate whether training translates into clinical practice, using \\'Recovery Champions\\

  7. Roles and responsibilities in the secondary level eye care model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saibaba Saravanan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In any secondary level eye care clinic, a number of tasks must be completed. In different countries and different settings, different people will carry out these tasks. The manager is responsible for ensuring that all the tasks are covered, that people are carefully selected to perform them, and that staff are supported and managed. The International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care (ICARE, within the L.V. Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI in India, has evolved an eye care team to provide secondary level eye care services to a population of 0.5 to 1 million. The ICARE model emphasises that all cadres of clinical and non-clinical personnel are equally important. Below is a description of the range of jobs at secondary level centres. The tertiary centre at LVPEI manages leadership and training for this model.

  8. Review of the Application of Positive Psychology to Substance Use, Addiction, and Recovery Research

    OpenAIRE

    Krentzman, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in positive psychology have grown exponentially over the past decade. The addictions field has experienced its own growth in a positive direction, embodied by the recovery movement. Despite parallel developments, and great momentum on both sides, there has been little crosspollination. This review introduces positive psychology and the recovery movement, describes the research on positive psychology in the addictions, and discusses future avenues of theory, research, and intervention...

  9. Diamond Processing by Focused Ion Beam - Surface Damage and Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Bayn, Igal; Cytermann, Catherine; Meyler, Boris; Richter, Vladimir; Salzman, Joseph; Kalish, Rafi

    2011-01-01

    The Nitrogen Vacancy color center (NV-) in diamond is of great interest for novel photonic applications. Diamond nano-photonic structures are often implemented using Focused-Ion-Beam (FIB) processing, leaving a damaged surface which has a detrimental effect on the color center luminescence. The FIB processing effect on single crystal diamond surfaces and their photonic properties is studied by Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and photoluminescence (PL). Exposing the processed surface to hydrogen plasma, followed by chemical etching, drastically decreases implanted Ga concentration, resulting in a recovery of the NV- photo-emission and in a significant increase of the NV-/NV0 ratio.

  10. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge by an electrokinetic process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, A.B.; Couto, N.; Mateus, E.P.;

    As population keeps growing, it becomes important to guarantee the supply of staple foods, being necessary to assure good level of nutrients in the soil. Phosphorus (P) is a macronutrient indispensable for plants growth and a non-renewable resource, as phosphorites are estimated to be able...... to supply P for the next ca. 80 years. Additionaly, the quality of this raw material has deteriorated due to contamination, which has increased processing costs of mineral P fertilizers. The recovery of nutrients, like P, from secondary resources urges. Sewage sludge (SS) and sewage sludge ash (SSA) from...... waste water treatment plants (WWTP) may contain contaminants or unwanted elements regarding specific applications, but they also contain secondary resources of high value. Using these ash as a P resource, while removing the contaminants, seems a sustainable option. The electrokinetic (EK) process can...

  11. Nation-Building in Kenyan Secondary School Textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Holmén, Janne

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how issues of national, Pan-African and tribal identities are handled in Kenyan upper secondary school textbooks for History and Government. Kenya is a multi-ethnic country without a common pre-colonial history. As a result, the historical record does not easily provide a common narrative with which to unify the nation. To compensate for the absence of a national narrative textbooks propagate and advance particular themes and national ideologies such as “African socialis...

  12. Advances in PCB decontamination technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1985 several million kilograms of PCB equipment and millions of litres of PCB contaminated oil have been processed in Canada for reduction of PCB concentrations below government guidelines. Advances in extraction and metal recovery from electrical equipment, chemical dechlorination and distillation of PCB-contaminated oils were the significant technological options utilized. For example, using the Decontaksolv technology owners of PCB equipment in Canada have decontaminated three million kilograms of electrical equipment, which resulted in the reintegration of 2.7 million kilograms of useful metals (steel, copper, aluminium) into the economic circuit. The equipment decontaminated included transformers, electromagnets, relays, radiators, circuit breakers, tanks, pipes, valves, and drums. The most recent advances in this technology include improvements that makes the economical processing of capacitors, possible. Chemical dechlorination has virtually eliminated PCB-contaminated oils which are normally present in large transformers, to the point where some service companies have curtailed or discontinued their oil decontamination activities in Canada. Recent advances in this technology center around techniques for the decontamination of waste hydrocarbons, and to a lesser extent, dielectric fluids. Two example projects to illustrate recent advances have been briefly described

  13. Trigger finger presenting secondary to leiomyoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harb Ziad

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present a previously undescribed entity: trigger finger secondary to a leiomyoma. This is the first time such a case has been reported and highlights the fact that common conditions can sometimes present secondary to rare diseases. Case presentation A 39-year-old Caucasian man presented with a fairly typical presentation of trigger finger. During surgical treatment, the lesion was excised and sent for histology, which showed tissue consistent with a leiomyoma. The patient made an uneventful recovery. Conclusion Trigger finger is a common condition that is usually easily diagnosed and managed. However, it is important to appreciate that uncommon conditions, such as leiomyoma, can present with what is sometimes considered trivial disease, and one should always consider the differential diagnoses even when faced with relatively benign conditions.

  14. Ischaemic stroke in children secondary to post varicella angiopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, B

    2007-01-01

    Varicella in childhood is a self-limiting disease, which usually follows a benign course. However, complications, although rare, may have serious consequences. Ischaemic stroke secondary to post varicella angiopathy is a well-described complication and is estimated to account for up to a third of all strokes in infants. We present three previously healthy children who presented to our centre with ischaemic cerebrovascular infarction due to varicella angiopathy. All three children first presented within six weeks after onset of varicella infection and had MRI changes characteristic of ischaemic stroke secondary to post varicella angiopathy. While one child made an excellent recovery being left with only a minor deficit, the remaining two children were left with considerable morbidity severely affecting quality of life. The varicella vaccine has been proven to be well tolerated, safe and effective. We conclude that varicella vaccination should be considered for inclusion in the vaccination schedule to prevent serious complications which while rare may have devastating consequences.

  15. Vertebral osteoporotic fractures with height loss secondary to Cushing's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, C; Souto, S B; Rios, E; Pereira, J; Vinha, E; Freitas, P; Carvalho, D

    2015-01-01

    Cushing's disease is a rare condition which may present with a variety of signs and symptoms. In this report, we present a case of a 37-year-old man referred to our department due to osteoporosis complicated with vertebral and rib fractures and loss of six centimeters in height within the previous year. Study of secondary causes of osteoporosis led to the diagnosis of Cushing's disease. The patient was submitted to transsphenoidal surgery and histological findings confirmed the diagnosis. After surgery, the symptoms improved. Glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis may be reversible, but recovery of bone loss is gradual and may continue for as long as 10 years before bone mineral density normalizes. This case illustrates the need to consider secondary causes of osteoporosis in a young man with bone fractures, namely Cushing's syndrome.

  16. Secondary water chemistry control practices and results of the Japanese PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, since the start of the operation of the first PWR plant, Mihama Unit-1 in 1970, 24 PWR plants have been built by 2010, and all of them are in operation. Due to the plant-specific needs of management, and by flexibly incorporating the state-of-the-art insights into the design, the system configurations of the plants vary so many as 15 types. Meanwhile, the geographical feature of Japan makes all the Japanese PWR plants to have condensers cooled by sea water, and all the plants have a common system with a full-flow Condensate Polisher System (CPS). To prevent corrosion, continued improvements of the secondary water chemistry management has been performed like other countries, and one of the major features of the Japanese PWR plants is an enhanced provision for the condenser leakage. The water quality of SG (Steam Generator) has been significantly improved by the provision for the sea water leakage, in combination with other improvements in water chemistry management. Also in Japan, almost all of the treatments of the spent polisher resin and the wastewater are performed within the power plant sites. To facilitate the treatment of the waste water and the regeneration of the spent resins, either ammonia or ETA (Ethanol Amine) is selected as the pH adjustment agent for the secondary system water. Also at the ammonia treatment, high pH accomplishes the inhibition of the piping wall thinning and the lower iron transportation into SGs. In addition, the iron transported into the SG is removed by the chemical conditioning treatment called ASCA (Advanced Scale Conditioning Agent). This provides the effective recovery of the SG heat-transfer performance, and the improved SG support plate BEC (Broached Egg Crate) hole blockage rates. Basically in Japan, the secondary water chemistry management has been improved based on a single basic specification, for the variety of the plant configurations, with the plant-specific investigations and analyses. This paper summarizes

  17. Secondary liquefaction in ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase.......The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase....

  18. Secondary maxima in ozone profiles

    OpenAIRE

    R. Lemoine

    2004-01-01

    International audience Ozone profiles from balloon soundings as well as SAGE II ozone profiles were used to detect anomalous large ozone concentrations of ozone in the lower stratosphere. These secondary ozone maxima are found to be the result of differential advection of ozone-poor and ozone-rich air associated with Rossby wave breaking events. The frequency and intensity of secondary ozone maxima and their geographical distribution is presented. The occurrence and amplitude of ozone seco...

  19. SECONDARY INFECTIONS IN SWINE FLU

    OpenAIRE

    Duthade Mangala; Damle Ajit; Bhakare Jayshree; Bajaj.Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : Swine influenza is respiratory disease of pigs ca used by type A influenza virus that causes regular outbr eak in pigs. Human to human transmission occurs. Some people develop severe respiratory symptoms and need ventilator. Patients can get secondary bacterial infections in the form of pneumonia if vi ral infections persist. Death of swine flu occurs d ue to secondary bacterial infections leading to bacter ial pneumonia...

  20. Thermal recovery of NIF amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, S.; Marshall, C.; Petty, C.; Smith, L.; van Wonterghem, B.; Mills, S.

    1997-02-01

    The issue of thermal recovery of the NIF amplifiers has taken on increased emphasis as program goals move toward increasing the shot rate to once every four hours. This paper addresses the technical issues associated with achieving thermal recovery in the NIF amplifiers. We identify two temperature related thermal recovery quantities: (1) the difference between the average slab temperature and the temperature of other surfaces in the amplifier cavity, and (2) the temperature difference in the slab over the aperture. The first quantity relates to optical disturbances in the gas column in the system, while the second quantity is associated with optical aberrations in the laser media itself. Calculations and experiments are used to quantify recovery criteria, and develop cooling approaches. The cooling approaches discussed are (1) active cooling of the flashlamps with ambient gas and chilled gas, and (2) active cooling of the slab edge cladding. Calculations indicate that the NIF baseline cooling approach of 20 cfm per lamp ambient temperature gas flow in both the central and side flashlamp cassettes is capable of meeting thermal recovery requirements for an 8 hour shot period, while to achieve a 4 hour shot period requires use of chilled gas and edge cladding cooling. In addition, the effect of changing the amplifier cavity and beamtube fill gas from nitrogen to helium is addressed, showing that a factor of 8 reduction in the sensitivity to thermal disturbances is possible. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Individual recovery profiles in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jordi; Ramos-Castro, Juan; Rodas, Gil; Tarragó, Joan R; Capdevila, Lluís

    2015-01-01

    In the sport context, recovery has been characterized as a multifactor process (physiological, psychological, behavioral, social, etc.). This study takes a multidisciplinary approach to find psychophysiological markers of the stress-recovery process. It aims to determine how athletes' specific recovery actions relate to their perceptions of recovery, and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). A total of 196 assessments were analyzed from 6 players on a men's professional basketball team within the Liga LEB Oro basketball federation (2012/2013 season). Perceptions of recovery, recovery strategies, and HRV were recorded. The results show a pattern of individual differences in behavior related to athletes' recovery actions and HRV profiles throughout the season (p < .05). Moreover, we observed that each player had different recovery needs. In light of these results, we suggest an individualistic approach to evaluating and monitoring recovery to attend more accurately to each player's recovery needs.

  2. Beyond bricks and mortar: recent research on substance use disorder recovery management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Michael L; Scott, Christy K; Laudet, Alexandre

    2014-04-01

    Scientific advances in the past 15 years have clearly highlighted the need for recovery management approaches to help individuals sustain recovery from chronic substance use disorders. This article reviews some of the recent findings related to recovery management: (1) continuing care, (2) recovery management checkups, (3) 12-step or mutual aid, and (4) technology-based interventions. The core assumption underlying these approaches is that earlier detection and re-intervention will improve long-term outcomes by minimizing the harmful consequences of the condition and maximizing or promoting opportunities for maintaining healthy levels of functioning in related life domains. Economic analysis is important because it can take a year or longer for such interventions to offset their costs. The article also examines the potential of smartphones and other recent technological developments to facilitate more cost-effective recovery management options.

  3. Beyond bricks and mortar: recent research on substance use disorder recovery management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Michael L; Scott, Christy K; Laudet, Alexandre

    2014-04-01

    Scientific advances in the past 15 years have clearly highlighted the need for recovery management approaches to help individuals sustain recovery from chronic substance use disorders. This article reviews some of the recent findings related to recovery management: (1) continuing care, (2) recovery management checkups, (3) 12-step or mutual aid, and (4) technology-based interventions. The core assumption underlying these approaches is that earlier detection and re-intervention will improve long-term outcomes by minimizing the harmful consequences of the condition and maximizing or promoting opportunities for maintaining healthy levels of functioning in related life domains. Economic analysis is important because it can take a year or longer for such interventions to offset their costs. The article also examines the potential of smartphones and other recent technological developments to facilitate more cost-effective recovery management options. PMID:24557873

  4. Recovery times of riparian vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesipa, Riccardo; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Riparian vegetation is a key element in a number of processes that determine the eco-geomorphological features of the river landscape. Depending on the river water stage fluctuations, vegetation biomass randomly switches between growth and decay phases, and its biomass exhibits relevant temporal variations. A full understanding of vegetation dynamics is therefore only possible if the hydrological stochastic forcing is considered. In this vein, we focus on the recovery time of vegetation, namely the typical time taken by vegetation to recover a health state starting from a low biomass value (induced, for instance, by an intense flood). The minimalistic stochastic modeling approach is used for describing vegetation dynamics (i.e., the noise-driven alternation of growth and decay phases). The recovery time of biomass is then evaluated according to the theory of the mean first passage time in systems driven by dichotomous noise. The effect of the main hydrological and biological parameters on the vegetation recovery was studied, and the dynamics along the riparian transect was described in details. The effect of climate change and human interventions (e.g., river damming) was also investigated. We found that: (i) the oscillations of the river stage delay the recovery process (up to one order of magnitude, with respect to undisturbed conditions); (ii) hydrological/biological alterations (due to climate change, damming, exotic species invasion) modify the timescales of the recovery. The result provided can be a useful tool for the management of the river. They open the way to the estimation of: (i) the recovery time of vegetation after devastating floods, clear cutting or fires and; (ii) the timescale of the vegetation response to hydrological and biological alterations.

  5. Early lymphocyte recovery as a predictor of outcome, including relapse, after hematopoieticstem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Morando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite advances in the treatment of acute leukemia, many patients need to undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Recent studies show that early lymphocyte recovery may be a predictor of relapse and survival in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of lymphocyte recovery on Days +30 and +100 post-transplant on the occurrence of relapse and survival. METHODS: A descriptive, retrospective study was performed of 137 under 21-year-old patients who were submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia between 1995 and 2008. A lymphocyte count 0.3 x 10(9/L were considered adequate. Lymphocyte recovery was also analyzed on Day +100 with < 0.75 x 10(9/Land < 0.75 x 10(9/L being considered inadequate and adequate lymphocyte recovery, respectively. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the occurrence of relapse between patients with inadequate and adequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 post-transplant. However, the transplant-related mortality was significantly higher in patients with inadequate recovery on Day +30. Patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival than patients with adequate recovery. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of infections and acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease. Patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +100 had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival and a higher cumulative incidence of relapse. CONCLUSION: The evaluation of lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 is not a good predictor of relapse after transplant however patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival. Inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +100 is correlated with higher cumulative relapse as well as lower overall survival and relapse-free survival.

  6. Differentiating Science Instruction: Secondary science teachers' practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.

    2015-09-01

    This descriptive study investigated the implementation practices of secondary science teachers who differentiate instruction. Participants included seven high school science teachers purposefully selected from four different schools located in a mid-Atlantic state. Purposeful selection ensured participants included differentiated instruction (DI) in their lesson implementation. Data included semi-structured interviews and field notes from a minimum of four classroom observations, selected to capture the variety of differentiation strategies employed. These data were analyzed using a constant-comparative approach. Each classroom observation was scored using the validated Differentiated Instruction Implementation Matrix-Modified, which captured both the extent to which critical indicators of DI were present in teachers' instruction and the performance levels at which they engaged in these components of DI. Results indicated participants implemented a variety of differentiation strategies in their classrooms with varying proficiency. Evidence suggested all participants used instructional modifications that required little advance preparation to accommodate differences in students' interests and learning profile. Four of the seven participants implemented more complex instructional strategies that required substantial advance preparation by the teacher. Most significantly, this study provides practical strategies for in-service science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction and recommendations for professional development and preservice science teacher education.

  7. Space Shuttle booster recovery planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    At the initiation of the Space Shuttle Program, recoverable solid rocket boosters were base-lined, with an estimated savings of 30 per cent over expendable solid rockets. Present studies indicate that the solid rocket boosters in the 142-inch diameter range can be recovered using state-of-the-art recovery systems. Marshall Space Flight Center is conducting extensive studies to establish the most cost effective recovery system for the present Shuttle boosters. Model drop testing, in various facilities, and structural load testing are being conducted with model sizes ranging from 6 inches to 120 inches in diameter.

  8. Recovery of precious metals from industrial wastes using membrane separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jin Ki; Lee, Jae Chun; Youn, In Ju [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of the research is to develop a membrane technology for the recovery of Au by the concentration of used cyanide solution. Au and Ag have been widely used in various advanced technology due to their excellent physical and chemical properties. In most of their application, they were electrodeposited in the cyanide solution. The solution was also used as an etchant for the decorative gold alloys such as 14 K and 18 K. Due to the expanding related industry, the amount of used cyanide solution has been greatly increased. The used solution normally contains about 1-3 g/1 of Au. Due to their high prices various separation method has been developed and commercialized for long time. The concentration method which removes water offers various advantages like the reduction of used solution, the needless of additional cyanide, and the increase in the recovery rate. The main objective of the study was laid in the development of an economical recovery process for precious metals including Au from used cyanide solution. To achieve this goal related processes were reviewed comprehensively focussing on the membrane process and the concentration process. The feasibility of membrane process was evaluated by the measurement of separation efficiency and concentration efficiency of cyanide. In addition, various CN analysis was compared in order to develop a simple and routine procedure for future experiment. The process does not require additional cyanide and thus prevents further environmental contamination. It is economical because the recovery can be increased by the concentration of the solution during the recovery process. In addition, it can be applied to other metals waste system due to the reduced recovery process by concentration. The used water can also be reused. (author). 23 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Advanced Benson HRSG makes a successful debut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, J.; Lenk, U.; Taud, R. [Siemens Power Generation Group, Erlangen (Germany); Klauke, F. [Babcock Borsig Power, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    A new vertical tube Benson heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) developed by Siemens and Babcock Borsing Power is expected to have a positive impact on the efficiency of combined cycle plants. The key features and advantages of the new development are listed. The thermodynamic design of the HRSG is explained. An HRSG has been installed in the advanced gas turbine combined cycle development plant at Cottam UK where it has provided an innovative concept which offers considerable potential for further advancement of combined cycle power plants.

  10. POST - OPERATIVE NEUROLOGICAL RECOVERY PATTERN IN DEGENERATIVE CERVICAL MYELOPATHY AND RADICULOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju B

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To study the neurological recovery pattern and clinical recovery after surgical intervention in patients of degenerative cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy to know the surgical outcome, at L okmanya T ilak M unicipal M edical C ollege , Mumbai, Maharashtra . METHOD : We ca rried out prospective and retrospective observational study of 30 patients with functional disability secondary to cervical degenerative myelopathy and radiculopathy who underwent surgery for decompression of the cervical spinal cord with or without spinal stabilization. March 2012 to March 2013 were studied and followed for more than 1year. All patients were operated by a single surgeon and reviewed independently. All the patients had received appropriate conservative management before undergoing surgical intervention . Data was analysed by using appropriate software. RESULTS : The study group comprised of 27 males and 3 females aged between 36 and 75 years with a mean age of 56 years that presented with functional disability secondary to cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy. Pain and neurological examination were used as criteria at sequential follow – ups. Functional outcome was assessed using Japanese Orthopaedic Association score, Oswestry Disability Index and Visual Analogue Scale. It was found that neuro logical recovery for myelopathy by mJOA score at intervals between 15 days to 3 months was significant after which recovery was occurring but was not significant. Anterior cervical discectomy with fusion for 1 - 2 levels has given good results than posterior laminectomy for 3 or more levels. Cervical radiculopathy alone has good recovery results after decompression surgery than myelopathy or myelopathy with radiculopathy. CONCLUSION: Based on this study, we found that the results of surgery for cervical spon dylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy are excellent. The best neurological and functional recovery is seen in patients with mild to moderate

  11. Recovery Rate of Clustering Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Fajie; Klette, Reinhard; Wada, T; Huang, F; Lin, S

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a simple and general way for defining the recovery rate of clustering algorithms using a given family of old clusters for evaluating the performance of the algorithm when calculating a family of new clusters. Under the assumption of dealing with simulated data (i.e., known old

  12. Enzyme recovery using reversed micelles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a liquid-liquid extraction process for the recovery of extracellular enzymes. The potentials of reaching this goal by using reversed micelles in an organic solvent have been investigated.Reversed micelles are aggregates of surfactant molecules containing an

  13. Diet and substance abuse recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be helpful during recovery (this may include B-complex, zinc, and vitamins A and C) A person with substance use is more likely to relapse when they have poor eating habits. This is why regular meals are important. Drug and alcohol addiction causes a person to forget what it ...

  14. Indirect effects of recovery strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Rice, Jake

    in isolation,but the expected consequences for the rest of the ecosystem must be analyzed. We use ageneral size- and trait-based model to calculate the ecosystem effects of fishing andrecovery. We present a general analysis of a recovery strategies targeting either large fishes(consumer fishery), small fishes...

  15. Recovery mechanisms in nanostructured aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2012-01-01

    Commercial purity aluminium (99.5%) has been cold rolled to a true strain of 5.5 (99.6% reduction in thickness). The material is very strong but low temperature recovery may be a limiting factor. This has been investigated by isothermal annealing treatments in the temperature range 5–100C. Hardness...

  16. Multimodal approach to postoperative recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide updated information on recent developments within individual components of multimodal interventions to improve postoperative outcome (fast-track methodology). RECENT FINDINGS: The value of the fast-track methodology to improve recovery and decrease hospital stay...

  17. Notation-Parametric Grammar Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaytsev, V.; Sloane, A.M.; Andova, S.

    2012-01-01

    Automation of grammar recovery is an important research area that received attention over the last decade and a half. Given the abundance of available documentation for software languages that is only going to keep increasing in the future, there is need for reliable extraction techniques that allow

  18. Secondary Aluminum-bright-spot of Recycle Economy%再生铝-循环经济的亮点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁利民; 康军伟

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces recovery and reutilization of secondary aluminum both at home and abroad, embodies the necessity and importance of secondary aluminum on sustainable development in aluminum industry.%本文介绍国内外再生铝的回收与再利用情况,体现再生铝在铝工业可持续性发展的必要性和重要性.

  19. Summarizing primary and secondary effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2013-01-01

    Current methods for decomposing class differentials in educational decisions into primary and secondary effects produce many parameters, rendering them ill-equipped for parsimonious comparisons across countries or birth cohorts. This paper develops a parametric method that provides an optimal...... summary of primary and secondary effects across discrete class origins. Under the testable assumption that the pattern of effects of class origins on academic ability is proportional to the pattern of effects of class origins on educational choice net of academic ability, the method returns a single...... summary measure. Applying the method to two cohorts born in the UK in 1958 and 1970 suggests that––even with increasing overall inequality of educational opportunity––the relative contribution of secondary effects to class differentials in A-level completion has changed little between the two cohorts....

  20. [Methylphenidate and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Otero, M; Portela Romero, M; Bugarín González, R; Ventura Victoria, M A

    2013-09-01

    Raynaud's phenomenon is a clinical disease characterized by episodic attacks of vasoconstriction of the arteries and arterioles of the extremities such as fingers and toes, sometimes the ears and nose, in response to cold or emotional stimuli. A classic attack is the pallor of the distal extremity, followed by cyanosis and redness, accompanied by paresthesia, usually as heat. When it occurs without apparent cause is called primary Raynaud's phenomenon. When associated with other disease, is called secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. The secondary table is associated with increased frequency of rheumatic diseases of collagen. They can also present certain drugs that cause vasoconstriction, such as ergotamine, beta-adrenergic antagonists, contraception and sympathomimetic drugs. Regarding the latter, we present a case of Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to methylphenidate in a 14 years.

  1. [Methylphenidate and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Otero, M; Portela Romero, M; Bugarín González, R; Ventura Victoria, M A

    2013-09-01

    Raynaud's phenomenon is a clinical disease characterized by episodic attacks of vasoconstriction of the arteries and arterioles of the extremities such as fingers and toes, sometimes the ears and nose, in response to cold or emotional stimuli. A classic attack is the pallor of the distal extremity, followed by cyanosis and redness, accompanied by paresthesia, usually as heat. When it occurs without apparent cause is called primary Raynaud's phenomenon. When associated with other disease, is called secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. The secondary table is associated with increased frequency of rheumatic diseases of collagen. They can also present certain drugs that cause vasoconstriction, such as ergotamine, beta-adrenergic antagonists, contraception and sympathomimetic drugs. Regarding the latter, we present a case of Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to methylphenidate in a 14 years. PMID:24034762

  2. Mental Health Recovery: Evaluation of a Recovery-Oriented Training Program

    OpenAIRE

    Wilrycx, G.K.M.L.; Croon, M.A.; van den Broek, A. H. S.; Ch. van Nieuwenhuizen

    2012-01-01

    Aim. This study investigates the effectiveness of a recovery-oriented training program on knowledge and attitudes of mental health care professionals towards recovery of people with serious mental illness. Methods. Using data from a longitudinal study of recovery, changes in knowledge and attitudes of 210 mental health care professionals towards recovery were explored using the Recovery Attitude Questionnaire and the Recovery Knowledge Inventory. The study uses a two-group multiple interventi...

  3. The Exploration Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ORourke, Mary Jane E.; Carter, Layne; Holder, Donald W.; Tomes, Kristin M.

    2006-01-01

    The Exploration Water Recovery System is designed towards fulfillment of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration, which will require elevation of existing technologies to higher levels of optimization. This new system, designed for application to the Exploration infrastructure, presents a novel combination of proven air and water purification technologies. The integration of unit operations is modified from that of the current state-of-the-art water recovery system so as to optimize treatment of the various waste water streams, contaminant loads, and flow rates. Optimization is achieved primarily through the removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase prior to their absorption into the liquid phase. In the current state-of-the-art system, the water vapor in the cabin atmosphere is condensed, and the volatile organic contaminants present in that atmosphere are absorbed into the aqueous phase. Removal of contaminants the5 occurs via catalytic oxidation in the liquid phase. Oxidation kinetics, however, dictate that removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase can inherently be more efficient than their removal from the aqueous phase. Taking advantage of this efficiency reduces the complexity of the water recovery system. This reduction in system complexity is accompanied by reductions in the weight, volume, power, and resupply requirements of the system. Vapor compression distillation technology is used to treat the urine, condensate, and hygiene waste streams. This contributes to the reduction in resupply, as incorporation of vapor compression distillation technology at this point in the process reduces reliance on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media used in the current state-of-the-art water recovery system. Other proven technologies that are incorporated into the Exploration Water Recovery System include the Trace Contaminant Control System and the Volatile Removal Assembly.

  4. Defining recovery in adult bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jessica; Agras, W Stewart; Bryson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    To examine how different definitions of recovery lead to varying rates of recovery, maintenance of recovery, and relapse in bulimia nervosa (BN), end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up data were obtained from 96 adults with BN. Combining behavioral, physical, and psychological criteria led to recovery rates between 15.5% and 34.4% at EOT, though relapse was approximately 50%. Combining these criteria and requiring abstinence from binge eating and purging when defining recovery may lead to lower recovery rates than those found in previous studies; however, a strength of this definition is that individuals who meet this criteria have no remaining disordered behaviors or symptoms.

  5. Secondary organic aerosol formation of primary, secondary and tertiary Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amines have been widely identified in ambient aerosol in both urban and rural environments and they are potential precursors for formation of nitrogen-containing secondary organic aerosols (SOA). However, the role of amines in SOA formation has not been well studied. In this wrok, we use UC-Riversid...

  6. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome and secondary cataract

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchle, M.; A. Amberg; Martus, P.; Nguyen, N.; NAUMANN, G.

    1997-01-01

    AIM/BACKGROUND—The pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome is frequently associated with impairment of the blood-aqueous barrier. This study analysed if this might stimulate secondary cataract following cataract extraction.
METHODS—This historical cohort study included 197 eyes of 197 patients (99 with and 98 without PEX) that underwent extracapsular cataract extraction with posterior chamber lens implantation (PMMA optic) between 1985 and 1991. Secondary cataract was defined as opacification of the...

  7. Next-generation sequencing approach for connecting secondary metabolites to biosynthetic gene clusters in fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Cacho, Ralph A.; Yi eTang; Yit-Heng eChooi

    2015-01-01

    Genomics has revolutionized the research on fungal secondary metabolite biosynthesis. To elucidate the molecular and enzymatic mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of a specific secondary metabolite compound, the important first step is often to find the genes that responsible for its synthesis. The accessibility to fungal genome sequences allows the bypass of the cumbersome traditional library construction and screening approach. The advance in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies...

  8. Video-based peer discussions as sources for knowledge growth of secondary teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Karsenty, Ronnie; Arcavi, Abraham; Nurick, Yael

    2015-01-01

    International audience This paper reports on a study conducted as part of a larger project, named VIDEO-LM, which centres on video-based professional development for secondary mathematics teachers. The project aims to facilitate the reflective skills and the Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) of secondary school teachers, in particular those teaching advanced mathematics courses. At the core of the project is a 6-component framework developed for analysing videotaped lessons in coll...

  9. Anti -corrosion Effect of ETA on Materials in Secondary Loop of PWR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the world, over sixty percent of nuclear power plant have used advanced amunes ETA(Ethanolamine) as pH control agent in secondary loop of PWR. There are eighty percent of nuclear powerplants using ETA in USA. The corrosion of materials in steam generator (SG) tube and secondary looppower water reactor have been inhibited, the life of SG and the economics of the plant are increasedbecause of using ETA.

  10. When 'exact recovery' is exact recovery in compressed sensing simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2012-01-01

    In a simulation of compressed sensing (CS), one must test whether the recovered solution \\(\\vax\\) is the true solution \\(\\vx\\), i.e., ``exact recovery.'' Most CS simulations employ one of two criteria: 1) the recovered support is the true support; or 2) the normalized squared error is less than...... for a given distribution of \\(\\vx\\)? We show that, in a best case scenario, \\(\\epsilon^2\\) sets a maximum allowed missed detection rate in a majority sense....

  11. Mental Health Recovery: Evaluation of a Recovery-Oriented Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. M. L. Wilrycx

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study investigates the effectiveness of a recovery-oriented training program on knowledge and attitudes of mental health care professionals towards recovery of people with serious mental illness. Methods. Using data from a longitudinal study of recovery, changes in knowledge and attitudes of 210 mental health care professionals towards recovery were explored using the Recovery Attitude Questionnaire and the Recovery Knowledge Inventory. The study uses a two-group multiple intervention interrupted time-series design which is a variant of the stepped-wedge trial design. A total of six measurements occasions took place. Results. This study shows that professionals' attitudes towards recovery from mental illness can improve with training. After two intensive recovery-oriented training sessions, mental health care professionals have a more positive attitude towards recovery in clinical practice. Conclusion. A recovery-oriented training program can change attitudes of mental health care professionals towards recovery of serious mental illness.

  12. Secondary School Design: Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    Current trends in physical education in secondary schools in England are analysed in relation to the design of indoor physical education facilities. Spaces needed for the study of movement in dance and modern gymnastics are outlined; and the indoor provisions necessary for games, athletics, contests, and swimming are discussed, with comments on…

  13. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights the…

  14. Heart Valve Surgery Recovery and Follow Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke More Heart Valve Surgery Recovery and Follow Up Updated:May 27,2016 Surgery Recovery Checklist English | ... self-care and are soon encouraged to get up, to breathe deeply, and to resume eating, drinking ...

  15. Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves during and after recovery from heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Guo-Tian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grapes are a major fruit crop around the world. Heat stress can significantly reduce grape yield and quality. Changes at the molecular level in response to heat stress and subsequent recovery are poorly understood. To elucidate the effect of heat stress and subsequent recovery on expression of genes by grape leaves representing the classic heat stress response and thermotolerance mechanisms, transcript abundance of grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves was quantified using the Affymetrix Grape Genome oligonucleotide microarray (15,700 transcripts, followed by quantitative Real-Time PCR validation for some transcript profiles. Results We found that about 8% of the total probe sets were responsive to heat stress and/or to subsequent recovery in grape leaves. The heat stress and recovery responses were characterized by different transcriptional changes. The number of heat stress-regulated genes was almost twice the number of recovery-regulated genes. The responsive genes identified in this study belong to a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes, protein fate (i.e., HSPs, primary and secondary metabolism, transcription factors, signal transduction, and development. We have identified some common genes and heat shock factors (HSFs that were modulated differentially by heat stress and recovery. Most HSP genes were upregulated by heat stress but were downregulated by the recovery. On the other hand, some specific HSP genes or HSFs were uniquely responsive to heat stress or recovery. Conclusion The effect of heat stress and recovery on grape appears to be associated with multiple processes and mechanisms including stress-related genes, transcription factors, and metabolism. Heat stress and recovery elicited common up- or downregulated genes as well as unique sets of responsive genes. Moreover, some genes were regulated in opposite directions by heat stress and recovery

  16. Defining secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorscheider, Johannes; Buzzard, Katherine; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Spelman, Tim; Havrdova, Eva; Horakova, Dana; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Girard, Marc; Duquette, Pierre; Prat, Alexandre; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Grand'Maison, François; Grammond, Pierre; Hupperts, Raymond; Alroughani, Raed; Sola, Patrizia; Boz, Cavit; Pucci, Eugenio; Lechner-Scott, Jeanette; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Iuliano, Gerardo; Van Pesch, Vincent; Granella, Franco; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Spitaleri, Daniele; Petersen, Thor; Slee, Mark; Verheul, Freek; Ampapa, Radek; Amato, Maria Pia; McCombe, Pamela; Vucic, Steve; Sánchez Menoyo, José Luis; Cristiano, Edgardo; Barnett, Michael H; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Olascoaga, Javier; Saladino, Maria Laura; Gray, Orla; Shaw, Cameron; Moore, Fraser; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kalincik, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    A number of studies have been conducted with the onset of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis as an inclusion criterion or an outcome of interest. However, a standardized objective definition of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis has been lacking. The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of an objective definition for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, to enable comparability of future research studies. Using MSBase, a large, prospectively acquired, global cohort study, we analysed the accuracy of 576 data-derived onset definitions for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and first compared these to a consensus opinion of three neurologists. All definitions were then evaluated against 5-year disease outcomes post-assignment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: sustained disability, subsequent sustained progression, positive disability trajectory, and accumulation of severe disability. The five best performing definitions were further investigated for their timeliness and overall disability burden. A total of 17 356 patients were analysed. The best definition included a 3-strata progression magnitude in the absence of a relapse, confirmed after 3 months within the leading Functional System and required an Expanded Disability Status Scale step ≥4 and pyramidal score ≥2. It reached an accuracy of 87% compared to the consensus diagnosis. Seventy-eight per cent of the identified patients showed a positive disability trajectory and 70% reached significant disability after 5 years. The time until half of all patients were diagnosed was 32.6 years (95% confidence interval 32-33.6) after disease onset compared with the physicians' diagnosis at 36 (35-39) years. The identified patients experienced a greater disease burden [median annualized area under the disability-time curve 4.7 (quartiles 3.6, 6.0)] versus non-progressive patients [1.8 (1.2, 1.9)]. This objective definition of secondary progressive multiple

  17. Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaulagain, Chakra P; Pilichowska, Monika; Brinckerhoff, Laurence; Tabba, Maher; Erban, John K

    2014-12-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), characterized by deposition of intra-alveolar PAS positive protein and lipid rich material, is a rare cause of progressive respiratory failure first described by Rosen et al. in 1958. The intra-alveolar lipoproteinaceous material was subsequently proven to have been derived from pulmonary surfactant in 1980 by Singh et al. Levinson et al. also reported in 1958 the case of 19-year-old female with panmyelosis afflicted with a diffuse pulmonary disease characterized by filling of the alveoli with amorphous material described as "intra-alveolar coagulum". This is probably the first reported case of PAP in relation to hematologic malignancy. Much progress has been made on PAP first described by Rosen which is currently classified as idiopathic or primary or autoimmune PAP. Idiopathic PAP occurs as a result of auto-antibodies directed against granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) impeding the surfactant clearing function of alveolar macrophages leading to progressive respiratory failure. Whole lung lavage and GM-CSF therapy has improved outcomes in patients with idiopathic PAP. Despite major advancement in the management of hematologic malignancy and its complications, little is known about the type of PAP first described by Levinson and now known as secondary PAP; a term also used when PAP occurs due to other causes such as occupational dusts. In this article we review and analyze the limited literature available in secondary PAP due to hematologic malignancies and present a case of PAP associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia successfully treated with bendamustine and rituximab. PMID:25300566

  18. SECONDARY OSTEOARTHRITIS IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Starodubtseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problems of comorbidities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Two or more RA-related conditions were diagnosed according to the results of the QUEST-RA program implemented in 34 countries. Osteoarthritis along with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and osteoporosis was detected among the most commonly diseases. Owing to expanded diagnostic capabilities, the recognition and treatment of the comorbidities have recently received much attention, as embodied in the draft Association of Rheumatologists of Russia Guidelines for RA management (2014; Part 1. The concept and major characteristics of secondary osteoarthritis in RA are analyzed. It is precisely the inflammatory process and underlying disease-related risk factors, including treatment, that have impact on the development of secondary osteoarthritis and patients’ quality of life as a whole. All this allows an inference about the mechanisms closely intertwined with the underlying disease for the development of secondary osteoarthritis, which initiates cartilage damage and further remodeling. Primary and secondary osteoarthritis was comparatively analyzed. Particular emphasis is placed on current cartilage biomarkers, their diagnostic value and role in monitoring the efficiency of treatment in clinical trials. The paper provides a comparative analysis of detectable serum and urine biomarkers according to the results of the complex analysis made by the National Institutes of Health. Particular attention is given to cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP. Foreign authors’ investigations suggest that there is a relationship between serum COMP levels and disease severity and joint X-ray changes. There is evidence for the efficacy of hyaluronic acid used in the treatment of secondary osteoarthritis in patients with RA. 

  19. Predictors of recovery in first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Stephen F; Mors, Ole; Secher, Rikke Gry;

    2013-01-01

    Recovery, the optimal goal in treatment, is the attainment of both symptomatic and functional remission over a sustained period of time. Identification of factors that promote recovery can help develop interventions that facilitate good outcomes for people with first episode psychosis.......Recovery, the optimal goal in treatment, is the attainment of both symptomatic and functional remission over a sustained period of time. Identification of factors that promote recovery can help develop interventions that facilitate good outcomes for people with first episode psychosis....

  20. Optimized recovery of damaged electrical power grids

    OpenAIRE

    Ang, Chee Chien

    2006-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis formulates and solves a mixed-integer program to plan the recovery of an electrical power transmission grid that has been damaged by a natural disaster or terrorist attack. The damage can be extensive and recovery can take weeks or months. An efficient recovery plan that maximizes the utilization of repair resources can help ensure swift restoration of services. The network recovery-planning model is implemented in GAMS...