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Sample records for advanced ring pf-ar

  1. Vacuum control system of the synchrotron light source PF-AR and progress of the accelerator commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Tanimoto, Y; Nogami, T; Hori, Y

    2003-01-01

    Upgrading project of the synchrotron light source PF-AR was carried out in 2001, and vacuum system was entirely renewed to realize longer beam lifetime and higher stored current. Vacuum control system was unified to the EPICS, which had been already adopted in the KEKB and the injector linear-accelerator control systems. In this system, all of the vacuum devices of the PF-AR except for rough pumps can be controlled and monitored remotely on graphical operation panels. Commissioning of the upgraded PF-AR started successfully in January 2002, and the beam lifetime has been getting longer as the vacuum ducts cleaning process with synchrotron radiation has progressed. In November 2002, the lifetime of a 6.5 GeV-50 mA single-bunched beam is 900 minutes, which is 6 times as long as the value of the old PF-AR. (author)

  2. Measurement of storage ring motion at the advanced light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical stability of the Advanced Light Source storage ring is examined over a period of 1.5 years from the point of view of floor motion. The storage ring beam position monitor stability is examined under various operating conditions

  3. [INVITED] New advances in fiber cavity ring-down technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S. O.; Magalhães, R.; Marques, M. B.; Frazão, O.

    2016-04-01

    A brief review in the cavity ring-down technique (CRD) is presented. In this review, there will only be considered the conventional fiber CRD configuration, i.e., there will only be presented researches involving cavities with two couplers with 99:1 ratios, due to the large amount of publications involving this spectroscopy method. The presented survey is divided in different topics related to the measurement of physical parameters, such as strain and temperature, curvature, pressure, refractive index, gas and biochemical sensing.

  4. Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The essence of vortex physics is that at certain low-energy scales elementary excitations of a point particle theory can behave like strings rather than particles. Vortices are the resulting string-like solutions; their thickness sets the distance scale beyond which physics is string-like rather than particle-like. String degrees of freedom are massless in the sense that excitations on a string can have an arbitrarily low frequency. Non-string degrees of freedom correspond to massive particles and are absent from the low energy spectrum. This article considers only field theories with vortices at low energies. The possible existence of a class of solitons in these vortex theories will be discussed. They are vortex rings: they are localized and finite in energy, and able to carry the quantum numbers of point particles. Rings are thus particle-like solutions of a vortex theory, which is itself a limit of a point particle field theory

  5. Commissioning of the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER): Advances toward multiturn operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) is a low-energy, high current recirculator for beam physics research [M. Reiser et al., in Proceedings of the 1999 Particle Accelerator Conference, New York, NY (IEEE, New York, 1999), p. 234]. Ring construction is completed for multiturn operation of beams over a broad range of intensities and initial conditions. UMER is an extremely versatile experimental platform with a beam current of up to 100 mA and a pulse length as long as 100 ns. UMER is addressing issues in beam physics relevant to many applications that require intense beams of high quality, such as advanced concept accelerators, free electron lasers, spallation neutron sources, and future heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion. The primary focus of this paper is to present experimental results in the areas of beam steering and multiturn operation of the ring. Unique beam steering algorithms now include measurement of the beam response matrix at each quadrupole and matrix inversion by singular value decomposition. With these advanced steering methods, transport of an intense beam over four turns (144 full lattice periods) of the ring has been achieved

  6. Digital closed orbit feedback system for the advanced photon source storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a dedicated third-generation synchrotron light source with a nominal energy of 7 GeV and a circumference of 1104 m. The closed orbit feedback system for the APS storage ring employs unified global and local feedback systems for stabilization of particle and photon beams based on digital signal processing (DSP). Hardware and software aspects of the system will be described in this paper. In particular, we will discuss global and local orbit feedback algorithms, PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) control algorithm, application of digital signal processing to compensate for vacuum chamber eddy current effects, resolution of the interaction between global and local systems through decoupling, self-correction of the local bump closure error, user interface through the APS control system, and system performance in the frequency and time domains. The system hardware including the DSPs is distributed in 20 VME crates around the ring, and the entire feedback system runs synchronously at 4-kHz sampling frequency in order to achieve a correction bandwidth exceeding 100 Hz. The required data sharing between the global and local feedback systems is facilitated via the use of fiber-optically-networked reflective memories

  7. Digital closed orbit feedback system for the Advanced Photon Source storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closed orbit feedback for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring employs unified global an local feedback systems for stabilization of particle and photon beams based on digital signal processing (DSP). Hardware and software aspects of the system will be described. In particular, we will discuss global and local orbit feedback algorithms, PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) control algorithm. application of digital signal processing to compensate for vacuum chamber eddy current effects, resolution of the interaction between global and local systems through decoupling, self-correction of the local bump closure error, user interface through the APS control system, and system performance in the frequency and time domains. The system hardware, including the DSPS, is distributed in 20 VNE crates around the ring, and the entire feedback system runs synchronously at 4-kHz sampling frequency in order to achieve a correction bandwidth exceeding 100 Hz. The required data sharing between the global and local feedback systems is facilitated via the use of fiber-optically-networked reflective memories

  8. Digital closed orbit feedback system for the Advanced Photon Source storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y.; Barr, D.; Decker, G.; Galayda, J.; Lenkszus, F.; Lumpkin, A.; Votaw, A.J. [Accelerator Systems Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Closed orbit feedback for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring employs unified global and local feedback systems for stabilization of particle and photon beams based on digital signal processing. Hardware and software aspects of the system will be described. In particular, we will discuss global and local orbit feedback algorithms, PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) control algorithm, application of digital signal processing to compensate for vacuum chamber eddy current effects, resolution of the interaction between global and local systems through decoupling, self-correction of the local bump closure error, user interface through the APS control system, and system performance in the frequency and time domains. The system hardware, including the digital signal processor (DSPs), is distributed in 20 VME crates around the ring, and the entire feedback system runs synchronously at 4-kHz sampling frequency in order to achieve a correction bandwidth exceeding 100 Hz. The required data sharing between the global and local feedback systems is facilitated via the use of fiber-optically networked reflective memories. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Digital closed orbit feedback system for the advanced photon source storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y.; Barr, D.; Decker, G. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a dedicated third-generation synchrotron light source with a nominal energy of 7 GeV and a circumference of 1104 m. The closed orbit feedback system for the APS storage ring employs unified global and local feedback systems for stabilization of particle and photon beams based on digital signal processing (DSP). Hardware and software aspects of the system will be described in this paper. In particular, we will discuss global and local orbit feedback algorithms, PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) control algorithm, application of digital signal processing to compensate for vacuum chamber eddy current effects, resolution of the interaction between global and local systems through decoupling, self-correction of the local bump closure error, user interface through the APS control system, and system performance in the frequency and time domains. The system hardware including the DSPs is distributed in 20 VME crates around the ring, and the entire feedback system runs synchronously at 4-kHz sampling frequency in order to achieve a correction bandwidth exceeding 100 Hz. The required data sharing between the global and local feedback systems is facilitated via the use of fiber-optically-networked reflective memories.

  10. Digital closed orbit feedback system for the Advanced Photon Source storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y.; Barr, D.; Decker, G.; Galayda, J.; Lenkszus, F.; Lumpkin, A.; Votaw, A. J.

    1996-09-01

    Closed orbit feedback for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring employs unified global and local feedback systems for stabilization of particle and photon beams based on digital signal processing. Hardware and software aspects of the system will be described. In particular, we will discuss global and local orbit feedback algorithms, PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) control algorithm, application of digital signal processing to compensate for vacuum chamber eddy current effects, resolution of the interaction between global and local systems through decoupling, self-correction of the local bump closure error, user interface through the APS control system, and system performance in the frequency and time domains. The system hardware, including the digital signal processor (DSPs), is distributed in 20 VME crates around the ring, and the entire feedback system runs synchronously at 4-kHz sampling frequency in order to achieve a correction bandwidth exceeding 100 Hz. The required data sharing between the global and local feedback systems is facilitated via the use of fiber-optically networked reflective memories.

  11. X-Ray microprobe characterization of materials: the case for undulators on advanced storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique properties of X-rays offer many advantages over electrons and other charged particles for the microcharacterization of materials. X-rays are more efficient in exciting characteristic X-ray fluorescence and produce higher fluorescent signals to backgrounds than obtained with electrons. Detectable limits for X-rays are a few parts per billion and are 10-3 to 10-5 less than obtained with electrons. Energy deposition in the sample by X-rays is 10-3 to 10-4 less than for electrons for the same detectable concentration. High-brightness storage rings, especially in the 6 GeV class with undulators, will be approximately 103 brighter in the X-ray energy range from 5 keV to 35 keV than existing storage rings and provide for X-ray microprobes that are as bright as the most advanced electron probes. Such X-ray microprobes will produce unprecedented low levels of detection in diffraction, EXAFS, Auger, and photoelectron spectoscopies for both chemical characterization and elemental identification. These major improvements in microcharacterization capabilities will be wide-ranging ramifications not only in materials science but also in physics, chemistry, geochemistry, biology, and medicine

  12. X-ray microprobe characterization of materials: the case for undulators on advanced storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique properties of X rays offer many advantages over electrons and other charged particles for the microcharacterization of materials. X rays are more efficient in exciting characteristic X-ray fluorescence and produce higher fluorescent signals to backgrounds than obtained with electrons. Detectable limits for X rays are a few parts per billion and are 10-3 to 10-5 less than for electrons. Energy deposition in the sample by X rays is 10-3 to 10-4 less than for electrons for the same detectable concentration. High-brightness storage rings, especially in the 6 GeV class with undulators, will be approximately 103 brighter in the X-ray energy range from 5 keV to 35 keV than existing storage rings and provide for X-ray microprobes that are as bright as the most advanced electron probes. Such X-ray microprobes will produce unprecedented low levels of detection in diffraction, EXAFS, Auger, and photoelectron spectroscopies for both chemical characterization and elemental identification. These major improvements in microcharacterization capabilities will have wide-ranging ramifications not only in materials science but also in physics, chemistry, geochemistry, biology, and medicine

  13. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Ring-opening Metathesis Polymerization of Olefins and Polymerization of Alkynes

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    The first NATO Advanced Study Institute on Olefin Metathesis and Polymerization Catalysts was held on September 10-22, 1989 in Akcay, Turkey. Based on the fundamental research of RRSchrock, RGrubbs and K.B.Wagener in the field of ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) and alkyne polymerization, these areas gained growing interest within the last years. Therefore the second NATO-ASI held on metathesis reactions was on Ring Opening Metathesis Po­ lymerization of Olefins and Polymerization of Alkynes on September 3-16, 1995 in Akcay, Turkey. The course joined inorganic, organic and polymer chemists to exchange their knowledge in this field. This volume contains the main and short lectures held in Akcay. To include ADMET reactions better into the title of this volume we changed it into: Metathesis Polymerization of Olefins and Alkyne Polymerization. This volume is addressed to research scientists, but also to those who start to work in the area of olefin metathesis and al...

  14. A Survey on Silicon PUFs and Recent Advances in Ring Oscillator PUFs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张吉良; 屈钢; 吕勇强; 周强

    2014-01-01

    Silicon physical unclonable function (PUF) is a popular hardware security primitive that exploits the intrinsic variation of IC manufacturing process to generate chip-unique information for various security related applications. For example, the PUF information can be used as a chip identifier, a secret key, the seed for a random number generator, or the response to a given challenge. Due to the unpredictability and irreplicability of IC manufacturing variation, silicon PUF has emerged as a promising hardware security primitive and gained a lot of attention over the past few years. In this article, we first give a survey on the current state-of-the-art of silicon PUFs, then analyze known attacks to PUFs and the countermeasures. After that we discuss PUF-based applications, highlight some recent research advances in ring oscillator PUFs, and conclude with some challenges and opportunities in PUF research and applications.

  15. Vacuum system development status for the APS [Advanced Photon Source] storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the design and fabrication of a prototype sector of the storage ring vacuum system for the Advanced Photon Source is described. The 26.5-m-long prototype sector will be assembled within a full-scale magnet and tunnel mockup to study interspacial component relationships for maintenance, as well as the vacuum system operational performance. Each completed vacuum section is mounted as an integral part of the modular structure that contains the magnets and magnet power supplies on a common base. Unique automatic machine welding designs and techniques are employed in the fabrication of the aluminium vacuum chambers from extrusions. Special chamber bending procedures and measurements checks are used to maintain the required flatness of the insider chamber light gap surfaces. Photo-electron yields due to low-energy photons in the narrow channel gap of the vacuum chamber and their potential effects on the overall outgassing rate are found to be negligible. 9 refs., 5 figs

  16. UHV seal studies for the advanced photon source storage ring vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) Storage Ring Vacuum Chambers (SRVC) are constructed of aluminum. The chamber design incorporates aluminum alloy 2219-T87 Conflat flanges welded to an aluminum alloy 6063-T5 extruded chamber body. Vacuum connections to the aluminum Conflat chamber flanges are by means of 304 stainless steel Conflat flanges. To evaluate the Conflat seal assemblies relative to vacuum bake cycles, a Conflat Bake Test Assembly (CBTA) was constructed, and thermal cycling tests were performed between room temperature and 150 degrees C on both stainless steel to aluminum Conflat assemblies and aluminum to aluminum Conflat assemblies. A Helicoflex Bake Test Assembly (HBTA) was similarly constructed to evaluate Helicoflex seals. Both Conflat and Helicoflex seals were studied in a SRVC Sector String Test arrangement of five SRVC sections. The CBTA, HBTA and SRVC tests and their results are reported. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  17. UHV seal studies for the Advanced Photon Source storage ring vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) Storage Ring Vacuum Chambers (SRVC) are constructed of aluminum. The chamber design incorporates aluminum alloy 2219-T87 Conflat flanges welded to an aluminum alloy 60603-T5 extruded chamber body. Vacuum connections to the aluminum Conflat chamber flanges are by means of 304 stainless steel Conflat flanges. To evaluate the Conflat seal assemblies relative to vacuum bake cycles, a Conflat Bake Test Assembly (CBTA) was constructed, and thermal cycling tests were performed between room temperature and 150 C on both stainless steel to aluminum Conflat assemblies and aluminum to aluminum Conflat assemblies. A Helicoflex Bake Test Assembly (HBTA) was similarly constructed to evaluate Helicoflex seals. Both Conflat and Helicoflex seals were studied in a SRVC Sector String Test arrangement of five SRVC sections. The CBTA, HBTA and SRVC tests and their results are reported

  18. Automated tune measurements in the Advanced Light Source storage ring using a LabVIEW application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horizontal and vertical betatron tunes and the synchrotron tune are measured frequently during storage ring commissioning. The measurements are tedious and subject to human errors. Automating this kind of repetitive measurement is underway using LabVIEW for Windows, a software application supplied by National Instruments Corporation, that provides acquisition, graphing, and analysis of data as well as instrument control through the General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB). We have added LabVIEW access to the Advanced Light Source (ALS) data base and control system. LabVIEW is a fast and efficient tool for accelerator commissioning and beam physics studies. Hardware used to perform tune measurements include a tracking generator (or a white noise generator), strip line electrodes for external ''citation of the beam, button monitors, and a spectrum analyzer. All three tunes are displayed simultaneously on the spectrum analyzer. Our program automatically identifies three tunes by applying and analyzing small variations and reports the results. This routine can be encapsulated in other applications, for instance, in a chromaticity measurement and correction program

  19. Second advanced ICFA beam dynamics workshop on aperture-related limitations of the performance and beam lifetime in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain the papers presented at the 'Second advanced beam dynamics workshop on aperture-related limitations of the performance and beam lifetime in storage rings', which was organized in Lugano, Switzerland, from 11 to 16 April 1988, by the Beam Dynamics Panel of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). The papers cover experiments on existing accelerators, analytical methods for determining amplitude limitations, criteria for the properties of the circulating beam and for the quality of accelerator components, and compensation schemes for field defects. (orig.)

  20. Topological rings

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, S

    1993-01-01

    This text brings the reader to the frontiers of current research in topological rings. The exercises illustrate many results and theorems while a comprehensive bibliography is also included. The book is aimed at those readers acquainted with some very basic point-set topology and algebra, as normally presented in semester courses at the beginning graduate level or even at the advanced undergraduate level. Familiarity with Hausdorff, metric, compact and locally compact spaces and basic properties of continuous functions, also with groups, rings, fields, vector spaces and modules, and with Zorn''s Lemma, is also expected.

  1. Physics of quantum rings

    CERN Document Server

    Fomin, Vladimir M

    2013-01-01

    This book deals with a new class of materials, quantum rings. Innovative recent advances in experimental and theoretical physics of quantum rings are based on the most advanced state-of-the-art fabrication and characterization techniques as well as theoretical methods. The experimental efforts allow to obtain a new class of semiconductor quantum rings formed by capping self-organized quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Novel optical and magnetic properties of quantum rings are associated with non-trivial topologies at the nanoscale. An adequate characterization of quantum rings is po

  2. Groups, rings, modules

    CERN Document Server

    Auslander, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This classic monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. The treatment presupposes some familiarity with sets, groups, rings, and vector spaces. The four-part approach begins with examinations of sets and maps, monoids and groups, categories, and rings. The second part explores unique factorization domains, general module theory, semisimple rings and modules, and Artinian rings. Part three's topics include localization and tensor products, principal ideal domains, and applications of fundamental theorem. The fourth and final part covers algebraic field extensions

  3. Ring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jara, Pascual; Torrecillas, Blas

    1988-01-01

    The papers in this proceedings volume are selected research papers in different areas of ring theory, including graded rings, differential operator rings, K-theory of noetherian rings, torsion theory, regular rings, cohomology of algebras, local cohomology of noncommutative rings. The book will be important for mathematicians active in research in ring theory.

  4. Physics of quantum rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fomin, Vladimir M. (ed.) [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Presents the new class of materials of quantum rings. Provides an elemental basis for low-cost high-performance devices promising for electronics, optoelectronics, spintronics and quantum information processing. Explains the physical properties of quantum rings to cover a gap in scientific literature. Presents the application of most advanced nanoengineering and nanocharacterization techniques. This book deals with a new class of materials, quantum rings. Innovative recent advances in experimental and theoretical physics of quantum rings are based on the most advanced state-of-the-art fabrication and characterization techniques as well as theoretical methods. The experimental efforts allow to obtain a new class of semiconductor quantum rings formed by capping self-organized quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Novel optical and magnetic properties of quantum rings are associated with non-trivial topologies at the nanoscale. An adequate characterization of quantum rings is possible on the basis of modern characterization methods of nanostructures, such as Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. A high level of complexity is demonstrated to be needed for a dedicated theoretical model to adequately represent the specific features of quantum rings. The findings presented in this book contribute to develop low-cost high-performance electronic, spintronic, optoelectronic and information processing devices based on quantum rings.

  5. Storage Ring EDM Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semertzidis, Yannis K.

    2016-04-01

    Dedicated storage ring electric dipole moment (EDM) methods show great promise advancing the sensitivity level by a couple orders of magnitude over currently planned hadronic EDM experiments. We describe the present status and recent updates of the field.

  6. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S1 x S2. We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  7. Status of RF deflecting cavity design for the generation of short x-ray pulses in the Advanced Photon Source storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory is exploring the possibility of using radio frequency deflection to generate x-ray radiation pulses on the order of 1 pico-second (Delta t - 70%) or less. This scheme is based on a proposal by A. Zholents et al. that relies on manipulating the transverse momentum of the electrons in a bunch by using an rf deflecting cavity to induce a longitudinally dependent vertical deflection of the beam. The beam will then travel through a number of undulators before arriving at a second set of deflecting cavities where the deflection is reversed such that the remainder of the storage ring is largely unperturbed. Considerable effort has been expended on the design of a superconducting rf deflecting cavity operating in the S-band at 2.8 GHz to address fundamental design issues including cavity geometry, deflecting voltage, rf power coupling, tuning, and damping of higher-order and lower-order modes. In this paper we present simulation results and analysis of an optimized superconducting rf deflecting cavity design for the APS storage ring.

  8. Saturn's Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    The rings are changing before our eyes; structure varies on all timescales and unexpected things have been discovered. Many questions have been answered, but some answers remain elusive (see Cuzzi et al 2010 for a review). Here we highlight the major ring science progress over the mission to date, and describe new observations planned for Cassini's final three years. Ring Composition and particle sizes: The rings are nearly all water ice with no other ices - so why are they reddish? The C Ring and Cassini Division are "dirtier" than the more massive B and A Rings, as shown by near-IR and, recently, microwave observations. Particle sizes, from stellar and radio occultations, vary from place to place. Ring structure, micro and macro: numerous spiral density waves and ubiquitous "self-gravity wakes" reveal processes which fostered planet formation in the solar system and elsewhere. However, big puzzles remain regarding the main ring divisions, the C Ring plateau structures, and the B Ring irregular structure. Moonlets, inside and out, seen and unseen: Two gaps contain sizeable moonlets, but more gaps seem to contain none; even smaller embedded "propeller" objects wander, systematically or randomly, through the A ring. Rubble pile ringmoons just outside the rings may escaped from the rings, and the recently discovered "Peggy" may be trying this as we watch. Impact bombardment of the rings: Comet fragments set the rings to rippling on century-timescales, and boulders crash through hourly; meanwhile, the constant hail of infalling Kuiper belt material has a lower mass flux than previously thought. Origin and Age of the Rings: The ring mass and bombardment play key roles. The ring mass is well known everywhere but in the B Ring (where most of it is). New models suggest how tidal breakup of evolving moons may have formed massive ancient rings, of which the current ring is just a shadow. During its last three years, the Cassini tour profile will allow entirely new

  9. Saturn's Rings are Fractal

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jun; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few decades, various conjectures were advanced that Saturn's rings are Cantor-like sets, although no convincing fractal analysis of actual images has ever appeared. We focus on the images sent by the Cassini spacecraft mission: slide #42 "Mapping Clumps in Saturn's Rings" and slide #54 "Scattered Sunshine". Using the box-counting method, we determine the fractal dimension of rings seen here (and in several other images from the same source) to be consistently about 1.6~1.7. This...

  10. Ring theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rowen, Louis H

    1991-01-01

    This is an abridged edition of the author's previous two-volume work, Ring Theory, which concentrates on essential material for a general ring theory course while ommitting much of the material intended for ring theory specialists. It has been praised by reviewers:**""As a textbook for graduate students, Ring Theory joins the best....The experts will find several attractive and pleasant features in Ring Theory. The most noteworthy is the inclusion, usually in supplements and appendices, of many useful constructions which are hard to locate outside of the original sources....The audience of non

  11. Planetary Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, M. K.; Araki, S.; Black, G. J.; Bosh, A. S.; Brahic, A.; Brooks, S. M.; Charnoz, S.; Colwell, J. E.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Dones, L.; Durisen, R. H.; Esposito, L. W.; Ferrari, C.; Festou, M.; French, R. G.; Giuliatti-Winter, S. M.; Graps, A. L.; Hamilton, D. P.; Horanyi, M.; Karjalainen, R. M.; Krivov, A. V.; Krueger, H.; Larson, S. M.; Levison, H. F.; Lewis, M. C.; Lissauer, J. J.; Murray, C. D.; Namouni, F.; Nicholson, P. D.; Olkin, C. B.; Poulet, F.; Rappaport, N. J.; Salo, H. J.; Schmidt, J.; Showalter, M. R.; Spahn, F.; Spilker, L. J.; Srama, R.; Stewart, G. R.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.

    2002-08-01

    The past two decades have witnessed dramatic changes in our view and understanding of planetary rings. We now know that each of the giant planets in the Solar System possesses a complex and unique ring system. Recent studies have identified complex gravitational interactions between the rings and their retinues of attendant satellites. Among the four known ring systems, we see elegant examples of Lindblad and corotation resonances (first invoked in the context of galactic disks), electromagnetic resonances, spiral density waves and bending waves, narrow ringlets which exhibit internal modes due to collective instabilities, sharp-edged gaps maintained via tidal torques from embedded moonlets, and tenuous dust belts created by meteoroid impact onto, or collisions between, parent bodies. Yet, as far as we have come, our understanding is far from complete. The fundamental questions confronting ring scientists at the beginning of the twenty-first century are those regarding the origin, age and evolution of the various ring systems, in the broadest context. Understanding the origin and age requires us to know the current ring properties, and to understand the dominant evolutionary processes and how they influence ring properties. Here we discuss a prioritized list of the key questions, the answers to which would provide the greatest improvement in our understanding of planetary rings. We then outline the initiatives, missions, and other supporting activities needed to address those questions, and recommend priorities for the coming decade in planetary ring science.

  12. Jupiter's rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voyager 2 observations of the jovian ring system discovered by Voyager 1 are presented. The rings were observed both above and below the jovian equatorial plane and at extremely low and high phase angles. This ring system seems to represent a steady state configuration for small particles that are slowly moving in toward Jupiter. It must be resupplied from sources well outside Roche's limit. (author)

  13. Topics in commutative ring theory

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, John J

    2009-01-01

    Topics in Commutative Ring Theory is a textbook for advanced undergraduate students as well as graduate students and mathematicians seeking an accessible introduction to this fascinating area of abstract algebra. Commutative ring theory arose more than a century ago to address questions in geometry and number theory. A commutative ring is a set-such as the integers, complex numbers, or polynomials with real coefficients--with two operations, addition and multiplication. Starting from this simple definition, John Watkins guides readers from basic concepts to Noetherian rings-one of

  14. SUPRAMITRAL RING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh G

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Supra mitral ring is a rare cause for congenital mitral valve obstr uction. The reported incidence of supramitral ring is 0.2-0.4% in general population and 8% in patients with congenital mitral valve disease. The condition is characterized by an abnormal ridge of connective tissue often circumferential in shape ,on the atrial side of the mitral valve encroaching on the orifice of the mitral valve. It may adhere to the leaflets of the valve and restrict their movements. Although a supramitral ring may be rarely nonobstructive, it often results in mitral valve inflow obstruction.

  15. Determinantal rings

    CERN Document Server

    Bruns, Winfried

    1988-01-01

    Determinantal rings and varieties have been a central topic of commutative algebra and algebraic geometry. Their study has attracted many prominent researchers and has motivated the creation of theories which may now be considered part of general commutative ring theory. The book gives a first coherent treatment of the structure of determinantal rings. The main approach is via the theory of algebras with straightening law. This approach suggest (and is simplified by) the simultaneous treatment of the Schubert subvarieties of Grassmannian. Other methods have not been neglected, however. Principal radical systems are discussed in detail, and one section is devoted to each of invariant and representation theory. While the book is primarily a research monograph, it serves also as a reference source and the reader requires only the basics of commutative algebra together with some supplementary material found in the appendix. The text may be useful for seminars following a course in commutative ring theory since a ...

  16. Almost ring theory

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This book develops thorough and complete foundations for the method of almost etale extensions, which is at the basis of Faltings' approach to p-adic Hodge theory. The central notion is that of an "almost ring". Almost rings are the commutative unitary monoids in a tensor category obtained as a quotient V-Mod/S of the category V-Mod of modules over a fixed ring V; the subcategory S consists of all modules annihilated by a fixed ideal m of V, satisfying certain natural conditions. The reader is assumed to be familiar with general categorical notions, some basic commutative algebra and some advanced homological algebra (derived categories, simplicial methods). Apart from these general prerequisites, the text is as self-contained as possible. One novel feature of the book - compared with Faltings' earlier treatment - is the systematic exploitation of the cotangent complex, especially for the study of deformations of almost algebras.

  17. Review of Linac-Ring Type Collider Proposals

    CERN Document Server

    Akay, A N; Sultansoy, S

    2009-01-01

    There are three possibly types of particle colliders schemes: familiar (well known) ring-ring colliders, less familiar however sufficiently advanced linear colliders and less familiar and less advanced linac-ring type colliders. The aim of this paper is two-fold: to present possibly complete list of papers on linac-ring type collider proposals and to emphasize the role of linac-ring type machines for future HEP research.

  18. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  19. The Structure of Saturn's Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, J. E.; Nicholson, P. D.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Murray, C. D.; French, R. G.; Marouf, E. A.

    Our understanding of the structure of Saturn's rings has evolved steadily since their discovery by Galileo Galilei in 1610. With each advance in observations of the rings over the last four centuries, new structure has been revealed, starting with the recognition that the rings are a disk by Huygens in 1656 through discoveries of the broad organization of the main rings and their constituent gaps and ringlets to Cassini observations that indirectly reveal individual clumps of particles tens of meters in size. The variety of structure is as broad as the range in scales. The main rings have distinct characteristics on a spatial scale of 104 km that suggest dramatically different evolution and perhaps even different origins. On smaller scales, the A and C ring and Cassini Division are punctuated by gaps from tens to hundreds of kilometer across, while the B ring is littered with unexplained variations in optical depth on similar scales. Moons are intimately involved with much of the structure in the rings. The outer edges of the A and B rings are shepherded and sculpted by resonances with the Janus—Epimetheus coorbitals and Mimas, respectively. Density waves at the locations of orbital resonances with nearby and embedded moons make up the majority of large-scale features in the A ring. Moons orbiting within the Encke and Keeler gaps in the A ring create those gaps and produce wakes in the nearby ring. Other gaps and wave-like features await explanation. The largest ring particles, while not massive enough to clear a gap, produce localized propeller-shaped disturbances hundreds of meters long. Particles throughout the A and B rings cluster into strands or self-gravity wakes tens of meters across that are in equilibrium between gravitational accretion and Keplerian shear. In the peaks of strong density waves particles pile together in a cosmic traffic jam that results in kilometer-long strands that may be larger versions of self-gravity wakes. The F ring is a showcase

  20. Ring interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Malykin, Grigorii B; Zhurov, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the creation of a comprehensive formalism for quantitative description of polarized modes' linear interaction in modern single-mode optic fibers. The theory of random connections between polarized modes, developed in the monograph, allows calculations of the zero shift deviations for a fiber ring interferometer. The monograph addresses also the

  1. Cox Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Arzhantsev, Ivan; Hausen, Juergen; Laface, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This is the first chapter of an introductory text under construction. Our aim is to provide an elementary access to Cox rings and their applications in algebraic and arithmetic geometry. Any comments and suggestions on this draft will be highly appreciated.

  2. Nobel Chemistry in the Laboratory: Synthesis of a Ruthenium Catalyst for Ring-Closing Olefin Metathesis--An Experiment for the Advanced Inorganic or Organic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, George E.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment for the upper-level undergraduate laboratory is described in which students synthesize a ruthenium olefin metathesis catalyst, then use the catalyst to carry out the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. The olefin metathesis reaction was the subject of the 2005 Nobel Prize in chemistry. The catalyst chosen for this…

  3. Moving ring reactor 'Karin-1'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual design of a moving ring reactor ''Karin-1'' has been carried out to advance fusion system design, to clarify the research and development problems, and to decide their priority. In order to attain these objectives, a D-T reactor with tritium breeding blanket is designed, a commercial reactor with net power output of 500 MWe is designed, the compatibility of plasma physics with fusion engineering is demonstrated, and some other guideline is indicated. A moving ring reactor is composed mainly of three parts. In the first formation section, a plasma ring is formed and heated up to ignition temperature. The plasma ring of compact torus is transported from the formation section through the next burning section to generate fusion power. Then the plasma ring moves into the last recovery section, and the energy and particles of the plasma ring are recovered. The outline of a moving ring reactor ''Karin-1'' is described. As a candidate material for the first wall, SiC was adopted to reduce the MHD effect and to minimize the interaction with neutrons and charged particles. The thin metal lining was applied to the SiC surface to solve the problem of the compatibility with lithium blanket. Plasma physics, the engineering aspect and the items of research and development are described. (Kako, I.)

  4. Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenly, John, B.

    2005-07-31

    This Final Technical Report presents the results of the program, Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion, which was carried out under Department of Energy funding during the period August, 1993 to January, 2005. The central objective of the program was to study the properties of field-reversed configurations formed by ion rings. In order to reach this objective, our experimental program, called the Field-reversed Ion Ring Experiment, FIREX, undertook to develop an efficient, economical technology for the production of field-reversed ion rings. A field-reversed configuration (FRC) in which the azimuthal (field-reversing) current is carried by ions with gyro-radius comparable to the magnetic separatrix radius is called a field-reversed ion ring. A background plasma is required for charge neutralization of the ring, and this plasma will be confined within the ring's closed magnetic flux. Ion rings have long been of interest as the basis of compact magnetic fusion reactors, as the basis for a high-power accelerator for an inertial fusion driver, and for other applications of high power ion beams or plasmas of high energy density. Specifically, the FIREX program was intended to address the longstanding question of the contribution of large-orbit ions to the observed stability of experimental FRCs to the MHD tilt mode. Typical experimental FRCs with s {approx} 2-4, where s is the ratio of separatrix radius to ion gyro-radius, have been stable to tilting, but desired values for a fusion reactor, s > 20, should be unstable. The FIREX ring would consist of a plasma with large s for the background ions, but with s {approx} 1 for the ring ions. By varying the proportions of these two populations, the minimum proportion of large-orbit ions necessary for stability could be determined. The incorporation of large-orbit ions, perhaps by neutral-beam injection, into an FRC has been advanced for the purpose of stabilizing, heating, controlling angular momentum, and aiding the formation

  5. P-clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Weixing Chen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we unify the structures of various clean rings by introducing the notion of P-clean rings. Some properties of P-clean rings are investigated, which generalize the known results on clean rings, semiclean rings, n-clean rings, and so forth. By the way, we answer a question of Xiao and Tong on n-clean rings in the negative.

  6. Prime rings with PI rings of constants

    CERN Document Server

    Kharchenko, V K; Rodríguez-Romo, S

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that if the ring of constants of a restricted differential Lie algebra with a quasi-Frobenius inner part satisfies a polynomial identity (PI) then the original prime ring has a generalized polynomial identitiy (GPI). If additionally the ring of constants is semiprime then the original ring is PI. The case of a non-quasi-Frobenius inner part is also considered.

  7. Recent advances in long-term climate and moisture reconstructions from the Baltic region: Exploring the potential for a new multi-millennial tree-ring chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Johannes; Corona, Christophe; Mažeika, Jonas; Pukienė, Rutile; Stoffel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the first results from an ongoing initiative to develop a multi-millennial Baltic tree-ring width (TRW) chronology consisting of 12 floating records from subfossil Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) extracted from three Lithuanian peat-mining areas. The floating series have been complemented with absolutely dated TRW chronologies which were obtained from living trees growing in unmanaged and unexploited peatland areas adjacent to each of the above study sites. The subfossil material has been dated by radiocarbon and shows a temporal spread over the last 6000 years, with assemblages of trees during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM; 8000-4000 BP) and the onset of the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, AD 900-1350). Annual tree growth and sample replication of peatland pines reflect moisture variations and long-term climate variability. The importance of extending the TRW chronologies should not therefore be underestimated as (1) climate records of comparable length and resolution do not exist for the Baltic region, but also as (2) a result of a widespread lack of detailed moisture proxies spanning several millennia. Our data clearly show that a 6000-yr, continuous pine chronology from the Baltic region is a realistic objective, and would doubtlessly fill a major geographic gap in an ecologically sensitive region located at the interface between the temperate and boreal vegetation zones.

  8. Locally finite profinite rings

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrowolski, Jan; Krupiński, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the structure of locally finite profinite rings. We classify (Jacobson-) semisimple locally finite profinite rings as products of complete matrix rings of bounded cardinality over finite fields, and we prove that the Jacobson radical of any locally finite profinite ring is nil of finite nilexponent. Our results apply to the context of small compact $G$-rings, where we also obtain a description of possible actions of $G$ on the underlying ring.

  9. Weakly Dual Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏俊潮; 孙建华

    2004-01-01

    In This paper, the concept of weakly dual ring is introduced, which is a proper generalization of the dual ring. If R is a right weakly dual ring, then (1)Z(RR) = J(R); (2) If R is also a zero-division power ring, then R is a right AP-injective ring. In addition, some properties of weakly dual rings are given.

  10. New methodologies at PF AR-NW12A: the implementation of high-pressure macromolecular crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavas, Leonard Michel Gabriel, E-mail: leonard.chavas@kek.jp [PF/IMSS/KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-0801 (Japan); Nagae, Tadayuki [Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Yamada, Hiroyuki [Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Watanabe, Nobuhisa [Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Nagoya University, Furo-cho Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Yamada, Yusuke; Hiraki, Masahiko; Matsugaki, Naohiro [PF/IMSS/KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-0801 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    The evolution of AR-NW12A into a multi-purpose end-station with optional high-pressure crystallography is described. The macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamline AR-NW12A is evolving from its original design of high-throughput crystallography to a multi-purpose end-station. Among the various options to be implemented, great efforts were made in making available high-pressure MX (HPMX) at the beamline. High-pressure molecular biophysics is a developing field that attracts the interest of a constantly growing scientific community. A plethora of activities can benefit from high pressure, and investigations have been performed on its applicability to study multimeric complex assemblies, compressibility of proteins and their crystals, macromolecules originating from extremophiles, or even the trapping of higher-energy conformers for molecules of biological interest. Recent studies using HPMX showed structural hydrostatic-pressure-induced changes in proteins. The conformational modifications could explain the enzymatic mechanism differences between proteins of the same family, living at different environmental pressures, as well as the initial steps in the pressure-denaturation process that have been attributed to water penetration into the protein interior. To facilitate further HPMX, while allowing access to various individualized set-ups and experiments, the AR-NW12A sample environment has been revisited. Altogether, the newly added implementations will bring a fresh breath of life to AR-NW12A and allow the MX community to experiment in a larger set of fields related to structural biology.

  11. Radical theory of rings

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, JW

    2003-01-01

    Radical Theory of Rings distills the most noteworthy present-day theoretical topics, gives a unified account of the classical structure theorems for rings, and deepens understanding of key aspects of ring theory via ring and radical constructions. Assimilating radical theory's evolution in the decades since the last major work on rings and radicals was published, the authors deal with some distinctive features of the radical theory of nonassociative rings, associative rings with involution, and near-rings. Written in clear algebraic terms by globally acknowledged authorities, the presentation

  12. Advances in Analysis of Environmental Pollution by Using Tree-ring Data%利用树木年轮资料分析环境污染的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨银科; 黄强; 王文科; 宋慧明; 杨红斌

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of environmental pollution based on tree-ring data is an important direction in dendrochronology. Based on the theory of the information record, pollution history inversion and analysis, the advances in researching environmental pollution by using tree-ring data both at home and abroad were reviewed. As indicated by the analysis, the dendrochemistry analysis of environmental pollution involved multiple factors, based on the mature dendroclimatology method, we should pay attention to the introduction of new techniques and methods and constantly improve the reliability of the research results, so as to provide long sequence of basis data for environmental pollution research.%利用树木年轮资料分析环境污染是树木年轮学研究的一个重要方向.在理解树轮对环境污染的信息记录,污染历史反演与分析等理论的基础上,综述了国内外利用树轮资料研究环境污染的研究进展.分析认为,利用树轮化学方法分析环境污染应综合考虑多方面响应因素,借鉴成熟的树轮气候学的研究方法,注重新技术、新方法的引入,不断提高研究结果的可靠度,为环境污染研究提供丰富的长序列基础数据.

  13. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Birth Control Ring KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Ring Print A A A Text Size What's ... Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ring ...

  14. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  15. Role of Friction in Cold Ring Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He YANG; Lianggang GUO; Mei ZHAN

    2005-01-01

    Cold ring rolling is an advanced but complex metal forming process under coupled effects with multi-factors, such as geometry sizes of rolls and ring blank, material, forming process parameters and friction, etc. Among these factors,friction between rolls and ring blank plays animportant role in keeping the stable forming of cold ring rolling. An analytical method was firstly presented for proximately determining the critical friction coefficient of stable forming and then a method was proposed to determine thecritical friction coefficient by combining analytical method with numerical simulation. And the influence of friction coefficient on the quality of end-plane and side spread of ring,rolling force, rolling moment and metal flow characteristic in the cold ring rolling process have been explored using the three dimensional (3D) numerical simulation based on the elastic-plastic dynamic finite element method (FEM)under the ABAQUS software environment, and the results show that increasing the friction on the contact surfaces between rolls and ring blank is useful not only for improving the stability of cold ring rolling but also for improving the geometry and dimension precision of deformed ring.

  16. On JB-Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanyin CHEN

    2007-01-01

    A ring R is a QB-ring provided that aR + bR = R with a, b ∈ R implies that there exists a y ∈ R such that a+by ∈ R-1q. It is said that a ring R is a JB-ring provided that R/J(R) is a QB-ring, where J(R) is the Jacobson radical of R. In this paper, various necessary and sufficient conditions, under which a ring is a JB-ring, are established. It is proved that JB-rings can be characterized by pseudo-similarity. Furthermore, the author proves that R is a J B-ring iff so is R/J(R)2.

  17. Dedicated storage rings for nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of internal targets in circulating beams of electron storage and stretcher rings has been widely discussed recently as a method of achieving high luminosity under conditions of low background, and good energy resolution, with minimal demands for beam from an injecting accelerator. In the two critical areas of the technology, ring design and target development, research is very active, and the prospects for major advances are very bright. Reasonable extrapolations of the current state of the art suggest for many problems in nuclear physics, particularly polarization physics of the nucleon and few body nuclei, internal target measurement may be the optimum experimental technique. We discuss the comparative merit of internal target rings and external beam experiments, review briefly current research efforts in the critical areas of the technology. It appears that storage rings dedicated to internal target physics may offer a powerful option for future advances in nuclear physics. 14 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  18. r-clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafi, Nahid; Nasibi, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    An element of a ring R is called clean if it is the sum of an idempotent and a unit. A ring R is called clean if each of its element is clean. An element r \\in R called regular if r = ryr for some y \\in R. The ring R is regular if each of its element is regular. In this paper we define a ring is r-clean if each of its elements is the sum of a regular and an idempotent element. We give some relations between r-clean and clean rings. Finally we investigate some properties of r-clean rings.

  19. On Perfectly Clean Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H.; Halicioglu, S.; Kose, H.

    2013-01-01

    An element $a$ of a ring $R$ is called perfectly clean if there exists an idempotent $e\\in comm^2(a)$ such that $a-e\\in U(R)$. A ring $R$ is perfectly clean in case every element in $R$ is perfectly clean. In this paper, we investigate conditions on a local ring $R$ that imply that $2\\times 2$ matrix rings and triangular matrix rings are perfectly clean. We shall show that for these rings perfect cleanness and strong cleanness coincide with each other, and enhance many known results. We also ...

  20. APS storage ring vacuum system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring was designed to operated with 7-GeV, 100-mA positron beam with lifetimes > 20 hours. The lifetime is limited by residual gas scattering and Touschek scattering at this time. Photon-stimulated desorption and microwave power in the rf cavities are the main gas loads. Comparison of actual system gas loads and design calculations will be given. In addition, several special features of the storage ring vacuum system will be presented

  1. New dust belts of Uranus: one ring, two ring, red ring, blue ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pater, Imke; Hammel, Heidi B; Gibbard, Seran G; Showalter, Mark R

    2006-04-01

    We compared near-infrared observations of the recently discovered outer rings of Uranus with Hubble Space Telescope results. We find that the inner ring, R/2003 U 2, is red, whereas the outer ring, R/2003 U 1, is very blue. Blue is an unusual color for rings; Saturn's enigmatic E ring is the only other known example. By analogy to the E ring, R/2003 U 1 is probably produced by impacts into the embedded moon Mab, which apparently orbits at a location where nongravitational perturbations favor the survival and spreading of submicron-sized dust. R/2003 U 2 more closely resembles Saturn's G ring, which is red, a typical color for dusty rings. PMID:16601188

  2. Muon storage ring

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The muon storage ring where the g-2 of the muon is being measured with extremely high accuracy. The ring is 14-m in diameter and has very precise magnetic bending and electric focussing fields so that the muons orbit the ring under well-defined conditions.

  3. Rings Around Uranus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, Stephen P.

    1977-01-01

    Events leading up to the discovery of the rings of Uranus are described. The methods used and the logic behind the methods are explained. Data collected to prove the existence of the rings are outlined and theories concerning the presence of planetary rings are presented. (AJ)

  4. Skew polynomial rings over abelian and idempotent reflexive rings

    OpenAIRE

    Louzari, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Let $R$ be a ring and $\\sigma$ an endomorphism of $R$. In this note, we study skew polynomial rings and skew power series rings over idempotent reflexive rings and abelian rings. Also, we introduce the concept of right (resp., left) $\\sigma$-idempotent reflexive rings which generalizes right (resp., left) idempotent reflexive rings and $\\sigma$-abelian rings. Certain results are obtained as corollaries from our results.

  5. Envelopes of Commutative Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafael PARRA; Manuel SAOR(I)N

    2012-01-01

    Given a significative class F of commutative rings,we study the precise conditions under which a commutative ring R has an F-envelope.A full answer is obtained when.F is the class of fields,semisimple commutative rings or integral domains.When F is the class of Noetherian rings,we give a full answer when the Krull dimension of R is zero and when the envelope is required to be epimorphic.The general problem is reduced to identifying the class of non-Noetherian rings having a monomorphic Noetherian envelope,which we conjecture is the empty class.

  6. APS storage ring vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 n Torr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluminum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The details of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  7. New Dust Belts of Uranus: One Ring, Two Ring, Red Ring, Blue Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Pater, I; Hammel, H B; Gibbard, S G; Showalter, M R

    2006-02-02

    We compare near-infrared observations of the recently discovered outer rings of Uranus with HST results. We find that the inner ring, R/2003 U 2, is red, whereas the outer ring, R/2003 U 1, is very blue. Blue is an unusual color for rings; Saturn's enigmatic E ring is the only other known example. By analogy to the E ring, R/2003 U 1 is probably produced via impacts into the embedded moon Mab, which apparently orbits at a location where non-gravitational perturbations favor the survival and spreading of sub-micron sized dust. R/2003 U 2 more closely resembles Saturn's G ring.

  8. Token Ring Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Ionescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ring topology is a simple configuration used to connect processes that communicate among themselves. A number of network standards such as token ring, token bus, and FDDI are based on the ring connectivity. This article will develop an implementation of a ring of processes that communicate among themselves via pipe links. The processes are nodes in the ring. Each process reads from its standard input and writes in its standard output. N-1 process redirects the its standard output to a standard input of the process through a pipe. When the ring-structure is designed, the project can be extended to simulate networks or to implement algorithms for mutual exclusion

  9. Token ring technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This report provides an overview of the IBM Token-Ring technology and products built by IBM and compatible vendors. It consists of two sections: 1. A summary of the design trade-offs for the IBM Token-Ring. 2. A summary of the products of the major token-ring compatible vendors broken down by adapters and components, wiring systems, testing, and new chip technology.

  10. Annihilator-semigroup rings

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, D D; Victor Camillo

    2003-01-01

    Let $ R $ be a commutative ring with 1. We define $ R $ to be an annihilator-semigroup ring if $ R $ has an annihilator-Semigroup $ S $, that is, $ (S, \\cdot) $ is a multiplicative subsemigroup of $ (R, \\cdot) $ with the property that for each $ r \\in R $ there exists a unique $ s \\in S $ with $ 0 : r = 0 : s $. In this paper we investigate annihilator-semigroups and annihilator-semigroup rings.

  11. A Beautiful Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王对成

    2000-01-01

    Helen bought a very nice ring(戒指)and she wore it to the office the next day. Nobody saw her ring. She moved her hand this way and that, but still nobbdy in the offiee saw the ring on her finger. At tea time when they were sitting'round,she suddenly (突然地) stood up. “it is very hot here,”she said. “I think I'll take off my ring.”

  12. Weak Nil Clean Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Basnet, Dhiren Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the concept of a weak nil clean ring, a generalization of nil clean ring, which is nothing but a ring with unity in which every element can be expressed as sum or difference of a nilpotent and an idempotent. Further if the idempotent and nilpotent commute the ring is called weak* nil clean. We characterize all $n\\in \\mathbb{N}$, for which $\\mathbb{Z}_n$ is weak nil clean but not nil clean. We show that if $R$ is a weak* nil clean and $e$ is an idempotent in $R$, then the corner r...

  13. Homorooty in Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Hooshmand

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The topic of ”Homorooty” (for integer numbers has been introduced and studied in [2]. There are some applications of the homorooty in studying and solving some Diophantine equations and systems, as an interesting and useful elementary method. As a continuation of the Homorooty, we consider it for arbitrary rings and will study its properties in different rings, especially UFD and homorooty rings (which will be introduced. At last we shall state some applications of homorooty in studying some equations over homorooty rings

  14. On -Coherent Endomorphism Rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li-Xin Mao

    2008-11-01

    A ring is called right -coherent if every principal right ideal is finitely presented. Let $M_R$ be a right -module. We study the -coherence of the endomorphism ring of $M_R$. It is shown that is a right -coherent ring if and only if every endomorphism of $M_R$ has a pseudokernel in add $M_R; S$ is a left -coherent ring if and only if every endomorphism of $M_R$ has a pseudocokernel in add $M_R$. Some applications are given.

  15. EBT ring physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop attempted to evaluate the status of the current experimental and theoretical understanding of hot electron ring properties. The dominant physical processes that influence ring formation, scaling, and their optimal behavior are also studied. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 27 included papers

  16. EBT ring physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, N.A. (ed.)

    1980-04-01

    This workshop attempted to evaluate the status of the current experimental and theoretical understanding of hot electron ring properties. The dominant physical processes that influence ring formation, scaling, and their optimal behavior are also studied. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 27 included papers. (MOW)

  17. Smoke Ring Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of smoke rings, tornados, and quantized vortex rings in superfluid helium has many features in common. These features can be described by the same mathematics we use when introducing Ampere's law in an introductory physics course. We discuss these common features. (Contains 7 figures.)

  18. On valuation rings

    OpenAIRE

    Kabbour, Mohammed; Mahdou, Najib

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we provide necessary and sufficient conditions for $ R=A\\propto E $ to be a valuation ring where $E$ is a non-torsion or finitely generated $A-$module. Also, we investigate the $ (n,d) $ property of the valuation ring.

  19. The Fermilab recycler ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Hu

    2001-07-24

    The Fermilab Recycler is a permanent magnet storage ring for the accumulation of antiprotons from the Antiproton Source, and the recovery and cooling of the antiprotons remaining at the end of a Tevatron store. It is an integral part of the Fermilab III luminosity upgrade. The following paper describes the design features, operational and commissioning status of the Recycler Ring.

  20. Jupiter's Rings: Sharpest View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft took the best images of Jupiter's charcoal-black rings as it approached and then looked back at Jupiter. The top image was taken on approach, showing three well-defined lanes of gravel- to boulder-sized material composing the bulk of the rings, as well as lesser amounts of material between the rings. New Horizons snapped the lower image after it had passed Jupiter on February 28, 2007, and looked back in a direction toward the sun. The image is sharply focused, though it appears fuzzy due to the cloud of dust-sized particles enveloping the rings. The dust is brightly illuminated in the same way the dust on a dirty windshield lights up when you drive toward a 'low' sun. The narrow rings are confined in their orbits by small 'shepherding' moons.

  1. Nil-clean matrix rings

    OpenAIRE

    S. Breaz; Călugăreanu, G.; Danchev, P.; Micu, T.

    2013-01-01

    We characterize the nil clean matrix rings over fields. As a by product, it is proved that the full matrix rings with coefficients in commutative nil-clean rings are nil-clean, and we obtain a complete characterization of the finite rank Abelian groups with nil clean endomorphism ring and the Abelian groups with strongly nil clean endomorphism ring, respectively.

  2. The Enceladus Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The Enceladus Ring (labeled) This excellent view of the faint E ring -- a ring feature now known to be created by Enceladus -- also shows two of Saturn's small moons that orbit within the ring, among a field of stars in the background. The E ring extends from three to eight Saturn radii -- about 180,000 kilometers (118,000 miles) to 482,000 kilometers (300,000 miles). Its full extent is not visible in this view. Calypso (22 kilometers, or 14 miles across) and Helene (32 kilometers, or 20 miles across) orbit within the E ring's expanse. Helene skirts the outer parts of the E ring, but here it is projected in front of a region deeper within the ring. Calypso and Helene are trojan satellites, or moons that orbit 60 degrees in front or behind a larger moon. Calypso is a Tethys trojan and Helene is a trojan of Dione. An interesting feature of note in this image is the double-banded appearance of the E-ring, which is created because the ring is somewhat fainter in the ringplane than it is 500-1,000 kilometers (300-600 miles) above and below the ringplane. This appearance implies that the particles in this part of the ring have nonzero inclinations (a similar affect is seen in Jupiter's gossamer ring). An object with a nonzero inclination does not orbit exactly at Saturn's ringplane. Instead, its orbit takes it above and below the ringplane. Scientists are not entirely sure why the particles should have such inclinations, but they are fairly certain that the reason involves Enceladus. One possible explanation is that all the E ring particles come from the plume of icy material that is shooting due south out of the moon's pole. This means all of the particles are created with a certain velocity out of the ringplane, and then they orbit above and below that plane. Another possible explanation is that Enceladus produces particles with a range of speeds, but the moon gravitationally scatters any particles that lie very close to

  3. Group ring cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Hurley, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Cryptographic systems are derived using units in group rings. Combinations of types of units in group rings give units not of any particular type. This includes cases of taking powers of units and products of such powers and adds the complexity of the {\\em discrete logarithm} problem to the system. The method enables encryption and (error-correcting) coding to be combined within one system. These group ring cryptographic systems may be combined in a neat way with existing cryptographic systems, such as RSA, and a combination has the combined strength of both systems. Examples are given.

  4. Ringed Seal Distribution Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains GIS layers that depict the known spatial distributions (i.e., ranges) of the five subspecies of ringed seals (Phoca hispida). It was produced...

  5. Remotely operated locking ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ring for fastening tubes with conical ends with only one manipulator is described. It is opened by compression of a spring with the manipulator grip, placed on the tubes to fasten, closed by releasing the pressure and locked

  6. The g-2 ring

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The precise measurement of "g-2", the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, required a special muon storage ring with electrostatic focussing and very accurate knowledge of the magnetic bending field. For more details see under photo 7405430.

  7. Child sex rings.

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, N J; Wynne, J M

    1986-01-01

    Details of 11 child sex rings identified in one working class community were obtained by interviewing investigating police officers and examining health and social services records. The rings contained 14 adult male perpetrators and 175 children aged 6-15 years. Most perpetrators used child ringleaders to recruit victims; others became a "family friend" or obtained a position of authority over children. Secrecy was encouraged and bribery, threats, and peer pressure used to induce participatio...

  8. Ring Wing for an underwater missile

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Henry; Carapezza, Edward

    Hughes Aircraft has performed exploratory wind tunnel studies of compressed carriage missile designs having extendable Ring Wing and wrap-around tail control surfaces. These force and moment data indicate that significant improvements in a missile's lift and aerodynamic efficiency can be realized. Low speed test results of these data were used to estimate potential underwater improved hydrodynamic characteristics that a Ring Wing and wrap-around tails can bring to an advanced torpedo design. Estimates of improved underwater flight performance of a heavyweight torpedo (4000 lbs.) having an extendable Ring Wing and wrap-around tails were made. The compressed volume design of this underwater missile is consistent with tube-launch constraints and techniques. Study results of this novel Ring Wing torpedo design include extended flight performance in range and endurance due to lowered speeds capable of sustaining underwater level flight. Correspondingly, reduced radiated noise for enhanced stealth qualities is projected. At high speeds, greater maneuverability and aimpoint selection can be realized by a Ring Wing underwater missile.

  9. Ringed accretion disks: equilibrium configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Pugliese, D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a model of ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the General Relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can be then determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We pr...

  10. Stable CSR in storage rings: A model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannibale, Fernando; Byrd, John M.; Loftsdottir, Agusta; Venturini, Marco; Abo-Bakr, Michael; Feikes, Jorge; Holldack, Karsten; Kuske, Peter; Wustefeld, Godehart; Hubers, Heinz-Willerm; Warnock, Robert

    2005-01-03

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user s shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  11. Mapping Ring Particle Cooling across Saturn's Rings with Cassini CIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Shawn M.; Spilker, L. J.; Edgington, S. G.; Pilorz, S. H.; Deau, E.

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the rings' thermal inertia, a measure of their response to changes in the thermal environment, varies from ring to ring. Thermal inertia can provide insight into the physical structure of Saturn's ring particles and their regoliths. Low thermal inertia and quick temperature responses are suggestive of ring particles that have more porous or fluffy regoliths or that are riddled with cracks. Solid, coherent particles can be expected to have higher thermal inertias (Ferrari et al. 2005). Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer has recorded millions of spectra of Saturn's rings since its arrival at Saturn in 2004 (personal communication, M. Segura). CIRS records far infrared radiation between 10 and 600 cm-1 (16.7 and 1000 µm) at focal plane 1 (FP1), which has a field of view of 3.9 mrad. Thermal emission from Saturn's rings peaks in this wavelength range. FP1 spectra can be used to infer ring temperatures. By tracking how ring temperatures vary, we can determine the thermal inertia of the rings. In this work we focus on CIRS observations of the shadowed portion of Saturn's rings. The thermal budget of the rings is dominated by the solar radiation absorbed by its constituent particles. When ring particles enter Saturn's shadow this source of energy is abruptly cut off. As a result, ring particles cool as they traverse Saturn's shadow. From these shadow observations we can create cooling curves at specific locations across the rings. We will show that the rings' cooling curves and thus their thermal inertia vary not only from ring to ring, but by location within the individual rings. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2010 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  12. Saturn's Other Ring Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, F. J.

    2014-04-01

    Saturn's main rings orbit the planet within an atmosphere and ionosphere of water, oxygen and hydrogen, produced by meteoritic impacts on and ultraviolet photodesorbtion of the ring particles [Johnson et al., 2006; Luhmann et al., 2006; Tseng et al., 2010]. The neutral atmosphere itself has only been tentatively detected through ultraviolet fluorescents of OH [Hall et al., 1996] while the ionosphere was observed in situ by the Cassini spacecraft shortly after orbital insertion [Coates et al.,2005; Tokar et al. 2005, Waite et al. 2005]. Although the plasma flow velocity of this ionosphere is not well-constrained, but the close association with the rings suggests that its speed would be couppled to the keplarian velocity of the rings themselves. As a result, the motion of the plasma through Saturn's magnetic field would produce an induced voltage, oriented away from the planet outside synchronous orbit and towards the planet inside synchronous orbit. Such a potential could result in currents flowing across the ring plane and closeing along magnetic field lines and through Saturn's ionosphere at latitudes between 36o and 48o. Cassini observations of whistler-mode plasma wave emissions [Xin et al.,2006] centered on synchronous orbit (1.76 Rs, mapping to 41o latitude) have been interpreted as a product of field-aligned electron beams associated with such a current. This presentation will investigate the magnitude of these currents and the resulting Joule heating of the ionosphere. An important constraint is that no auroral ultraviolet emissions have been observed at the relevant latitudes. In contrast, Joule heating could affect infrared emissions from H3+. Variations in H3+ emission associated with Saturn's rings have been reported by O'Donoghue et al., 2013, and interpreted as a result of ring "rain", i.e. precipitating water group species from the rings which alter ionosphereic chemistry and H3+ densities. As noted by O'Donoghue et al., this interpretation may be

  13. The LSU Electron Storage Ring, the first commercially-built storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brobeck Division of Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., is building the first industrially-produced storage ring. It will be located at Louisiana State University (LSU) at the Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) in Baton Rouge. The purpose of this electron storage ring is to provide intense beams of x-rays to advance the state-of-the-art in lithography and to permit research in a broad area. This facility consists of a 1.2 GeV, 400 mA electron storage ring with a 200 MeV linac injector. The magnet lattice is a Chasman-Green design (double-bend achromat), and the ring circumference is 55.2 meters. There are four 3.0 meter, dispersion-free straight sections, one for injection, one for the 500 MHz RF cavity, and two for possible future insertion devices. The storge ring construction project is in the detailed-design stage, and many systems are in the initial stages of fabrication. 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Tunneling Through Black Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liu

    2007-01-01

    Hawking radiation of black ring solutions to 5-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory is analyzed by use of the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling method. To get the correct tunneling amplitude and emission rate, we adopt and develop the Angheben-Nadalini-Vanzo-Zerbini covariant approach to cover the effects of rotation and electronic discharge all at once, and the effect of back reaction is also taken into account. This constitutes a unified approach to the tunneling problem. Provided the first law of thermodynamics for black rings holds, the emission rate is proportional to the exponential of the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Explicit calculation for black ring temperatures agrees exactly with the results obtained via the classical surface gravity method and the quasi-local formalism.

  15. Decay ring design

    CERN Document Server

    Chancé, A; Bouquerel, E; Hancock, S; Jensen, E

    The study of the neutrino oscillation between its different flavours needs pureand very intense fluxes of high energy, well collimated neutrinos with a welldetermined energy spectrum. A dedicated machine seems to be necessarynowadays to reach the required flux. A new concept based on the β-decayof radioactive ions which were accelerated in an accelerator chain was thenproposed. After ion production, stripping, bunching and acceleration, the unstableions are then stored in a racetrack-shaped superconducting decay ring.Finally, the ions are accumulated in the decay ring until being lost. The incomingbeam is merged to the stored beam by using a specific RF system, whichwill be presented here.We propose here to study some aspects of the decay ring, such as its opticalproperties, its RF system or the management of the losses which occur in thering (mainly by decay or by collimation).

  16. On Simple Noetherian Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somyot Plubtieng

    2003-01-01

    A module M is called a CS-module (or extending module [5]) if every submodule of M is essential in a direct summand of M. It is shown that (i) a simple ring R is right noetherian if and only if every cyclic singular right R-module is either a CS-module or a noetherian module; (ii) for a prime ring R, if every proper cyclic right R-module is a direct sum of a quasi-injective module and a finitely cogenerated module, then R is either semisimple artinian or a right Ore domain; and (iii) a prime ring R is right noetherian if and only if every cyclic right R-module is a direct sum of a quasi-injective module and a noetherian module.

  17. Deployable Fresnel Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Timothy F.; Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.; Lin, Gregory Y.

    2014-01-01

    Deployable Fresnel rings (DFRs) significantly enhance the realizable gain of an antenna. This innovation is intended to be used in combination with another antenna element, as the DFR itself acts as a focusing or microwave lens element for a primary antenna. This method is completely passive, and is also completely wireless in that it requires neither a cable, nor a connector from the antenna port of the primary antenna to the DFR. The technology improves upon the previous NASA technology called a Tri-Sector Deployable Array Antenna in at least three critical aspects. In contrast to the previous technology, this innovation requires no connector, cable, or other physical interface to the primary communication radio or sensor device. The achievable improvement in terms of antenna gain is significantly higher than has been achieved with the previous technology. Also, where previous embodiments of the Tri-Sector antenna have been constructed with combinations of conventional (e.g., printed circuit board) and conductive fabric materials, this innovation is realized using only conductive and non-conductive fabric (i.e., "e-textile") materials, with the possible exception of a spring-like deployment ring. Conceptually, a DFR operates by canceling the out-of-phase radiation at a plane by insertion of a conducting ring or rings of a specific size and distance from the source antenna, defined by Fresnel zones. Design of DFRs follow similar procedures to those outlined for conventional Fresnel zone rings. Gain enhancement using a single ring is verified experimentally and through computational simulation. The experimental test setup involves a microstrip patch antenna that is directly behind a single-ring DFR and is radiating towards a second microstrip patch antenna. The first patch antenna and DFR are shown. At 2.42 GHz, the DFR improves the transmit antenna gain by 8.6 dB, as shown in Figure 2, relative to the wireless link without the DFR. A figure illustrates the

  18. Autocatalytic chemical smoke rings

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, M C; Rogers, Michael C.; Morris, Stephen W.

    2005-01-01

    Buoyant plumes, evolving free of boundary constraints, may develop well-defined mushroom shaped heads. In normal plumes, overturning flow in the head entrains less buoyant fluid from the surroundings as the head rises, robbing the plume of its driving force. We consider here a new type of plume in which the source of buoyancy is an autocatalytic chemical reaction. The reaction occurs at a sharp front which separates reactants from less dense products. In this type of plume, entrainment assists the reaction, producing new buoyancy which fuels an accelerating plume head. When the head has grown to a critical size, it detaches from the upwelling conduit, forming an accelerating, buoyant vortex ring. This vortex is analogous to a rising smoke ring. A second-generation head then develops at the point of detachment.Multiple generations of chemical vortex rings can detach from a single triggering event.

  19. Rings dominate western Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal L., Francisco V.; Vidal L., Victor M. V.; Molero, José María Pérez

    Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per year, the scientists of the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas (GEO-IIE) found. The rings migrate west until they collide with the continental shelf break of the western gulf, almost always between 22° and 23°N latitude. On their westward travel they transfer angular momentum and vorticity to the surrounding water, generating cyclonic circulations and vortex pairs that completely dominate the entire surface and deep circulation of the central and western gulf.

  20. Den mindst ringe verdensorden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birthe

    2015-01-01

    I 25 år har USA's styrkeposition og politik forsynet os med en 'verdensorden', der i et historisk perspektiv fremstår som den mindst ringe: fravær af store krige, mere demokrati, økonomisk fremgang - men dog også sammenbrudte stater og terrorisme.......I 25 år har USA's styrkeposition og politik forsynet os med en 'verdensorden', der i et historisk perspektiv fremstår som den mindst ringe: fravær af store krige, mere demokrati, økonomisk fremgang - men dog også sammenbrudte stater og terrorisme....

  1. On toric face rings

    OpenAIRE

    Ichim, Bogdan; Roemer, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Following a construction of Stanley we consider toric face rings associated to rational pointed fans. This class of rings is a common generalization of the concepts of Stanley--Reisner and affine monoid algebras. The main goal of this article is to unify parts of the theories of Stanley--Reisner- and affine monoid algebras. We consider (non-pure) shellable fan's and the Cohen--Macaulay property. Moreover, we study the local cohomology, the canonical module and the Gorenstein property of a tor...

  2. Electrothermal Ring Burn

    OpenAIRE

    Yakup Çil; Hamza Yıldız; Özlem Karabudak Abuaf

    2012-01-01

    Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 106-7)

  3. Electrothermal Ring Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çil

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 106-7

  4. Ringed accretion disks: instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Pugliese, D

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczy\\'nski mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider recently proposed model of ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) which can be corotating or counterrotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.

  5. Unidirectional ring lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, J.P.; Craft, D.C.

    1994-09-20

    Unidirectional ring lasers formed by integrating nonreciprocal optical elements into the resonant ring cavity is disclosed. These optical elements either attenuate light traveling in a nonpreferred direction or amplify light traveling in a preferred direction. In one preferred embodiment the resonant cavity takes the form of a circle with an S-shaped crossover waveguide connected to two points on the interior of the cavity such that light traveling in a nonpreferred direction is diverted from the cavity into the crossover waveguide and reinjected out of the other end of the crossover waveguide into the cavity as light traveling in the preferred direction. 21 figs.

  6. Ringed Accretion Disks: Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczyński mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider a recently proposed model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) that can be corotating or counter-rotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.

  7. Hyperscaling for polymer rings

    OpenAIRE

    Duplantier, Bertrand

    1994-01-01

    The statistics of a long closed self-avoiding walk (SAW) or polymer ring on a $ d $-dimensional lattice obeys hyperscaling. The combination $ p_N \\left\\langle R^2 \\right\\rangle^{ d/2}_N\\mu^{ -N}, $ (where $ p_N $ is the number of configurations of an oriented and rooted $ N $-step ring, $ \\left\\langle R^2 \\right\\rangle_ N $ a typical average size squared, and $ \\mu $ the SAW effective connectivity constant of the lattice) is equal for $ N \\longrightarrow \\infty $ to a lattice-dependent consta...

  8. The Saturnian rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of the Saturnian rings is traditionally believed to be due to resonances caused by Mimas (and possibly other satellites). It is shown that both theoretical and observational evidence rule out this interpretation. The increased observational accuracy on one hand and the increased understanding of the cosmogonic processes on the other makes it possible to explain the structure of the ring system as a product of condensation from a partially corotating plasma. In certain respects the agreement between theory and observations is about 1%. (Auth.)

  9. Pixel detectors for diffraction-limited storage rings

    OpenAIRE

    Denes, Peter; Schmitt, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic advances in synchrotron radiation sources produce ever-brighter beams of X-rays, but those advances can only be used if there is a corresponding improvement in X-ray detectors. With the advent of storage ring sources capable of being diffraction-limited (down to a certain wavelength), advances in detector speed, dynamic range and functionality is required. While many of these improvements in detector capabilities are being pursued now, the orders-of-magnitude increases in brightness ...

  10. Ring chromosome 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, C A; Hertz, Jens Michael; Petersen, M B; Vogel, F; Noer, H; Mikkelsen, M

    1992-01-01

    A stillborn male child with anencephaly and multiple malformations was found to have the karyotype 46,XY,r(13) (p11q21.1). The breakpoint at 13q21.1, determined by high resolution banding, is the most proximal breakpoint ever reported in patients with ring chromosome 13. In situ hybridisation with...

  11. Flushing Ring for EDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earwood, L.

    1985-01-01

    Removing debris more quickly lowers cutting time. Operation, cutting oil and pressurized air supplied to ring placed around workpiece. Air forces oil through small holes and agitates oil as it flows over workpiece. High flow rate and agitation dislodge and remove debris. Electrical discharge removes material from workpiece faster.

  12. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Stroppel, Catharina

    2012-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from [12] and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of noncommutative symmetric...... functions. Moreover we give a presentation of all fusion rings in classical types as quotients of polynomial rings. Finally we also compute the fu- sion rings for type G2....

  13. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    This dissertation investigates fusion rings, which are Grothendieck groups of rigid, monoidal, semisimple, abelian categories. Special interest is in rational fusion rings, i.e., fusion rings which admit a finite basis, for as commutative rings they may be presented as quotients of polynomial rings...... by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum...

  14. Thermal analysis of the beam missteering in APS storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several bending magnet beam missteering cases have been investigated for the 7-GeV storage ring of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). One of the critical missteering events is presented in this paper. Finite element analyses are performed to solve for both temperature and stress fields. Thermally induced deflections are determined by using beam bending theory. A safe current limit is established for the storage ring chambers

  15. Inorganic glass ceramic slip rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glossbrenner, E. W.; Cole, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    Prototypes of slip rings have been fabricated from ceramic glass, a material which is highly resistant to deterioration due to high temperature. Slip ring assemblies were not structurally damaged by mechanical tests and performed statisfactorily for 200 hours.

  16. e-læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik

    e-læring kan defineres på ganske mange måder. Ordet e-læring består jo tydeligt nok af to elementer. E + læring ligesom e-handel eller e-banking, og umiddelbart vil de fleste nok sige, at det så handler om læring vha. internettet. I bidraget advokeres for en læringsmæssig frem for normativ tilgang....

  17. A ring galaxy in Canes Venatici and related ring galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectroscopic observation was made of a ring-shaped object in Canes Venatici. A bright knot at the edge of the ring has a recession velocity of 10,960 + or - 30 km/s and so is confirmed as an extragalactic object. It shows no sign of nuclear activity but appears to be an H II region of intermediate excitation class. The linear diameter of the ring is 14.2 + or - 0.8 kpc, a typical size for ring galaxies. Recession velocities of several other ring galaxies are also given. 24 refs

  18. Torsion units in group rings

    OpenAIRE

    Bist, Vikas

    1992-01-01

    Let U(RG) be the unit group of the group ring RG. In this paper we study group rings RG whose support elements of every torsion unit are torsion, where R is either the ring of integers Z or a field K.

  19. DC-Powered Jumping Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Rondo N.; Farhang, Amiri

    2016-01-01

    The classroom jumping ring demonstration is nearly always performed using alternating current (AC), in which the ring jumps or flies off the extended iron core when the switch is closed. The ring jumps higher when cooled with liquid nitrogen (LN2). We have performed experiments using DC to power the solenoid and find similarities and significant…

  20. Ringed Accretion Disks: Equilibrium Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.

  1. Key; key ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key and/or key ring is provided with illuminating means which do not require a source of electrical power. The key shown comprises a shank and a head, the head being moulded from a luminous plastic material which glows in the dark. To improve keying together of shank and head there is a pair of holes in the head of the shank. Alternatively the key may be coated in illuminating material or provided with sheath or cover of illuminating material. The key may be provided with company logo. The key ring has attached thereto a hollow plastics container whose interior is coated with a phosphor and which is filled with tritium gas. (author)

  2. Another ring for Saturne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the very satisfactory commissioning of the new MIMAS accumulator/booster ring, the French National Saturne Laboratory is providing its community of 400 research scientists (half from abroad) with a fivefold increase in the supply of polarized (spin oriented) deuterons at 1.15 GeV/nucleon, reinforcing its position as the world's most powerful source of polarized particles, and up to tenfold increases in the available levels of light ions. (orig./HSI).

  3. Electrostatic Storage Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Conte, Mario

    2012-01-01

    In the trial \\cite{BNL} of measuring the proton electric moment, storage rings with electrostatic lattice have been considered. Here an overview is given about the main parameters regarding such a kind of focusing. Beyond confirming all the issues regarding this subject, a non-null element $M_{31}$ is introduced in all the $3\\times 3$ matrices which deal with the vector $(x,x',\\Delta p/p)$ and its role is discussed.

  4. Trapped Vortex Ring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav

    Prague: ITAM AS CR, v. v. i., 2012 - (Náprstek, J.; Fischer, C.), s. 1395-1405 ISBN 978-80-86246-40-6. [Engineering Mechanics 2012 /18./. Svratka (CZ), 14.05.2012-17.05.2012] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA02020795; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : fluidics * vortex ring * fluid flow control Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  5. Gravitomagnetic Field of Rotating Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, Matteo Luca

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the so-called gravitoelectromagnetic formalism, according to which the equations of the gravitational field can be written in analogy with the classical electromagnetism, we study the gravitomagnetic field of a rotating ring, orbiting around a central body. We calculate the gravitomagnetic component of the the ring field, both in the intermediate zone between the ring and the central body, and far away from the ring and central body. We evaluate the impact of the gravitomagnetic field on the motion of test particles and, as an application, we use these results, together with the Solar System ephemeris, to infer information on the spin of ring-like structures.

  6. New rings found around Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-10-01

    Images of Saturn taken by the Cassini spacecraft's wide-angle camera in September, with the Sun directly behind the planet, have revealed the existence of two new rings around the planet and have confirmed the presence of two other suspected rings, NASA announced on11 October. Two of the rings are associated with, and share the orbits of, one or more Saturn moonlets, and scientists expect to find a moonlet in at least one of the other two rings. Because the moonlets are so small, their gravity is too weak to retain material on their surfaces when struck by meteoroids, and this material creates diffuse rings along theirpaths.

  7. APS storage ring vacuum system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's materials research program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 sectors which contain vacuum, beam transport, control, rf and insertion device systems. The vacuum system will operate at a pressure of 1 nTorr and is fabricated from aluminum. The system includes distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. An overview of the vacuum system design and details of selected development program results are presented. 5 refs

  8. Magnetic fields in ring galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, D; Silchenko, O; Sokoloff, D; Horellou, C; Beck, R

    2016-01-01

    Many galaxies contain magnetic fields supported by galactic dynamo action. However, nothing definitive is known about magnetic fields in ring galaxies. Here we investigate large-scale magnetic fields in a previously unexplored context, namely ring galaxies, and concentrate our efforts on the structures that appear most promising for galactic dynamo action, i.e. outer star-forming rings in visually unbarred galaxies. We use tested methods for modelling $\\alpha-\\Omega$ galactic dynamos, taking into account the available observational information concerning ionized interstellar matter in ring galaxies. Our main result is that dynamo drivers in ring galaxies are strong enough to excite large-scale magnetic fields in the ring galaxies studied. The variety of dynamo driven magnetic configurations in ring galaxies obtained in our modelling is much richer than that found in classical spiral galaxies. In particular, various long-lived transients are possible. An especially interesting case is that of NGC 4513 where th...

  9. Rings involving idempotents, units and nilpotent elements

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafi, Nahid; Sheibani, Marjan; Chen, Huanyin

    2014-01-01

    We define the concepts of weakly precious and precious rings which generalize the notions of weakly clean and nil-clean rings. We obtain some fundamental properties of these rings. We also obtain certain subclasses of such rings and then offer new kinds of weakly clean rings and nil-clean rings.

  10. The Rings Characterized by Minimal Left Ideals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Chao WEI

    2005-01-01

    We study these rings with every minimal left ideal being a projective, direct summand and a p-injective module, respectively. Some characterizations of these rings are given, and the relations among them are obtained. With these rings, we characterize semisimple rings. Finally, we introduce MC2 rings, and give some characterizations of MC2 rings.

  11. SOR-ring failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was in the autumn of 1976 that the SOR-ring (synchrotron radiation storage ring) has commenced the regular operation. Since then, the period when the operation was interrupted due to the failures of SOR-ring itself is in total about 8 weeks. Failures and accidents have occurred most in the vacuum system. Those failure experiences are described on the vacuum, electromagnet, radio-frequency acceleration and beam transport systems with their interrupted periods. The eleven failures in the vacuum system have been reported, such as bellows breakage in a heating-evacuating period, leakage from the bellows of straight-through valves (made in U.S.A. and Japan), and leakage from the joint flange of the vacuum system. The longest interruption was 5 weeks due to the failure of a domestically manufactured straight-through valve. The failures of the electromagnet system involve the breakage in a cooling water system, short circuit of a winding in the Q magnet power transformer, blow of a fuse protecting the deflection magnet power source by the current less than the rating, and others. The failures of the RF acceleration system include the breakage of an output electronic tube the breakage of a cavity ceramic, RF voltage fluctuation due to the contact deterioration at a cavity electrode, and the failure of grid bias power source. It is necessary to select the highly reliable components for the vacuum system because the vacuum system failures require longer time for recovery, and very likely to induce secondary and tertiary failures. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  12. Continuous ring furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Stefani, G.; Genevois, J.L.; Paolo, P.

    1981-01-06

    A smoke conducting apparatus for use particularly with continuous ring furnaces (e.g., Hoffman furnaces) wherein each furnace chamber is connected to the smoke channel, the latter being a metal pipe inclined slightly from horizontal and provided with one or more traps along the length of its bottom surface, each trap containing a removable receptacle, and heating means being disposed along the bottom of the channel to fluidize tarry deposits of combustion products so that such deposits will flow by gravity into the removable receptacle.

  13. Ring of FIRE

    OpenAIRE

    Welsch, C.; Ullrich, J.; Gläßner, C.; Kühnel, K.; Schempp, A.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Dörner, R.

    2004-01-01

    A small electrostatic storage ring is the central machine of the Frankfurt Ion stoRage Experiments (FIRE) which will be built up at the new Stern-Gerlach-Center of Frankfurt University. With ion energies up to 50 keV it enables the analysis of complex many-particle systems from atoms to very large bio molecules. The high luminosity of the beam allows measurements with many orders of magnitude better resolution compared to traditional measurements. It will be combined with existing experiments...

  14. Viscosity of ring polymer melts

    KAUST Repository

    Pasquino, Rossana

    2013-10-15

    We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Stroppel, Catharina

    2014-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from Korff, C., Stroppel, C.: The sl(ˆn)k-WZNW fusion ring: a combinato-rial construction and a realis......We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from Korff, C., Stroppel, C.: The sl(ˆn)k-WZNW fusion ring: a combinato-rial construction...... and a realisation as quotient of quantum cohomology. Adv. Math. 225(1), 200–268, (2010) and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of non-commutative symmetric functions. Moreover we give a presentation of all fusion rings in classical types as quotients of polynomial rings. Finally we also...... compute the fusion rings for type G2....

  16. Physics issues in diffraction limited storage ring design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Bai, ZhengHe; Gao, WeiWei; Feng, GuangYao; Li, WeiMin; Wang, Lin; He, DuoHui

    2012-05-01

    Diffraction limited electron storage ring is considered a promising candidate for future light sources, whose main characteristics are higher brilliance, better transverse coherence and better stability. The challenge of diffraction limited storage ring design is how to achieve the ultra low beam emittance with acceptable nonlinear performance. Effective linear and nonlinear parameter optimization methods based on Artificial Intelligence were developed for the storage ring physical design. As an example of application, partial physical design of HALS (Hefei Advanced Light Source), which is a diffraction limited VUV and soft X-ray light source, was introduced. Severe emittance growth due to the Intra Beam Scattering effect, which is the main obstacle to achieve ultra low emittance, was estimated quantitatively and possible cures were discussed. It is inspiring that better performance of diffraction limited storage ring can be achieved in principle with careful parameter optimization.

  17. Computational Modelling of Piston Ring Dynamics in 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dlugoš Jozef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced computational models of a piston assembly based on the level of virtual prototypes require a detailed description of piston ring behaviour. Considering these requirements, the piston rings operate in regimes that cannot, in general, be simplified into an axisymmetric model. The piston and the cylinder liner do not have a perfect round shape, mainly due to machining tolerances and external thermo-mechanical loads. If the ring cannot follow the liner deformations, a local loss of contact occurs resulting in blow-by and increased consumption of lubricant oil in the engine. Current computational models are unable to implement such effects. The paper focuses on the development of a flexible 3D piston ring model based on the Timoshenko beam theory using the multibody system (MBS. The MBS model is compared to the finite element method (FEM solution.

  18. Buoyant Norbury's vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Mark; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Salman, Hayder

    2014-11-01

    Norbury's vortices are a one-parameter family of axisymmetric vortex rings that are exact solutions to the Euler equations. Due to their relative simplicity, they are extensively used to model the behavior of real vortex rings found in experiments and in Nature. In this work, we extend the original formulation of the problem to include buoyancy effects for the case where the fluid that lies within the vortex has a different density to that of the ambient. In this modified formulation, buoyancy effects enter the problem through the baroclinic term of the vorticity equation. This permits an efficient numerical solution of the governing equation of motion in terms of a vortex contour method that tracks the evolution of the boundary of the vortex. Finally, we compare our numerical results with the theoretical analysis of the short-time evolution of a buoyant vortex. Funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through grant DPI2011-28356-C03-02 and by the London Mathematical Society.

  19. Ring Image Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.

    2012-01-01

    Ring Image Analyzer software analyzes images to recognize elliptical patterns. It determines the ellipse parameters (axes ratio, centroid coordinate, tilt angle). The program attempts to recognize elliptical fringes (e.g., Newton Rings) on a photograph and determine their centroid position, the short-to-long-axis ratio, and the angle of rotation of the long axis relative to the horizontal direction on the photograph. These capabilities are important in interferometric imaging and control of surfaces. In particular, this program has been developed and applied for determining the rim shape of precision-machined optical whispering gallery mode resonators. The program relies on a unique image recognition algorithm aimed at recognizing elliptical shapes, but can be easily adapted to other geometric shapes. It is robust against non-elliptical details of the image and against noise. Interferometric analysis of precision-machined surfaces remains an important technological instrument in hardware development and quality analysis. This software automates and increases the accuracy of this technique. The software has been developed for the needs of an R&TD-funded project and has become an important asset for the future research proposal to NASA as well as other agencies.

  20. APS Storage Ring vacuum chamber fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1104-m circumference Advanced Photon Source Storage Ring Vacuum System is composed of 240 individual sections, which are fabricated from a combination of aluminum extrusions and machined components. The vacuum chambers will have 3800 weld joints, each subject to strict vacuum requirements, as well as a variety of related design criteria. The vacuum criteria and chamber design are reviewed, including a discussion of the weld joint geometries. The critical fabrication process parameters for meeting the design requirements are discussed. The experiences of the prototype chamber fabrication program are presented. Finally, the required facilities preparation for construction activity is briefly described. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  1. n-X-Coherent Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Bennis, Driss

    2010-01-01

    This paper unifies several generalizations of coherent rings in one notion. Namely, we introduce $n$-$\\mathscr{X}$-coherent rings, where $\\mathscr{X}$ is a class of modules and $n$ is a positive integer, as those rings for which the subclass $\\mathscr{X}_n$ of $n$-presented modules of $\\mathscr{X}$ is not empty, and every module in $\\mathscr{X}_n$ is $n+1$-presented. Then, for each particular class $\\mathscr{X}$ of modules, we find correspondent relative coherent rings. Our main aim is to show that the well-known Chase's, Cheatham and Stone's, Enochs', and Stenstrom's characterizations of coherent rings hold true for any $n$-$\\mathscr{X}$-coherent rings.

  2. On thickness of Saturn rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electronographic plates of Saturn were taken during the transit of the Earth through the ring plane. Observing conditions were more favorable than those prevailing in 1966. Thanks to the quality of the detectors and the telescopes, it has been possible to make a more precise photometric determination of the brightness of the ring seen edge on and to measure the brightness variation with respect to the distance to the center of the planet. Extrapolating to the case where the elevation of the Earth above the ring plane is strictly zero, we deduce an apparent photometric ring thickness equal to 1.5+-0.3 km. For an homogeneous layer of small particles colliding inelastically, theory predicts a thickness of the order of a few particles radii, i.e. a few tens of meters. The observed brightness could be explained by the E ring, the brightness of large chunks, condensations and warping of the ring

  3. Platinum-catalysed intravaginal rings

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, Karl; Woolfson, David; Romano, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides improved intravaginal drug delivery devices, i.e., intravaginal rings, useful for the prophylactic administration of an antimicrobial compound, e.g., Dapivirine, to a human. The intravaginal rings of the invention address previous stability issues by utilizing a platinum catalyst (e.g., in the form of a platinum-siloxane complex) for the cross-linking reaction. The vaginal rings surprisingly achieve relatively high and steady release rates in vivo with a matrix ...

  4. Filtration on a Ring Make a Quasi Valuation or Valuation Ring

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hassan Anjom SHoa

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show that if R is a filtered ring then we can define a quasi valuation ring. And there exists a valuation ring if R is some kind of filtered ring. Then we prove some properties and relations between filtered ring and quasi valuation ring and valuation ring.

  5. Filtration on a Ring Make a Quasi Valuation or Valuation Ring

    OpenAIRE

    SHoa, Mohammad Hassan Anjom

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show that if R is a filtered ring then we can define a quasi valuation ring. And there exists a valuation ring if R is some kind of filtered ring. Then we prove some properties and relations between filtered ring and quasi valuation ring and valuation ring

  6. Classes of almost clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Akalan, Evrim; Vas, Lia

    2013-01-01

    A ring is clean (almost clean) if each of its elements is the sum of a unit (regular element) and an idempotent. A module is clean (almost clean) if its endomorphism ring is clean (almost clean). We show that every quasi-continuous and nonsingular module is almost clean and that every right CS and right nonsingular ring is almost clean. As a corollary, all right strongly semihereditary rings, including finite $AW^*$-algebras and noetherian Leavitt path algebras in particular, are almost clean...

  7. On g-Semisymmetric Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Farahat S. Aly; Al Mestady, Mohammed O.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce right (left) g-semisymmetric ring as a new concept to generalize the well-known concept: symmetric ring. Examples are given to show that these classes of rings are distinct. They coincide under some conditions. It is shown that R is bounded right g-semisymmetric with boundary 1 from right if and only if R is symmetric, whenever R is regular. It is shown that a ring R is strongly regular if and only if R is regular and bounded right g-semisymmetric with boundary 1 from right. For ...

  8. On Weakly P.P. Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Yue-ming; Ouyang Lun-qun; Wang Shu-gui

    2015-01-01

    We introduce, in this paper, the right weakly p.p. rings as the generaliza-tion of right p.p. rings. It is shown that many properties of the right p.p. rings can be extended onto the right weakly p.p. rings. Relative examples are constructed. As applications, we also characterize the regular rings and the semisimple rings in terms of the right weakly p.p. rings.

  9. The advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7-GeV third-generation synchrotron radiation storage ring and full-energy positron injector. Construction project funding began in 1989, and ground breaking took place on 5 May 1990. Construction of all accelerator facilities was completed in January 1995 and storage ring commissioning is underway. First observation of x-rays from a bending magnet source took place on 26 March 1995. Nearly all performance specifications of the injector have been reached, and first observations indicate that the reliability, dynamic aperture, emittance, and orbit stability in the storage ring are satisfactory. Observation of radiation from the first of 20 insertion device beamlines is scheduled for October 1995. Start of regular operations is expected to take place well before the APS Project target date of December 1996

  10. Theory and analysis of nonlinear dynamics and stability in storage rings: A working group summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Audy, P.; Courant, E.D.; Forest, E.; Guignard, G.; Hagel, J.; Heifets, S.; Keil, E.; Kheifets, S.; Mais, H.; Moshammer, H.; Pellegrini, C.; Pilat, F.; Suzuki, T.; Turchetti, G.; Warnock, R.L.

    1988-07-01

    A summary and commentary of the available theoretical and analytical tools and recent advances in the nonlinear dynamics, stability and aperture issues in storage rings are presented. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  11. The eRHIC Ring-Ring Collider Design

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fuhua; Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Deshpande, Abhay A; Farkhondeh, Manouchehr; Franklin, Wilbur; Graves, William; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Milner, Richard; Montag, Christoph; Ozaki, Satoshi; Parker, Brett; Peggs, Steve; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Tepikian, Steven; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tschalär, C; Wang, Dong; Zolfaghari, Abbasali; Zwart, Townsend; van der Laan, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The eRHIC ring-ring collider is the main design option of the future lepton-ion collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We report the revisions of the ring-ring collider design features to the baseline design presented in the eRHIC Zeroth Design Report (ZDR). These revisions have been made during the past year. They include changes of the interaction region which are required from the modifications in the design of the main detector. They also include changes in the lepton storage ring for high current operations as a result of better understandings of beam-beam interaction effects. The updated collider luminosity and beam parameters also take into account a more accurate picture of current and future operational aspects of RHIC.

  12. On separable extensions of group rings and quaternion rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Szeto

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of the present paper are (1 to give a necessary and sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the separable idempotent for a separable group ring extension RG(R may be a non-commutative ring, and (2 to give a full description of the set of separable idempotents for a quaternion ring extension RQ over a ring R, where Q are the usual quaternions i,j,k and multiplication and addition are defined as quaternion algebras over a field. We shall show that RG has a unique separable idempotent if and only if G is abelian, that there are more than one separable idempotents for a separable quaternion ring RQ, and that RQ is separable if and only if 2 is invertible in R.

  13. DELPHI's Ring Imaging Cherenkov Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The hundreds of mirrors around this Ring Imaging Cherenkov Chamber reflect cones of light created by fast moving particles to a detector. The velocity of a particle can be measured by the size of the ring produced on the detector. DELPHI, which ran from 1989 to 2000 on the LEP accelerator, was primarily concerned with particle identification.

  14. Reversible Seeding in Storage Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We propose to generate steady-state microbunching in a storage ring with a reversible seeding scheme. High gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) are two promising methods for microbunching linac electron beams. Because both schemes increase the energy spread of the seeded beam, they cannot drive a coherent radiator turn-by-turn in a storage ring. However, reversing the seeding process following the radiator minimizes the impact on the electron beam and may allow coherent radiation at or near the storage ring repetition rate. In this paper we describe the general idea and outline a proof-of-principle experiment. Electron storage rings can drive high average power light sources, and free-electron lasers (FELs) are now producing coherent light sources of unprecedented peak brightness While there is active research towards high repetition rate FELs (for example, using energy recovery linacs), at present there are still no convenient accelerator-based sources of high repetition rate, coherent radiation. As an alternative avenue, we recently proposed to establish steady-state microbunching (SSMB) in a storage ring. By maintaining steady-state coherent microbunching at one point in the storage ring, the beam generates coherent radiation at or close to the repetition rate of the storage ring. In this paper, we propose a method of generating a microbunched beam in a storage ring by using reversible versions of linac seeding schemes.

  15. Almost ring theory - sixth release

    OpenAIRE

    Gabber, Ofer; Ramero, Lorenzo

    2002-01-01

    We develop almost ring theory, which is a domain of mathematics somewhere halfway between ring theory and category theory (whence the difficulty of finding appropriate MSC-class numbers). We apply this theory to valuation theory and to p-adic analytic geometry. You should really have a look at the introductions (each chapter has one).

  16. Clean Elements in Abelian Rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angelina Y M Chin

    2009-04-01

    Let be a ring with identity. An element in is said to be clean if it is the sum of a unit and an idempotent. is said to be clean if all of its elements are clean. If every idempotent in is central, then is said to be abelian. In this paper we obtain some conditions equivalent to being clean in an abelian ring.

  17. $\\alpha $ -Skew $\\pi $ -McCoy Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Areej M. Abduldaim; Chen, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    As a generalization of $\\alpha $ -skew McCoy rings, we introduce the concept of $\\alpha $ -skew $\\pi $ -McCoy rings, and we study the relationships with another two new generalizations, $\\alpha $ -skew ${\\pi }_{1}$ -McCoy rings and $\\alpha $ -skew ${\\pi }_{2}$ -McCoy rings, observing the relations with $\\alpha $ -skew McCoy rings, $\\pi $ -McCoy rings, $\\alpha $ -skew Armendariz rings, $\\pi $ -regular rings, and other kinds of rings. Also, we investigate conditions such that $\\alpha $ -skew ${...

  18. Burnside Rings of Fusion Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Sune Precht

    In this thesis we study the interactions between saturated fusion systems and group actions of the underlying p-groups. For a saturated fusion system F on a finite p-group S we construct the Burnside ring of F in terms of the finite S-sets whose actions respect the structure of the fusion system...... of Burnside rings given by multiplication with the characteristic idempotent, and we show that this map is the transfer map previously constructed. Applying these results, we show that for every saturated fusion system the ring generated by all (non-idempotent) characteristic elements in the p-local double...... Burnside ring is isomorphic to the p-local Burnside ring of the fusion system, and we disprove a conjecture by Park-Ragnarsson-Stancu on the composition product of fusion systems....

  19. Black Hole Ringing, Quasinormal Modes, and Light Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Khanna, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Modelling of gravitational waves from binary black hole inspiral has played an important role in the recent observations of such signals. The late-stage ringdown phase of the gravitational waveform is often associated with the null particle orbit (\\light ring") of the black hole spacetime. With simple models we show that this link between the light ring and spacetime ringing is based more on the history of applications than on an actual constraining relationship. We also show, in particular, that a better understanding of the disassociation between the two, may be relevant to the astrophysically interesting case of rotating (Kerr) black holes.

  20. Risk assessment of AMC (Advanced measurement and control systems). Survey of information security vulnerabilities in AMC.; Risikovurdering av AMS. Kartlegging av informasjonssikkerhetsmessige s#Latin Small Letter A With Ring Above#rbarheter i AMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartnes, Line Maria [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Johansen, Gorm Idar [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); S#Latin Small Letter Ae#le, Hanne [Sintef Energy, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    SINTEF has carried out an overall assessment of Advanced measurement and control Systems (AMC) for Norway Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE). The assessment includes mainly AMC basis functions, which are record measurement data in customer and transfer these to the network, as well as wrestling / throttling power outlet in the each measuring point. Adjoining IT systems with network companies are considered only to a limited degree. The focus in analysis has been measuring point by geographical location, and the opportunity for both consumption and feed. Mobile devices such as measuring the charging of electric vehicles have not been touched upon in the analysis. It must be noted that this report provides an overall risk assessment related to general AMC technology and infrastructure. Each grid company must prepare their own risk assessments for their systems. The report describes a general AMC infrastructure with the refinements that have been made for this analysis. Then it is made an assessment on the basis of an information security perspective, the confidentiality, integrity and availability are the most important aspects. Different scenarios and events are presented and discussed, and the events that are judged to be at highest risk, one or more of the following elements out: - Unwanted shutdown of many customers - Software Error - Central system fails or used in the attack - Unfaithful servant's own employee misuses of knowledge and / or legitimate accesses In addition, a scenario with many gauges inoperative once considered to be critical, without cause need to be a targeted attack. This is because the consequences will incur substantial costs for repair and / or replacement of equipment. Malicious software could be causing, or a tool in several of events, especially at the onset that run from afar (remote connection). It is recommended that the Emergency Regulations should apply to AMC, because the risk assessment has been done shows that

  1. Orbiting chains and rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakwell, J. V.

    1983-01-01

    Two very different, highly flexible, space structures proposed during the last decade which involve analytical solution of certain partial differential equations are discussed. The first structure is an array, or hanging chain of aluminum beads which would serve as a convenient communicator if, under the influence of the Earth's gravity gradient, it assumes a local vertical orientation as it circles the Earth. Two passive schemes have been proposed for damping the rigid modes: twist the wire at the ends to provide non-zero moment of inertia about the vertical, thereby inducing relative motion of the two tips during rigid pitch or roll, and thus exercising a damper; and introduce weak lossy springs between the end sections and the main section; thereby providing linear coupling between the springs and all the in-plane (pitch) modes. The second structure is a complete ring of satellites cabled together at synchronous altitude. By a slight increase in altitude, the cable is in tension. This configuration is, however, unstable, and an active feedback control scheme is required to stabilize it. A possible scheme involves local cable length adjustment based on measurement of local altitude and shape variations and their rates.

  2. JAERI storage ring JSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design study for a next generation 8 GeV synchrotron radiation facility is in progress in Japan, and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) have join forces in this project. A compact electron storage ring JSR has been under construction in the linac building in the Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI to serve for studies of various kind of accelerator technologies, examination of insertion devices and beam monitors, and training of young researchers. This paper describes the lattice design, injection system, magnets, vacuum system, RF system, control system and beam monitors and presents some operation results regarding the electron beam injection and storage. The JSR is presently in good condition concerning it's fundamental functions such as injection, storage at around 150 MeV and 300 MeV, and acceleration from 150 MeV and 300 MeV. Photon induced gas desorption is still large because the vacuum chamber has not been aged heavily by synchrotron radiation. (N.K.)

  3. Is the bell ringing?

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    During the Nobel prize-winning UA1 experiment, scientists in the control room used to ring a bell if a particularly interesting event had occurred. Today, the “CMS Exotica hotline” routine produces a daily report that lists the exotic events that were recorded the day before.   Display of an event selected by the Exotica routine. Take just a very small fraction of the available data (max. 5%); define the events that you want to keep and set the parameters accordingly; run the Exotica routine and only look at the very few images that the system has selected for you. This is the recipe that a small team of CMS researchers has developed to identify the signals coming from possible new physics processes. “This approach does not replace the accurate data analysis on the whole set of data. However, it is a very fast and effective way to focus on just a few events that are potentially very interesting”, explains Maurizio Pierini (CERN), who developed the...

  4. Friction between ring polymer brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbaş, Aykut; Paturej, Jarosław

    2015-04-28

    Friction between ring polymer brush bilayers sliding past each other at melt densities is studied using extensive coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and scaling arguments, and the results are compared to the friction between bilayers of linear polymer brushes. We show that for a velocity range spanning over three decades, the frictional forces measured for ring polymer brushes are half of the corresponding friction in the case of linear brushes. In the linear-force regime, the weak inter-digitation between ring brush layers as compared to linear brushes leads also to a lower number of binary collisions between the monomers from opposing brushes. At high velocities, where the thickness of the inter-digitation between bilayers is on the order of monomer size regardless of brush topology, stretched segments of ring polymers adopt the double-stranded conformation. As a result, monomers of the double-stranded segments collide on average less with the monomers of the opposing ring brush even though a similar number of monomers occupies the inter-digitation layer for ring and linear brush bilayers. The numerical data obtained from our simulations are consistent with the proposed scaling analysis. Conformation-dependent friction reduction observed in ring brushes can have important consequences in non-equilibrium bulk systems. PMID:25747253

  5. Generalized PP and Zip Subrings of Matrix Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ZHONG-KUI; QIAO HU-SHENG

    2010-01-01

    Let R be an abelian ring. We consider a special subring An, relative to the ring An is a generalized right PP-ring (right zip ring) if and only if the ring R is a generalized right PP-ring (right zip ring). Our results yield more examples of generalized right PP-rings and right zip rings.

  6. Mechanisms of ring chromosome formation, ring instability and clinical consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Roberta S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The breakpoints and mechanisms of ring chromosome formation were studied and mapped in 14 patients. Methods Several techniques were performed such as genome-wide array, MLPA (Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification and FISH (Fluorescent in situ Hybridization. Results The ring chromosomes of patients I to XIV were determined to be, respectively: r(3(p26.1q29, r(4(p16.3q35.2, r(10(p15.3q26.2, r(10(p15.3q26.13, r(13(p13q31.1, r(13(p13q34, r(14(p13q32.33, r(15(p13q26.2, r(18(p11.32q22.2, r(18(p11.32q21.33, r(18(p11.21q23, r(22(p13q13.33, r(22(p13q13.2, and r(22(p13q13.2. These rings were found to have been formed by different mechanisms, such as: breaks in both chromosome arms followed by end-to-end reunion (patients IV, VIII, IX, XI, XIII and XIV; a break in one chromosome arm followed by fusion with the subtelomeric region of the other (patients I and II; a break in one chromosome arm followed by fusion with the opposite telomeric region (patients III and X; fusion of two subtelomeric regions (patient VII; and telomere-telomere fusion (patient XII. Thus, the r(14 and one r(22 can be considered complete rings, since there was no loss of relevant genetic material. Two patients (V and VI with r(13 showed duplication along with terminal deletion of 13q, one of them proved to be inverted, a mechanism known as inv-dup-del. Ring instability was detected by ring loss and secondary aberrations in all but three patients, who presented stable ring chromosomes (II, XIII and XIV. Conclusions We concluded that the clinical phenotype of patients with ring chromosomes may be related with different factors, including gene haploinsufficiency, gene duplications and ring instability. Epigenetic factors due to the circular architecture of ring chromosomes must also be considered, since even complete ring chromosomes can result in phenotypic alterations, as observed in our patients with complete r(14 and r(22.

  7. Velocity peaks and caustic rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The late infall of cold dark matter onto an isolated galaxy produces flows with definite velocity vectors at any physical point in the galactic halo. It also produces caustic rings, which are places in space where the dark matter density is very large. The self-similar model of galactic halo formation predicts that the caustic ring radii an follow the approximate law an ≅ 1/n. Bumps in the rotation curves of NGC 3198 and of our own galaxy are interpreted as due to caustic rings of dark matter

  8. Generalization of Strongly Clean Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Abhay K.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, strongly clean ring defined by W. K. Nicholson in 1999 has been generalized to n-strongly clean, {\\Sigma}-strongly clean and with the help of example it has been shown that there exists a ring, which is n-strongly clean and {\\Sigma}-strongly clean but not strongly clean. It has been shown that for a commutative ring R formal power series R[(x)] of R is n-strongly clean if and only if R is n- strongly clean. We also discussed the structure of homomorphic image of n- strongly cle...

  9. Schirmorganisation der Nordischen Bewegung: Der Nordische Ring und seine Repräsentanten in Norwegen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Karcher

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nordischer Ring [Nordic Ring], founded in 1926, aimed to unite all groups in the Nordic Movement and to make the Nordic Thought, drafted by Hans F. K. Günther, to the leading ideology in Germany. Until the enforced political conformity of Nordischer Ring through incorporation into Nordische Gesellschaft [Nordic Society] in 1936, Nordischer Ring was able to build up far-reaching contacts not only to völkisch circles and among the nobility, but also to the NSDAP. In addition, the collaboration, advanced by Günther, of Norwegian researchers on the topic of race played an important role for the goals of Nordischer Ring, which hoped, in a long term perspective, to be able to establish the Nordic Thought in Norway and the other Scandinavian countries. This article traces the emergence and development of Nordischer Ring until its incorporation with a special focus on the contacts with Norwegian researchers on the topic of race.

  10. Autumn study on storage rings

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The first two weeks of October have seen storage ring people from accelerator Laboratories throughout the world at CERN to study the fundamental problems of very high energy protonproton colliding beam machines.

  11. Prototype moving-ring reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have completed a design of the Prototype Moving-Ring Reactor. The fusion fuel is confined in current-carrying rings of magnetically-field-reversed plasma (Compact Toroids). The plasma rings, formed by a coaxial plasma gun, undergo adiabatic magnetic compression to ignition temperature while they are being injected into the reactor's burner section. The cylindrical burner chamber is divided into three burn stations. Separator coils and a slight axial guide field gradient are used to shuttle the ignited toroids rapidly from one burn station to the next, pausing for 1/3 of the total burn time at each station. D-T-3He ice pellets refuel the rings at a rate which maintains constant radiated power

  12. Perturbations of vortex ring pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Gubser, Steven S; Parikh, Sarthak

    2015-01-01

    We study pairs of co-axial vortex rings starting from the action for a classical bosonic string in a three-form background. We complete earlier work on the phase diagram of classical orbits by explicitly considering the case where the circulations of the two vortex rings are equal and opposite. We then go on to study perturbations, focusing on cases where the relevant four-dimensional transfer matrix splits into two-dimensional blocks. When the circulations of the rings have the same sign, instabilities are mostly limited to wavelengths smaller than a dynamically generated length scale at which single-ring instabilities occur. When the circulations have the opposite sign, larger wavelength instabilities can occur.

  13. Perturbations of vortex ring pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, Steven S.; Horn, Bart; Parikh, Sarthak

    2016-02-01

    We study pairs of coaxial vortex rings starting from the action for a classical bosonic string in a three-form background. We complete earlier work on the phase diagram of classical orbits by explicitly considering the case where the circulations of the two vortex rings are equal and opposite. We then go on to study perturbations, focusing on cases where the relevant four-dimensional transfer matrix splits into two-dimensional blocks. When the circulations of the rings have the same sign, instabilities are mostly limited to wavelengths smaller than a dynamically generated length scale at which single-ring instabilities occur. When the circulations have the opposite sign, larger wavelength instabilities can occur.

  14. Resonance capture and Saturn's rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have assigned the resonances apparently responsible for the stabilization of the Saturn's shepherd satellites and for the substructure seen in the F-ring and the ringlets in the C-ring. We show that Saturn's narrow ringlets have a substructure determined by three-body resonances with Saturn's ringmoons and the sun. We believe such resonances have important implications to satellite formation. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. The Circular RFQ Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a novel idea of storage ring for the accumulation of intense beams of light and heavy ions at low energy. The new concept is a natural development of the combined features of conventional storage rings and ion traps, and is basically a linear RFQ bent on itself. The advantages are: smaller beam dimensions, higher beam intensity, and a more compact storage device

  16. The circular RFQ storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a novel idea of storage ring for the accumulation of intense beams of light and heavy ions at low energy. The new concept is a natural development of the combined features used in a conventional storage ring and an ion trap, and is basically a linear RFQ bend on itself. In summary the advantages are: smaller beam dimensions, higher beam intensity, and a more compact storage device

  17. Friction between Ring Polymer Brushes

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Friction between ring-polymer brushes at melt densities sliding past each other are studied using extensive course-grained molecular dynamics simulations and scaling arguments, and the results are compared to the friction between linear-polymer brushes. We show that for a velocity range spanning over three decades, the frictional forces measured for ring-polymer brushes are half the corresponding friction in case of linear brushes. In the linear-force regime, the weak inter-digitation of two ...

  18. Missing rings in Pinus halepensis

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Klemen; De Luis, Martin; Saz, Miguel Angel; Longares, Luis Alberto; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Raventós, Josep; Čufar, Katarina; Gričar, Jožica; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Piovesan, Gianluca; Rathgeber, Cyrille; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Kevin T. Smith

    2016-01-01

    Climate predictions for the Mediterranean Basin include increased temperatures, decreased precipitation, and increased frequency of extreme climatic events (ECE). These conditions are associated with decreased tree growth and increased vulnerability to pests and diseases. The anatomy of tree rings responds to these environmental conditions. Quantitatively, the width of a tree ring is largely determined by the rate and duration of cell division by the vascular cambium. In the Mediterranean cli...

  19. ring og forandring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    I de sidste ti år har læring været på dagsordenen som aldrig før. Inden for uddannelsesverdenen og den pædagogiske debat har man kunnet se et markant skift, hvor læringsbegrebet er blevet tematiseret langt stærkere på bekostning af undervisningsbegrebet. Samtidig er læring blevet sat på dagsorden...

  20. Rings Whose Modules Have Grade Zero

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Xiang WU

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that R is a two-sided Artinian ring and J is a right annihilator ideal if and only if (i) for any nonzero right module, there is a nonzero linear map from it to a projective module; (ii) every submodule of RR is not a radical module for some right coherent rings. We call a ring a right X ring if HomR(M, R) = 0 for any right module M implies that M = 0. We can prove some left Goldie and right X rings are right Artinian rings. Moreover we characterize semisimple rings by using X rings. A famous Faith's conjecture is whether a semipimary PF ring is a QF ring. Similarly we study the relationship between X rings and QF and get many interesting results.

  1. Commissioning of the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER)

    CERN Document Server

    Bernal, Santiago; Feldman, Donald; Feldman, Renee; Godlove, Terry; Haber, Irving; Harris, John R; Holloway, Mike; Kishek, Rami A; Neumann, Jonathan G; Papadopoulos, Christos; Quinn, Bryan; Reiser, Martin; Stratakis, Diktys; Thangaraj, Jayakar C T; Tian, Kai; Walter, Mark; Wilson, Mark C

    2005-01-01

    The University of Maryland electron ring (UMER) is a low-energy, high current recirculator for beam physics research. The ring is completed for multi-turn operation of beams over a broad range of intensities and initial conditions. UMER is addressing issues in beam physics with relevance to many applications that rely on intense beams of high quality. Examples are advanced accelerators, FEL's, spallation neutron sources and future heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion. We review the motivation, ring layout and operating conditions of UMER. Further, we present a summary of beam physics areas that UMER is currently investigating and others that are part of the commissioning plan: from transverse beam dynamics (matching, halo formation, strongly asymmetric beams, space-charge waves, etc), longitudinal dynamics (bunch capture/shaping, evolution of energy spread, longitudinal space-charge waves, etc.) to future upgrades and planned research (acceleration and resonance traversal, modeling of galactic dynamics, etc....

  2. Conducting liquid conveyer of plasma rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current-carrying plasma rings can be conveyed in a cylindrical channel with a conducting liquid flow to which outer poloidal fields of the rings freeze. Fast tilting motion of the ring is stabilized when the liquid surface is set close to the ring within a critical distance. Effects of a resistive tube duct installed for the liquid are also examined. (author)

  3. Response of APS storage ring basemat to ambient vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The storage ring of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) facility at Argonne is very sensitive to vibration. Large vibration amplitudes would result in degraded machine performance. Because the storage ring assembly is supported on the storage ring basemat, the dynamics of the basemat are critical to successful operation. Before construction began, a survey of site ground vibration indicated that the site was acceptable from a vibration standpoint. When construction of the linear accelerator (Linac) floor slab and shielding walls was completed, dynamic-response measurements were conducted. The slab/wall system showed attenuation of soilborne vibrations in the horizontal directions, but an amplification (approximately a factor of 1.5) of vertical vibration at a frequency of 7.7 Hz. Vibration response of the slab/wall system at all other frequencies showed attenuation of soilborne vibrations. Dynamic-response measurements were also conducted on an incomplete section of the storage ring basemat. Although this section was not prototypical, results were similar to those of the Linac floor in the horizontal direction, showing large damping and attenuation of horizontal soilborne vibrations. While the basemat followed the soil vibration in the vertical direction, no large amplification was observed. However, measured vertical amplitudes on the basemat were a function of location, indicating a modal response. A series of vibration response measurements was conducted on a completed section of the storage ring basemat/tunnel adjacent and to the west of the Early Assembly Area (EAA) on May 21, 1992, and is the subject of this report

  4. An Alternate Ring-Ring Design for eRHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-01-01

    I present here a new ring-ring design of eRHIC, a polarized electron-ion collider based on RHIC at BNL. This alternate eRHIC design utilizes high repetition rate colliding beams and is likely able to deliver the performance to meet the requirements of the science program with low technical risk and modest accelerator R&D. The expected performance includes high luminosities over multiple collision points and a broad CM energy range with a maximum value up to 2x10^34 cm-2s-1 per detector, and polarization higher than 70% for the colliding electron and light ion beams. This new design calls for reuse of decommissioned facilities in the US, namely, the PEP-II high energy ring and one section of the SLAC warm linac as a full energy electron injector.

  5. Aromatic rings in chemical and biological recognition: energetics and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Laura M; Ellermann, Manuel; Diederich, François

    2011-05-16

    This review describes a multidimensional treatment of molecular recognition phenomena involving aromatic rings in chemical and biological systems. It summarizes new results reported since the appearance of an earlier review in 2003 in host-guest chemistry, biological affinity assays and biostructural analysis, data base mining in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and the Protein Data Bank (PDB), and advanced computational studies. Topics addressed are arene-arene, perfluoroarene-arene, S⋅⋅⋅aromatic, cation-π, and anion-π interactions, as well as hydrogen bonding to π systems. The generated knowledge benefits, in particular, structure-based hit-to-lead development and lead optimization both in the pharmaceutical and in the crop protection industry. It equally facilitates the development of new advanced materials and supramolecular systems, and should inspire further utilization of interactions with aromatic rings to control the stereochemical outcome of synthetic transformations. PMID:21538733

  6. Metastatic Primary Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma of Rectum: A Case Report of 10-Year-old Male Child

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kumkum; Singh, Amit; Bhutra, Shyam; Pachori, Geeta; Jangir, Mahesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Signet ring cell carcinomas of the colon and rectum are well documented in the adult population, but the incidence is very low in the paediatric population. Signet ring cell carcinoma has more malignant potential, mostly present as advanced stage and carries very poor prognosis. We are describing a 10-year-old male patient who presented with acute intestinal obstruction; radiology revealed large bowel obstruction and was diagnosed metastatic primary signet ring cell carcinoma of rectum on bio...

  7. Mesoscopic FCC Co ring magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of a systematic study of the magnetic properties of micrometer size arrays of Co(1 0 0) epitaxial ring magnets grown on prepatterned Si substrates. The Co thickness varied between 5 and 34 nm and the outer diameter of the rings varied between 0.9 and 1.6 μm. Magnetic measurements and micromagnetic simulations show that for appropriate ring structures a two-step switching process occurs, indicating the existence of two different stable states. In addition to the vortex state, we have identified a new bi-domain state, the 'onion state', corresponding to opposite circulation of the magnetisation in each half of the ring. The onion state is stable at remanence and undergoes a simple and well-characterised nucleation-free switching. Using micromagnetic simulations we show also that the magnetisation reversal in narrow rings can take place via a nucleation-free domain wall motion process when a field pulse is applied in the plane of the film and perpendicular to the net magnetisation. Switching times of the order of 400 ps are predicted with this approach

  8. Ring wormholes via duality rotations

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbons, Gary W

    2016-01-01

    We apply duality rotations and complex transformations to the Schwarzschild metric to obtain wormhole geometries with two asymptotically flat regions connected by a throat. In the simplest case these are the well-known wormholes supported by phantom scalar field. Further duality rotations remove the scalar field to yield less well known vacuum metrics of the oblate Zipoy-Voorhees-Weyl class, which describe ring wormholes. The ring encircles the wormhole throat and can have any radius, whereas its tension is always negative and should be less than $-c^4/4G$. If the tension reaches the maximal value, the geometry becomes exactly flat, but the topology remains non-trivial and corresponds to two copies of Minkowski space glued together along the disk encircled by the ring. The geodesics are straight lines, and those which traverse the ring get to the other universe. The ring therefore literally produces a whole in space. Such wormholes could perhaps be created by negative energies concentrated in toroidal volumes...

  9. Ring polymers in confined geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Usatenko, Z; Kuterba, P

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of a dilute solution of phantom ideal ring polymers and ring polymers with excluded volume interactions (EVI) in a good solvent confined in a slit geometry of two parallel repulsive walls and in a solution of colloidal particles of big size were performed. Taking into account the correspondence between the field theoretical $\\phi^4$ $O(n)$-vector model in the limit $n\\to 0$ and the behavior of long-flexible polymer chains in a good solvent the correspondent depletion interaction potentials, depletion forces and the forces which exert phantom ideal ring and ring polymer chains with EVI on the walls were obtained in the framework of the massive field theory approach at fixed space dimensions d=3 up to one-loop order. Additionally, the investigation of a dilute solution of phantom ideal ring polymers in a slit geometry of two inert walls and mixed walls with one repulsive and other one inert wall were performed and correspondent depletion interaction potentials and the depletion forces were cal...

  10. CYCLIC CODES OVER FORMAL POWER SERIES RINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dougherty Steven T.; Liu Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    In this article, cyclic codes and negacyclic codes over formal power series rings are studied. The structure of cyclic codes over this class of rings is given, and the relationship between these codes and cyclic codes over finite chain rings is obtained. Using an isomorphism between cyclic and negacyclic codes over formal power series rings, the structure of negacyclic codes over the formal power series rings is obtained.

  11. A novel method for measuring energy loss in electron rings

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, John M.; De Santis, Stefano

    2001-01-01

    We present a novel method for measuring the energy loss per turn in an electron storage ring. The method involves the accurate measurement of the change in the rotation period of an uncaptured electron bunch using a dual-sweep streak camera. In our opinion, this method is more direct and accurate than other techniques. We present examples of measurements performed at the Advanced Light Source.

  12. Plasma Structure and Behavior of Miniature Ring-Cusp Discharges

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Hann-Shin

    2013-01-01

    Miniature ring-cusp ion thrusters provide a unique blend of high efficiencies and millinewton level thrust for future spacecraft. These thrusters are attractive as a primary propulsion for small satellites that require a high delta V, and as a secondary propulsion for larger spacecraft that require precision formation flying, disturbance rejection, or attitude control. To ensure desirable performance throughout the life of such missions, an advancement in the understanding of the plasma struc...

  13. Traversable wormholes the Roman ring

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, M

    1997-01-01

    In this brief report I introduce a yet another class of geometries for which semi-classical chronology protection theorems are of dubious physical reliability. I consider a ``Roman ring'' of traversable wormholes, wherein a number of wormholes are arranged in a ring in such a manner that no subset of wormholes is near to chronology violation, though the combined system can be arbitrarily close to chronology violation. I show that (with enough wormholes in the ring) the gravitational vacuum polarization (the expectation value of the quantum stress-energy tensor) can be made arbitrarily small. In particular the back-reaction can be kept arbitrarily small all the way to the ``reliability horizon''---so that semi-classical quantum gravity becomes unreliable before the gravitational back reaction becomes large.

  14. Tree rings and radiocarbon calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only a few kinds of trees in Australia and Southeast Asia are known to have growth rings that are both distinct and annual. Those that do are therefore extremely important to climatic and isotope studies. In western Tasmania, extensive work with Huon pine (Lagarostrobos franklinii) has shown that many living trees are more than 1,000 years old, and that their ring widths are sensitive to temperature, rainfall and cloud cover (Buckley et al. 1997). At the Stanley River there is a forest of living (and recently felled) trees which we have sampled and measured. There are also thousands of subfossil Huon pine logs, buried at depths less than 5 metres in an area of floodplain extending over a distance of more than a kilometre with a width of tens of metres. Some of these logs have been buried for 50,000 years or more, but most of them belong to the period between 15,000 years and the present. In previous expeditions in the 1980s and 1990s, we excavated and sampled about 350 logs (Barbetti et al. 1995; Nanson et al. 1995). By measuring the ring-width patterns, and matching them between logs and living trees, we have constructed a tree-ring dated chronology from 571 BC to AD 1992. We have also built a 4254-ring floating chronology (placed by radiocarbon at ca. 3580 to 7830 years ago), and an earlier 1268-ring chronology (ca. 7,580 to 8,850 years ago). There are many individuals, or pairs of logs which match and together span several centuries, at 9,000 years ago and beyond

  15. Nanoscale nonlinear PANDA ring resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Yupapin, Preecha

    2012-01-01

    Microring/nanoring resonator is an interesting device that has been widely studied and investigated by researchers from a variety of specializations. This book begins with the basic background of linear and nonlinear ring resonators. A novel design of nano device known as a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. The use of the device in the form of a PANDA in applications such as nanoelectronics, measurement, communication, sensors, optical and quantum computing, drug delivery, hybrid transistor and a new concept of electron-hole pair is discussed in detail.

  16. On Simple-Injective Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.K. Nicholson; Jae Keol Park; M.F. Yousif

    2002-01-01

    A ring R is called right simple-injective if every R-linear map from a right ideal of R to R with simple image can be extended to R. It is shown that a right simple-injective ring R is quasi-Frobenius if R is right Goldie with essential right socle, or R is left perfect and the right annihilator of k ∈ R is finitely generated whenever kR or Rk is simple. This extends a result of Bjork.

  17. On Ideals of Regular Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huan Yin; LI Fu An

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate ideals of regular rings and give several characterizations for an ideal to satisfy the comparability. In addition, it is shown that, if Ⅰ is a minimal two-sided ideal of a regular ring R, then Ⅰ satisfies the comparability if and only if Ⅰ is separative. Furthermore, we prove that, for ideals with stable range one, Roth's problem has an affirmative solution. These extend the corresponding results on unit-regularity and one-sided unit-regularity.

  18. Laparoscopic appendicectomy using endo-ring applicator and fallope rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Iyoob

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Wider adoption of laparoscopic appendicectomy (LA is limited by problems in securing the appendiceal base as well as the cost and the duration compared with the open procedure. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of a new method for securing the appendiceal base in LA, so as to make the entire procedure simpler and cheaper, and hence, more popular. Methods: Twenty-five patients who were candidates for appendicectomy (emergency as well as elective and willing for the laparoscopic procedure were selected for this study. Ports used were 10 mm at the umbilicus, 5 mm at the lower right iliac fossa, and 10 mm at the left iliac fossa. Extremely friable, ruptured, or turgid organs of diameters larger than 8 mm were excluded from the study. The mesoappendix was divided close to the appendix by diathermy. Fallope rings were applied to the appendiceal base using a special ring applicator, and the appendix was divided and extracted through the lumen of the applicator. Results: The procedure was successful in 23 (92% cases, and the mean duration of the procedure was 20 minutes (15-32 minutes. There were no procedural complications seen during a median follow-up of two weeks. The equipment and rings were cheaper when compared with that of the standard methods of securing the base of the appendix. Conclusion: LA using fallope rings is a safe, simple, easy-to-learn, and economically viable method.

  19. SELF-DUAL PERMUTATION CODES OVER FORMAL POWER SERIES RINGS AND FINITE PRINCIPAL IDEAL RINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光辉; 刘宏伟

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study self-dual permutation codes over formal power series rings and finite principal ideal rings. We first give some results on the torsion codes associated with the linear codes over formal power series rings. These results allow for obtaining some conditions for non-existence of self-dual permutation codes over formal power series rings. Finally, we describe self-dual permutation codes over finite principal ideal rings by examining permutation codes over their component chain rings.

  20. E-læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    2001-01-01

    E-læring er et modeord og et mantra. Undervisning bliver ikke automatisk bedre af, at der sættes et ”e-” foran. Forbedring og fornyelse af undervisningen er betinget af, at vi forstår computermediets muligheder og skaber forandring ved at tilpasse det til de undervisningsformer, vi ønsker....

  1. ring i arbejdslivet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    ring i arbejdslivet har været et nærværende tema i det nordiske voksenuddannelsessamarbejde i mange år. I artiklen giver jeg nogle eksempler på, hvordan dette tema er gennemspillet, og jeg supplerer med nogle overvejelser over, hvordan dette ser ud i en international og fremadrettet sammenhæng....

  2. Characteristic of Rings. Prime Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of the characteristic of rings and its basic properties are formalized [14], [39], [20]. Classification of prime fields in terms of isomorphisms with appropriate fields (ℚ or ℤ/p are presented. To facilitate reasonings within the field of rational numbers, values of numerators and denominators of basic operations over rationals are computed.

  3. Wands of the Black Ring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravda, Vojtěch; Pravdová, Alena

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 7 (2005), s. 1277-1287. ISSN 0001-7701 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP202/03/P017; GA AV ČR KJB1019403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : algebraic classification * Petrov classification * black ring Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.550, year: 2005

  4. The Lord of the Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘金梅

    2002-01-01

    Peter Jackson's first film in The Lord of the Rings trilogy (三步曲) has just grabbed (夺得) four Oscars-awards for the best make-up, best cinematography (摄影), best visual effects and best original score.Chinese audience had a chance to watch the fihn from late April.

  5. On strongly $g(x)$-clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Lingling; Yang, Xiande

    2008-01-01

    Let $R$ be an associative ring with identity, $C(R)$ denote the center of $R$, and $g(x)$ be a polynomial in the polynomial ring $C(R)[x]$. $R$ is called strongly $g(x)$-clean if every element $r \\in R$ can be written as $r=s+u$ with $g(s)=0$, $u$ a unit of $R$, and $su=us$. The relation between strongly $g(x)$-clean rings and strongly clean rings is determined, some general properties of strongly $g(x)$-clean rings are given, and strongly $g(x)$-clean rings generated by units are discussed.

  6. Near rings, fuzzy ideals, and graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Satyanarayana, Bhavanari

    2013-01-01

    Near Rings, Fuzzy Ideals, and Graph Theory explores the relationship between near rings and fuzzy sets and between near rings and graph theory. It covers topics from recent literature along with several characterizations. After introducing all of the necessary fundamentals of algebraic systems, the book presents the essentials of near rings theory, relevant examples, notations, and simple theorems. It then describes the prime ideal concept in near rings, takes a rigorous approach to the dimension theory of N-groups, gives some detailed proofs of matrix near rings, and discusses the gamma near

  7. Present status of the RCNP circulation ring comments on magnetized electron cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the brief introduction of the RCNP cooling synchrotron (MSR - Multipurpose Storage Ring), the characteristics of the circulation ring (CR), which is now under construction, are summarized. Some efforts toward the MSR, the next stage of the CR, are also described. In the MSR the completely new scheme will be used for beam cooling. The possibility of stimmulated magnetized electron cooling (say, advanced electron cooling), which lies between the ordinary electron cooling and the new scheme, is discussed. (author)

  8. Access control and interlock system at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrestal, J.; Hogrefe, R.; Knott, M.; McDowell, W.; Reigle, D.; Solita, L.; Koldenhoven, R.; Haid, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source

    1997-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) consists of a linac, position accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron, storage ring, and up to 70 experimental beamlines. The Access Control and Interlock System (ACIS) utilizes redundant programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and a third hard-wired chain to protect personnel from prompt radiation generated by the linac, PAR, synchrotron, and storage ring. This paper describes the ACIS`s design philosophy, configuration, hardware, functionality, validation requirements, and operational experience.

  9. The Canarias Einstein ring: a newly discovered optical Einstein ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinelli, M.; Simioni, M.; Aparicio, A.; Hidalgo, S. L.; Cassisi, S.; Walker, A. R.; Piotto, G.; Valdes, F.

    2016-09-01

    We report the discovery of an optical Einstein ring in the Sculptor constellation, IAC J010127-334319, in the vicinity of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. It is an almost complete ring (˜300°) with a diameter of ˜4.5 arcsec. The discovery was made serendipitously from inspecting Dark Energy Camera (DECam) archive imaging data. Confirmation of the object nature has been obtained by deriving spectroscopic redshifts for both components, lens and source, from observations at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC) with the spectrograph OSIRIS. The lens, a massive early-type galaxy, has a redshift of z = 0.581, while the source is a starburst galaxy with redshift of z = 1.165. The total enclosed mass that produces the lensing effect has been estimated to be Mtot = (1.86 ± 0.23) × 1012 M⊙.

  10. The Canarias Einstein Ring: a Newly Discovered Optical Einstein Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Bettinelli, Margherita; Aparicio, Antonio; Hidalgo, Sebastian L; Cassisi, Santi; Walker, Alistair R; Piotto, Giampaolo; Valdes, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of an optical Einstein Ring in the Sculptor constellation, IAC J010127-334319, in the vicinity of the Sculptor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy. It is an almost complete ring ($\\sim 300^{\\circ}$) with a diameter of $\\sim 4.5\\, {\\rm arcsec}$. The discovery was made serendipitously from inspecting Dark Energy Camera (DECam) archive imaging data. Confirmation of the object nature has been obtained by deriving spectroscopic redshifts for both components, lens and source, from observations at the $10.4$ m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC) with the spectrograph OSIRIS. The lens, a massive early-type galaxy, has a redshift of ${\\rm z}=0.581$ while the source is a starburst galaxy with redshift of ${\\rm z}=1.165$. The total enclosed mass that produces the lensing effect has been estimated to be ${\\rm M_{tot}=(1.86 \\pm 0.23) \\,\\cdot 10^{12}\\, {\\rm M_{\\odot}}}$.

  11. Some Additive Combinatorics Problems in Matrix Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, R.; Hoffman, C.; De Luca, F.; Ostafe, A; Shparlinski, I. E.

    2009-01-01

    We study the distribution of singular and unimodular matrices in sumsets in matrix rings over finite fields. We apply these results to estimate the largest prime divisor of the determinants in sumsets in matrix rings over the integers.

  12. The Structure of gr-simple Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱彬

    2003-01-01

    A characterization of gr-simple rings is given by using the notion of componentwise-dense subrings of a full matrix ring over a division ring. As a conse-quence, any G-graded full matrix ring over a division ring is isomorphic to a dense subring of a full matrix ring with a good G-grading. Some conditions for a grading of a full matrix ring to be isomorphic to a good one are given, which generalize some results in: Dáscáscu, S., Lon, B., Niǎstǎsescu, C. and Montes, J. R., Group gradingson full matrix rings, J. Algebra, 220(1999), 709-728.

  13. Traumatic corneal endothelial rings from homemade explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Soo Khai; Rudkin, Adam K; Galanopoulos, Anna

    2013-08-01

    Traumatic corneal endothelial rings are remarkably rare ocular findings that may result from blast injury. We present a unique case of bilateral traumatic corneal endothelial rings secondary to blast injury from homemade explosives. PMID:23474743

  14. International Tree Ring Data Bank (ITRDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tree ring data from the International Tree Ring Data Bank and World Data Center for Paleoclimatology archives. Data include raw treering measurements (most are...

  15. Stable rings generated by their units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyin Chen

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the class of rings satisfying (m,1-stable range and investigate equivalent characterizations of such rings. These give generalizations of the corresponding results by Badawi (1994, Ehrlich (1976, and Fisher and Snider (1976.

  16. Planetary science: Shepherds of Saturn's ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crida, Aurélien

    2015-09-01

    Saturn's F ring is chaperoned on both sides by the tiny moons Prometheus and Pandora. Numerical simulations show that this celestial ballet can result from the collision of two aggregates that evolved out of Saturn's main rings.

  17. The Conversion and operation of the Cornell electron storage ring as a test accelerator (CESRTA) for damping rings research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March of 2008, the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) concluded twenty eight years of colliding beam operations for the CLEO high energy physics experiment. We have reconfigured CESR as an ultra low emittance damping ring for use as a test accelerator (CesrTA) for International Linear Collider (ILC) damping ring R and D. The primary goals of the CesrTA program are to achieve a beam emittance approaching that of the ILC Damping Rings with a positron beam, to investigate the interaction of the electron cloud with both low emittance positron and electron beams, to explore methods to suppress the electron cloud, and to develop suitable advanced instrumentation required for these experimental studies (in particular a fast x-ray beam size monitor capable of single pass measurements of individual bunches). We report on progress with the CESR conversion activities, the status and schedule for the experimental program, and the first experimental results that have been obtained.

  18. Nonlinear analysis of ring oscillator circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Xiaoqing

    2010-06-01

    Using nonlinear systems techniques, we analyze the stability properties and synchronization conditions for ring oscillator circuits, which are essential building blocks in digital systems. By making use of its cyclic structure, we investigate local and global stability properties of an n-stage ring oscillator. We present a sufficient condition for global asymptotic stability of the origin and obtain necessity if the ring oscillator consists of identical inverter elements. We then give a synchronization condition for identical interconnected ring oscillators.

  19. Hidden Beauty in Twisted Viking Neck Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Kasper; Bohr, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Many hoards found in Ireland, Scotland, Orkney Islands, and Scandinavia demonstrate the vikings ability to fabricate beautiful arm and neck rings of twisted silver and gold rods. Characteristic for such rings is the uniform appearance of the twisted pattern along the length of the arm ring, as well as from one arm ring to another, also when found at distant geographical locations. How can the appearance of the twisted wires be so perfectly repetitive? We demonstrate that the answer is that th...

  20. RRF Rings which are not LRF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Varadarajan

    2000-05-01

    Define a ring to be RRF (respectively LRF) if every right (respectively left) -module is residually finite. We determine the necessary and sufficient conditions for a formal triangular matrix ring $$T=\\begin{pmatrix}A & 0\\\\ M & B\\end{pmatrix}$$ to be RRF (respectively LRF). Using this we give examples of RRF rings which are not LRF.

  1. Ethinyl Estradiol and Etonogestrel Vaginal Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a flexible ring to place in the vagina.It is usually placed in the vagina and left in place for 3 weeks. After ... the contraceptive ring a certain way inside your vagina. The ring will work no matter how it ...

  2. Beam dynamic issues in TESLA damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we study general requirements on impedances of the linear collider TESLA damping ring design. Quantitative consideration is performed for 17-km long ''dog-bone'' ring. Beam dynamics in alternative options of 6.3 and 2.3-km long damping rings is briefly discussed. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Type Ⅱ codes over finite rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOUGHERTY; Steven; T

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we generalize the concept of Type Ⅱ codes to arbitrary finite rings. We focus on Type Ⅱ codes over finite chain rings and use the Chinese Remainder Theorem on these codes to study Type Ⅱ codes over principal ideal rings.

  4. On the intersection ring of graph manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Doig, Margaret I.; Horn, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the intersection ring of three-dimensional graph manifolds with rational coefficients and give an algebraic characterization of these rings when the manifold's underlying graph is a tree. We are able to use this characterization to show that the intersection ring obstructs arbitrary three-manifolds from being homology cobordant to certain graph manifolds.

  5. Self-gravitation in Saturn's rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a ring-shaped collisional system self-gravitation reduces the equilibrium values of the geometric and optical thickness. In Saturn's rings both effects are appreciable. The previously found discrepancy between the calculated profile and the observed profile of the rings is chiefly caused by the omission of self-gravitation. (Auth.)

  6. Drag of buoyant vortex rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasel-Be-Hagh, Ahmadreza; Carriveau, Rupp; Ting, David S-K; Turner, John Stewart

    2015-10-01

    Extending from the model proposed by Vasel-Be-Hagh et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 769, 522 (2015)], a perturbation analysis is performed to modify Turner's radius by taking into account the viscous effect. The modified radius includes two terms; the zeroth-order solution representing the effect of buoyancy, and the first-order perturbation correction describing the influence of viscosity. The zeroth-order solution is explicit Turner's radius; the first-order perturbation modification, however, includes the drag coefficient, which is unknown and of interest. Fitting the photographically measured radius into the modified equation yields the time history of the drag coefficient of the corresponding buoyant vortex ring. To give further clarification, the proposed model is applied to calculate the drag coefficient of a buoyant vortex ring at a Bond number of approximately 85; a similar procedure can be applied at other Bond numbers. PMID:26565349

  7. E-læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala

    2010-01-01

    Når der etableres forbindelser mellem uddannelse og it, så sker der forandringer af, hvad det vil sige at tale om uddannelse. Uddannelsen har måske ikke en fysisk campus. Det er heller ikke sikkert, at man behøver at gå i formel skole eller tage musiktimer hos en musiklærer ansigt-til-ansigt for ...... lære at spille guitar. E-læring eller på engelsk e-learning vil sige, at undervisningen og dermed din læring sker med it - noget som man er nødt til at tage bestik af....

  8. Drag of buoyant vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasel-Be-Hagh, Ahmadreza; Carriveau, Rupp; Ting, David S.-K.; Turner, John Stewart

    2015-10-01

    Extending from the model proposed by Vasel-Be-Hagh et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 769, 522 (2015), 10.1017/jfm.2015.126], a perturbation analysis is performed to modify Turner's radius by taking into account the viscous effect. The modified radius includes two terms; the zeroth-order solution representing the effect of buoyancy, and the first-order perturbation correction describing the influence of viscosity. The zeroth-order solution is explicit Turner's radius; the first-order perturbation modification, however, includes the drag coefficient, which is unknown and of interest. Fitting the photographically measured radius into the modified equation yields the time history of the drag coefficient of the corresponding buoyant vortex ring. To give further clarification, the proposed model is applied to calculate the drag coefficient of a buoyant vortex ring at a Bond number of approximately 85; a similar procedure can be applied at other Bond numbers.

  9. Storage ring optimization. Ch. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most existing electron-storage rings have been optimized and constructed for the needs of high-energy physics. Storage rings designed to serve as high-brightness synchrotron light sources, in contrast, require a very different optimization. Particle beams in colliding beam facilities for high-energy physics experiments produce the highest efficiency, called luminosity, when they have a large cross section, while very small cross sections are required for maximum performance of synchrotron radiation sources The optimization of high-brightness synchrotron-radiation sources has been studied at many laboratories around the world and in this chapter it is tried to recount the goals and achievements of these efforts. (author). 26 refs.; 17 figs

  10. Ball-joint grounding ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aperlo, P. J. A.; Buck, P. A.; Weldon, V. A.

    1981-01-01

    In ball and socket joint where electrical insulator such as polytetrafluoroethylene is used as line to minimize friction, good electrical contact across joint may be needed for lightning protection or to prevent static-charge build-up. Electrical contact is maintained by ring of spring-loaded fingers mounted in socket. It may be useful in industry for cranes, trailers, and other applications requiring ball and socket joint.

  11. ring mellem elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob; Georgsen, Marianne

    I denne rapport tilbyder vi et indblik i det gennemførte projekt, og forfatterne har valgt nogle forhold ud, som belyses og diskuteres, mens andre ikke berøres eller diskuteres nævneværdigt i denne rapport. Det skyldes blandt andet projektets mange facetter, som dækker både læring, teknologi, pæd...

  12. ring mellem elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgsen, Marianne; Davidsen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    I denne rapport præsenteres resultater fra følgeforskningen til projektet Læring gennem Bevægelse, som er gennemført på Søndervangskolen i Hammel i perioden august 2009 - maj 2010. Projektet er gennemført i samspil mellem lærere, it-vejleder, elever og skolens ledelse. Projektets overordnede formål...

  13. All fiber nonreciprocal ring laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtíšek, Petr; Honzátko, Pavel

    Bellingham: SPIE, 2012. ISBN 978-0-8194-9481-8. [18th Czech-Polish-Slovak Optical Conference on Wave and Quantum Aspects of Contemporary Optics. Ostravice (CZ), 03.09.2012-07.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/1840 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Non-reciprocity * all-fiber * ring laser Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  14. Two Superconducting Storage Rings: ISABELLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The general features of the design and the status of the ISABELLE storage ring project at the present time are reported. It brings up to date the results reported at the National Particle Accelerator Conference in March 1977. The most significant change since that time has been an upgrading of the energy of the overall facility, and acceptance of the project by the Department of Energy.

  15. ring og it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Antologien er et bidrag til didaktiske diskussioner om brug af f.eks. programpakker til sprogundervisning, præsentationsprogrammel og konferencesystemer på de videregående uddannelser. Antologien diskuterer ideen om, at multimediale medier og internettet kan understøtte læring, undervisning og ...... samarbejde ud fra konkrete eksempler på it-anvendelser, hvor fokus er på potentialer, barrierer og faldgruber....

  16. Tits indices over semilocal rings

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, V.; Stavrova, A.

    2008-01-01

    We give a simplified proof of Tits' classification of semisimple algebraic groups that remains valid over semilocal rings. In particular, we provide explicit necessary and sufficient conditions that anisotropic groups of a given type appear as anisotropic kernels of semisimple groups of a given Tits index. We also give a new proof of the existence of all indices of exceptional inner type using the notion of canonical dimension of projective homogeneous varieties.

  17. THE RELATION BETWEEN QUASI VALUATION AND VALUATION RING AND FILTERED RING

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hassan Anjom SHoa

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show the relation between filtered ring and quasi valuation and valuation ring . We show if R is a filtered ring then we can define a quasi valuation. And if R is some kind of filtered ring then we can define a valuation. Then we prove some properties and relations for R.

  18. THE RELATION BETWEEN QUASI VALUATION AND VALUATION RING AND FILTERED RING

    OpenAIRE

    SHoa, Mohammad Hassan Anjom

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show the relation between filtered ring and quasi valuation and valuation ring . We show if is a filtered ring then we can define a quasi valuation. And if is some kind of filtered ring then we can define a valuation. Then we prove some properties and relations for

  19. Generalized Double Ring Network Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Patel, A.; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Madsen, Ole Brun

    This paper describes and studies generalizations of the well-known double ring network structures. Two classes of structures are studied, the N2R(p; q) and N2R(p; q; r) structures, of which the former is a special case of the well known Generalized Petersen Graphs. Basic properties of these...... distances and diameters is evaluated and compared to the performance of double rings. This comparison shows that the N2R(p; q) structures are superior to the double rings with regard to distances. For example, a N2R(p; q) structure with 1000 nodes has average distance 12 and diameter 18, while a similar...... structures are shown, indicating that they forma suitable base for future access network infrastructures. The first result is that every N2R(p; q; r) structure is isomorphic to a N2R(p; q) structure N2R(p; q'), and it is shown how q' is determined. Consequently, the rest of the paper focuses on the N2R(p; q...

  20. Carbon-14 in tree rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate how reliably the carbon 14 content of tree rings reflects that of atmospheric carbon dioxide, two types of determinations were carried out: (1) carbon 14 determinations in annual rings from the beginning of this century until 1974 and (2) carbon 14 determinations in synchronous wood from the North American bristlecone pine and from European oak trees, dendrochronologically dated to have grown in the third and fourth century B.C. The first series of measurements showed that bomb-produced radiocarbon was incorporated in wood at a time when it was converted from sapwood to heartwood, whenever radiocarbon from bomb testing was present in the atmosphere. The second series showed that wood more than 2000 years old and grown on two different continents at different altitudes had, within the limits of experimental error, the same radiocarbon content. This work and other experimental evidence, obtained in part by other laboratories, show that tree rings reflect the average radiocarbon content of global atmospheric carbon dioxide accurately within several parts per mil. In rare cases, deviations of up to 10 parts per thousand may be possible. This means that a typical single radiocarbon date for wood or charcoal possesses an intrinsic uncertainty (viz., an estimated ''one-sigma error'' in addition to all the other errors) of the order of +-50 years. This intrinsic uncertainty is independent of the absolute age of the sample. More accurate dates can, in principle, be obtained by the so-called method of ''wiggle matching.''

  1. Contraceptive vaginal ring (NuvaRing)-a novel, convenient and effective contraceptive option

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wei-lin; Fan Guang-sheng

    2011-01-01

    Contraceptive vaginal ring (NuvaRing) is a new combined hormonal contraceptive method.Each ring contains 2.7mg ethinyl estradiol (EE) and 11.7mg etonogestrel.The ring is characteristic with its ease of use,lower EE systemic exposure and excellent cycle control.Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy and safety of the ring are equivalent to combined oral contraceptive (COC).The side effects of the ring are fewer and the biocompatibility is good.Recent studies have proved that the NuvaRing is a new,effective hormonal contraceptive option for women.

  2. Domain structure of circular and ring magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of a study of the domain structure and the magnetization reversal processes in arrays of circular and ring magnets, obtained by magnetic force microscopy and magnetization measurements. The particles, with outer diameter 0.55 and 2.2 μm, were made of Permalloy films of thickness 24 and 66 nm. In the circular elements two domain configurations were observed: a vortex structure with perpendicular magnetization at the core and a 'bud' state. In the ring elements the domain structure was found to depend on the ring width: a flux closed state was formed in wide rings and the 'onion' state was observed in narrow rings

  3. K stability and stability of chiral ring

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Tristan C; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2016-01-01

    We define a notion of stability for chiral ring of four dimensional N=1 theory by introducing test chiral rings and generalized a maximization. We conjecture that a chiral ring is the chiral ring of a superconformal field theory if and only if it is stable. We then study N=1 field theory derived from D3 branes probing a three-fold singularity X, and show that the K stability which implies the existence of Ricci-flat conic metric on X is equivalent to the stability of chiral ring of the corresponding field theory.

  4. Modeling equinox temperature variations in Saturn's rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, L. J.; Ferrari, C. C.; Morishima, R.

    2011-12-01

    For a few days around Saturn ring equinox, the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) obtained data on Saturn's rings at different local times and phase angles. We examine results from 15 scans taken near equinox. The sun was shining on the south side of the rings prior to the equinox crossing. The solar elevation angle in the 15 scans varied between -0.00007 degrees and 0.036 degrees and the phase angle ranged from 30 degrees to 147 degrees. The equinox geometry is unique because the sun is edge-on to the rings. Saturn heating dominates while solar heating is at a minimum. The ring temperature varies between the lit and unlit sides of the A and B rings when the sun is the dominant heat source. With the sun shining on the rings the temperature of the lit rings decreases with increasing phase angle and the ring temperature in the shadow is less than the ring temperature at noon. At equinox the ring temperature does not decrease with increasing phase angle and the temperature at noon is no longer greater than the temperature in the shadow. As the solar elevation angle decreased the last few degrees, the ring temperatures on the lit and unlit sides rapidly decreased to the coldest temperatures observed thus far. At equinox radial and longitudinal temperature variations are observed in the A, B and C rings and the Cassini Division. The radial temperature variations result both from the decreasing Saturn solid angle with increasing distance from the planet and varying optical depth as the screening effect of optically thicker rings limits the heat contribution to primarily one hemisphere of Saturn. Both monolayer and multilayer models can explain the radial variations in ring temperature except for the A ring. A ring model fits produce temperatures that are lower than observed temperatures perhaps because of the effects from gravitational wakes, density waves and bending waves that are not included in the models. Saturn ring temperatures near equinox also vary

  5. Reactor vessel o-ring spring clip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reactor vessel O-ring spring clip is designed to hold a tubular metallic O-ring in the groove of a reactor vessel head flange, especially during vessel head lifting. The spring clip is designed such that the weight of the O-ring acts to increase the friction force between the spring clip and the, typically, threaded hole into which it is inserted. An end of the clip adapted to be inserted through a slot in the tubular O-ring for securement thereto, has a circular member thereon which prevents the spring clip from becoming disengaged from the O-ring during head lifting. (author)

  6. Generalized fuzzy ideals of near-rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Jian-ming; Dawaz B.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of ((∈),(∈)V (q))-fuzzy subnear-rings (ideals) of a near-ring is introduced and some of its related properties are investigated. In particular, the relationships among ordinary fuzzy subnear-rings (ideals), (∈,∈V q)-fuzzy subnear-rings (ideals) and ((∈),(∈)V (q))-fuzzy subnearrings (ideals) of near-rings are described. Finally, some characterization of [μ]t is given by means of (∈,∈V q)-fuzzy ideals.

  7. Measurement of sextupole orbit offsets in the APS storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horizontal orbit errors at the sextuples in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring can cause changes in tune and modulation of the beta functions around the ring. To determine the significance of these effects requires knowing the orbit relative to the magnetic center of the sextuples. The method considered here to determine the horizontal beam position in a given sextupole is to measure the tune shift caused by a change in the sextupole strength. The tune shift and a beta function for the same plane uniquely determine the horizontal beam position in the sextupole. The beta function at the sextupole was determined by propagating the beta functions measured at nearby quadrupoles to the sextupole location. This method was used to measure the sextupole magnetic center offset relative to an adjacent beam position monitor (BPM) at a number of sextupole locations. We report on the successes and problems of the method as well as an improved method

  8. Global coupling and decoupling of the APS storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Y.C.; Liu, J.; Teng, L.C.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes a study of controlling the coupling between the horizontal and the vertical betatron oscillations in the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. First, we investigate the strengthening of coupling using two families of skew quadrupoles. Twenty skew quadrupoles are arranged in the 40 sectors of the storage ring and powered in such a way so as to generate both quadrature components of the required 21st harmonic. The numerical results from tracking a single particle are presented for the various configurations of skew quadrupoles. Second, we describe the global decoupling procedure to minimize the unwanted coupling effects. These are mainly due to the random roll errors of normal quadruples. It is shown that even with the rather large rms roll error of 2 mrad, the coupling effects can be compensated for with 20 skew quadrupoles each having maximum strength one order of magnitude lower than the typical normal quadrupole strength.

  9. Survey of Digital Feedback Systems in High Current Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade demand for brightness in synchrotron light sources and luminosity in circular colliders led to construction of multiple high current storage rings. Many of these new machines require feedback systems to achieve design stored beam currents. In the same time frame the rapid advances in the technology of digital signal processing allowed the implementation of these complex feedback systems. In this paper I concentrate on three applications of feedback to storage rings: orbit control in light sources, coupled-bunch instability control, and low-level RF control. Each of these applications is challenging in areas of processing bandwidth, algorithm complexity, and control of time-varying beam and system dynamics. I will review existing implementations as well as comment on promising future directions

  10. Structuring Light by Concentric-Ring Patterned Magnetic Metamaterial Cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jinwei; Gao, Jie; Luk, Ting S; Litchinitser, Natalia M; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-08-12

    Ultracompact and tunable beam converters pose a significant potential for modern optical technologies ranging from classical and quantum communication to optical manipulation. Here we design and demonstrate concentric-ring patterned structures of magnetic metamaterial cavities capable of tailoring both polarization and phase of light by converting circularly polarized light into a vector beam with an orbital angular momentum. We experimentally illustrate the realization of both radially and azimuthally polarized vortex beams using such concentric-ring patterned magnetic metamaterials. These results contribute to the advanced complex light manipulation with optical metamaterials, making it one step closer to realizing the simultaneous control of polarization and orbital angular momentum of light on a chip. PMID:26121268

  11. Persistent current in a magnetized Rashba ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lin; Wang Jun

    2011-01-01

    We theoretically study the persistent currents flowing in a Rashba quantum ring subjected to the Rashba spinorbit interaction.By introducing uniform or nonuniform magnetization into the ring,we find that a nonzero persistent charge current circulates in the ring,which stems from the original equilibrium spin current due to the Rashba spinorbit interaction.Because of broken time reversal symmetry,the two oppositely flowing spin-up and spin-down charge currents of the equilibrium spin current are no longer equal,and so a net persistent charge current can flow in the system.It is also found that the persistent current can be modulated by the Fermi energy,the Rashba spin-orbit interaction strength and the magnetization in the ring.Moreover,the magnetization perpendicular to the ring plane can optimize the current.The persistent current flowing in the ring is a manifestation of the nonzero equilibrium spin current existing in the ring.

  12. Rings with each right ideal automorphism-invariant

    OpenAIRE

    KOŞAN, M. Tamer; Quynh, Truong Cong; Srivastava, Ashish K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study rings having the property that every right ideal is automorphism-invariant. Such rings are called right $a$-rings. It is shown that (1) a right $a$-ring is a direct sum of a square-full semisimple artinian ring and a right square-free ring, (2) a ring $R$ is semisimple artinian if and only if the matrix ring $\\mathbb{M}_n(R)$ for some $n>1$ is a right $a$-ring, (3) every right $a$-ring is stably-finite, (4) a right $a$-ring is von Neumann regular if and only if it is s...

  13. Variations in Ring Particle Cooling across Saturn's Rings with Cassini CIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S. M.; Spilker, L. J.; Pilorz, S.; Edgington, S. G.; Déau, E.; Altobelli, N.

    2010-12-01

    Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer has recorded over two million of spectra of Saturn's rings in the far infrared since arriving at Saturn in 2004. CIRS records far infrared radiation between 10 and 600 cm-1 ( 16.7 and 1000 μ {m} ) at focal plane 1 (FP1), which has a field of view of 3.9 mrad. Thermal emission from Saturn’s rings peaks in this wavelength range. Ring temperatures can be inferred from FP1 data. By tracking how ring temperatures vary, we can determine the thermal inertia of the rings. Previous studies have shown that the rings' thermal inertia, a measure of their response to changes in the thermal environment, varies from ring to ring. Thermal inertia can provide insight into the physical structure of Saturn's ring particles and their regoliths. Low thermal inertia and rapidly changing temperatures are suggestive of ring particles that have more porous or fluffy regoliths or that are riddled with cracks. Solid particles can be expected to have higher thermal inertias. Ferrari et al. (2005) fit thermal inertia values of 5218 {Jm)-2 {K}-1 {s}-1/2 to their B ring data and 6412 {Jm)-2 {K}-1 {s}-1/2 to their C ring data. In this work we focus on CIRS observations of the shadowed portion of Saturn's rings. The rings’ thermal budget is dominated by its absorption of solar radiation. As a result, ring particles abruptly cool as they traverse Saturn's shadow. From these shadow observations we can create cooling curves at specific locations across the rings. We will show that the rings' cooling curves and thus their thermal inertia vary not only from ring to ring, but by location within the individual rings. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2010 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  14. A Saturn Ring Observer Mission Using Multi-Mission Radioisotope Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saturn remains one of the most fascinating planets within the solar system. To better understand the complex ring structure of this planet, a conceptual Saturn Ring Observer (SRO) mission is presented that would spend one year in close proximity to Saturn's A and B rings, and perform detailed observations and measurements of the ring particles and electric and magnetic fields. The primary objective of the mission would be to understand ring dynamics, including the microphysics of individual particles and small scale (meters to a few kilometers) phenomena such as particle agglomeration behavior. This would be accomplished by multispectral imaging of the rings at multiple key locations within the A and B rings, and by ring-particle imaging at an unprecedented resolution of 0.5 cm/pixel. The SRO spacecraft would use a Venus-Earth-Earth-Jupiter Gravity Assist (VEEJGA) and be aerocaptured into Saturn orbit using an advanced aeroshell design to minimize propellant mass. Once in orbit, the SRO would stand off from the ring plane 1 to 1.4 km using chemical thrusters to provide short propulsive maneuvers four times per revolution, effectively causing the SRO vehicle to 'hop' above the ring plane. The conceptual SRO spacecraft would be enabled by the use of a new generation of multi-mission Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) currently being developed by NASA and DOE. These RPSs include the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) and Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). The RPSs would generate all necessary electrical power (≥330 We at beginning of life) during the 10-year cruise and 1-year science mission (∼11 years total). The RPS heat would be used to maintain the vehicle's operating and survival temperatures, minimizing the need for electrical heaters. Such a mission could potentially launch in the 2015-2020 timeframe, with operations at Saturn commencing in approximately 2030

  15. Nanofiber-segment ring resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, D E; Franson, J D; Pittman, T B

    2016-01-01

    We describe a fiber ring resonator comprised of a relatively long loop of standard single-mode fiber with a short nanofiber segment. The evanescent mode of the nanofiber segment allows the cavity-enhanced field to interact with atoms in close proximity to the nanofiber surface. We report on an experiment using a warm atomic vapor and low-finesse cavity, and briefly discuss the potential for reaching the strong coupling regime of cavity QED by using trapped atoms and a high-finesse cavity of this kind.

  16. The SABS finger ring service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All radiation workers are required by law to wear personal dosimeters to measure the radiation dose they receive in the course of their work. However, there was a need to measure the radiation dose received by the fingers and hands, because they are much closer to the source of radiation than the rest of the body. In April 1982 a finger ring service was instituted on a routine basis. A thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) is used, which is suitable for both X-rays and gamma rays. Materials that are used for thermoluminescent dosimeters includes LiF:Mg, CaF2:Dy and CaSO4:Dy

  17. Viden og Læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordum, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Jeg vil i denne sammenhæng præsentere en fortolkning af hvordan Jürgen Habermas i forhold til klassisk epistemologi forstår viden og læring. Jeg vil argumentere for at vi i videnssamfundet har brug for den realistiske diskursbaserede model for videnstestning og vidensdannelse Habermas repræsenterer....... Endvidere vil jeg ved at rekonstruere Habermas' position med overbevisningen og propositionen som omdrejningspunkt vise at Habermas teori direkte kan omsættes som analysegrundlag og forståelsesramme for en hvilken som helst tematiseret praksis. Alt hvad der er virkeligt kan udtrykkes propositionelt. Den...

  18. Interface-læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Interface-læring er den læringsoplevelse, der kan opstå i grænsefladen mellem to væsensforskellige læringsmiljøer, når de mødes og griber ind i hinanden. Et gymnasium og et museum er eksempler på to sådanne læringsmiljøer. Artiklen præsenterer nogle af de væsentligste resultater fra min ph.d. afh.......d. afhandling Interface Learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school collaboration (2014)....

  19. Polyurethane Foams with Pyrimidine Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kania Ewelina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligoetherols based on pyrimidine ring were obtained upon reaction of barbituric acid with glycidol and alkylene carbonates. These oligoetherols were then used to obtain polyurethane foams in the reaction of oligoetherols with isocyanates and water. The protocol of foam synthesis was optimized by the choice of proper kind of oligoetherol and synthetic composition. The thermal resistance was studied by dynamic and static methods with concomitant monitoring of compressive strength. The polyurethane foams have similar physical properties as the classic ones except their enhanced thermal resistance. They stand long-time heating even at 200°C. Moreover thermal exposition of foams results generally in increase of their compressive strength.

  20. Stability of Axisymmetric Pendular Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Fel, Leonid G

    2014-01-01

    Based on the Weierstrass representation of second variation we develop a non-spectral theory of stability for isoperimetric problem with minimized and constrained two-dimensional functionals of general type and free endpoints allowed to move along two given planar curves. We apply this theory to the axisymmetric pendular ring between two solid bodies without gravity to determine the stability of menisci with free contact lines. For catenoid and cylinder menisci and different solid shapes we determine the stability domain. The other menisci (unduloid, nodoid and sphere) are considered in a simple setup between two plates. We find the existence conditions of stable unduloid menisci with and without inflection points.

  1. Storage ring proton EDM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    sensitivity of 10^-29 e-cm.  The strength of the method originates from the fact that there are high intensity polarized proton beams available and the fact that the so-called geometric phase systematic error background cancels with clock-wise and counter-clock-wise storage possible in electric rings. The ultimate sensitivity of the method is 10^-30 e-cm. At this level it will either detect a non-zero EDM or it will eliminate electro-weak baryogenesis.

  2. Interaction of ring dark solitons with ring impurities in Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of ring dark solitons/vortexes with the ring-shaped repulsive and attractive impurities in two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates is investigated numerically. Very rich interaction phenomena are obtained, i.e., not only the interaction between the ring soliton and the impurity, but also the interaction between vortexes and the impurity. The interaction characters, i.e., snaking of ring soliton, quasitrapping or reflection of ring soliton and vortexes by the impurity, strongly depend on initial ring soliton velocity, impurity strength, initial position of ring soliton and impurity. The numerical results also reveal that ring dark solitons/vortexes can be trapped and dragged by an adiabatically moving attractive ring impurity

  3. Hermitian Groups over Local Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoping Tang

    2001-01-01

    The general hermitian group GH2n(R,a1,... ,ar) of rank n and its elementary subgroup EH2n(R,a1,... ,ar) were introduced by Bak [1] and Tang [4], respectively. It is known that EH2n(R, a1,... , ar) is perfect whenever n ≥ r+ 3 and the stable elementary hermitian group EH(R,a1,... ,ar) is the commutator subgroup of the stable general hermitian group GH(R, a1,... , ar).In this paper, we prove that, when R is a local ring, EH2n(R, a1,... , ar) is a normal subgroup of GH2n (R, a1,... , ar) if n ≥ r+2, and is the commutator subgroup of GH2n(R, a1,... , ar) if n ≥ r + 3. In the special case that R is a division ring,we show that the quotient group of GH2n(R, a1,... , ar) by EH2n(R, a1,... , ar)is independent of the choice of a1,... , ar.

  4. Replantation of ring avulsion amputations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabapathy R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Replantation of ring avulsion injuries is a challenge because of the long segment damage to the vessels and intrinsic damage caused to soft tissues at the proximal edge of the amputation. Eight patients with total ring avulsion amputations underwent microsurgical replantation in the period 1994 to 2002. Arterial repair was done by direct vessel suture in three patients, interposition vein grafts in two and cross anastomosis of the digital arteries in three patients. Venous anastomosis was carried out by mobilization and direct suture in seven patients and vessel transfer from the adjacent finger in one patient. Seven of the eight replantations were successful, while one patient had a partial failure. At a minimum follow-up of one year, these patients showed good functional and cosmetic recovery. All successful patients were happy with the outcome and none have requested for amputation, even those whose results were not functionally adequate. However, in addition to technical factors, it is important to evaluate the patient's motivation to undergo not only the long surgery, but also multiple secondary procedures and regular supervised physiotherapy. We also describe a simple method which prevents the soft tissues inside the degloved digit from becoming wrapped around the K wire during bony fixation, thus making one step of this technically challenging procedure a little easier.

  5. The Cryogenic Storage Ring CSR

    CERN Document Server

    von Hahn, Robert; Berg, Felix; Blaum, Klaus; Breitenfeldt, Christian; Fadil, Hisham; Fellenberger, Florian; Froese, Michael; George, Sebastian; Göck, Jürgen; Grieser, Manfred; Grussie, Florian; Guerin, Elisabeth A; Heber, Oded; Herwig, Philipp; Karthein, Jonas; Krantz, Claude; Kreckel, Holger; Lange, Michael; Laux, Felix; Lohmann, Svenja; Menk, Sebastian; Meyer, Christian; Mishra, Preeti M; Novotný, Oldřich; Connor, Aodh P O; Orlov, Dmitry A; Rappaport, Michael L; Repnow, Roland; Saurabh, Sunny; Schippers, Stefan; Schröter, Claus Dieter; Schwalm, Dirk; Schweikhard, Lutz; Sieber, Thomas; Shornikov, Andrey; Spruck, Kaija; Kumar, Sudhakaran Sunil; Ullrich, Joachim; Urbain, Xavier; Vogel, Stephen; Wilhelm, Patrick; Wolf, Andreas; Zajfman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    An electrostatic cryogenic storage ring, CSR, for beams of anions and cations with up to 300 keV kinetic energy per unit charge has been designed, constructed and put into operation. With a circumference of 35 m, the ion-beam vacuum chambers and all beam optics are in a cryostat and cooled by a closed-cycle liquid helium system. At temperatures as low as (5.5 $\\pm$ 1) K inside the ring, storage time constants of several minutes up to almost an hour were observed for atomic and molecular, anion and cation beams at an energy of 60 keV. The ion-beam intensity, energy-dependent closed-orbit shifts (dispersion) and the focusing properties of the machine were studied by a system of capacitive pickups. The Schottky-noise spectrum of the stored ions revealed a broadening of the momentum distribution on a time scale of 1000 s. Photodetachment of stored anions was used in the beam lifetime measurements. The detachment rate by anion collisions with residual-gas molecules was found to be extremely low. A residual-gas den...

  6. The cryogenic storage ring CSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hahn, R; Becker, A; Berg, F; Blaum, K; Breitenfeldt, C; Fadil, H; Fellenberger, F; Froese, M; George, S; Göck, J; Grieser, M; Grussie, F; Guerin, E A; Heber, O; Herwig, P; Karthein, J; Krantz, C; Kreckel, H; Lange, M; Laux, F; Lohmann, S; Menk, S; Meyer, C; Mishra, P M; Novotný, O; O'Connor, A P; Orlov, D A; Rappaport, M L; Repnow, R; Saurabh, S; Schippers, S; Schröter, C D; Schwalm, D; Schweikhard, L; Sieber, T; Shornikov, A; Spruck, K; Sunil Kumar, S; Ullrich, J; Urbain, X; Vogel, S; Wilhelm, P; Wolf, A; Zajfman, D

    2016-06-01

    An electrostatic cryogenic storage ring, CSR, for beams of anions and cations with up to 300 keV kinetic energy per unit charge has been designed, constructed, and put into operation. With a circumference of 35 m, the ion-beam vacuum chambers and all beam optics are in a cryostat and cooled by a closed-cycle liquid helium system. At temperatures as low as (5.5 ± 1) K inside the ring, storage time constants of several minutes up to almost an hour were observed for atomic and molecular, anion and cation beams at an energy of 60 keV. The ion-beam intensity, energy-dependent closed-orbit shifts (dispersion), and the focusing properties of the machine were studied by a system of capacitive pickups. The Schottky-noise spectrum of the stored ions revealed a broadening of the momentum distribution on a time scale of 1000 s. Photodetachment of stored anions was used in the beam lifetime measurements. The detachment rate by anion collisions with residual-gas molecules was found to be extremely low. A residual-gas density below 140 cm(-3) is derived, equivalent to a room-temperature pressure below 10(-14) mbar. Fast atomic, molecular, and cluster ion beams stored for long periods of time in a cryogenic environment will allow experiments on collision- and radiation-induced fragmentation processes of ions in known internal quantum states with merged and crossed photon and particle beams. PMID:27370434

  7. The cryogenic storage ring CSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hahn, R.; Becker, A.; Berg, F.; Blaum, K.; Breitenfeldt, C.; Fadil, H.; Fellenberger, F.; Froese, M.; George, S.; Göck, J.; Grieser, M.; Grussie, F.; Guerin, E. A.; Heber, O.; Herwig, P.; Karthein, J.; Krantz, C.; Kreckel, H.; Lange, M.; Laux, F.; Lohmann, S.; Menk, S.; Meyer, C.; Mishra, P. M.; Novotný, O.; O'Connor, A. P.; Orlov, D. A.; Rappaport, M. L.; Repnow, R.; Saurabh, S.; Schippers, S.; Schröter, C. D.; Schwalm, D.; Schweikhard, L.; Sieber, T.; Shornikov, A.; Spruck, K.; Sunil Kumar, S.; Ullrich, J.; Urbain, X.; Vogel, S.; Wilhelm, P.; Wolf, A.; Zajfman, D.

    2016-06-01

    An electrostatic cryogenic storage ring, CSR, for beams of anions and cations with up to 300 keV kinetic energy per unit charge has been designed, constructed, and put into operation. With a circumference of 35 m, the ion-beam vacuum chambers and all beam optics are in a cryostat and cooled by a closed-cycle liquid helium system. At temperatures as low as (5.5 ± 1) K inside the ring, storage time constants of several minutes up to almost an hour were observed for atomic and molecular, anion and cation beams at an energy of 60 keV. The ion-beam intensity, energy-dependent closed-orbit shifts (dispersion), and the focusing properties of the machine were studied by a system of capacitive pickups. The Schottky-noise spectrum of the stored ions revealed a broadening of the momentum distribution on a time scale of 1000 s. Photodetachment of stored anions was used in the beam lifetime measurements. The detachment rate by anion collisions with residual-gas molecules was found to be extremely low. A residual-gas density below 140 cm-3 is derived, equivalent to a room-temperature pressure below 10-14 mbar. Fast atomic, molecular, and cluster ion beams stored for long periods of time in a cryogenic environment will allow experiments on collision- and radiation-induced fragmentation processes of ions in known internal quantum states with merged and crossed photon and particle beams.

  8. Hochschild and ordinary cohomology rings of small categories

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Fei

    2008-01-01

    Advances in Mathematics, accepted Let C be a small category and k a field. There are two interesting mathematical subjects: the category algebra kC and the classifying space |C|=BC. We study the ring homomorphism HH^*(kC) ---> H^*(|C|,k) and prove it is split surjective, using the factorization category of Quillen and certain techniques from functor cohomology theory. This generalizes the well-known theorems for groups and posets. Based on this result, we construct a seven-dimensional cate...

  9. SOR-RING: an electron storage ring dedicated to spectroscopy, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electron storage ring dedicated to the vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy in the wavelength region above 40 A has been designed. The ring is expected to operate at 300 MeV and 100 mA. Electrons with the energy of 300 MeV are extracted from a 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron at Institute for Nuclear Study(INS) and injected into the ring. The ring is essentially a weak focusing machine with an adjustable operating point. Various parameters of the ring are shown. The design principle is described in connection with the important parts of the ring. (auth.)

  10. Advanced Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The First Florida-Brazil Seminar on Materials and the Second State Meeting about new materials in Rio de Janeiro State show the specific technical contribution in advanced ceramic sector. The others main topics discussed for the development of the country are the advanced ceramic programs the market, the national technic-scientific capacitation, the advanced ceramic patents, etc. (C.G.C.)

  11. SLC positron damping ring optics design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic SLAC Linear Collider operation scheme assumes the use of two damping rings, one for the e-, one for the e+, in order to reduce the colliding beam normalized emittances to 30 π μradm hence raising the corresponding luminosity by a factor 170. The e- damping ring optics, designed by H. Wiedemann, has been extensively studied and modelled since it's completion at the end of 1982. The e+ damping ring being built will be based on the same design except for some modifications resulting from the studies on the e- damping ring which clearly pointed out two major weak points as far as the optics is concerned. The present paper describes the basic modifications of the ring lattice and main equipment positions in order to improve the situation in the Positron Damping Ring. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Threshold Ring Signature Scheme Based on TPM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Bei; Jiang Wei; Lin Li; Li Yu; Zhang Xing

    2012-01-01

    The conventional ring signature schemes cannot address the scenario where the rank of members of the ring needs to be distinguished, for example, in electronically commerce application. To solve this problem, we presented a Trusted Platform Module (TPM)-based threshold ring signature schen. Employing a reliable secret Share Distribution Center (SDC), the proposed approach can authenticate the TPM-based identity rank of members of the ring but not track a specific member's identity. A subset including t members with the same identity rank is built. With the signing cooperation of t members of the subset, the ring signature based on Chinese remainder theorem is generated. We proved the anonymity and unforgeability of the proposed scheme and compared it with the threshold ring signature based on Lagrange interpolation polynomial. Our scheme is relatively simpler to calculate.

  13. A first course in noncommutative rings

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, T Y

    2001-01-01

    A First Course in Noncommutative Rings, an outgrowth of the author's lectures at the University of California at Berkeley, is intended as a textbook for a one-semester course in basic ring theory. The material covered includes the Wedderburn-Artin theory of semisimple rings, Jacobson's theory of the radical, representation theory of groups and algebras, prime and semiprime rings, local and semilocal rings, perfect and semiperfect rings, etc. By aiming the level of writing at the novice rather than the connoisseur and by stressing th the role of examples and motivation, the author has produced a text that is suitable not only for use in a graduate course, but also for self- study in the subject by interested graduate students. More than 400 exercises testing the understanding of the general theory in the text are included in this new edition.

  14. The evolution of swirling axisymmetric vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargan-Shingles, C.; Rudman, M.; Ryan, K.

    2015-08-01

    Swirling vortex rings form in any turbulent flow where a swirling component is present, such as in combustion chambers or the downwash of helicopter blades. Instabilities on initially non-swirling vortex rings result in a localized swirl velocity being generated within the core. The presence of a swirl component of velocity in a vortex ring modifies the relaxation and evolution of numerical Gaussian cores in a manner that is currently unknown. The evolution of Gaussian axisymmetric vortex rings of size 0.2 complete settling of the strain rate within the core does not occur until all sheddings have ceased. Increasing the swirl magnitude past that considered in this paper is expected to result in the original ring losing its structure before the instability can occur. The evolution is found to be qualitatively similar to that of a piston generated axisymmetric vortex ring with swirl, with both cases eventually reaching a similar quasi-steady state.

  15. On Nilpotent Elements of Skew Polynomial Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Esmaeili

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the structure of the set of nilpotent elements in skew polynomial ring R[x; α], when R is an α-Armendariz ring. We prove that if R is a nil α-Armendariz ring and α t = IR, then the set of nilpotent elements of R is an α-compatible subrng of R. Also, it is shown that if R is an α-Armendariz ring and α t = IR, then R is nil α-Armendariz. We give some examples of non α-Armendariz rings which are nil α-Armendariz. Moreover, we show that if α t = IR for some positive integer t and R is a nil α-Armendariz ring and nil(R[x][y; α] = nil(R[x][y], then R[x] is nil α-Armendariz. Some results of [3] follow as consequences of our results

  16. Ring recognition in the CBM RICH detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two algorithms of ring recognition, a standalone ring finder (using only RICH information) and an algorithm based on the information from vertex tracks are described. The fake ring problem and its solution using a set of two-dimensional cuts or an artificial neural network are discussed. Results of a comparative study are given. All developed algorithms were tested on large statistics of simulated events and were then included into the CBM framework for common use

  17. Nuclear physics experiments with ion storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinov, Yu. A.; Bishop, S.; Blaum, K.; Bosch, F.; Brandau, C.; Chen, L. X.; Dillmann, I.; Egelhof, P.; Geissel, H.; Grisenti, R. E.; Hagmann, S.; Heil, M.; Heinz, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Knöbel, R.; Kozhuharov, C.; Lestinsky, M.; Ma, X. W.; Nilsson, T.; Nolden, F.; Ozawa, A.; Raabe, R.; Reed, M. W.; Reifarth, R.; Sanjari, M. S.; Schneider, D.; Simon, H.; Steck, M.; Stöhlker, T.; Sun, B. H.; Tu, X. L.; Uesaka, T.; Walker, P. M.; Wakasugi, M.; Weick, H.; Winckler, N.; Woods, P. J.; Xu, H. S.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.

    2013-12-01

    In the last two decades a number of nuclear structure and astrophysics experiments were performed at heavy-ion storage rings employing unique experimental conditions offered by such machines. Furthermore, building on the experience gained at the two facilities presently in operation, several new storage ring projects were launched worldwide. This contribution is intended to provide a brief review of the fast growing field of nuclear structure and astrophysics research at storage rings.

  18. Locally finitely presented categories and functor rings

    OpenAIRE

    García, J L; Gómez Sánchez, P.L.; J. Martínez Hernández

    2005-01-01

    By using the correspondence between locally finitely presented additive categories and rings with enough idempotents, we study several properties of such rings in terms of the associated categories, and conversely. In particular, it is shown that a ring $R$ (with enough idempotents) is right perfect and the categories of finitely presented right and left $R$-modules are dual to each other if and only if the categories of projective and of injective right $R$-modules are equi...

  19. Inductive Rings and Systems of Diophantine Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Fang BIE; Shi Qiang WANG

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, by using model-theoretic methods, it is shown that some systems of unsolved cubic diophantine equations in number theory can have solutions in certain inductive extension rings of the ring I of rational integers. These inductive rings are not fields, and every element of them is a sum of 4 cubes and a sum of 3 squares. Also some of them satisfy the Goldbach conjecture and some others don't.

  20. Saturn Ring Data Analysis and Thermal Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Coleman

    2011-01-01

    CIRS, VIMS, UVIS, and ISS (Cassini's Composite Infrared Specrtometer, Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer, Ultra Violet Imaging Spectrometer and Imaging Science Subsystem, respectively), have each operated in a multidimensional observation space and have acquired scans of the lit and unlit rings at multiple phase angles. To better understand physical and dynamical ring particle parametric dependence, we co-registered profiles from these three instruments, taken at a wide range of wavelengths, from ultraviolet through the thermal infrared, to associate changes in ring particle temperature with changes in observed brightness, specifically with albedos inferred by ISS, UVIS and VIMS. We work in a parameter space where the solar elevation range is constrained to 12 deg - 14 deg and the chosen radial region is the B3 region of the B ring; this region is the most optically thick region in Saturn's rings. From this compilation of multiple wavelength data, we construct and fit phase curves and color ratios using independent dynamical thermal models for ring structure and overplot Saturn, Saturn ring, and Solar spectra. Analysis of phase curve construction and color ratios reveals thermal emission to fall within the extrema of the ISS bandwidth and a geometrical dependence of reddening on phase angle, respectively. Analysis of spectra reveals Cassini CIRS Saturn spectra dominate Cassini CIRS B3 Ring Spectra from 19 to 1000 microns, while Earth-based B Ring Spectrum dominates Earth-based Saturn Spectrum from 0.4 to 4 microns. From our fits we test out dynamical thermal models; from the phase curves we derive ring albedos and non-lambertian properties of the ring particle surfaces; and from the color ratios we examine multiple scattering within the regolith of ring particles.

  1. Good Gradings of Generalized Incidence Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    This inquiry is based on both the construction of generalized incidence rings due to Gene Abrams and the construction of good group gradings of incidence algebras due to Molli Jones. We provide conditions for a generalized incidence ring to be graded isomorphic to a subring of an incidence ring over a preorder. We also extend Jones's construction to good group gradings for incidence algebras over preorders with crosscuts of length one or two.

  2. The Green Rings of Taft algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Huixiang; Van Oystaeyen, Fred; Zhang, Yinhuo

    2011-01-01

    We compute the Green ring of the Taft algebra $H_n(q)$, where $n$ is a positive integer greater than 1, and $q$ is an $n$-th root of unity. It turns out that the Green ring $r(H_n(q))$ of the Taft algebra $H_n(q)$ is a commutative ring generated by two elements subject to certain relations defined recursively. Concrete examples for $n=2,3, ... , 8$ are given.

  3. The Green Rings of Taft algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Huixiang; Zhang, Yinhuo

    2011-01-01

    We compute the Green ring of Taft algebra $H_n(q)$, where $n$ is a positive integer greater than 1, and $q$ is an $n$-th root of unity. It turns out that the Green ring $r(H_n(q))$ of Taft algebra $H_n(q)$ is a commutative ring generated by two elements subject to certain relations defined recursively. Concrete examples for $n=2,3,..., 8$ are given.

  4. The Tohoku University Stretcher-Booster Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tohoku University Stretcher-Booster Ring Project was approved this year. This ring plays three roles: the pulse beam stretcher, the booster and the storage ring for the internal target nuclear experiment. It has four 3.1 m long straight sections and its circumference is 50 m. The maximum energy is 300 MeV as the stretcher and 1.2 GeV as the booster. (author)

  5. Boundary Value Problem for Black Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Morisawa, Yoshiyuki; Yasui, Yukinori

    2007-01-01

    We study the boundary value problem for asymptotically flat stationary black ring solutions to the five-dimensional vacuum Einstein equations. Assuming the existence of two additional commuting axial Killing vector fields and the horizon topology of $S^1\\times S^2$, we show that the only asymptotically flat black ring solution with a regular horizon is the Pomeransky-Sen'kov black ring solution.

  6. Jitter and phase noise in ring oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    Hajimiri, Ali; Limotyrakis, Sotirios; Lee, Thomas H

    1999-01-01

    A companion analysis of clock jitter and phase noise of single-ended and differential ring oscillators is presented. The impulse sensitivity functions are used to derive expressions for the jitter and phase noise of ring oscillators. The effect of the number of stages, power dissipation, frequency of oscillation, and short-channel effects on the jitter and phase noise of ring oscillators is analyzed. Jitter and phase noise due to substrate and supply noise is discussed, and the effect of symm...

  7. Stable Bound Orbits around Black Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igata, Takahisa; Ishihara, Hideki; Takamori, Yohsuke, E-mail: igata@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2011-09-22

    We study stable bound orbits of a free particle around a black ring. Unlike the higher-dimensional black hole case, we find that there exist stable bound orbits in toroidal spiral shape near the ring axis and stable circular orbits on the axis. In addition, radii of stable bound orbits can be infinitely large if the ring thickness is less than a critical value.

  8. Report of the eRHIC Ring-Ring Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenauer, E. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brennan, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fedotov, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Litvinenko, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Montag, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Palmer, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Parker, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Peggs, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Willeke, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-10-13

    This report evaluates the ring-ring option for eRHIC as a lower risk alternative to the linac-ring option. The reduced risk goes along with a reduced initial luminosity performance. However, a luminosity upgrade path is kept open. This upgrade path consists of two branches, with the ultimate upgrade being either a ring-ring or a linac-ring scheme. The linac-ring upgrade could be almost identical to the proposed linac-ring scheme, which is based on an ERL in the RHIC tunnel. This linac-ring version has been studied in great detail over the past ten years, and its significant risks are known. On the other hand, no detailed work on an ultimate performance ring-ring scenario has been performed yet, other than the development of a consistent parameter set. Pursuing the ring-ring upgrade path introduces high risks and requires significant design work that is beyond the scope of this report.

  9. Validation of a vortex ring wake model suited for aeroelastic simulations of floating wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaal, J.B., de; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, T.

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate aerodynamic loads on floating oshore wind turbines, advanced dynamic analysis tools are required. As a unied model that can represent both dynamic in ow and skewed in ow effects in it basic formulation, a wake model based on a vortex ring formulation is discussed. Such a mode...

  10. Geodesics around Weyl-Bach's ring solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore some of the gravitational features of a uniform infinitesimal ring both in the Newtonian potential theory and in general relativity. We use a spacetime associated with a Weyl static solution of the vacuum Einstein's equations with ring-like singularity. The Newtonian motion for a test particle in the gravitational field of the ring is studied and compared with the corresponding geodesic motion in the given spacetime. We have found a relativistic peculiar attraction: free-falling particle geodesics lead to the inner rim but never hit the ring

  11. Very clean matrices over local rings

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H.; Ungor, B.; Halicioglu, S.

    2014-01-01

    An element $a\\in R$ is very clean provided that there exists an idempotent $e\\in R$ such that $ae=ea$ and either $a-e$ or $a+e$ is invertible. A ring $R$ is very clean in case every element in $R$ is very clean. We explore the necessary and sufficient conditions under which a triangular $2\\times 2$ matrix ring over local rings is very clean. The very clean $2\\times 2$ matrices over commutative local rings are completely determined. Applications to matrices over power series are also obtained.

  12. Forandringslæring med autismediagnoser?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafson, Kari Ingrid; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2013-01-01

    Rasmus’ ændringer i læring, selvforståelse og tilhørsforhold perspektiveres med andre ASF-diagnostiseredes læring udforsket bl.a. gennem gruppeinterviews i regi af Asperger-foreningen. Artiklen byder således på et alternativ i form af at forstå forandringslæring som overskridende læring, med langt større...... hvor fx Asperger-foreningen, lærere og skolebørns- og unges-fællesskaber, samt forældrene er vigtige aktører i overskridelsen af marginalisering....

  13. Status of the SLC damping rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beams of full design energy 1.21 GeV and nearly full design intensity 4 x 1010 particles/pulse (design 5 x 1010) have been extracted from the Stanford Linac and successfully stored in the electron damping ring. Beams of less intensity have been extracted from the ring and reinjected into the Linac. The present intensity limits are not thought to be fundamental. The operating experience with the electron ring and the status of the construction of the positron ring will be discussed. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  14. A note on rings of continous functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Yang

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available For a topological space X, and a topological ring A, let C(X,A be the ring of all continuous functions from X into A under the pointwise multiplication. We show that the theorem “there is a completely regular space Y associated with a given topological space X such that C(Y,R is isomorphic to C(X,R” may be extended to a fairly large class of topologlcal rings, and that, in the study of algebraic structure of the ring C(X,A, it is sufficient to study C(X,R if A is path connected.

  15. What Perturbs the ggrdgr Rings of Uranus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R G; Kangas, J A; Elliot, J L

    1986-01-31

    The gamma and delta rings have by far the largest radial perturbations of any of the nine known Uranian rings. These two rings deviate from Keplerian orbits, having typical root-mean-square residuals of about 3 kilometers (compared to a few hundred meters for the other seven known rings). Possible causes for the perturbations include nearby shepherd satellites and Lindblad resonances. If shepherd satellites are responsible, they could be as large as several tens of kilometers in diameter. The perturbation patterns of the gamma and delta rings have been examined for evidence of Lindblad resonances of azimuthal wave number m = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4. The beta ring radial residuals are well matched by a 2:1 Lindblad resonance. If this represents a real physical phenomenon and is not an artifact of undersampling, then the most plausible interpretation is that there is an undiscovered satellite orbiting 76,522 +/- 8 kilometers from Uranus, with an orbital period of 15.3595 +/- 0.0001 hours and a radius of 75 to 100 kilometers. Such a satellite would be easily detected by the Voyager spacecraft when it encounters Uranus. The 2:1 resonance location is 41 +/- 9 kilometers inside the delta ring, which makes it unlikely that the resonance is due to a viscous instability within the ring. In contrast, no low-order Lindblad resonance matches the gamma ring perturbations, which are probably caused by one or more shepherd satellites large enough to be clearly visible in Voyager images. PMID:17776019

  16. Global dimension in Noetherian rings and rings with Gabriel and Krull dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Pinero, Juan Jacobo

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we compute the global dimension of Noetherian rings and rings with Gabriel and Krull dimension by taking a subclass of cyclic modules determined by the Gabriel filtration in the lattice of hereditary torsion theories.

  17. Control of ring lasers by means of coupled cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Abitan, Haim; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Variable phase coupling to an external ring is used to control a unidirectional ring laser. The observed behavior of the coupled rings is explained theoretically. We have found experimentally that by quickly changing the phase of the feedback from the external ring it is possible to Q-switch the...... ring laser. Also, at certain values of the phase of the feedback in the external ring, instabilities in the total system occur and oscillations arise in the ring laser....

  18. Mechanical support of a ceramic gas turbine vane ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.; Mosher, Daniel A.; Holowczak, John E.; Reinhardt, Gregory E.

    2010-07-27

    An assembly for mounting a ceramic turbine vane ring onto a turbine support casing comprises a first metal clamping ring and a second metal clamping ring. The first metal clamping ring is configured to engage with a first side of a tab member of the ceramic turbine vane ring. The second metal clamping ring is configured to engage with a second side of the tab member such that the tab member is disposed between the first and second metal clamping rings.

  19. Low-emittance Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Wolski, A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of synchrotron radiation on particle motion in storage rings are discussed. In the absence of radiation, particle motion is symplectic, and the beam emittances are conserved. The inclusion of radiation effects in a classical approximation leads to emittance damping: expressions for the damping times are derived. Then, it is shown that quantum radiation effects lead to excitation of the beam emittances. General expressions for the equilibrium longitudinal and horizontal (natural) emittances are derived. The impact of lattice design on the natural emittance is discussed, with particular attention to the special cases of FODO-, achromat- and theoretical-minimum-emittance-style lattices. Finally, the effects of betatron coupling and vertical dispersion (generated by magnet alignment and lattice tuning errors) on the vertical emittance are considered.

  20. On PMM Rings%关于PMM环

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠华; 宋光天; 储诚浩

    2005-01-01

    The PMM rings are defined and studied in this paper.A ring R is called a PMM ring if for any ring S which is Morita similar to R,Mm(S) is isomorphic to Mn(R) for some n,m∈N. The following results are proved in this paper.A ring R is a PMM ring if and only if whenever given a progenerator P over R, there exist m,n∈N and some Picard progenerator Q over R such that Pm is isomorphic to Qn. PMM rings with VBN property are just T2-rings;and with IBN property are T1-rings.If R is a commutative PMM ring,then R is indecomposable and the Picard group of R is power divisible.In particular,a Dedekind domain R is a PMM ring if and only if the Picard group of R is power divisible.%定义了PMM环.环R称为PMM环,若对任何Morita相似于R的环S,存在m,n∈N,使得Mm(S)同构于Mn(R).证明了如下结果:环R是PMM环当且仅当任给R的投射生成元P,存在m,n∈N以及R上的Picard投射生成元Q,使得Pm同构于Qn.具有VBN性质的PMM环是T2-环;具有IBN性质的PM环是T1-环.若交换环R是PMM环,则R是不可分解的且R的Picard群是幂可除的.特别地,Dedekind整环R是PMM环当且仅当R的Picard群是幂可除的.

  1. VUV optical ring resonator for Duke storage ring free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.H.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The conceptual design of the multifaceted-mirror ring resonator for Duke storage ring VUV FEL is presented. The expected performance of the OK-4 FEL with ring resonator is described. We discuss in this paper our plans to study reflectivity of VUV mirrors and their resistivity to soft X-ray spontaneous radiation from OK-4 undulator.

  2. Catalytic ring opening of cyclic hydrocarbons in diesel fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calemma, V.; Ferrari, M. [Eni S.p.A., San Donato Milanese (Italy). R and M Div.; Rabl, S.; Haas, A.; Santi, D.; Weitkamp, J. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2013-11-01

    An approach for high-aromatic streams upgrading, allowing to meet future diesel quality standards, is saturation of the aromatic structures followed by the selective breaking of endocyclic C-C bonds of naphthenic structures so formed to produce alkanes with the same number of carbon atoms as the starting molecule ('selective ring opening, SRO'). Although theoretically, SRO is a promising route for upgrading low-value feeds to high-quality products, in practice, it continues to be a challenge owing to its complex chemistry. Product characteristics, do not only depend on the composition of the feed, but also on the operating conditions and the nature of the catalyst. Very recently, novel catalysts ('HIgh-PErformance Ring Opening Catalysts, HIPEROCs') were developed which allow a very selective ring opening of the model compound decalin to paraffins without degradation of the carbon number. The hydroconversion of dearomatized Light Cycle Oil (DeAr-LCO) over the abovementioned catalysts resulted in a remarkable change of the chemical structure of the feed with a strong decrease of naphthenic structures with two or more condensed rings and a concomitant increase of alkyl-substituted cyclohexanes and open-chain alkanes. The changes occurring in the chemical structures of feedstock during hydroconversion resulted in a remarkable increase of the Cetane Index of the products up to 11 units. In the present contribution, we examine the main factors affecting activity and selectivity of SRO catalysts in the light of the recent literature dealing with the subject and we report on the recent advances in hydroconversion of refinery cuts such as DeAr- LCO over HIPEROCs. (orig.)

  3. Vortex Ring Interaction with Multiple Permeable Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musta, Mustafa N.; Krueger, Paul S.

    2008-11-01

    Previous experiments on the interaction of a vortex ring impinging on single thin permeable screen demonstrated the formation of secondary vortices and a transmitted vortex ring. The present work concerns experimental investigation of the interaction of a vortex ring with multiple permeable screens. Vortex rings are formed by piston-cylinder type vortex ring generator and impinge on an array of parallel, transparent screens. The screens have an open ratio of 84% and the spacing between screens is variable. The vortex rings were formed with an approximate jet Reynolds number of 1300 and a piston stroke-to-jet diameter ratio (L/D) of approximately 4. Dye visualization of the vortex rings shows that they break into multiple vortices after impinging on first screen The vortices subsequently disintegrate, but the total distance required for disintegration is relatively unaffected by the number of screens through with the vortices pass due to the regular structure of the screens. It is also observed that the location of the initial vortex ring axis relative to the screen rods has a significant effect on the vortex breakup and disintegration process.

  4. Cadmium Toxicity to Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, R.; Riget, F. F.;

    Cadmium concentrations in kidneys from ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from North West Greenland (Qaanaaq) are high. Concentrations range at level known to induce renal toxic effects (mainly tubulopathy) and demineralisation (osteopenia) of the skeletal system (Fanconi's Syndrome) in humans as well...... the absence of toxic effects of cadmium in ringed seal...

  5. A ring burn--electric or contact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attalla, M F; el-Ekiabi, S; Al-Baker, A

    1990-02-01

    A circumferential band of deep burn affecting the ring finger sustained by a car electrician is presented. Although it was caused by short circuiting the car battery by a metal spanner and the ring he was wearing, the injury was purely a contact burn. PMID:2322399

  6. Local Duality for 2-Dimensional Local Ring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Belgacem Draouil

    2008-11-01

    We prove a local duality for some schemes associated to a 2-dimensional complete local ring whose residue field is an -dimensional local field in the sense of Kato–Parshin. Our results generalize the Saito works in the case =0 and are applied to study the Bloch–Ogus complex for such rings in various cases.

  7. Pulsed magnetic field distribution near conducting rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements and calculations of the magnetic field distribution in the vicinity of stainless steel rings immersed in a pulsed magnetic field are compared. The computer code TRIDIF is found to produce results in good agreement with the measurements. The perturbations in magnetic field due to the rings are found to be considerably less than one would expect from one-dimensional skin depth considerations

  8. Flexible Twin Open Ring Metro WDM Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susumu Kinoshita; Cechan Tian; Satoru Ohdate; Koji Takeguchi; Yasuhiko Aoki

    2003-01-01

    We have demonstrated a flexible twin open ring WDM network for metro applications. A pair of optical switches in the network keeps the fiber rings open to prevent signal circulation. Traffics are broadcast to every node and selected at the receiving side. Superior transmission and protection switching are proved.

  9. On the nonlinear modeling of ring oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Elwakil, Ahmed S.

    2009-06-01

    We develop higher-order nonlinear models of three-stage and five-stage ring oscillators based on a novel inverter model. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency are derived and compared to classical linear model analysis. Two important special cases for five-stage ring oscillators are also studied. Numerical simulations are shown. © 2009 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  10. On Hochschild cohomology rings of Fibonacci algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jinmei; XU Yunge

    2006-01-01

    Let A be a Fibonacci algebra over a field k.The multiplication of Hochschild cohomology ring of A induced by the Yoneda product is described explicitly.As a consequence,the multiplicative structure of Hochschild cohomology ring of A is proved to be trivial.

  11. The telescope conjecture for semihereditary commutative rings

    OpenAIRE

    Bazzoni, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    The paper has been withdrawn, since there is a mistake in Proposition 5.2. The result on the telescope conjecture for semihereditary rings is correct, but the characterization of the smashing subcategories of the derived category of commutative rings is not complete.

  12. Z-polynomials and ring commutativity

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, S.M.; McHale, D.

    2012-01-01

    We characterise polynomials f with integer coefficients such that a ring with unity R is necessarily commutative if f(x) is central for all x Ɛ R. We also solve the corresponding problem without the assumption that the ring has a unity.

  13. Dieudonn\\'e theory over semiperfect rings

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Eike

    2016-01-01

    The Dieudonn\\'e crystal of a p-divisible group over a semiperfect ring R can be endowed with a window structure. If R satisfies a boundedness condition, this construction gives an equivalence of categories. As an application one obtains a classification of p-divisible groups over arbitrary perfectoid rings by Breuil-Kisin modules.

  14. Interactions between unidirectional quantized vortex rings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, T; Brown, R A; Walmsley, P M; Golov, A I

    2016-01-01

    We have used the vortex filament method to numerically investigate the interactions between pairs of quantized vortex rings that are initially traveling in the same direction but with their axes offset by a variable impact parameter. The interaction of two circular rings of comparable radii produce outcomes that can be categorized into four regimes, dependent only on the impact parameter; the two rings can either miss each other on the inside or outside, or they can reconnect leading to final states consisting of either one or two deformed rings. The fraction of of energy went into ring deformations and the transverse component of velocity of the rings are analyzed for each regime. We find that rings of very similar radius only reconnect for a very narrow range of the impact parameter, much smaller than would be expected from geometrical cross-section alone. In contrast, when the radii of the rings are very different, the range of impact parameters producing a reconnection is close to the geometrical value. A...

  15. Prometheus Induced Vorticity In Saturns F Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Sutton, Phil J

    2016-01-01

    Saturns rings are known to show remarkable real time variability in their structure. Many of which can be associated to interactions with nearby moons and moonlets. Possibly the most interesting and dynamic place in the rings, probably in the whole Solar System, is the F ring. A highly disrupted ring with large asymmetries both radially and azimuthally. Numerically non zero components to the curl of the velocity vector field (vorticity) in the perturbed area of the F ring post encounter are witnessed, significantly above the background vorticity. Within the perturbed area rich distributions of local rotations is seen located in and around the channel edges. The gravitational scattering of ring particles during the encounter causes a significant elevated curl of the vector field above the background F ring vorticity for the first 1-3 orbital periods post encounter. After 3 orbital periods vorticity reverts quite quickly to near background levels. This new found dynamical vortex life of the ring will be of grea...

  16. Rank 2 fusion rings are complete intersections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    We give a non-constructive proof that fusion rings attached to a simple complex Lie algebra of rank 2 are complete intersections.......We give a non-constructive proof that fusion rings attached to a simple complex Lie algebra of rank 2 are complete intersections....

  17. F4 Algorithm For Euclidean Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq, Afshan

    2010-01-01

    This short note is the generalization of Faugere F4-algorithm for polynomial rings with coefficients in Euclidean rings. This algorithm computes successively a Groebner basis replacing the reduction of one single s-polynomial in Buchberger's algorithm by the simultaneous reduction of several polynomials.

  18. Ideals in Polynomial Near-rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Farag

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we further explore the relationship between the ideals of N and those of N[x], where N is a zero-symmetric right near-ring with identity and N[x] is the polynomial near-ring introduced by Bagley in 1993.

  19. High resistivity silicon detector with guard ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author analyzes the reason producing surface leakage current of high resistivity detector, and adopts guard ring to reduce the leakage current. The result is that the leakage current is reduced 0.5-1 order in magnitude by the guard ring

  20. Interdigitated ring electrodes: Theory and experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Edward O; Pozo-Ayuso, Diego F; Castaño-Alvarez, Mario; Lewis, Grace E M; Dale, Sara E C; Marken, Frank; Compton, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation of potassium ferrocyanide, K_4Fe(CN)_6, in aqueous solution under fully supported conditions is carried out at interdigitated band and ring electrode arrays, and compared to theoretical models developed to simulate the processes. Simulated data is found to fit well with experimental results using literature values of diffusion coefficients for Fe(CN)_6^(4-) and Fe(CN)_6^(3-). The theoretical models are used to compare responses from interdigitated band and ring arrays, and the size of ring array required to approximate the response to a linear band array is investigated. An equation is developed for the radius of ring required for a pair of electrodes in a ring array to give a result with 5% of a pair of electrodes in a band array. This equation is found to be independent of the scan rate used over six orders of magnitude.

  1. Radiation from structured-ring resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Maling, B; Craster, R V

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the scalar-wave resonances of systems composed of identical Neumann-type inclusions arranged periodically around a circular ring. Drawing on natural similarities with the undamped Rayleigh-Bloch waves supported by infinite linear arrays, we deduce asymptotically the exponentially small radiative damping in the limit where the ring radius is large relative to the periodicity. In our asymptotic approach, locally linear Rayleigh-Bloch waves that attenuate exponentially away from the ring are matched to a ring-scale WKB-type wave field. The latter provides a descriptive physical picture of how the mode energy is transferred via tunnelling to a circular evanescent-to-propagating transition region a finite distance away from the ring, from where radiative grazing rays emanate to the far field. Excluding the zeroth-order standing-wave modes, the position of the transition circle bifurcates with respect to clockwise and anti-clockwise contributions, resulting in striking spiral wavefronts.

  2. The linear stability of dilute particulate rings

    CERN Document Server

    Latter, H N; Latter, Henrik N.; Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2006-01-01

    Irregular structure in planetary rings is often attributed to the intrinsic instabilities of a homogeneous state undergoing Keplerian shear. Previously these have been analysed with simple hydrodynamic models. We instead employ a kinetic theory, in which we solve the linearised moment equations derived in Shu and Stewart 1985 for a dilute ring. This facilitates an examination of velocity anisotropy and non-Newtonian stress, and their effects on the viscous and viscous/gravitational instabilities thought to occur in Saturn's rings. Because we adopt a dilute gas model, the applicability of our results to the actual dense rings of Saturn are significantly curtailled. Nevertheless this study is a necessary preliminary before an attack on the difficult problem of dense ring dynamics. We find the Shu and Stewart formalism admits analytic stability criteria for the viscous overstability, viscous instability, and thermal instability. These criteria are compared with those of a hydrodynamic model incorporating the eff...

  3. Infrared observations of the Uranian rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, P. D.; Jones, T. J.; Matthews, K.

    1982-01-01

    Maps of the Uranian rings at 2.2 microns and spectrophotometric observations covering 2.0 to 2.4 and 2.9 to 3.9 microns are discussed. The maps reveal a 2:1 azimuthal brightness variation whose amplitude and phase are consistent with the width variation and apsidal precession of the epsilon ring. Comparison with models based on stellar occultation data leads to an upper limit of 0.01 on the normal optical depth of any broad (5000 km wide), diffuse component of the ring system. A significant east-west asymmetry, corresponding to a brightening of the near side of the rings relative to the far side, is unexplained. The spectrum of the rings is flat over the range 2.1 to 3.9 microns. There is no spectroscopic evidence for the presence of H2O.

  4. Numerical simulation of strong proton rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent calculations suggest the possibility of achieving a Lawson breakeven condition by the magnetic compression of proton rings to field reversal. A physical model and computer code RING developed to study equilibria of strong proton rings and their behavior under an adiabatic increase in the external magnetic field are described. Ring ion motion is followed using a volume-weighted finite-size particle-in-cell method. Because of the very short electron time scale, the electrons are simulated by a simple fluid model using Ohm's law. Quasineutrality, current neutralization in the r-z plane, cylindrical symmetry and a magneto-static model are assumed. Preliminary results indicate that (a) equilibria tend to be intermediate between the long layer and bicycle tire cases; and (b) compression past field reversal on the axis is possible within the framework of this model. Some aspects of the formation and injection of proton rings have also been studied with this code. (author)

  5. 46 CFR 117.70 - Ring life buoys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the body of the ring life buoy. (3) Each floating waterlight installed after March 11, 1997, on a... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ring life buoys. 117.70 Section 117.70 Shipping COAST... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.70 Ring life buoys. (a) A vessel must have one or more ring...

  6. Resonance origin of the uranian rings and statistically meaning regularities in location of rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutual position of Uranus rings and low order resonances (1:2,2:3,3:4,4:5,1:3,3:5) from ten new satellites is investigated. It is shown that ring distribution is not random: they are primarily located at 125-250 km distance from resonances. Statistical value of ring concentration at the given distances from resonances is 3.5 σ. This regularity confirms the ring formation model at the resonance spiral wave boundary in the Uranus protodisc. In this case the coefficient of correlation between the ring number and lower order resonance number in each 1000-km interval achieves 0.84±0.08

  7. Associated graded rings of one-dimensional analytically irreducible rings II

    CERN Document Server

    Barucci, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Lance Bryant noticed in his thesis that there was a flaw in our paper "Associated graded rings of one-dimensional analytically irreducible rings", J. Algebra 304 (2006), 349-358. It can be fixed by adding a condition, called the BF condition. We discuss some equivalent conditions, and show that they are fulfilled for some classes of rings, in particular for our motivating example of semigroup rings. Furthermore we discuss the connection to a similar result, stated in more generality, by Cortadella-Zarzuela. Finally we use our result to conclude when a semigroup ring in embedding dimension at most three has an associated graded which is a complete intersection.

  8. The Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a national user facility currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), is a third-generation synchrotron light source designed to produce extremely bright beams of synchrotron radiation in the energy range from a few eV to 10 keV. The design is based on a 1--1.9-GeV electron storage ring (optimized at 1.5 GeV), and utilizes special magnets, known as undulators and wigglers (collectively referred to as insertion devices), to generate the radiation. The facility is scheduled to begin operating in April 1993. In this paper we describe the progress in the design, construction, and commissioning of the accelerator systems, insertion devices, and beamlines. Companion presentations at this conference give more detail of specific components in the ALS, and describe the activities towards establishing an exciting user program. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Electro-optical hybrid slip ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, En

    2005-11-01

    The slip ring is a rotary electrical interface, collector, swivel or rotary joint. It is a physical system that can perform continuous data transfer and data exchange between a stationary and a rotating structure. A slip ring is generally used to transfer data or power from an unrestrained, continuously rotating electro-mechanical system in real-time, thereby simplifying operations and eliminating damage-prone wires dangling from moving joints. Slip rings are widely used for testing, evaluating, developing and improving various technical equipment and facilities with rotating parts. They are widely used in industry, especially in manufacturing industries employing turbo machinery, as in aviation, shipbuilding, aerospace, defense, and in precise facilities having rotating parts such as medical Computerized Tomography (CT) and MRI scanners and so forth. Therefore, any improvement in slip ring technology can impact large markets. Research and development in this field will have broad prospects long into the future. The goal in developing the current slip ring technology is to improve and increase the reliability, stability, anti-interference, and high data fidelity between rotating and stationary structures. Up to now, there have been numerous approaches used for signal and data transfer utilizing a slip ring such as metal contacts, wires, radio transmission, and even liquid media. However, all suffer from drawbacks such as data transfer speed limitations, reliability, stability, electro-magnetic interference and durability. The purpose of the current research is to break through these basic limitations using an optical solution, thereby improving performance in current slip ring applications. This dissertation introduces a novel Electro-Optical Hybrid Slip Ring technology, which makes "through the air" digital-optical communication between stationary and rotating systems a reality with high data transfer speed, better reliability and low interference susceptibility

  10. Hyperautofluorescent ring in eyes with macular holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato T

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tatsuhiko Sato, Kazuyuki Emi, Yui Osawa, Hajime Bando Osaka Rosai Hospital Clinical Research Center for Occupational Sensory Organ Disability, Sakai, Japan Background: Fundus autofluorescence studies in eyes with macular holes (MHs have shown a hyperautofluorescent spot corresponding to the hole and a hypoautofluorescent ring corresponding to the fluid cuff surrounding the hole. The purpose of this report is to present three cases of MH with a different fundus autofluorescence pattern. Case reports: Case 1 was a 62-year-old woman who did not know the duration of the MH in her left eye. Her decimal best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 0.08. The left eye had a one-half disc diameter MH with a depigmented ring surrounding the area of the fluid cuff. Fundus autofluorescence showed a hyperautofluorescent ring corresponding to the depigmented ring. After vitrectomy, fundus autofluorescence showed the same size hyperautofluorescent ring despite the decreased size of the opened MH. Case 2 was a 69-year-old woman who had been diagnosed with MH in the right eye 13 years earlier. Her decimal BCVA was 0.1. The right eye had a one-half disc diameter MH with a depigmented ring surrounding the area of the fluid cuff. Fundus autofluorescence showed a hyperautofluorescent ring corresponding to the depigmented ring. Postoperative fundus autofluorescence showed the same size hyperautofluorescent ring despite the hole being closed. The decimal BCVA was 0.2 in her right eye 6 months after vitrectomy. Case 3 was a 71-year-old woman who had been diagnosed with MH in the right eye 15 years earlier. Her decimal BCVA was 0.1. The right eye had a one-half disc diameter MH with a depigmented ring which corresponded with a hyperautofluorescent ring. Postoperative fundus autofluorescence showed the same size hyperautofluorescent ring despite the hole being closed. The decimal BCVA was 0.2 in her right eye 6 months after vitrectomy. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that a

  11. Theory of Pendular Rings Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Boris Y

    2012-01-01

    We present the theory of liquid bridges between two axisymmetric solids, sphere and plane, with prescribed contact angles in a general setup, when the solids are non-touching, touching or intersecting, We give a detailed derivation of expressions for curvature, volume and surface area of pendular ring as functions of the filling angle \\psi for all available types of menisci: catenoid Cat, sphere Sph, cylinder Cyl, nodoid Nod and unduloid Und (the meridional profile of the latter may have inflection points). The Young-Laplace equation with boundary conditions can be viewed as a nonlinear eigenvalue problem. Its unduloid solutions, menisci shapes z_n^s(r) and their curvatures H_n^s(\\psi), exhibit a discrete spectrum and are enumerated by two indices: the number n of inflection points on the meniscus meridional profile M and the convexity index s=\\pm 1 determined by the shape of a segment of M contacting the solid sphere: the shape is either convex, s=1, or concave, s=-1. For the fixed contact angles the set of ...

  12. ring av erfaring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramvi, Ellen

    Hva skal til for å lære av erfaring? Denne avhandlingen er en empirisk baseret undersøkelse av ungdosmskolelæreres muligheter og betingelser for å "lære av erfaring" i den særlige betydning av begrepet  W. Bion gir i sin psykoanalytiske teori. Undersøgelsen baserer seg på et feltarbeid som strekker...... seg over ett skoleår. Datamaterialet ble samlet inn via observerasjoner og mer eller mindre strukturerte samtaler med lærere ved to forskellige norske ungdsomsskoler. Analysen av materialet foregår i to trinn: først en fenomenologisk analyse, tett på lærernes egne beskrivelser og refleksjoner av...... lærerarbeidet, dets udfordringer og vanskeligheter, og deretter en psykoanalytisk perspektivering av de fenomenologiske analyseresultatene. Analysen viser en almindelig lærerhverdag og en skoleorganisation, hvor lærernes "læring av erfaring" i stor utstrekning blokkeres i et vekselspill mellem lærernes flukt...

  13. Design and development of a bipolar power supply for APS storage ring correctors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) requires a number of correction magnets. Basically, two different types of bipolar power supplies (BPS) will be used for all the correction magnets. One requires dc correction only, and the other requires dc and ac correction. For the storage ring horizontal/vertical (H/V) correctors, the BPS should be able to supply dc and ac current. This paper describes the design aspects and considerations for a bipolar power supply for the APS storage ring H/V correctors

  14. Design for ANL 7 GeV storage ring vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) design includes a storage ring having a 1060-m circumference with the capability of accommodating 34 insertion devices (ID) and their associated photon beam lines. An additional 35 photon lines can be provided from bending magnets. The vacuum system for the storage ring is designed to maintain a beam-on operating pressure of 1n Torr or less to achieve a positron beam lifetime of approximately 20 hours. The vacuum system and it's current developmental status are described

  15. The Advanced Photon Source list of parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation synchrotron radiation source that stores positrons in a storage ring. The choice of positrons as accelerating particles was motivated by the usual reason: to eliminate the degradation of the beam caused by trapping of positively charged dust particles or ions. The third-generation synchrotron radiation sources are designed to have low beam emittance and many straight sections for insertion devices. The parameter list is comprised of three basic systems: the injection system, the storage ring system, and the experimental facilities system. The components of the injection system are listed according to the causal flow of positrons. Below we briefly list the individual components of the injection system, with the names of people responsible for managing these machines in parentheses: the linac system; electron linac-target-positron linac (Marion White); low energy transport line from linac to the PAR (Michael Borland); positron accumulator ring or PAR (Michael Borland); low energy transport line from PAR to injector synchrotron (Michael Borland); injector synchrotron (Stephen Milton); high energy transport line from injector synchrotron to storage ring (Stephen Milton). The storage ring system, managed by Glenn Decker, uses the Chasman-Green lattice. The APS storage ring, 1104 m in circumference, has 40 periodic sectors. Six are used to house hardware and 34 serve as insertion devices. Another 34 beamlines emit radiation from bending magnets. The experimental facilities system's parameters include parameters for both an undulator and a wiggler

  16. Microstructural heterogeneity of forged rolled rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Herian

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the processes which condition the quality of steel cast strands and properties of rolled products. It touches upon the technology of small-size rings manufacture from the 42CrMo4 steel used for the production of rolling bearings and toothed rings.Design/methodology/approach: Investigations were made on the 42CrMo4 steel based process of small-size rings manufacture of weight not exceeding 100 kg and the internal diameter up to 600 mm.Findings: Microstructure heterogeneity has been proven on the cross section of rods and rings under hot rolling and thermal treatment. Non-uniformity in hardness distribution was found on the hot rolled rings’ face surface and cross section. Final products made from rings with heterogeneous properties characterize: difficulties with machining, cracking during surface hardening and decrease of life time. After the process modification, the rings’ microstructure homogeneity and advantageous hardness distribution were obtained.Practical implications: A good quality of final rings after heat treatment is obtained in the case of charge characterized by a uniform pearlitic/ferritic microstructure. After the process technology modification, the rings’ microstructure homogeneity and advantageous hardness distribution were obtained.Originality/value: The minimum processing degree in the rolling of rod products should guarantee obtaining a homogeneous microstructure on the rings cross section and properties which would ensure a good quality and the required functional properties of the final products.

  17. Tritium concentrations in tree ring cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of tritium (tissue bound tritium; TBT) concentration in tree rings are presented and discussed. Such measurement is expected to provide a useful means of estimating the tritium level in the environment in the past. The concentration of tritium bound in the tissue (TBT) in a tree ring considered to reflect the environmental tritium level in the area at the time of the formation of the ring, while the concentration of tritium in the free water in the tissue represents the current environmental tritium level. First, tritium concentration in tree ring cellulose sampled from a cedar tree grown in a typical environment in Fukuoka Prefecture is compared with the tritium concentration in precipitation in Tokyo. Results show that the year-to-year variations in the tritium concentration in the tree rings agree well with those in precipitation. The maximum concentration, which occurred in 1963, is attibuted to atmospheric nuclear testing which was performed frequently during the 1961 - 1963 period. Measurement is also made of the tritium concentration in tree ring cellulose sampled from a pine tree grown near the Isotope Center of Kyushu University (Fukuoka). Results indicate that the background level is higher probably due to the release of tritium from the facilities around the pine tree. Thus, measurement of tritium in tree ring cellulose clearly shows the year-to-year variation in the tritium concentration in the atmosphere. (N.K.)

  18. Magnetization reversal in arrays of Co rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welp, U.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Hiller, J. M.; Zaluzec, N. J.; Metlushko, V.; Ilic, B.

    2003-08-01

    The magnetization behavior of arrays of individual and coupled Co rings has been studied using superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, magneto-optical imaging, and Lorentz transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The transition from the polarized into the vortex state of isolated rings is shown to occur through the motion and annihilation of head-to-head domain boundaries. The chirality of the vortex state is fixed on subsequent magnetization cycles, indicating that it is predetermined by structural imperfections of the rings. The effect of interactions between the rings has been investigated in arrays of chains of touching rings. For fields applied parallel to the chains rings in extended sections of the chains are found to switch simultaneously. Neighboring rings in these sections can display alternating chirality as well as the same chirality accompanied by a 180° boundary on the nodes. For fields perpendicular to the chain direction the switching occurs pairwise. This coupling introduces a broad distribution of switching fields and correspondingly a magnetization curve that is significantly broader than that for the parallel orientation.

  19. The Next Linear Collider Damping Ring Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report progress on the design of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) Damping Rings complex (DRC) [1]. The purpose of the DRC is to provide 120 Hz, low emittance electron and positron bunch trains to the NLC linacs [2]. It consists of two 1.98 GeV main damping rings, one positron pre-damping ring, two pairs of bunch length and energy compressor systems and interconnecting transport lines. The 2 main damping rings store up to 0.8 amp in 3 trains of 95 bunches each and have normalized extracted beam emittances γ(varepsilon)x = 3 (micro)m-rad and γ(varepsilon)y = 0.03 (micro)m-rad. The preliminary optical design, performance specifications and tolerances are given in [1]. Key subsystems include (1) the 714 MHz RF system [3], (2) the 60 ns risetime injection/extraction pulsed kicker magnets [4], (3) the 44 m wiggler magnet system, (4) the arc and wiggler vacuum system, (5) the radiation management system, (6) the beam diagnostic instrumentation, (7) special systems used for downstream machine protection and (8) feedback-based stabilization systems. Experience at the SLAC Linear Collider has shown that the NLC damping rings will have a pivotal role in the operation of the high power linacs. The ring dynamics and instabilities will in part determine the design choices made for the NLC machine protection system. This paper includes a summary overview of the main ring design and key subsystem components

  20. A COLLISIONAL ORIGIN FOR THE LEO RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extended H I structures around galaxies are of prime importance for probing galaxy formation scenarios. The giant H I ring in the Leo group is one of the largest and most intriguing H I structures in the nearby universe. Whether it consists of primordial gas, as suggested by the apparent absence of any optical counterpart and the absence of an obvious physical connection to nearby galaxies, or of gas expelled from a galaxy in a collision is actively debated. We present deep wide field-of-view optical images of the ring region obtained with MegaCam on the CFHT. They reveal optical counterparts to several H I and UV condensations along the ring, in the g', r', and i' bands, which likely correspond to stellar associations formed within the gaseous ring. Analyzing the spectral energy distribution of one of these star-forming regions, we found it to be typical for a star-forming region in pre-enriched tidal debris. We then use simulations to test the hypothesis that the Leo ring results from a head-on collision between Leo group members NGC 3384 and M96. According to our model which is able to explain, at least qualitatively, the main observational properties of the system, the Leo ring is consistent with being a collisional ring. It is thus likely another example of extended intergalactic gas made-up of pre-enriched collisional debris.

  1. The Discrete Logarithm Problem in Bergman's non-representable ring

    OpenAIRE

    Banin, Matan; Tsaban, Boaz

    2012-01-01

    Bergman's Ring $E_p$, parameterized by a prime number $p$, is a ring with $p^5$ elements that cannot be embedded in a ring of matrices over any commutative ring. This ring was discovered in 1974. In 2011, Climent, Navarro and Tortosa described an efficient implementation of $E_p$ using simple modular arithmetic, and suggested that this ring may be a useful source for intractable cryptographic problems. We present a deterministic polynomial time reduction of the Discrete Logarithm Problem in $...

  2. Weakly Dual Rings%弱对偶环

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Jun-chao; SUN Jian-hua

    2004-01-01

    In This paper, the concept of weakly dual ring is introduced, which is a proper generalization of the dual ring. IfR is a right weakly dual ring, then (1) Z(RR) = J(R); (2) If R is also a zero-division power ring, then R is a right Apinjective ring. In addition, some properties of weakly dual rings are given.

  3. Design of Piston Ring Friction Tester Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder

    2006-01-01

    the frictional behavior of a piston ring correctly is knowledge about the amount of lubricant present. For piston rings the external load may be established by measuring the pressure distribution, i.e. the pressure drop in the piston ring package. Speed and temperature may also be established. The amount...... and forces on piston rod. Since the frictional forces are small compared to the rest of the acting forces the main design idea is to fix the piston, while the cylinder liner moves. This approach makes it simple to measure the parameters mentioned above by putting the instrumentation in the piston....

  4. Injection envelope matching in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shape and size of the transverse phase space injected into a storage ring can be deduced from turn-by-turn measurements of the transient behavior of the beam envelope in the ring. Envelope oscillations at 2 x the β-tron frequency indicate the presence of a β-mismatch, while envelope oscillations at the β-tron frequency are the signature of a dispersion function mismatch. Experiments in injection optimization using synchrotron radiation imaging of the beam and a fast-gated camera at the SLC damping rings are reported

  5. Molecular Model of the Contractile Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Biron, D; Tlusty, Tsvi; Moses, Elisha; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.098102

    2010-01-01

    We present a model for the actin contractile ring of adherent animal cells. The model suggests that the actin concentration within the ring and consequently the power that the ring exerts both increase during contraction. We demonstrate the crucial role of actin polymerization and depolymerization throughout cytokinesis, and the dominance of viscous dissipation in the dynamics. The physical origin of two phases in cytokinesis dynamics ("biphasic cytokinesis") follows from a limitation on the actin density. The model is consistent with a wide range of measurements of the midzone of dividing animal cells.

  6. Dipolar bosons on an optical lattice ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maik, Michal [Instytut Fizyki imienia Mariana Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Krakow (Poland); Buonsante, Pierfrancesco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Viale G.P. Usberti n.7/A, IT-43100 Parma (Italy); Vezzani, Alessandro [Centro S3, CNR Istituto di Nanoscienze, via Campi 213/a, IT-41100 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Viale G.P. Usberti n.7/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Zakrzewski, Jakub [Instytut Fizyki imienia Mariana Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Krakow (Poland); Mark Kac Complex Systems Research Center, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2011-11-15

    We consider an ultrasmall system of polarized bosons on an optical lattice with a ring topology, interacting via long-range dipole-dipole interactions. Dipoles polarized perpendicular to the plane of the ring reveal sharp transitions between different density-wave phases. As the strength of the dipolar interactions is varied, the behavior of the transitions is first-order-like. For dipoles polarized in the plane of the ring, the transitions between possible phases show pronounced sensitivity to the lattice depth. The abundance of possible configurations may be useful for quantum-information applications.

  7. Classical sheaf cohomology rings on Grassmannians

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Jirui; Sharpe, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Let the vector bundle $\\mathcal{E}$ be a deformation of the tangent bundle over the Grassmannian $G(k,n)$. We compute the ring structure of sheaf cohomology valued in exterior powers of $\\mathcal{E}$, also known as the polymology. This is the first part of a project studying the quantum sheaf cohomology of Grassmannians with deformations of the tangent bundle, a generalization of ordinary quantum cohomology rings of Grassmannians. A companion physics paper [arXiv:1512.08586] describes physical aspects of the theory, including a conjecture for the quantum sheaf cohomology ring, and numerous examples.

  8. Ernæring til premature barn

    OpenAIRE

    Von Køppen, Karin Helene

    2013-01-01

    Studien konkluderer med at ernæring er et område som er av stor betydning for premature barn. Metoder som NIDCAP har en positiv innvirkning på ernæringsstatusen til premature barn fordi overgangen fra sondeernæring til oral ernæring går lettere. Behovet for norske anbefalinger er nødvendig for å kunne tilby premature barn den optimale omsorgen som gjør at de har det beste utgangspunktet for å overleve utenfor mors liv.

  9. Storage ring and laser nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage-ring technique is complementary to trapping-ion technique. A storage ring for energetic ions will enable us to study exotic phenomena, such as hydrogenic atoms and enhanced β-decay of 'bare nuclei'. A storage ring for low-energy ions is good for precise laser-nuclear spectroscopy. TARN-II is a kind of the former, and it is suggested that an extremely high magnetic field produced by a highly ionized atom gives us insight into nuclear magnetism if hyperfine anomaly is observed for such an atom. (author)

  10. Geodetic concept for the storage ring EUTERPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present a 400 MeV electron storage ring EUTERPE is being developed at the Eindhoven Univ. of Tech. (EUT). It is a University project, set up for studies of beam dynamics, applications of synchrotron radiation and for the education of students in this field. The circumference of the ring is approx. 40 m with 12 dipoles and 32 quadrupoles. The critical wavelength of the emitted photon spectrum is 8.3 nm for the regular dipoles. The major ring components are being constructed at the University Central Design and Engineering Facilities. The concept of the geodetical system and the instrumentation are briefly described

  11. Quantum Cohomology Rings of Toric Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Batyrev, V V

    1993-01-01

    We compute the quantum cohomology ring $H^*_{\\varphi}({\\bf P}, {\\bf C})$ of an arbitrary $d$-dimensional smooth projective toric manifold ${\\bf P}_{\\Sigma}$ associated with a fan $\\Sigma$. The multiplicative structure of $H^*_{\\varphi}({\\bf P}_{\\Sigma}, {\\bf C})$ depends on the choice of an element $avarphi$ in the ordinary cohomology group $H^2({\\bf P}_{\\Sigma}, {\\bf C})$. There are many properties of the quantum cohomology rings $H^*_{\\varphi}({\\bf P}_{\\Sigma}, {\\bf C})$ which are supposed to be valid for quantum cohomology rings of Kähler manifolds

  12. Introduction into Calculus over Division Ring

    OpenAIRE

    Kleyn, Aleks

    2008-01-01

    Based on twin representations of division ring in an Abelian group I consider $D$\\Hyph vector spaces over division ring. Morphism of $D$\\Hyph vector spaces is linear map of $D$\\Hyph vector spaces. I consider derivative of function $f$ of continuous division ring as linear map the most close to function $f$. I explore expansion of map into Taylor series and method to find solution of differential equation. The norm in $D$\\Hyph vector space allows considering of continuous mapping of $D$\\Hyph v...

  13. Rings with generalized commutators in the nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-Te Yen

    2002-01-01

    Let $ R$ be a prime weakly Novikov ring and $ T_k=\\underbrace{[[[\\ldots[[R,R],R]\\ldots,R],R],R]}_{k R's}$ where $ k$ is a positive integer. We prove that if $ T_k\\subseteq N_l\\cap N_r$ or $ T_k\\subseteq N_m\\cap N_r$ then $ R$ is associative or $ T_k=0$. Moreover, if $ T_k$ is contained in two of the three nuclei, and $ k=2$ or $ k=3$ then the same conclusions hold. We also consider such rings with derivations. Some similar results of weakly M-rings are obtained.

  14. Ideal-comparability over Regular Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Yin CHEN; Miao Sen CHEN

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the concept of ideal-comparability condition for regular rings. Let I be an ideal of a regular ring R. If R satisfies the Ⅰ-comparability condition, then R is one-sided unit-regular if and only if so is R/I. Also, we show that a regular ring R satisfies the general comparability if and only if the following hold: (1) R/I satisfies the general comparability; (2) R satisfies the general Ⅰ-comparability condition; (3) The natural map B(R) → B(R/I) is surjective.

  15. Linear recurring sequences over rings and modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurakin, V.L.; Kuzmin, A.S.; Mikhalev, A.V. [and others

    1995-10-15

    Here we present some fundamental concept and results of the theory of linear recurring sequences over rings and modules and their applications. Of course, the authors give in more detail those results that are close to their mathematical interests. In particular, an attempt has been made to construct a general algebraic theory of k-LRS over modules, paying explicit attention to periodic k-sequences, to properties of linear recurrences over finite rings and especially over Galois rings, and also to methods of constructing codes baed on such recurrences.

  16. Dipolar bosons on an optical lattice ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maik, Michał; Buonsante, Pierfrancesco; Vezzani, Alessandro; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2011-11-01

    We consider an ultrasmall system of polarized bosons on an optical lattice with a ring topology, interacting via long-range dipole-dipole interactions. Dipoles polarized perpendicular to the plane of the ring reveal sharp transitions between different density-wave phases. As the strength of the dipolar interactions is varied, the behavior of the transitions is first-order-like. For dipoles polarized in the plane of the ring, the transitions between possible phases show pronounced sensitivity to the lattice depth. The abundance of possible configurations may be useful for quantum-information applications.

  17. SHER-HIAF ring lattice design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Super Heavy Experimental Ring (SHER), which is one of the rings of the next accelerator complex High Intensity Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF) at IMP, has to be optimized for e-cooling. Its lattice is designed for two modes: the first is the isochronous mode, which is a time-of-flight mass spectrometer for short-lived secondary nuclei, the second is the storage ring mode, which is used for collecting and cooling the secondary rare isotope beams from the transport line. In order to fulfil its purpose, the ion optics can be set to different ion optical modes. (authors)

  18. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend achromatic cell, we

  19. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC

    2012-04-09

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend

  20. Scaling behavior of topologically constrained polymer rings in a melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefz, Benjamin; Virnau, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Large scale molecular dynamics simulations on graphic processing units (GPUs) are employed to study the scaling behavior of ring polymers with various topological constraints in melts. Typical sizes of rings containing 31, 51 knots and catenanes made up of two unknotted rings scale like N1/3 in the limit of large ring sizes N. This is consistent with the crumpled globule model and similar findings for unknotted rings. For small ring lengths knots occupy a significant fraction of the ring. The scaling of typical ring sizes for small N thus depends on the particular knot type and the exponent is generally larger than 0.4.

  1. Geodesic detection of Agulhas rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beron-Vera, F. J.; Wang, Y.; Olascoaga, M. J.; Goni, G. J.; Haller, G.

    2012-12-01

    Mesoscale oceanic eddies are routinely detected from instantaneous velocities. While simple to implement, this Eulerian approach gives frame-dependent results and often hides true material transport by eddies. Building on the recent geodesic theory of transport barriers, we develop an objective (i.e., frame-independent) method for accurately locating coherent Lagrangian eddies. These eddies act as compact water bodies, with boundaries showing no leakage or filamentation over long periods of time. Applying the algorithm to altimetry-derived velocities in the South Atlantic, we detect, for the first time, Agulhas rings that preserve their material coherence for several months, while eddy candidates yielded by other approaches tend to disperse or leak within weeks. These findings suggest that current Eulerian estimates of the Agulhas leakage need significant revision.Temporal evolution of fluid patches identified as eddies by different methods. First column: eddies extracted using geodesic eddy identification [1,2]. Second column: eddies identified from sea surface height (SSH) using the methodology of Chelton et al. [2] with U/c > 1. Third column: eddies identified as elliptic regions by the Okubo-Weiss (OW) criterion [e.g., 3]. Fourth column: eddies identified as mesoelliptic (ME) regions by Mezic et al.'s [4] criterion. References: [1] Beron-Vera et al. (2012). Geodesic eddy detection suggests reassessment of Agulhas leakage. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, submitted. [2] Haller & Beron-Vera (2012). Geodesic theory of transport barriers in two-dimensional flows. Physica D, in press. [2] Chelton et al. (2011). Prog. Oceanog. 91, 167. [3] Chelton et al. (2007). Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L5606. [4] Mezic et al. (2010). Science 330, 486.

  2. ADVANCE PAYMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative Circular Nº 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  3. Advance payments

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2003-01-01

    Administrative Circular N 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  4. von Neumann Regular Rings and Right SF-rings%von Neumann正则环与右SF-环

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海燕; 王小冬

    2004-01-01

    A ring R is called a left (right) SF-ring if all simple left (right)R-modules are flat. It is known that von Neumann regular rings are left and right SF-rings. In this paper, we study the regularity of right SF-rings and prove that if R is a right SF-ring whose all maximal (essential) right ideals are GW-ideals, then R is regular.

  5. Proton storage ring: man/machine interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human interface of the Proton Storage Ring Control System at Los Alamos is described in some detail, together with the software environment in which operator interaction programs are written. Some examples of operator interaction programs are given

  6. A non-Abelian Black Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Ortin, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    We construct a supersymmetric black ring solution of SU(2) N=1, d=5 Super-Einstein-Yang-Mills (SEYM) theory by adding a distorted BPST instanton to an Abelian black ring solution of the same theory. The change cannot be observed from spatial infinity: neither the mass, nor the angular momenta or the values of the scalars at infinity differ from those of the Abelian ring. The entropy is, however, sensitive to the presence of the non-Abelian instanton, and it is smaller than that of the Abelian ring, in analogy to what happens in the supersymmetric coloured black holes recently constructed in the same theory and in N=2, d=4 SEYM. By taking the limit in which the two angular momenta become equal we derive a non-Abelian generalization of the BMPV rotating black-hole solution.

  7. Resonance splitting in gyrotropic ring resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalas, Dirk; Petrov, Alexander; Krause, Michael; Hampe, Jan; Eich, Manfred

    2010-10-15

    We present the theoretical concept of an optical isolator based on resonance splitting in a silicon ring resonator covered with a magneto-optical polymer cladding. For this task, a perturbation method is derived for the modes in the cylindrical coordinate system. A polymer magneto-optical cladding causing a 0.01 amplitude of the off-diagonal element of the dielectric tensor is assumed. It is shown that the derived resonance splitting of the clockwise and counterclockwise modes increases for smaller ring radii. For the ring with a radius of approximately 1.5μm, a 29GHz splitting is demonstrated. An integrated optical isolator with a 10μm geometrical footprint is proposed based on a critically coupled ring resonator. PMID:20967092

  8. The "g-2" Muon Storage Ring

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The "g-2" muon storage ring, shortly before completion in June 1974. Bursts of pions (from a target, hit by a proton beam from the 26 GeV PS) are injected and polarized muons from their decay are captured on a stable orbit. When the muons decay too, their precession in the magnetic field of the storage ring causes a modulation of the decay-electron counting rate, from which the muon's anomalous magnetic moment can be determined. In 1977, the "g-2" magnets were modified to build ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment), a proton and antiproton storage ring for testing stochastic and electron cooling. Later on, the magnets had a 3rd life, when the ion storage ring CELSIUS was built from them in Uppsala. For later use as ICE, see 7711282, 7802099, 7809081,7908242.

  9. A Traveling Feature in Saturn's Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Rehnberg, Morgan E; Brown, Zarah L; Albers, Nicole; Sremčević, Miodrag; Stewart, Glen R

    2016-01-01

    The co-orbital satellites of Saturn, Janus and Epimetheus, swap radial positions every 4.0 years. Since \\textit{Cassini} has been in orbit about Saturn, this has occurred on 21 January in 2006, 2010, and 2014. We describe the effects of this radial migration in the Lindblad resonance locations of Janus within the rings. When the swap occurs such that Janus moves towards Saturn and Epimetheus away, nonlinear interference between now-relocated density waves launches a solitary wave that travels through the rings with a velocity approximately twice that of the local spiral density wave group velocity in the A ring and commensurate with the spiral density wave group velocity in the B ring.

  10. On Learning Ring-Sum-Expansions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Paul; Simon, H. -U.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of learning ring-sum-expansions from examples is studied. Ring-sum-expansions (RSE) are representations of Boolean functions over the base {#123;small infinum, (+), 1}#125;, which reflect arithmetic operations in GF(2). k-RSE is the class of ring-sum-expansions containing only monomials...... of length at most k:. term-RSE is the class of ring-sum-expansions having at most I: monomials. It is shown that k-RSE, k>or=1, is learnable while k-term-RSE, k>2, is not learnable if RPnot=NP. Without using a complexity-theoretical hypothesis, it is proven that k-RSE, k>or=1, and k-term-RSE, k>or=2...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: ring chromosome 20 syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 links) Encyclopedia: Chromosome Encyclopedia: Epilepsy Health Topic: Epilepsy Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Ring chromosome 20 Additional NIH Resources (2 links) National Human Genome Research Institute: Chromosome Abnormalities National Institute of ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: ring chromosome 14 syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Encyclopedia: Chromosome Health Topic: Developmental Disabilities Health Topic: Epilepsy Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Ring chromosome 14 Additional NIH Resources (2 links) National Human Genome Research Institute: Chromosome Abnormalities National Institute of ...

  13. Hydrodynamic Decay of Decorated Quantum Vortex Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriconi, Luca

    2015-11-01

    The decay of quantum vortex rings in HeII, visualized with the help of solid hydrogen particles trapped in their cores, has been a problematic issue within the two-fluid model of superfluidity: the large drag exerted on the vortex rings by the flow of normal fluid past the hydrogen particles would ultimately lead to decay times that mismatch the ones observed in the laboratory. We discuss a phenomenological solution of this puzzle, which is based on the fact that the vortex ring energy loss is accounted for not only by mutual friction, but also by the viscous dissipation and sweeping of the flow structures produced from the vortex ring backreaction on the normal component of the surrounding superfluid. Work partially supported by CNPq and FAPERJ.

  14. National synchrotron light source VUV storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumberg, L.; Bittner, J.; Galayda, J.; Heese, R.; Krinsky, S.; Schuchman, J.; van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    A 700 MeV electron storage ring designed for synchrotron radiation applications is described. Lattice and stability calculations are presented and the vacuum, correction and injection systems are discussed.

  15. Medical image of the week: aortic ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong C

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 78 year old man presented with altered mental status and was found to have an intraventricular hemorrhage. He was intubated for airway protection. On the post-intubation chest radiograph (Figure 1, the patient was noted to have a widening of the right paratracheal stripe. A CT chest (Figure 2 was obtained to characterize this finding and revealed an aortic ring which encircles the trachea and esophagus. Vascular rings are uncommon congenital abnormalities, accounting for approximately 1% of congenital heart disease. Complete vascular rings can occur with a right aortic arch with a ligamentum arteriosum or with a double aortic arch, such as with our patient (1. This ring can cause airway compression, stridor, esophageal compression, or no symptoms at all. As the embryo develops, the left fourth pharyngeal arch normally persists to become the aortic arch while the right fourth pharyngeal arch regresses. If both fourth pharyngeal arches persist, a ...

  16. Numerical Simulation of Piston Ring Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felter, Christian Lotz

    2006-01-01

    and the angle between the normals of the solid and the free surface. The numerical model is compared with the results from an analytical solution of Reynolds equation for a fixed incline slider bearing. Then results from a more compli- cated simulation of piston ring lubrication is given and discussed.......This paper describes a numerical method that can be used to model the lubrication of piston rings. Classical lubrication theory is based on the Reynolds equation which is ap- plicable to confined geometries and open geometries where the flooding conditions are known. Lubrication of piston rings...... extended to include also the oil film outside the piston rings. The numerical model consists of a 2D free surface code that solves the time dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The equations are cast in Lagrangian form and discretized by a meshfree moving least squares method using the primitive...

  17. Saturn's Rings Reveal Unexpected Phenomena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2004-01-01

    Safely in orbit around Saturn, NASA's Cassini spacecraft sent back its first close-up images of the massive planet's rings on July 1, revealing an unexpectedly varied terrain featuring surprisingly sharp edges, braids and delicate ridges.

  18. A non-Abelian black ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortín, Tomás; Ramírez, Pedro F.

    2016-09-01

    We construct a supersymmetric black ring solution of SU (2) N = 1, d = 5 Super-Einstein-Yang-Mills (SEYM) theory by adding a distorted BPST instanton to an Abelian black ring solution of the same theory. The change cannot be observed from spatial infinity: neither the mass, nor the angular momenta or the values of the scalars at infinity differ from those of the Abelian ring. The entropy is, however, sensitive to the presence of the non-Abelian instanton, and it is smaller than that of the Abelian ring, in analogy to what happens in the supersymmetric colored black holes recently constructed in the same theory and in N = 2, d = 4 SEYM. By taking the limit in which the two angular momenta become equal we derive a non-Abelian generalization of the BMPV rotating black-hole solution.

  19. Heptaphyrins: Expanded porphyrins with seven heterocyclic rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Venkataramanarao G Anand; Simi K Pushpan; Sundararaman Venkatraman; Tavarekere K Chandrashekar

    2003-10-01

    Expanded porphyrins containing seven pyrrole/heterocyclic rings linked in a cyclic fashion are termed heptaphyrins. The number of -electrons in heptaphyrins depends on the number of meso carbon bridges used to link the heterocyclic rings, accordingly heptaphyrins with 28-electrons and 30 -electrons are reported to date. Both condensation reactions of the appropriate precursors and acid-catalysed oxidative coupling reactions have been utilized to synthesise the heptaphyrins. The 30 heptaphyrins exhibit rich structural diversity where some of the heterocyclic rings in the macrocycle undergo a 180° ring flipping. An overview of the synthetic methods employed for the synthesis of heptaphyrins, their spectroscopic properties, structural behaviour and aromatic properties are highlighted in this paper.

  20. Exchange rings satisfying power ideal-cancellation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈焕艮

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new kind of partial power cancellations, and get a number of necessary and sufficient conditions for exchange rings satisfying power ideal-cancellation. These also extend many known results.

  1. Comparability for ideals of regular rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huanyin

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we investigate necessary and sufficient conditions under which the ideals possess comparability structure. For regular rings, we prove that every square matrix over ideals satisfying general comparability admits a diagonal reduction by quasi invertible matrices.

  2. Ion clearing the the XLS-ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozoki, E.S.; Halama, H.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism of ion capture by the beam, their effects on the beam as well as ways to clear the ions are discussed. Special attention is given to these questions for the SXLS ring. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Ion clearing the the XLS-ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of ion capture by the beam, their effects on the beam as well as ways to clear the ions are discussed. Special attention is given to these questions for the SXLS ring. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Advanced Microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This video looks at a spinoff application of the technology from advanced microsensors -- those that monitor and determine conditions of spacecraft like the Space Shuttle. The application featured is concerned with the monitoring of the health of premature babies.

  5. Advanced nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Razali

    2012-01-01

    While theories based on classical physics have been very successful in helping experimentalists design microelectronic devices, new approaches based on quantum mechanics are required to accurately model nanoscale transistors and to predict their characteristics even before they are fabricated. Advanced Nanoelectronics provides research information on advanced nanoelectronics concepts, with a focus on modeling and simulation. Featuring contributions by researchers actively engaged in nanoelectronics research, it develops and applies analytical formulations to investigate nanoscale devices. The

  6. Hitchhikers’ guide to analysing bird ringing data

    OpenAIRE

    Harnos Andrea; Fehérvári Péter; Csörgő Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Bird ringing datasets constitute possibly the largest source of temporal and spatial information on vertebrate taxa available on the globe. Initially, the method was invented to understand avian migration patterns. However, data deriving from bird ringing has been used in an array of other disciplines including population monitoring, changes in demography, conservation management and to study the effects of climate change to name a few. Despite the widespread usage and importance, there are n...

  7. Impedances for electron linacs and storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some basic concepts and results are presented concerning the impedances of electron linacs and storage rings. The impedances of an accelerator or ring completely characterizes the interaction of the beam with its environment. Not only does the impedance (or its Fourier transform, the wake potential) determine the energy loss by a bunched beam to its environment, but it is also the chief ingredient required for any calculation of beam stability

  8. Integral Ring Carbon-Carbon Piston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved structure for a reciprocating internal combustion engine or compressor piston fabricate from carbon-carbon composite materials is disclosed. An integral ring carbon-carbon composite piston, disclosed herein, reduces the need for piston rings and for small clearances by providing a small flexible, integral component around the piston that allows for variation in clearance due to manufacturing tolerances, distortion due to pressure and thermal loads, and variations in thermal expansion differences between the piston and cylinder liner.

  9. Quantum pumping : coherent rings versus open conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Moskalets, Mykhaylo; Buttiker, Markus

    2003-01-01

    We examine adiabatic quantum pumping generated by an oscillating scatterer embedded in a one-dimensional ballistic ring and compare it with pumping caused by the same scatterer connected to external reservoirs. The pumped current for an open conductor, paradoxically, is non-zero even in the limit of vanishing transmission. In contrast, for the ring geometry the pumped current vanishes in the limit of vanishing transmission. We explain this paradoxical result and demonstrate that the physics u...

  10. Recent studies on the PRISM FFAG ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Next generation lepton flavour violation experiments require high intensity and high quality muon beams. The PRISM Task Force focuses on accelerator R and D for realizing such beams using an FFAG ring. The scaling and non-scaling designs for the PRISM FFAG ring are discussed. The recent studies on injection/extraction systems and matching to the solenoid channel are outlined. The future plans for the study are presented.

  11. Inelastic scattering of neutrons by superconducting rings

    OpenAIRE

    Agafonov, A. I.

    2010-01-01

    The differential cross section for the inelastic magnetic scattering of neutrons by superconducting rings is derived theoretically taking account of the interaction of the neutron magnetic moment with magnetic field created by the superconducting current. In this scattering process the neutron kinetic energy increases discretely and, respectively, the number of the magnetic flux quanta trapped in the ring, reduces. Quantitative calculations of the scattering cross section for cold neutrons is...

  12. SNS RING STUDY AT THE AGS BOOSTER.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHANG, S.Y.; AHRENS, L.; BEEBE-WANG, J.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; FEDOTOV, A.; GARDNER, C.; LEE, Y.Y.; LUCCIO, A.; MALITSKY, N.; ROSER, T.; WENG, W.T.; WEI, J.; ZENO, K.; REECE, K.; WANG, J.G.

    2000-06-30

    During the g-2 run at the BNL AGS in early 2000, a 200 MeV storage-ring-like magnetic cycle has been set-up and tuned at the Booster in preparing for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring study. In this article, we report the progress of the machine set-up, tuning, some preliminary studies, and the future plan.

  13. Generalized Inverses of Matrices over Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩瑞珠; 陈建龙

    1992-01-01

    Let R be a ring,*be an involutory function of the set of all finite matrices over R. In this pa-per,necessary and sufficient conditions are given for a matrix to have a (1,3)-inverse,(1,4)-inverse,or Morre-Penrose inverse,relative to *.Some results about generalized inverses of matrices over division rings are generalized and improved.

  14. Polarized light bursts from kicked quantum rings

    OpenAIRE

    Moskalenko, A.S.; Berakdar, J.

    2008-01-01

    Non-equilibrium quantum rings emit circular polarized subterahertz radiation with a polarization degree controllable on nano- to picosecond time scales. This we conclude using a theory developed here for the time-dependent detection of the circular polarization of polychromatic radiations, valid for time scales comparable to the reciprocal of characteristic emission frequencies. The theory is applied to driven quantum rings whereby the influence of radiative and non-radiative processes on the...

  15. NOETHERIAN GR-REGULAR RINGS ARE REGULAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIHUISHI

    1994-01-01

    It is proved that for a left Noetherian z-graded ring A,if every finitely generated graded A-module has finite projective dimension(i.e-,A is gr-regular)then every finitely generated A-module has finite projective dimension(i.e.,A is regular).Some applications of this result to filtered rings and some classical cases are also given.

  16. Evolution and stability of ring species

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Ayana B.; de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2013-01-01

    Neutral models, in which genetic change arises through random variation without fitness differences, have proven remarkably successful in describing observed patterns of biodiversity, despite the manifest role of selection in evolution. Here we investigate the effect of barriers on biodiversity by simulating the expansion of a population around a barrier to form a ring species, in which the two ends of the population are reproductively isolated despite ongoing gene flow around the ring. We co...

  17. A transformable tensegrity-ring footbridge

    OpenAIRE

    Rhode-Barbarigos, Landolf; Motro, René; Smith, Ian F.C.

    2012-01-01

    International audience Tensegrity structures are spatial reticulated structures composed of cables and struts. A tension-compression equilibrium leads to lightweight systems that change shape through length changes in their members. Active members thus control several degrees of freedom simultaneously. Tensegrity-ring modules are transformable circuit-pattern modules. The linear combination of tensegrity rings has been shown to be viable for a footbridge application. Shape transformations ...

  18. Fluxoid dynamics in superconducting thin film rings

    OpenAIRE

    Kirtley, J. R.; Tsuei, C. C.; Kogan, V. G.; Clem, J. R.; Raffy, H.; Li, Z. Z.

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the dynamics of individual magnetic fluxoids entering and leaving photolithographically patterned thin film rings of the underdoped high-temperature superconductor Bi$_2$Sr$_2$CaCu$_2$O$_{8+\\delta}$, using a variable sample temperature scanning SQUID microscope. These results can be qualitatively described using a model in which the fluxoid number changes by thermally activated nucleation of a Pearl vortex in, and transport of the Pearl vortex across, the ring wall.

  19. Intensity Scintillations in Planetary Ring Occultations: Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouf, E.

    2003-12-01

    A combined analytical and numerical simulation approach is used to investigate the first, second, and fourth statistical averages of the signal observed during a ring occultation experiment. The rings are modeled as a randomly blocked diffraction screen. The field behind the screen (the rings) assumes binary values: zero if located in the shadow area cast by ring particles and the full incident field otherwise. The stochastic geometry of the union of shadow areas cast behind the rings defines a so-called Boolean model. Either the random wavefront formed behind the screen or it's statistical averages can be propagated to an observer (a detector) some distance away from the diffraction screen. The parabolic approximation of the wave equation is used to model near-forward diffraction effects over the free-space path from the ring plane to the observation plane. The first and second moments were previously shown to correspond to the well-known coherent and scattered signal components observed during radio occultation experiments. Of particular interest here is the fourth moment of the random field at the observer, which determines the intensity scintillation index. Numerical simulations are used to investigate its behavior as a function of relevant model parameters, in particular, the ring particle radius and the Fresnel scale of observation. A monodispersion of ring particles is assumed to keep the model as simple as possible so as to investigate conditions under which the particle size may be recoverable from the intensity scintillation measurements. The model is also idealized to one-dimensional diffraction screen in order to speed up the computations; however, simulations of the more realistic two-dimensional diffraction screen models are also carried out.

  20. Installation of reactor vessel support ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Installation activities of reactor vessel support ring for Unit 1 and Unit 2 of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant were presented, including prerequisites, handling, assembling, positioning, second-stage concreting, inspection and documentation. In particular, the processing of non-conformances for Unit 1 as experience feedback leading to the design modification which has been applied in the support ring assembling activities for Unit 2 was introduced. (9 figs, 1 tab.)

  1. Bosonic and Fermionic Dipoles on a Ring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zöllner, Sascha; Bruun, Georg; Pethick, Christopher;

    2011-01-01

    We show that dipolar bosons and fermions confined in a quasi-one-dimensional ring trap exhibit a rich variety of states because their interaction is inhomogeneous. For purely repulsive interactions, with increasing strength of the dipolar coupling there is a crossover from a gaslike state to an i...... to an inhomogeneous crystal-like one. For small enough angles between the dipoles and the plane of the ring, there are regions with attractive interactions, and clustered states can form....

  2. Computerspil og læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2015-01-01

    Game-based learning og gamification er ord, der ofte optræder i forbindelse med computerspil og læring. Denne artikel vil analytisk undersøge, hvordan computerspil og læring går i forbindelse med hinanden. Artikel tager afsæt i Gregory Batesons læringsteori og læser denne igennem det kommercielle...

  3. Multiperfect Numbers in Certain Quadratic Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Defant, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Using an extension of the abundancy index to imaginary quadratic rings that are unique factorization domains, we investigate what we call $n$-powerfully $t$-perfect numbers in these rings. This definition serves to extend the concept of multiperfect numbers that have been defined and studied in the integers. At the end of the paper, as well as at various points throughout the paper, we point to some potential areas for further research.

  4. Tube Dynamics Works for Randomly Entangled Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian; Milner, Scott T.

    2016-02-01

    The tube model is the cornerstone of molecular theory for polymer rheology. We test its microscopic assumptions by simulating topologically equilibrated ring polymers, whose dynamics is free from end segment relaxation. We show that a closed-form expression derived from the tube model adapted to ring polymers quantitatively predicts the segmental mean squared displacements over the entire range of time scales from local motion to complete equilibration, with a time-independent local friction factor.

  5. Hjernen og læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Ole

    Hjernen og læring bygger på de seneste 15-20 års forskningsresultater i spændingsfeltet mellem neurovidenskab, psykologi og pædagogik. På baggrund af denne viden om, hvordan hjernen arbejder, får læseren praktiske redskaber til at tilrettelægge undervisning og egen læring så effektivt som muligt....

  6. Gravitating Stationary Dyons and Rotating Vortex Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Kleihaus, B; Neemann, U; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Neemann, Ulrike

    2005-01-01

    We construct dyons, and electrically charged monopole-antimonopole pairs and vortex rings in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory coupled to Einstein gravity. The solutions are stationary, axially symmetric and asymptotically flat. The dyons with magnetic charge $n\\ge 2$ represent non-static solutions with vanishing angular momentum. The electrically charged monopole-antimonopole pairs and vortex rings, in contrast, possess vanishing magnetic charge, but finite angular momentum, equaling $n$ times their electric charge.

  7. Magnetic Reversal in Nanoscopic Ferromagnetic Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, Kirsten; Stein, D. L.; Kent, A. D.

    2004-01-01

    We present a theory of magnetization reversal due to thermal fluctuations in thin submicron-scale rings composed of soft magnetic materials. The magnetization in such geometries is more stable against reversal than that in thin needles and other geometries, where sharp ends or edges can initiate nucleation of a reversed state. The 2D ring geometry also allows us to evaluate the effects of nonlocal magnetostatic forces. We find a `phase transition', which should be experimentally observable, b...

  8. Advanced light source master oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Master Oscillator of the Advanced Light Source operates at a frequency of 499.654 MHz which is the 328th harmonic of the storage ring. The oscillator is capable of providing up to a maximum of ± 500 KHz frequency deviation for various experimental purposes. Provisions for external signal injection as well as using an external signal source have been designed into the unit. A power distribution system has also been included to provide signals for various parts of the ALS machine and user requirements. The Master Oscillator is made up with modules housed in a Euro chassis. 4 refs., 7 figs

  9. Stability of rings around a triaxial primary

    CERN Document Server

    Lehébel, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Generally, the oblateness of a planet or moon is what causes rings to settle into its equatorial plane. However, the recent suggestion that a ring system might exist (or have existed) about Rhea, a moon whose shape includes a strong prolate component pointed toward Saturn, raises the question of whether rings around a triaxial primary can be stable. We study the role of prolateness in the behavior of rings around Rhea and extend our results to similar problems such as possible rings around exoplanets. Using a Hamiltonian approach, we point out that the dynamical behavior of ring particles is governed by three different time scales: the orbital period of the particles, the rotation period of the primary, and the precession period of the particles' orbital plane. In the case of Rhea, two of these are well separated from the third, allowing us to average the Hamiltonian twice. To study the case of slow rotation of the primary, we also carry out numerical simulations of a thin disk of particles undergoing secular...

  10. Reactor vessel O-ring spring clip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel including a vessel closure head having a bottom surface adapted to be sealingly engaged with the pressure vessel, the vessel head having an annular groove therein for receiving a tubular O-ring having slots therein, the vessel head also having threaded apertures in the bottom surface concentrically disposed with respect to the annular groove, a reactor vessel O-ring spring clip for securing the O-ring to the vessel head. The spring clip comprising a horizontal leg having one end thereof adapted to be received within one of the slots in the O-ring and an opposite end adapted to frictionally engage one of the threaded apertures, such that the weight of the O-ring increases the friction force between the spring clip and the threaded aperture, wherein the one end of the horizontal leg adapted to engage the O-ring includes; a generally vertical leg extending upward from the one end of the horizontal leg; and a generally circular member depending from the vertical leg such that it lies in a vertical plane parallel with that of the horizontal leg

  11. Polar ring galaxies as tests of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Lüghausen, F; Kroupa, P; Angus, G; Combes, F; Gentile, G; Tiret, O; Zhao, H

    2013-01-01

    Polar ring galaxies are ideal objects with which to study the three-dimensional shapes of galactic gravitational potentials since two rotation curves can be measured in two perpendicular planes. Observational studies have uncovered systematically larger rotation velocities in the extended polar rings than in the associated host galaxies. In the dark matter context, this can only be explained through dark halos that are systematically flattened along the polar rings. Here, we point out that these objects can also be used as very effective tests of gravity theories, such as those based on Milgromian dynamics (MOND). We run a set of polar ring models using both Milgromian and Newtonian dynamics to predict the expected shapes of the rotation curves in both planes, varying the total mass of the system, the mass of the ring with respect to the host, as well as the size of the hole at the center of the ring. We find that Milgromian dynamics not only naturally leads to rotation velocities being typically higher in th...

  12. Phase behaviour of polyethylene knotted ring chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Xiao-Hui; Zhang Lin-Xi; Xia A-Gen; Chen Hong-Ping

    2011-01-01

    The phase behaviour of polyethylene knotted ring chains is investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations.In this paper, we focus on the collapse of the polyethylene knotted ring chain, and also present the results of linear and ring chains for comparison. At high temperatures, a fully extensive knot structure is observed. The mean-square radius of gyration per bond〈S2〉/(Nb2)and the shape factor(δ*)depend on not only the chain length but also the knot type.With temperature decreasing, chain collapse is observed, and the collapse temperature decreases with the chain length increasing. The actual collapse transition can be determined by the specific heat capacity Cv, and the knotted ring chain undergoes gas-liquid-solid-like transition directly. The phase transition of a knotted ring chain is only one-stage collapse, which is different from the polyethylene linear and ring chains. This investigation can provide some insights into the statistical properties of knotted polymer chains.

  13. Ring aggregation pattern of Human Travel Trips

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zi-Yang; Zhu, Peng; Qin, Yong; Jia, Li-Min

    2015-01-01

    Although a lot of attentions have been paid to human mobility, the relationship between travel pattern with city structure is still unclear. Here we probe into this relationship by analyzing the metro passenger trip data.There are two unprecedented findings. One, from the average view a linear law exists between the individual's travel distance with his original distance to city center. The mechanism underlying is a travel pattern we called "ring aggregation", i.e., the daily movement of city passengers is just aggregating to a ring with roughly equal distance to city center.Interestingly, for the round trips the daily travel pattern can be regarded as a switching between the home ring at outer area with the office ring at the inner area. Second, this linear law and ring aggregation pattern seems to be an exclusive characteristic of the metro system. It can not be found in short distance transportation modes, such as bicycle and taxi, neither as multiple transportation modes. This means the ring aggregation p...

  14. Near-Ring Radicals and Class Pairs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Godloza; N.J.Groenewald; W.A.Olivier

    2005-01-01

    For near-ring ideal mappings p1 and p2, we investigate radical theoretical properties of and the relationship among the class pairs (p1: p2), (Sp2: Sp1) and (Rp2:Rp1). Conditions on p1 and p2 are given for a general class pair to form a radical class of various types. These types include the Plotkin and KA-radical varieties. A number of examples are shown to motivate the suitability of the theory of Hoehnke-radicals over KA-radicals when radical pairs of near-rings are studied. In particular, it is shown that (pc: P3) forms a KA-radical class, where Pc denotes the class of completely prime nearrings and P3 the class of 3-prime near-rings. This gives another near-ring generalization of the 2-primal ring concept. The theory of radical pairs are also used to show that in general the class of 3-semiprime near-rings is not the semisimple class of the 3-prime radical.

  15. Circuit description of unipolar DC-to-DC converters for APS storage ring quadrupoles and sextupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the control, interlock, and power circuits for 680 unipolar switch mode DC-to-DC converters used to regulate the Advanced Photon Sources (APS's) storage ring quadrupole and sextupole magnet currents. Quadrupole current stability is ± 6x10-5 and the sextupole current stability is ±3x10-4. The stability is obtained with pulse width modulation, operating at a switching frequency of 20kHz with full current switching. The converters are housed in 200 cabinets located on top of the storage ring tunnel. Raw DC power is distributed from 80 AC-to-DC power supplies, four at each of 20 locations around the storage ring. Voltages, currents, and temperatures are computer monitored and logged for the converters and magnets. All converters and magnets are water cooled with the flow and pressure monitored at the inlet and outlet of groups. Water is interlocked with the raw power supplies and not the individual converters

  16. AdvancED Flex 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Shashank; Schulze, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    AdvancED Flex 4 makes advanced Flex 4 concepts and techniques easy. Ajax, RIA, Web 2.0, mashups, mobile applications, the most sophisticated web tools, and the coolest interactive web applications are all covered with practical, visually oriented recipes. * Completely updated for the new tools in Flex 4* Demonstrates how to use Flex 4 to create robust and scalable enterprise-grade Rich Internet Applications.* Teaches you to build high-performance web applications with interactivity that really engages your users.* What you'll learn Practiced beginners and intermediate users of Flex, especially

  17. Complete snake and rotator schemes for spin polarization in proton rings and large electron rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to maintain spin polarization in proton rings and large electron rings, some generalized Siberian Snake scheme may be required to make the spin tune almost independent of energy and thus avoid depolarizing resonances. The practical problem of finding such schemes that, at reasonable technical effort, can be made to work over large energy ranges has been addressed before and is here revisited in a broadened view and with added new suggestions. As a result, possibly optimum schemes for electron rings (LEP) and proton rings are described. In the proposed LEP scheme, spin rotation is devised such that, at the interaction points, the spin direction is longitudinal as required for experiments. (orig.)

  18. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, L. W.

    2015-10-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible. Results of driven N-body systems by Stuart Robbins: Even unforced rings show large variations; Forcing triggers aggregation; Some limit cycles and phase lags seen, but not always as predicted by predator-prey model. Summary of Halo Results: A predatorprey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw'. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon

  19. Proceedings of the workshop on polarized targets in storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, R.J. (ed.)

    1984-08-01

    Polarization phenomena have played an increasingly important part in the study of nuclei and nucleons in recent years. Polarization studies have been hampered by the relatively few and rather fragile polarized targets which are presently available. The concept of polarized gas targets in storage rings opens a much wider range of possibilities than is available in the external target geometry. This novel method will represent a considerable advance in nuclear physics and will continue to receive much attention in plans for future facilities. An internal, polarized-target station is being planned for the cooler ring at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. Internal targets are compatible with recent designs of electron accelerators proposed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Southeastern Universities Research Association. The key to nuclear-science programs based on internal targets pivots on recent developments in polarized atomic beam methods, which include the more recent laser-driven polarized targets. The workshop drew together a unique group of physicists in the fields of high-energy, nuclear and atomic physics. The meeting was organized in a manner that stimulated discussion among the 58 participants and focused on developments in polarized target technology and the underlying atomic physics. An impressive array of future possibilities for polarized targets as well as current developments in polarized target technology were discussed at the workshop. Abstracts of individual items from the workshop were prepared separately for the data base.

  20. Proceedings of the workshop on polarized targets in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polarization phenomena have played an increasingly important part in the study of nuclei and nucleons in recent years. Polarization studies have been hampered by the relatively few and rather fragile polarized targets which are presently available. The concept of polarized gas targets in storage rings opens a much wider range of possibilities than is available in the external target geometry. This novel method will represent a considerable advance in nuclear physics and will continue to receive much attention in plans for future facilities. An internal, polarized-target station is being planned for the cooler ring at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. Internal targets are compatible with recent designs of electron accelerators proposed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Southeastern Universities Research Association. The key to nuclear-science programs based on internal targets pivots on recent developments in polarized atomic beam methods, which include the more recent laser-driven polarized targets. The workshop drew together a unique group of physicists in the fields of high-energy, nuclear and atomic physics. The meeting was organized in a manner that stimulated discussion among the 58 participants and focused on developments in polarized target technology and the underlying atomic physics. An impressive array of future possibilities for polarized targets as well as current developments in polarized target technology were discussed at the workshop. Abstracts of individual items from the workshop were prepared separately for the data base

  1. The vasorelaxing effect of hydrogen sulfide on isolated rat aortic rings versus pulmonary artery rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan SUN; Chao-shu TANG; Hong-fang JIN; Jun-bao DU

    2011-01-01

    Aim:To compare the vasorelaxing effects of hydrogen sulfide(H2S)on isolated aortic and pulmonary artery rings and to determine their action mechanisms.Methods:H2S-induced vasorelaxation of isolated rat aortic versus pulmonary artery tings under 95%02 and 5%CO2 was analyzed.The expression of cystathinonine gamma-lyase(CSE),cystathionine beta synthase(CBS),3-memaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase(3MST),SUR2B and Kir6.1 was examined.Results:NaHS caused vasorelaxation of rat aortic and pulmonary artery rings in a dose-dependent mannener NaHS dilated aortic rings to a greater extent(16.4%,38.4%,64.1%,84.3%,and 95.9%at concentrations of 50,100.200, 500,and 1000 μmol/L,respectively)than pulmonary artery rings(10.1%,22.2%.50.6%,73.6%,and 84.6%at concentrations of 50,100,200, 500 and 1000 μmol/L,respectively).The EC50 of the vasorelaxant effect for aortic rings was 152.17 pmol/L,whereas the EC50 for pulmonary artery tings was233.65 μmol/L.The vasorelaxing effect of H2was markedly blocked b y cellular and mitochondrial membrane Km channel blockers in aortic rings(P<0.01).In contrast.only the cellular membrane KATP channel blocker inhibited H2S-induced vasorelaxation in pulmonary artery rings.SUR2B mRNA and protein expression was higher in aortic rings than in pulmonary artery rings.Cystathinonine gamma-lyase(CSE)but not cystathionine beta synthase(CBS)expression in aortic rings was higher than in pulmonary artery rings.3.Mercapto PYruvate sulfurtransferase(3MST)mRNA was lower in aortic rings than in pulmonary artery rings.Conclusion:The vasorelaxing effect of H2S on isolated aortic rings was more pronounced than the effect on pulmonary artery rings at specific concentrations,which might be associated with increased expression of the KATP channel subunit SUR2B.

  2. VLA Discovers Giant Rings Around Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope have discovered giant, ring-like structures around a cluster of galaxies. The discovery provides tantalizing new information about how such galaxy clusters are assembled, about magnetic fields in the vast spaces between galaxy clusters, and possibly about the origin of cosmic rays. Radio-Optical Image of Cluster Galaxy Cluster Abell 3376 (Radio/Optical) CREDIT: Joydeep Bagchi, IUCAA, NRAO/AUI/NSF Above, a combined radio/optical image shows the galaxy cluster Abell 3376 in visible light (blue) and radio (red) images. The giant radio arcs surrounding the cluster were discovered using the Very Large Array. The visible-light image is from the Digitized Sky survey. Below, an X-ray image of Abell 3376 made using the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton telescope shows a spectacular, bullet-shaped region of X-rays coming from gas heated to 60 million degrees Kelvin. The bullet shape results from the supersonic collision of a smaller smaller galaxy subcluster with the main body of the larger cluster. Click on images for larger version. X-Ray Image of Cluster Galaxy Cluster Abell 3376 (X-Ray) CREDIT: Joydeep Bagchi, IUCAA, ESA "These giant, radio-emitting rings probably are the result of shock waves caused by violent collisions of smaller groups of galaxies within the cluster," said Joydeep Bagchi, of the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics in Pune, India, who led an international research team. The scientists reported their findings in the November 3 edition of the journal Science. The newly-discovered ring segments, some 6 million light-years across, surround a galaxy cluster called Abell 3376, more than 600 million light-years from Earth. They were revealed because fast-moving electrons emitted radio waves as they spiraled around magnetic field lines in intergalactic space. "Even from this large distance, the feeble radio waves were easily picked up by the VLA

  3. 46 CFR 180.70 - Ring life buoys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the ring life buoy. (3) Each floating waterlight installed after March 11, 1997, on a vessel carrying... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ring life buoys. 180.70 Section 180.70 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.70 Ring life buoys. (a) A...

  4. Ring current development during high speed streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, V. K.; Matsui, H.; Puhl-Quinn, P. A.; Thomsen, M. F.; Mursula, K.; Holappa, L.

    2009-07-01

    Episodes of southward (Bzdynamics with a CME-driven storm of similar strength during 22-23 April 2001. We use our kinetic ring current-atmosphere interactions model (RAM), and investigate the mechanisms responsible for trapping particles and for causing their loss. Ring current evolution depends on the interplay of time-dependent inflow of plasma from the magnetotail, particle acceleration and loss (mainly due to charge exchange) along adiabatic drift paths, and outflow of plasma from the dayside magnetopause; all of these processes are incorporated in our model. We compare results from simulations using a newly developed, Cluster data based, University of New Hampshire inner magnetospheric electric field (UNH-IMEF) convection model with simulations using a Volland-Stern (V-S) type convection model. We find that, first, periods of increased magnetospheric convection coinciding with enhancements of plasma sheet density are needed for strong ring current buildup. Second, during the HSS-driven storm the convection potential from UNH-IMEF model is highly variable and causes sporadic shallow injections resulting in a weak ring current. The long period of enhanced convection during the CME-driven storm causes a continuous ion injection penetrating to lower L shells and stronger ring current buildup. V-S model predicts larger ring current injection during both storms. Third, the RAM driven by either convection model underestimates the total ring current energy during the recovery phase of the HSS storm, thus indicating that additional injections from substorm-induced electric fields and/or radial diffusion are needed to better reproduce its several-day long geomagnetic activity.

  5. Ring Orbits from Multiple Occultation Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Richard G.; McGhee, C. A.; Marouf, E. A.; Rappaport, N.

    2006-09-01

    Planetary rings provide a remarkable laboratory for the investigation of a wide range of dynamical effects, including resonance-driven density and bending waves, satellite wakes, shepherding of narrow ringlets, and non-circular edges of gaps. Careful quantitative examination of these features requires a very accurate absolute radius scale and planetary pole direction, achievable by combining multiple stellar and radio occultation observations. Uncertainty in the location of the spacecraft (at the km level) introduces a fundamental uncertainty into the geometric solution for the ring radius scale, and in the end one must solve for corrections to the spacecraft trajectory as part of the overall determination of the ring orbital model. Using JPL's NAIF toolkit, we have developed accurate algorithms for computing the event time of a ring occultation during an Earth-based or spacecraft occultation, including the effects of spacecraft trajectory errors mapped in two orthogonal directions transverse to the line of sight, based on osculating orbital elements for the instantaneous spacecraft path. These are the fundamental building blocks for a global solution for the pole direction and orbits of the rings of Saturn and Uranus. For Uranus, our new orbit solution includes the full set of digitally recorded occultation data from 1977-2002, yielding a radius scale accurate at the 100 meter level. For Saturn, we explore the potential for highly accurate ring orbit determination as occultation observations from dozens of stellar and radio occultations become publicly available over the course of the ongoing Cassini orbital tour. Saturn's pole precession is also detectable from ring occultation data, and we set limits on the accuracy of the precession rate determination and the implications for our understanding of the mass distribution in Saturn's interior. This work was supported in part by the NASA PGG program.

  6. Beam Control and Steering in the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) is a low energy, high current recirculator for beam physics research. Ring construction has been completed for multi-turn operation of beams over a broad range of intensities and initial conditions. The electron beam current is adjustable up to 100 mA and pulse length as long as 100 ns. UMER is addressing issues in beam physics relevant to many applications that require intense beams of high quality, such as advanced concept accelerators, free electron lasers, spallalion neutron sources, and future heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion. The primary focus of this presentation is experimental results in the area of beam steering and control within the injection line and ring. Unique beam steering algorithms now include measurement of the beam response matrix at each quadrupole and matrix inversion by singular value decomposition (SVD). With these advanced steering methods, transport of an intense beam over 50 turns (3600 full lattice periods) of the ring has been achieved

  7. Beam Control and Steering in the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M.; Bai, G.; Bernal, S.; Feldman, D.; Godlove, T.; Haber, I.; Holloway, M.; Kishek, R.; O'Shea, P.; Papadopoulos, C.; Quinn, B.; Reiser, M.; Stratakis, D.; Sutter, D.; Thangaraj, J.; Wilson, M.; Wu, C.

    2006-11-01

    The University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) is a low energy, high current recirculator for beam physics research. Ring construction has been completed for multi-turn operation of beams over a broad range of intensities and initial conditions. The electron beam current is adjustable up to 100 mA and pulse length as long as 100 ns. UMER is addressing issues in beam physics relevant to many applications that require intense beams of high quality, such as advanced concept accelerators, free electron lasers, spallalion neutron sources, and future heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion. The primary focus of this presentation is experimental results in the area of beam steering and control within the injection line and ring. Unique beam steering algorithms now include measurement of the beam response matrix at each quadrupole and matrix inversion by singular value decomposition (SVD). With these advanced steering methods, transport of an intense beam over 50 turns (3600 full lattice periods) of the ring has been achieved.

  8. Energy transfer between a passing vortex ring and a flexible plate in an ideal quiescent fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advancements in highly deformable smart materials have lead to increasing interest in small-scale energy harvesting research for powering low consumption electronic devices. One such recent experimental study by Goushcha et al. explored energy harvesting from a passing vortex ring by a cantilevered smart material plate oriented parallel to and offset from the path of the ring in an otherwise quiescent fluid. The present study focuses on modeling this experimental study using potential flow to facilitate optimization of the energy extraction from the passing ring to raise the energy harvesting potential of the device. The problem is modeled in two-dimensions with the vortex ring represented as a pair of counter-rotating free vortices. Vortex pair parameters are determined to match the convection speed of the ring in the experiments, as well as the imposed pressure loading on the plate. The plate is approximated as a Kirchhoff-Love plate and represented as a finite length vortex sheet in the fluid domain. The analytical model matches experimental measurements, including the tip displacement, the integrated force along the entire plate length as a function of vortex ring position, and the pressure along the plate. The potential flow solution is employed in a parametric study of the governing dimensionless parameters in an effort to guide the selection of plate properties for optimal energy harvesting performance. Results of the study indicate an optimal set of plate properties for a given vortex ring configuration, in which the time-scale of vortex advection matches that of the plate vibration

  9. Energy transfer between a passing vortex ring and a flexible plate in an ideal quiescent fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, JiaCheng; Porfiri, Maurizio; Peterson, Sean D.

    2015-09-01

    Recent advancements in highly deformable smart materials have lead to increasing interest in small-scale energy harvesting research for powering low consumption electronic devices. One such recent experimental study by Goushcha et al. explored energy harvesting from a passing vortex ring by a cantilevered smart material plate oriented parallel to and offset from the path of the ring in an otherwise quiescent fluid. The present study focuses on modeling this experimental study using potential flow to facilitate optimization of the energy extraction from the passing ring to raise the energy harvesting potential of the device. The problem is modeled in two-dimensions with the vortex ring represented as a pair of counter-rotating free vortices. Vortex pair parameters are determined to match the convection speed of the ring in the experiments, as well as the imposed pressure loading on the plate. The plate is approximated as a Kirchhoff-Love plate and represented as a finite length vortex sheet in the fluid domain. The analytical model matches experimental measurements, including the tip displacement, the integrated force along the entire plate length as a function of vortex ring position, and the pressure along the plate. The potential flow solution is employed in a parametric study of the governing dimensionless parameters in an effort to guide the selection of plate properties for optimal energy harvesting performance. Results of the study indicate an optimal set of plate properties for a given vortex ring configuration, in which the time-scale of vortex advection matches that of the plate vibration.

  10. Energy transfer between a passing vortex ring and a flexible plate in an ideal quiescent fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, JiaCheng; Peterson, Sean D., E-mail: peterson@mme.uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Porfiri, Maurizio [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering, Brooklyn, New York 11201 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    Recent advancements in highly deformable smart materials have lead to increasing interest in small-scale energy harvesting research for powering low consumption electronic devices. One such recent experimental study by Goushcha et al. explored energy harvesting from a passing vortex ring by a cantilevered smart material plate oriented parallel to and offset from the path of the ring in an otherwise quiescent fluid. The present study focuses on modeling this experimental study using potential flow to facilitate optimization of the energy extraction from the passing ring to raise the energy harvesting potential of the device. The problem is modeled in two-dimensions with the vortex ring represented as a pair of counter-rotating free vortices. Vortex pair parameters are determined to match the convection speed of the ring in the experiments, as well as the imposed pressure loading on the plate. The plate is approximated as a Kirchhoff-Love plate and represented as a finite length vortex sheet in the fluid domain. The analytical model matches experimental measurements, including the tip displacement, the integrated force along the entire plate length as a function of vortex ring position, and the pressure along the plate. The potential flow solution is employed in a parametric study of the governing dimensionless parameters in an effort to guide the selection of plate properties for optimal energy harvesting performance. Results of the study indicate an optimal set of plate properties for a given vortex ring configuration, in which the time-scale of vortex advection matches that of the plate vibration.

  11. Commissioning results of the APS storage ring diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial commissionings of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) 7-GeV storage ring and its diagnostics systems have been done. Early studies involved single-bunch measurements for beam transverse size (σx ∼ 150 μm, σy ∼ 50 μm), current, injection losses, and bunch length. The diagnostics have been used in studies related to the detection of an extra contribution to beam jitter at ∼ 6.5 Hz frequency; observation of bunch lengthening (σ ∼ 30 to 60 ps) with single-bunch current; observation of an induced vertical, head-tail instability; and detection of a small orbit change with insertion device gap position. More recently, operations at 100-mA stored-beam current, the baseline design goal, have been achieved with the support of beam characterizations

  12. Slow extraction from J-PARC main ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have succeeded in slowly extracting protons accelerated at 30 GeV from the J-PARC main ring and delivering the hadron experimental hall in January, 2009. This success is a great step to establish advanced hadron facility in the world. Achieved beam extraction efficiency is estimated to be 90% from beam loss monitors and DCCT. This efficiency can be accepted enough as a first beam test. Large ripples of the bending and quadrupole power supply caused a serious spike structure in the beam spill. A spill feedback system will be implemented in this summer shutdown period. However, a ripple reduction of the bending and quadrupole power supply is strongly desired to obtain a uniform spill structure. (author)

  13. Hubble Views Saturn Ring-Plane Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This sequence of images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope documents a rare astronomical alignment -- Saturn's magnificent ring system turned edge-on. This occurs when the Earth passes through Saturn's ring plane, as it does approximately every 15 years.These pictures were taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on 22 May 1995, when Saturn was at a distance of 919 million miles (1.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. At Saturn, Hubble can see details as small as 450 miles (725 km) across. In each image, the dark band across Saturn is the ring shadow cast by the Sun which is still 2.7 degrees above Saturn's ring plane. The box around the western portion of the rings (to the right of Saturn) in each image indicates the area in which the faint light from the rings has been multiplied through image processing (by a factor of 25) to make the rings more visible.[Top] -This image was taken while the Earth was above the lit face of the rings. The moons Tethys and Dione are visible to the east (left) of Saturn; Janus is the bright spot near the center of the ring portion in the box, and Pandora is faintly visible just inside the left edge of this box. Saturn's atmosphere shows remarkable detail: multiple banding in both the northern and southern hemispheres, wispy structure at the north edge of the equatorial zone, and a bright area above the ring shadow that is caused by sunlight scattered off the rings onto the atmosphere. There is evidence of a faint polar haze over the north pole of Saturn and a fainter haze over the south.[Center] -This image was taken close to the time of ring-plane crossing. The rings are 75% fainter than in the top image, though they do not disappear completely because the vertical face of the rings still reflects sunlight when the rings are edge-on. Rhea is visible to the east of Saturn, Enceladus is the bright satellite in the rings to the west, and Janus is the fainter blip to its right. Pandora is just to the left of Enceladus, but is not

  14. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Nickerson, HK; Steenrod, NE

    2011-01-01

    ""This book is a radical departure from all previous concepts of advanced calculus,"" declared the Bulletin of the American Mathematics Society, ""and the nature of this departure merits serious study of the book by everyone interested in undergraduate education in mathematics."" Classroom-tested in a Princeton University honors course, it offers students a unified introduction to advanced calculus. Starting with an abstract treatment of vector spaces and linear transforms, the authors introduce a single basic derivative in an invariant form. All other derivatives - gradient, divergent, curl,

  15. E-læring på arbejde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie

    Antologien sætter fokus på koblingen mellem e-læring og arbejdspladslæring gennem 9 artikler skrevet af forskere fra Danmark, Norge og Sverige. Nogle artikler skaber overblik over områderne e-læring og arbejdspladslæring og sætter fokus på vigtige begreber som teknologi, (e)læring samt individ og...... organisation. Andre artikler dykker ned i specifikke temaer som: organisering af e-læring på arbejdspladsen, design af e-lærings platforme til arbejdspladslæring, støtte af e-læring på arbejdspladsen mm. Fælles for artiklerne er, at de alle præsenterer empiriske eksempler på e-læring på arbejde. Antologien...

  16. Analytical model for double split ring resonators with arbitrary ring width

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Jensen, Thomas; Krozer, Viktor;

    2008-01-01

    For the first time, the analytical model for a double split ring resonator with unequal width rings is developed. The proposed models for the resonators with equal and unequal widths are based on an impedance matrix representation and provide the prediction of performance in a wide frequency range...

  17. Reconfigurable ring filter with controllable frequency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Wahab, Norfishah; Mohd Salleh, Mohd Khairul; Ismail Khan, Zuhani; Abd Rashid, Nur Emileen

    2014-01-01

    Reconfigurable ring filter based on single-side-access ring topology is presented. Using capacitive tuning elements, the electrical length of the ring can be manipulated to shift the nominal center frequency to a desired position. A synthesis is developed to determine the values of the capacitive elements. To show the advantage of the synthesis, it is applied to the reconfigurable filter design using RF lumped capacitors. The concept is further explored by introducing varactor-diodes to continuously tune the center frequency of the ring filter. For demonstration, two prototypes of reconfigurable ring filters are realized using microstrip technology, simulated, and measured to validate the proposed concept. The reconfigured filter using lumped elements is successfully reconfigured from 2 GHz to 984.4 MHz and miniaturized by 71% compared to the filter directly designed at the same reconfigured frequency, while, for the filter using varactor-diodes, the frequency is chosen from 1.10 GHz to 1.38 GHz spreading over 280 MHz frequency range. Both designs are found to be compact with acceptable insertion loss and high selectivity. PMID:25121132

  18. ring og den kulturhistoriske skole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    2007-01-01

      Kapitlet søger at indkredse væsentlige sider ved den kulturhistoriske skoles læringsforståelse. Kapitlet rummer fire afsnit. Det første handler om forholdet mellem læring og udvikling, hvor jeg med afsæt i Vygotskys værker (1978, 1974) og med inspiration fra en række amerikanske Vygotsky......-forskere uddrager den grundlæggende forståelse af forholdet mellem læring og udvikling. Nemlig at læring og udvikling indgår i en dialektisk enhed og virker gensidigt ind på hinanden - dog således at læring kommer ført, den trækker udviklingen med sig og så at sige leder udviklingen. Vygotskys tese vedrørende...... forholdet mellem læring og udvikling, ligger efterfølgende til grund for konstruktionen af tre grundlæggende begreber, der (ifølge den amerikanske Vygotsky-forsker Anna Stetsenko, 1999) udgør Vygotskys og den kulturhistoriske skoles teoretiske læringslandskab: 1) interaktionen mellem barnet og den voksne...

  19. Curious terminal turn of rolling rings

    CERN Document Server

    Jalali, Mir Abbas; Alam, Reza

    2014-01-01

    We report an unexpected reverse spiral turn in the final stage of the motion of rolling rings. It is well known that spinning disks have definite centers of rotation until they stop. While a spinning ring starts its motion with a similar kinematics, moving along a cycloidal path prograde with the direction of its rigid body rotation, the mean trajectory of its center of mass develops an inflection point so that the ring makes a spiral turn and revolves in a retrograde direction around a new center. Using high speed imaging and numerical simulations of models featuring a rolling rigid body, we show that the hollow geometry of a ring tunes the rotational air drag resistance so that the frictional force at the contact point with the ground changes its direction at the inflection point and puts the ring on a retrograde spiral trajectory. Our findings have potential applications in designing topologically new surface-effect flying objects capable of performing complex reorientation and translational maneuvers.

  20. The Vibration Ring. Phase 1; [Seedling Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Krantz, Timothy L.; Delap, Damon C.; Stringer, David B.

    2014-01-01

    The vibration ring was conceived as a driveline damping device to prevent structure-borne noise in machines. It has the appearance of a metal ring, and can be installed between any two driveline components like an ordinary mechanical spacer. Damping is achieved using a ring-shaped piezoelectric stack that is poled in the axial direction and connected to an electrical shunt circuit. Surrounding the stack is a metal structure, called the compression cage, which squeezes the stack along its poled axis when excited by radial driveline forces. The stack in turn generates electrical energy, which is either dissipated or harvested using the shunt circuit. Removing energy from the system creates a net damping effect. The vibration ring is much stiffer than traditional damping devices, which allows it to be used in a driveline without disrupting normal operation. In phase 1 of this NASA Seedling Fund project, a combination of design and analysis was used to examine the feasibility of this concept. Several designs were evaluated using solid modeling, finite element analysis, and by creating prototype hardware. Then an analytical model representing the coupled electromechanical response was formulated in closed form. The model was exercised parametrically to examine the stiffness and loss factor spectra of the vibration ring, as well as simulate its damping effect in the context of a simplified driveline model. The results of this work showed that this is a viable mechanism for driveline damping, and provided several lessons for continued development.

  1. Storage rings for radioactive ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolden, F.; Dimopoulou, C.; Dolinskii, A.; Steck, M.

    2008-10-01

    Storage rings for radioactive heavy ions can be applied for a wide range of experiments in atomic and nuclear physics. The rare isotope beams are produced in flight via fragmentation or fission of high-intensity primary ions and they circulate in the storage ring at moderately relativistic energies (typically between 0.1 GeV/u up to 1 GeV/u). Due to their production mechanism they are usually highly charged or even fully stripped. The circulating radioactive heavy ion beams can be used to measure nuclear properties such as masses and decay times, which, in turn, can depend strongly on the ionic charge state. The storage rings must have large acceptances and dynamic apertures. The subsequent application of stochastic precooling of the secondary ions which are injected with large transverse and longitudinal emittances, and electron cooling to reach very high phase space densities has turned out to be a helpful tool for experiments with short-lived ions having lifetimes down to a few seconds. Some of these experiments have already been performed at the experimental storage ring ESR at GSI. The storage ring complex of the FAIR project is intended to enhance significantly the range of experimental possibilities. It is planned to extend the scope of experimental possibilities to collisions with electron or antiproton beams.

  2. Terminal retrograde turn of rolling rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Mir Abbas; Sarebangholi, Milad S.; Alam, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-09-01

    We report an unexpected reverse spiral turn in the final stage of the motion of rolling rings. It is well known that spinning disks rotate in the same direction of their initial spin until they stop. While a spinning ring starts its motion with a kinematics similar to disks, i.e., moving along a cycloidal path prograde with the direction of its rigid body rotation, the mean trajectory of its center of mass later develops an inflection point so that the ring makes a spiral turn and revolves in a retrograde direction around a new center. Using high speed imaging and numerical simulations of models featuring a rolling rigid body, we show that the hollow geometry of a ring tunes the rotational air drag resistance so that the frictional force at the contact point with the ground changes its direction at the inflection point and puts the ring on a retrograde spiral trajectory. Our findings have potential applications in designing topologically new surface-effect flying objects capable of performing complex reorientation and translational maneuvers.

  3. Neptune Rings and 1989N2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    In this Voyager wide-angle image taken on Aug. 23 1989, the two main rings of Neptune can be clearly seen. In the lower part of the frame the originally announced ring arc, consisting of three distinct features, is visible. This feature covers about 35 degrees of longitude and has yet to be radially resolved in Voyager images. From higher resolution images it is known that this region contains much more material than the diffuse belts seen elsewhere in its orbit, which seem to encircle the planet. This is consistent with the fact that ground-based observations of stellar occultations by the rings show them to be very broken and clumpy. The more sensitive wide-angle camera is revealing more widely distributed but fainter material. Each of these rings of material lies just outside of the orbit of a newly discovered moon. One of these moons, 1989N2, may be seen in the upper right corner. The moon is streaked by its orbital motion, whereas the stars in the frame are less smeared. The dark area around the bright moon and star are artifacts of the processing required to bring out the faint rings. This wide-angle image was taken from a range of 2 million kilometers (1.2 million miles), through the clear filter. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  4. On Pasting and Reversing operations over some rings

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta-Humanez, Primitivo Belen; Sanchez, Angela Mariette Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study two operations, Pasting and Reversing, defined from a natural way to be applied over some rings such as the ring of polynomials and the ring of linear differential operators, which is a differential ring. We obtain some properties of these operations over these rings, in particular over the set of natural numbers, in where we rewrite some properties incoming from recreational mathematics.

  5. Linear groups over a locally linear division ring

    CERN Document Server

    Hai, Bui Xuan; Deo, Trinh Thanh

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, in the first we give definitions of some classes of division rings which strictly contain the class of centrally finite division rings. One of our main purpose is to construct non-trivial examples of rings of new defined classes. Further, we study linear groups over division rings of these classes. Our new obtained results generalize precedent results for centrally finite division rings.

  6. Baby Steps in Quantum Ring Theory: towards a background independent framework for Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Araya-Gochez, Rafael A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate gravity as a gauge theory in the language of fiber bundles with tools from algebraic geometry. Compelled by the construction of the Eilenberg-MacLane classifying space via Fox derivations in an integral group ring, the origin of locally curved spacetime as a an abelian group extension is sought algebraically by means of a suitable derivation rule that conforms with the algebraic content of Einstein's equation. Accordingly, a peculiar flavor of background independence is advance...

  7. Ultra-Sensitive Chip-Based Photonic Temperature Sensor Using Ring Resonator Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Haitan; Hafezi, Mohammad; Fan, J.; Taylor, J. M.; Strouse, G. F.; Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2013-01-01

    Resistance thermometry provides a time-tested method for taking temperature measurements. However, fundamental limits to resistance-based approaches has produced considerable interest in developing photonic temperature sensors to leverage advances in frequency metrology and to achieve greater mechanical and environmental stability. Here we show that silicon-based optical ring resonator devices can resolve temperature differences of 1 mK using the traditional wavelength scanning methodology. A...

  8. A hetero-structured ring discovered by CAS nano-scientists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Teaming up with co-workers,researchers from the CAS-affiliated National Center for Nanoscience and Technology(NCNST) recently succeeded in fabricating a hetero-structured nano-ring in their laboratory. The feat, scientist believe, would be valuable for developing new optical or electronic nano-elements and related devices in the near future.The work was recently reported by Advanced Materials (Vol. 19, 2319-2323, 2007).

  9. Advanced ferroelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Blinc, R

    2011-01-01

    Advances in the field of ferroelectricity have implications both for basic physics and for technological applications such as memory devices, spintronic applications and electro-optic devices, as well as in acoustics, robotics, telecommunications and medicine. This book provides an account of recent developments in the field.

  10. Transport Properties Of Viscous Vortex Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study involves the transport or stirring properties of viscous vortex rings. In order to take into account the Reynolds - number dependence, the method of entrainment diagrams is applied. The system for path lines of fluid particles is developed with the help of obtained analytical solution for a vortex ring. The idea of such approach is based on the property of this dynamical system to include complicated Reynolds - number dependence despite the fact that the linear solution of Navier-Stokes equations is used. Unsteady particle trajectories are examined as a bifurcation of an autonomous system with the initial Reynolds number as a parameter. It is shown that for small ratio of external and internal radiuses of the ring, three regimes of particle motion exist and the pattern bifurcates at a two Reynolds numbers of 140 and 640

  11. Visible upconversion fiber lasers in ring configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspary, Reinhard; Baraniecki, Tomasz P.; Kozak, Marcin M.; Kowalsky, Wolfgang

    2005-09-01

    Up-conversion fiber lasers based on Pr3+/Yb3+ doped fluoride fibers and pumped at 835 nm can operate on emission lines in the red, orange, green, and blue spectral region. Up to now only Fabry-Perot configurations with two mirrors butt-coupled to the fiber ends were investigated. In this paper we present the first visible Pr3+/Yb3+ fiber lasers in a ring configuration. In contrast to the usual Fabry-Perot configuration, the basic ring resonator setup contains no free-space optics and no parts which need to be adjusted. The main challenge for such a setup is the connection between the fluoride laser fiber and the remaining part of the ring resonator, which is made from silica fibers. Due to the very different melting temperatures of both glasses usual fusion splices are impossible. We use a special technique to couple the fibers with glue.

  12. Molecular Scale Dynamics of Large Ring Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooßen, S.; Brás, A. R.; Krutyeva, M.; Sharp, M.; Falus, P.; Feoktystov, A.; Gasser, U.; Pyckhout-Hintzen, W.; Wischnewski, A.; Richter, D.

    2014-10-01

    We present neutron scattering data on the structure and dynamics of melts from polyethylene oxide rings with molecular weights up to ten times the entanglement mass of the linear counterpart. The data reveal a very compact conformation displaying a structure approaching a mass fractal, as hypothesized by recent simulation work. The dynamics is characterized by a fast Rouse relaxation of subunits (loops) and a slower dynamics displaying a lattice animal-like loop displacement. The loop size is an intrinsic property of the ring architecture and is independent of molecular weight. This is the first experimental observation of the space-time evolution of segmental motion in ring polymers illustrating the dynamic consequences of their topology that is unique among all polymeric systems of any other known architecture.

  13. Gorenstein flatness and injectivity over Gorenstein rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Let R be a Gorenstein ring.We prove that if I is an ideal of R such that R/I is a semi-simple ring,then the Gorenstein flat dimension of R/I as a right R-module and the Gorenstein injective dimension of R/I as a left R-module are identical.In addition,we prove that if R→S is a homomorphism of rings and SE is an injective cogenerator for the category of left S-modules,then the Gorenstein flat dimension of S as a right R-module and the Gorenstein injective dimension of E as a left R-module are identical.We also give some applications of these results.

  14. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter;

    2000-01-01

    Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self-starting......Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...

  15. Construction of compact electron storage ring JSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomizo, H.; Yanagida, K.; Sasaki, S.; Harami, T.; Konishi, H.; Mashiko, K.; Ashida, K.; Harada, S.; Hashimoto, H.; Iizuka, M.; Kabasawa, M.; Nakayama, K.; Yamada, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    1989-07-01

    A compact electron storage ring (JSR) is under construction in order to study accelerator technologies and to be used as the test ring aiming at a highly brilliant synchrotron radiation facility (6-8 GeV). The JSR lattice is a double-focusing achromatic type. The circumference is 20.5 m. However, even in this small ring, one straight section with a length of ˜1.5 m, where the dispersion is free, is provided for the insertion device study. The electron beam is supplied by the linac with an energy of 150 MeV, and the stored energy is slowly increased up to 300 MeV. Power supplies of all magnets and the rf system are controlled by a real-time computer through optical fiber links, and signals of beam monitors are stored in the same computer so that it is easy to test any type of control procedures.

  16. Construction of compact electron storage ring JSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compact electron storage ring (JSR) is under construction in order to study accelerator technologies and to be used as the test ring aiming at a highly brilliant synchrotron radiation facility (6--8 GeV). The JSR lattice is a double-focusing achromatic type. The circumference is 20.5 m. However, even in this small ring, one straight section with a length of ∼1.5 m, where the dispersion is free, is provided for the insertion device study. The electron beam is supplied by the linac with an energy of 150 MeV, and the stored energy is slowly increased up to 300 MeV. Power supplies of all magnets and the rf system are controlled by a real-time computer through optical fiber links, and signals of beam monitors are stored in the same computer so that it is easy to test any type of control procedures

  17. A difference ring theory for symbolic summation☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    A summation framework is developed that enhances Karr's difference field approach. It covers not only indefinite nested sums and products in terms of transcendental extensions, but it can treat, e.g., nested products defined over roots of unity. The theory of the so-called RΠΣ⁎-extensions is supplemented by algorithms that support the construction of such difference rings automatically and that assist in the task to tackle symbolic summation problems. Algorithms are presented that solve parameterized telescoping equations, and more generally parameterized first-order difference equations, in the given difference ring. As a consequence, one obtains algorithms for the summation paradigms of telescoping and Zeilberger's creative telescoping. With this difference ring theory one gets a rigorous summation machinery that has been applied to numerous challenging problems coming, e.g., from combinatorics and particle physics. PMID:26726284

  18. Induction Accelerator Buncher for Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A separate induction accelerator buncher following after the storage rings is one of the options for final bunch compression. The other option is to apply the bunching voltage within the ring, but this requires a low-frequency, high gradient accelerating structure within the ring and a large aperture, which are difficult to do and undesirable. The induction accelerator buncher option here differs from the bunching function in a standard induction accelerator scenario in that here, a separate buncher is required, whereas in the induction linac the bunching function is accomplished by ramping the acceleration voltages near the end of the machine. This is a minor difference, but one that allows consideration of a bipolar buncher, which has no net acceleration. The other major difference is that the currents per beam to be bunched are smaller than in the straight induction linac, permitting use of transversely smaller, and hence less expensive, structures

  19. An axisymmetric steady state vortex ring model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ruo-Qian

    2016-01-01

    Based on the solution of Atanasiu et al. (2004), a theoretical model for axisymmetric vortex flows is derived in the present study by solving the vorticity transport equation for an inviscid, incompressible fluid in cylindrical coordinates. The model can describe a variety of axisymmetric flows with particular boundary conditions at a moderately high Reynolds number. This paper shows one example: a high Reynolds number laminar vortex ring. The model can represent a family of vortex rings by specifying the modulus function using a Rayleigh distribution function. The characteristics of this vortex ring family are illustrated by numerical methods. For verification, the model results compare well with the recent direct numerical simulations (DNS) in terms of the vorticity distribution and streamline patterns, cross-sectional areas of the vortex core and bubble, and radial vorticity distribution through the vortex center. Most importantly, the asymmetry and elliptical outline of the vorticity profile are well capt...

  20. PREFACE: Special section on vortex rings Special section on vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2009-10-01

    This special section of Fluid Dynamics Research includes five articles on vortex rings in both classical and quantum fluids. The leading scientists of the field describe the trends in and the state-of-the-art development of experiments, theories and numerical simulations of vortex rings. The year 2008 was the 150th anniversary of 'vortex motion' since Hermann von Helmholtz opened up this field. In 1858, Helmholtz published a paper in Crelle's Journal which put forward the concept of 'vorticity' and made the first analysis of vortex motion. Fluid mechanics before that was limited to irrotational motion. In the absence of vorticity, the motion of an incompressible homogeneous fluid is virtually equivalent to a rigid-body motion in the sense that the fluid motion is determined once the boundary configuration is specified. Helmholtz proved, among other things, that, without viscosity, a vortex line is frozen into the fluid. This Helmholtz's law immediately implies the preservation of knots and links of vortex lines and its implication is enormous. One of the major trends of fluid mechanics since the latter half of the 20th century is to clarify the topological meaning of Helmholtz's law and to exploit it to develop theoretical and numerical methods to find the solutions of the Euler equations and to develop experimental techniques to gain an insight into fluid motion. Vortex rings are prominent coherent structures in a variety of fluid motions from the microscopic scale, through human and mesoscale to astrophysical scales, and have attracted people's interest. The late professor Philip G Saffman (1981) emphasized the significance of studies on vortex rings. One particular motion exemplifies the whole range of problems of vortex motion and is also a commonly known phenomenon, namely the vortex ring or smoke ring. Vortex rings are easily produced by dropping drops of one liquid into another, or by puffing fluid out of a hole, or by exhaling smoke if one has the skill

  1. Overview of Advanced LIGO Adaptive Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Aidan F.; Abbott, Benjamin; Arain, Muzammil A.; Ciani, Giacomo; Cole, Ayodele; Grabeel, Greg; Gustafson, Eric; Guido, Chris; Heintze, Matthew; Heptonstall, Alastair; Jacobson, Mindy; KIM, WON; King, Eleanor; Lynch, Alexander; O'Connor, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This is an overview of the adaptive optics used in Advanced LIGO (aLIGO), known as the thermal compensation system (TCS). The thermal compensation system was designed to minimize thermally-induced spatial distortions in the interferometer optical modes and to provide some correction for static curvature errors in the core optics of aLIGO. The TCS is comprised of ring heater actuators, spatially tunable CO$_{2}$ laser projectors and Hartmann wavefront sensors. The system meets the requirements...

  2. The Exotic Exchange of Smoke Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, A. J.

    Smoke rings are fascinating, to humans and animals alike.Experienced cigarette smokers blow them for entertainment while dolphins play with air-filled underwater rings that they know how to puff.~Smoke ring machines can be bought from science gadget shops and Lord Kelvin explains in a paper [Lord Kelvin, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Vol. VI (1867), p. 94; reprinted in Philos. Mag. Vol. XXXIV (1867), p.~15] how one can be constructed from a cardboard box. Even Mount Etna [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/696953.stm] and our Sun [http://spacescience.com/headlines/y2000/ast03feb_1.htm] are known to be sources of huge smoke rings. But a smoke ring is not only fun to watch. It is also an organized structure with the ability to engage in complex acts, best exemplified by the leapfrogging motion of two smoke rings. Here we propose that the leapfrogging actually encodes very important Physics: It is a direct three dimensional generalization of the motion that in the two dimensional context is responsible for exotic exchange statistics which rules the properties of structures and materials such as quantum Hall systems and high-temperature superconductors. By employing very simple and universal concepts with roots in the hydrodynamical Euler equation, the universal law that describes the properties of fluids and gases, we argue that three dimensional exotic exchange statistics is commonplace. Our observations could have far reaching consequences in fluids and gases which are subject to the laws of quantum mechanics, from helium supefluids to Bose-Einstein condensed alkali gases and even metallic hydrogen in its liquid phases.

  3. The exotic exchange of smoke rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoke rings are fascinating, to humans and animals alike. Experienced cigarette smokers blow them for entertainment while dolphins play with air-filled underwater rings that know how to puff. Smoke ring machines can be bought from science gadget shops and Lord Kelvin explains in a paper [Lord Kelvin, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Vol. VI (1867), p. 94; reprinted in Philos. Mag. Vol. XXXIV (1867), p. 15] how one can be constructed from a cardboard box. Even Mount Etna [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/696953.stm] and our Sun [http://spacescience.com/headlines/y2000/ast03feb1.htm] are known to be sources of huge smoke rings. But a smoke ring is not only fun to watch. It is also an organized structure with the ability to engage in complex acts, best exemplified by the leapfrogging motion of two smoke rings. Here we propose that the leapfrogging actually encodes very important Physics: It is a direct three dimensional generalization of the motion that in the two dimensional context is responsible for exotic exchange statistics which rules the properties of structures and materials such as quantum Hall systems and high-temperature superconductors. By employing very simple and universal concepts with roots in the hydrodynamical Euler equation, the universal law that describes the properties of fluids and gases, we argue that three dimensional exotic exchange statistics is commonplace. Our observations could have far reaching consequences in fluids and gases which are subject to the laws of quantum mechanics, from helium superfluids to Bose-Einstein condensed alkali gases and even metallic hydrogen in its liquid phases. (author)

  4. Genomic divergence in a ring species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Miguel; Scordato, Elizabeth S C; Price, Trevor D; Irwin, Darren E

    2014-07-01

    Ring species provide particularly clear demonstrations of how one species can gradually evolve into two, but are rare in nature. In the greenish warbler (Phylloscopus trochiloides) species complex, a ring of populations wraps around Tibet. Two reproductively isolated forms co-exist in central Siberia, with a gradient of genetic and phenotypic characteristics through the southern chain of populations connecting them. Previous genetic evidence has proven inconclusive, however, regarding whether species divergence took place in the face of continuous gene flow and whether hybridization between the terminal forms of the ring ever occurred. Here we use genome-wide analyses to show that, although spatial patterns of genetic variation are currently mostly as expected of a ring species, historical breaks in gene flow have existed at more than one location around the ring, and the two Siberian forms have occasionally interbred. Substantial periods of geographical isolation occurred not only in the north but also in the western Himalayas, where there is now an extensive hybrid zone between genetically divergent forms. Limited asymmetric introgression has occurred directly between the Siberian forms, although it has not caused a blending of those forms, suggesting selection against introgressed genes in the novel genetic background. Levels of reproductive isolation and genetic introgression are consistent with levels of phenotypic divergence around the ring, with phenotypic similarity and extensive interbreeding across the southwestern contact zone and strong phenotypic divergence and nearly complete reproductive isolation across the northern contact zone. These results cast doubt on the hypothesis that the greenish warbler should be viewed as a rare example of speciation by distance, but demonstrate that the greenish warbler displays a continuum from slightly divergent neighbouring populations to almost fully reproductively isolated species. PMID:24870239

  5. B-factory storage ring design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past few years a good deal of enthusiasm has arisen in the US, Europe and Asia for B-Factories. In these machines electrons and positrons are collided with center-of-mass energies at or near the Υ(4s) resonance, with unprecedented high luminosities, to produce copious fluxes of B-mesons. The object is to make high-precision studies of the CP non-conserving B decays. Various colliding-beam configurations have been suggested including both linear colliders and storage rings, but one scheme has emerged as generally preferable to the others. It is the asymmetric storage ring system-asymmetric in the sense that the two beam energies are markedly different and the center of mass is moving in the direction of the higher energy beam. With this arrangement the decaying B-mesons fly off from the interaction region in the same direction, and the time-order of their decays can be deduced from the locations of their decay vertices. These B-Factories present the accelerator builder with two main challenges: to achieve luminosity far beyond that attained in existing storage rings and to do it in the unexplored arena of unequal beam energies. Fortunately the means of meeting these challenges appear to be in hand on the basis of the present understanding of the accelerator physics of colliding-beam storage rings. The problems have been studied in several laboratories in Europe, Japan, the US and the USSR, and the solutions devised in those studies have converged in their general features. A B-Factory will consist of two separate storage rings with a common collision region; each ring will carry what it, by today's standards, high circulating beam currents, and as a consequence, the vacuum chambers will be very well-cooled and strongly vacuum-pumped; and mechanical designs of the interaction regions will be quite complicated, but also quite feasible

  6. Mapping Variations in Ring Shadow Cooling with Cassini CIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S. M.; Spilker, L. J.; Morishima, R.; Pilorz, S.

    2011-12-01

    We use data from Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer to characterize ring shadow cooling and to document radial variations in ring thermal inertia. CIRS records infrared radiation between 7 and 1000 microns. Far infrared radiation (16.7 - 1000 microns) is recorded at focal plane 1 (FP1). Thermal emission from Saturn's rings peaks at FP1 wavelengths. As shown in Spilker et al. (2005, 2006), ring thermal emission is well characterized as blackbody emission multiplied by a scalar factor related to the emissivity of the rings. Ring temperatures are generally warmer and the rings show significantly more thermal contrast at larger solar elevations. The thermal budget of the rings is dominated by incident solar radiation. When ring particles enter Saturn's shadow this source of energy is abruptly cut off with a consequential decrease in ring temperature. In order to quantify this cooling, FP1 scanned the main rings repeatedly with a constant offset from the ingress shadow boundary. From such shadow observations we create cooling curves at specific locations. By resampling the FP1 scans onto a consistent radial grid, we can document the cooling of the ensemble of ring particles as they enter Saturn's shadow. Observations of the lit side of the rings reveal that shadow cooling is most significant in the C ring and Cassini Division. More modest cooling occurs in the B and A rings. More importantly, we can show that cooling rates vary with location within each ring. These cooling rates reflect local reactions to the short-term change in thermal forcing as the ring particles enter Saturn's shadow. Observations of the unlit side of the rings tell a different tale. The optically thin rings show some shadow cooling, but this cooling is not as pronounced as on the lit side. No evidence for shadow cooling exists for the unlit A and B rings. Temperature variations on the unlit sides of these optically thick rings appear to reflect thermal forcings that vary with Saturn season

  7. Recent results in Ring Diagram analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rabello-Soares, M. Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The ring-diagram technique was developed by Frank Hill 25 years ago and developed quickly during the late 1990s. It is nowadays one of the most commonly used techniques in local helioseismology. The method consists in the power spectral analysis of solar acoustic oscillations on small regions (2 to 30 degrees) of the solar surface. The power spectrum resembles a set of trumpets nested inside each other and, for a given frequency, it looks like a ring, hence the technique's name. It provides i...

  8. Ring vortex solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briedis, D.; Petersen, D.E.; Edmundson, D.;

    2005-01-01

    We study the formation and propagation of two-dimensional vortex solitons, i.e. solitons with a phase singularity, in optical materials with a nonlocal focusing nonlinearity. We show that nonlocality stabilizes the dynamics of an otherwise unstable vortex beam. This occurs for either single or...... higher charge fundamental vortices as well as higher order (multiple ring) vortex solitons. Our results pave the way for experimental observation of stable vortex rings in other nonlocal nonlinear systems including Bose-Einstein condensates with pronounced long-range interparticle interaction....

  9. Fixed points and fusion rings. Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Beltaos, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    In the first of this two-part series, we find `fixed point factorisation' formulas, towards an understanding of the fusion ring of WZW models. Fixed-point factorisation refers to the simplifications in the data of a CFT involving primary fields fixed by simple-currents. Until now, it has been worked out only for SU(n), where it has developed into a powerful tool for understanding the fusion rings of WZW models of CFT -- e.g. it has lead to closed formulas for NIM-reps and D-brane charges and ...

  10. Chromatic corrections for large storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of achromat concept (1) to facilitate chromatic corrections in large storage rings is illustrated. The example given in this report is a lattice for a 75 GeV/c ring with six interaction regions having a beta x = 1.6 m, a beta y = 0.1 m and a luminosity of 1.4 1032 cm-2s-1. The chromatic corrections are done with four families of sextupoles, two for each transverse plane, the strengths of which are determined by the solution of four linear equations in four unknowns. The basic simplicity of the method allows on-line control of the sextupole adjustments

  11. Cohomology of face rings, and torus actions

    OpenAIRE

    Panov, Taras

    2005-01-01

    In this survey article we present several new developments of `toric topology' concerning the cohomology of face rings (also known as Stanley-Reisner algebras). We prove that the integral cohomology algebra of the moment-angle complex Z_K (equivalently, of the complement U(K) of the coordinate subspace arrangement) determined by a simplicial complex K is isomorphic to the Tor-algebra of the face ring of K. Then we analyse Massey products and formality of this algebra by using a generalisation...

  12. Exotic statistics of leapfrogging vortex rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Antti J

    2005-04-01

    The leapfrogging motion of vortex rings is a three-dimensional version of the motion that in two dimensions leads to exotic exchange statistics. The statistical phase factor can be computed using the hydrodynamical Euler equation, which suggests that three-dimensional exotic exchange statistics is a common property of vortex rings in a variety of quantum liquids and gases. Potential applications range from helium superfluids to Bose-Einstein condensed alkali gases, metallic hydrogen in its liquid phases, and maybe even nuclear matter in extreme conditions. PMID:15903923

  13. Polarized gas targets in electron rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of performing electron scattering experiments with polarized targets in electron storage rings is discussed. Three examples of the physics which would be accessible with this novel method are given. It is noted that this new method is compatible with recent proposals for linac-stretcher-ring accelerator designs. A new method of producing a polarized hydrogen or deuterium target is proposed and some preliminary results are described. A brief summary of laser-driven polarized targets as well as conventionally-produced polarized atomic beams is included

  14. A new storage-ring light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  15. CRYRING - a synchrotron, cooler and storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamsson, K.; Andler, G.; Bagge, L.; Beebe, E.; Carle, P.; Danared, H.; Egnell, S.; Ehrnsten, K.; Engstroem, M.; Herrlander, C.J.; Hilke, J.; Jeansson, J.; Kaellberg, A.; Leontein, S.; Liljeby, L.; Nilsson, A.; Paal, A.; Rensfelt, K.G.; Rosengaard, U.; Simonsson, A.; Soltan, A.; Starker, J.; Ugglas, M. (Manne Siegbahn Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)) Filevich, A. (CNEA, Physics Dept., Tandar, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1993-06-01

    CRYRING is a small synchrotron and storage ring equipped with electron cooling. Highly charged ions from the electron beam ion source CRYSIS or singly charged ions from the plasmatron source MINIS are injected via an RFQ into the ring. The facility is in the commissioning phase. Full design energy has been achieved and electron cooling demonstrated both for atomic and molecular ions. The experimental program started in August with two projects, dissociative recombination of H[sup +][sub 3] ions and radiative recombination to deuterons. The status as of September 20, 1992, is reported. (orig.)

  16. J-regular rings with injectivities

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Liang

    2010-01-01

    A ring $R$ is called a J-regular ring if R/J(R) is von Neumann regular, where J(R) is the Jacobson radical of R. It is proved that if R is J-regular, then (i) R is right n-injective if and only if every homomorphism from an $n$-generated small right ideal of $R$ to $R_{R}$ can be extended to one from $R_{R}$ to $R_{R}$; (ii) R is right FP-injective if and only if R is right (J, R)-FP-injective. Some known results are improved.

  17. 拟Abel环%Quasi-Abel rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范志勇; 魏俊潮; 李立斌

    2009-01-01

    Let R be a ring and M a R-bimodule. If eR(1- e)Me = eM(1- e)Re = 0 for every element e∈E E(R), then M is called quasi-Abel module, where E(R) is the set of all idempotent elements of R. If R as R-bimodule is quasi-Abel module, then R is called a quasi-Abel ring. This article proves some main results as follows: ① R is a quasi-Abel ring if and only if for any element a∈N(R), e∈ E(R), ea = 0 implies eRae=0; ② R is an Abel ring if and only if R is a nilpotent reflexive ring and quasi-Abel ring; (3) Suppose σ is an endomorphism of ring R such that σ(e) =e for any e ∈ E(R) , then R is a quasi-Abel ring if and only if R(σ) is quasi-Abel module.%设R是一个环,M是双R-模.若对每个e∈E(R),有eR(1-e)Me=eM(1-e)Re=0,则称M为拟Abel模,这里E(R)表示R的幂等元集合.若R-双模R是拟Abel的,则称R为拟Abel环.证明了如下结果:①R为拟Abel环当且仅当对任意的a∈N(R),e∈E(R),ea=0蕴涵eRae=0,这里N(R)表示R的幂零元集合;②R为Abel环当且仅当R为幂零自反环和拟Abel环;③设σ为环R的环自同态映射且满足条件: (A)e∈E(R),σ(e)=e,则R为拟Abel环当且仅当R(σ)为拟Abel模.

  18. Rings related to stable range conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Huanyin

    2011-01-01

    This monograph is concerned with exchange rings in various conditions related to stable range. Diagonal reduction of regular matrices and cleanness of square matrices are also discussed. Readers will come across various topics: cancellation of modules, comparability of modules, cleanness, monoid theory, matrix theory, K-theory, topology, amongst others. This is a first-ever book that contains many of these topics considered under stable range conditions. It will be of great interest to researchers and graduate students involved in ring and module theories.

  19. Fabrication and testing of composite ring specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, T.; Daniel, I. M.; Labedz, R.; Niiro, T.

    1979-01-01

    The tooling and techniques used in the fabrication of composite laminate tubes of any desired ply orientation and stacking sequence are described along with techniques for cutting ring specimens under internal pressure. The method consists of laying up the tube on a central circular mandrel, and by means of internal pressure, expanding the prepreg tube against the cavity wall of an external mold tool, which forms the geometric curing envelope for the tube. Tube quality is assessed by laminate wall thickness measurement, by hoop strength measurement on rings cut from the ends of the tube, and by ultrasonic inspection.

  20. Fundamental Plasmid Strings and Black Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J; Iglesias, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    We construct excited states of fundamental strings that admit a semiclassical description as rotating circular loops of string. We identify them with the supergravity solutions for rotating dipole rings. The identification involves a precise match of the mass, radius and angular momentum of the two systems. Moreover, the degeneracy of the string state reproduces the parametric dependence of the entropy in the supergravity description. When the solutions possess two macroscopic angular momenta, they are better described as toroidal configurations (tubular loops) instead of loops of string. We argue that the decay of the string state can be interpreted as superradiant emission of quanta from the ergoregion of the rotating ring.

  1. Jittering waves in rings of pulse oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinshov, Vladimir; Shchapin, Dmitry; Yanchuk, Serhiy; Nekorkin, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    Rings of oscillators with delayed pulse coupling are studied analytically, numerically, and experimentally. The basic regimes observed in such rings are rotating waves with constant interspike intervals and phase lags between the neighbors. We show that these rotating waves may destabilize leading to the so-called jittering waves. For these regimes, the interspike intervals are no more equal but form a periodic sequence in time. Analytic criterion for the emergence of jittering waves is derived and confirmed by the numerical and experimental data. The obtained results contribute to the hypothesis that the multijitter instability is universal in systems with pulse coupling. PMID:27575122

  2. The Fluxgate Ring-Core Internal Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Fritz; Brauer, Peter; Merayo, José M.G.; Nielsen, Otto V

    2002-01-01

    A large number of measured demagnetizing factors for fluxgate ring cores of a wide range of cross section shapes have been compiled from the literature and plotted against the core cross-sectional area over the squared mean core diameter. The points group close to a straight line through the origin....... The local demagnetizing factor is used, and the conversion to the average or global factor is derived. Three approximate analytical/numerical calculations of the internal field in the ring-core magnetic material are made. The results are close to the experimental data, supporting the conclusion that...

  3. Injection Control System of HLS Storage Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, G; Li, W; Li Chuan; Li, K; Shang, L; Liu, Gongfa; Li, Jingyi; Li, Weimin; Li, Chuan; Li, Kaihong; Shang, Lei

    2001-01-01

    The injection control system of Hefei Light Source (HLS) storage ring is a subsystem of the upgraded HLS control system, which is based upon EPICS. Three programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are used as device controllers, which control one septum modulator and four kicker modulators of HLS storage ring. An Industrial PC is used as Input/Output Controller (IOC) and it connects the PLCs with serial communication (RS232 mode) over fibre. A PC with Linux is used as operator interface (OPI), operator application are running on it. The control system was completed in July 2000. The commissioning shows that the control system is reliable and easy operational.

  4. Injection performance evaluation for SSRF storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Leng, Yong-Bin; Yan, Ying-Bing; Chen, Zhi-Chu

    2015-09-01

    The injection performance of the storage ring is one of the most important factors to consider at a synchrotron radiation facility, especially in the top-up mode. To evaluate the injection performance of the storage ring at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, we have built a bunch-by-bunch position measuring system based on an oscilloscope Input/Output Controller. Accurate assessment of energy mismatching, distribution of residual oscillation, and angle error of injection kickers can be achieved by this system. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375255)

  5. Computers in nonassociative rings and algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Robert E

    1977-01-01

    Computers in Nonassociative Rings and Algebras provides information pertinent to the computational aspects of nonassociative rings and algebras. This book describes the algorithmic approaches for solving problems using a computer.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the concept of a symmetrized power of a group representation. This text then presents data structures and other computational methods that may be useful in the field of computational algebra. Other chapters consider several mathematical ideas, including identity processing in nonassociative algebras, str

  6. Recent results of the ACO storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A permanent magnet undulator has been built and installed on the ACO Storage Ring. The undulator design, the spontaneous emission and gain of the system, as well as the laser induced bunch lengthening of the electron bunch, are presented. A low-loss optical cavity has been also recently built and operated on the ring. Its performance and the degradation problems of the mirrors are discussed. Amplification of the spontaneous emission stored in the optical cavity has been observed. Also, preliminary results on the operation of an optical klystron are reported and interpreted

  7. High luminosity anti p-p ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic problem in obtaining high luminosity in a single ring anti p-p collider is devising a method of having very many bunches in the ring without extraneous collisions which devour the anti p's. The author demonstrates a numerical example that a practical lattice can be constructed which accommodates a separation scheme, that the close-encounter beam-beam effects in the arcs are not serious, and that the aperture required is not excessive. The example is not complete in that it does not include injection and abort straight sections, but these will not affect beam separation design

  8. Accidental ingestion of BiTine ring and a note on inefficient ring separation forceps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghele ON

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Om Nemichand Baghele1, Mangala Om Baghele21Department of Periodontology, SMBT Dental College and Hospital, Sangamner, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India; 2Private General Dental Practice, Mumbai, IndiaBackground: Accidental ingestion of medium-to-large instruments is relatively uncommon during dental treatment but can be potentially dangerous. A case of BiTine ring ingestion is presented with a note on inefficient ring separation forceps.Case description: A 28-year-old male patient accidentally ingested the BiTine ring (2 cm diameter, 0.5 cm outward projections while it was being applied to a distoproximal cavity in tooth # 19. The ring placement forceps were excessively flexible; bending of the beaks towards the ring combined with a poor no-slippage mechanism led to sudden disengagement of the ring and accelerated movement towards the pharynx. We followed the patient with bulk forming agents and radiographs. Fortunately the ring passed out without any complications.Clinical implications: Checking equipment and methods is as important as taking precautions against any preventable medical emergency. It is the responsibility of the clinician to check, verify and then use any instrument/equipment.Keywords: foreign bodies/radiography, foreign bodies/complications, equipment failure, dental instrument, accidental ingestion

  9. Recent Simulation Results on Ring Current Dynamics Using the Comprehensive Ring Current Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yihua; Zaharia, Sorin G.; Lui, Anthony T. Y.; Fok, Mei-Ching

    2010-01-01

    Plasma sheet conditions and electromagnetic field configurations are both crucial in determining ring current evolution and connection to the ionosphere. In this presentation, we investigate how different conditions of plasma sheet distribution affect ring current properties. Results include comparative studies in 1) varying the radial distance of the plasma sheet boundary; 2) varying local time distribution of the source population; 3) varying the source spectra. Our results show that a source located farther away leads to a stronger ring current than a source that is closer to the Earth. Local time distribution of the source plays an important role in determining both the radial and azimuthal (local time) location of the ring current peak pressure. We found that post-midnight source locations generally lead to a stronger ring current. This finding is in agreement with Lavraud et al.. However, our results do not exhibit any simple dependence of the local time distribution of the peak ring current (within the lower energy range) on the local time distribution of the source, as suggested by Lavraud et al. [2008]. In addition, we will show how different specifications of the magnetic field in the simulation domain affect ring current dynamics in reference to the 20 November 2007 storm, which include initial results on coupling the CRCM with a three-dimensional (3-D) plasma force balance code to achieve self-consistency in the magnetic field.

  10. A new TL finger ring dosimetry system with automated ring identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TL finger ring dosemeters, particularly if used during surgery, etc., have to be small, convenient to wear and suitable for cold sterilisation. This makes automated ring identification difficult to achieve. A new approach is described, based on a circular TLD chip mounted with Kapton foil on a small aluminium disc containing a miniaturised circular bar code (radial 6 digit ITF) and a six digit number. The ring is inserted into a disposable plastic finger ring and protected by a circular cover plate. This ring design is convenient to wear, fits all finger sizes and can be cold sterilised for multiple use in surgery. For readout the ring is opened by a semi-automated device and up to four bar coded discs inserted into a modified standard TLD card for automatic processing by Harshaw readers models 6600 or 8800. The reader contains a video bar code identification system based on a minaturised CCD camera and image processing by special PC software. The circular bar codes are mathematically linearised and decoded directly from the enhanced grey scale picture obtained with optimised illumination by power LEDs. The system described (Patent No. A 398005/1994) is a fast and economic solution for fully (or semi-) automated evaluation of TLD finger rings in larger personnel monitoring services. (author)

  11. Transport from the Recycler Ring to the Antiproton Source Beamlines

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, M

    2013-01-01

    In the post-Nova era, the protons are directly transported from the Booster ring to the Recycler ring rather than the Main Injector. For Mu2e and g-2 project, the Debuncher ring will be modified into a Delivery ring to deliver the protons to both Mu2e and g-2 experiemnts. Therefore, It requires the transport of protons from the Recycler Ring to the Delivery ring. A new transfer line from the Recycler ring to the P1 beamline will be constructed to transport proton beam from the Recycler Ring to existing Antiproton Source beamlines. This new beamline provides a way to deliver 8 GeV kinetic energy protons from the Booster to the Delivery ring, via the Recycler, using existing beam transport lines, and without the need for new civil construction. This paper presents the Conceptual Design of this new beamline.

  12. Advanced Virgo

    CERN Multimedia

    Virgo, a first-generation interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detector, located in the European Gravitational Observatory, EGO, Cascina (Pisa-Italy) and constructed by the collaboration of French and Italian institutes (CNRS and INFN) has successfully completed its long-duration data taking runs. It is now undergoing a fundamental upgrade that exploits available cutting edges technology to open an exciting new window on the universe, with the first detection of a gravitational wave signal. Advanced Virgo (AdV) is the project to upgrade the Virgo detector to a second-generation instrument. AdV will be able to scan a volume of the Universe 1000 times larger than initial Virgo. AdV will be hosted in the same infrastructures as Virgo. The Advanced VIRGO project is funded and at present carried on by a larger collaboration of institutes belonging to CNRS- France , RMKI - Hungary, INFN- Italy, Nikhef - The Netherlands Polish Academy of Science - Poland.

  13. Advanced Nanoemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryd, Michael M.; Mason, Thomas G.

    2012-05-01

    Recent advances in the growing field of nanoemulsions are opening up new applications in many areas such as pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. Moreover, highly controlled nanoemulsions can also serve as excellent model systems for investigating basic scientific questions about soft matter. Here, we highlight some of the most recent developments in nanoemulsions, focusing on methods of formation, surface modification, material properties, and characterization. These developments provide insight into the substantial advantages that nanoemulsions can offer over their microscale emulsion counterparts.

  14. Advanced LIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O.; Ain, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry–Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recyc...

  15. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  16. Advanced Photon Source research: Volume 1, Number 1, April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The following articles are included in this publication: (1) The Advanced Photon Source: A Brief Overview; (2) MAD Analysis of FHIT at the Structural Biology Center; (3) Advances in High-Energy-Resolution X-ray Scattering at Beamline 3-ID; (4) X-ray Imaging and Microspectroscopy of the Mycorrhyizal Fungus-Plant Symbiosis; (5) Measurement and Control of Particle-beam Trajectories in the Advanced Photon Storage Ring; (6) Beam Acceleration and Storage at the Advanced Photon Source; and (7) Experimental Facilities Operations and Current Status.

  17. Advanced Photon Source research: Volume 1, Number 1, April 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following articles are included in this publication: (1) The Advanced Photon Source: A Brief Overview; (2) MAD Analysis of FHIT at the Structural Biology Center; (3) Advances in High-Energy-Resolution X-ray Scattering at Beamline 3-ID; (4) X-ray Imaging and Microspectroscopy of the Mycorrhyizal Fungus-Plant Symbiosis; (5) Measurement and Control of Particle-beam Trajectories in the Advanced Photon Storage Ring; (6) Beam Acceleration and Storage at the Advanced Photon Source; and (7) Experimental Facilities Operations and Current Status

  18. Modelling the progression of bird migration with conditional autoregressive models applied to ringing data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ambrosini

    Full Text Available Migration is a fundamental stage in the life history of several taxa, including birds, and is under strong selective pressure. At present, the only data that may allow for both an assessment of patterns of bird migration and for retrospective analyses of changes in migration timing are the databases of ring recoveries. We used ring recoveries of the Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica collected from 1908-2008 in Europe to model the calendar date at which a given proportion of birds is expected to have reached a given geographical area ('progression of migration' and to investigate the change in timing of migration over the same areas between three time periods (1908-1969, 1970-1990, 1991-2008. The analyses were conducted using binomial conditional autoregressive (CAR mixed models. We first concentrated on data from the British Isles and then expanded the models to western Europe and north Africa. We produced maps of the progression of migration that disclosed local patterns of migration consistent with those obtained from the analyses of the movements of ringed individuals. Timing of migration estimated from our model is consistent with data on migration phenology of the Barn Swallow available in the literature, but in some cases it is later than that estimated by data collected at ringing stations, which, however, may not be representative of migration phenology over large geographical areas. The comparison of median migration date estimated over the same geographical area among time periods showed no significant advancement of spring migration over the whole of Europe, but a significant advancement of autumn migration in southern Europe. Our modelling approach can be generalized to any records of ringing date and locality of individuals including those which have not been recovered subsequently, as well as to geo-referenced databases of sightings of migratory individuals.

  19. Kost - mad - næring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niklasson, Grit

    2010-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om kost og forskellige aspekter af menneskeføde og dens indtagelse. Mad- og måltidspolitik i institutionerne behandles, og ligeså næringsstofferne og deres betydning for kroppens sundhed, herunder også konsekvenserne af fejlernæring. Også allergi og intolerans over for fødeemner ...

  20. Guide til effektiv læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Stina Vrang; Holt Larsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Hvordan bygger man bro mellem medarbejdernes individuelle kompetenceudvikling og hele virksomhedens læring og udvikling? Få indblik og inspiration i denne artikel om effektive læringsformer, der kan supplere de traditionelle kurser og uddannelser og gøre virksomhederne som helhed bedre til at lær...