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Sample records for advanced reservoir characterization

  1. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Cross-well bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO2) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  2. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J.; Egg, Rebecca

    2001-08-07

    The Oxy operated Class 2 Project at West Welch Project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO2 injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir demonstration characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO2 flood design based on the reservoir characterization.

  3. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir, Class II; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oxy operated Class 2 Project at West Welch Project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO2 injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir demonstration characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO2 flood design based on the reservoir characterization

  4. Advanced Characterization of Fractured Reservoirs in Carbonate Rocks: The Michigan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, James R.; Harrison, William B.

    2000-10-24

    The main objective of this project is for a university-industry consortium to develop a comprehensive model for fracture carbonate reservoirs based on the ''data cube'' concept using the Michigan Basin as a prototype. This project combined traditional historical data with 2D and 3D seismic data as well as data from modern logging tools in a novel way to produce a new methodology for characterizing fractured reservoirs in carbonate rocks. Advanced visualization software was used to fuse the data and to image it on a variety of scales, ranging from basin-scale to well-scales.

  5. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO2) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  6. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-06-16

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  7. Advanced reservoir characterization for improved oil recovery in a New Mexico Delaware basin project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.D.; Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M. [Dave Martin and Associates, Inc., Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration site in the Department of Energy Class III program. The basic problem at the Nash Draw Pool is the low recovery typically observed in similar Delaware fields. By comparing a control area using standard infill drilling techniques to a pilot area developed using advanced reservoir characterization methods, the goal of the project is to demonstrate that advanced technology can significantly improve oil recovery. During the first year of the project, four new producing wells were drilled, serving as data acquisition wells. Vertical seismic profiles and a 3-D seismic survey were acquired to assist in interwell correlations and facies prediction. Limited surface access at the Nash Draw Pool, caused by proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes, limits development with conventional drilling. Combinations of vertical and horizontal wells combined with selective completions are being evaluated to optimize production performance. Based on the production response of similar Delaware fields, pressure maintenance is a likely requirement at the Nash Draw Pool. A detailed reservoir model of pilot area was developed, and enhanced recovery options, including waterflooding, lean gas, and carbon dioxide injection, are being evaluated.

  8. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies would result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  9. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  10. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2001-06-27

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies will result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs.

  11. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a

  12. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Beebe

    2003-05-05

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the seventh annual reporting period (8/3/00-8/2/01) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the interwell seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted and the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction were conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and six wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  13. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2004-03-05

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  14. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2003-06-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  15. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2003-09-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  16. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; David K.Davies and Associates; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California

    1999-06-25

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California. This is realized through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It is hoped that the successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively insufficient because of several producability problems which are common in SBC reservoir; inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves.

  17. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: (1) Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; (2) Fracture characterization; (3) reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and (4) CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field

  18. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perri, Pasquale R.; Cooney, John; Fong, Bill; Julander, Dale; Marasigan, Aleks; Morea, Mike; Piceno, Deborah; Stone, Bill; Emanuele, Mark; Sheffield, Jon; Wells, Jeff; Westbrook, Bill; Karnes, Karl; Pearson, Matt; Heisler, Stuart

    2000-04-24

    The primary objective of this project was to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale of the Bureau Vista Hills Field. Work was subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project focused on a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work would then be used to evaluate how the reservoir would respond to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes such as of CO2 flooding. The second phase of the project would be to implement and evaluate a CO2 in the Buena Vista Hills Field. A successful project would demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley.

  19. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Asquith, G.B.; Barton, M.D.; Cole, A.G.; Gogas, J.; Malik, M.A.; Clift, S.J.; Guzman, J.I.

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. This project involves reservoir characterization of two Late Permian slope and basin clastic reservoirs in the Delaware Basin, West Texas, followed by a field demonstration in one of the fields. The fields being investigated are Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields in Reeves and Culberson Counties, Texas. Project objectives are divided into two major phases, reservoir characterization and implementation. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project were to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of the two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field. Reservoir characterization utilized 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once reservoir characterized was completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} at the northern end of the Ford Geraldine unit was chosen for reservoir simulation. This report summarizes the results of the second year of reservoir characterization.

  20. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf San Andres Reservoir. Quarterly Report for the period: 1 April - 30 June 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO2) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  1. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2002-04-30

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. Through December 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. During the First Quarter 2002, the project team developed an accelerated oil recovery and reservoir cooling plan for the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and began implementing the associated well work in March. The Tar V pilot steamflood project will be converted to post-steamflood cold water injection in April 2002. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. Most of the 2001 well work resulted in maintaining oil and gross fluid production and water injection rates. Reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are at 88% and 91% hydrostatic levels

  2. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2002-11-08

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through June 2002, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V post-steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. During the Third Quarter 2002, the project team essentially completed implementing the accelerated oil recovery and reservoir cooling plan for the Tar II-A post-steamflood project developed in March 2002 and is proceeding with additional related work. The project team has completed developing laboratory research procedures to analyze the sand consolidation well completion technique and will initiate work in the fourth quarter. The Tar V pilot steamflood project terminated hot water injection and converted to post-steamflood cold water injection on April 19, 2002. Proposals have been approved to repair two sand consolidated horizontal wells that sanded up, Tar II-A well UP-955 and Tar V well J-205, with gravel-packed inner liner jobs to be performed next quarter. Other well work to be performed next quarter is to convert well L-337 to a Tar V water injector and to recomplete vertical well A-194 as a Tar V interior steamflood pattern producer. Plans have been approved to drill and

  3. 4. International reservoir characterization technical conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Fourth International Reservoir Characterization Technical Conference held March 2-4, 1997 in Houston, Texas. The theme for the conference was Advances in Reservoir Characterization for Effective Reservoir Management. On March 2, 1997, the DOE Class Workshop kicked off with tutorials by Dr. Steve Begg (BP Exploration) and Dr. Ganesh Thakur (Chevron). Tutorial presentations are not included in these Proceedings but may be available from the authors. The conference consisted of the following topics: data acquisition; reservoir modeling; scaling reservoir properties; and managing uncertainty. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  4. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2002-01-31

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. Through September 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. The project team spent the Fourth Quarter 2001 performing routine well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood and Tar V pilot steamflood projects. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. The project team ramped up well work activity from October 2000 through November 2001 to increase production and injection. In December, water injection well FW-88 was plug and abandoned and replaced by new well FW-295 into the ''D'' sands to accommodate the Port of Long Beach at their expense. Well workovers are planned for 2002 as described in the

  5. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2001-05-08

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through March 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. The project team spent the Second Quarter 2001 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project. The Tar II-A steamflood reservoirs have been operated over fifteen months at relatively stable pressures, due in large part to the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase in January 1999. Starting in the Fourth Quarter 2000, the project team has ramped up activity to increase production and injection. This work will continue through 2001 as described in the Operational Management section. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical

  6. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2001-11-01

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. Through June 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. The project team spent the Third Quarter 2001 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. The project team ramped up well work activity from October 2000 to September 2001 to increase production and injection. This work will continue through 2001 as described in the Operational Management section. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil

  7. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  8. Increasing heavy oil reservers in the Wilmington oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies, technical progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, S. [Tidelands Oil Production Co., Long Beach, CA (United States)], Casteel, J. [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)

    1997-05-11

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) 11-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and

  9. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wier, Don R. Chimanhusky, John S.; Czirr, Kirk L.; Hallenbeck, Larry; Gerard, Matthew G.; Dollens, Kim B.; Owen, Rex; Gaddis, Maurice; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-11-18

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO2) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO2 horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields.

  10. Increasing Heavy Oil in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies. Annual Report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs

  11. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Flanders, W.A.; Guzman, J.I.; Zirczy, H.

    1999-06-08

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. This year the project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit; it contained an estimated 19.8 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place. Petrophysical characterization of the East Ford unit was accomplished by integrating core and log data and quantifying petrophysical properties from wireline logs. Most methods of petrophysical analysis that had been developed during an earlier study of the Ford Geraldine unit were successfully transferred to the East Ford unit. The approach that was used to interpret water saturation from resistivity logs, however, had to be modified because in some East Ford wells the log-calculated water saturation was too high and inconsistent with observations made during the actual production. Log-porosity to core-porosity transforms and core-porosity to core-permeability transforms were derived from the East Ford reservoir. The petrophysical data were used to map porosity, permeability, net pay, water saturation, mobil-oil saturation, and other reservoir properties.

  12. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.

    2000-05-24

    The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  13. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two main phases. The original objectives of the reservoir-characterization phase of the project were (1) to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two representative fields of the Delaware Mountain Group, Geraldine Ford and Ford West, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, (2) to chose a demonstration area in one of the fields, and (3) to simulate a CO 2 flood in the demonstration area

  14. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO2 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Bill; Schechter, David S.

    2002-07-26

    The goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in west Texas. This objective was accomplished through research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This provides results of the final year of the six-year project for each of the four areas.

  15. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO{sub 2} Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1999-02-03

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the third year of the five-year project for each of the four areas including a status report of field activities leading up to injection of CO2.

  16. Recent advances in naturally fractured reservoir modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large amounts of oil reserves are contained in naturally fractured reservoirs. Most of these hydrocarbon volumes have been left behind because of the poor knowledge and/or description methodology of those reservoirs. This lack of knowledge has lead to the nonexistence of good quantitative models for this complicated type of reservoirs. The complexity of naturally fractured reservoirs causes the need for integration of all existing information at all scales (drilling, well logging, seismic, well testing, etc.) to provide a reservoir description for such reservoirs. This paper presents an overview of recent advances in naturally fractured reservoir modeling, which were developed to characterize the dual porosity system and to improve hydrocarbon recovery. Two techniques, material balance and numerical simulation, are shown to be supportive of one another. The material balance technique is a good tool for history matching of production performance and defining the system, which is then used as input in the numerical model. However, material balance has significant disadvantages when it comes to prediction, which is the domain of numerical simulation modeling. We present the application of a recently introduced material balance equation based on a dual-system approach. In numerical simulation, the mathematical model to predict fluid flow in anisotropic media is enhanced by using permeability tensors. We also discuss a technique to construct permeability tensors from seismic, well log and well test analysis

  17. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibility problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and evaluate the

  18. T-R Cycle Characterization and Imaging: Advanced Diagnostic Methodology for Petroleum Reservoir and Trap Detection and Delineation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-08-30

    Characterization of stratigraphic sequences (T-R cycles or sequences) included outcrop studies, well log analysis and seismic reflection interpretation. These studies were performed by researchers at the University of Alabama, Wichita State University and McGill University. The outcrop, well log and seismic characterization studies were used to develop a depositional sequence model, a T-R cycle (sequence) model, and a sequence stratigraphy predictive model. The sequence stratigraphy predictive model developed in this study is based primarily on the modified T-R cycle (sequence) model. The T-R cycle (sequence) model using transgressive and regressive systems tracts and aggrading, backstepping, and infilling intervals or sections was found to be the most appropriate sequence stratigraphy model for the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico to improve petroleum stratigraphic trap and specific reservoir facies imaging, detection and delineation. The known petroleum reservoirs of the Mississippi Interior and North Louisiana Salt Basins were classified using T-R cycle (sequence) terminology. The transgressive backstepping reservoirs have been the most productive of oil, and the transgressive backstepping and regressive infilling reservoirs have been the most productive of gas. Exploration strategies were formulated using the sequence stratigraphy predictive model and the classification of the known petroleum reservoirs utilizing T-R cycle (sequence) terminology. The well log signatures and seismic reflector patterns were determined to be distinctive for the aggrading, backstepping and infilling sections of the T-R cycle (sequence) and as such, well log and seismic data are useful for recognizing and defining potential reservoir facies. The use of the sequence stratigraphy predictive model, in combination with the knowledge of how the distinctive characteristics of the T-R system tracts and their subdivisions are expressed in well log patterns

  19. Reservoir characterization using wavelet transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Vega, Nestor

    Automated detection of geological boundaries and determination of cyclic events controlling deposition can facilitate stratigraphic analysis and reservoir characterization. This study applies the wavelet transformation, a recent advance in signal analysis techniques, to interpret cyclicity, determine its controlling factors, and detect zone boundaries. We tested the cyclostratigraphic assessments using well log and core data from a well in a fluvio-eolian sequence in the Ormskirk Sandstone, Irish Sea. The boundary detection technique was tested using log data from 10 wells in the Apiay field, Colombia. We processed the wavelet coefficients for each zone of the Ormskirk Formation and determined the wavelengths of the strongest cyclicities. Comparing these periodicities with Milankovitch cycles, we found a strong correspondence of the two. This suggests that climate exercised an important control on depositional cyclicity, as had been concluded in previous studies of the Ormskirk Sandstone. The wavelet coefficients from the log data in the Apiay field were combined to form features. These vectors were used in conjunction with pattern recognition techniques to perform detection in 7 boundaries. For the upper two units, the boundary was detected within 10 feet of their actual depth, in 90% of the wells. The mean detection performance in the Apiay field is 50%. We compared our method with other traditional techniques which do not focus on selecting optimal features for boundary identification. Those methods resulted in detection performances of 40% for the uppermost boundary, which lag behind the 90% performance of our method. Automated determination of geologic boundaries will expedite studies, and knowledge of the controlling deposition factors will enhance stratigraphic and reservoir characterization models. We expect that automated boundary detection and cyclicity analysis will prove to be valuable and time-saving methods for establishing correlations and their

  20. ADVANCED CHARACTERIZATION OF FRACTURED RESERVOIRS IN CARBONATE ROCKS: THE MICHIGAN BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Wood; William B. Harrison

    2001-04-01

    Among the accomplishments of this past reporting period are obtaining a complete landgrid for the State of Michigan and the digital processing of the high and medium resolution DEM files. We can now extract lineations from the DEMs automatically using machine algorithms. One tentative result that may be very significant is that we may be seeing manifestations of buried structures in the DEM data. We are looking at a set of extracted lineations in the northern lower peninsula that appear to follow the trend of the pinnacle reefs (Silurian) which had relief approaching 300 feet but are now buried to greater than 3000 feet. We have also extracted the dolomite alteration data from all fields and can show that this is mainly confined to the basin center. It may be related to the paleo-rift suggested by the paleomagnetic and gravity data. As reported last time, the acquisition of a 3D seismic dataset over Stoney Point Field from Marathon Oil Company, is complete and attention is being devoted to incorporating the data into the project database and utilizing it. The surface lineation study is focusing on Stoney Point Field using the high-resolution DEM data and plotting of subsurface formation top data for the main reservoir, the Trenton (Ordovician) Formation. The fault pattern at Stoney Point is well documented by Marathon and we are looking for any manifestations on the surface. The main project database is now about as complete as it will be for this project. The main goals have been met, although the scanning of the paper records will have to continue beyond the scheduled end of the project due to the sheer number of records and the increased donations of data from companies as word spread of the project. One of the unanticipated benefits of the project has been the cooperation of gas and oil companies that are or were active in the Michigan Basin in donating material to the project. Both Michigan Tech and Western Michigan continue to receive donations at an

  1. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project consist of two budget phases. Budget Phase I started in June 1994 and ended late June 1996. During this phase the Reservoir Analysis and Characterization Task and the Advanced Technology Definition Task were completed. Completion of these tasks enabled the project to be designed, and an Authority for Expenditure (AFE) for project implementation to be generated and submitted to the working interest owners for approval. Budget Phase II consists of the implementation and execution of the project in the field

  2. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first project objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide (CO2) project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second project objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. All work during the second quarter falls within the demonstration project

  3. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  4. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. End of budget period report, August 3, 1994--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.R.; Hinterlong, G.; Watts, G.; Justice, J.; Brown, K.; Hickman, T.S.

    1997-12-01

    The Oxy West Welch project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. The research and design phase primarily involves advanced reservoir characterization and accelerating the production response. The demonstration phase will implement the reservoir management plan based on an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood as designed in the initial phase. During Budget Period 1, work was completed on the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatments and the hydraulic fracture design. Analysis of the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatment provided a methodology for predicting results. The hydraulic fracture treatment proved up both the fracture design approach a and the use of passive seismic for mapping the fracture wing orientation. Although the 3-D seismic interpretation is still being integrated into the geologic model and interpretation of borehole seismic is still underway, the simulator has been enhanced to the point of giving good waterflood history matches. The simulator-forecasted results for an optimal designed miscible CO{sub 2} flood in the demonstration area gave sufficient economics to justify continuation of the project into Budget Period 2.

  5. Advance reservoir evaluation by using NMR logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on brief explanation of the measurement principle for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging, this paper illustrates the importance of NMR logging in reservoir evaluation through typical case examples. These case examples include: Reservoir characterization and productivity evaluation by using NMR logging, determination of reservoir porosity in complex lithology, identification of oil, water and gas zones under complex reservoir conditions where resistivity log data give poor indication, guiding the implementation of completion and drilling programs, etc. Excellent application results indicate that NMR logging has its special features and advantages in comparison with conventional logging techniques. It is a very practical and very promising logging technology

  6. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO2 gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1996--August 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, P.

    1998-06-01

    The objective of the Spraberry CO{sub 2} pilot project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of continuous CO{sub 2} injection in the naturally fractured reservoirs of the Spraberry Trend. In order to describe, understand, and model CO{sub 2} flooding in the naturally fractured Spraberry reservoirs, characterization of the fracture system is a must. Additional reservoir characterization was based on horizontal coring in the second year of the project. In addition to characterization of natural fractures, horizontal coring has confirmed a previously developed rock model for describing the Spraberry Trend shaly sands. A better method for identifying Spraberry pay zones has been verified. The authors have completed the reservoir characterization, which includes matrix description and detection (from core-log integration) and fracture characterization. This information is found in Section 1. The authors have completed extensive imbibition experiments that strongly indicate that the weakly water-wet behavior of the reservoir rock may be responsible for poor waterflood response observed in many Spraberry fields. The authors have also made significant progress in analytical and numerical simulation of performance in Spraberry reservoirs as seen in Section 3. They have completed several suites of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry and Berea whole cores at reservoir conditions and reported in Section 4. The results of these experiments have been useful in developing a model for free-fall gravity drainage and have validated the premise that CO{sub 2} will recover oil from tight, unconfined Spraberry matrix.

  7. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A CO2 FLOOD UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL INJECTION WELLS IN A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE APPROACHING WATERFLOOD DEPLETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.J. Harpole; Ed G. Durrett; Susan Snow; J.S. Bles; Carlon Robertson; C.D. Caldwell; D.J. Harms; R.L. King; B.A. Baldwin; D. Wegener; M. Navarrette

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO{sub 2} horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields. The Unit was a mature waterflood with water cut exceeding 95%. Oil must be mobilized through the use of a miscible or near-miscible fluid to recover significant additional reserves. Also, because the unit was relatively small, it did not have the benefit of economies of scale inherent in normal larger scale projects. Thus, new and innovative methods were required to reduce investment and operating costs. Two primary methods used to accomplish improved economics were use of reservoir characterization to restrict the flood to the higher quality rock in the unit and use of horizontal injection wells to cut investment and operating costs. The project consisted of two budget phases. Budget Phase I started in June 1994 and ended late June 1996. In this phase Reservoir Analysis, Characterization Tasks and Advanced Technology Definition Tasks were completed. Completion enabled the project to be designed, evaluated, and an Authority for Expenditure (AFE) for project implementation submitted to working interest owners for approval. Budget Phase II consisted of the implementation and execution of the project in the field. Phase II was completed in July 2001. Performance monitoring, during Phase II, by mid 1998 identified the majority of producing wells which under performed their anticipated withdrawal rates. Newly drilled and re-activated wells had lower offtake rates than originally forecasted. As a result of poor offtake, higher reservoir pressure was a concern

  8. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1997-12-01

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the first year of the five-year project for each of the four areas.

  9. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, D.; Koerner, R.; Moos D.; Nguyen, J.; Phillips, C.; Tagbor, K.; Walker, S.

    1999-04-05

    This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate.

  10. Advancing reservoir operation description in physically based hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Giudici, Federico; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Last decades have seen significant advances in our capacity of characterizing and reproducing hydrological processes within physically based models. Yet, when the human component is considered (e.g. reservoirs, water distribution systems), the associated decisions are generally modeled with very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the actual operators' behaviour on a daily or sub-daily basis. For example, reservoir operations are usually described by a target-level rule curve, which represents the level that the reservoir should track during normal operating conditions. The associated release decision is determined by the current state of the reservoir relative to the rule curve. This modeling approach can reasonably reproduce the seasonal water volume shift due to reservoir operation. Still, it cannot capture more complex decision making processes in response, e.g., to the fluctuations of energy prices and demands, the temporal unavailability of power plants or varying amount of snow accumulated in the basin. In this work, we link a physically explicit hydrological model with detailed hydropower behavioural models describing the decision making process by the dam operator. In particular, we consider two categories of behavioural models: explicit or rule-based behavioural models, where reservoir operating rules are empirically inferred from observational data, and implicit or optimization based behavioural models, where, following a normative economic approach, the decision maker is represented as a rational agent maximising a utility function. We compare these two alternate modelling approaches on the real-world water system of Lake Como catchment in the Italian Alps. The water system is characterized by the presence of 18 artificial hydropower reservoirs generating almost 13% of the Italian hydropower production. Results show to which extent the hydrological regime in the catchment is affected by different behavioural models and reservoir

  11. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1992-09-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the second year of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description and scale-up procedures; (ii) outcrop investigation; (iii) in-fill drilling potential. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be characterized, can be described in three dimensions, and can be scaled up with respect to its properties, appropriate for simulation purposes. The second section describes the progress on investigation of an outcrop. The outcrop is an analog of Bartlesville Sandstone. We have drilled ten wells behind the outcrop and collected extensive log and core data. The cores have been slabbed, photographed and the several plugs have been taken. In addition, minipermeameter is used to measure permeabilities on the core surface at six inch intervals. The plugs have been analyzed for the permeability and porosity values. The variations in property values will be tied to the geological descriptions as well as the subsurface data collected from the Glen Pool field. The third section discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to infer in-fill well locations. The geostatistical technique used is the simulated annealing technique because of its flexibility. One of the important reservoir data is the production data. Use of production data will allow us to define the reservoir continuities, which may in turn, determine the in-fill well locations. The proposed technique allows us to incorporate some of the production data as constraints in the reservoir descriptions. The technique has been validated by comparing the results with numerical simulations.

  12. T-R CYCLE CHARACTERIZATION AND IMAGING: ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC METHODOLOGY FOR PETROLEUM RESERVOIR AND TRAP DETECTION AND DELINEATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-09-24

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project has been T-R cycle characterization and modeling. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 was on outcrop study, well log analysis, seismic interpretation and data integration and for the remainder of the year the emphasis has been on T-R cycle model development. Information regarding the characteristics of T-R cycles has been assembled from the study of outcrops, from well log analyses, and from seismic reflection interpretation. From these studies, stratal boundaries separating T-R cycles have been found to be useful for the recognition and delineation of these cycles. The key stratal surfaces include subaerial unconformities, shoreface ravinement surfaces, transgressive surfaces, surfaces of maximum regression, and surfaces of maximum transgression. These surfaces can be identified and mapped in surface exposures and can be recognized in well log signatures and seismic reflection profiles as discontinuities. The findings from the study of outcrop, well log, and seismic reflection data are being integrated into a database for use in constructing a model for T-R cycle development.

  13. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO(sub 2) Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO(sub 2) flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in west Texas. This objective was accomplished through research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO(sub 2) gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. The four areas have been completed and reported in the previous annual reports. This report provides the results of the final year of the project including two SPE papers (SPE 71605 and SPE 71635) presented in the 2001 SPE Annual Meeting in New Orleans, two simulation works, analysis of logging observation wells (LOW) and progress of CO(sub 2) injection

  14. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, Tracy; Schechter, David S.

    2000-04-11

    The overall goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective was accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the fourth year of the five-year project for each of the four areas including a status report of field activities leading up to injection of CO{sub 2}.

  15. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Annual report, June 3, 1994--October 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, L.D.; Harpole, K.J.; Gerard, M.G.

    1996-05-01

    The work reported here covers Budget Phase I of the project. The principal tasks in Budget Phase I are the Reservoir Analysis and Characterization Task and the Advanced Technology Definition Task. Completion of these tasks have enabled an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood project to be designed and evaluated from an economic and risk analysis standpoint. Field implementation of the project has been recommended to the working interest owner of the South Cowden Unit (SCU) and approval has been obtained. The current project has focused on reducing initial investment cost by utilizing horizontal injection wells and concentrating the project in the best productivity area of the field. An innovative CO{sub 2} purchase agreement (no take or pay requirements, CO{sub 2} purchase price tied to West Texas Intermediate crude oil price) and gas recycle agreements (expensing cost as opposed to large capital investments for compression) were negotiated to further improve project economics. A detailed reservoir characterization study was completed by an integrated team of geoscientists and engineers. The study consisted of detailed core description, integration of log response to core descriptions, mapping of the major flow units, evaluation of porosity and permeability relationships, geostatistical analysis of permeability trends, and direct integration of reservoir performance with the geological interpretation. The study methodology fostered iterative bidirectional feedback between the reservoir characterization team and the reservoir engineering/simulation team to allow simultaneous refinement and convergence of the geological interpretation with the reservoir model. The fundamental conclusion from the study is that South Cowden exhibits favorable enhanced oil recovery characteristics, particularly reservoir quality and continuity.

  16. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1996--August 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1998-07-01

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the second year of the five-year project for each of the four areas. In the first area, the author has completed the reservoir characterization, which includes matrix description and detection (from core-log integration) and fracture characterization. This information is found in Section 1. In the second area, the author has completed extensive inhibition experiments that strongly indicate that the weakly water-wet behavior of the reservoir rock may be responsible for poor waterflood response observed in many Spraberry fields. In the third area, the author has made significant progress in analytical and numerical simulation of performance in Spraberry reservoirs as seen in Section 3. In the fourth area, the author has completed several suites of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry and Berea whole cores at reservoir conditions and reported in Section 4. The results of these experiments have been useful in developing a model for free-fall gravity drainage and have validated the premise that CO{sub 2} will recover oil from tight, unconfined Spraberry matrix. The final three years of this project involves implementation of the CO{sub 2} pilot. Up to twelve new wells are planned in the pilot area; water injection wells to contain the CO{sub 2}, three production wells to monitor performance of CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} injection wells including one horizontal injection well and logging observation wells to monitor CO{sub 2} flood fronts. Results of drilling

  17. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  18. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  19. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. K. Pande

    1998-10-29

    Initial drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, must become a process of the past. Such efforts do not optimize reservoir development as they fail to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: o Large, discontinuous pay intervals o Vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties o Low reservoir energy o High residual oil saturation o Low recovery efficiency

  20. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  1. Microseismic monitoring: a tool for reservoir characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    Characterization of fluid-transport properties of rocks is one of the most important, yet one of most challenging goals of reservoir geophysics. There are some fundamental difficulties related to using active seismic methods for estimating fluid mobility. However, it would be very attractive to have a possibility of exploring hydraulic properties of rocks using seismic methods because of their large penetration range and their high resolution. Microseismic monitoring of borehole fluid injections is exactly the tool to provide us with such a possibility. Stimulation of rocks by fluid injections belong to a standard development practice of hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs. Production of shale gas and of heavy oil, CO2 sequestrations, enhanced recovery of oil and of geothermal energy are branches that require broad applications of this technology. The fact that fluid injection causes seismicity has been well-established for several decades. Observations and data analyzes show that seismicity is triggered by different processes ranging from linear pore pressure diffusion to non-linear fluid impact onto rocks leading to their hydraulic fracturing and strong changes of their structure and permeability. Understanding and monitoring of fluid-induced seismicity is necessary for hydraulic characterization of reservoirs, for assessments of reservoir stimulation and for controlling related seismic hazard. This presentation provides an overview of several theoretical, numerical, laboratory and field studies of fluid-induced microseismicity, and it gives an introduction into the principles of seismicity-based reservoir characterization.

  2. Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO2 enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey Formation siliceous shales. Annual report, February 7, 1997--February 6, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morea, M.F.

    1998-06-01

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery project in the antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The proposed pilot consists of four existing producers on 20 acre spacing with a new 10 acre infill well drilled as the pilot CO{sub 2} injector. Most of the reservoir characterization during Phase 1 of the project will be performed using data collected in the pilot pattern wells. During this period the following tasks have been completed: laboratory wettability; specific permeability; mercury porosimetry; acoustic anisotropy; rock mechanics analysis; core description; fracture analysis; digital image analysis; mineralogical analysis; hydraulic flow unit analysis; petrographic and confocal thin section analysis; oil geochemical fingerprinting; production logging; carbon/oxygen logging; complex lithologic log analysis; NMR T2 processing; dipole shear wave anisotropy logging; shear wave vertical seismic profile processing; structural mapping; and regional tectonic synthesis. Noteworthy technological successes for this reporting period include: (1) first (ever) high resolution, crosswell reflection images of SJV sediments; (2) first successful application of the TomoSeis acquisition system in siliceous shales; (3) first detailed reservoir characterization of SJV siliceous shales; (4) first mineral based saturation algorithm for SJV siliceous shales, and (5) first CO{sub 2} coreflood experiments for siliceous shale. Preliminary results from the CO{sub 2} coreflood experiments (2,500 psi) suggest that significant oil is being produced from the siliceous shale.

  3. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, N.; Barton, M.D.; Bebout, D.G.; Fisher, R.S.; Grigsby, J.D.; Guevara, E.; Holtz, M.; Kerans, C.; Nance, H.S.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    Research described In this report addresses the internal architecture of two specific reservoir types: restricted-platform carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones. Together, these two reservoir types contain more than two-thirds of the unrecovered mobile oil remaining ill Texas. The approach followed in this study was to develop a strong understanding of the styles of heterogeneity of these reservoir types based on a detailed outcrop description and a translation of these findings into optimized recovery strategies in select subsurface analogs. Research targeted Grayburg Formation restricted-platform carbonate outcrops along the Algerita Escarpment and In Stone Canyon In southeastern New Mexico and Ferron deltaic sandstones in central Utah as analogs for the North Foster (Grayburg) and Lake Creek (Wilcox) units, respectively. In both settings, sequence-stratigraphic style profoundly influenced between-well architectural fabric and permeability structure. It is concluded that reservoirs of different depositional origins can therefore be categorized Into a heterogeneity matrix'' based on varying intensity of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The utility of the matrix is that it allows prediction of the nature and location of remaining mobile oil. Highly stratified reservoirs such as the Grayburg, for example, will contain a large proportion of vertically bypassed oil; thus, an appropriate recovery strategy will be waterflood optimization and profile modification. Laterally heterogeneous reservoirs such as deltaic distributary systems would benefit from targeted infill drilling (possibly with horizontal wells) and improved areal sweep efficiency. Potential for advanced recovery of remaining mobile oil through heterogeneity-based advanced secondary recovery strategies In Texas is projected to be an Incremental 16 Bbbl. In the Lower 48 States this target may be as much as 45 Bbbl at low to moderate oil prices over the near- to mid-term.

  4. The North Sea reservoir chalk characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Kallesten, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    A significant amount of the hydrocarbon production in the North Sea is related to chalk reservoirs. Since 1969, the chalk play remains one of the most important oil sources in Norway. With the initial expected recovery factor 17%, development in technologies and methods contributed to a substantial increase in oil recovery to an approximately 40%. Much of the reserves in place are yet to be extracted, and secondary and tertiary recovery methods need to advance in order to mobilize the remaini...

  5. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  6. Advances in China's Oil Reservoir Description Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Longxin; Huang Shiyan; Jia Ailin; Rong Jiashu

    1997-01-01

    @@ Oil reservoir description in China has undergone rapid development in recent years. Extensive research carried out at various oilfields and petroleum universities has resulted in the formulation of comprehensive oil reservoir description techniques and methods uniquely suited to the various development phases of China's continental facies. The new techniques have the following characteristics:

  7. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle objective of this project is to demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of an innovative reservoir management and carbon dioxide (CO2) flood project development approach for improving CO2 flood project economics in shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs

  8. Enhanced characterization of reservoir hydrocarbon components using electromagnetic data attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-12-23

    Advances in electromagnetic imaging techniques have led to the growing utilization of this technology for reservoir monitoring and exploration. These exploit the strong conductivity contrast between the hydrocarbon and water phases and have been used for mapping water front propagation in hydrocarbon reservoirs and enhancing the characterization of the reservoir formation. The conventional approach for the integration of electromagnetic data is to invert the data for saturation properties and then subsequently use the inverted properties as constraints in the history matching process. The non-uniqueness and measurement errors may however make this electromagnetic inversion problem strongly ill-posed, leading to potentially inaccurate saturation profiles. Another limitation of this approach is the uncertainty of Archie\\'s parameters in relating rock conductivity to water saturation, which may vary in the reservoir and are generally poorly known. We present an Ensemble Kalman Filter framework for efficiently integrating electromagnetic data into the history matching process and for simultaneously estimating the Archie\\'s parameters and the variance of the observation error of the electromagnetic data. We apply the proposed framework to a compositional reservoir model. We aim at assessing the relevance of EM data for estimating the different hydrocarbon components of the reservoir. The experimental results demonstrate that the individual hydrocarbon components are generally well matched, with nitrogen exhibiting the strongest improvement. The estimated observation error standard deviations are also within expected levels (between 5 and 10%), significantly contributing to the robustness of the proposed EM history matching framework. Archie\\'s parameter estimates approximate well the reference profile and assist in the accurate description of the electrical conductivity properties of the reservoir formation, hence leading to estimation accuracy improvements of around

  9. An Intelligent Systems Approach to Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Jaime Toro; Thomas H. Wilson; Emre Artun; Alejandro Sanchez; Sandeep Pyakurel

    2005-08-01

    Today, the major challenge in reservoir characterization is integrating data coming from different sources in varying scales, in order to obtain an accurate and high-resolution reservoir model. The role of seismic data in this integration is often limited to providing a structural model for the reservoir. Its relatively low resolution usually limits its further use. However, its areal coverage and availability suggest that it has the potential of providing valuable data for more detailed reservoir characterization studies through the process of seismic inversion. In this paper, a novel intelligent seismic inversion methodology is presented to achieve a desirable correlation between relatively low-frequency seismic signals, and the much higher frequency wireline-log data. Vertical seismic profile (VSP) is used as an intermediate step between the well logs and the surface seismic. A synthetic seismic model is developed by using real data and seismic interpretation. In the example presented here, the model represents the Atoka and Morrow formations, and the overlying Pennsylvanian sequence of the Buffalo Valley Field in New Mexico. Generalized regression neural network (GRNN) is used to build two independent correlation models between; (1) Surface seismic and VSP, (2) VSP and well logs. After generating virtual VSP's from the surface seismic, well logs are predicted by using the correlation between VSP and well logs. The values of the density log, which is a surrogate for reservoir porosity, are predicted for each seismic trace through the seismic line with a classification approach having a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The same methodology is then applied to real data taken from the Buffalo Valley Field, to predict inter-well gamma ray and neutron porosity logs through the seismic line of interest. The same procedure can be applied to a complete 3D seismic block to obtain 3D distributions of reservoir properties with less uncertainty than the geostatistical

  10. Coalbed methane reservoir characterization using magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivakhnenko, Aleksandr; Makhatova, Meruyert; Kalbekov, Arkhat; Baibussinova, Zhanar; Moldagereyeva, Anel

    2016-04-01

    This research describes a study of the dependence of the magnetic susceptibility (MS) and permeability as a new approach for coalbed methane (CBM) reservoir characterization. Experimental measurements were undertaken in coal cores from Kazakhstan (Karaganda Basin). The well sections containing coal are the area of high interest where regular deposition of sandstone, shale and coal is observed. The MS measurements were made by the core logging sensor with the sensitive area of the probe providing volume magnetic susceptibility values. Permeability has been determined by air permeameter. Both magnetic susceptibility and permeability have been measured at the same points. The obtained values of permeability and magnetic susceptibility exhibit the predicted pattern of deposition of reservoir rocks. Coal reservoirs generally is spaced between shale layers with extremely high MS values and highly low permeability. Sandstone with shale interlayers tends to be a transition area between shale and coal. Such tendency appears within several sections. The experimental results showed a strong correspondence between measured magnetic susceptibility and permeability of coal core samples. Therefore, inverse proportionality between magnetic susceptibility and permeability is observed. Generally, the high values of magnetic susceptibility correspond to low permeability, likewise the low diamagnetic MS values comply with high permeability of production zones. In a point of fact, linear proportionality appears as well due to fractures. In this case, permeability must be recalculated in relation to degree of fracturing. Magnetic susceptibility results could sometimes be affected by small content of ferrimagnetic minerals that resulted in high MS values. However, MS data demonstrated good correlations with permeability. The application of magnetic susceptibility values for coalbed methane reservoir characterization could be a non-destructive and rapid method potentially used in both

  11. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Don; Koerner, Roy; Moos, Dan; Nguyen, John; Phillips, Chris; Tagbor, Kwasi; Walker, Scott

    1999-11-09

    The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period July - September 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  12. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott

    1999-11-09

    The objectives of this quarterly report was to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period April - June 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  13. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this quarterly report was to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period April - June 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology

  14. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period July - September 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology

  15. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott; Phillips, Chris; Nguyen, John; Moos, Dan; Tagbor, Kwasi

    2001-08-07

    This project was intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs, transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  16. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perri, Pasquale R.

    2001-04-04

    This report describes the evaluation, design, and implementation of a DOE funded CO2 pilot project in the Lost Hills Field, Kern County, California. The pilot consists of four inverted (injector-centered) 5-spot patterns covering approximately 10 acres, and is located in a portion of the field, which has been under waterflood since early 1992. The target reservoir for the CO2 pilot is the Belridge Diatomite. The pilot location was selected based on geology, reservoir quality and reservoir performance during the waterflood. A CO2 pilot was chosen, rather than full-field implementation, to investigate uncertainties associated with CO2 utilization rate and premature CO2 breakthrough, and overall uncertainty in the unproven CO2 flood process in the San Joaquin Valley.

  17. Shale Gas reservoirs characterization using neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouadfeul, Sid-Ali; Aliouane, Leila

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a tentative of shale gas reservoirs characterization enhancement from well-logs data using neural network is established. The goal is to predict the Total Organic carbon (TOC) in boreholes where the TOC core rock or TOC well-log measurement does not exist. The Multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network with three layers is established. The MLP input layer is constituted with five neurons corresponding to the Bulk density, Neutron porosity, sonic P wave slowness and photoelectric absorption coefficient. The hidden layer is forms with nine neurons and the output layer is formed with one neuron corresponding to the TOC log. Application to two boreholes located in Barnett shale formation where a well A is used as a pilot and a well B is used for propagation shows clearly the efficiency of the neural network method to improve the shale gas reservoirs characterization. The established formalism plays a high important role in the shale gas plays economy and long term gas energy production.

  18. Gypsy Field project in reservoir characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagna, John P.; Jr., O' Meara, Daniel J.

    2000-01-12

    The overall objective of this project was to use extensive Gypsy Field Laboratory and data as a focus for developing and testing reservoir characterization methods that are targeted at improved recovery of conventional oil. This report describes progress since project report DOE/BC/14970-7 and covers the period June 1997-September 1998 and represents one year of funding originally allocated for the year 1996. During the course of the work previously performed, high resolution geophysical and outcrop data revealed the importance of fractures at the Gypsy site. In addition, personnel changes and alternative funding (OCAST and oil company support of various kinds) allowed the authors to leverage DOE contributions and focus more on geophysical characterization.

  19. The role of reservoir characterization in the reservoir management process (as reflected in the Department of Energy`s reservoir management demonstration program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.L. [BDM-Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P. [BDM-Oklahoma, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.

  20. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Frauk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2001-08-15

    Research continues on characterizing and modeling the behavior of naturally fractured reservoir systems. Work has progressed on developing techniques for estimating fracture properties from seismic and well log data, developing naturally fractured wellbore models, and developing a model to characterize the transfer of fluid from the matrix to the fracture system for use in the naturally fractured reservoir simulator.

  1. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1997-04-10

    This project is intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  2. Spatial Stochastic Point Models for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syversveen, Anne Randi

    1997-12-31

    The main part of this thesis discusses stochastic modelling of geology in petroleum reservoirs. A marked point model is defined for objects against a background in a two-dimensional vertical cross section of the reservoir. The model handles conditioning on observations from more than one well for each object and contains interaction between objects, and the objects have the correct length distribution when penetrated by wells. The model is developed in a Bayesian setting. The model and the simulation algorithm are demonstrated by means of an example with simulated data. The thesis also deals with object recognition in image analysis, in a Bayesian framework, and with a special type of spatial Cox processes called log-Gaussian Cox processes. In these processes, the logarithm of the intensity function is a Gaussian process. The class of log-Gaussian Cox processes provides flexible models for clustering. The distribution of such a process is completely characterized by the intensity and the pair correlation function of the Cox process. 170 refs., 37 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Waste management modeling using reservoir characterization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on reservoir characterization techniques were used to develop a hybrid (two scale) 3D model of the 180 m thick interbedded basalt flow and sediment system that constitutes the vadose zone underlying the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. Geostatistical data that was captured from a study of well logs, cores, and cuttings from the subsurface at the RWMC and from nearby outcrops. In general the data was cast in the form of stochastic distribution equations, allowing easy assignment of parameter values. The geometry of the units comprising the vadose zone was developed with a backstripping technique and stochastic interpolation between the wells using geostatistical model for flow geometry and kriging for sediment geometry

  4. Characterization of oil and gas reservoirs and recovery technology deployment on Texas State Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, R.; Major, R.P.; Holtz, M.H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Texas State Lands oil and gas resources are estimated at 1.6 BSTB of remaining mobile oil, 2.1 BSTB, or residual oil, and nearly 10 Tcf of remaining gas. An integrated, detailed geologic and engineering characterization of Texas State Lands has created quantitative descriptions of the oil and gas reservoirs, resulting in delineation of untapped, bypassed compartments and zones of remaining oil and gas. On Texas State Lands, the knowledge gained from such interpretative, quantitative reservoir descriptions has been the basis for designing optimized recovery strategies, including well deepening, recompletions, workovers, targeted infill drilling, injection profile modification, and waterflood optimization. The State of Texas Advanced Resource Recovery program is currently evaluating oil and gas fields along the Gulf Coast (South Copano Bay and Umbrella Point fields) and in the Permian Basin (Keystone East, Ozona, Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields). The program is grounded in advanced reservoir characterization techniques that define the residence of unrecovered oil and gas remaining in select State Land reservoirs. Integral to the program is collaboration with operators in order to deploy advanced reservoir exploitation and management plans. These plans are made on the basis of a thorough understanding of internal reservoir architecture and its controls on remaining oil and gas distribution. Continued accurate, detailed Texas State Lands reservoir description and characterization will ensure deployment of the most current and economically viable recovery technologies and strategies available.

  5. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. First annual technical progress report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1996-12-17

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the first year of the five-year project for each of the four areas.

  6. ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION IN THE ANTELOPE SHALE TO ESTABLISH THE VIABILITY OF CO2 ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY IN CALIFORNIA'S MONTEREY FORMATION SILICEOUS SHALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquale R. Perri

    2003-05-15

    This report describes the evaluation, design, and implementation of a DOE funded CO{sub 2} pilot project in the Lost Hills Field, Kern County, California. The pilot consists of four inverted (injector-centered) 5-spot patterns covering approximately 10 acres, and is located in a portion of the field, which has been under waterflood since early 1992. The target reservoir for the CO{sub 2} pilot is the Belridge Diatomite. The pilot location was selected based on geologic considerations, reservoir quality and reservoir performance during the waterflood. A CO{sub 2} pilot was chosen, rather than full-field implementation, to investigate uncertainties associated with CO{sub 2} utilization rate and premature CO{sub 2} breakthrough, and overall uncertainty in the unproven CO{sub 2} flood process in the San Joaquin Valley. A summary of the design and objectives of the CO{sub 2} pilot are included along with an overview of the Lost Hills geology, discussion of pilot injection and production facilities, and discussion of new wells drilled and remedial work completed prior to commencing injection. Actual CO{sub 2} injection began on August 31, 2000 and a comprehensive pilot monitoring and surveillance program has been implemented. Since the initiation of CO{sub 2} injection, the pilot has been hampered by excessive sand production in the pilot producers due to casing damage related to subsidence and exacerbated by the injected CO{sub 2}. Therefore CO{sub 2} injection was very sporadic in 2001 and 2002 and we experienced long periods of time with no CO{sub 2} injection. As a result of the continued mechanical problems, the pilot project was terminated on January 30, 2003. This report summarizes the injection and production performance and the monitoring results through December 31, 2002 including oil geochemistry, CO{sub 2} injection tracers, crosswell electromagnetic surveys, crosswell seismic, CO{sub 2} injection profiling, cased hole resistivity, tiltmetering results, and

  7. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Jack; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill; Bezant, Bryce

    2000-03-16

    The major purpose of this project was to demonstrate the use of cost effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs such as the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit.

  8. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne D. Pennington

    2002-09-29

    The project, "Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization," is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, inlcuding several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on "Reservoir Geophysics" for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along 'phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we

  9. Research on improved and enhanced oil recovery in Illinois through reservoir characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltz, D.F.

    1992-01-01

    This project will provide information that can maximize hydrocarbon production minimize formation damage and stimulate new production in Illinois. Such information includes definition of hydrocarbon resources, characterization of hydrocarbon reservoirs, and the implementation of methods that will improve hydrocarbon extractive technology. Increased understanding of reservoir heterogeneities that affect oil recovery can aid in identifying producible resources. The transfer of technology to industry and the general public is a significant component of the program. The project is designed to examine selected subsurface oil reservoirs in Illinois. Scientists use advanced scientific techniques to gain a better understanding of reservoir components and behavior and address ways of potentially increasing the amount of recoverable oil. Initial production rates for wells in the Illinois Basin commonly decline quite rapidly and as much as 60 percent of the oil in place can be unrecoverable using standard operating procedures. Heterogeneities (geological differences in reservoir make-up) affect a reservoir's capability to release fluids. By-passed mobile and immobile oil remain in the reservoir. To learn how to get more of the oil out of reservoirs, the ISGS is studying the nature of reservoir rock heterogeneities and their control on the distribution and production of by-passed, mobile oil.

  10. Advanced Reservoir Imaging Using Frequency-Dependent Seismic Attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Hilterman; Tad Patzek; Gennady Goloshubin; Dmitriy Silin; Charlotte Sullivan; Valeri Korneev

    2007-12-31

    Our report concerning advanced imaging and interpretation technology includes the development of theory, the implementation of laboratory experiments and the verification of results using field data. We investigated a reflectivity model for porous fluid-saturated reservoirs and demonstrated that the frequency-dependent component of the reflection coefficient is asymptotically proportional to the reservoir fluid mobility. We also analyzed seismic data using different azimuths and offsets over physical models of fractures filled with air and water. By comparing our physical model synthetics to numerical data we have identified several diagnostic indicators for quantifying the fractures. Finally, we developed reflectivity transforms for predicting pore fluid and lithology using rock-property statistics from 500 reservoirs in both the shelf and deep-water Gulf of Mexico. With these transforms and seismic AVO gathers across the prospect and its down-dip water-equivalent reservoir, fluid saturation can be estimated without a calibration well that ties the seismic. Our research provides the important additional mechanisms to recognize, delineate, and validate new hydrocarbon reserves and assist in the development of producing fields.

  11. Reservoir Characterization, Production Characteristics, and Research Needs for Fluvial/Alluvial Reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Jackson, S.R.; Madden, M.P.; Raw-Schatzinger, V.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.; Young, M.A.

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program was initiated in 1992 to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from known domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. Cost-shared field demonstration projects are being initiated in geology defined reservoir classes which have been prioritized by their potential for incremental recovery and their risk of abandonment. This document defines the characteristics of the fifth geological reservoir class in the series, fluvial/alluvial reservoirs. The reservoirs of Class 5 include deposits of alluvial fans, braided streams, and meandering streams. Deposit morphologies vary as a complex function of climate and tectonics and are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity to fluid flow as a result of extreme variations in water energy as the deposits formed.

  12. Putting integrated reservoir characterization into practice - in house training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, F.M. Jr.; Best, D.A.; Clarke, R.T. [Mobile Exploration and Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The need for even more efficient reservoir characterization and management has forced a change in the way Mobil Oil provides technical support to its production operations. We`ve learned that to be successful, a good understanding of the reservoir is essential. This includes an understanding of the technical and business significance of reservoir heterogeneities at different stages of field development. A multi-disciplinary understanding of the business of integrated reservoir characterization is essential and to facilitate this understanding, Mobil has developed a highly successful {open_quotes}Reservoir Characterization Field Seminar{close_quotes}. Through specific team based case studies that incorporate outcrop examples and data the program provides participants the opportunity to explore historic and alternative approaches to reservoir description, characterization and management. We explore appropriate levels and timing of data gathering, technology applications, risk assessment and management practices at different stages of field development. The case studies presented throughout the course are a unique element of the program which combine real life and hypothetical problem sets that explore how different technical disciplines interact, the approaches to a problem solving they use, the assumptions and uncertainties contained in their contributions and the impact those conclusions may have on other disciplines involved in the overall reservoir management process. The team building aspect of the course was an added bonus.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES AND PRODUCTION MODELS FOR EXPLOITING NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Wiggins; Raymon L. Brown; Faruk Civan; Richard G. Hughes

    2002-12-31

    For many years, geoscientists and engineers have undertaken research to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. Geoscientists have focused on understanding the process of fracturing and the subsequent measurement and description of fracture characteristics. Engineers have concentrated on the fluid flow behavior in the fracture-porous media system and the development of models to predict the hydrocarbon production from these complex systems. This research attempts to integrate these two complementary views to develop a quantitative reservoir characterization methodology and flow performance model for naturally fractured reservoirs. The research has focused on estimating naturally fractured reservoir properties from seismic data, predicting fracture characteristics from well logs, and developing a naturally fractured reservoir simulator. It is important to develop techniques that can be applied to estimate the important parameters in predicting the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. This project proposes a method to relate seismic properties to the elastic compliance and permeability of the reservoir based upon a sugar cube model. In addition, methods are presented to use conventional well logs to estimate localized fracture information for reservoir characterization purposes. The ability to estimate fracture information from conventional well logs is very important in older wells where data are often limited. Finally, a desktop naturally fractured reservoir simulator has been developed for the purpose of predicting the performance of these complex reservoirs. The simulator incorporates vertical and horizontal wellbore models, methods to handle matrix to fracture fluid transfer, and fracture permeability tensors. This research project has developed methods to characterize and study the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs that integrate geoscience and engineering data. This is an important step in developing exploitation strategies for

  14. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Michael L; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Faruk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2002-10-08

    During this reporting period, research was continued on characterizing and modeling the behavior of naturally fractured reservoir systems. This report proposed a model to relate the seismic response to production data to determine crack spacing and aperture, provided details of tests of proposed models to obtain fracture properties from conventional well logs with actual field data, and verification of the naturally fractured reservoir simulator developed in this project.

  15. Seismic reservoir characterization: how can multicomponent data help?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the concepts of multicomponent seismology and how it can be applied to characterize hydrocarbon reservoirs, illustrated using a 3D three-component real-data example from southwest China. Hydrocarbon reservoirs formed from subtle lithological changes, such as stratigraphic traps, may be delineated from changes in P- and S-wave velocities and impedances, whilst hydrocarbon reservoirs containing aligned fractures are anisotropic. Examination of the resultant split shear waves can give us a better definition of their internal structures. Furthermore, frequency-dependent variations in seismic attributes derived from multicomponent data can provide us with vital information about fluid type and distribution. Current practice and various examples have demonstrated the undoubted potential of multicomponent seismic in reservoir characterization. Despite all this, there are still substantial challenges ahead. In particular, the improvement and interpretation of converted-wave imaging are major hurdles that need to be overcome before multicomponent seismic becomes a mainstream technology

  16. ADVANCED TECHNIQUES FOR RESERVOIR SIMULATION AND MODELING OF NONCONVENTIONAL WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis J. Durlofsky; Khalid Aziz

    2004-08-20

    Nonconventional wells, which include horizontal, deviated, multilateral and ''smart'' wells, offer great potential for the efficient management of oil and gas reservoirs. These wells are able to contact larger regions of the reservoir than conventional wells and can also be used to target isolated hydrocarbon accumulations. The use of nonconventional wells instrumented with downhole inflow control devices allows for even greater flexibility in production. Because nonconventional wells can be very expensive to drill, complete and instrument, it is important to be able to optimize their deployment, which requires the accurate prediction of their performance. However, predictions of nonconventional well performance are often inaccurate. This is likely due to inadequacies in some of the reservoir engineering and reservoir simulation tools used to model and optimize nonconventional well performance. A number of new issues arise in the modeling and optimization of nonconventional wells. For example, the optimal use of downhole inflow control devices has not been addressed for practical problems. In addition, the impact of geological and engineering uncertainty (e.g., valve reliability) has not been previously considered. In order to model and optimize nonconventional wells in different settings, it is essential that the tools be implemented into a general reservoir simulator. This simulator must be sufficiently general and robust and must in addition be linked to a sophisticated well model. Our research under this five year project addressed all of the key areas indicated above. The overall project was divided into three main categories: (1) advanced reservoir simulation techniques for modeling nonconventional wells; (2) improved techniques for computing well productivity (for use in reservoir engineering calculations) and for coupling the well to the simulator (which includes the accurate calculation of well index and the modeling of multiphase flow

  17. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, Wayne D.; Acevedo, Horacio; Green, Aaron; Len, Shawn; Minavea, Anastasia; Wood, James; Xie, Deyi

    2002-01-29

    This project has completed the initially scheduled third year of the contract, and is beginning a fourth year, designed to expand upon the tech transfer aspects of the project. From the Stratton data set, demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along `phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the Boonsville data set , developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Teal South data set provided a surprising set of data, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines.

  18. CALIBRATION OF SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne D. Pennington; Horacio Acevedo; Aaron Green; Joshua Haataja; Shawn Len; Anastasia Minaeva; Deyi Xie

    2002-10-01

    The project, ''Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Calibration,'' is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, including several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on ''Reservoir Geophysics'' for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along ''phantom'' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into

  19. Appalachian Basin Low-Permeability Sandstone Reservoir Characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray Boswell; Susan Pool; Skip Pratt; David Matchen

    1993-04-30

    A preliminary assessment of Appalachian basin natural gas reservoirs designated as 'tight sands' by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) suggests that greater than 90% of the 'tight sand' resource occurs within two groups of genetically-related units; (1) the Lower Silurian Medina interval, and (2) the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Acadian clastic wedge. These intervals were targeted for detailed study with the goal of producing geologic reservoir characterization data sets compatible with the Tight Gas Analysis System (TGAS: ICF Resources, Inc.) reservoir simulator. The first phase of the study, completed in September, 1991, addressed the Medina reservoirs. The second phase, concerned with the Acadian clastic wedge, was completed in October, 1992. This report is a combined and updated version of the reports submitted in association with those efforts. The Medina interval consists of numerous interfingering fluvial/deltaic sandstones that produce oil and natural gas along an arcuate belt that stretches from eastern Kentucky to western New York. Geophysical well logs from 433 wells were examined in order to determine the geologic characteristics of six separate reservoir-bearing intervals. The Acadian clastic wedge is a thick, highly-lenticular package of interfingering fluvial-deltaic sandstones, siltstones, and shales. Geologic analyses of more than 800 wells resulted in a geologic/engineering characterization of seven separate stratigraphic intervals. For both study areas, well log and other data were analyzed to determine regional reservoir distribution, reservoir thickness, lithology, porosity, water saturation, pressure and temperature. These data were mapped, evaluated, and compiled into various TGAS data sets that reflect estimates of original gas-in-place, remaining reserves, and 'tight' reserves. The maps and data produced represent the first basin-wide geologic characterization for either interval. This report

  20. Exploration and reservoir characterization; Technology Target Areas; TTA2 - Exploration and reservoir characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    In future, research within exploration and reservoir characterization will play an even more important role for Norway since resources are decreasing and new challenges like deep sea, harsh environment and last but not least environmental issues have to be considered. There are two major fields which have to be addressed within exploration and reservoir characterization: First, replacement of reserves by new discoveries and ultimate field recoveries in mature basins at the Norwegian Continental shelf, e.g. at the Halten Terrace has to be addressed. A wealth of data exists in the more mature areas. Interdisciplinary integration is a key feature of reservoir characterization, where available data and specialist knowledge need to be combined into a consistent reservoir description. A systematic approach for handling both uncertainties in data sources and uncertainties in basic models is needed. Fast simulation techniques are necessary to generate models spanning the event space, covering both underground based and model-based uncertainties. Second, exploration in frontier areas like the Barents Sea region and the deeper Voering Basin has to be addressed. The scarcity of wells in these frontier areas leads to uncertainties in the geological understanding. Basin- and depositional modelling are essential for predicting where source rocks and reservoir rocks are deposited, and if, when and which hydrocarbons are generated and trapped. Predictive models and improved process understanding is therefore crucial to meet these issues. Especially the challenges related to the salt deposits e.g. sub-salt/sub-basalt reservoir definitions in the Nordkapp Basin demands up-front research and technology developments. TTA2 stresses the need to focus on the development of new talents. We also see a strong need to push cooperation as far as possible in the present competitive environment. Projects that may require a substantial financial commitment have been identified. The following

  1. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner; Iraj Ershaghi

    2003-01-31

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  2. An Advanced Fracture Characterization and Well Path Navigation System for Effective Re-Development and Enhancement of Ultimate Recovery from the Complex Monterey Reservoir of South Ellwood Field, Offshore California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, Steve; Ershaghi, Iraj

    2006-06-30

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to over 10,000,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intended to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. In the first phase of the project, state of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic, interference tests and production logs were employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database were used in the construction of a new geologic model of the fracture network. An innovative fracture network reservoir simulator was developed to better understand and manage the aquifer’s role in pressure maintenance and water production. In the second phase of this project, simulation models were used to plan the redevelopment of the field using high angle wells. Correct placement of the wells is critical to intersect the best-developed fracture zones and to avoid producing large volumes of water from the water leg. Particula r attention was paid to those areas of the field that have not been adequately developed with the existing producers. In cooperation with the DOE and the PTTC, the new data and the new fracture simulation model were shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the methodologies developed in this project. This report presents a summary of all technical work conducted during Budget Periods I

  3. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner

    2004-04-29

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  4. SEISMIC DETERMINATION OF RESERVOIR HETEROGENEITY: APPLICATION TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias G. Imhof; James W. Castle

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project was to examine how seismic and geologic data can be used to improve characterization of small-scale heterogeneity and their parameterization in reservoir models. The study focused on West Coalinga Field in California. The project initially attempted to build reservoir models based on different geologic and geophysical data independently using different tools, then to compare the results, and ultimately to integrate them all. We learned, however, that this strategy was impractical. The different data and tools need to be integrated from the beginning because they are all interrelated. This report describes a new approach to geostatistical modeling and presents an integration of geology and geophysics to explain the formation of the complex Coalinga reservoir.

  5. SEISMIC DETERMINATION OF RESERVOIR HETEROGENEITY: APPLICATION TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias G. Imhof; James W. Castle

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project was to examine how seismic and geologic data can be used to improve characterization of small-scale heterogeneity and their parameterization in reservoir models. The study focused on West Coalinga Field in California. The project initially attempted to build reservoir models based on different geologic and geophysical data independently using different tools, then to compare the results, and ultimately to integrate them all. Throughout the project, however, we learned that this strategy was impractical because the different data and model are complementary instead of competitive. For the complex Coalinga field, we found that a thorough understanding of the reservoir evolution through geologic times provides the necessary framework which ultimately allows integration of the different data and techniques.

  6. Synergizing Crosswell Seismic and Electromagnetic Techniques for Enhancing Reservoir Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-11-18

    Increasing complexity of hydrocarbon projects and the request for higher recovery rates have driven the oil-and-gas industry to look for a more-detailed understanding of the subsurface formation to optimize recovery of oil and profitability. Despite the significant successes of geophysical techniques in determining changes within the reservoir, the benefits from individually mapping the information are limited. Although seismic techniques have been the main approach for imaging the subsurface, the weak density contrast between water and oil has made electromagnetic (EM) technology an attractive complement to improve fluid distinction, especially for high-saline water. This crosswell technology assumes greater importance for obtaining higher-resolution images of the interwell regions to more accurately characterize the reservoir and track fluid-front developments. In this study, an ensemble-Kalman-based history-matching framework is proposed for directly incorporating crosswell time-lapse seismic and EM data into the history-matching process. The direct incorporation of the time-lapse seismic and EM data into the history-matching process exploits the complementarity of these data to enhance subsurface characterization, to incorporate interwell information, and to avoid biases that may be incurred from separate inversions of the geophysical data for attributes. An extensive analysis with 2D and realistic 3D reservoirs illustrates the robustness and enhanced forecastability of critical reservoir variables. The 2D reservoir provides a better understanding of the connection between fluid discrimination and enhanced history matches, and the 3D reservoir demonstrates its applicability to a realistic reservoir. History-matching enhancements (in terms of reduction in the history-matching error) when incorporating both seismic and EM data averaged approximately 50% for the 2D case, and approximately 30% for the 3D case, and permeability estimates were approximately 25

  7. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, N.; Barton, M.D.; Bebout, D.G.; Fisher, R.S.; Grigsby, J.D.; Guevara, E.; Holtz, M.; Kerans, C.; Nance, H.S.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    Research described In this report addresses the internal architecture of two specific reservoir types: restricted-platform carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones. Together, these two reservoir types contain more than two-thirds of the unrecovered mobile oil remaining ill Texas. The approach followed in this study was to develop a strong understanding of the styles of heterogeneity of these reservoir types based on a detailed outcrop description and a translation of these findings into optimized recovery strategies in select subsurface analogs. Research targeted Grayburg Formation restricted-platform carbonate outcrops along the Algerita Escarpment and In Stone Canyon In southeastern New Mexico and Ferron deltaic sandstones in central Utah as analogs for the North Foster (Grayburg) and Lake Creek (Wilcox) units, respectively. In both settings, sequence-stratigraphic style profoundly influenced between-well architectural fabric and permeability structure. It is concluded that reservoirs of different depositional origins can therefore be categorized Into a ``heterogeneity matrix`` based on varying intensity of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The utility of the matrix is that it allows prediction of the nature and location of remaining mobile oil. Highly stratified reservoirs such as the Grayburg, for example, will contain a large proportion of vertically bypassed oil; thus, an appropriate recovery strategy will be waterflood optimization and profile modification. Laterally heterogeneous reservoirs such as deltaic distributary systems would benefit from targeted infill drilling (possibly with horizontal wells) and improved areal sweep efficiency. Potential for advanced recovery of remaining mobile oil through heterogeneity-based advanced secondary recovery strategies In Texas is projected to be an Incremental 16 Bbbl. In the Lower 48 States this target may be as much as 45 Bbbl at low to moderate oil prices over the near- to mid-term.

  8. FTIR characterization of advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, P. R.; Chang, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper surveys the application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to the characterization of advanced materials. FTIR sampling techniques including internal and external reflectance and photoacoustic spectroscopy are discussed. Representative examples from the literature of the analysis of resins, fibers, prepregs and composites are reviewed. A discussion of several promising specialized FTIR techniques is also presented.

  9. Reservoir characterization using nuclear geochemical logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in the technique of nuclear spectroscopy logging have resulted in ability to determine continuous, in situ abundances of most major rock-forming elements. If the use of log-derived geochemistry is to be applied widely, quality assessment must be improved to cover a wider variety of environments. A case study of a producing well from the Gulf of Mexico exposes some of the problems in the processing of the geochemical data, quantitatively assesses the accuracy of that data in comparison to core measurements, and examines the validity of an elemental uncertainty estimate. Neutron transport simulations studies show the measurement of Al to be particularly sensitive to borehole environmental effects. (author). 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Research on improved and enhanced oil recovery in Illinois through reservoir characterization, March 28, 1992--June 28, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltz, D.F.

    1992-09-01

    This project will provide information that can maximize hydrocarbon production, minimize formation damage and stimulate new production in Illinois. Such information includes definition of hydrocarbon resources, characterization of hydrocarbon reservoirs, and the implementation of methods that will improve hydrocarbon extractive technology. Increased understanding of reservoir heterogeneities that affect oil recovery can aid in identifying producible resources. The transfer of technology to industry and the general public is a significant component of the program. The project is designed to examine selected subsurface oil reservoirs in Illinois. Scientists use advanced scientific techniques to gain a better understanding of reservoir components and behavior and address ways of potentially increasing the amount of recoverable oil. Initial production rates for wells in the Illinois Basin commonly decline quite rapidly and as much as 60 percent of the oil in place can be unrecoverable using standard operating procedures. Heterogeneities (geological differences in reservoir make-up) affect a reservoir`s capability to release fluids. By-passed mobile and immobile oil remain in the reservoir. To learn how to get more of the oil out of reservoirs, the ISGS is studying the nature of reservoir rock heterogeneities and their control on the distribution and production of bypassed, mobile oil. Accomplishment for this period are summarized for the following tasks: mapping, cross-sections; subsurface depo-systems; outcrop studies; oil and gas development maps; engineering work; SEM/EDX; and clay minerals.

  11. Geothermal reservoir characterization through active thermal testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Martin; Klepikova, Maria; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Fisch, Hansruedi; Loew, Simon; Amann, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Development and deployment of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) as renewable energy resources are part of the Swiss Energy Strategy 2050. To pioneer further EGS projects in Switzerland, a decameter-scale in-situ hydraulic stimulation and circulation (ISC) experiment has been launched at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS). The experiments are hosted in a low fracture density volume of the Grimsel granodiorite, similar to those expected at the potential enhanced geothermal system sites in the deep basement rocks of Northern Switzerland. One of the key goals of this multi-disciplinary experiment is to provide a pre- and post-stimulation characterization of the hydraulic and thermal properties of the stimulated fracture network with high resolution and to determine natural structures controlling the fluid flow and heat transport. Active thermal tests including thermal dilution tests and heat tracer tests allow for investigation of groundwater fluid flow and heat transport. Moreover, the spatial and temporal integrity of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) monitoring upgrades the potential and applicability of thermal tests in boreholes (e.g. Read et al., 2013). Here, we present active thermal test results and discuss the advantages and limitations of this method compared to classical approaches (hydraulic packer tests, solute tracer tests, flowing fluid electrical conductivity logging). The experimental tests were conducted in two boreholes intersected by a few low to moderately transmissive fault zones (fracture transmissivity of about 1E-9 m2/s - 1E-7 m2/s). Our preliminary results show that even in low-permeable environments active thermal testing may provide valuable insights into groundwater and heat transport pathways. Read T., O. Bour, V. Bense, T. Le Borgne, P. Goderniaux, M.V. Klepikova, R. Hochreutener, N. Lavenant, and V. Boschero (2013), Characterizing groundwater flow and heat transport in fractured rock using Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing

  12. Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Christer

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the water reservoirs in the world. There are nearly 50 000 large dams in the world, retaining more than 6500 km3 of water. Creation of reservoirs has inundated an area like the size of France or California and has forced 40–80 million people to resettle. The majority of these reservoirs have been built during the last 50 years, but new reservoirs are still constructed at a rate of nearly one new reservoir per day. Reservoirs are used for irrigation, hydroe...

  13. Reservoir characterization by multiattribute analysis: The Orito field case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Luis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to characterize the Caballos formation reservoir in the Orito field in the Putumayo basin - Colombia, a multiattribute analysis was applied to a 50 km2 seismic volume along with 16 boreholes. Some properties of the reservoir were reliably estimated and very accurate when compared with well data. The porosity, permeability and volume of shale were calculated in the seismic volume by at least second order multivariate polynomial. A good correlation between porosity and acoustic impedance was observed by means of crossplot analysis performed on properties measured and estimated in cores or borehole logs as well as on properties calculated in the seismic volume. The estimated property values were well behaved according to the rocks physics analysis. With the property maps generated and the geological environments of the reservoir a new interpretation of the Caballos formation was established. High correlation coefficients and low estimated errors point out competence to calculate these three reservoir properties in places far from the influence of the wells. The multiple equation system was established through weighted hierarchical grouping of attributes and their coefficients calculated applying the inverse generalized matrix method.

  14. Research on improved and enhanced oil recovery in Illinois through reservoir characterization, March 28, 1992--June 28, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltz, D.F.

    1992-01-01

    This project will provide information that can maximize hydrocarbon production, minimize formation damage and stimulate new production in Illinois. Such information includes definition of hydrocarbon resources, characterization of hydrocarbon reservoirs, and the implementation of methods that will improve hydrocarbon extractive technology. Increased understanding of reservoir heterogeneities that affect oil recovery can aid in identifying producible resources. The transfer of technology to industry and the general public is a significant component of the program. The project is designed to examine selected subsurface oil reservoirs in Illinois. Scientists use advanced scientific techniques to gain a better understanding of reservoir components and behavior and address ways of potentially increasing the amount of recoverable oil. Initial production rates for wells in the Illinois Basin commonly decline quite rapidly and as much as 60 percent of the oil in place can be unrecoverable using standard operating procedures. Heterogeneities (geological differences in reservoir make-up) affect a reservoir's capability to release fluids. By-passed mobile and immobile oil remain in the reservoir. To learn how to get more of the oil out of reservoirs, the ISGS is studying the nature of reservoir rock heterogeneities and their control on the distribution and production of bypassed, mobile oil. Accomplishment for this period are summarized for the following tasks: mapping, cross-sections; subsurface depo-systems; outcrop studies; oil and gas development maps; engineering work; SEM/EDX; and clay minerals.

  15. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. [Quarterly report], January 1--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, B.G.; Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1995-07-01

    This basis search is to apply novel techniques from Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Expert Systems in capturing, integrating and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. The ultimate goal is to design and implement a single powerful expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs. The overall project plan to design the system to create integrated reservoir description begins by initially developing an AI-based methodology for producing large-scale reservoir descriptions generated interactively from geology and well test data. Parallel to this task is a second task that develops an AI-based methodology that uses facies-biased information to generate small-scale descriptions of reservoir properties such as permeability and porosity. The third task involves consolidation and integration of the large-scale and small-scale methodologies to produce reservoir descriptions honoring all the available data. The final task will be technology transfer. With this plan, we have carefully allocated and sequenced the activities involved in each of the tasks to promote concurrent progress towards the research objectives. The results of the integration are not merely limited to obtaining better characterizations of individual reservoirs. They have the potential to significantly impact and advance the discipline of reservoir characterization itself.

  16. Multiscale characterization of porous media properties for hydrocarbon reservoir simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeman, Henry; Lao, Hio-Wai; Simpson, Dale; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V.

    2001-07-01

    Fluid flow through porous materials is critical for understanding and predicting the behavior of systems as diverse in function and scale as hydrocarbon reservoirs, aquifers, filters, membrane separators and even catalytic converters. Recently, there have been calls to incorporate more physics in oil reservoir simulations, as well as to enhance computational capability through the use of High Performance Computing (HPC), in order to improve reservoir management. Accurate prediction of reservoir behavior depends on the physical properties of not only the fluid but also the underlying rock formation. Contemporary approaches to solving these flows involve simulation of only a single physical scale. We are currently developing HiMuST (Hierarchical Multiscale Simulator Technology), an integrated multiscale simulation system for flow through heterogeneous porous materials. HiMuST uses a hierarchy of simulation codes to address the issue of rock property characterization at the pore scale and can self-adjust according to available input data. At the microscopic scale, HiMuST employs the Lattice Boltzmann Method, based on magnetic resonance digitizations of actual rock samples. At the mesoscopic scale, a stochastic model represents a pore network as a randomly generated skeleton of cylindrical pipes, based on physical characteristics determined by the microscopic simulation. We present computational and computer science issues involved in the HPC implementation of the codes and in integrating them into a seamless simulation system. Issues such as portability, scalability, efficiency and extensibility of the final product are also discussed, as well as the numerical methods implemented at each scale. Example simulation results are presented.

  17. Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey Formation siliceous shales. Annual report, February 12, 1996--February 11, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toronyi, R.M.

    1997-12-01

    The Buena Vista Hills field is located about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield, in Kern County, California, about two miles north of the city of Taft, and five miles south of the Elk Hills field. The Antelope Shale zone was discovered at the Buena Vista Hills field in 1952, and has since been under primary production. Little research was done to improve the completion techniques during the development phase in the 1950s, so most of the wells are completed with about 1000 ft of slotted liner. The proposed pilot consists of four existing producers on 20 acre spacing with a new 10 acre infill well drilled as the pilot CO{sub 2} injector. Most of the reservoir characterization of the first phase of the project will be performed using data collected in the pilot pattern wells. This is the first annual report of the project. It covers the period February 12, 1996 to February 11, 1997. During this period the Chevron Murvale 653Z-26B well was drilled in Section 26-T31S/R23E in the Buena Vista Hills field, Kern County, California. The Monterey Formation equivalent Brown and Antelope Shales were continuously cored, the zone was logged with several different kinds of wireline logs, and the well was cased to a total depth of 4907 ft. Core recovery was 99.5%. Core analyses that have been performed include Dean Stark porosity, permeability and fluid saturations, field wettability, anelastic strain recovery, spectral core gamma, profile permeametry, and photographic imaging. Wireline log analysis includes mineral-based error minimization (ELAN), NMR T2 processing, and dipole shear wave anisotropy. A shear wave vertical seismic profile was acquired after casing was set and processing is nearly complete.

  18. Characterizing flow in oil reservoir rock using SPH: absolute permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, David W.; Williams, John R.; Tilke, Peter; Leonardi, Christopher R.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulator for modeling grain scale fluid flow in porous rock is presented. The versatility of the SPH method has driven its use in increasingly complex areas of flow analysis, including flows related to permeable rock for both groundwater and petroleum reservoir research. While previous approaches to such problems using SPH have involved the use of idealized pore geometries (cylinder/sphere packs etc), in this paper we detail the characterization of flow in models with geometries taken from 3D X-ray microtomographic imaging of actual porous rock; specifically 25.12 % porosity dolomite. This particular rock type has been well characterized experimentally and described in the literature, thus providing a practical `real world' means of verification of SPH that will be key to its acceptance by industry as a viable alternative to traditional reservoir modeling tools. The true advantages of SPH are realized when adding the complexity of multiple fluid phases, however, the accuracy of SPH for single phase flow is, as yet, under developed in the literature and will be the primary focus of this paper. Flow in reservoir rock will typically occur in the range of low Reynolds numbers, making the enforcement of no-slip boundary conditions an important factor in simulation. To this end, we detail the development of a new, robust, and numerically efficient method for implementing no-slip boundary conditions in SPH that can handle the degree of complexity of boundary surfaces, characteristic of an actual permeable rock sample. A study of the effect of particle density is carried out and simulation results for absolute permeability are presented and compared to those from experimentation showing good agreement and validating the method for such applications.

  19. Increasing waterflood reserves in the Wilmington oil field through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. Quarterly technical progress report, March 21, 1995--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D.; Clarke, D. [Long Beach City Dept. of Oil Properties, CA (United States); Walker, S.; Phillips, C.; Nguyen, J. [Tidelands Oil Production Co. (United States); Moos, D. [Stanford Univ. (United States); Tagbor, K. [MPI (United States)

    1995-07-26

    The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology. The identification of the sands with high remaining oil saturation will be accomplished by developing a deterministic 3-D geologic model and by using a state of the art reservoir management computer software. The wells identified by the geologic and reservoir engineering work as having the best potential will be logged with a pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool. The application of the logging tools will be optimized in the lab by developing a rock-log model. The wells that are shown to have the best oil production potential will be recompleted. The recompletions will be optimized by evaluating short radius and ultra-short radius lateral recompletions. Technical progress is reported for the following tasks: Reservoir characterization; reservoir engineering; 3-D geologic modeling; pulsed acoustic logging; and technology transfer.

  20. Reservoir characterization in an underground gas storage field using joint inversion of flow and geodetic data

    OpenAIRE

    Bottazzi, F.; Mantica, S.; Jha, Birendra; Wojcik, Rafal; Coccia, Martina; Bechor Ben Dov, Noah; McLaughlin, Dennis; Herring, Thomas A.; Hager, Bradford H.; Juanes, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of reservoir properties like porosity and permeability in reservoir models typically relies on history matching of production data, well pressure data, and possibly other fluid-dynamical data. Calibrated (history-matched) reservoir models are then used for forecasting production and designing effective strategies for improved oil and gas recovery. Here, we perform assimilation of both flow and deformation data for joint inversion of reservoir properties. Given the coupled nat...

  1. Characterization of CO2 reservoir rock in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Stefano; Madonna, Claudio; Zappone, Alba

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) are one of the key drivers regarding global climate change (IPCC, 2007). Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is one valuable technology to mitigate current climate change with an immediate impact. The IPCC special report on CCS predicted a potential capture range of 4.7 to 37.5 Gt of CO2 by 2050. Among several countries, Switzerland has started to investigate its potential for CO2 storage (Chevalier et al., 2010) and is currently performing research on the characterization of the most promising reservoir/seal rocks for CO2 sequestration. For Switzerland, the most feasible option is to store CO2 in saline aquifers, sealed by impermeable formations. One aquifer of regional scale in the Swiss Molasse Basin is a carbonate sequence consisting of reworked shallow marine limestones and accumulations of shell fragments. The upper part of the formation presents the most promising permeability values and storage properties. The storage potential has been estimated of 706 Mt of CO2, based on the specific ranking scheme proposed by Chevalier et al. 2010. In this study, key parameters such as porosity, permeability and acoustic velocities in compressional and shear mode have been measured in laboratory at pressures and temperatures simulating in situ conditions. Reservoir rock samples have been investigated. Permeability has been estimated before and after CO2 injection in supercritical state. The simulation of typical reservoir conditions allows us to go one step further towards a significant evaluation of the reservoir's true capacities for CO2 sequestration. It seems of major importance to notice that the permeability crucially depends on confining pressure, temperature and pore pressure conditions of the sample. Especially at in situ conditions with CO2 being at supercritical state, a substantial loss in permeability have to be taken into consideration when it comes to the calculation of potential injection rates. The

  2. Advanced waterflooding in chalk reservoirs: Understanding of underlying mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Sandersen, Sara Bülow; Stenby, Erling Halfdan;

    2011-01-01

    pressure. We have also observed formation of a microemulsion phase between brine and oil with the increase in sulfate ion concentration at high temperature and pressure. In addition, sulfate ions can reduce interfacial tension (IFT) between oil and water. We propose that the decrease in viscosity and...... formation of a microemulsion phase could be the possible reasons for the observed increase in oil recovery with sulfate ions at high temperature in chalk reservoirs besides the mechanism of the rock wettability alteration, which has been reported in most previous studies....

  3. Seismic characterization of a reservoir; Caracterisation sismique d`un reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaffard, V.

    1996-10-24

    The reservoir studied is formed by a magmatic sill and by metamorphosed and fractured beds of limestones and marls. The aim of this study is to better describe the reservoir by using various sources of information: lithological and petrophysical wire line well parameters and seismic attribute information derived from the seismic dataset. Geological analogies were first studied to understand the geological mechanism that created this distinct reservoir geometry. The most important points are the intrusion mechanism and the deformation that the surrounding beds undergo. In the seismic data, we improved the horizons picking supplied by the affiliate (top sill, top upper metamorphosed zone, base sill, base lower metamorphosed zone) and calculated the seismic attributes between these horizons. The attributes calculated of the attributes maps at the reservoir level is useful to understand the intrusion mechanism: the intrusions are composed by distinct flows organised in a radial manner around feeding chimneys. These maps also allow us to better define the reservoir limits within the field. The correlations between reservoir thicknesses and seismic attributes were then studied: the reservoir thicknesses (sill and metamorphosed beds) only show good correlations with the attributes isochrons and isochrons / frequencies. These relationships were described by linear regressions with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.6 to 0.7. No correlation was observed with the amplitudes. The identified relationships were then used to map the reservoir thickness by geostatistical methods. The tuning effect was also studied. Tuning is the interference between successive top and base reflections within a thin bed (thickness less than a quarter of a wavelength). This affects the attribute responses at the reservoir level and may explain the disappointing correlations between seismic attributes and reservoir parameters. The study of the tuning effect on the volcanic sill indicates that

  4. Crosswell electromagnetic imaging for geothermal reservoir characterization - a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrock, Friedemann; Saar, Martin O.

    2016-04-01

    Most regions in the world do not have ready access to natural convective hydrothermal resources. To use deep geothermal heat as a viable energy resource in low-permeability formations, permeable fracture networks have to be created artificially to enable deep fluid circulation for advective heat transport to a production well. Such generation of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is studied in the "Deep Underground Geothermal (DUG)" laboratory at the Grimsel pass, Switzerland. Here, an underground experiment is conducted by hydraulically stimulating a pre-existing shear zone within crystalline rock. The objectives of this project are to better describe and understand the processes acting during reservoir generation. We perform a feasibility study to evaluate the capability of low-frequency crosswell electromagnetic (EM) tomography for mapping of stimulation-induced changes in electrical conductivity. First numerical results show that crosswell EM data are generally sensitive to the inter-well conductivity distribution, which is affected by properties such as interconnected porosity, permeability and the presence of fluids. It thereby provides important information for characterization of potential EGS reservoirs. We present a 3-D forward modeling and inversion study using synthetic data and under realistic conditions, these include the true borehole spacing and the observed electromagnetic noise level in the DUG laboratory. Based on these results we discuss the system requirements and the capability of crosswell EM to recover the inter-well structure and stimulation-induced changes. Besides the numerical study we report on the current status of instrumentation and realization of crosswell EM measurements at the DUG laboratory.

  5. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K. [David K. Davies & Associates, Kingwood, TX (United States); Doublet, L.E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  6. Advanced Hydraulic Fracturing Technology for Unconventional Tight Gas Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Holditch; A. Daniel Hill; D. Zhu

    2007-06-19

    The objectives of this project are to develop and test new techniques for creating extensive, conductive hydraulic fractures in unconventional tight gas reservoirs by statistically assessing the productivity achieved in hundreds of field treatments with a variety of current fracturing practices ranging from 'water fracs' to conventional gel fracture treatments; by laboratory measurements of the conductivity created with high rate proppant fracturing using an entirely new conductivity test - the 'dynamic fracture conductivity test'; and by developing design models to implement the optimal fracture treatments determined from the field assessment and the laboratory measurements. One of the tasks of this project is to create an 'advisor' or expert system for completion, production and stimulation of tight gas reservoirs. A central part of this study is an extensive survey of the productivity of hundreds of tight gas wells that have been hydraulically fractured. We have been doing an extensive literature search of the SPE eLibrary, DOE, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Bureau of Economic Geology and IHS Energy, for publicly available technical reports about procedures of drilling, completion and production of the tight gas wells. We have downloaded numerous papers and read and summarized the information to build a database that will contain field treatment data, organized by geographic location, and hydraulic fracture treatment design data, organized by the treatment type. We have conducted experimental study on 'dynamic fracture conductivity' created when proppant slurries are pumped into hydraulic fractures in tight gas sands. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially; we pump proppant/frac fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. From such tests, we expect to gain new insights into some of the critical

  7. Research on improved and enhanced oil recovery in Illinois through reservoir characterization. [Quarterly technical report], December 28, 1991--March 28, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltz, D.F.

    1992-04-01

    This project will provide information that can maximize hydrocarbon production minimize formation damage and stimulate new production in Illinois. Such information includes definition of hydrocarbon resources, characterization of hydrocarbon reservoirs, and the implementation of methods that will improve hydrocarbon extractive technology. Increased understanding of reservoir heterogeneities that affect oil recovery can aid in identifying producible resources. The transfer of technology to industry and the general public is a significant component of the program. The project is designed to examine selected subsurface oil reservoirs in Illinois. Scientists use advanced scientific techniques to gain a better understanding of reservoir components and behavior and address ways of potentially increasing the amount of recoverable oil. Initial production rates for wells in the Illinois Basin commonly decline quite rapidly and as much as 60 percent of the oil in place can be unrecoverable using standard operating procedures. Heterogeneities (geological differences in reservoir make-up) affect a reservoir`s capability to release fluids. By-passed mobile and immobile oil remain in the reservoir. To learn how to get more of the oil out of reservoirs, the ISGS is studying the nature of reservoir rock heterogeneities and their control on the distribution and production of by-passed, mobile oil.

  8. Integration of rock typing methods for carbonate reservoir characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reservoir rock typing is the most important part of all reservoir modelling. For integrated reservoir rock typing, static and dynamic properties need to be combined, but sometimes these two are incompatible. The failure is due to the misunderstanding of the crucial parameters that control the dynamic behaviour of the reservoir rock and thus selecting inappropriate methods for defining static rock types. In this study, rock types were defined by combining the SCAL data with the rock properties, particularly rock fabric and pore types. First, air-displacing-water capillary pressure curues were classified because they are representative of fluid saturation and behaviour under capillary forces. Next the most important rock properties which control the fluid flow and saturation behaviour (rock fabric and pore types) were combined with defined classes. Corresponding petrophysical properties were also attributed to reservoir rock types and eventually, defined rock types were compared with relative permeability curves. This study focused on representing the importance of the pore system, specifically pore types in fluid saturation and entrapment in the reservoir rock. The most common tests in static rock typing, such as electrofacies analysis and porosity–permeability correlation, were carried out and the results indicate that these are not appropriate approaches for reservoir rock typing in carbonate reservoirs with a complicated pore system. (paper)

  9. Geostatistic in Reservoir Characterization: from estimation to simulation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mata Lima, H.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article objective have been made to reviews different geostatistical methods available to estimate and simulate petrophysical properties (porosity and permeability of the reservoir. Different geostatistical techniques that allow the combination of hard and soft data are taken into account and one refers the main reason to use the geostatistical simulation rather than estimation. Uncertainty in reservoir characterization due to variogram assumption, which is a strict mathematical equation and can leads to serious simplification on description of the natural processes or phenomena under consideration, is treated here. Mutiple-point geostatistics methods based on the concept of training images, suggested by Strebelle (2000 and Caers (2003 owing to variogram limitation to capture complex heterogeneity, is another subject presented. This article intends to provide a review of geostatistical methods to serve the interest of students and researchers.Este artículo presenta una revisión de diversos métodos geoestatísticos disponibles para estimar y para simular características petrofísicas (porosidad y permeabilidad de la formación geológica (roca depósito del petróleo. Se presentan diversas técnicas geostatísticas que permiten la combinación de datos hard y soft y se explica la razón principal para utilizar la simulación geoestatística en vez de estimación. También se explica la incertidumbre en la caracterización del depósito debido a la asunción del variogram. El hecho de que el variogram sea una simple ecuación matemática conduce a la simplificación seria en la descripción de los procesos o de los fenómenos naturales bajo consideración. Los «métodos geostatísticos del Multiplepoint » (Multiple-point geostatistics methods basados en el concepto de training images, sugerido por Strebelle (2000 y Caers (2003, debido a la limitación del variogram para capturar heterogeneidad compleja es otro tema presentado. Este

  10. Advanced Nanomeasuring Techniques for Surface Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Salah H. R. Ali

    2012-01-01

    Advanced precise and accurate nanomeasurement techniques play an important role to improve the function and quality of surface characterization. There are two basic approaches, the hard measuring techniques and the soft computing measuring techniques. The advanced soft measuring techniques include coordinate measuring machines, roundness testing facilities, surface roughness, interferometric methods, confocal optical microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, and computed tomography at the level ...

  11. Characterization of reservoir fractures using conventional geophysical logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paitoon Laongsakul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In hydrocarbon exploration fractures play an important role as possible pathways for the hydrocarbon flow and bythis enhancing the overall formation’s permeability. Advanced logging methods for fracture analysis, like the boreholeacoustic televiewer and Formation Microscanner (FMS are available, but these are additional and expensive tools. However,open and with water or hydrocarbon filled fractures are also sensitive to electrical and other conventional logging methods.For this study conventional logging data (electric, seismic, etc were available plus additional fracture information from FMS.Taking into account the borehole environment the results show that the micro-spherically focused log indicates fractures byshowing low resistivity spikes opposite open fractures, and high resistivity spikes opposite sealed ones. Compressional andshear wave velocities are reduced when passing trough the fracture zone, which are assumed to be more or less perpendicularto borehole axis. The photoelectric absorption curve exhibit a very sharp peak in front of a fracture filled with bariteloaded mud cake. The density log shows low density spikes that are not seen by the neutron log, usually where fractures,large vugs, or caverns exist. Borehole breakouts can cause a similar effect on the logging response than fractures, but fracturesare often present when this occurs. The fracture index calculation by using threshold and input weight was calculatedand there was in general a good agreement with the fracture data from FMS especially in fracture zones, which mainlycontribute to the hydraulic system of the reservoir. Finally, the overall results from this study using one well are promising,however further research in the combination of different tools for fracture identification is recommended as well as the useof core for further validation.

  12. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark B. Murphy

    2005-09-30

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico was a cost-shared field demonstration project in the U.S. Department of Energy Class III Program. A major goal of the Class III Program was to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques were used at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP) project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. The objective of the project was to demonstrate that a development program, which was based on advanced reservoir management methods, could significantly improve oil recovery at the NDP. Initial goals were (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to other oil and gas producers. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geological, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description was used as a risk reduction tool to identify 'sweet spots' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well stimulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir. An

  13. Integration of Seismic and Petrophysics to Characterize Reservoirs in “ALA” Oil Field, Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Alao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the exploration and production business, by far the largest component of geophysical spending is driven by the need to characterize (potential reservoirs. The simple reason is that better reservoir characterization means higher success rates and fewer wells for reservoir exploitation. In this research work, seismic and well log data were integrated in characterizing the reservoirs on “ALA” field in Niger Delta. Three-dimensional seismic data was used to identify the faults and map the horizons. Petrophysical parameters and time-depth structure maps were obtained. Seismic attributes was also employed in characterizing the reservoirs. Seven hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs with thickness ranging from 9.9 to 71.6 m were delineated. Structural maps of horizons in six wells containing hydrocarbon-bearing zones with tops and bottoms at range of −2,453 to −3,950 m were generated; this portrayed the trapping mechanism to be mainly fault-assisted anticlinal closures. The identified prospective zones have good porosity, permeability, and hydrocarbon saturation. The environments of deposition were identified from log shapes which indicate a transitional-to-deltaic depositional environment. In this research work, new prospects have been recommended for drilling and further research work. Geochemical and biostratigraphic studies should be done to better characterize the reservoirs and reliably interpret the depositional environments.

  14. QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMPROVED RECOVERY: APPLICATION TO HEAVY OIL SANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Castle; Fred J. Molz; Ronald W. Falta; Cynthia L. Dinwiddie; Scott E. Brame; Robert A. Bridges

    2002-10-30

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity has the potential to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involves application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation, particularly in heavy oil sands. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field. Observations of lateral variability and vertical sequences observed in Temblor Formation outcrops has led to a better understanding of reservoir geology in West Coalinga Field. Based on the characteristics of stratigraphic bounding surfaces in the outcrops, these surfaces were identified in the subsurface using cores and logs. The bounding surfaces were mapped and then used as reference horizons in the reservoir modeling. Facies groups and facies tracts were recognized from outcrops and cores of the Temblor Formation and were applied to defining the stratigraphic framework and facies architecture for building 3D geological models. The following facies tracts were recognized: incised valley, estuarine, tide- to wave-dominated shoreline, diatomite, and subtidal. A new minipermeameter probe, which has important advantages over previous methods of measuring outcrop permeability, was developed during this project. The device, which measures permeability at the distal end of a small drillhole, avoids surface weathering effects and provides a superior seal compared with previous methods for measuring outcrop permeability. The new probe was used successfully for obtaining a high-quality permeability data set from an outcrop in southern Utah

  15. Numerical simulation of production from tight-gas reservoirs by advanced stimulation technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Friedel, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    The present thesis focusses on two main issues: (i) the development of a multi-phase simulation tool for the characteristics of tight-gas reservoirs, and (ii) the investigation of advanced stimulation techniques. The latter mainly implies the analysis of certain damaging mechanisms, as well as the derivation of general modelling guidelines for fractured wells and underbalanced drilling. A special simulation tool is developed, realised in a Fortran-MATLAB coupling. The numerical model is based...

  16. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  17. Reservoir characterization of the Smackover Formation in southwest Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Hall, D.R.; Mann, S.D.; Tew, B.H.

    1993-02-01

    The Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation is found in an arcuate belt in the subsurface from south Texas to panhandle Florida. The Smackover is the most prolific hydrocarbon-producing formation in Alabama and is an important hydrocarbon reservoir from Florida to Texas. In this report Smackover hydrocarbon reservoirs in southwest Alabama are described. Also, the nine enhanced- and improved-recovery projects that have been undertaken in the Smackover of Alabama are evaluated. The report concludes with recommendations about potential future enhanced- and improved-recovery projects in Smackover reservoirs in Alabama and an estimate of the potential volume of liquid hydrocarbons recoverable by enhanced- and improved-recovery methods from the Smackover of Alabama.

  18. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drillings. Annual technical progress report, June 13, 1996 to June 12, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevans, Jerry W.; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill

    1999-04-27

    Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, does not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. Other technologies, such as inter-well injection tracers and magnetic flow conditioners, can also aid in the efficient evaluation and operation of both injection and producing wells. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate useful and cost effective methods of exploitation of the shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs of the Permian Basin located in West Texas.

  19. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improve Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool,Eddy County,NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.B.

    1997-10-31

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico is a field demonstration in the U. S. Department of Energy Class IH Program. Advanced reservoir characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geological, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir description was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. As a result of the analysis, a proposed pilot area was reconsidered. Comparison of seismic data and engineering data have shown evidence of discontinuities in the area surrounding the proposed injector. Analysis of the 3-D seismic has shown that wells in the proposed pilot are in an area of poor quality amplitude development. The implication is that since amplitude attenuation is a function of porosity, then this is not the best area to be attempting a pilot pressure maintenance project. Because the original pilot area appears to be compartmentalized, the lateral continuity between the pilot wells could be reduced. The 3-D seismic interpretation indicates other areas may be better suited for the initial pilot area. Therefore, the current focus has shifted more to targeted drilling, and the pilot injection will be considered in a more continuous area of the NDP in the future. Results of reservoir simulation studies indicate that pressure maintenance should be started early when reservoir pressure is still high.

  20. Improved recovery from Gulf of Mexico reservoirs. Volume III (of 4): Characterization and simulation of representative resources. Final report, February 14, 1995--October 13, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimbrell, W.C.; Bassiouni, Z.A.; Bourgoyne, A.T.

    1997-01-13

    Significant innovations have been made in seismic processing and reservoir simulation. In addition, significant advances have been made in deviated and horizontal drilling technologies. Effective application of these technologies along with improved integrated resource management methods offer opportunities to significantly increase Gulf of Mexico production, delay platform abandonments, and preserve access to a substantial remaining oil target for both exploratory drilling and advanced recovery processes. In an effort to illustrate the impact that these new technologies and sources of information can have upon the estimates of recoverable oil in the Gulf of Mexico, additional and detailed data was collected for two previously studied reservoirs: a South March Island reservoir operated by Taylor Energy and Gulf of Mexico reservoir operated by Mobil, whose exact location has been blind-coded at their request, and an additional third representative reservoir in the Gulf of Mexico, the KEKF-1 reservoir in West Delta Block 84 Field. The new data includes reprocessed 2-D seismic data, newly acquired 3-D data, fluid data, fluid samples, pressure data, well test data, well logs, and core data/samples. The new data was used to refine reservoir and geologic characterization of these reservoirs. Further laboratory investigation also provided additional simulation input data in the form of PVT properties, relative permeabilities, capillary pressures, and water compatibility. Geologic investigations were also conducted to refine the models of mud-rich submarine fan architectures used by seismic analysts and reservoir engineers. These results were also used, in part, to assist in the recharacterization of these reservoirs.

  1. Characterization of Ordovician carbonate reservoirs, southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING Hai-ruo

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of the prolific Ordovician Red River reservoirs in 1995 in southeastern Saskatchewan was the catalyst for extensive exploration activity which resulted in the discovery of more than 15 new Red River pools. The best yields of Red River production to date have been from dolomite reservoirs. Understanding the processes of dolomitization is, therefore, crucial for the prediction of the connectivity, spatial distribution and heterogeneity of dolomite reservoirs.The Red River reservoirs in the Midale area consist of 3~4 thin dolomitized zones, with a total thickness of about 20 m, which occur at the top of the Yeoman Formation. Two types of replacement dolomite were recognized in the Red River reservoir: dolomitized burrow infills and dolomitized host matrix. The spatial distribution of dolomite suggests that burrowing organisms played an important role in facilitating the fluid flow in the backfilled sediments. This resulted in penecontemporaneous dolomitization of burrow infills by normal seawater. The dolomite in the host matrix is interpreted as having occurred at shallow burial by evaporitic seawater during precipitation of Lake Almar anhydrite that immediately overlies the Yeoman Formation. However, the low δ18O values of dolomited burrow infills (-5.9‰~ -7.8‰, PDB) and matrix dolomites (-6.6‰~ -8.1‰, avg. -7.4‰ PDB) compared to the estimated values for the late Ordovician marine dolomite could be attributed to modification and alteration of dolomite at higher temperatures during deeper burial, which could also be responsible for its 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7084~0.7088) that are higher than suggested for the late Ordovician seawaters (0.7078~0.7080). The trace amounts of saddle dolomite cement in the Red River carbonates are probably related to "cannibalization" of earlier replacement dolomite during the chemical compaction.

  2. 3D seismics for geothermal reservoir characterization - a case study from Schneeberg (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlousek, F.; Hellwig, O.; Buske, S.

    2013-12-01

    We present the results of a 3D seismic survey acquired near Schneeberg in the western Erzgebirge (Germany). The aim of the project is to use seismic exploration methods to image and to characterize a major fault zone in crystalline rock which could be used as a geothermal reservoir at a target depth of about 5-6 km with expected temperatures between 160-180°C. For this purpose a high resolution 3D Vibroseis survey with more than 5300 source and approximately 8000 receiver locations was performed at the end of 2012 and covered an area of approximately 10 km x 13 km. The 3D survey was complemented by an additional wide-angle seismic survey using explosives along eleven profile lines radially centered at the target area. The region itself is dominated by the NW-SE striking Gera-Jáchymov fault system. The main geological features in the survey area are well known from intensive mining activities down to a depth of about 2 km. The seismic investigations aimed at imaging the partly steeply dipping fault branches at greater depth, in particular a dominant steeply NE dipping fault in the central part of the survey area. Beside this main structure, the Gera-Jáchymov fault zone consists of a couple of steeply SW dipping conjugated faults. Advanced processing and imaging methods have been applied to the data set. 3D Kirchhoff prestack depth migration delivered a clear image of the structure of the various fault branches at depths of around 2-5 km. Furthermore, focusing migration methods (e.g. coherency migration) have been applied and even sharpened the image such that the 3D seismic result allows for a profound characterization of this potential geothermal reservoir in crystalline rock.

  3. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    trends. The Lower Grandstand sand consists of two coarsening-upward shoreface sands sequences while the Upper Grandstand consists of a single coarsening-upward shoreface sand. Each of the shoreface sands shows a distinctive permeability profile with high horizontal permeability at the top getting progressively poorer towards the base of the sand. In contrast, deltaic sandstones in the overlying Ninuluk are more permeable at the base of the sands, with decreasing permeability towards the sand top. These trends impart a strong permeability anisotropy to the reservoir and are being incorporated into the reservoir model. These observations also suggest that horizontal wells should target the upper part of the major sands. Natural fractures may superimpose another permeability pattern on the Umiat reservoir that need to be accounted for in both the simulation and in drilling. Examination of legacy core from Umiat field indicate that fractures are present in the subsurface, but don't provide information on their orientation and density. Nearby surface exposures of folds in similar stratigraphy indicate there are at least three possible fracture sets: an early, N/S striking set that may predate folding and two sets possibly related to folding: an EW striking set of extension fractures that are parallel to the fold axes and a set of conjugate shear fractures oriented NE and NW. Analysis of fracture spacing suggests that these natural fractures are fairly widely spaced (25-59 cm depending upon the fracture set), but could provide improved reservoir permeability in horizontal legs drilled perpendicular to the open fracture set. The phase behavior of the Umiat fluid needed to be well understood in order for the reservoir simulation to be accurate. However, only a small amount of Umiat oil was available; this oil was collected in the 1940’s and was severely weathered. The composition of this ‘dead’ Umiat fluid was characterized by gas chromatography. This analysis was

  4. Advancing New 3D Seismic Interpretation Methods for Exploration and Development of Fractured Tight Gas Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Reeves

    2005-01-31

    In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and GeoSpectrum, Inc., new P-wave 3D seismic interpretation methods to characterize fractured gas reservoirs are developed. A data driven exploratory approach is used to determine empirical relationships for reservoir properties. Fractures are predicted using seismic lineament mapping through a series of horizon and time slices in the reservoir zone. A seismic lineament is a linear feature seen in a slice through the seismic volume that has negligible vertical offset. We interpret that in regions of high seismic lineament density there is a greater likelihood of fractured reservoir. Seismic AVO attributes are developed to map brittle reservoir rock (low clay) and gas content. Brittle rocks are interpreted to be more fractured when seismic lineaments are present. The most important attribute developed in this study is the gas sensitive phase gradient (a new AVO attribute), as reservoir fractures may provide a plumbing system for both water and gas. Success is obtained when economic gas and oil discoveries are found. In a gas field previously plagued with poor drilling results, four new wells were spotted using the new methodology and recently drilled. The wells have estimated best of 12-months production indicators of 2106, 1652, 941, and 227 MCFGPD. The latter well was drilled in a region of swarming seismic lineaments but has poor gas sensitive phase gradient (AVO) and clay volume attributes. GeoSpectrum advised the unit operators that this location did not appear to have significant Lower Dakota gas before the well was drilled. The other three wells are considered good wells in this part of the basin and among the best wells in the area. These new drilling results have nearly doubled the gas production and the value of the field. The interpretation method is ready for commercialization and gas exploration and development. The new technology is adaptable to conventional lower cost 3D seismic surveys.

  5. Reservoir characterization based on tracer response and rank analysis of production and injection rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refunjol, B.T. [Lagoven, S.A., Pdvsa (Venezuela); Lake, L.W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Quantification of the spatial distribution of properties is important for many reservoir-engineering applications. But, before applying any reservoir-characterization technique, the type of problem to be tackled and the information available should be analyzed. This is important because difficulties arise in reservoirs where production records are the only information for analysis. This paper presents the results of a practical technique to determine preferential flow trends in a reservoir. The technique is a combination of reservoir geology, tracer data, and Spearman rank correlation coefficient analysis. The Spearman analysis, in particular, will prove to be important because it appears to be insightful and uses injection/production data that are prevalent in circumstances where other data are nonexistent. The technique is applied to the North Buck Draw field, Campbell County, Wyoming. This work provides guidelines to assess information about reservoir continuity in interwell regions from widely available measurements of production and injection rates at existing wells. The information gained from the application of this technique can contribute to both the daily reservoir management and the future design, control, and interpretation of subsequent projects in the reservoir, without the need for additional data.

  6. Nondestructive characterization of advanced composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive review of nondestructive characterization (NDC) techniques and their application to metal-matrix, polymer-matrix and ceramic-matrix composites is presented. Particular attention is given to the identification of critical materials properties and defects in these advanced composites. NDC is required: (i) to detect discrete defects, such as delaminations and cracking, and (ii) to measure distributed material properties, such as density, resistivity and elastic constants. Ultrasonic and eddy-current characterization are described in detail, along with new NDC results obtained at the Aeronautical and Maritime Research Laboratory. These include a method for the determination of fibre volume fraction in continuous fibre reinforced metal-matrix composites using eddy-current NDC, and the use of eddy-current methods to complement ultrasonic testing for characterization of impact damage in graphite-epoxy laminates. Future problem areas and possible solutions in NDC of advanced composites are also discussed. 90 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  7. Reservoir Characterization of the Lower Green River Formation, Southwest Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Craig D.; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.; McClure, Kevin P.; Bereskin, S. Robert; Deo, Milind D.

    2002-12-02

    The objectives of the study were to increase both primary and secondary hydrocarbon recovery through improved characterization (at the regional, unit, interwell, well, and microscopic scale) of fluvial-deltaic lacustrine reservoirs, thereby preventing premature abandonment of producing wells. The study will encourage exploration and establishment of additional water-flood units throughout the southwest region of the Uinta Basin, and other areas with production from fluvial-deltaic reservoirs.

  8. Characterization of Fractured Reservoirs Using a Combination of Downhole Pressure and Self-Potential Transient Data

    OpenAIRE

    Yuji Nishi; Tsuneo Ishido

    2012-01-01

    In order to appraise the utility of self-potential (SP) measurements to characterize fractured reservoirs, we carried out continuous SP monitoring using multi Ag-AgCl electrodes installed within two open holes at the Kamaishi Mine, Japan. The observed ratio of SP change to pressure change associated with fluid flow showed different behaviors between intact host rock and fractured rock regions. Characteristic behavior peculiar to fractured reservoirs, which is predicted from numerical simulati...

  9. Characterizing regulated reservoirs dynamics in regional to global scale hydrologic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighley, E.; Yoon, Y.; Lee, H.; Pavelsky, T.; Allen, G. H.

    2015-12-01

    Lakes and reservoirs are widely used for water supply and flood control resulting in regulated release of outflows that are nonconcurrent with inflows. In hydrologic modeling applications, accounting for the regulated behavior of reservoirs distributed throughout a river system poses a significant challenge because detailed reservoir operation rules or strategies can be difficult or not possible to obtain. Building on this problem, this study addresses the science questions: Can we model reservoir water storage changes and outlet discharges based on satellite measurements of river water surface elevation and inundated area, and How does repeat cycle, mission duration and measurement uncertainty impact our ability to characterize reservoir behavior? A modeling framework suitable for regional to global applications and based on the forthcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission is presented. Although our framework can be combined with data assimilation techniques for real-time flood forecasting, our goal is to represent reservoir storage patterns in large-scale hydrologic models for simulating: (i) impacts of future climate and/or land cover conditions on water resources, and (ii) synthetic storm events (e.g., 100-yr flood) or event catalogs for flood hazard and risk assessments. In-situ and remotely sensed reservoir dynamics are presented for select locations in the Mississippi River Basin and used in the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) hydrologic model to simulate downstream flow dynamics.

  10. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project has completed the initially scheduled third year of the contract, and is beginning a fourth year, designed to expand upon the tech transfer aspects of the project. From the Stratton data set, demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along 'phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the Boonsville data set , developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Teal South data set provided a surprising set of data, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines

  11. Advanced MOSFET variability and reliability characterization array

    OpenAIRE

    Simicic, Marko; Putcha, Vamsi; Parvais, Bertrand; Weckx, Pieter; Kaczer, Ben; Groeseneken, Guido; Gielen, Georges; Linten, Dimitri; Thean, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Time-zero variability, bias temperature instability (BTI) and random telegraph noise (RTN) are issues that both analog and digital designers using scaled CMOS technologies have to face. In order to address them at design time, access to a sufficiently large number of individual devices is required for statistical technology characterization and modeling. In this paper we present a large MOSFET array designed and fabricated in an advanced 28nm technology, containing both nMOS and pMOS devices ...

  12. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity. Annual report, November 1, 1990--October 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  13. Methodologies for Reservoir Characterization Using Fluid Inclusion Gas Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilley, Lorie M. [Hattenburg Dilley & Linnell, LLC, Anchorage, AL (United States)

    2015-04-13

    The purpose of this project was to: 1) evaluate the relationship between geothermal fluid processes and the compositions of the fluid inclusion gases trapped in the reservoir rocks; and 2) develop methodologies for interpreting fluid inclusion gas data in terms of the chemical, thermal and hydrological properties of geothermal reservoirs. Phase 1 of this project was designed to conduct the following: 1) model the effects of boiling, condensation, conductive cooling and mixing on selected gaseous species; using fluid compositions obtained from geothermal wells, 2) evaluate, using quantitative analyses provided by New Mexico Tech (NMT), how these processes are recorded by fluid inclusions trapped in individual crystals; and 3) determine if the results obtained on individual crystals can be applied to the bulk fluid inclusion analyses determined by Fluid Inclusion Technology (FIT). Our initial studies however, suggested that numerical modeling of the data would be premature. We observed that the gas compositions, determined on bulk and individual samples were not the same as those discharged by the geothermal wells. Gases discharged from geothermal wells are CO2-rich and contain low concentrations of light gases (i.e. H2, He, N, Ar, CH4). In contrast many of our samples displayed enrichments in these light gases. Efforts were initiated to evaluate the reasons for the observed gas distributions. As a first step, we examined the potential importance of different reservoir processes using a variety of commonly employed gas ratios (e.g. Giggenbach plots). The second technical target was the development of interpretational methodologies. We have develop methodologies for the interpretation of fluid inclusion gas data, based on the results of Phase 1, geologic interpretation of fluid inclusion data, and integration of the data. These methodologies can be used in conjunction with the relevant geological and hydrological information on the system to

  14. Petrofacies analysis - the petrophysical tool for geologic/engineering reservoir characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watney, W.L.; Guy, W.J.; Gerlach, P.M. [Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Petrofacies analysis is defined as the characterization and classification of pore types and fluid saturations as revealed by petrophysical measures of a reservoir. The word {open_quotes}petrofacies{close_quotes} makes an explicit link between petroleum engineers concerns with pore characteristics as arbiters of production performance, and the facies paradigm of geologists as a methodology for genetic understanding and prediction. In petrofacies analysis, the porosity and resistivity axes of the classical Pickett plot are used to map water saturation, bulk volume water, and estimated permeability, as well as capillary pressure information, where it is available. When data points are connected in order of depth within a reservoir, the characteristic patterns reflect reservoir rock character and its interplay with the hydrocarbon column. A third variable can be presented at each point on the crossplot by assigning a color scale that is based on other well logs, often gamma ray or photoelectric effect, or other derived variables. Contrasts between reservoir pore types and fluid saturations will be reflected in changing patterns on the crossplot and can help discriminate and characterize reservoir heterogeneity. Many hundreds of analyses of well logs facilitated by spreadsheet and object-oriented programming have provided the means to distinguish patterns typical of certain complex pore types for sandstones and carbonate reservoirs, occurrences of irreducible water saturation, and presence of transition zones. The result has been an improved means to evaluate potential production such as bypassed pay behind pipe and in old exploration holes, or to assess zonation and continuity of the reservoir. Petrofacies analysis is applied in this example to distinguishing flow units including discrimination of pore type as assessment of reservoir conformance and continuity. The analysis is facilitated through the use of color cross sections and cluster analysis.

  15. Application of Artificial Intelligence to Reservoir Characterization - An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, B.G.; Gamble, R.F.; Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    2000-01-12

    The primary goal of this project is to develop a user-friendly computer program to integrate geological and engineering information using Artificial Intelligence (AI) methodology. The project is restricted to fluvially dominated deltaic environments. The static information used in constructing the reservoir description includes well core and log data. Using the well core and the log data, the program identifies the marker beds, and the type of sand facies, and in turn, develops correlation's between wells. Using the correlation's and sand facies, the program is able to generate multiple realizations of sand facies and petrophysical properties at interwell locations using geostatistical techniques. The generated petrophysical properties are used as input in the next step where the production data are honored. By adjusting the petrophysical properties, the match between the simulated and the observed production rates is obtained.

  16. Development of multitracer methodology for the characterization of petroleum reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the primary production of an oil bearing formation decreases, due to pressure reduction, different fluids, water in particular, are artificially injected into the well to reestablish, or even enhance, the previous production status. Treated water is injected into wells known as injection wells to force the remaining oil to break through other wells known as production wells, that is to say, injection and production wells are somehow interconnected, and this array is known as a spot. This technique, widely referred to as secondary recovery, may contribute to extract as much as 50% of the oil retained in the geologic formation. Any technique aiming at the improved knowledge of the injection fluid behavior in such an array will certainly have a large spectrum of applications. This is the reason why the use of tracers has been increasingly widespread in the investigation of the transport characteristics of the fluid between injection and production wells. Radioactive and chemical tracers are the most commonly applied, the former more frequently, for its ease of detection in low concentrations and relative low costs. Adequate interpretation of injection-production wells transfer functions, obtained as a result of tracers tests, allows reservoir engineers to gather precious information on the oil production formations and to take important decisions such as: to confirm the existence of geologic faults, to modify the alignment of some of them, to redefine faults as sealing (impermeable) or not sealing (permeable) ones, to find injected water flow preferential displacement directions in the formation as a whole, to shut down formation layers in production wells due to the existence of channeling from the injection well, to determine vertical connections between distinct production strata, to rearrange the original composition of spots, to modify injection flow rates in certain wells, to evaluate secondary recovery efficiency, to confirm or to rectify previous

  17. A Methodology to Integrate Magnetic Resonance and Acoustic Measurements for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Jorge O.; Hackert, Chris L.; Collier, Hughbert A.; Bennett, Michael

    2002-01-29

    The objective of this project was to develop an advanced imaging method, including pore scale imaging, to integrate NMR techniques and acoustic measurements to improve predictability of the pay zone in hydrocarbon reservoirs. This is accomplished by extracting the fluid property parameters using NMR laboratory measurements and the elastic parameters of the rock matrix from acoustic measurements to create poroelastic models of different parts of the reservoir. Laboratory measurement techniques and core imaging are being linked with a balanced petrographical analysis of the core and theoretical model.

  18. Velocity dispersion: A tool for characterizing reservoir rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.L.; Seifert, D.

    1997-01-01

    Apparent discrepancies between velocity measurements made with different frequencies in a formation at the Gypsy test site are explained in terms of elastic scattering and intrinsic attenuation. The elastic scattering component of the dispersion (38%) in a marine interval above the Gypsy sandstone is estimated via simple models constructed from well log information. Any dispersion above the predicted value for elastic scattering in this interval is assigned to intrinsic attenuation (62%). Using the vertical measurements in the well, the marine interval directly above the Gypsy sandstone has an estimated intrinsic Q1 = 51 and an effective Q because of the scattering of Qsc = 85. The total Q of the combined mechanisms is 32. The dispersion of the vertical measurements through the heterogeneous sands and shales of the Gypsy formation can be explained using an intrinsic QI = 30 and neglecting the effects of scattering. The horizontal observations require a more detailed modeling effort to unravel the relative roles of path and volume effects, elastic scattering, attenuation, and intrinsic anisotropy. Thin layers barely resolvable on the sonic logs play a significant role in modifying the crosswell response. Potentially, the dispersion can be a key to mapping reservoir properties using crosswell and surface seismic data.

  19. Hydrological, geochemical, and ecological characterization of Kesterson Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This report describes Kesterson Reservoir related research activities carried out under a cooperative program between Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of California during FY89. The primary objectives of these investigations are: Predict the extent, probability of the occurrence, and selenium concentrations in surface water of temporary wetland habitat at Kesterson; assess rates and direction of migration of the drainage water plume that seeped into the aquifer under Kesterson; monitor and predict changes in quantity and speciation of selenium in surface soils and vadose zone pore-waters; and develop a comprehensive strategy through soil, water, and vegetation management to safely dissipate the high concentrations of selenium accumulated in Kesterson soils. This report provides an up-date on progress made in each of these areas. Chapter 2 describes results of recent investigations of water table fluctuations and plume migration. Chapter 3 describes results of ongoing monitoring of soil water selenium concentrations and evaporative accumulation of selenium at the soil surface. Chapter 4 describes early results from the soil, water, and vegetation management field trials as well as supporting laboratory and theoretical studies. In Chapter 5, new analytical methods for selenium speciation are described and quality assurance/quality control statistics for selenium and boron are provided. 110 refs., 138 figs., 62 tabs.

  20. Microstructural characterization of reservoir rocks by X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of microstructural parameters from reservoir rocks is of great importance for petroleum industries. This work presents measurements of total porosity and pore size distribution of a sandstone sample from Tumblagooda geological formation, extracted from the Kalbari National Park in Australia. X-ray microtomography technique was used for determining porosity and pore size distribution. Other techniques, such as mercury intrusion porosimetry and Archimedes method have also been applied for those determinations but since they are regarded destructive techniques, samples cannot usually be used for further analyses. X-ray microtomography, besides allowing future analyses of a sample already evaluated, also provides tridimensional images of the sample. The experimental configuration included a SkysCan 1172 from CENPES-PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The spatial resolution of this equipment is 2.9 μm. Images have been reconstructed using NRecon software and analysed with the IMAGO software developed by the Laboratory of Porous Materials and Thermophysical Properties of the Department of Mechanical Engineering / Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil

  1. Characterization of hydraulic fractures and reservoir properties of shale using natural tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J. E.; Gardner, P.; Kuhlman, K. L.; Malama, B.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing plays a major role in the economic production of hydrocarbon from shale. Current fracture characterization techniques are limited in diagnosing the transport properties of the fractures on the near wellbore scale to that of the entire stimulated reservoir volume. Microseismic reveals information on fracture geometries, but not transport properties. Production analysis (e.g., rate transient analysis using produced fluids) estimates fracture and reservoir flow characteristics, but often relies on simplified models in terms of fracture geometries and fluid storage and transport. We present the approach and potential benefits of incorporating natural tracers with production data analysis for fracture and reservoir characterization. Hydraulic fracturing releases omnipresent natural tracers that accumulate in low permeability rocks over geologic time (e.g., radiogenic 4He and 40Ar). Key reservoir characteristics govern the tracer release, which include: the number, connectivity, and geometry of fractures; the distribution of fracture-surface-area to matrix-block-volume; and the nature of hydrocarbon phases within the reservoir (e.g., methane dissolved in groundwater or present as a separate gas phase). We explore natural tracer systematics using numerical techniques under relevant shale-reservoir conditions. We evaluate the impact on natural tracer transport due to a variety of conceptual models of reservoir-transport properties and boundary conditions. Favorable attributes for analysis of natural tracers include the following: tracer concentrations start with a well-defined initial condition (i.e., equilibrium between matrix and any natural fractures); there is a large suite of tracers that cover a range of at least 7x in diffusion coefficients; and diffusive mass-transfer out of the matrix into hydraulic fractures will cause elemental and isotopic fractionation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by

  2. Ensemble-based reservoir characterization using time-lapse seismic waveform data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, O.; Brouwer, J.; Trani, M.

    2010-01-01

    Assisted history matching methods are beginning to offer the possibility to use 4D seismic data in quantitative ways for reservoir characterization. We use the waveform data without any explicit inversion or interpretation step directly in an ensemble-based assisted history matching scheme with a 3D

  3. Fracture Characterization in Enhanced Geothermal Systems by Wellbore and Reservoir Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, Roland N.; Li, Kewen; Alaskar, Mohammed; Ames, Morgan; Co, Carla; Juliusson, Egill; Magnusdottir, Lilja

    2012-06-30

    This report highlights the work that was done to characterize fractured geothermal reservoirs using production data. That includes methods that were developed to infer characteristic functions from production data and models that were designed to optimize reinjection scheduling into geothermal reservoirs, based on these characteristic functions. The characterization method provides a robust way of interpreting tracer and flow rate data from fractured reservoirs. The flow-rate data are used to infer the interwell connectivity, which describes how injected fluids are divided between producers in the reservoir. The tracer data are used to find the tracer kernel for each injector-producer connection. The tracer kernel describes the volume and dispersive properties of the interwell flow path. A combination of parametric and nonparametric regression methods were developed to estimate the tracer kernels for situations where data is collected at variable flow-rate or variable injected concentration conditions. The characteristic functions can be used to calibrate thermal transport models, which can in turn be used to predict the productivity of geothermal systems. This predictive model can be used to optimize injection scheduling in a geothermal reservoir, as is illustrated in this report.

  4. Ekofisk field reservoir characterization: Mapping permeability through facies and fracture intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, B. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Stavanger (Norway); Allen, L.R.; Farrell, H.E.

    1997-12-01

    The development of a strategy for the detailed three-dimensional (3D) description of permeability was a key ingredient of the recent reservoir characterization study of the Ekofisk field. Because the ultimate objective of this characterization effort was the construction of a new full-field 3D reservoir flow model, permeability and its heterogeneity received special focus. Permeability has a tremendous influence on history matching of reservoir fluid flow models and, in turn, reservoir-management decisions. This is particularly true in a mature, waterflooded field such as Ekofisk. The Ekofisk field is a high-porosity, low-matrix permeability naturally fractured chalk. Fluid-flow characteristics of the reservoir are largely governed by the distribution, orientation, and interconnectivity of the natural-fracture system. To honor this mechanism, an algorithm was developed based on the log linear relationship between fracture spacing (intensity) data from core and well-test effective permeability. To capture the intrinsic heterogeneity and complex nature of Ekofisk field, the basic relationship between fracture intensity and permeability was modified to incorporate variations associated with (1) chalk facies; (2) fracture type; (3) porosity; (4) structural location; (5) structural curvature; and (6) silica content. To calibrate the algorithm, permeability determined from distributing total well-test flow capacity (kh) based on production log contribution was used as a tuning parameter. As a final step, geostatistical techniques were used to ensure that permeabilities derived from the algorithm matched those obtained from well-test analysis.

  5. Study on the enhancement of hydrocarbon recovery by characterization of the reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Hoon; Son, Jin Dam; Oh, Jae Ho [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)] [and others

    1998-12-01

    Three year project is being carried out on the enhancement of hydrocarbon recovery by the reservoir characterization. This report describes the results of the second year's work. This project deals with characterization of fluids, bitumen ad rock matrix in the reservoir. New equipment and analytical solutions for naturally fractured reservoir were also included in this study. Main purpose of the reservoir geochemistry is to understand the origin of fluids (gas, petroleum and water) and distribution of the bitumens within the reservoir and to use them not only for exploration but development of the petroleum. For the theme of reservoir geochemistry, methods and principles of the reservoir gas and bitumen characterization, which is applicable to the petroleum development, are studied. and case study was carried out on the gas, water and bitumen samples in the reservoir taken form Haenam area and Ulleung Basin offshore Korea. Gases taken form the two different wells indicate the different origin. Formation water analyses show the absence of barrier within the tested interval. With the sidewall core samples from a well offshore Korea, the analysis using polarizing microscope, scanning electron microscope with EDX and cathodoluminoscope was performed for the study on sandstone diagenesis. The I/S changes were examined on the cuttings samples from a well, offshore Korea to estimate burial temperature. Oxygen stable isotope is used to study geothermal history in sedimentary basin. Study in the field is rare in Korea and basic data are urgently needed especially in continental basins to determine the value of formation water. In the test analyses, three samples from marine basins indicate final temperature from 55 deg.C to 83 deg.C and one marine sample indicate the initial temperature of 36 deg.C. One sample from continental basin represented the final temperature from 53 and 80 deg.C. These temperatures will be corrected because these values were based on assumed

  6. Integrated reservoir characterization: Improvement in heterogeneities stochastic modelling by integration of additional external constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doligez, B.; Eschard, R. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France); Geffroy, F. [Centre de Geostatistique, Fontainebleau (France)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The classical approach to construct reservoir models is to start with a fine scale geological model which is informed with petrophysical properties. Then scaling-up techniques allow to obtain a reservoir model which is compatible with the fluid flow simulators. Geostatistical modelling techniques are widely used to build the geological models before scaling-up. These methods provide equiprobable images of the area under investigation, which honor the well data, and which variability is the same than the variability computed from the data. At an appraisal phase, when few data are available, or when the wells are insufficient to describe all the heterogeneities and the behavior of the field, additional constraints are needed to obtain a more realistic geological model. For example, seismic data or stratigraphic models can provide average reservoir information with an excellent areal coverage, but with a poor vertical resolution. New advances in modelisation techniques allow now to integrate this type of additional external information in order to constrain the simulations. In particular, 2D or 3D seismic derived information grids, or sand-shale ratios maps coming from stratigraphic models can be used as external drifts to compute the geological image of the reservoir at the fine scale. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of these new tools, their impact on the final reservoir model, and their sensitivity to some key parameters.

  7. Characterization of biocenosis in the storage-reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of 'Mayak' PA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of storage-reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of 'Mayak' Production Association ('Mayak' PA) with different levels of radioactive contamination: reservoir R-17 ('Staroye Boloto'), reservoir R-9 (Lake Karachay), reservoirs of the Techa Cascade R-3 (Koksharov pond), R-4 (Metlinsky pond), R-10 and R-11 is located in Chelyabinsk Oblast (Russia). The operation of these reservoirs began in 1949-1964. Full-scale hydro-biological studies of these reservoirs were started in 2007. The research into the status of biocenosis of these storage reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of 'Mayak' PA was performed in 2007 - 2011. The status of biocenosis was evaluated in accordance with the status of following communities: bacterio-plankton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoo-benthos, macrophytes and ichthyofauna. The status of ecosystems was determined by radioactive and chemical contamination of water bodies. The results of hydro-biological investigations showed that no changes in the status of biota in reservoir R-11 were revealed as compared to the biological parameters of the water bodies of this geographical zone. In terms of biological parameters the status of the ecosystem of the reservoir R-11 is characterized by a sufficient biological diversity, and can be considered acceptable. The ecosystem of the reservoir R-10 maintains its functional integrity, although there were registered negative effects in the zoo-benthos community associated with the decrease in the parameters of the development of pelophylic mollusks that live at the bottom of the water body throughout the entire life cycle. In reservoir R-4 the parameters of the development of phytoplankton did not differ from those in Reservoirs R-11 and R-10; however, a significant reduction in the quantity of Cladocera and Copepoda was registered in the zooplankton community, while in the zoo-benthos there were no small mollusks that live aground throughout the entire life cycle. In reservoir R-3 there was no

  8. Demonstration of a Novel, Integrated, Multi-Scale Procedure for High-Resolution 3D Reservoir Characterization and Improved CO2-EOR/Sequestration Management, SACROC Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott R. Reeves

    2007-09-30

    The primary goal of this project was to demonstrate a new and novel approach for high resolution, 3D reservoir characterization that can enable better management of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects and, looking to the future, carbon sequestration projects. The approach adopted has been the subject of previous research by the DOE and others, and relies primarily upon data-mining and advanced pattern recognition approaches. This approach honors all reservoir characterization data collected, but accepts that our understanding of how these measurements relate to the information of most interest, such as how porosity and permeability vary over a reservoir volume, is imperfect. Ideally the data needed for such an approach includes surface seismic to provide the greatest amount of data over the entire reservoir volume of interest, crosswell seismic to fill the resolution gap between surface seismic and wellbore-scale measurements, geophysical well logs to provide the vertical resolution sought, and core data to provide the tie to the information of most interest. These data are combined via a series of one or more relational models to enable, in its most successful application, the prediction of porosity and permeability on a vertical resolution similar to logs at each surface seismic trace location. In this project, the procedure was applied to the giant (and highly complex) SACROC unit of the Permian basin in West Texas, one of the world's largest CO{sub 2}-EOR projects and a potentially world-class geologic sequestration site. Due to operational scheduling considerations on the part of the operator of the field, the crosswell data was not obtained during the period of project performance (it is currently being collected however as part of another DOE project). This compromised the utility of the surface seismic data for the project due to the resolution gap between it and the geophysical well logs. An alternative approach was adopted that utilized a

  9. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research. Annual report, September 1988--August 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  10. Reservoir Characterization around Geothermal Field, West Java, Indonesia Derived from 4-D Seismic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdhora Ry, Rexha; Nugraha, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Observation of micro-seismic events induced by intensive geothermal exploitation in a particular geothermal field, located in West Java region, Indonesia was used to detect the fracture and permeability zone. Using local monitoring seismometer network, tomographic inversions were conducted for the three-dimensional Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs structure of the reservoir for January - December 2007, January - December 2008, and January - December 2009. First, hypocenters location was relocated using joint hypocenter determination (JHD) method in purpose to estimate best location. Then, seismic tomographic inversions were conducted using delay time tomography for dataset of every year respectively. The travel times passing through the three-dimensional velocity model were calculated using ray tracing pseudo-bending method. Norm and gradient damping were added to constrain blocks without ray and to produce smooth solution model. The inversion algorithm was developed in Matlab environment. Our tomographic inversion results from 3-years of observations indicate the presence of low Vp, low Vs, and low Vp/Vs ratio at depths of about 1 - 3 km below sea level. These features were interpreted may be related to steam-saturated rock in the reservoir area of this geothermal field. The locations of the reservoir area were supported by the data of well- trajectory, where the zones of high Vp/Vs were observed around the injection wells and the zones of low Vp/Vs were observed around the production wells. The extensive low Vp/Vs anomaly that occupies the reservoir is getting stronger during the 3-years study period. This is probably attributed to depletion of pore liquid water in the reservoir and replacement with steam. Continuous monitoring of Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs is an effective tool for geothermal reservoir characterization and depletion monitoring and can potentially provide information in parts of the reservoir which have not been drilled.

  11. Analysis and evaluation of interwell seismic logging techniques for hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.O.; Zook, B.J.; Sturdivant, V.R.

    1994-06-01

    The work reported herein represents the third year work in evaluating high-resolution interwell seismic logging techniques for hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. The objective of this project is to investigate interwell seismic logging techniques for indirectly interpreting oil and gas reservoir geology and rock physical properties. The work involves a balanced study of theoretical and numerical modeling of seismic waves transmitted between pairs of wells combined with experimental data acquisition and processing at controlled field conditions. The field applications of this reservoir probing concept are aimed at demonstrating high resolution measurements and detailed interpretation of heterogeneous hydrocarbon-bearing formations. The first part of this third year project efforts was devoted to thoroughly evaluating interwell seismic logging and reverse VSP in a hydrocarbon-bearing formation at the Buckhorn test site in Illinois. Specifically, the data from the experiments conducted in the second year of this project were analyzed to delineate geological structures and to extract rock physical parameters. The second part of this project is devoted to the evaluation of continuity logging techniques for hydrocarbon reservoir continuity. Specifically, this part of the project includes the evaluation of methods of measurements, modeling and data processing to delineate the reservoir architecture and relate dispersion and attenuation measurements to rock physical properties.

  12. Dispersion measurement as a method of quantifying geologic characterization and defining reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzie, D.E.

    1995-05-01

    The main objective of this research project is to investigate dispersion as a method of quantifying geological characterization and defining reservoir heterogeneity in order to enhance crude oil recovery. The dispersion of flow of a reservoir rock (dispersion coefficient and dispersivity) was identified as one of the physical properties of a reservoir rock by measuring the mixing of two miscible fluids, one displacing the other in a porous medium. A rock was 100% saturated with a resident fluid and displaced by a miscible fluid of equal viscosity and equal density. Some specific experiments were performed with unequal densities. Produced fluid was analyzed by refractometer, nuclear reaction, electrical conductivity and X-ray scan. Several physical and flow characteristics were measured on the sand rock sample in order to establish correlations with the measured dispersion property. Absolute permeability, effective porosity, relative permeability, capillary pressure, the heterogeneity factor and electrical conductivity were used to better understand the flow system. Linear, transverse, 2-D and 3-D dispersions were measured and used to characterize the rock heterogeneity of the flow system. A new system of measuring dispersion was developed using a gas displacing gas system in a porous medium. An attempt was also made to determine the dispersion property of an actual reservoir from present day well log data on a producing well. 275 refs., 102 figs., 17 tabs.

  13. Advancement in polymer therapeutics and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Pratik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The beauty of the discipline, polymers in drug delivery, is its longevity and self-transforming quality. Polymers have, for decades, performed a valuable function as excipients in tablet and capsule formulations, moving steadily into the parenteral arena as blood circulation time enhancers, and are now capable of offering advanced and sophisticated functions (such as drug targeting to medicine. Polymers have unique cooperative properties that are not found with low-molecular weight compounds and therein lies the root of their success. Polymers are used as carriers for the delivery of drugs, proteins, targeting moieties, and imaging agents. Several polymers, polyethylene glycol, N-(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide, and polylactide-co-glycolidecopolymers have been successfully utilized in clinical research. Recently, interest in polymer conjugation with biologically active components has increased remarkably as such conjugates are preferably accumulated in solid tumors and can reduce systemic toxicity. Further, it is essential to elucidate the structure-activity relationshipof a drug when it is conjugated with a polymer using different conjugation sites as this can vary the efficacy and mechanism of action when compared with its free form. This review will discuss the current advancement in drug targeting with polymers, smart polymers and recombinant polymers for drug delivery. Finally, it will also highlight on various methods of polymer characterization, including various techniques for polymer molecular weight measurement.

  14. An Integrated Approach to Characterizing Bypassed Oil in Heterogeneous and Fractured Reservoirs Using Partitioning Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2005-08-01

    naturally fractured reservoirs with changing field conditions. This considerably broadens the applicability of the streamline-based analysis of tracer data and field production history for characterization of heterogeneous and fractured reservoirs.

  15. Reservoir characterization of the Mississippian Ratcliffe, Richland County, Montana, Williston Basin. Topical report, September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippel, M.; Luff, K.D.; Hendricks, M.L.

    1998-07-01

    This topical report is a compilation of characterizations by different disciplines of the Mississippian Ratcliffe in portions of Richland County, MT. Goals of the report are to increase understanding of the reservoir rocks, oil-in-place, heterogeneity and methods for improved recovery. The report covers investigations of geology, petrography, reservoir engineering and seismic. The Ratcliffe is a low permeability oil reservoir which appears to be developed across much of the study area and occurs across much of the Williston Basin. The reservoir has not been a primary drilling target in the study area because average reserves have been insufficient to payout the cost of drilling and completion despite the application of hydraulic fracture stimulation. Oil trapping does not appear to be structurally controlled. For the Ratcliffe to be a viable drilling objective, methods need to be developed for (1) targeting better reservoir development and (2) better completions. A geological model is presented for targeting areas with greater potential for commercial reserves in the Ratcliffe. This model can be best utilized with the aid of 3D seismic. A 3D seismic survey was acquired and is used to demonstrate a methodology for targeting the Ratcliffe. Other data obtained during the project include oriented core, special formation-imaging log, pressure transient measurements and oil PVT. Although re-entry horizontal drilling was unsuccessfully tested, this completion technology should improve the economic viability of the Ratcliffe. Reservoir simulation of horizontal completions with productivity of three times that of a vertical well suggested two or three horizontal wells in a 258-ha (640-acre) area could recover sufficient reserves for profitable drilling.

  16. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  17. Reservoir Characterization during Underbalanced Drilling of Horizontal Wells Based on Real-Time Data Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Li; Hongtao Li; Yingfeng Meng; Na Wei; Chaoyang Xu; Li Zhu; Haibo Tang

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a methodology for characterizing reservoir pore pressure and permeability during underbalanced drilling of horizontal wells was presented. The methodology utilizes a transient multiphase wellbore flow model that is extended with a transient well influx analytical model during underbalanced drilling of horizontal wells. The effects of the density behavior of drilling fluid and wellbore heat transfer are considered in our wellbore flow model. Based on Kneissl’s methodology, an imp...

  18. Characterizing the Absorption Properties for Remote Sensing of Three Small Optically-Diverse South African Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Mark William Matthews; Stewart Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Characterizing the specific inherent optical properties (SIOPs) of water constituents is fundamental to remote sensing applications. Therefore, this paper presents the absorption properties of phytoplankton, gelbstoff and tripton for three small, optically-diverse South African inland waters. The three reservoirs,  Hartbeespoort, Loskop and Theewaterskloof, are challenging for remote sensing, due to differences in phytoplankton assemblage and the considerable range of constituent concentratio...

  19. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry

  20. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, New Mexico, Class III; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry

  1. Rock-physics and seismic-inversion based reservoir characterization of the Haynesville Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Meijuan; Spikes, Kyle T.

    2016-06-01

    Seismic reservoir characterization of unconventional gas shales is challenging due to their heterogeneity and anisotropy. Rock properties of unconventional gas shales such as porosity, pore-shape distribution, and composition are important for interpreting seismic data amplitude variations in order to locate optimal drilling locations. The presented seismic reservoir characterization procedure applied a grid-search algorithm to estimate the composition, pore-shape distribution, and porosity at the seismic scale from the seismically inverted impedances and a rock-physics model, using the Haynesville Shale as a case study. All the proposed rock properties affected the seismic velocities, and the combined effects of these rock properties on the seismic amplitude were investigated simultaneously. The P- and S-impedances correlated negatively with porosity, and the V P/V S correlated positively with clay fraction and negatively with the pore-shape distribution and quartz fraction. The reliability of these estimated rock properties at the seismic scale was verified through comparisons between two sets of elastic properties: one coming from inverted impedances, which were obtained from simultaneous inversion of prestack seismic data, and one derived from these estimated rock properties. The differences between the two sets of elastic properties were less than a few percent, verifying the feasibility of the presented seismic reservoir characterization.

  2. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity; Final report, November 1, 1989--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.D.

    1993-09-01

    The Alaskan North Slope comprises one of the Nation`s and the world`s most prolific oil province. Original oil in place (OOIP) is estimated at nearly 70 BBL (Kamath and Sharma, 1986). Generalized reservoir descriptions have been completed by the University of Alaska`s Petroleum Development Laboratory over North Slope`s major fields. These fields include West Sak (20 BBL OOIP), Ugnu (15 BBL OOIP), Prudhoe Bay (23 BBL OOIP), Kuparuk (5.5 BBL OOIP), Milne Point (3 BBL OOIP), and Endicott (1 BBL OOIP). Reservoir description has included the acquisition of open hole log data from the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (AOGCC), computerized well log analysis using state-of-the-art computers, and integration of geologic and logging data. The studies pertaining to fluid characterization described in this report include: experimental study of asphaltene precipitation for enriched gases, CO{sup 2} and West Sak crude system, modeling of asphaltene equilibria including homogeneous as well as polydispersed thermodynamic models, effect of asphaltene deposition on rock-fluid properties, fluid properties of some Alaskan north slope reservoirs. Finally, the last chapter summarizes the reservoir heterogeneity classification system for TORIS and TORIS database.

  3. Seismic Characterization of the Inferior Terciary Reservoirs in the Cuban Northern Petroleum Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Helio Domínguez Gómez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available From the results obtained by cutting analysis during the perforation of the horizontal wells in theCanasí - Puerto Escondido area in the year 2002, have been described and dated the reservoir rockspreviously dated Cretaceous - Jurassic with Tertiary age (Canasi Formation. This reservoir constitutesthe main reservoir in several locations petroleum of the Cuban North Fringe (Boca de Jaruco - ViaBlanca, Santa Cruz, Canasí -Puerto Escondido and Yumurí - Seboruco. In the course of that havebeen work obtained important results about the origin of these reservoirs, main lightfaces and theirnomenclature and identification, their characteristics, petrophysic model, and their spatial relationwith the sequences of the Veloz Group and the Vega Alta Formation. Presently work is shown as thisreservoir could be satisfactorily identified in the area by means of the geophysics, mainly the seismicmethod. Moreover , it is exposed like they were established and used the patterns of attributes in orderto characterize the seismic image and to define the superior and inferior boundaries of the reservoirreferred by means of the integrated analysis of the data of wells and seismic, taking as pattern theBoca de Jaruco - Via Blanca location.

  4. Acquisition of Multicomponent-4C Seismic Data from Unconventional Marine Reservoirs to Improve Exploration and Risk Attenuation in Reservoir Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluka, I. J.

    2013-12-01

    The move to explore for commercial oil and gas from unconventional reservoirs such as shale/mudstone and tight gas sand reservoirs is having serious technical challenges. Multicomponent- 4C seismic data acquisition in marine settings will go a long way to assist oil and gas companies to discover unconventional resources with significant commercial value in the marine environments. Multicomponent technology has been proved to be effective in exploration and reservoir characterization and risk reduction. The technology provides enhanced strata images by reflecting independent subsurfaces, direct lithofacies and hydrocarbon indication compared to only conventional P-wave seismic stratigraphy. Multi component seismic data can be acquired in the marine settings by utilizing energy from towed air-gun arrays, and 4-component ocean bottom sensor (4-C OBS) packages deployed on the seafloor. Because the S waves do not travel through liquids, the sensors have to be deployed on the seafloor. The 4-component ocean bottom sensor comprises of a hydrophone, a gimbaled 3-component geophone as opposed to ungimbaled 3-component geophone. This gimbaled 3-component geophone is continually rotated by gravity to make sure that the moving-coil elements are placed in the crossline horizontal, and vertical, inline horizontal directions. Two or more vessels are used in marine multicompnent data acquisition. One vessel is a source vessel and the others are connected to the seafloor cable and record the 4-C seismic data. Every receiver on the seafloor is composed of a single 4-C sensor package, which is stationary during data recording. P-wave data are combination of particle-velocity wavefield recorded by the vertical geophone and pressure wavefield recorded by the hydrophone. The inline and crossline horizontal geophones record the particle-velocity data which are used to generate the upgoing reflected SV wavefield arriving at the seafloor. The downgoing P wavefield at non normal angles of

  5. RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF UPPER DEVONIAN GORDON SANDSTONE, JACKSONBURG STRINGTOWN OIL FIELD, NORTHWESTERN WEST VIRGINIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Ameri; K. Aminian; K.L. Avary; H.I. Bilgesu; M.E. Hohn; R.R. McDowell; D.L. Matchen

    2001-07-01

    The Jacksonburg-Stringtown oil field contained an estimated 88,500,000 barrels of oil in place, of which approximately 20,000,000 barrels were produced during primary recovery operations. A gas injection project, initiated in 1934, and a pilot waterflood, begun in 1981, yielded additional production from limited portions of the field. The pilot was successful enough to warrant development of a full-scale waterflood in 1990, involving approximately 8,900 acres in three units, with a target of 1,500 barrels of oil per acre recovery. Historical patterns of drilling and development within the field suggests that the Gordon reservoir is heterogeneous, and that detailed reservoir characterization is necessary for understanding well performance and addressing problems observed by the operators. The purpose of this work is to establish relationships among permeability, geophysical and other data by integrating geologic, geophysical and engineering data into an interdisciplinary quantification of reservoir heterogeneity as it relates to production. Conventional stratigraphic correlation and core description shows that the Gordon sandstone is composed of three parasequences, formed along the Late Devonian shoreline of the Appalachian Basin. The parasequences comprise five lithofacies, of which one includes reservoir sandstones. Pay sandstones were found to have permeabilities in core ranging from 10 to 200 mD, whereas non-pay sandstones have permeabilities ranging from below the level of instrumental detection to 5 mD; Conglomeratic zones could take on the permeability characteristics of enclosing materials, or could exhibit extremely low values in pay sandstone and high values in non-pay or low permeability pay sandstone. Four electrofacies based on a linear combination of density and scaled gamma ray best matched correlations made independently based on visual comparison of geophysical logs. Electrofacies 4 with relatively high permeability (mean value > 45 mD) was

  6. Advanced electron microscopy characterization of multimetallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Subarna Raj

    Research in noble metal nanoparticles has led to exciting progress in a versatile array of applications. For the purpose of better tailoring of nanoparticles activities and understanding the correlation between their structures and properties, control over the composition, shape, size and architecture of bimetallic and multimetallic nanomaterials plays an important role on revealing their new or enhanced functions for potentials application. Advance electron microscopy techniques were used to provide atomic scale insights into the structure-properties of different materials: PtPd, Au-Au3Cu, Cu-Pt, AgPd/Pt and AuCu/Pt nanoparticles. The objective of this work is to understand the physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials and describe synthesis, characterization, surface properties and growth mechanism of various bimetallic and multimetallic nanoparticles. The findings have provided us with novel and significant insights into the physical and chemical properties of noble metal nanoparticles. Different synthesis routes allowed us to synthesize bimetallic: Pt-Pd, Au-Au3Cu, Cu-Pt and trimetallic: AgPd/Pt, AuCu/Pt, core-shell and alloyed nanoparticles with monodispersed sizes, controlled shapes and tunable surface properties. For example, we have synthesized the polyhedral PtPd core-shell nanoparticles with octahedral, decahedral, and triangular plates. Decahedral PtPd core-shell structures are novel morphologies for this system. For the first time we fabricated that the Au core and Au3Cu alloyed shell nanoparticles passivated with CuS2 surface layers and characterized by Cs-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. The analysis of the high-resolution micrographs reveals that these nanoparticles have decahedral structure with shell periodicity, and that each of the particles is composed by Au core and Au3Cu ordered superlattice alloyed shell surrounded by CuS 2 surface layer. Additionally, we have described both experimental and theoretical methods of

  7. Interpretation of the OBMI/CMR data and its applicability for reservoir characterization, Offshore Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State of the art OBMI (Oil-Base Micro Imager)/CMR (Combinable Magnetic Resonance) logging was conducted in a recently drilled well, Offshore Nigeria. Interpretation of the data set revealed that the tool could safely be used for porosity/permeability estimation, facies characterization and qualitative estimation of the fluids contained in the pore spaces. Calibration of the OBMI images within the cored parts of the borehole showed that the tool has been successful in capturing all the fine scale (up to <1.2 inches) reservoir heterogeneities. Channel lags, muddy debris flows, sandy muddy debris flows, levees and stacked channel facies were all identifiable. This exercise aided in the prediction of faces types in the non-cored intervals of the borehole. Thin-bedded reservoirs were also identified and possible by-passed pays delineated. CMR T2 distribution in particular is very useful in porosity estimation and identification of silts and very fine sand intervals (non-identifiable via conventional log analysis) indicating possible upside potential. This also has implications on a better reconstruction of the depositional environment and the prediction of reservoir presence in time and space. Seismic anomalies are also better understood. Interbedded cemented sandstones present between gas bearing sandstone beds exhibit a typical response on the T2 distribution of the CMR log. The OBMI/CMR log has provided us with additional information on the reservoir and this technique goes a long way in aiding the development of better reservoir models narrowing uncertainties and finally resulting in a more detailed understanding of the subsurface

  8. Determination of Heterogeneity by High-Resolution Seismic Reservoir Characterization in the Heavy Oil Temblor Reservoir of Coalinga Field, California

    OpenAIRE

    Mahapatra, Sailendra Nath

    2005-01-01

    The research focuses on analysis and subsurface imaging of siliciclastics rocks on steam-affected 3D poststack seismic data, merged from different vintages, from the Temblor Formation in the Coalinga heavy oil reservoir in the San Joaquin basin, California. The objective was identification, delineation, and demarcation of reservoir heterogeneities by seismostratigraphic and seismogeomorphic analysis. The proximity of the San Andreas Transforms greatly controlled basin evolution and ca...

  9. Volume 3: Characterization of representative reservoirs -- South Marsh Island 73, B35K and B65G Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, M.A.; Salamy, S.P.; Reeves, T.K. [BDM-Oklahoma, Inc., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Kimbrell, W.C. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Sawyer, W.K. [Mathematical and Computer Services, Inc., Danville, VA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the results of a detailed study of two Gulf of Mexico salt dome related reservoirs and the application of a publicly available PC-based black oil simulator to model the performances of gas injection processes to recover attic oil. The overall objective of the research project is to assess the oil reserve potential that could result from the application of proven technologies to recover bypassed oil from reservoirs surrounding piercement salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico. The specific study objective was to simulate the primary recovery and attic gas injection performance of the two subject reservoirs to: (1) validate the BOAST model; (2) quantify the attic volume; and (3) predict the attic oil recovery potential that could result from additional updip gas injection. The simulation studies were performed on the B-35K Reservoir and the B-65G Reservoir in the South Marsh Island Block 73 Field using data provided by one of the field operators. A modified PC-version of the BOAST II model was used to match the production and injection performances of these reservoirs in which numerous gas injection cycles had been conducted to recover attic oil. The historical performances of the gas injection cycles performed on both the B-35K Reservoir and B-65G Reservoir were accurately matched, and numerous predictive runs were made to define additional potential for attic oil recovery using gas injection. Predictive sensitivities were conducted to examine the impact of gas injection rate, injection volume, post-injection shut-in time, and the staging of gas injection cycles on oil recovery.

  10. Reservoir characterization of hydraulic flow units in heavy-oil reservoirs at Petromonagas, eastern Orinoco belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merletti, G.D.; Hewitt, N.; Barrios, F.; Vega, V.; Carias, J. [BP Exploration, Houston, TX (United States); Bueno, J.C.; Lopez, L. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    An accurate integrated reservoir description is necessary in extra-heavy oil prospects where pore throat geometries are the ultimate control on hydrocarbon primary recovery. The key element in producing accurate oil reservoir descriptions and improving productivity is to determine relationships between core-derived pore-throat parameters and log-derived macroscopic attributes. This paper described the use of the flow zone indicator technique (FZI) to identify hydraulic units within depositional facies. It focused on a petrophysical analysis aimed at improving the description of reservoir sandstones containing heavy or extra heavy oil in the eastern Orinoco belt in Venezuela. The Petromonagas license area contains large volumes of crude oil in-place with an API gravity of 8. Production comes primarily from the lowermost stratigraphic unit of the Oficina Formation, the Miocene Morichal Member. Facies analysis has revealed various depositional settings and core measurements depict a wide range in reservoir quality within specific depositional facies. The reservoir is divided into 4 different rock qualities and 5 associated non-reservoir rocks. The use of the FZI technique provides a better understanding of the relationship between petrophysical rock types and depositional facies. 4 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  11. MULTI-ATTRIBUTE SEISMIC/ROCK PHYSICS APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mavko

    2000-10-01

    This project consists of three key interrelated Phases, each focusing on the central issue of imaging and quantifying fractured reservoirs, through improved integration of the principles of rock physics, geology, and seismic wave propagation. This report summarizes the results of Phase I of the project. The key to successful development of low permeability reservoirs lies in reliably characterizing fractures. Fractures play a crucial role in controlling almost all of the fluid transport in tight reservoirs. Current seismic methods to characterize fractures depend on various anisotropic wave propagation signatures that can arise from aligned fractures. We are pursuing an integrated study that relates to high-resolution seismic images of natural fractures to the rock parameters that control the storage and mobility of fluids. Our goal is to go beyond the current state-of-the art to develop and demonstrate next generation methodologies for detecting and quantitatively characterizing fracture zones using seismic measurements. Our study incorporates 3 key elements: (1) Theoretical rock physics studies of the anisotropic viscoelastic signatures of fractured rocks, including up scaling analysis and rock-fluid interactions to define the factors relating fractures in the lab and in the field. (2) Modeling of optimal seismic attributes, including offset and azimuth dependence of travel time, amplitude, impedance and spectral signatures of anisotropic fractured rocks. We will quantify the information content of combinations of seismic attributes, and the impact of multi-attribute analyses in reducing uncertainty in fracture interpretations. (3) Integration and interpretation of seismic, well log, and laboratory data, incorporating field geologic fracture characterization and the theoretical results of items 1 and 2 above. The focal point for this project is the demonstration of these methodologies in the Marathon Oil Company Yates Field in West Texas.

  12. Management of complex multi-reservoir water distribution systems using advanced control theoretic tools and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Chmielowski, Wojciech Z

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses issues of optimal water management in a complex distribution system. The main elements of the water-management system under consideration are retention reservoirs, among which water transfers are possible, and a network of connections between these reservoirs and water treatment plants (WTPs). System operation optimisation involves determining the proper water transport routes and their flow volumes from the retention reservoirs to the WTPs, and the volumes of possible transfers among the reservoirs, taking into account transport-related delays for inflows, outflows and water transfers in the system. Total system operation costs defined by an assumed quality coefficient should be minimal. An analytical solution of the optimisation task so formulated has been obtained as a result of using Pontriagin’s maximum principle with reference to the quality coefficient assumed. Stable start and end conditions in reservoir state trajectories have been assumed. The researchers have taken into accou...

  13. Characterizing the Absorption Properties for Remote Sensing of Three Small Optically-Diverse South African Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark William Matthews

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the specific inherent optical properties (SIOPs of water constituents is fundamental to remote sensing applications. Therefore, this paper presents the absorption properties of phytoplankton, gelbstoff and tripton for three small, optically-diverse South African inland waters. The three reservoirs,  Hartbeespoort, Loskop and Theewaterskloof, are challenging for remote sensing, due to differences in phytoplankton assemblage and the considerable range of constituent concentrations. Relationships between the absorption properties and biogeophysical parameters, chlorophyll-a (chl-a, TChl (chl-a plus  phaeopigments,  seston,  minerals  and  tripton, are established. The value determined for the mass-specific tripton absorption coefficient at 442 nm, a∗ (442, ranges from 0.024 to 0.263 m2·g−1. The value of the TChl-specific phytoplankton absorption coefficient (a∗ was strongly influenced by phytoplankton species, size, accessory pigmentation and biomass. a∗ (440 ranged from 0.056 to 0.018 m2·mg−1 in oligotrophic to hypertrophic waters. The positive relationship between cell size and trophic state observed in open ocean waters was violated by significant small cyanobacterial populations. The phycocyanin-specific phytoplankton  absorption  at  620  nm,  a∗ (620, was determined as 0.007 m2·g−1 in a M. aeruginosa bloom. Chl-a was a better indicator of phytoplankton biomass than phycocyanin (PC in surface scums, due to reduced accessory pigment production. Absorption budgets demonstrate that monospecific blooms of M. aeruginosa and C. hirundinella may be treated as “cultures”, removing some complexities for remote sensing applications.   These results contribute toward a better understanding of IOPs and remote sensing applications in hypertrophic inland waters. However, the majority of the water is optically complex, requiring the usage of all the SIOPs derived here for remote sensing applications. The

  14. Reservoir characterization and flow simulation of a low-permeability gas reservoir : an integrated approach for modelling Tommy Lakes gas field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, H.; Aguilera, R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Alfarhan, M.; White, L.S.; Oldow, J.S.; Aiken, C.L. [Texas Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    In this study, a stochastic geostatistical reservoir model was used to characterize the low permeability Doig gas reservoir in northeastern British Columbia (BC). The model was based on data obtained using terrestrial LiDAR technology, and from 60 wells modeled to represent fundamental rock characteristics, structure, facies proportions, and the petrophysical properties of the Doig anomalously thick sandstone bodies (ATSB). Permeability and porosity relationships were established using a quantitative log analysis and core log calibration method. Facies were then identified in cored intervals and grouped into 4 lithofacies. An artificial neural network (ANN) was then developed to train the logs of key wells and to populate the facies distribution of uncored wells. Sequential Gaussian simulations were used to characterize facies-based log-derived porosity, permeability shale volume and water saturation. Monte Carlo simulations were then used to rank variables affecting the original gas-in-place (OGIP). Reservoir properties were upscaled into the coarse simulation grid using flow-based techniques. Production data from the wells were allocated systematically to achieve an accurate match of the gas production history and bottomhole pressures. Sensitivity analyses of fracture half-lengths and their impact on ultimate gas recovery was investigated. The study showed that the full-field reservoir model can be used to design integrated development strategies for optimizing gas production. 29 refs., 20 figs.

  15. Deep microbial life in the Altmark natural gas reservoir: baseline characterization prior CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Daria; Shaheed, Mina; Vieth, Andrea; Krüger, Martin; Kock, Dagmar; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    Within the framework of the CLEAN project (CO2 Largescale Enhanced gas recovery in the Altmark Natural gas field) technical basics with special emphasis on process monitoring are explored by injecting CO2 into a gas reservoir. Our study focuses on the investigation of the in-situ microbial community of the Rotliegend natural gas reservoir in the Altmark, located south of the city Salzwedel, Germany. In order to characterize the microbial life in the extreme habitat we aim to localize and identify microbes including their metabolism influencing the creation and dissolution of minerals. The ability of microorganisms to speed up dissolution and formation of minerals might result in changes of the local permeability and the long-term safety of CO2 storage. However, geology, structure and chemistry of the reservoir rock and the cap rock as well as interaction with saline formation water and natural gases and the injected CO2 affect the microbial community composition and activity. The reservoir located at the depth of about 3500m, is characterised by high salinity fluid and temperatures up to 127° C. It represents an extreme environment for microbial life and therefore the main focus is on hyperthermophilic, halophilic anaerobic microorganisms. In consequence of the injection of large amounts of CO2 in the course of a commercial EGR (Enhanced Gas Recovery) the environmental conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, pressure and solubility of minerals) for the autochthonous microorganisms will change. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes are applied for detecting structural changes in the community by using PCR- SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism) and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). First results of the baseline survey indicate the presence of microorganisms similar to representatives from other saline, hot, anoxic, deep environments. However, due to the hypersaline and hyperthermophilic reservoir conditions, cell numbers are low, so that

  16. Reservoir characterization of the Upper Jurassic geothermal target formations (Molasse Basin, Germany): role of thermofacies as exploration tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homuth, S.; Götz, A. E.; Sass, I.

    2015-06-01

    The Upper Jurassic carbonates of the southern German Molasse Basin are the target of numerous geothermal combined heat and power production projects since the year 2000. A production-orientated reservoir characterization is therefore of high economic interest. Outcrop analogue studies enable reservoir property prediction by determination and correlation of lithofacies-related thermo- and petrophysical parameters. A thermofacies classification of the carbonate formations serves to identify heterogeneities and production zones. The hydraulic conductivity is mainly controlled by tectonic structures and karstification, whilst the type and grade of karstification is facies related. The rock permeability has only a minor effect on the reservoir's sustainability. Physical parameters determined on oven-dried samples have to be corrected, applying reservoir transfer models to water-saturated reservoir conditions. To validate these calculated parameters, a Thermo-Triaxial-Cell simulating the temperature and pressure conditions of the reservoir is used and calorimetric and thermal conductivity measurements under elevated temperature conditions are performed. Additionally, core and cutting material from a 1600 m deep research drilling and a 4850 m (total vertical depth, measured depth: 6020 m) deep well is used to validate the reservoir property predictions. Under reservoir conditions a decrease in permeability of 2-3 magnitudes is observed due to the thermal expansion of the rock matrix. For tight carbonates the matrix permeability is temperature-controlled; the thermophysical matrix parameters are density-controlled. Density increases typically with depth and especially with higher dolomite content. Therefore, thermal conductivity increases; however the dominant factor temperature also decreases the thermal conductivity. Specific heat capacity typically increases with increasing depth and temperature. The lithofacies-related characterization and prediction of reservoir

  17. Advanced oil recovery technologies for improved recovery from slope basin clastic reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM. Second annual technical progress report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration in the US Department of Energy Class III Program. Advanced reservoir characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geological, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir description was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. As a result of the analysis, a proposed pilot area was reconsidered. Comparison of seismic data and engineering data have shown evidence of discontinuities in the area surrounding the proposed injector. Analysis of the 3-D seismic has shown that wells in the proposed pilot are in an area of poor quality amplitude development. The implication is that since amplitude attenuation is a function of porosity, then this is not the best area to be attempting a pilot pressure maintenance project. Because the original pilot area appears to be compartmentalized, the lateral continuity between the pilot wells could be reduced. The 3-D seismic interpretation indicates other areas may be better suited for the initial pilot area. Therefore, the current focus has shifted more to targeted drilling, and the pilot injection will be considered in a more continuous area of the NDP in the future. Results of reservoir simulation studies indicate that pressure maintenance should be started early when reservoir pressure is still high.

  18. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neutral reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  19. Characterization of Coal Reservoirs in Two Major Coal Fields in Northern China: Implications for Coalbed Methane Development

    OpenAIRE

    Junjia Fan; Yiwen Ju; Quanlin Hou; Yudong Wu; Xiaoshi Li

    2012-01-01

    Based on the macroscopic and microscopic observation of coal structure, the vitrinite reflectance analysis, and the mercury injection testing of coal samples collected from Huaibei coalfield and Qinshui basin, the characterization of coal reservoir and its restriction on the development of coalbed methane are studied. The results indicate that coal reservoir in study area can be classified as five types according to the coal metamorphism and deformation degrees, and they are respectively high...

  20. Localization and characterization of hydrothermal alteration zones in a geothermal reservoir and their significance for rock mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Meller, Carola

    2014-01-01

    The present thesis introduces a method to localize hydrothermally altered zones in a crystalline geothermal reservoir. On the basis of synthetic clay content logs, the geomechanical significance of clay zones is demonstrated. It is shown that clay zones reduce the rock strength, thus creating aseismic slips on fractures and affecting the evolution of induced seismicity. The results of the thesis highlight the importance of hydrothermal alteration for hydro-mechanical reservoir characterization.

  1. Statistical analysis of surface lineaments and fractures for characterizing naturally fractured reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Genliang; George, S.A.; Lindsey, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    Thirty-six sets of surface lineaments and fractures mapped from satellite images and/or aerial photos from parts of the Mid-continent and Colorado Plateau regions were collected, digitized, and statistically analyzed in order to obtain the probability distribution functions of natural fractures for characterizing naturally fractured reservoirs. The orientations and lengths of the surface linear features were calculated using the digitized coordinates of the two end points of each individual linear feature. The spacing data of the surface linear features within an individual set were, obtained using a new analytical sampling technique. Statistical analyses were then performed to find the best-fit probability distribution functions for the orientation, length, and spacing of each data set. Twenty-five hypothesized probability distribution functions were used to fit each data set. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to rank the significance of each fit. A distribution which provides the lowest chi-square goodness-of-fit value was considered the best-fit distribution. The orientations of surface linear features were best-fitted by triangular, normal, or logistic distributions; the lengths were best-fitted by PearsonVI, PearsonV, lognormal2, or extreme-value distributions; and the spacing data were best-fitted by lognormal2, PearsonVI, or lognormal distributions. These probability functions can be used to stochastically characterize naturally fractured reservoirs.

  2. Multicomponent, three-dimensional seismic characterization of a fractured coalbed methane reservoir, Cedar Hill Field, San Juan County, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuck, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    Methane is produced from fractured coalbed reservoirs at Cedar Hill field in the San Juan basin. Fracturing and local stress are critical to production due to the absence of matrix permeability in the coals. Knowledge of the direction of open fractures, the degree of fracturing, reservoir pressure and compartmentalization is required to understand the flow of fluids through the reservoir. A multicomponent 3-D seismic survey was acquired to aid in coalbed methane reservoir characterization. Coalbed reservoir heterogeneities, including isolated pressure cells, zones of increased fracture density, and variable fracture directions, have been identified through the analysis of the multicomponent data and integration with petro-physical and reservoir engineering studies. Strike-slip faults, which compartmentalize the reservoir, have been identified by structural interpretation of the 3-D P-wave seismic data. These faults form boundaries for pressure cells which have been identified by P-wave reflection amplitude anomalies. The analysis of polarizations, traveltimes, and reflection amplitudes from the shear-wave seismic data has allowed the identification of zones of variable fracture direction and fracture density. There is good agreement between stresses inferred from the structural interpretation and those indicated by the shear-wave polarizations. Reflection amplitudes have been calibrated to seismic velocities and reservoir pressures through the use of petrophysical data taken from core samples. Shear-wave anisotropy has been quantified over the reservoir zone using both traveltime and thin-bed reflection response with excellent agreement between the two methods. Crack densities computed from the anisotropy show two regions of high crack density, one coinciding with a sealed overpressured cell, and the other partially drained by a producing well. This indicates potential for monitoring the production of coalbed methane reservoirs using multicomponent seismology.

  3. Physical property characterization of a damage zone in granitic rock - Implications for geothermal reservoir properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Quinn; Madonna, Claudio; Amann, Florian; Gischig, Valentin; Burg, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal energy offers a viable alternative to mitigate greenhouse gas emitting energy production. A tradeoff between less expensive drilling costs and increased permeability at shallow depths versus increased heat production at deeper depths stipulates the economic energy potential of a given reservoir. From a geological perspective, successful retrieval of geothermal energy from the subsurface requires sufficient knowledge of the structural and stratigraphic relationship of the target formations, which govern the thermal conditions, physical properties, and fluid flow properties of reservoir rocks. In Switzerland, deep basement rocks (~5 km) with fluid conducting damage zones and enhanced fractured systems stimulated by hydraulic shearing are seen as a potential geothermal reservoir system. Damage zones, both natural and induced, provide permeability enhancement that is especially important for creating fluid conductivity where the matrix permeability is low. This study concentrates on characterizing the elastic and transport properties entering into a natural damage zone penetrated by a borehole at the Grimsel underground research laboratory. The borehole drilled from a cavern at 480 m below ground surface penetrates approximately 20 m of mostly intact Grimsel granodiorite before entering the first phyllosilicate-rich shear zone (~0.2 m thick). The borehole intersects a second shear zone at approximately 23.8m. Between the two shear zones the Grimsel granodiorite is heavily fractured. The minimum principle stress magnitude from in-situ measurements decreases along the borehole into the first shear zone. Two mutually perpendicular core samples of Grimsel granodiorite were taken every 0.1 m from 19.5 to 20.1 m to characterize the physical properties and anisotropy changes as a gradient away from the damage zone. Measurements of ultrasonic compressional (Vp) and shear (Vs) velocities at 1 MHz frequency are conducted at room temperature and hydrostatic pressures

  4. Advanced TCAD Simulations and Characterization of Semiconductor Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Ewert, Tony

    2006-01-01

    Today, micro- and nano-electronic devices are becoming more complex and advanced as the dimensions are shrinking. It is therefore a very challenging task to develop new device technologies with performance that can be predicted. This thesis focuses on advanced measurement techniques and TCAD simulations in order to characterize and understand the device physics of advanced semiconductor devices. TCAD simulations were made on a novel MOSFET device with asymmetric source and drain structures. ...

  5. Advances on models, characterizations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, N; Gebizlioglu, O L

    2005-01-01

    PrefaceContributorsThe Shapes of the Probability Density, Hazard, and Reverse Hazard FunctionsMasaaki SibuyaStochastic Ordering of Risks, Influence of Dependence, and A.S. ConstructionsLudger RüschendorfThe q-Factorial Moments of Discrete q-Distributions and a Characterization of the Euler DistributionCh.A. Charalambides and N. PapadatosOn the Characterization of Distributions Through the Properties of Conditional Expectations of Order StatisticsI. Bairamov and O. GebizliogluCharacterization of the Exponential Distribution by Conditional Expectations of Generalized SpacingsErhard Cramer and Ud

  6. Integrated reservoir characterization and oil in place estimation for Ayacucho area, Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, E.; Bauza, I.; Cadena, A. [Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (Venezuela)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the reservoir rock and fluid properties of the main formations in the Orinoco Oil Belt. The four major areas of the basin include the Boyaca, Junin, Ayacucho and Carabobo. An integrated reservoir model based on geological analysis, petrophysics, 2D seismic, fluid analysis, 3D Geocellular modeling was developed to characterize the Ayacucho area, in which oil traps are mainly stratigraphic in the lowermost sand-bodies of Oficina Formation. The main oil bearing intervals are sand beds of the basal part of the formation. Five major geological zones have been identified in the Oficina Formation based on sequence stratigraphy, lithology and facies change, core description, and log-derived properties. The uppermost part of the Oficina Formation (zone A) has the most extensive indications of marine influence in its strata succession. The sandstone beds of the middle part (zone B) are massive to cross bedded and have been deposited in shoreline. Zones C and D are composed of shale, siltstone, mudstone, coaly beds, and sand-bodies, and are the depositional product of tide-dominated coastal plain settings. The main reservoir is located in the lowermost sand-bodies of the formation. The main oil bearing intervals are sand beds of the basal part of the formation, namely zones E. These sand-bodies were deposited in a braided fluvial setting. The oil bearing zones thicknesses are variable and most of the faults are normal and oriented east-west. It was concluded that the Oficina Formation in Ayacucho contains 166 MMMSTB of original oil in place. The average viscosity value for Ayacucho is estimated at 5000 cp. decreasing from south to north. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs.

  7. Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measurement of Thermal Evolution in Geothermal Reservoirs: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell A. Plummer; Carl D. Palmer; Earl D. Mattson; Laurence C. Hull; George D. Redden

    2011-07-01

    The injection of cold fluids into engineered geothermal system (EGS) and conventional geothermal reservoirs may be done to help extract heat from the subsurface or to maintain pressures within the reservoir (e.g., Rose et al., 2001). As these injected fluids move along fractures, they acquire heat from the rock matrix and remove it from the reservoir as they are extracted to the surface. A consequence of such injection is the migration of a cold-fluid front through the reservoir (Figure 1) that could eventually reach the production well and result in the lowering of the temperature of the produced fluids (thermal breakthrough). Efficient operation of an EGS as well as conventional geothermal systems involving cold-fluid injection requires accurate and timely information about thermal depletion of the reservoir in response to operation. In particular, accurate predictions of the time to thermal breakthrough and subsequent rate of thermal drawdown are necessary for reservoir management, design of fracture stimulation and well drilling programs, and forecasting of economic return. A potential method for estimating migration of a cold front between an injection well and a production well is through application of reactive tracer tests, using chemical whose rate of degradation is dependent on the reservoir temperature between the two wells (e.g., Robinson 1985). With repeated tests, the rate of migration of the thermal front can be determined, and the time to thermal breakthrough calculated. While the basic theory behind the concept of thermal tracers has been understood for some time, effective application of the method has yet to be demonstrated. This report describes results of a study that used several methods to investigate application of reactive tracers to monitoring the thermal evolution of a geothermal reservoir. These methods included (1) mathematical investigation of the sensitivity of known and hypothetical reactive tracers, (2) laboratory testing of novel

  8. Characterizing fractured reservoir by multicomponent reflection data and VSPs in the Paris basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang-Yang; MacBeth, C.; Lefeuvre, F. [and others

    1995-12-31

    We process and interpret nine-component (9C, three component recordings of two horizontal and one vertical sources) surface seismic data and two nearby VSPs to characterize the fractured carbonate reservoir in the Dogger Formation in the Paris Basin. This is achieved by analysing differential changes in the various attributes of the vector wavefield: velocity ratios, polarizations, amplitudes and differential travel times. Careful processing is required to preserve and recover these attributes which have diagnostic anomalies associated with the Dogger formation. The interval shear-anisotropy within the Dogger shows an average of 4% with significant lateral variations, which might be interpreted as lateral changes in porosity and permeability. The differential shear-wave amplitude from the top of the Dogger shows an overall dimming. The shear-wave polarization section reveals detailed internal layering, up to six intervals, within the Dogger, which is not visible in the P-wave section. The information inferred from these wavefield attributes can be broadly correlated with the reservoir properties at the inter-well scale in Duval but with more detailed lateral variations.

  9. Characterization of pediatric microtia cartilage: a reservoir of chondrocytes for auricular reconstruction using tissue engineering strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo-Ramírez, Y; Sánchez-Sánchez, R; García-López, J; Brena-Molina, A M; Gutiérrez-Gómez, C; Ibarra, C; Velasquillo, C

    2016-09-01

    The external ear is composed of elastic cartilage. Microtia is a congenital malformation of the external ear that involves a small reduction in size or a complete absence. The aim of tissue engineering is to regenerate tissues and organs clinically implantable based on the utilization of cells and biomaterials. Remnants from microtia represent a source of cells for auricular reconstruction using tissue engineering. To examine the macromolecular architecture of microtia cartilage and behavior of chondrocytes, in order to enrich the knowledge of this type of cartilage as a cell reservoir. Auricular cartilage remnants were obtained from pediatric patients with microtia undergoing reconstructive procedures. Extracellular matrix composition was characterized using immunofluorescence and histological staining methods. Chondrocytes were isolated and expanded in vitro using a mechanical-enzymatic protocol. Chondrocyte phenotype was analyzed using qualitative PCR. Microtia cartilage preserves structural organization similar to healthy elastic cartilage. Extracellular matrix is composed of typical cartilage proteins such as type II collagen, elastin and proteoglycans. Chondrocytes displayed morphological features similar to chondrocytes derived from healthy cartilage, expressing SOX9, COL2 and ELN, thus preserving chondral phenotype. Cell viability was 94.6 % during in vitro expansion. Elastic cartilage from microtia has similar characteristics, both architectural and biochemical to healthy cartilage. We confirmed the suitability of microtia remnant as a reservoir of chondrocytes with potential to be expanded in vitro, maintaining phenotypical features and viability. Microtia remnants are an accessible source of autologous cells for auricular reconstruction using tissue engineering strategies. PMID:27566509

  10. 2D X-ray scanner and its uses in laboratory reservoir characterization measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, D.; Doggett, K.

    1997-08-01

    X-ray techniques are used in petroleum laboratories for a variety of reservoir characterization measurements. This paper describes the configuration of a 2D X-ray scanner and many of the ways in which it simplifies and improves accuracy`s of laboratory measurements. Linear X-ray scanners are most often used to provide descriptions of fluid saturations within core plugs during flow tests. We configured our linear scanner for both horizontal and vertical movement. Samples can be scanned horizontally, vertically, or according to horizontal and vertical grids. X-ray measurements are fast, allowing measurements of two- and three-phase fluid saturations during both steady- and unsteady-state flow processes. Rock samples can be scanned while they are subjected to stress, pore pressure, and temperature conditions simulating those of a petroleum reservoir. Many types of measurements are possible by selecting appropriate X-ray power settings, dopes, filters, and collimator configurations. The scanner has been used for a variety of applications besides fluid saturation measurements. It is useful for measuring porosity distributions in rocks, concentrations of X-ray dopes within flow streams during tracer tests, gap widths in fracture flow cells, fluid interface levels in PVT cells and fluid separators, and other features and phenomena.

  11. Characterization of Fractured Reservoirs Using a Combination of Downhole Pressure and Self-Potential Transient Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Nishi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to appraise the utility of self-potential (SP measurements to characterize fractured reservoirs, we carried out continuous SP monitoring using multi Ag-AgCl electrodes installed within two open holes at the Kamaishi Mine, Japan. The observed ratio of SP change to pressure change associated with fluid flow showed different behaviors between intact host rock and fractured rock regions. Characteristic behavior peculiar to fractured reservoirs, which is predicted from numerical simulations of electrokinetic phenomena in MINC (multiple interacting continua double-porosity media, was observed near the fractures. Semilog plots of the ratio of SP change to pressure change observed in one of the two wells show obvious transition from intermediate time increasing to late time stable trends, which indicate that the time required for pressure equilibration between the fracture and matrix regions is about 800 seconds. Fracture spacing was estimated to be a few meters assuming several micro-darcies (10-18 m2 of the matrix region permeability, which is consistent with geological and hydrological observations.

  12. Oligo-Miocene reservoir sequence characterization and structuring in the Sisseb El Alem-Kalaa Kebira regions (Northeastern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houatmia, Faten; Khomsi, Sami; Bédir, Mourad

    2015-11-01

    The Sisseb El Alem-Enfidha basin is located in the northeastern Tunisia, It is borded by Nadhour - Saouaf syncline to the north, Kairouan plain to the south, the Mediterranean Sea to the east and Tunisian Atlassic "dorsale" to the west. Oligocene and Miocene deltaic deposits present the main potential deep aquifers in this basin with high porosity (25%-30%). The interpretation of twenty seismic reflection profiles, calibrated by wire line logging data of twelve oil wells, hydraulic wells and geologic field sections highlighted the impact of tectonics on the structuring geometry of Oligo-Miocene sandstones reservoirs and their distribution in raised structures and subsurface depressions. Miocene seismostratigraphy analysis from Ain Ghrab Formation (Langhian) to the Segui Formation (Quaternary) showed five third-order seismic sequence deposits and nine extended lenticular sandy bodies reservoirs limited by toplap and downlap surfaces unconformities, Oligocene deposits presented also five third- order seismic sequences with five extended lenticular sandy bodies reservoirs. The Depth and the thickness maps of these sequence reservoir packages exhibited the structuring of this basin in sub-basins characterized by important lateral and vertical geometric and thichness variations. Petroleum wells wire line logging correlation with clay volume calculation showed an heterogeneous multilayer reservoirs of Oligocene and Miocene formed by the arrangement of fourteen sandstone bodies being able to be good reservoirs, separated by impermeable clay packages and affected by faults. Reservoirs levels correspond mainly to the lower system tract (LST) of sequences. Intensive fracturing by deep seated faults bounding the different sub-basins play a great role for water surface recharge and inter-layer circulations between affected reservoirs. The total pore volume of the Oligo-Miocene reservoir sandy bodies in the study area, is estimated to about 4 × 1012 m3 and equivalent to 4

  13. Advanced Techniques for Reservoir Simulation and Modeling of Non-Conventional Wells; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research results for the second year of this project on the development of improved modeling techniques for non-conventional (e.g., horizontal, deviated or multilateral) wells were presented. The overall program entails the development of enhanced well modeling and general simulation capabilities. A general formulation for black-oil and compositional reservoir simulation was presented

  14. Advanced Techniques for Reservoir Simulation and Modeling of Non-Conventional Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durlofsky, Louis J.; Aziz, Khalid

    2001-08-23

    Research results for the second year of this project on the development of improved modeling techniques for non-conventional (e.g., horizontal, deviated or multilateral) wells were presented. The overall program entails the development of enhanced well modeling and general simulation capabilities. A general formulation for black-oil and compositional reservoir simulation was presented.

  15. ADVANCING REACTIVE TRACER METHODS FOR MONITORING THERMAL DRAWDOWN IN GEOTHERMAL ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell A. Plummer; Carl D. Palmer; Earl D. Mattson; George D. Redden; Laurence C. Hull

    2010-10-01

    Reactive tracers have long been considered a possible means of measuring thermal drawdown in a geothermal system, before significant cooling occurs at the extraction well. Here, we examine the sensitivity of the proposed method to evaluate reservoir cooling and demonstrate that while the sensitivity of the method as generally proposed is low, it may be practical under certain conditions.

  16. Laser characterization with advanced digital signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piels, Molly; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Zibar, Darko

    2015-01-01

    The use of machine learning techniques to characterize lasers with low output power is reviewed. Optimized phase tracking algorithms that can produce accurate noise spectra are discussed, and a method for inferring the amplitude noise spectrum and rate equation model of the laser under test is pr...

  17. Characterization of the deep microbial life in the Altmark natural gas reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, D.; Alawi, M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Kock, D.; Krüger, M.; Wuerdemann, H.; Shaheed, M.

    2010-12-01

    Within the framework of the CLEAN project (CO2 Largescale Enhanced gas recovery in the Altmark Natural gas field) technical basics with special emphasis on process monitoring are explored by injecting CO2 into a gas reservoir. Our study focuses on the investigation of the in-situ microbial community of the Rotliegend natural gas reservoir in the Altmark, located south of the city Salzwedel, Germany. In order to characterize the microbial life in the extreme habitat we aim to localize and identify microbes including their metabolism influencing the creation and dissolution of minerals. The ability of microorganisms to speed up dissolution and formation of minerals might result in changes of the local permeability and the long-term safety of CO2 storage. However, geology, structure and chemistry of the reservoir rock and the cap rock as well as interaction with saline formation water and natural gases and the injected CO2 affect the microbial community composition and activity. The reservoir located at the depth of approximately 3500 m, is characterised by high salinity (420 g/l) and temperatures up to 127°C. It represents an extreme environment for microbial life and therefore the main focus is on hyperthermophilic, halophilic anaerobic microorganisms. In consequence of the injection of large amounts of CO2 in the course of a commercial EGR (Enhanced Gas Recovery), the environmental conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, pressure and solubility of minerals) for the autochthonous microorganisms will change. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes are applied for detecting structural changes in the community by using PCR- SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism), DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) and 16S rRNA cloning. First results of the baseline survey indicate the presence of microorganisms similar to representatives from other deep environments. The sequence analyses revealed the presence of several H2-oxidising bacteria (Hydrogenophaga sp

  18. Characterization of reservoir rocks and fluids by surface electromagnetic transient methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekstra, P.; Blohm, M.W. (Blackhawk Geosciences, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)); Stoyer, C.H. (Interpex Ltd. (United States)); James, B.A. (James Consulting Services (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to improve the interpretations of transient electromagnetic (TEM) measurements over two-dimensional subsurface structures. TEM is a surface electromagnetic method employed in fossil energy reservoir exploration and characterization. Electrical measurements find application in (i) assisting in fossil energy exploration mainly in areas where seismic methods yield inadequate data quality, such as volcanic covered terrain, permafrost areas, and the Rocky Mountain overthrust; (ii) mapping contacts between hydrocarbon and brines in shallow producing horizons, and (iii) in monitoring enhanced oil recovery processes which cause zones of lower resistivity. Accomplishments for this past year are presented for the following tasks: (1) site selection and acquisition of high density, 3-component TEM data set over test site; (2) finite element forward modeling; and (3) TEM 2-D subsurface imaging.

  19. A new method to simultaneously measure in-situ permeability and porosity under reservoir conditions : implications for characterization of unconventional gas reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, X.; Brezovski, R.; Nassichuk, B.; Glover, K.; Pathi, V. [CBM Solutions Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Bustin, R.M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In order to successfully evaluate and exploit unconventional gas reservoirs, such as shale gas, coalbed methane, and tight gas, accurate estimation of gas-in-place is crucial. One of the most important parameters in estimating gas in-place is the gas effective porosity. However, it is often measured on crushed samples of cores or cuttings at ambient pressure or zero stress. The pore volume/porosity measured under such conditions will be larger than porosity measured under in-situ reservoir stress conditions. This paper presented a new method for routine characterization of effective porosity and permeability under simulated reservoir conditions using a new protocol for simultaneously measuring stress-dependent in-situ permeability and porosity (ISPP). The new method could greatly reduce the uncertainties of porosity introduced by testing crushed samples under ambient conditions, testing time, and the need for good quality core samples that are usually unavailable. The paper described the methodology and discussed the equations for porosity and permeability determination. The experimental results and discussion of results using two sets of samples from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were presented using the proposed method with hydrostatic stress. Heterogeneity and anisotropy of permeability were also presented. The two test samples indicated that in-situ porosity of unconventional rocks is significantly less than the corresponding ambient porosity tested on crushed samples. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs.

  20. A review on multicomponent seismology: A potential seismic application for reservoir characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfour, Mohammed; Yoon, Wang Jung

    2016-05-01

    Searching for hydrocarbon reserves in deep subsurface is the main concern of wide community of geophysicists and geoscientists in petroleum industry. Exploration seismology has substantially contributed to finding and developing giant fields worldwide. The technology has evolved from two to three-dimensional method, and later added a fourth dimension for reservoir monitoring. Continuous depletion of many old fields and the increasing world consumption of crude oil pushed to consistently search for techniques that help recover more reserves from old fields and find alternative fields in more complex and deeper formations either on land and in offshore. In such environments, conventional seismic with the compressional (P) wave alone proved to be insufficient. Multicomponent seismology came as a solution to most limitations encountered in P-wave imaging. That is, recording different components of the seismic wave field allowed geophysicists to map complex reservoirs and extract information that could not be extracted previously. The technology demonstrated its value in many fields and gained popularity in basins worldwide. In this review study, we give an overview about multicomponent seismology, its history, data acquisition, processing and interpretation as well as the state-of the-art of its applications. Recent examples from world basins are highlighted. The study concludes that despite the success achieved in many geographical areas such as deep offshore in the Gulf of Mexico, Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), North Sea, Offshore Brazil, China and Australia, much work remains for the technology to gain similar acceptance in other areas such as Middle East, East Asia, West Africa and North Africa. However, with the tremendous advances reported in data recording, processing and interpretation, the situation may change. PMID:27222756

  1. A novel approach to characterization of effective permeability for naturally fractured reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, G.

    2013-12-01

    measurements, and/or well log interpretations. Since the fracture size properties has been taken into account in calculating effective permeability, the proposed approach has the advantage of automatic scaling ability with respect to the element size of the domain. For example, the effective permeability for smaller element size with respect to fracture size reveals higher fluctuation of values, suggesting higher heterogeneity of reservoir property will be modeled. The effective permeability for larger element size respect to average fracture size tends to model the more homogeneous but anisotropic behavior of fluid flow. This approach allows for rapid automated characterization of effective fracture permeability which enables us to stochastically evaluate the existence of equivalent permeability of the fracture network through multiple realizations of DFN modes. Thus by studying the relationships between the calculated effective permeability and average fracture size, one is able to determine the appropriate size of domain to discretize in order to model either the heterogeneity or the average homogeneous behavior of a reservoir. The proposed approach has been applied to modeling the fractured Cambrian-Ordovician Knox dolomite group in the Black Warrior basin in Alabama and the predicted fracture permeability and well injectivities have been supported by the historical well test data.

  2. Workflow Integrating Fracture Permeability Characterization and Multiphase Flow Modeling for CO2 Storage and Risk Assessments in Fractured Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, G.; Pashin, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Ensuring safe and permanent storage of sequestered CO2in naturally fractured geological media is vital for the success of geologic storage projects. Critical needs exist to develop advanced techniques to characterize and model fluid transport in naturally fractured reservoirs and seals. We have developed a scale-independent 3-D stochastic fracture permeability characterization workflow that employs multiple discrete fracture network (DFN) realizations. The workflow deploys a multidirectional flux-based upwind weighting scheme that is capable of modeling multiphase flow in highly heterogeneous fractured media. The techniques employed herein show great promise for increasing the accuracy of capacity determinations and the prediction of pressure footprints associated with injected CO2 plumes. The proposed workflow has been conducted in a simulation study of flow transport and risk assessment of CO2 injection into a deep fractured saline formation using geological parameters from Knox Group carbonate and Red Mountain shale rocks in central Alabama. A 3-D fracture permeability map was generated from multiple realizations of DFN models. A multiphase flow model composed of supercritical CO2 and saline water was applied to simulate CO2 plume evolution during and after injection. Injection simulation reveals significant permeability anisotropy that favors development of northeast-elongate CO2 plumes. The spreading front of the CO2 plume shows strong viscous fingering effects. Post-injection simulation indicates significant lateral spreading of CO2 near the top of the fractured formations because of the buoyancy of injectate in rock matrix and strata-bound vertical fractures. Risk assessment shows that although pressure drops faster in the fractured formations than in those lacking fractures, lateral movement of CO2 along natural fractures necessitates that the injectate be confined by widespread seals with high integrity.

  3. Characterization of biocenosis in the storage-reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of 'Mayak' PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryakhin, E.; Tryapitsina, G.; Andreyev, S.; Akleyev, A. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation); Mokrov, Y.; Ivanov, I. [Mayak PA (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    A number of storage-reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of 'Mayak' Production Association ('Mayak' PA) with different levels of radioactive contamination: reservoir R-17 ('Staroye Boloto'), reservoir R-9 (Lake Karachay), reservoirs of the Techa Cascade R-3 (Koksharov pond), R-4 (Metlinsky pond), R-10 and R-11 is located in Chelyabinsk Oblast (Russia). The operation of these reservoirs began in 1949-1964. Full-scale hydro-biological studies of these reservoirs were started in 2007. The research into the status of biocenosis of these storage reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of 'Mayak' PA was performed in 2007 - 2011. The status of biocenosis was evaluated in accordance with the status of following communities: bacterio-plankton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoo-benthos, macrophytes and ichthyofauna. The status of ecosystems was determined by radioactive and chemical contamination of water bodies. The results of hydro-biological investigations showed that no changes in the status of biota in reservoir R-11 were revealed as compared to the biological parameters of the water bodies of this geographical zone. In terms of biological parameters the status of the ecosystem of the reservoir R-11 is characterized by a sufficient biological diversity, and can be considered acceptable. The ecosystem of the reservoir R-10 maintains its functional integrity, although there were registered negative effects in the zoo-benthos community associated with the decrease in the parameters of the development of pelophylic mollusks that live at the bottom of the water body throughout the entire life cycle. In reservoir R-4 the parameters of the development of phytoplankton did not differ from those in Reservoirs R-11 and R-10; however, a significant reduction in the quantity of Cladocera and Copepoda was registered in the zooplankton community, while in the zoo-benthos there were no small mollusks that live aground throughout the entire life

  4. Advanced NMR characterization of zeolite catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, L. B.

    1985-04-01

    The program discussed in this report is a two-year two-phase joint UOP-University of Illinois study of the application of improved high resolution solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to the characterization of zeolite catalysts. During the first phase of this program very pure, and in some cases isotopically enriched faujasites will be prepared and studied by magic angle sample spinning NMR (MASS NMR) and variable engine sample spinning NMR (VASS NMR) on 500 and 360 MHz (proton frequency) NMR spectrometers. The NMR techniques that will be emphasized are the measurement and analysis of the (17)O NMR properties, (27)Al NMR intensity quantitation, and (27)Al and (29)Si NMR relaxation rates. During the second phase of this program these NMR techniques will be used to study the effects of impurity concentration, dealumination treatments and cation exchange on the NMR properties of faujasites. The initial emphasis of this program during Phase I is on the preparation and measurement of the NMR properties of (17)O enriched Na-Y faujasties.

  5. Proceedings of the technical review on advances in geothermal reservoir technology---Research in progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J. (ed.)

    1988-09-01

    This proceedings contains 20 technical papers and abstracts describing most of the research activities funded by the Department of Energy (DOE's) Geothermal Reservoir Technology Program, which is under the management of Marshall Reed. The meeting was organized in response to several requests made by geothermal industry representatives who wanted to learn more about technical details of the projects supported by the DOE program. Also, this gives them an opportunity to personally discuss research topics with colleagues in the national laboratories and universities.

  6. Well test analysis, application to thermal recovery processes for reservoir characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Ghahfarokhi, Ashkan Jahanbani

    2015-01-01

    Thermal recovery by steam injection is considered to be a promising method for achieving a high ultimate recovery. A composite reservoir may occur during any enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project like steam injection into an oil reservoir. Thermal falloff test analysis offers a quick way to obtain an estimate of the swept volume and steam zone properties. Most of the models used for the analysis assume two regioncomposite reservoirs with different but uniform properties separated...

  7. Seismic Characterization of the Inferior Terciary Reservoirs in the Cuban Northern Petroleum Belt

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Helio Domínguez Gómez; Guillermo Miró Pagés; Margarita Juara Zulueta; Mercedes Cristina García Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    From the results obtained by cutting analysis during the perforation of the horizontal wells in theCanasí - Puerto Escondido area in the year 2002, have been described and dated the reservoir rockspreviously dated Cretaceous - Jurassic with Tertiary age (Canasi Formation). This reservoir constitutesthe main reservoir in several locations petroleum of the Cuban North Fringe (Boca de Jaruco - ViaBlanca, Santa Cruz, Canasí -Puerto Escondido and Yumurí - Seboruco). In the course of that havebeen ...

  8. An investigation into reservoir NOM reduction by UV photolysis and advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goslan, Emma H; Gurses, Filiz; Banks, Jenny; Parsons, Simon A

    2006-11-01

    A comparison of four treatment technologies for reduction of natural organic matter (NOM) in a reservoir water was made. The work presented here is a laboratory based evaluation of NOM treatment by UV-C photolysis, UV/H(2)O(2), Fenton's reagent (FR) and photo-Fenton's reagent (PFR). The work investigated ways of reducing the organic load on water treatment works (WTWs) with a view to treating 'in-reservoir' or 'in-pipe' before the water reaches the WTW. The efficiency of each process in terms of NOM removal was determined by measuring UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV(254)) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In terms of DOC reduction PFR was the most effective (88% removal after 1 min) however there were interferences when measuring UV(254) which was reduced to a lesser extent (31% after 1 min). In the literature, pH 3 is reported to be the optimal pH for oxidation with FR but here the reduction of UV(254) and DOC was found to be insensitive to pH in the range 3-7. The treatment that was identified as the most effective in terms of NOM reduction and cost effectiveness was PFR. PMID:16765416

  9. The Aeronomy of Mars: Characterization by MAVEN of the Upper Atmosphere Reservoir That Regulates Volatile Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougher, S. W.; Cravens, T. E.; Grebowsky, J.; Luhmann, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars thermosphere-ionosphere-exosphere (TIE) system constitutes the atmospheric reservoir (i.e. available cold and hot planetary neutral and thermal ion species) that regulates present day escape processes from the planet. The characterization of this TIE system, including its spatial and temporal (e.g., solar cycle, seasonal, diurnal, episodic) variability is needed to determine present day escape rates. Without knowledge of the physics and chemistry creating this TIE region and driving its variations, it is not possible to constrain either the short term or long term histories of atmosphere escape from Mars. MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission) will make both in-situ and remote measurements of the state variables of the Martian TIE system. A full characterization of the thermosphere (˜100-250 km) and ionosphere (˜100-400 km) structure (and its variability) will be conducted with the collection of spacecraft in-situ measurements that systematically span most local times and latitudes, over a regular sampling of Mars seasons, and throughout the bottom half of the solar cycle. Such sampling will far surpass that available from existing spacecraft and ground-based datasets. In addition, remote measurements will provide a systematic mapping of the composition and structure of Mars neutral upper atmosphere and coronae (e.g. H, C, N, O), as well as probe lower altitudes. Such a detailed characterization is a necessary first step toward answering MAVEN's three main science questions (see Jakosky et al. 2014, this issue). This information will be used to determine present day escape rates from Mars, and provide an estimate of integrated loss to space throughout Mars history.

  10. Multi-isotopic (Li, B, Sr, Nd) approach for geothermal reservoir characterization in the Limagne Basin (Massif Central, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-isotopic study of thermo-mineral waters from the Limagne Basin (French Massif Central) is reported. Lithium, B, Sr and Nd isotopic signatures in thermo-mineral waters and bedrocks were combined in order to determine the origin of these fluids from a reservoir point of view. Strontium and Nd isotopic systems showed that the thermo-mineral waters are mostly derived from a granitic reservoir type, with the exception of a few water samples having Sr and Nd isotopic signatures also reflecting a volcanic contribution (basalts). In a second step, Li and B isotopes were investigated, given that Li and B isotopic systematics are potentially affected by mass dependent fractionation during water/rock interaction and could provide some information on what takes place during this process. A great diversity of thermo-mineral waters within the Aigueperse area was clearly observed, which is directly related to the origin of these thermal waters in terms of reservoirs. These different geothermal reservoirs are characterized by different geological settings and intensity of water/rock interaction (i.e. depth and temperature). The combination of Li, B, Sr and Nd isotopic systems highlight the complexity of the study of these geothermal reservoirs and that the use of only one isotopic tool could lead to an incomplete interpretation of the origin of water. The new approach using Li isotopes shows a very interesting potential with additional information on the intensity of water/rock interaction

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ADVANCED RADIOGRAPHIC CAPABILITY FRONT END ON NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefner, C; Heebner, J; Dawson, J; Fochs, S; Shverdin, M; Crane, J K; Kanz, V K; Halpin, J; Phan, H; Sigurdsson, R; Brewer, W; Britten, J; Brunton, G; Clark, W; Messerly, M J; Nissen, J D; Nguyen, H; Shaw, B; Hackel, R; Hermann, M; Tietbohl, G; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2009-07-15

    We have characterized the Advanced Radiographic Capability injection laser system and demonstrated that it meets performance requirements for upcoming National Ignition Facility fusion experiments. Pulse compression was achieved with a scaled down replica of the meter-scale grating ARC compressor and sub-ps pulse duration was demonstrated at the Joule-level.

  12. Characterization Of The Advanced Radiographic Capability Front End On NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have characterized the Advanced Radiographic Capability injection laser system and demonstrated that it meets performance requirements for upcoming National Ignition Facility fusion experiments. Pulse compression was achieved with a scaled down replica of the meter-scale grating ARC compressor and sub-ps pulse duration was demonstrated at the Joule-level

  13. 3D multicomponent seismic characterization of a clastic reservoir in the Middle Magdalena Valley Basin, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez-Espejo, Antonio Jose

    The main goal of this research is to characterize the combined structural-stratigraphic trap of the Tenerife Field in the Middle Magdalena Valley Basin (MMVB), Colombia. For the first time in Colombia the structural and quantitative interpretation of modern three-dimensional multicomponent (3D-3C) seismic imaging enables a geometric description, a kinematic interpretation of the structural styles, and the facies distribution of the reservoir. A seismic petrophysics work-flow to better achieve the seismic well-tie. Edited and check-shot calibrated P-wave sonic logs were obtained and coefficients of the Gardner and Castagna equations were calibrated to match the density and shear-wave velocity depth trends for the basin. Seismic modeling was performed to evaluate the PP and PS seismic response of the reservoir interval (Mugrosa Formation). The structural interpretation methodology involves a 3D fault-correlation and horizon picking for both PP- and PS-PSTM data volumes. Geometric attributes such as coherence and curvature were used to enhance the structural discontinuities. The main unconformity of the Middle Eocene (MEU) was interpreted, and an attribute-assisted interpretation of the reservoir was conducted in detail. While P-wave data provided most of the structural interpretation, converted-wave data provide a better understanding of the faults. Traditionally, compressive thrust-propagation folds and tectonic inversion have been considered as the main mechanisms controlling the deformation in the MMVB. However, the new interpretation shown in this work provides a different structural concept that involves two major structural styles: 1. Under the MEU the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleocene deformation, dominated by east-verging thrust and partially inverted Mesozoic normal faults, is preserved. Associated folds exhibit a north-south strike, and their structural development is controlled by a long-lived structural element that dominates the area (the Infantas

  14. Characterization of dynamic change of Fan-delta reservoir properties in water-drive development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Shenghe; Xiong Qihua; Liu Yuhong [Univ. of Petroleum Changping, Beijing (China)

    1997-08-01

    Fan-delta reservoir in Huzhuangji oil field of east China, is a typical highly heterogeneous reservoir. The oil field has been developed by water-drive for 10 years, but the oil recovery is less than 12%, and water cut is over 90%, resulting from high heterogeneity and serious dynamic change of reservoir properties. This paper aims at the study of dynamic change of reservoir properties in water-drive development. Through quantitative imaging analysis and mercury injection analysis of cores from inspection wells, the dynamic change of reservoir pore structure in water-drive development was studied. The results show that the {open_quotes}large pore channels{close_quotes} develop in distributary channel sandstone and become larger in water-drive development, resulting in more serious pore heterogeneity. Through reservoir sensitivity experiments, the rock-fluid reaction in water-drive development is studied. The results show the permeability of some distal bar sandstone and deserted channel sandstone becomes lower due to swelling of I/S clay minerals in pore throats. OD the other hand, the permeability of distributary channel and mouth bar sandstone become larger because the authigenic Koalinites in pore throats are flushed away with the increase of flow rate of injection water. Well-logging analysis of flooded reservoirs are used to study the dynamic change of reservoir properties in various flow units. The distribution of remaining oil is closely related to the types and distribution of flow units.

  15. Reservoir Characterization of Upper Devonian Gordon Sandstone, Jacksonburg, Stringtown Oil Field, Northwestern West Virginia; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives results of efforts to determine electrofacies from logs; measure permeability in outcrop to study very fine-scale trends; find the correlation between permeability measured by the minipermeameter and in core plugs, define porosity-permeability flow units; and run the BOAST III reservoir simulator using the flow units defined for the Gordon reservoir

  16. An analysis of fractal characterization of reservoir by fractal dimension and set of addresses of points for permeability data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Kee; Huh, Dae Gee [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Won Mo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-28

    The pore structure of reservoir is extremely complex, and the reservoir is very heterogeneous due to the existence of fracture, fissure, and fault. The researches in the field of characterization have been conducted based on the statistical analysis such as geostatistical technique, stochastic technique, and SRA technique to incorporate reservoir heterogeneities. These techniques can generate permeability distribution randomly or smoothly by using variogram obtained with the observed data, and hence the statistical techniques may not realistically describe high degree of permeability variability like fracture, fault, and etc. In these aspects, we previously proposed a space-property fractal algorithm on the basis of collage theorem that implied self-affinity and self-similarity. With the developed reservoir fractal characterization model, we have analyzed the property variability curve with fractal dimension and the best selection of pattern of set of addresses of points. Ultimately, we have tried to obtain fractal distributions of permeability for areal and cross-sectional systems. From the results, it is recognized that the calculated fractal permeability excellently matches with the observed permeability at well points. Also, it is experienced that variability and fractal dimension of the observed permeability data are similar to those obtained from the calculated data with the model. Finally, we have observed self-affinity in the fractal permeability distribution. (author). 21 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  17. Characterization of water quality parameters of the reservoir Utinga, Belém, PA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanilda Magalhães Martins Vasconcelos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the characterization of physical, chemical and biological water quality of the Fountain of Utinga, which includes the river Guamá, Água Preta Lake and Bolonha Lake, located in the State Water Complex called Utinga. The study area comprises the Lakes Água Preta and Bolonha that have natural springs, but 90% of the water of these lakes are up-taken from the river Guamá to the Água Preta Lake and then through a pipeline to Bolonha Lake, where it is treated in the Bolonha station. Results showed a relationship between the increase in population and the production of untreated sewage released into bodies of water, and as a consequence, significant deterioration in physical variables such as: color and turbidity, and in the biological variable coliform and chemical variables including N-ammonia and nitrate as compared with the CONAMA resolution 357 standards. The results showed that the population that lives in the vicinity of the reservoir Utinga nearby Bolonha lacks adequate sanitation systems (garbage collection and sewage treatment.

  18. An Integrated Approach to Characterizing Bypassed Oil in Heterogeneous and Fractured Reservoirs Using Partitioning Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2006-08-01

    This report presents an efficient trajectory-based approach to integrate transient pressure data into high-resolution reservoir and aquifer models. The method involves alternating travel time and peak amplitude matching of pressure response using inverse modeling and is particularly well-suited for high resolution subsurface characterization using hydraulic tomography or pressure interference tests. Compared to travel time inversion only, our proposed approach results in a significantly improved match of the pressure response at the wells and also better estimates of subsurface properties. This is accomplished with very little increase in computational cost. Utilizing the concept of a ''diffusive'' time of flight derived from an asymptotic solution of the diffusivity equation, we develop analytical approaches to estimate the sensitivities for travel time and peak amplitude of pressure response to subsurface properties. The sensitivities are then used in an iterative least-squared minimization to match the pressure data. We illustrate our approach using synthetic and field examples. In the field application at a fractured limestone formation, the predominant fracture patterns emerging from the inversion are shown to be consistent with independent geophysical experiments and borehole data.

  19. Multi-Attribute Seismic/Rock Physics Approach to Characterizing Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mavko

    2004-11-30

    Most current seismic methods to seismically characterize fractures in tight reservoirs depend on a few anisotropic wave propagation signatures that can arise from aligned fractures. While seismic anisotropy can be a powerful fracture diagnostic, a number of situations can lessen its usefulness or introduce interpretation ambiguities. Fortunately, laboratory and theoretical work in rock physics indicates that a much broader spectrum of fracture seismic signatures can occur, including a decrease in P- and S-wave velocities, a change in Poisson's ratio, an increase in velocity dispersion and wave attenuation, as well as well as indirect images of structural features that can control fracture occurrence. The goal of this project was to demonstrate a practical interpretation and integration strategy for detecting and characterizing natural fractures in rocks. The approach was to exploit as many sources of information as possible, and to use the principles of rock physics as the link among seismic, geologic, and log data. Since no single seismic attribute is a reliable fracture indicator in all situations, the focus was to develop a quantitative scheme for integrating the diverse sources of information. The integrated study incorporated three key elements: The first element was establishing prior constraints on fracture occurrence, based on laboratory data, previous field observations, and geologic patterns of fracturing. The geologic aspects include analysis of the stratigraphic, structural, and tectonic environments of the field sites. Field observations and geomechanical analysis indicates that fractures tend to occur in the more brittle facies, for example, in tight sands and carbonates. In contrast, strain in shale is more likely to be accommodated by ductile flow. Hence, prior knowledge of bed thickness and facies architecture, calibrated to outcrops, are powerful constraints on the interpreted fracture distribution. Another important constraint is that

  20. A METHODOLOGY TO INTEGRATE MAGNETIC RESONANCE AND ACOUSTIC MEASUREMENTS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge O. Parra; Chris L. Hackert; Lorna L. Wilson

    2002-09-20

    The work reported herein represents the third year of development efforts on a methodology to interpret magnetic resonance and acoustic measurements for reservoir characterization. In this last phase of the project we characterize a vuggy carbonate aquifer in the Hillsboro Basin, Palm Beach County, South Florida, using two data sets--the first generated by velocity tomography and the second generated by reflection tomography. First, we integrate optical macroscopic (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray computed tomography (CT) images, as well as petrography, as a first step in characterizing the aquifer pore system. This pore scale integration provides information with which to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well log signatures for NMR well log calibration, interpret ultrasonic data, and characterize flow units at the field scale between two wells in the aquifer. Saturated and desaturated NMR core measurements estimate the irreducible water in the rock and the variable T{sub 2} cut-offs for the NMR well log calibration. These measurements establish empirical equations to extract permeability from NMR well logs. Velocity and NMR-derived permeability and porosity relationships integrated with velocity tomography (based on crosswell seismic measurements recorded between two wells 100 m apart) capture two flow units that are supported with pore scale integration results. Next, we establish a more detailed picture of the complex aquifer pore structures and the critical role they play in water movement, which aids in our ability to characterize not only carbonate aquifers, but reservoirs in general. We analyze petrography and cores to reveal relationships between the rock physical properties that control the compressional and shear wave velocities of the formation. A digital thin section analysis provides the pore size distributions of the rock matrix, which allows us to relate pore structure to permeability and to characterize flow units at the

  1. Reservoir characterization using artificial neural network; Neural network wo mochiita choryuso tokusei kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, N.; Kozawa, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nishikawa, N.; Tani, A. [Fuji Research Institute Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Neural network is used for the prediction of porosity and permeability using logging data as reservoir characteristics, and the validity of this method is verified. For the prediction of reservoir characteristics by the use of seismic survey data, composite seismic survey records obtained by density logging and acoustic logging are used to experiment the prediction of porosity and permeability continuous along lines of wells. A 3-output back propagation network is used for analysis. There is a possibility that this technique when optimized will improve on prediction accuracy. Furthermore, in the case of characteristics mapping, 3-dimensional seismic data is applied to a carbonate rock reservoir for predicting spatial porosity and permeability. This technique facilitates the comprehensive analysis of core data, well data, and seismic survey data, enabling the derivation of a high-precision spatial distribution of reservoir characteristics. Efforts will continue for further improvement on prediction accuracy. 6 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Reservoir Characterization of Upper Devonian Gordon Sandstone, Jacksonburg, Stringtown Oil Field, Northwestern West Virginia; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to establish relationships among permeability, geophysical and other data by integrating geologic, geophysical and engineering data into an interdisciplinary quantification of reservoir heterogeneity as it relates to production

  3. Reservoir Characterization of Upper Devonian Gordon Sandstone, Jacksonburg, Stringtown Oil Field, Northwestern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameri, S.; Aminian, K.; Avary, K.L.; Bilgesu, H.I.; Hohn, M.E.; McDowell, R.R.; Patchen, D.L.

    2002-05-21

    The purpose of this work was to establish relationships among permeability, geophysical and other data by integrating geologic, geophysical and engineering data into an interdisciplinary quantification of reservoir heterogeneity as it relates to production.

  4. Functional characterization of the antibiotic resistance reservoir in the human microflora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Morten; Church, George M; Dantas, Gautam

    2010-01-01

    reservoirs of antibiotic resistance accessible to pathogens. Due to the high likelihood of contact and genetic exchange with pathogens during disease progression, the human microflora warrants special attention as perhaps the most accessible reservoir of resistance genes. Indeed, numerous previous studies...... have demonstrated substantial antibiotic resistance in cultured isolates from the human microflora. By applying metagenomic functional selections, we recently demonstrated that the functional repertoire of resistance genes in the human microbiome is much more diverse than suggested using previous...

  5. Superposition well-test method for reservoir characterization and pressure management during CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    As a significant fraction of a carbon storage project's budget is devoted to site characterization and monitoring, there has been an intense drive in recent years to both lower cost and improve the quality of data obtained. Two data streams that are cheap and always available are pressure and flow rate measurements from the injection well. Falloff testing, in which the well is shut-in for some period of time and the pressure decline curve measured, is often used to probe the storage zone and look for indications of hydraulic barriers, fracture-dominated flow, and other reservoir characteristics. These tests can be used to monitor many hydromechanical processes of interest, including hydraulic fracturing and fault reactivation. Unfortunately, the length of the shut-in period controls how far away from the injector information may be obtained. For operational reasons these tests are typically kept short and infrequent, limiting their usefulness. In this work, we present a new analysis method in which ongoing injection data is used to reconstruct an equivalent falloff test, without shutting in the well. The entire history of injection may therefore be used as a stand in for a very long test. The method relies upon a simple superposition principle to transform a multi-rate injection sequence into an equivalent single-rate process. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method using injection data from the Snøhvit storage project. We also explore its utility in an active pressure management scenario. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Study on the enhancement of hydrocarbon recovery by characterization of the reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Tae-Jin; Kwak, Young-Hoon; Huh, Dae-Gee [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    The reservoir geochemistry is to understand the origin of these heterogeneities and distributions of the bitumens within the reservoir and to use them not only for exploration but for the development of the petroleums. Methods and principles of the reservoir geochemistry, which are applicable to the petroleum exploration and development, are reviewed in the study. In addition, a case study was carried out on the gas, condensate, water and bitumen samples in the reservoir, taken from the Haenam, Pohang areas and the Ulleung Basin offshore Korea. Mineral geothermometers were studied to estimate the thermal history in sedimentary basins and successfully applied to the Korean onshore and offshore basins. The opal silica-to-quartz transformation was investigated in the Pohang basin as a geothermometer. In Korean basins, the smectite-to-illite changes indicate that smectite and illite can act as the geothermometer to estimate the thermal history of the basins. The albitization reaction was also considered as a temperature indicator. Naturally fractured reservoir is an important source of oil and gas throughout the world. The properties of matrix and fracture are the key parameters in predicting the performances of naturally fractured reservoirs. A new laboratory equipment has been designed and constructed by pressure pulse method to determine the properties, which are (1) the porosity of matrix, (2) the permeability of matrix, (3) the effective width of the fractures, and the permeability of the fractures. (author). 97 refs.

  7. Reservoir characterization of the Ordovician Red River Formation in southwest Williston Basin Bowman County, ND and Harding County, SD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippel, M.A.; Luff, K.D.; Hendricks, M.L.; Eby, D.E.

    1998-07-01

    This topical report is a compilation of characterizations by different disciplines of the Red River Formation in the southwest portion of the Williston Basin and the oil reservoirs which it contains in an area which straddles the state line between North Dakota and South Dakota. Goals of the report are to increase understanding of the reservoir rocks, oil-in-place, heterogeneity, and methods for improved recovery. The report is divided by discipline into five major sections: (1) geology, (2) petrography-petrophysical, (3) engineering, (4) case studies and (5) geophysical. Interwoven in these sections are results from demonstration wells which were drilled or selected for special testing to evaluate important concepts for field development and enhanced recovery. The Red River study area has been successfully explored with two-dimensional (2D) seismic. Improved reservoir characterization utilizing 3-dimensional (3D) and has been investigated for identification of structural and stratigraphic reservoir compartments. These seismic characterization tools are integrated with geological and engineering studies. Targeted drilling from predictions using 3D seismic for porosity development were successful in developing significant reserves at close distances to old wells. Short-lateral and horizontal drilling technologies were tested for improved completion efficiency. Lateral completions should improve economics for both primary and secondary recovery where low permeability is a problem and higher density drilling is limited by drilling cost. Low water injectivity and widely spaced wells have restricted the application of waterflooding in the past. Water injection tests were performed in both a vertical and a horizontal well. Data from these tests were used to predict long-term injection and oil recovery.

  8. Geothermal Reservoir Characterization for Steam Field Management in Kamojang Geothermal Field-West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Abidin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Kamojang is the first geothermal field in Indonesia with a vapor dominated system reservoir. Kamojang has been exploited for over 20 years producing about 1100 tons/hour of steam which is equivalent to 140 Mwe electricity energy. This research is aimed to study the reservoir character after 20 years of exploitation and to investigate the effect of reinjection as a artificial recharge for steam input in the future and also the nature of secondary processes in the reservoir using isotope geochemistry tools. The research is conducted by natural isotopes (18O, 2H and 3H analysis of many sources of water (meteoric, cold spring, fumaroles and shallow groundwater in the surrounding of Kamojang field and also fluid reservoir to establish fluid reservoir origins and isotopic composition. Gas analysis and isotopes monitoring on the 25 production wells have been conducted every 2-3 years intervals for more than 10 years to investigate the effect of exploitation to the reservoir performance. Tritium radiotracer test with 370 GBq (10 Ci activity was conducted at the KMJ 15 reinjection well to determine qualitatively and quantitatively the flow of reinjection water to its surrounding producing well (KMJ 11, 14, 17, 18, 26, 17 and 30. Data interpretation and evaluation to determine reinjection water mass recovery and cooling prediction modeling were conducted using ICEBOX program package (TRINV and TRCOOL. Interpretation and evaluation of data concluded that reservoir fluid of Kamojang geothermal field was originated from meteoric water which infiltrated through fault structures at elevation of 1350 m –1650 m above sea level. There is no evidence that the fluid was originated from magmatic water. Reservoir fluid moved both laterally and vertically (deep fluid with lateral fluid movement from west to the east. The isotope data analysis indicated there is water entry in west-northwest reservoir boundary. Water entry gradually moved from northwest to the

  9. Geothermal Reservoir Characterization For Steam Field Management In Kamojang Geothermal Field-West Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamojang is the first geothermal field in Indonesia with a vapor dominated system reservoir. Kamojang has been exploited for over 20 years producing about 1100 tons/hour of steam which is equivalent to 140 Mwe electricity energy. This research is aimed to study the reservoir character after 20 years of exploitation and to investigate the effect of reinjection as a artificial recharge for steam input in the future and also the nature of secondary processes in the reservoir using isotope geochemistry tools. The research is conducted by natural isotopes (18O, 2H and 3H) analysis of many sources of water (meteoric, cold spring, fumaroles and shallow groundwater) in the surrounding of Kamojang field and also fluid reservoir to establish fluid reservoir origins and isotopic composition. Gas analysis and isotopes monitoring on the 25 production wells have been conducted every 2-3 years intervals for more than 10 years to investigate the effect of exploitation to the reservoir performance. Tritium radiotracer test with 370 GBq (10 Ci) activity was conducted at the KMJ 15 reinjection well to determine qualitatively and quantitatively the flow of reinjection water to its surrounding producing well (KMJ 11, 14, 17, 18, 26, 17 and 30). Data interpretation and evaluation to determine reinjection water mass recovery and cooling prediction modeling were conducted using ICEBOX program package (TRINV and TRCOOL). Interpretation and evaluation of data concluded that reservoir fluid of Kamojang geothermal field was originated from meteoric water which infiltrated through fault structures at elevation of 1350 m -1650 m above sea level. There is no evidence that the fluid was originated from magmatic water. Reservoir fluid moved both laterally and vertically (deep fluid) with lateral fluid movement from west to the east. The isotope data analysis indicated there is water entry in west-northwest reservoir boundary. Water entry gradually moved from northwest to the southeast (through

  10. Characterization of the Qishn sandstone reservoir, Masila Basin-Yemen, using an integrated petrophysical and seismic structural approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashin, Aref; Marta, Ebrahim Bin; Khamis, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    This study presents an integrated petrophysical and seismic structural analysis that is carried out to evaluate the reservoir properties of Qishn sandstone as well as the entrapment style of the hydrocarbons at Sharyoof field, Sayun-Masila Basin that is located at the east central of Yemen. The reservoir rocks are dominated by clean porous and permeable sandstones zones usually intercalated with some clay stone interbeds. As identified from well logs, Qishn sandstone is classified into subunits (S1A, S1B, S1C and S2) with different reservoir characteristics and hydrocarbon potentiality. A number of qualitative and quantitative well logging analyses are used to characterize the different subunits of the Qishn reservoir and identify its hydrocarbon potentiality. Dia-porosity, M-N, Pickett, Buckles plots, petrophysical analogs and lateral distribution maps are used in the analysis. Shale volume, lithology, porosity, and fluid saturation are among the most important deduced parameters. The analysis revealed that S1A and S1C are the main hydrocarbon-bearing units. More specifically, S1A unit is the best, as it attains the most prolific hydrocarbon saturations (oil saturation "SH″ up to 65) and reservoir characteristics. An average petrophysical ranges of 4-21%, 16-23%, 11-19%, 0-65%, are detected for S1A unit, regarding shale volume, total and effective porosity, and hydrocarbon saturation, respectively. Meanwhile, S1B unit exhibits less reservoir characteristics (Vsh>30%, ϕEffdata had clarified that the structure of study area is represented by a big middle horst bounded by a group of step-like normal faults at the extreme boundaries (faulted anticlinal-structure). In conclusion, the entrapment of the encountered hydrocarbon at Sharyoof oil field, seems to be due to the combined effect of the stratigraphic position of the Qishn reservoir clastics with their overlying thick-sealing sediments and the structural setting as represented by faulted anticlinal

  11. Characterization of the Insulin Reservoir in Rat Islets of Langerhans: Evaluation of Hormone Synthesis, Processing, Storage and Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gishizky, Mikhail Lev

    1988-12-01

    It has been reported that acute glucose stimulation of islets results in the preferential release of newly synthesized insulin. This suggests that the large islet hormone reservoir may represent a heterogeneous pool. In these investigation we characterized the nature of the islet hormone reservoir and evaluated possible mechanisms responsible for its regulation. Our studies demonstrated that under stimulated secretory conditions normal pancreatic islets secreted newly synthesized insulin in preference to their large stored hormone content. The preferential release pattern was observed with all secretogogues tested and was not restricted to a specific subset of islets. Aided by computer model analysis, we proposed that the islet insulin reservoir represented a heterogeneous pool composed of at least two hypothetical compartments--labile and stable. Evaluation of the islet hormone reservoir under different in vivo and in vitro conditions demonstrated that in response to prolonged stimulation, the hypothetical labile compartment apparently decreased in size. This augmentation in the compartmental character was associated with (1) decreased amount of insulin secreted, (2) increased proportion of newly synthesized insulin secreted, and (3) an increased rate of prohormone conversion with no alteration in the rate of hormone synthesis. Thus parameters which defined the islet hormone reservoir represented a dynamic system that responded to the islets milieu. Preferential release of newly synthesized insulin was not an intrinsic property of insulin secreting cells. Furthermore, the mechanism responsible for the compartmentalization of the insulin reservoir did not discriminate between the two non-allelic murine insulins. Our studies indicated that differences in the amino acid structure of the two prohormones apparently resulted in proinsulin I being transported to the conversion compartment faster than proinsulin II. However, glucose regulation of the synthesis and

  12. Characterization of the Qishn sandstone reservoir, Masila Basin-Yemen, using an integrated petrophysical and seismic structural approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashin, Aref; Marta, Ebrahim Bin; Khamis, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    This study presents an integrated petrophysical and seismic structural analysis that is carried out to evaluate the reservoir properties of Qishn sandstone as well as the entrapment style of the hydrocarbons at Sharyoof field, Sayun-Masila Basin that is located at the east central of Yemen. The reservoir rocks are dominated by clean porous and permeable sandstones zones usually intercalated with some clay stone interbeds. As identified from well logs, Qishn sandstone is classified into subunits (S1A, S1B, S1C and S2) with different reservoir characteristics and hydrocarbon potentiality. A number of qualitative and quantitative well logging analyses are used to characterize the different subunits of the Qishn reservoir and identify its hydrocarbon potentiality. Dia-porosity, M-N, Pickett, Buckles plots, petrophysical analogs and lateral distribution maps are used in the analysis. Shale volume, lithology, porosity, and fluid saturation are among the most important deduced parameters. The analysis revealed that S1A and S1C are the main hydrocarbon-bearing units. More specifically, S1A unit is the best, as it attains the most prolific hydrocarbon saturations (oil saturation "SH″ up to 65) and reservoir characteristics. An average petrophysical ranges of 4-21%, 16-23%, 11-19%, 0-65%, are detected for S1A unit, regarding shale volume, total and effective porosity, and hydrocarbon saturation, respectively. Meanwhile, S1B unit exhibits less reservoir characteristics (Vsh>30%, ϕEff<15% and SH< 15%). The lateral distribution maps revealed that most of the hydrocarbons (for S1A and S1C units) are indicated at the middle of the study area as NE-SW oriented closures. The analysis and interpretation of seismic data had clarified that the structure of study area is represented by a big middle horst bounded by a group of step-like normal faults at the extreme boundaries (faulted anticlinal-structure). In conclusion, the entrapment of the encountered hydrocarbon at Sharyoof oil

  13. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING BYPASSED OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS AND FRACTURED RESERVOIRS USING PARTITIONING TRACERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2003-08-01

    We explore the use of efficient streamline-based simulation approaches for modeling partitioning interwell tracer tests in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Specifically, we utilize the unique features of streamline models to develop an efficient approach for interpretation and history matching of field tracer response. A critical aspect here is the underdetermined and highly ill-posed nature of the associated inverse problems. We have adopted an integrated approach whereby we combine data from multiple sources to minimize the uncertainty and non-uniqueness in the interpreted results. For partitioning interwell tracer tests, these are primarily the distribution of reservoir permeability and oil saturation distribution. A novel approach to multiscale data integration using Markov Random Fields (MRF) has been developed to integrate static data sources from the reservoir such as core, well log and 3-D seismic data. We have also explored the use of a finite difference reservoir simulator, UTCHEM, for field-scale design and optimization of partitioning interwell tracer tests. The finite-difference model allows us to include detailed physics associated with reactive tracer transport, particularly those related with transverse and cross-streamline mechanisms. We have investigated the potential use of downhole tracer samplers and also the use of natural tracers for the design of partitioning tracer tests. Finally, the behavior of partitioning tracer tests in fractured reservoirs is investigated using a dual-porosity finite-difference model.

  14. Pilon field : characterization of heavy crude oil reservoir with gas cap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Urdaneta, R.; Sanchez, J. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Bague, O. [Beicip-Franlab, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2009-07-01

    The Pilon mature oilfield covers a surface area of 100 square kilometres in the region of the Orinoco oil belt in eastern Venezuela. A study was undertaken regarding 3 reservoirs, of which 2 show a gas cap, contrary to previous studies which established that only 1 reservoir had a gas cap. This paper presented a 3D structural model that was created by defining fault planes and stratigraphic horizons. Stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrophysics, and geostatistics were also discussed. The geostatistic model was developed using the following techniques: facies simulation bias; rock type modeling; and petrophysical inputs. Production analysis and reservoir pressure analysis were also presented. Fluids distribution was discussed in terms of oil water contact and gas oil contact. Material balance was also addressed in the paper. It was concluded that the stratigraphic model underlines the existence of 6 distinct geological units spanning the whole field. 5 refs., 5 tabs., 27 figs.

  15. Reservoir characterization of the Smackover Formation in southwest Alabama. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Hall, D.R.; Mann, S.D.; Tew, B.H.

    1993-02-01

    The Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation is found in an arcuate belt in the subsurface from south Texas to panhandle Florida. The Smackover is the most prolific hydrocarbon-producing formation in Alabama and is an important hydrocarbon reservoir from Florida to Texas. In this report Smackover hydrocarbon reservoirs in southwest Alabama are described. Also, the nine enhanced- and improved-recovery projects that have been undertaken in the Smackover of Alabama are evaluated. The report concludes with recommendations about potential future enhanced- and improved-recovery projects in Smackover reservoirs in Alabama and an estimate of the potential volume of liquid hydrocarbons recoverable by enhanced- and improved-recovery methods from the Smackover of Alabama.

  16. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  17. Metagenomic and geochemical characterization of pockmarked sediments overlaying the Troll petroleum reservoir in the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håvelsrud Othilde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pockmarks (depressions in the seabed have been discovered throughout the world’s oceans and are often related to hydrocarbon seepage. Although high concentrations of pockmarks are present in the seabed overlaying the Troll oil and gas reservoir in the northern North Sea, geological surveys have not detected hydrocarbon seepage in this area at the present time. In this study we have used metagenomics to characterize the prokaryotic communities inhabiting the surface sediments in the Troll area in relation to geochemical parameters, particularly related to hydrocarbon presence. We also investigated the possibility of increased potential for methane oxidation related to the pockmarks. Five metagenomes from pockmarks and plain seabed sediments were sequenced by pyrosequencing (Roche/454 technology. In addition, two metagenomes from seabed sediments geologically unlikely to be influenced by hydrocarbon seepage (the Oslofjord were included. The taxonomic distribution and metabolic potential of the metagenomes were analyzed by multivariate analysis and statistical comparisons to reveal variation within and between the two sampling areas. Results The main difference identified between the two sampling areas was an overabundance of predominantly autotrophic nitrifiers, especially Nitrosopumilus, and oligotrophic marine Gammaproteobacteria in the Troll metagenomes compared to the Oslofjord. Increased potential for degradation of hydrocarbons, especially aromatic hydrocarbons, was detected in two of the Troll samples: one pockmark sample and one from the plain seabed. Although presence of methanotrophic organisms was indicated in all samples, no overabundance in pockmark samples compared to the Oslofjord samples supports no, or only low level, methane seepage in the Troll pockmarks at the present time. Conclusions Given the relatively low content of total organic carbon and great depths of hydrocarbon containing sediments in the Troll

  18. Recent Advances in the Molecular Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowes, Lori E. [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 5C1 (Canada); Department of Oncology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 4L6 (Canada); Allan, Alison L., E-mail: alison.allan@lhsc.on.ca [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 5C1 (Canada); Department of Oncology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 4L6 (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON N6C 2R5 (Canada)

    2014-03-13

    Although circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were first observed over a century ago, lack of sensitive methodology precluded detailed study of these cells until recently. However, technological advances have now facilitated the identification, enumeration, and characterization of CTCs using a variety of methods. The majority of evidence supporting the use of CTCs in clinical decision-making has been related to enumeration using the CellSearch{sup ®} system and correlation with prognosis. Growing evidence also suggests that CTC monitoring can provide an early indication of patient treatment response based on comparison of CTC levels before and after therapy. However, perhaps the greatest potential that CTCs hold for oncology lies at the level of molecular characterization. Clinical treatment decisions may be more effective if they are based on molecular characteristics of metastatic cells rather than on those of the primary tumor alone. Molecular characterization of CTCs (which can be repeatedly isolated in a minimally invasive fashion) provides the opportunity for a “real-time liquid biopsy” that allows assessment of genetic drift, investigation of molecular disease evolution, and identification of actionable genomic characteristics. This review focuses on recent advances in this area, including approaches involving immunophenotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), multiplex RT-PCR, microarray, and genomic sequencing.

  19. Recent Advances in the Molecular Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori E. Lowes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although circulating tumor cells (CTCs were first observed over a century ago, lack of sensitive methodology precluded detailed study of these cells until recently. However, technological advances have now facilitated the identification, enumeration, and characterization of CTCs using a variety of methods. The majority of evidence supporting the use of CTCs in clinical decision-making has been related to enumeration using the CellSearch® system and correlation with prognosis. Growing evidence also suggests that CTC monitoring can provide an early indication of patient treatment response based on comparison of CTC levels before and after therapy. However, perhaps the greatest potential that CTCs hold for oncology lies at the level of molecular characterization. Clinical treatment decisions may be more effective if they are based on molecular characteristics of metastatic cells rather than on those of the primary tumor alone. Molecular characterization of CTCs (which can be repeatedly isolated in a minimally invasive fashion provides the opportunity for a “real-time liquid biopsy” that allows assessment of genetic drift, investigation of molecular disease evolution, and identification of actionable genomic characteristics. This review focuses on recent advances in this area, including approaches involving immunophenotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, multiplex RT-PCR, microarray, and genomic sequencing.

  20. Characterization of microbial diversity and community in water flooding oil reservoirs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lingxia; Ma, Ting; Gao, Mengli; Gao, Peike; Cao, Meina; Zhu, Xudong; Li, Guoqiang

    2012-10-01

    The diversity and distribution of bacterial and archaeal communities in four different water flooding oil reservoirs with different geological properties were investigated using 16S rDNA clone library construction method. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to analyze microbial community clustering and the correlation with environmental factors. The results indicated that the diversity and abundance in the bacterial communities were significantly higher than the archaeal communities, while both of them had high similarity within the communities respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that of compositions of bacterial communities were distinctly different both at phylum and genus level. Proteobacteria dominated in each bacterial community, ranging from 61.35 to 75.83 %, in which α-proteobacteria and γ-proteobacteria were the main groups. In comparison to bacterial communities, the compositions of archaeal communities were similar at phylum level, while varied at genus level, and the dominant population was Methanomicrobia, ranging from 65.91 to 92.74 % in the single oil reservoir. The factor that most significantly influenced the microbial communities in these reservoirs was found to be temperature. Other environmental factors also influenced the microbial communities but not significantly. It is therefore assumed that microbial communities are formed by an accumulated effect of several factors. These results are essential for understanding ecological environment of the water flooding oil reservoirs and providing scientific guidance to the performance of MEOR technology. PMID:22806743

  1. 4D seismic reservoir characterization, integrated with geo-mechanical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelov, P. V.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrocarbon production induces time-lapse changes in the seismic attributes (travel time and amplitude) both at the level of the producing reservoir and in the surrounding rock. The detected time-lapse changes in the seismic are induced from the changes in the petrophysical properties of the rock, i

  2. Characterization of a reservoir-type capillary optical microsensor for pCO(2) measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin, Kadriye; Klimant, Ingo; Neurauter, Gerhard; Wolfbeis, Otto S

    2003-02-01

    A reservoir type of capillary microsensor for pCO(2) measurements is presented. The sensor is based on the measurement of the fluorescence intensity of the anionic form of the pH indicator 1-hydroxy-3,6,8-pyrenetrisulfonate in the form of its ion pair with a quaternary ammonium base in an ethyl cellulose matrix. The glass capillary containing the reservoir sensor was prepared by immersing the tip of the optical fiber into the sensing agent very close to the sensor tip thus providing a very small volume for the sensing reaction. The purpose of the sensing approach is to regenerate the dye/buffer system by diffusion, which may be poisoned by interfering acids, or bleach by photolysis. The fresh cocktail from the reservoir takes the place of protonated form of the dye. The internal buffer system also makes the protonation-deprotonation equilibria reversible. The distal tip of the internal buffer containing reservoir is coated with a gas-permeable but ion-impermeable teflon membrane. The dynamic range for the detection of pCO(2) is between 1 and 20 hPa, which corresponds to the range of dissolved CO(2) in water. The response time is 15 s and the detection limit is 1 hPa of pCO(2.) The recovery performance of this sensor can be improved by means of mechanical adjustment of the sensor tip in a micrometric scale. PMID:18968907

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF IN-SITU STRESS AND PERMEABILITY IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

    2005-02-04

    Numerical modeling and field data tests are presented on the Transfer Function/Scattering Index Method for estimating fracture orientation and density in subsurface reservoirs from the ''coda'' or scattered energy in the seismic trace. Azimuthal stacks indicate that scattered energy is enhanced along the fracture strike direction. A transfer function method is used to more effectively indicate fracture orientation. The transfer function method, which involves a comparison of the seismic signature above and below a reservoir interval, effectively eliminates overburden effects and acquisition imprints in the analysis. The transfer function signature is simplified into a scattering index attribute value that gives fracture orientation and spatial variations of the fracture density within a field. The method is applied to two field data sets, a 3-D Ocean Bottom Cable (OBC) seismic data set from an offshore fractured carbonate reservoir in the Adriatic Sea and a 3-D seismic data set from an onshore fractured carbonate field in the Middle East. Scattering index values are computed in both fields at the reservoir level, and the results are compared to borehole breakout data and Formation MicroImager (FMI) logs in nearby wells. In both cases the scattering index results are in very good agreement with the well data. Field data tests and well validation will continue. In the area of technology transfer, we have made presentations of our results to industry groups at MIT technical review meetings, international technical conferences, industry workshops, and numerous exploration and production company visits.

  4. Characterization of the cyanobacterial biocenosis of a freshwater reservoir in Italy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mugnai, M. A.; Turicchia, S.; Margheri, M. C.; Sili, C.; Gugger, M.; Tedioli, G.; Komárek, Jiří; Ventura, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 109 (2003), s. 403-419. ISSN 0342-1120. [Symposium of the International Association for Cyanophyte Research /15./. Barcelona, 03.09.2001-07.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : freshwater reservoir * cyanobacterial diversity * morphology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  5. Ray-based stochastic inversion of prestack seismic data for improved reservoir characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Burg, D.; Verdel, A.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Trace inversion for reservoir parameters is affected by angle averaging of seismic data and wavelet distortion on the migration image. In an alternative approach to stochastic trace inversion, the data are inverted prestack before migration using 3D dynamic ray tracing. This choice makes it possible

  6. Characterization of heterogeneous reservoirs: sentinels method and quantification of uncertainties; Caracterisation des reservoirs heterogenes: methode des sentinelles et quantification des incertitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezghani, M.

    1999-02-11

    The aim of this thesis is to propose a new inversion method to allow both an improved reservoir characterization and a management of uncertainties. In this approach, the identification of the permeability distribution is conducted using the sentinel method in order to match the pressure data. This approach, based on optimal control theory, can be seen as an alternative of least-squares method. Here, we prove the existence of exact sentinels under regularity hypothesis. From a numerical point of view, we consider regularized sentinels. We suggest a novel approach to update the penalization coefficient in order to improve numerical robustness. Moreover, the flexibility of the sentinel method enables to develop a way to treat noisy pressure data. To deal with geostatistical modelling of permeability distribution, we propose to link the pilot point method with sentinels to reach the identification of permeability. We particularly focus on the optimal location of pilot points. Finally, we present an original method, based on adjoint state computations, to quantify the dynamic data contribution to the characterisation of a calibrated geostatistical model. (author) 67 refs.

  7. Advances in characterizing ubiquitylation sites by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvestersen, K.B.; Young, C.; Nielsen, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    ubiquitylation is a two-fold challenge that involves the mapping of ubiquitylation sites and the determination of ubiquitin chain topology. This review focuses on the technical advances in the mass spectrometry-based characterization of ubiquitylation sites, which have recently involved the large......The attachment of one or more ubiquitin moieties to proteins plays a central regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic cells. Protein ubiquitylation regulates numerous cellular processes, including protein degradation, signal transduction, DNA repair and cell division. The characterization of......-scale identification of ubiquitylation sites by peptide-level enrichment strategies. The discovery that ubiquitylation is a widespread modification similar to phosphorylation and acetylation suggests cross-talk may also occur at the post translational modification level. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd....

  8. Geological and petrophysical characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1995-05-02

    The objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and quantitative characterization of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir which will allow realistic inter-well and reservoir-scale modeling to be developed for improved oil-field development in similar reservoirs world-wide. The geological and petrophysical properties of the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone in east-central Utah will be quantitatively determined. Both new and existing data will be integrated into a three-dimensional representation of spatial variations in porosity, storativity, and tensorial rock permeability at a scale appropriate for inter-well to regional-scale reservoir simulation. Results could improve reservoir management through proper infill and extension drilling strategies, reduction of economic risks, increased recovery from existing oil fields, and more reliable reserve calculations. Transfer of the project results to the petroleum industry is an integral component of the project.

  9. Multicomponent seismic reservoir characterization of a steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) heavy oil project, Athabasca oil sands, Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltz, Kelsey Kristine

    Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is an in situ heavy oil recovery method involving the injection of steam in horizontal wells. Time-lapse seismic analysis over a SAGD project in the Athabasca oil sands deposit of Alberta reveals that the SAGD steam chamber has not developed uniformly. Core data confirm the presence of low permeability shale bodies within the reservoir. These shales can act as barriers and baffles to steam and limit production by prohibiting steam from accessing the full extent of the reservoir. Seismic data can be used to identify these shale breaks prior to siting new SAGD well pairs in order to optimize field development. To identify shale breaks in the study area, three types of seismic inversion and a probabilistic neural network prediction were performed. The predictive value of each result was evaluated by comparing the position of interpreted shales with the boundaries of the steam chamber determined through time-lapse analysis. The P-impedance result from post-stack inversion did not contain enough detail to be able to predict the vertical boundaries of the steam chamber but did show some predictive value in a spatial sense. P-impedance from pre-stack inversion exhibited some meaningful correlations with the steam chamber but was misleading in many crucial areas, particularly the lower reservoir. Density estimated through the application of a probabilistic neural network (PNN) trained using both PP and PS attributes identified shales most accurately. The interpreted shales from this result exhibit a strong relationship with the boundaries of the steam chamber, leading to the conclusion that the PNN method can be used to make predictions about steam chamber growth. In this study, reservoir characterization incorporating multicomponent seismic data demonstrated a high predictive value and could be useful in evaluating future well placement.

  10. Geology and petrophysical characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Annual report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.; Anderson, P.B.; Morris, T.H.; Dewey, J.A. Jr.; Mattson, A.; Foster, C.B.; Snelgrove, S.H.; Ryer, T.A.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of the Ferron Sandstone (Utah) project is to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, quantitative characterization of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir to allow realistic interwell and reservoir-scale models to be developed for improved oil-field development in similar reservoirs world-wide. Both new and existing data is being integrated into a 3-D model of spatial variations in porosity, storativity, and tensorial rock permeability at a scale appropriate for inter-well to regional-scale reservoir simulation. Simulation results could improve reservoir management through proper infill and extension drilling strategies, reduction of economic risks, increased recovery from existing oil fields, and more reliable reserve calculations. The project is divided into four tasks: (1) regional stratigraphic analysis, (2) case studies, (3) reservoirs models, and (4) field-scale evaluation of exploration strategies. The primary objective of the regional stratigraphic analysis is to provide a more detailed interpretation of the stratigraphy and gross reservoir characteristics of the Ferron Sandstone as exposed in outcrop. The primary objective of the case-studies work is to develop a detailed geological and petrophysical characterization, at well-sweep scale or smaller, of the primary reservoir lithofacies typically found in a fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoir. Work on tasks 3 and 4 consisted of developing two- and three-dimensional reservoir models at various scales. The bulk of the work on these tasks is being completed primarily during the last year of the project, and is incorporating the data and results of the regional stratigraphic analysis and case-studies tasks.

  11. Reservoir characterization and performance predictions for the E.N. Woods lease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aka-Milan, Francis A.

    2000-07-07

    The task of this work was to evaluate the past performance of the E.N. WOODS Unit and to forecast its future economic performance by taking into consideration the geology, petrophysics and production history of the reservoir. The Decline Curve Analysis feature of the Appraisal of Petroleum Properties including Taxation Systems (EDAPT) software along with the Production Management Systems (PMS) software were used to evaluate the original volume of hydrocarbon in place and estimate the reserve. The Black Oil Simulator (BOAST II) was then used to model the waterflooding operation and estimate the incremental oil production attributable to the water injection. BOAST II was also used to predict future performance of the reservoir.

  12. Analysis of production data to improve characterization of in-situ megascopic reservoir permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, S.; Herweijer, J.; Kuppe, F.

    2000-07-01

    The process described in this paper demonstrates how permeabilities derived from production data complement core data and relatively short duration pressure transient analysis. Specifically, the study demonstrates how to interpret core and well test kh (permeability value) relative to production kh; generate effective kh values for a megascopic scale in fluvial environments, and to take into account hydraulic fractures and/or naturally occurring high permeability streaks. It also facilitates upscaling the core plug permeability to the megascopic simulation scale, allowing the reservoir simulation model to be preconditioned, thereby reducing the time required to achieve a history match. The process also demonstrates how a comparison of effective/average permeability values at various scales reveals information about reservoir quality and connectivity, and how interwell megascopic representation of permeability can be improved by using inverted decline curve (IDC) and reciprocal productivity index (RPI) techniques. 11 refs., 12 figs.

  13. A review on multicomponent seismology: A potential seismic application for reservoir characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Farfour, Mohammed; Yoon, Wang Jung

    2015-01-01

    Searching for hydrocarbon reserves in deep subsurface is the main concern of wide community of geophysicists and geoscientists in petroleum industry. Exploration seismology has substantially contributed to finding and developing giant fields worldwide. The technology has evolved from two to three-dimensional method, and later added a fourth dimension for reservoir monitoring. Continuous depletion of many old fields and the increasing world consumption of crude oil pushed to consistently searc...

  14. Reservoir architecture modeling: Nonstationary models for quantitative geological characterization. Final report, April 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, D.; Epili, D.; Kelkar, M.; Redner, R.; Reynolds, A.

    1998-12-01

    The study was comprised of four investigations: facies architecture; seismic modeling and interpretation; Markov random field and Boolean models for geologic modeling of facies distribution; and estimation of geological architecture using the Bayesian/maximum entropy approach. This report discusses results from all four investigations. Investigations were performed using data from the E and F units of the Middle Frio Formation, Stratton Field, one of the major reservoir intervals in the Gulf Coast Basin.

  15. RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LOWER GREEN RIVER FORMATION, SOUTHWEST UINTA BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Robert Bereskin

    2003-02-11

    Anastamosing, low gradient distributary channels produce {approx}30 gravity, paraffinic oils from the Middle Member of the lacustrine Eocene Green River Formation in the south-central portion of the Uinta Basin. This localized depocenter was situated along the fluctuating southern shoreline of Lake Uinta, where complex deposits of marginal-lacustrine to lower delta plain accumulations are especially characteristic. The Middle Member contains several fining-upward parasequences that can be recognized in outcrop, core, and downhole logs. Each parasequence is about 60 to 120 feet thick and consists of strata deposited during multiple lake level fluctuations that approach 30 to 35 feet in individual thickness. Such parasequences represent 300,000-year cycles based on limited absolute age dating. The subaerial to subaqueous channels commonly possess an erosional base and exhibit a fining upward character. Accordingly, bedding features commonly range from large-scale trough and planar cross bedding or lamination at the base, to a nonreservoir, climbing ripple assemblage near the uppermost reservoir boundary. The best reservoir quality occurs within the laminated to cross-stratified portions, and the climbing ripple phase usually possesses more deleterious micas and/or detrital clays. Diagenesis also exerts a major control on reservoir quality. Certain sandstones were cemented by an early, iron-poor calcite cement, which can be subsequently leached. Secondary intergranular porosity (up to 20%) is largely responsible for the 10 -100 millidarcy rock, which represents petrophysical objectives for both primary and secondary production. Otherwise, intense compaction, silicic and iron-rich carbonate cements, and authigenic clays serve to reduce reservoir quality to marginal economic levels.

  16. Reservoir fluid characterization of Lirik's oil field using tritium radio-tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five curie tritium in the tritiated water compound (HTO) was injected into oil reservoir of Lirik field. The purpose was to obtain water injection efficiency, to determine fluid behavior within the servoir system, and to confirm upon interpretation of some geologic parameters of the field. Dispersion coefficient, magnitude and direction of fluid could also be evaluated based on tracer recovery of water samples taken from 3 monitor wells. (author). 5 refs. 6 figs

  17. Source term characterization for the radioactive contamination of a river - reservoir system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The source term for radioactive contamination of the Doamnei-Arges river - reservoir system is more than 90% composed by 58 Co and 60 Co from TRIGA reactors cooling system. Measurable amounts of 137 Cs from Chernobyl accident fallout (1986) is coming into the system from atmosphere (resuspension) and from the catchment area (soil erosion). In this paper, a quantitative analysis of the three contamination pathways is performed. (authors)

  18. A novel methodology improves reservoir characterization models using geologic fuzzy variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto B, Rodolfo [DIGITOIL, Maracaibo (Venezuela); Soto O, David A. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    One of the research projects carried out in Cusiana field to explain its rapid decline during the last years was to get better permeability models. The reservoir of this field has a complex layered system that it is not easy to model using conventional methods. The new technique included the development of porosity and permeability maps from cored wells following the same trend of the sand depositions for each facie or layer according to the sedimentary facie and the depositional system models. Then, we used fuzzy logic to reproduce those maps in three dimensions as geologic fuzzy variables. After multivariate statistical and factor analyses, we found independence and a good correlation coefficient between the geologic fuzzy variables and core permeability and porosity. This means, the geologic fuzzy variable could explain the fabric, the grain size and the pore geometry of the reservoir rock trough the field. Finally, we developed a neural network permeability model using porosity, gamma ray and the geologic fuzzy variable as input variables. This model has a cross-correlation coefficient of 0.873 and average absolute error of 33% compared with the actual model with a correlation coefficient of 0.511 and absolute error greater than 250%. We tested different methodologies, but this new one showed dramatically be a promiser way to get better permeability models. The use of the models have had a high impact in the explanation of well performance and workovers, and reservoir simulation models. (author)

  19. A Novel Homogenous Hybridization Scheme for Performance Improvement of Support Vector Machines Regression in Reservoir Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabiru O. Akande

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid computational intelligence is defined as a combination of multiple intelligent algorithms such that the resulting model has superior performance to the individual algorithms. Therefore, the importance of fusing two or more intelligent algorithms to achieve better performance cannot be overemphasized. In this work, a novel homogenous hybridization scheme is proposed for the improvement of the generalization and predictive ability of support vector machines regression (SVR. The proposed and developed hybrid SVR (HSVR works by considering the initial SVR prediction as a feature extraction process and then employs the SVR output, which is the extracted feature, as its sole descriptor. The developed hybrid model is applied to the prediction of reservoir permeability and the predicted permeability is compared to core permeability which is regarded as standard in petroleum industry. The results show that the proposed hybrid scheme (HSVR performed better than the existing SVR in both generalization and prediction ability. The outcome of this research will assist petroleum engineers to effectively predict permeability of carbonate reservoirs with higher degree of accuracy and will invariably lead to better reservoir. Furthermore, the encouraging performance of this hybrid will serve as impetus for further exploring homogenous hybrid system.

  20. Silurian "Clinton" Sandstone Reservoir Characterization for Evaluation of CO2-EOR Potential in the East Canton Oil Field, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Riley; John Wicks; Christopher Perry

    2009-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the East Canton oil field (ECOF). Discovered in 1947, the ECOF in northeastern Ohio has produced approximately 95 million barrels (MMbbl) of oil from the Silurian 'Clinton' sandstone. The original oil-in-place (OOIP) for this field was approximately 1.5 billion bbl and this study estimates by modeling known reservoir parameters, that between 76 and 279 MMbbl of additional oil could be produced through secondary recovery in this field, depending on the fluid and formation response to CO2 injection. A CO2 cyclic test ('Huff-n-Puff') was conducted on a well in Stark County to test the injectivity in a 'Clinton'-producing oil well in the ECOF and estimate the dispersion or potential breakthrough of the CO2 to surrounding wells. Eighty-one tons of CO2 (1.39 MMCF) were injected over a 20-hour period, after which the well was shut in for a 32-day 'soak' period before production was resumed. Results demonstrated injection rates of 1.67 MMCF of gas per day, which was much higher than anticipated and no CO2 was detected in gas samples taken from eight immediately offsetting observation wells. All data collected during this test was analyzed, interpreted, and incorporated into the reservoir characterization study and used to develop the geologic model. The geologic model was used as input into a reservoir simulation performed by Fekete Associates, Inc., to estimate the behavior of reservoir fluids when large quantities of CO2 are injected into the 'Clinton' sandstone. Results strongly suggest that the majority of the injected CO2 entered the matrix porosity of the reservoir pay zones, where it diffused into the oil. Evidence includes: (A) the volume of injected CO2 greatly exceeded the estimated capacity of the hydraulic fracture and natural fractures; (B) there was a gradual injection and pressure rate build-up during the test

  1. Silurian "Clinton" Sandstone Reservoir Characterization for Evaluation of CO2-EOR Potential in the East Canton Oil Field, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Ronald; Wicks, John; Perry, Christopher

    2009-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the East Canton oil field (ECOF). Discovered in 1947, the ECOF in northeastern Ohio has produced approximately 95 million barrels (MMbbl) of oil from the Silurian “Clinton” sandstone. The original oil-in-place (OOIP) for this field was approximately 1.5 billion bbl and this study estimates by modeling known reservoir parameters, that between 76 and 279 MMbbl of additional oil could be produced through secondary recovery in this field, depending on the fluid and formation response to CO2 injection. A CO2 cyclic test (“Huff-n-Puff”) was conducted on a well in Stark County to test the injectivity in a “Clinton”-producing oil well in the ECOF and estimate the dispersion or potential breakthrough of the CO2 to surrounding wells. Eighty-one tons of CO2 (1.39 MMCF) were injected over a 20-hour period, after which the well was shut in for a 32-day “soak” period before production was resumed. Results demonstrated injection rates of 1.67 MMCF of gas per day, which was much higher than anticipated and no CO2 was detected in gas samples taken from eight immediately offsetting observation wells. All data collected during this test was analyzed, interpreted, and incorporated into the reservoir characterization study and used to develop the geologic model. The geologic model was used as input into a reservoir simulation performed by Fekete Associates, Inc., to estimate the behavior of reservoir fluids when large quantities of CO2 are injected into the “Clinton” sandstone. Results strongly suggest that the majority of the injected CO2 entered the matrix porosity of the reservoir pay zones, where it diffused into the oil. Evidence includes: (A) the volume of injected CO2 greatly exceeded the estimated capacity of the hydraulic fracture and natural fractures; (B) there was a gradual injection and pressure rate build-up during the test; (C) there was a subsequent

  2. Mask characterization for CDU budget breakdown in advanced EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolsky, Peter; Strolenberg, Chris; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nooitgedacht, Tjitte; Davydova, Natalia; Yang, Greg; Lee, Shawn; Park, Chang-Min; Kim, Insung; Yeo, Jeong-Ho

    2012-11-01

    As the ITRS Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) specification shrinks, semiconductor companies need to maintain a high yield of good wafers per day and a high performance (and hence market value) of finished products. This cannot be achieved without continuous analysis and improvement of on-product CDU as one of the main drivers for process control and optimization with better understanding of main contributors from the litho cluster: mask, process, metrology and scanner. In this paper we will demonstrate a study of mask CDU characterization and its impact on CDU Budget Breakdown (CDU BB) performed for an advanced EUV lithography with 1D and 2D feature cases. We will show that this CDU contributor is one of the main differentiators between well-known ArFi and new EUV CDU budgeting principles. We found that reticle contribution to intrafield CDU should be characterized in a specific way: mask absorber thickness fingerprints play a role comparable with reticle CDU in the total reticle part of the CDU budget. Wafer CD fingerprints, introduced by this contributor, may or may not compensate variations of mask CD's and hence influence on total mask impact on intrafield CDU at the wafer level. This will be shown on 1D and 2D feature examples in this paper. Also mask stack reflectivity variations should be taken into account: these fingerprints have visible impact on intrafield CDs at the wafer level and should be considered as another contributor to the reticle part of EUV CDU budget. We observed also MEEF-through-field fingerprints in the studied EUV cases. Variations of MEEF may also play a role for the total intrafield CDU and may be taken into account for EUV Lithography. We characterized MEEF-through-field for the reviewed features, the results to be discussed in our paper, but further analysis of this phenomenon is required. This comprehensive approach to characterization of the mask part of EUV CDU characterization delivers an accurate and integral CDU Budget

  3. Fracture and vein characterization of a crystalline basement reservoir, central Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, R.; Grasemann, B.; Decker, K.; Bischoff, R.; Rice, A. H. N.

    2012-04-01

    The country of Yemen is located in the south-western part of the Arabian plate. The Pan-African basement found in western and central Yemen is highly deformed during the Proterozoic eon and is part of the Arabian-Nubian shield ANS (670-540Ma). This ANS is a result of the amalgamation of high-grade gneiss terranes and low-grade island arcs. The development of an extensive horst-and-graben system related to the breakup of Gondwana in the Mesozoic, has reactivated the Pan-African basement along NW-SE trending normal faults. As a result, younger Meosozoic marls, sandstones, clastics and limestones are unconformably overlying the basement. Some of these formations act as a source and/or reservoir for hydrocarbons. Due to fracturing of the basement, hydrocarbons have migrated horizontally into the basement, causing the crystalline basement to be a potential hydrocarbon reservoir. Unfortunately, little is known about the Pan-African basement in Central Yemen and due its potential as a reservoir, the deformation and oil migration history (with a main focus on the fracturing and veining history) of the basement is investigated in high detail. Representative samples are taken from 2 different wells from the Habban Field reservoir, located approximately 320 ESE of Sana'a. These samples are analysed using e.g. the Optical Microscope, SEM, EDX and CL, but also by doing Rb-Sr age dating, isotope analysis and fluid inclusion analysis. In well 1, the only lithology present is an altered gneiss with relative large (<5 cm diameter) multi-mineralic veins. In well 3, quartzite (top), gneiss (middle) and quartz porphyry's (middle) are intruded by a so called "younger" granitoid body (592.6±4.1Ma). All lithologies record polyphase systems of mineral veins. Pyrite and saddle dolomite in these veins have euhedral shapes, which means that they have grown in open cavities. Calcite is the youngest mineral in these veins, closing the vein and aborting the fluid flow. Fluid inclusions inside

  4. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: wasoares@sp.gov.br, E-mail: gquinaglia@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2013-07-01

    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  5. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  6. Fracture characterization by fusion of geophysical and geomechanical data: a case study from the Asmari reservoir, the Central Zagros fold-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosari, Ehsan; Ghareh-Cheloo, Sajjad; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali; Bahroudi, Abbas

    2015-02-01

    Fractured reservoirs contain a large proportion of hydrocarbon reserves in the Middle East. In these types of reservoirs, a variety of fracture types and networks provide the required permeability for hydrocarbon storage and flow. Fractured reservoir characterization has been challenging to petroleum geoscientists and reservoir engineers in terms of developing new approaches in this direction. A variety of techniques have been developed in the literature to study the distribution and the impact of fracture pore types on reservoir characterization. However, such techniques are not suitable for subsurface cases where prediction of fractures become troublesome and each of the developed techniques has its own advantages and limitations. In this study, an integrated approach is proposed for fracture characterization by employing different sources of data including 3D seismic attributes, geomechanical parameters, unconventional logs (image log and nuclear magnetic response (NMR) log), velocity-deviation log (VDL), conventional well logs, and routine core analysis data. Based on the azimuths of horizontal principal stresses and natural fractures, location of the wells over the structure hanging wall is determined. Interpretation of the seismic profiles from the study area indicated a fault-related fold structure style with fault throws controlling the magnitude of curvature. Moreover, fracture distribution of the Asmari reservoir is predicted by using curvature attribute, geomechanical parameters and horizontal slices of VDL. It seems that fractures probably have a much higher distribution at zone 1 and zone 3 of the Asmari formation.

  7. Fracture characterization by fusion of geophysical and geomechanical data: a case study from the Asmari reservoir, the Central Zagros fold-thrust belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractured reservoirs contain a large proportion of hydrocarbon reserves in the Middle East. In these types of reservoirs, a variety of fracture types and networks provide the required permeability for hydrocarbon storage and flow. Fractured reservoir characterization has been challenging to petroleum geoscientists and reservoir engineers in terms of developing new approaches in this direction. A variety of techniques have been developed in the literature to study the distribution and the impact of fracture pore types on reservoir characterization. However, such techniques are not suitable for subsurface cases where prediction of fractures become troublesome and each of the developed techniques has its own advantages and limitations. In this study, an integrated approach is proposed for fracture characterization by employing different sources of data including 3D seismic attributes, geomechanical parameters, unconventional logs (image log and nuclear magnetic response (NMR) log), velocity-deviation log (VDL), conventional well logs, and routine core analysis data. Based on the azimuths of horizontal principal stresses and natural fractures, location of the wells over the structure hanging wall is determined. Interpretation of the seismic profiles from the study area indicated a fault-related fold structure style with fault throws controlling the magnitude of curvature. Moreover, fracture distribution of the Asmari reservoir is predicted by using curvature attribute, geomechanical parameters and horizontal slices of VDL. It seems that fractures probably have a much higher distribution at zone 1 and zone 3 of the Asmari formation. (paper)

  8. Rock-physics-based carbonate pore type characterization and reservoir permeability heterogeneity evaluation, Upper San Andres reservoir, Permian Basin, west Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Qifeng; Sun, Yuefeng; Sullivan, Charlotte

    2011-05-01

    In addition to mineral composition and pore fluid, pore type variations play an important role in affecting the complexity of velocity-porosity relationship and permeability heterogeneity of carbonate reservoirs. Without consideration of pore type diversity, most rock physics models applicable to clastic rocks for explaining the rock acoustic properties and reservoir parameters relationship may not work well for carbonate reservoirs. A frame flexibility factor ( γ) defined in a new carbonate rock physics model can quantify the effect of pore structure changes on seismic wave velocity and permeability heterogeneity in carbonate reservoirs. Our study of an Upper San Andres carbonate reservoir, Permian Basin, shows that for core samples of given porosity, the lower the frame flexibility factor ( γ), the higher the sonic wave velocity. For the studied reservoir, samples with frame flexibility factor ( γ) 3.85 indicate either dominant interparticle pore space in dolopackstone or microcrack pore space in dolowackstone or dolomudstone. Using the frame flexibility factor ( γ), different porosity-impedance and porosity-permeability trends can be classified with clear geologic interpretation such as pore type and rock texture variations to improve porosity and permeability prediction accuracy. New porosity-permeability relations with γ classification help delineate permeability heterogeneity in the Upper San Andres reservoir, and could be useful for other similar carbonate reservoir studies. In addition, results from analysis of amplitude variation with offset (AVO) and impedance modeling indicate that by combining rock physics model and pre-stack seismic inversion, simultaneous estimation of porosity and frame flexibility factor ( γ) is quite feasible because of the strong influence of carbonate pore types on AVO especially when offset is large.

  9. Photonic Crystals: Advances in Design, Fabrication, and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Kurt; Lölkes, Stefan; Wehrspohn, Ralf B.; Föll, Helmut

    2004-03-01

    The majority of the contributions in this topically edited book stems from the priority program SPP 1113 "Photonische Kristalle" run by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), resulting in a survey of the current state of photonic crystal research in Germany. The first part of the book describes methods for the theoretical analysis of their optical properties as well as the results. The main part is dedicated to the fabrication, characterization and modeling of two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals, while the final section presents a wide spectrum of applications: gas sensors, micro-lasers, and photonic crystal fibers. Illustrated in full color, this book is not only of interest to advanced students and researchers in physics, electrical engineering, and material science, but also to company R&D departments involved in photonic crystal-related technological developments.

  10. Geological characterization of Italian reservoirs and numerical 3D modelling of CO2 storage scenarios into saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, S.; Moia, F.; Guandalini, R.; Cappelletti, F.

    2012-04-01

    The research activities carried out by the Environment and Sustainable Development Department of RSE S.p.A. aim to evaluate the feasibility of CO2 geological sequestration in Italy, with particular reference to the storage into saline aquifers. The identification and geological characterization of the Italian potential storage sites, together with the study of the temporal and spatial evolution of the CO2 plume within the caprock-reservoir system, are performed using different modelling tools available in the Integrated Analysis Modelling System (SIAM) entirely powered in RSE. The numerical modelling approach is the only one that allows to investigate the behaviour of the injected CO2 regarding the fluid dynamic, geochemical and geomechanical aspects and effects due to its spread, in order to verify the safety of the process. The SIAM tools allow: - Selection of potential Italian storage sites through geological and geophysical data collected in the GIS-CO2 web database; - Characterization of caprock and aquifer parameters, seismic risk and environmental link for the selected site; - Creation of the 3D simulation model for the selected domain, using the modeller METHODRdS powered by RSE and the mesh generator GMSH; - Simulation of the injection and the displacement of CO2: multiphase fluid 3D dynamics is based on the modified version of TOUGH2 model; - Evaluation of geochemical reaction effects; - Evaluation of geomechanic effects, using the coupled 3D CANT-SD finite elements code; - Detailed local analysis through the use of open source auxiliary tools, such as SHEMAT and FEHM. - 3D graphic analysis of the results. These numerical tools have been successfully used for simulating the injection and the spread of CO2 into several real Italian reservoirs and have allowed to achieve accurate results in terms of effective storage capacity and safety analysis. The 3D geological models represent the high geological complexity of the Italian subsoil, where reservoirs are

  11. Identification and characterization of HIV-1 latent viral reservoirs in peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chargin, Amanda; Yin, Fangfang; Song, Min; Subramaniam, Srividyabhuvaneswari; Knutson, Grace; Patterson, Bruce K

    2015-01-01

    Plasma viral load and CD4 counts are effective for clinical monitoring, but they do not give a full representation of HIV-1 quasispecies in cellular reservoirs, the major repository of replication-competent HIV-1 in infected individuals. We sought to develop a diagnostic system that might stimulate the replication-competent HIV-1 reservoirs for enhanced clinical monitoring, including selection of antiretroviral regimens. Whole-blood samples from 45 HIV-infected individuals were collected into 1 ViraStim HIV-1 activation tube and 1 EDTA tube. Samples were tested for viral load and cell type-specific HIV-1 replication. Further, 7 matched activated/nonactivated samples were sequenced using the Trugene HIV-1 genotyping kit. The percentage of patients with replication-competent virus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) varied, depending on the baseline plasma viral load in the EDTA tubes. Six out of 24 patients with a starting plasma viral load of 20 and 1,000 all showed increases in viral replication of >5-fold. These increases came from cellular reservoirs in blood as determined by simultaneous ultrasensitive subpopulation staining/hybridization in situ (SUSHI). When resistance genotypes in plasma from activation tubes were compared to those from EDTA tubes for 7 patients, all patients showed additional mutations in the activation tube, while 3 patients demonstrated additional genotypic resistance determinants. We show that HIV-1 viral replication can be stimulated directly from infected whole blood. The sequencing results showed that 3 of 7 cases demonstrated additional drug resistance following stimulation. PMID:25339403

  12. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING BYPASSED OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS AND FRACTURED RESERVOIRS USING PARTITIONING TRACERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2004-08-01

    We explore the use of efficient streamline-based simulation approaches for modeling and analysis partitioning interwell tracer tests in heterogeneous and fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs. The streamline approach is generalized to model water injection in naturally fractured reservoirs through the use of a dual media approach. The fractures and matrix are treated as separate continua that are connected through a transfer function, as in conventional finite difference simulators for modeling fractured systems. A detailed comparison with a commercial finite difference simulator shows very good agreement. Furthermore, an examination of the scaling behavior of the computation time indicates that the streamline approach is likely to result in significant savings for large-scale field applications. We also propose a novel approach to history matching finite-difference models that combines the advantage of the streamline models with the versatility of finite-difference simulation. In our approach, we utilize the streamline-derived sensitivities to facilitate history matching during finite-difference simulation. The use of finite-difference model allows us to account for detailed process physics and compressibility effects. The approach is very fast and avoids much of the subjective judgments and time-consuming trial-and-errors associated with manual history matching. We demonstrate the power and utility of our approach using a synthetic example and two field examples. Finally, we discuss several alternative ways of using partitioning interwell tracer tests (PITTs) in oil fields for the calculation of oil saturation, swept pore volume and sweep efficiency, and assess the accuracy of such tests under a variety of reservoir conditions.

  13. Characterization of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Niholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) 140-W radioisotope power system. While the ASRG flight development project has ended, the hardware that was designed and built under the project is continuing to be tested to support future Stirling-based power system development. NASA Glenn Research Center recently completed the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2). The ASRG EU2 consists of the first pair of Sunpower's Advanced Stirling Convertor E3 (ASC-E3) Stirling convertors mounted in an aluminum housing, and Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller (a fourth-generation controller). The ASC-E3 convertors and Generator Housing Assembly (GHA) closely match the intended ASRG Qualification Unit flight design. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the EU2, its controller, and the convertors in the flight-like GHA. The GHA contained an argon cover gas for these tests. The tests included measurement of convertor, controller, and generator performance and efficiency; quantification of control authority of the controller; disturbance force measurement with varying piston phase and piston amplitude; and measurement of the effect of spacecraft direct current (DC) bus voltage on EU2 performance. The results of these tests are discussed and summarized, providing a basic understanding of EU2 characteristics and the performance and capability of the EDU 4 controller.

  14. Characterization of advanced polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) targets for TNSA laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L., E-mail: Lorenzo.Torrisi@unime.it [Department of Physics and Earth Science, Messina University, V.le F.S. d’Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Cutroneo, M.; Semian, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute, ASCR, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Ceccio, G. [Department of Physics and Earth Science, Messina University, V.le F.S. d’Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • The manuscript presents the procedure to prepare thin advanced targets based on PMMA polymer in order to obtain high ion acceleration in laser-generated plasma. • The manuscript is original for the procedures of polymer preparation and preliminary techniques used. - Abstract: Characterization of advanced micrometric foils suitable for TNSA regime were performed using optical spectroscopy, microscopy and Nd:YAG low laser intensity. Micrometric acrylic beads were produced in polymethylmethacrylate foils through complex physical and technical procedures in order to enhance the absorption coefficient in the IR region. Moreover, Au nanoparticles were embedded in the polymer in order to induce surface plasmon resonance absorption and plasma electron density enhancement. The suitably prepared polymers were investigated at low laser intensity to have evidence of their capability to absorb IR wavelength radiations and promote enhancement of the plasma temperature and density. Results indicate that the high transparence of PMMA foils can be strongly reduced by the presences of the micrometric acrylic beads and that the obtainable laser-generated plasma improves the ion acceleration when high beads density and high Au nanoparticles concentrations are employed.

  15. Characterization of hydrogen embrittlement in automotive advanced high strength steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, O.; Veith, S.; Goebel, T. [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany); Loidl, M.

    2011-12-15

    Hydrogen embrittlement is the limiting factor when it comes to the utilization of advanced highest strength steels in a car body frame. Steels with a tensile strength of greater than 1000 MPa are deemed to be susceptible to hydrogen induced delayed fracture and therefore are not yet widely used. To characterize the deleterious effects of hydrogen embrittlement in advanced highest strength steels the slow strain rate testing in gaseous hydrogen atmosphere is a suitable method for investigating the effect of hydrogen on the materials ductility. Additionally the hydrogen content after slow strain rate testing was measured by means of thermal desorption spectroscopy. By using this technique it is possible to differentiate between diffusible and trapped hydrogen. Diffusible hydrogen may interact with dislocations and therefore changes the fracture behaviour of metals. This was also documented by analysing the fracture surface of the tensile specimen by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The investigations yield a comprehensive view on the susceptibility towards hydrogen induced cracking and allow a comparative view among different steel grades. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Spatial/Temporal Characterization and Risk Assessment of Trace Metals in Mangla Reservoir, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saleem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite water samples were collected from different sites of Mangla reservoir, Pakistan, in premonsoon, monsoon, and postmonsoon seasons. The physicochemical parameters and trace/heavy metals were determined in all water samples. The results manifested significant seasonal variations among Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb and the metals exhibited highest contribution in premonsoon season except Mn. Principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis (CA revealed considerable anthropogenic intrusions in the reservoir. Probable risk associated with the metals levels on human health was also evaluated using hazard quotients (HQ by ingestion and dermal routes for adults and children. It was noted that Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb (HQing>1 were the most important pollutants leading to noncarcinogenic concerns. The HQderm levels of all metals were below unity, suggesting that these metals posed no hazards via dermal absorption, while the oral intake was the major exposure pathway. The largest contributors to chronic risks were Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb in all the seasons. Therefore, immediate measures should be taken for sustaining the healthy aquatic ecosystem.

  17. Development of a X-ray micro-tomograph and its application to reservoir rocks characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the construction and application to studies in three dimensions of a laboratory micro-tomograph for the characterisation of heterogeneous solids at the scale of a few microns. The system is based on an electron microprobe and a two dimensional X-ray detector. The use of a low beam divergence for image acquisition allows use of simple and rapid reconstruction software whilst retaining reasonable acquisition times. Spatial resolutions of better than 3 microns in radiography and 10 microns in tomography are obtained. The applications of microtomography in the petroleum industry are illustrated by the study of fibre orientation in polymer composites, of the distribution of minerals and pore space in reservoir rocks, and of the interaction of salt water with a model porous medium. A correction for X-ray beam hardening is described and used to obtain improved discrimination of the phases present in the sample. In the case of a North Sea reservoir rock we show the possibility to distinguish quartz, feldspar and in certain zone kaolinite. The representativeness of the tomographic reconstruction is demonstrated by comparing the surface of the reconstructed specimen with corresponding images obtained in scanning electron microscopy. (author). 58 refs., 10 tabs., 71 photos

  18. Development of laboratory column experiments designed for the evaluation of new tracers for oil reservoir characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the greatest challenges facing petroleum extraction is to increase its fractional recovery as much as possible. Injection of fluids - especially water - is the most commonly applied method to reach that goal, since it forces the remaining oil to leave the rock formation. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the performance of this process and the most efficient tool used for this purpose is the injection of tracers, which are able to provide information about the behaviour of the injected fluid inside the reservoir. However, before their application in the field, tracers must be experimentally evaluated in the laboratory, aiming to guarantee its effectiveness. One of the most important parameters that must be investigated is their interaction with reservoir rocks. The present paper describes a laboratory column experiment designed to study sorption characteristics of compounds synthesised in CDTN on consolidated sandstone samples from Botucatu formation. The distribution coefficients (Kd) between water and rock of each compound were determined by fitting the experimental data to an analytical solution of a one-dimensional convective-dispersive transport model containing a reaction/sorption term using the CFITM software. These Kd values are compared to a reference tracer simultaneously injected. Tritiated water, which is considered the ideal tracer for aqueous phases has been used, but its substitution by NaCl has been studied, since the analysis of the latter is much more practical. (author)

  19. Experimental and computing strategies in advanced material characterization problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical characterization of materials relies more and more often on sophisticated experimental methods that permit to acquire a large amount of data and, contemporarily, to reduce the invasiveness of the tests. This evolution accompanies the growing demand of non-destructive diagnostic tools that assess the safety level of components in use in structures and infrastructures, for instance in the strategic energy sector. Advanced material systems and properties that are not amenable to traditional techniques, for instance thin layered structures and their adhesion on the relevant substrates, can be also characterized by means of combined experimental-numerical tools elaborating data acquired by full-field measurement techniques. In this context, parameter identification procedures involve the repeated simulation of the laboratory or in situ tests by sophisticated and usually expensive non-linear analyses while, in some situation, reliable and accurate results would be required in real time. The effectiveness and the filtering capabilities of reduced models based on decomposition and interpolation techniques can be profitably used to meet these conflicting requirements. This communication intends to summarize some results recently achieved in this field by the author and her co-workers. The aim is to foster further interaction between engineering and mathematical communities

  20. Experimental and computing strategies in advanced material characterization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzon, G.

    2015-10-01

    The mechanical characterization of materials relies more and more often on sophisticated experimental methods that permit to acquire a large amount of data and, contemporarily, to reduce the invasiveness of the tests. This evolution accompanies the growing demand of non-destructive diagnostic tools that assess the safety level of components in use in structures and infrastructures, for instance in the strategic energy sector. Advanced material systems and properties that are not amenable to traditional techniques, for instance thin layered structures and their adhesion on the relevant substrates, can be also characterized by means of combined experimental-numerical tools elaborating data acquired by full-field measurement techniques. In this context, parameter identification procedures involve the repeated simulation of the laboratory or in situ tests by sophisticated and usually expensive non-linear analyses while, in some situation, reliable and accurate results would be required in real time. The effectiveness and the filtering capabilities of reduced models based on decomposition and interpolation techniques can be profitably used to meet these conflicting requirements. This communication intends to summarize some results recently achieved in this field by the author and her co-workers. The aim is to foster further interaction between engineering and mathematical communities.

  1. Experimental and computing strategies in advanced material characterization problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolzon, G. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy gabriella.bolzon@polimi.it (Italy)

    2015-10-28

    The mechanical characterization of materials relies more and more often on sophisticated experimental methods that permit to acquire a large amount of data and, contemporarily, to reduce the invasiveness of the tests. This evolution accompanies the growing demand of non-destructive diagnostic tools that assess the safety level of components in use in structures and infrastructures, for instance in the strategic energy sector. Advanced material systems and properties that are not amenable to traditional techniques, for instance thin layered structures and their adhesion on the relevant substrates, can be also characterized by means of combined experimental-numerical tools elaborating data acquired by full-field measurement techniques. In this context, parameter identification procedures involve the repeated simulation of the laboratory or in situ tests by sophisticated and usually expensive non-linear analyses while, in some situation, reliable and accurate results would be required in real time. The effectiveness and the filtering capabilities of reduced models based on decomposition and interpolation techniques can be profitably used to meet these conflicting requirements. This communication intends to summarize some results recently achieved in this field by the author and her co-workers. The aim is to foster further interaction between engineering and mathematical communities.

  2. Climate variability and sedimentation of a hydropower reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the relicensing of a large Hydroelectric Project in the central Appalachians, large scale watershed and reservoir sedimentation models were developed to forecast potential sedimentation scenarios. The GIS based watershed model was spatially explicit and calibrated to long term observed data. Potential socio/economic development scenarios were used to construct future watershed land cover scenarios. Climatic variability and potential change analysis were used to identify future climate regimes and shifts in precipitation and temperature patterns. Permutations of these development and climate changes were forecasted over 50 years and used to develop sediment yield regimes to the project reservoir. Extensive field work and reservoir survey, including current and wave instrumentation, were used to characterize the project watershed, rivers and reservoir hydrodynamics. A fully 3 dimensional hydrodynamic reservoir sedimentation model was developed for the project and calibrated to observed data. Hydrologic and sedimentation results from watershed forecasting provided boundary conditions for reservoir inputs. The calibrated reservoir model was then used to forecast changes in reservoir sedimentation and storage capacity under different future climate scenarios. Results indicated unique zones of advancing sediment deltas and temporary storage areas. Forecasted changes in reservoir bathymetry and sedimentation patterns were also developed for the various climate change scenarios. The warmer and wetter scenario produced sedimentation impacts similar to extensive development under no climate change. The results of these analyses are being used to develop collaborative watershed and soil conservation partnerships to reduce future soil losses and reservoir sedimentation from projected development. (author)

  3. A systematic procedure for reservoir characterization: Annual report for the period October 1, 1985-September 30, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, L.W.; Kocurek, G.A.; Miller, M.A.

    1987-12-01

    This report deals with a variety of topics all centered around the main goal of making numerical reservoir simulation results conform more closely with geologic descriptions. The first part of the report discusses results on conditional simulations of miscible displacements in randomly heterogeneous permeable media. The focus here is on local or macroscopic dispersion, the dispersion experienced at a fixed point in the medium. Macroscopic dispersivity has many of the same dependencies on reservoir properties as does megascopic dispersivity, but it seems to be less time dependent and is always smaller. We have not discovered a mathematical model to describe its behavior. A major portion of the report deals with statistical descriptions. We investigate the bias and precision of standard measures of heterogeneity, the Lorenz and Dykstra-Parsons coefficient. After this, the work explores the benefits of using a distribution type characterization parameter in exploring heterogeneity. The final major protion of the report describes our mapping efforts on the Page sandstone outcrop in northern Arizona. The mapping is to be used in generating both deterministic descriptions and in calibrating the stochastic descriptions discussed above. 128 refs., 95 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Characterizing the Water Balance of the Sooke Reservoir, British Columbia over the Last Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arelia T. Werner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure such as dams and reservoirs are critical water-supply features in several regions of the world. However, ongoing population growth, increased demand and climate variability/change necessitate the better understanding of these systems, particularly in terms of their long-term trends. The Sooke Reservoir (SR of British Columbia, Canada is one such reservoir that currently supplies water to ~300,000 people, and is subject to considerable inter and intra-annual climatic variations. The main objectives of this study are to better understand the characteristics of the SR through an in-depth assessment of the contemporary water balance when the basin was intensively monitored (1996–2005, to use standardized runoff to select the best timescale to compute the Standard Precipitation (SPI and Standard Precipitation Evaporation Indices (SPEI to estimate trends in water availability over 1919 to 2005. Estimates of runoff and evaporation were validated by comparing simulated change in storage, computed by adding inputs and subtracting outputs from the known water levels by month, to observed change in storage. Water balance closure was within ±11% of the monthly change in storage on average when excluding months with spill pre-2002. The highest evaporation, dry season (1998 and lowest precipitation, wet season (2000/2001 from the intensively monitored period were used to construct a worst-case scenario to determine the resilience of the SR to drought. Under such conditions, the SR could support Greater Victoria until the start of the third wet season. The SPEI and SPI computed on a three-month timescale had the highest correlation with the standardized runoff, R2 equaled 0.93 and 0.90, respectively. A trend toward drier conditions was shown by SPEI over 1919 to 2005, while moistening over the same period was shown by SPI, although trends were small in magnitude. This study contributes a validated application of SPI and SPEI, giving more

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ADVANCED APPROACH FOR NEXT GENERATION, HIGH RESOLUTION, INTEGRATED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott R. Reeves

    2002-10-01

    During the third quarter a suitable test site was obtained, data acquired, and the process of data loading and data QC/QA begun. Preliminary data analysis was done in log clustering, seismic interpretation, and engineering model construction. These analysis tasks were continuing at the conclusion of the quarter.

  6. Advanced Characterization of Fractured Reservoirs in Carbonate Rocks: The Michigan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, James R.; Harrison, William B.

    2002-12-02

    The purpose of the study was to collect and analyze existing data on the Michigan Basin for fracture patterns on scales ranging form thin section to basin. The data acquisition phase has been successfully concluded with the compilation of several large digital databases containing nearly all the existing information on formation tops, lithology and hydrocarbon production over the entire Michigan Basin. These databases represent the cumulative result of over 80 years of drilling and exploration.

  7. An Integrated Approach to Characterizing Bypassed Oil in Heterogeneous and Fractured Reservoirs Using Partitioning Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2006-12-31

    We explore the use of efficient streamline-based simulation approaches for modeling partitioning interwell tracer tests in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Specifically, we utilize the unique features of streamline models to develop an efficient approach for interpretation and history matching of field tracer response. A critical aspect here is the underdetermined and highly ill-posed nature of the associated inverse problems. We have investigated the relative merits of the traditional history matching ('amplitude inversion') and a novel travel time inversion in terms of robustness of the method and convergence behavior of the solution. We show that the traditional amplitude inversion is orders of magnitude more non-linear and the solution here is likely to get trapped in local minimum, leading to inadequate history match. The proposed travel time inversion is shown to be extremely efficient and robust for practical field applications. The streamline approach is generalized to model water injection in naturally fractured reservoirs through the use of a dual media approach. The fractures and matrix are treated as separate continua that are connected through a transfer function, as in conventional finite difference simulators for modeling fractured systems. A detailed comparison with a commercial finite difference simulator shows very good agreement. Furthermore, an examination of the scaling behavior of the computation time indicates that the streamline approach is likely to result in significant savings for large-scale field applications. We also propose a novel approach to history matching finite-difference models that combines the advantage of the streamline models with the versatility of finite-difference simulation. In our approach, we utilize the streamline-derived sensitivities to facilitate history matching during finite-difference simulation. The use of finite-difference model allows us to account for detailed process physics and compressibility effects

  8. Characterization and prevention of formation damage for fractured carbonate reservoir formations with low permeability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Yong; Yan Jienian

    2008-01-01

    Stress sensitivity and water blocking in fractured carbonate reservoir formations with low permeability were determined as the main potential damage mechanisms during drilling and completion operations in the ancient buried hill Ordovician reservoirs in the Tarim Basin. Geological structure,lithology, porosity, permeability and mineral components all affect the potential for formation damage.The experimental results showed that the permeability loss was 83.8%-98.6% caused by stress sensitivity,and was 27.9%-48.1% caused by water blocking. Based on the experimental results, several main conclusions concerning stress sensitivity can be drawn as follows: the lower the core permeability and the smaller the core fracture width, the higher the stress sensitivity. Also, stress sensitivity results in lag effect for both permeability recovery and fracture closure. Aimed at the mechanisms of formation damage, a modified low-damage mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) drilling fluid system was developed,which was mainly composed of low-fluorescence shale control agent, filtration control agent, lowfluorescence lubricant and surfactant. The results of experimental evaluation and field test showed that the newly-developed drilling fluid and engineering techniques provided could dramatically increase the return permeability (over 85%) of core samples. This drilling fluid had such advantages as good rheological and lubricating properties, high temperature stability, and low filtration rate (API filtration less than 5 ml after aging at 120 ℃ for 4 hours). Therefore, fractured carbonate formations with low permeability could be protected effectively when drilling with the newly-developed drilling fluid.Meanwhile, field test showed that both penetration rate and bore stability were improved and the soaking time of the drilling fluid with formation was sharply shortened, indicating that the modified MMH drilling fluid could meet the requirements of drilling engineering and geology.

  9. Hot dry rock reservoir characterization and modeling. Progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achenbach, J.D.; Bazant, Z.P.; Dundurs, J.; Keer, L.M.; Nemat-Nasser, S.; Mura, T.; Weertman, J.

    1980-02-01

    Resuls of analytical and experimental studies on hydraulic fracturing and on the characterization and modeling of hot dry rock geothermal energy reservoirs are presented. The first four Chapters are concerned with problems of thermal cracking and heat transfer, with fluid flow through large cracks, and with the stable and unstable growth of water-filled cracks under internal pressure and thermal loading. Experiments are reported, which present visually observable hydraulic fractures in transparent materials to demonstrate the interaction between hydraulic fractures and the development of thermal cracks. Seismic detection of hydraulic fractures is discussed, and a method to invert crack-scattering data is presented. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the six chapters.

  10. High temperature material characterization and advanced materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study is to characterize the structural materials under the high temperature, one of the most significant environmental factors in nuclear systems. And advanced materials are developed for high temperature and/or low activation in neutron irradiation. Tensile, fatigue and creep properties have been carried out at high temperature to evaluate the mechanical degradation. Irradiation tests were performed using the HANARO. The optimum chemical composition and heat treatment condition were determined for nuclear grade 316NG stainless steel. Nitrogen, aluminum, and tungsten were added for increasing the creep rupture strength of FMS steel. The new heat treatment method was developed to form more stable precipitates. By applying the novel whiskering process, high density SiC/SiC composites with relative density above 90% could be obtained even in a shorter processing time than the conventional CVI process. Material integrated databases are established using data sheets. The databases of 6 kinds of material properties are accessible through the home page of KAERI material division

  11. Burnout prediction using advance image analysis coal characterization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Lester; Dave Watts; Michael Cloke [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The link between petrographic composition and burnout has been investigated previously by the authors. However, these predictions were based on 'bulk' properties of the coal, including the proportion of each maceral or the reflectance of the macerals in the whole sample. Combustion studies relating burnout with microlithotype analysis, or similar, remain less common partly because the technique is more complex than maceral analysis. Despite this, it is likely that any burnout prediction based on petrographic characteristics will become more accurate if it includes information about the maceral associations and the size of each particle. Chars from 13 coals, 106-125 micron size fractions, were prepared using a Drop Tube Furnace (DTF) at 1300{degree}C and 200 millisecond and 1% Oxygen. These chars were then refired in the DTF at 1300{degree}C 5% oxygen and residence times of 200, 400 and 600 milliseconds. The progressive burnout of each char was compared with the characteristics of the initial coals. This paper presents an extension of previous studies in that it relates combustion behaviour to coals that have been characterized on a particle by particle basis using advanced image analysis techniques. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Nanocrystalline materials: recent advances in crystallographic characterization techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Ringe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Most properties of nanocrystalline materials are shape-dependent, providing their exquisite tunability in optical, mechanical, electronic and catalytic properties. An example of the former is localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR, the coherent oscillation of conduction electrons in metals that can be excited by the electric field of light; this resonance frequency is highly dependent on both the size and shape of a nanocrystal. An example of the latter is the marked difference in catalytic activity observed for different Pd nanoparticles. Such examples highlight the importance of particle shape in nanocrystalline materials and their practical applications. However, one may ask `how are nanoshapes created?', `how does the shape relate to the atomic packing and crystallography of the material?', `how can we control and characterize the external shape and crystal structure of such small nanocrystals?'. This feature article aims to give the reader an overview of important techniques, concepts and recent advances related to these questions. Nucleation, growth and how seed crystallography influences the final synthesis product are discussed, followed by shape prediction models based on seed crystallography and thermodynamic or kinetic parameters. The crystallographic implications of epitaxy and orientation in multilayered, core-shell nanoparticles are overviewed, and, finally, the development and implications of novel, spatially resolved analysis tools are discussed.

  13. High temperature material characterization and advanced materials development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S. H. and others

    2005-03-15

    The study is to characterize the structural materials under the high temperature, one of the most significant environmental factors in nuclear systems. And advanced materials are developed for high temperature and/or low activation in neutron irradiation. Tensile, fatigue and creep properties have been carried out at high temperature to evaluate the mechanical degradation. Irradiation tests were performed using the HANARO. The optimum chemical composition and heat treatment condition were determined for nuclear grade 316NG stainless steel. Nitrogen, aluminum, and tungsten were added for increasing the creep rupture strength of FMS steel. The new heat treatment method was developed to form more stable precipitates. By applying the novel whiskering process, high density SiC/SiC composites with relative density above 90% could be obtained even in a shorter processing time than the conventional CVI process. Material integrated databases are established using data sheets. The databases of 6 kinds of material properties are accessible through the home page of KAERI material division.

  14. Advanced Integrated Work-flows for Incorporating Both Production and 4D Seismic-Related Data into Reservoir Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reservoir models are used for predicting future oil recovery or for evaluating alternative field management scenarios. They can be considered as reliable when they account for all available data collected on the field: data are split into static data such as logs or measurements carried out on cores extracted from wells and dynamic data such as pressures and flow rates. Since the late nineties, the latter also consist of 4D seismic data. This motivated the development of very specific work-flows, which yield reservoir models respecting all collected data. In this paper, we focus on work-flows for building reservoir models consistent with both production and inverted 4D seismic data. Seismic data are referred to as inverted since we do not consider the amplitudes of the seismic traces, but the acoustic impedances or velocities derived from amplitudes. Then, two application cases are presented. The first one is a synthetic case inspired by typical North Sea Brent fields. It aims to stress the potential of the proposed approach for determining reservoir models respecting production data. The second one is also rooted in a real field case, but focuses on the matching of impedances. (authors)

  15. Geological and petrophysical characterization of the ferron sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.; Allison, M.L.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of the Ferron Sandstone project is to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, quantitative characterization of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir to allow realistic interwell and reservoir-scale models to be developed for improved oil-field development in similar reservoirs world-wide. Quantitative geological and petrophysical information on the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone in east-central Utah was collected. Both new and existing data is being integrated into a three-dimensional model of spatial variations in porosity, storativity, and tensorial rock permeability at a scale appropriate for inter-well to regional-scale reservoir simulation. Simulation results could improve reservoir management through proper infill and extension drilling strategies, reduction of economic risks, increased recovery from existing oil fields, and more reliable reserve calculations. Transfer of the project results to the petroleum industry is an integral component of the project. This report covers research activities for fiscal year 1994-95, the second year of the project. Most work consisted of developing field methods and collecting large quantities of existing and new data. We also continued to develop preliminary regional and case-study area interpretations. The project is divided into four tasks: (1) regional stratigraphic analysis, (2) case studies, (3) reservoirs models, and (4) field-scale evaluation of exploration strategies.

  16. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. Final report, August 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1998-03-01

    The primary goal of the project is to develop a user-friendly computer program to integrate geological and engineering information using Artificial Intelligence (AI) methodology. The project is restricted to fluvially dominated deltaic environments. The static information used in constructing the reservoir description includes well core and log data. Using the well core and the log data, the program identifies the marker beds, and the type of sand facies, and in turn, develops correlations between wells. Using the correlations and sand facies, the program is able to generate multiple realizations of sand facies and petrophysical properties at interwell locations using geostatistical techniques. The generated petrophysical properties are used as input in the next step where the production data are honored. By adjusting the petrophysical properties, the match between the simulated and the observed production rates is obtained. Although all the components within the overall system are functioning, the integration of dynamic data may not be practical due to the single-phase flow limitations and the computationally intensive algorithms. The future work needs to concentrate on making the dynamic data integration computationally efficient.

  17. Opportunities to improve oil productivity in unstructured deltaic reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This report contains presentations presented at a technical symposium on oil production. Chapter 1 contains summaries of the presentations given at the Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored symposium and key points of the discussions that followed. Chapter 2 characterizes the light oil resource from fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). An analysis of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and advanced secondary recovery (ASR) potential for fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs based on recovery performance and economic modeling as well as the potential resource loss due to well abandonments is presented. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the general reservoir characteristics and properties within deltaic deposits. It is not exhaustive treatise, rather it is intended to provide some basic information about geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of deltaic reservoirs, and the resulting recovery problems.

  18. Waveguide-based ultrasonic and far-field electromagnetic sensors for downhole reservoir characterization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, S. H.; Chien, H. T.; Wang, K.; Liao, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Bakhtiari, S.; Raptis, A. C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-11-12

    This report summarizes the first year research and development effort leading to development of high-temperature sensors for enhanced geothermal systems. It covers evaluation of ultrasonic and electromagnetic (EM) techniques applied to temperature measurement and flow characterization. On temperature measurement, we have evaluated both microwave radiometry and ultrasonic techniques for temperature gradient and profile measurements. Different antenna designs are evaluated and array loop antenna design is selected for further development. We have also evaluated ultrasonic techniques for total flow characterization, which includes using speed of sound to determine flow temperature, measuring acoustic impedance to estimate fluid density, and using cross-correlation technique to determine the mass flow rate. Method to estimate the flow enthalpy is briefly discussed. At end, the need and proposed techniques to characterize the porosity and permeability of a hot dry rock resource are presented.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF IN-SITU STRESS AND PERMEABILITY IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

    2004-07-19

    Expanded details and additional results are presented on two methods for estimating fracture orientation and density in subsurface reservoirs from scattered seismic wavefield signals. In the first, fracture density is estimated from the wavenumber spectra of the integrated amplitudes of the scattered waves as a function of offset in pre-stack data. Spectral peaks correctly identified the 50m, 35m, and 25m fracture spacings from numerical model data using a 40Hz source wavelet. The second method, referred to as the Transfer Function-Scattering Index Method, is based upon observations from 3D finite difference modeling that regularly spaced, discrete vertical fractures impart a ringing coda-type signature to any seismic energy that is transmitted through or reflected off of them. This coda energy is greatest when the acquisition direction is parallel to the fractures, the seismic wavelengths are tuned to the fracture spacing, and when the fractures have low stiffness. The method uses surface seismic reflection traces to derive a transfer function, which quantifies the change in an apparent source wavelet propagating through a fractured interval. The transfer function for an interval with low scattering will be more spike-like and temporally compact. The transfer function for an interval with high scattering will ring and be less temporally compact. A Scattering Index is developed based on a time lag weighting of the transfer function. When a 3D survey is acquired with a full range of azimuths, the Scattering Index allows the identification of subsurface areas with high fracturing and the orientation (or strike) of those fractures. The method was calibrated with model data and then applied to field data from a fractured reservoir giving results that agree with known field measurements. As an aid to understanding the scattered wavefield seen in finite difference models, a series of simple point scatterers was used to create synthetic seismic shot records collected over

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF IN-SITU STRESS AND PERMEABILITY IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

    2002-12-31

    We have extended a three-dimensional finite difference elastic wave propagation model previously developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Earth Resources Laboratory (ERL) for modeling and analyzing the effect of fractures on seismic waves. The code has been translated into C language and parallelized [using message passing interface (MPI)] to allow for larger models to be run on Linux PC computer clusters. We have also obtained another 3-D code from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, which we will use for verification of our ERL code results and also to run discrete fracture models. Testing of both codes is underway. We are working on a new finite difference model of borehole wave propagation for stressed formations. This code includes coordinate stretching to provide stable, variable grid sizes that will allow us to model the thin fluid annulus layers in borehole problems, especially for acoustic logging while drilling (LWD) applications. We are also extending our analysis routines for the inversion of flexural wave dispersion measurements for in situ stress estimates. Initial results on synthetic and limited field data are promising for a method to invert cross dipole data for the rotation angle and stress state simultaneously. A meeting is being scheduled between MIT and Shell Oil Company scientists to look at data from a fractured carbonate reservoir that may be made available to the project. The Focus/Disco seismic processing system from Paradigm Geophysical has been installed at ERL for field data analysis and as a platform for new analysis modules. We have begun to evaluate the flow properties of discrete fracture distributions through a simple 2D numerical model. Initial results illustrate how fluid flow pathways are very sensitive to variations in the geometry and apertures of fracture network.

  1. Using advanced electron microscopy for the characterization of catalytic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrz, William D.

    Catalysis will continue to be vitally important to the advancement and sustainability of industrialized societies. Unfortunately, the petroleum-based resources that currently fuel the energy and consumer product needs of an advancing society are becoming increasingly difficult and expensive to extract as supplies diminish and the quality of sources degrade. Therefore, the development of sustainable energy sources and the improvement of the carbon efficiency of existing chemical processes are critical. Further challenges require that these initiatives are accomplished in an environmentally friendly fashion since the effects of carbon-based emissions are proving to be a serious threat to global climate stability. In this dissertation, materials being developed for sustainable energy and process improvement initiatives are studied. Our approach is to use materials characterization, namely advanced electron microscopy, to analyze the targeted systems at the nano- or Angstrom-scale with the goal of developing useful relationships between structure, composition, crystalline order, morphology, and catalytic performance. One area of interest is the complex Mo-V-M-O (M=Te, Sb, Ta, Nb) oxide system currently being developed for the selective oxidation/ammoxidation of propane to acrylic acid or acrylonitrile, respectively. Currently, the production of acrylic acid and acrylonitrile rely on propylene-based processes, yet significant cost savings could be realized if the olefin-based feeds could be replaced by paraffin-based ones. The major challenge preventing this feedstock replacement is the development of a suitable paraffin-activating catalyst. Currently, the best candidate is the Mo-V-Nb-Te-O complex oxide catalyst that is composed of two majority phases that are commonly referred to as M1 and M2. However, there is a limited understanding of the roles of each component with respect to how they contribute to catalyst stability and the reaction mechanism. Aberration

  2. Reservoir Characterization of Bridgeport and Cypress Sandstones in Lawrence Field Illinois to Improve Petroleum Recovery by Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyler, Beverly; Grube, John; Huff, Bryan; Webb, Nathan; Damico, James; Blakley, Curt; Madhavan, Vineeth; Johanek, Philip; Frailey, Scott

    2012-12-21

    Within the Illinois Basin, most of the oilfields are mature and have been extensively waterflooded with water cuts that range up to 99% in many of the larger fields. In order to maximize production of significant remaining mobile oil from these fields, new recovery techniques need to be researched and applied. The purpose of this project was to conduct reservoir characterization studies supporting Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Floods in two distinct sandstone reservoirs in Lawrence Field, Lawrence County, Illinois. A project using alkaline-surfactantpolymer (ASP) has been established in the century old Lawrence Field in southeastern Illinois where original oil in place (OOIP) is estimated at over a billion barrels and 400 million barrels have been recovered leaving more than 600 million barrels as an EOR target. Radial core flood analysis using core from the field demonstrated recoveries greater than 20% of OOIP. While the lab results are likely optimistic to actual field performance, the ASP tests indicate that substantial reserves could be recovered even if the field results are 5 to 10% of OOIP. Reservoir characterization is a key factor in the success of any EOR application. Reservoirs within the Illinois Basin are frequently characterized as being highly compartmentalized resulting in multiple flow unit configurations. The research conducted on Lawrence Field focused on characteristics that define reservoir compartmentalization in order to delineate preferred target areas so that the chemical flood can be designed and implemented for the greatest recovery potential. Along with traditional facies mapping, core analyses and petrographic analyses, conceptual geological models were constructed and used to develop 3D geocellular models, a valuable tool for visualizing reservoir architecture and also a prerequisite for reservoir simulation modeling. Cores were described and potential permeability barriers were correlated using geophysical logs. Petrographic analyses

  3. Prediction of in-situ permeability: Significance of rock type identification in reservoir characterization of tight gas sandstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J.P. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The accurate prediction of in-situ permeability is fundamentally important in reservoir characterization. Analyses of several thousand core samples from low permeability ({open_quotes}tight{close_quotes}) gas sandstones of the Travis Peak, Cotton Valley and Frontier Formations reveal that the rate of permeability decrease is a function of Rock Type (interval of rock characterized by unique pore geometry). These tight gas sandstones consist of alternations of several Rock Types, depending on changes in environment of deposition and diagenesis. In such complex sequences, in-situ permeability cannot be successfully predicted using only an initial value of permeability. A knowledge of both the initial permeability (at minimum net effective stress) and pore geometry are required to predict in-situ permeability at any given value of net effective stress. Pore geometry characteristics that control in-situ permeability include size and shape aspects of both the pore throats and the pore bodies. These can be, in part, a function of mineral composition. In some instances, they are independent of composition. SEM-based pore image analysis of pore bodies and pore throats allows for the identification of different Rock Types. This information, when coupled with an initial value of permeability, allows for the prediction of permeability at any given value of net effective stress in the Travis Peak, Cotton Valley and Frontier Formations of Texas and Wyoming.

  4. New developments in CSEM (Controlled Source EM) for reservoir characterization and monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Wawrzyniak, Pierre; Bourgeois, Bernard; Girard, Jean-François; Bretaudeau, François; Coppo, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    International audience The use of CSEM onshore monitoring for CO2 plume migration characterization completes the information brought by seismic methods (localisation of saturation fronts): it is sensitive to the positive resistivity variations in the aquifer induced by supercritical C02 injection. Once a baseline 3D seismic survey is done and the structural seismic horizons are known, CSEM monitoring could compete with seismic monitoring because of its really low cost and its ease of imple...

  5. Use of 3D Seismic Azimuthal Iso-Frequency Volumes for the Detection and Characterization of High Porosity/Permeability Zones in Carbonate Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toelle, Brian E.

    Among the most important properties controlling the production from conventional oil and gas reservoirs is the distribution of porosity and permeability within the producing geologic formation. The geometry of the pore space within these reservoirs, and the permeability associated with this pore space geometry, impacts not only where production can occur and at what flow rates but can also have significant influence on many other rock properties. Zones of high matrix porosity can result in an isotropic response for certain reservoir properties whereas aligned porosity/permeability, such as open, natural fracture trends, have been shown to result in reservoirs being anisotropic in many properties. The ability to identify zones within a subsurface reservoir where porosity/permeability is significantly higher and to characterize them according to their geometries would be of great significance when planning where new boreholes, particularly horizontal boreholes, should be drilled. The detection and characterization of these high porosity/permeability zones using their isotropic and anisotropic responses may be possible through the analysis of azimuthal (also referred to as azimuth-limited) 3D seismic volumes. During this study the porosity/permeability systems of a carbonate, pinnacle reef within the northern Michigan Basin undergoing enhanced oil recovery were investigated using selected seismic attributes extracted from azimuthal 3D seismic volumes. Based on the response of these seismic attributes an interpretation of the geometry of the porosity/permeability system within the reef was made. This interpretation was supported by well data that had been obtained during the primary production phase of the field. Additionally, 4D seismic data, obtained as part of the CO2 based EOR project, supported reservoir simulation results that were based on the porosity/permeability interpretation.

  6. High Temperature Materials Characterization and Advanced Materials Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project has been carried out for 2 years in stage III in order to achieve the final goals of performance verification of the developed materials, after successful development of the advanced high temperature material technologies for 3 years in Stage II. The mechanical and thermal properties of the advanced materials, which were developed during Stage II, were evaluated at high temperatures, and the modification of the advanced materials were performed. Moreover, a database management system was established using user-friendly knowledge-base scheme to complete the integrated-information material database in KAERI material division

  7. Integration of reservoir simulation and geomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan

    Fluid production from tight and shale gas formations has increased significantly, and this unconventional portfolio of low-permeability reservoirs accounts for more than half of the gas produced in the United States. Stimulation and hydraulic fracturing are critical in making these systems productive, and hence it is important to understand the mechanics of the reservoir. When modeling fractured reservoirs using discrete-fracture network representation, the geomechanical effects are expected to have a significant impact on important reservoir characteristics. It has become more accepted that fracture growth, particularly in naturally fractured reservoirs with extremely low permeability, cannot be reliably represented by conventional planar representations. Characterizing the evolution of multiple, nonplanar, interconnected and possibly nonvertical hydraulic fractures requires hydraulic and mechanical characterization of the matrix, as well as existing latent or healed fracture networks. To solve these challenging problems, a reservoir simulator (Advanced Reactive Transport Simulator (ARTS)) capable of performing unconventional reservoir simulation is developed in this research work. A geomechanical model has been incorporated into the simulation framework with various coupling schemes and this model is used to understand the geomechanical effects in unconventional oil and gas recovery. This development allows ARTS to accept geomechanical information from external geomechanical simulators (soft coupling) or the solution of the geomechanical coupled problem (hard coupling). An iterative solution method of the flow and geomechanical equations has been used in implementing the hard coupling scheme. The hard coupling schemes were verified using one-dimensional and two-dimensional analytical solutions. The new reservoir simulator is applied to learn the influence of geomechanical impact on unconventional oil and gas production in a number of practical recovery scenarios

  8. Characterization of fracture reservoirs using static and dynamic data: From sonic and 3D seismic to permeability distribution. Annual report, March 1, 1996--February 28, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.O.; Collier, H.A.; Owen, T.E. [and others

    1997-06-01

    In low porosity, low permeability zones, natural fractures are the primary source of permeability which affect both production and injection of fluids. The open fractures do not contribute much to porosity, but they provide an increased drainage network to any porosity. They also may connect the borehole to remote zones of better reservoir characteristics. An important approach to characterizing the fracture orientation and fracture permeability of reservoir formations is one based on the effects of such conditions on the propagation of acoustic and seismic waves in the rock. The project is a study directed toward the evaluation of acoustic logging and 3D-seismic measurement techniques as well as fluid flow and transport methods for mapping permeability anisotropy and other petrophysical parameters for the understanding of the reservoir fracture systems and associated fluid dynamics. The principal application of these measurement techniques and methods is to identify and investigate the propagation characteristics of acoustic and seismic waves in the Twin Creek hydrocarbon reservoir owned by Union Pacific Resources (UPR) and to characterize the fracture permeability distribution using production data. This site is located in the overthrust area of Utah and Wyoming. UPR drilled six horizontal wells, and presently UPR has two rigs running with many established drill hole locations. In addition, there are numerous vertical wells that exist in the area as well as 3D seismic surveys. Each horizontal well contains full FMS logs and MWD logs, gamma logs, etc.

  9. A new approach to improve reservoir characterization using intelligent systems - a case study: Toldado field in Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto B, Rodolfo; Bernal, Maria C.; Silva, Bernardo; Bejarano, Aristobulo; Cobaleda, Gloria [Ecopetrol S.A., Bogota (Colombia)]|[Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo, Bogota (Colombia); Arango, Sandro; Torres, Freddy

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a new technique to improve reservoir characterization. We integrated concepts of multivariate statistical analysis and soft computing to get better petrophysical models. We applied the proposed technique to model permeability for the highly heterogeneous cretaceous Caballos formation in Toldado field, Colombia. First, we evaluated the permeability model developed by D. K. Davies in this field. His method is based fundamentally on the identification of rock types (intervals of rock with unique pore geometry). We think this a good approach to improve the prediction of permeability. However, Davies gets traditional models (Log permeability vs. porosity) for each rock type. We found a 78% of average absolute error in his model for Toldado field. Using of multivariate statistical analysis, we found that the dominant independent variables to predict the permeability for Toldado field were porosity, index of the effective photo-electric absorption cross section of the formation, and gamma ray logs. Our neural network permeability model has an average absolute error less than 8%. Finally, we validated the neural network permeability model by applying the concept of the hydraulic interwell connectivity index (HICI). These models helped us to improve the history match and make recommendations to increase the oil production by about 500 bopd. (author)

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Kynurenic Acid Occluded in Sol-Gel Silica and SBA-15 Silica as Release Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessy López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kynurenic acid (KYNA may have important therapeutic effects in neurological disorders; however, its use as a neuroprotective agent is restricted due to its very limited ability to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB. For this reason, we are looking for new alternatives for KYNA to reach the brain; one of them is using drug delivery systems. To obtain KYNA release reservoirs, KYNA molecules were hosted in two different silica materials. The different KYNA-silica materials were characterized by means of several physical techniques. The spectroscopic studies showed that KYNA molecules remained unchanged once hosted in silica materials. The surface area values of KYNA-silica samples were substantially lower than those for pure silica materials due to the addition of the drug. The electronic micrographs showed that the sol-gel KYNA-silica material consisted of aggregates of nanoparticles around 50 nm in size. On the other hand, the typical SBA-15 hexagonal arrangement was observed, even when hosting KYNA molecules. KYNA release profiles, carried out during approximately 300 hours, showed a first stage of fast drug release followed by a slow release phase. The experimental values fitted to the Peppas equation indicate that the release mechanism was controlled by Fickian diffusion.

  11. Seismic attribute-based characterization of coalbed methane reservoirs: An example from the Fruitland Formation, San Juan basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, I.D.; Hart, B.S. [McGill University, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2004-11-01

    The Fruitland Formation of the San Juan basin is the largest producer of coalbed methane in the world. Production patterns vary from one well to another throughout the basin, reflecting factors such as coal thickness and fracture and cleat density. In this study, we integrated conventional P-wave three-dimensional (3-D) seismic and well data to investigate geological controls on production from a thick, continuous coal seam in the lower part of the Fruitland Formation. Our objective was to show the potential of using 3-D seismic data to predict coal thickness, as well as the distribution and orientation of subtle structures that may be associated with enhanced permeability zones. To do this, we first derived a seismic attribute-based model that predicts coal thickness. We then used curvature attributes derived from seismic horizons to detect subtle structural features that might be associated with zones of enhanced permeability. Production data show that the best producing wells are associated with seismically definable structural features and thick coal. Although other factors (e.g., completion practices and coal type) affect coalbed methane production, our results suggest that conventional 3-D seismic data, integrated with wire-line logs and production data, are useful for characterizing coalbed methane reservoirs.

  12. An Integrated Approach to Characterizing Bypassed Oil in Heterogeneous and Fractured Reservoirs Using Partitioning Tracers. Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an efficient trajectory-based approach to integrate transient pressure data into high-resolution reservoir and aquifer models. The method involves alternating travel time and peak amplitude matching of pressure response using inverse modeling and is particularly well-suited for high resolution subsurface characterization using hydraulic tomography or pressure interference tests. Compared to travel time inversion only, our proposed approach results in a significantly improved match of the pressure response at the wells and also better estimates of subsurface properties. This is accomplished with very little increase in computational cost. Utilizing the concept of a ''diffusive'' time of flight derived from an asymptotic solution of the diffusivity equation, we develop analytical approaches to estimate the sensitivities for travel time and peak amplitude of pressure response to subsurface properties. The sensitivities are then used in an iterative least-squared minimization to match the pressure data. We illustrate our approach using synthetic and field examples. In the field application at a fractured limestone formation, the predominant fracture patterns emerging from the inversion are shown to be consistent with independent geophysical experiments and borehole data

  13. Hydro-geophysical characterization for groundwater resources potential of fractured limestone reservoirs in Amdoun Monts (North-western Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhaounia, Belgacem; Bédir, Mourad; Gabtni, Hakim; Batobo, Ountsche Ilondo; Dhaoui, Mohamed; Chabaane, Achref; Khomsi, Sami

    2016-05-01

    This study has led to the identification of the Upper Cretaceous and Lower Eocene (Abiod, Boudabbous/El Gueria Formations) fractured and karstic aquifers in the Amdoun region (Northwestern Tunisia). Geological information (litho-stratigraphy and fractures network study) and geophysical (gravity, wells analysis, seismic reflection, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT)) investigations performed in the area have highlighted, with some detail, images of structures of carbonate aquifers near anticline flanks and along perched synclines. Some factors such as fracture intensity, karsts evolution and structural position have an important influence on the hydrologic productivity of Abiod and Boudabbous/El Gueria reservoirs. Different methodologies were used to characterize the geological and hydro-geological perched aquifers and produce the 3D geo-electrical model of near surface karstic features and cavities of the carbonate limestone in the Aïn Sallem site. This study integrates the geological and geophysical information available and can serve as a representative example in the description of the most important hydraulic reserves in the North-western Tunisia.

  14. Characterization of biocenoses in the storage reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of Mayak PA. Initial descriptive report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryakhin, E A; Mokrov, Yu G; Tryapitsina, G A; Ivanov, I A; Osipov, D I; Atamanyuk, N I; Deryabina, L V; Shaposhnikova, I A; Shishkina, E A; Obvintseva, N A; Egoreichenkov, E A; Styazhkina, E V; Osipova, O F; Mogilnikova, N I; Andreev, S S; Tarasov, O V; Geras'kin, S A; Trapeznikov, A V; Akleyev, A V

    2016-01-01

    As a result of operation of the Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA), Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, an enterprise for production and separation of weapon-grade plutonium in the Soviet Union, ecosystems of a number of water bodies have been radioactively contaminated. The article presents information about the current state of ecosystems of 6 special industrial storage reservoirs of liquid radioactive waste from Mayak PA: reservoirs R-3, R-4, R-9, R-10, R-11 and R-17. At present the excess of the radionuclide content in the water of the studied reservoirs and comparison reservoirs (Shershnyovskoye and Beloyarskoye reservoirs) is 9 orders of magnitude for (90)Sr and (137)Cs, and 6 orders of magnitude for alpha-emitting radionuclides. According to the level of radioactive contamination, the reservoirs of the Mayak PA could be arranged in the ascending order as follows: R-11, R-10, R-4, R-3, R-17 and R-9. In 2007-2012 research of the status of the biocenoses of these reservoirs in terms of phytoplankton, zooplankton, bacterioplankton, zoobenthos, aquatic plants, ichthyofauna, avifauna parameters was performed. The conducted studies revealed decrease in species diversity in reservoirs with the highest levels of radioactive and chemical contamination. This article is an initial descriptive report on the status of the biocenoses of radioactively contaminated reservoirs of the Mayak PA, and is the first article in a series of publications devoted to the studies of the reaction of biocenoses of the fresh-water reservoirs of the Mayak PA to a combination of natural and man-made factors, including chronic radiation exposure. PMID:26094572

  15. Advancing Analytical Methods for Characterization of Anionic Carbohydrate Biopolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Langeslay, Derek Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation is on the development of improved analytical methods for the characterization of anionic carbohydrate biopolymers. Our goal is to extract important information from complex mixtures of heterogeneous polysaccharides by characterizing their substituent oligosaccharides in terms of monosaccharide composition and primary and secondary structure. This work focuses on the application of two major analytical platforms: spectroscopy and chromatography. The development ...

  16. Sediment management for reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All natural lakes and reservoirs whether on rivers, tributaries or off channel storages are doomed to be sited up. Pakistan has two major reservoirs of Tarbela and Managla and shallow lake created by Chashma Barrage. Tarbela and Mangla Lakes are losing their capacities ever since first impounding, Tarbela since 1974 and Mangla since 1967. Tarbela Reservoir receives average annual flow of about 62 MAF and sediment deposits of 0.11 MAF whereas Mangla gets about 23 MAF of average annual flows and is losing its storage at the rate of average 34,000 MAF annually. The loss of storage is a great concern and studies for Tarbela were carried out by TAMS and Wallingford to sustain its capacity whereas no study has been done for Mangla as yet except as part of study for Raised Mangla, which is only desk work. Delta of Tarbala reservoir has advanced to about 6.59 miles (Pivot Point) from power intakes. In case of liquefaction of delta by tremor as low as 0.12g peak ground acceleration the power tunnels I, 2 and 3 will be blocked. Minimum Pool of reservoir is being raised so as to check the advance of delta. Mangla delta will follow the trend of Tarbela. Tarbela has vast amount of data as reservoir is surveyed every year, whereas Mangla Reservoir survey was done at five-year interval, which has now been proposed .to be reduced to three-year interval. In addition suspended sediment sampling of inflow streams is being done by Surface Water Hydrology Project of WAPDA as also some bed load sampling. The problem of Chasma Reservoir has also been highlighted, as it is being indiscriminately being filled up and drawdown several times a year without regard to its reaction to this treatment. The Sediment Management of these reservoirs is essential and the paper discusses pros and cons of various alternatives. (author)

  17. Characterization and simulation of an exhumed fractured petroleum reservoir. Final report, March 18, 1996--September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, C.B.; Nielson, D.L.; Deo, M.

    1998-12-01

    An exhumed fractured reservoir located near Alligator Ridge in central Nevada provides the basis for developing and testing different approaches for simulating fractured petroleum reservoirs. The fractured analog reservoir comprises a 90 m thickness of silty limestone and shaly interbeds within the Devonian Pilot Shale. A period of regional compression followed by ongoing basin and range extension has created faults and fractures that, in tern, have controlled the migration of both oil and gold ore-forming fluids. Open pit gold mines provide access for observing oil seepage, collecting the detailed fracture data needed to map variations in fracture intensity near faults, build discrete fracture network models and create equivalent permeability structures. Fault trace patterns mapped at the ground surface provide a foundation for creating synthetic fault trace maps using a stochastic procedure conditioned by the outcrop data. Conventional simulations of petroleum production from a 900 by 900 m sub-domain within the reservoir analog illustrate the possible influence of faults and fractures on production. The consequences of incorporating the impact of different stress states (e.g., extension, compression or lithostatic) are also explored. Simulating multiphase fluid flow using a discrete fracture, finite element simulator illustrates how faults acting as conduits might be poorly represented by the upscaling procedures used to assign equivalent permeability values within reservoir models. The parallelized reservoir simulators developed during this project provide a vehicle to evaluate when it might be necessary to incorporate very fine scale grid networks in conventional reservoir simulators or to use finely gridded discrete fracture reservoir simulators.

  18. Characterization of an Upper Permian tight aas reservoir : a multidisciplinary, multiscale analysis from the Rotliegend, Northern Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Antrett, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes a multidisciplinary, multiscale approach to the analysis of tight gas reservoirs. It focused initially on the facies architecture of a Permian tight gas field in the Southern Permian Basin (SPB), East Frisia, Northern Germany. To improve field development, 3D seismic data, wireline and core data were compared to a reservoir analogue in the Panamint Valley, California, United States. Depositional environments of the Permian Upper Rotliegend II included perennial saline la...

  19. Characterization of fracture reservoirs using static and dynamic data: From sonic and 3D seismic to permeability distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.O.; Hackett, C.L.; Brown, R.L.; Collier, H.A.; Datta-Gupta, A.

    1998-10-01

    To characterize the Buena Vista Hills field, the authors have implemented methods of modeling, processing and interpretation. The modeling methods are based on deterministic and stochastic solutions. Deterministic solutions were developed in Phase 1 and applied in Phase 2 to simulate acoustic responses of laminated reservoirs. Specifically, the simulations were aimed at implementing processing techniques to correct P-wave and S-wave velocity logs for scattering effects caused by thin layering. The authors are also including a summary of the theory and the processing steps of this new method for predicting intrinsic dispersion and attenuation in Section 2. Since the objective for correcting velocity scattering effects is to predict intrinsic dispersion from velocity data, they are presenting an application to illustrate how to relate permeability anisotropy with intrinsic dispersion. Also, the theoretical solution for calculating full waveform dipole sonic that was developed in Phase 1 was applied to simulate dipole responses at different azimuthal source orientations. The results will be used to interpret the effects of anisotropy associated with the presence of vertical fractures at Buena Vista Hills. The results of the integration of core, well logs, and geology of Buena Vista Hills is also given in Section 2. The results of this integration will be considered as the input model for the inversion technique for processing production data. Section 3 summarizes accomplishments. In Section 4 the authors present a summary of the technology transfer and promotion efforts associated with this project. In the last section, they address the work to be done in the next six months and future work by applying the processing, modeling and inversion techniques developed in Phases 1 and 2 of this project.

  20. The Coal-Seq III Consortium. Advancing the Science of CO2 Sequestration in Coal Seam and Gas Shale Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koperna, George [Advanced Resources International Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2014-03-14

    The Coal-Seq consortium is a government-industry collaborative that was initially launched in 2000 as a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored investigation into CO2 sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams. The consortium’s objective aimed to advancing industry’s understanding of complex coalbed methane and gas shale reservoir behavior in the presence of multi-component gases via laboratory experiments, theoretical model development and field validation studies. Research from this collaborative effort was utilized to produce modules to enhance reservoir simulation and modeling capabilities to assess the technical and economic potential for CO2 storage and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in coal basins. Coal-Seq Phase 3 expands upon the learnings garnered from Phase 1 & 2, which has led to further investigation into refined model development related to multicomponent equations-of-state, sorption and diffusion behavior, geomechanical and permeability studies, technical and economic feasibility studies for major international coal basins the extension of the work to gas shale reservoirs, and continued global technology exchange. The first research objective assesses changes in coal and shale properties with exposure to CO2 under field replicated conditions. Results indicate that no significant weakening occurs when coal and shale were exposed to CO2, therefore, there was no need to account for mechanical weakening of coal due to the injection of CO2 for modeling. The second major research objective evaluates cleat, Cp, and matrix, Cm, swelling/shrinkage compressibility under field replicated conditions. The experimental studies found that both Cp and Cm vary due to changes in reservoir pressure during injection and depletion under field replicated conditions. Using laboratory data from this study, a compressibility model was developed to predict the pore-volume compressibility, Cp, and the matrix compressibility, Cm, of coal and shale, which was applied to

  1. Advanced composites characterization with x-ray technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baaklini, G.Y. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center

    1993-12-31

    Recognizing the critical need to advance new composites for the aeronautics and aerospace industries, the author is focusing on advanced test methods that are vital to successful modeling and manufacturing of future generations of high temperature and durable composite materials. These newly developed composites are necessary to reduce propulsion cost and weight, to improve performance and reliability, and to address longer-term national strategic thrusts for sustaining global preeminence in high speed air transport and in high performance military aircraft. Radiography during mechanical testing and intermittent x-ray computed tomography (CT) interrogation were found to be viable nondestructive test methods for understanding damage progression and mechanical behavior of laminated ceramic matrix composite (CMC) systems such as SiC/RBSN and metal matrix composite (MMC) systems such as SiC/Ti based composites. Pretest, in-situ, and post-test radiography provided a greater understanding of CMC mechanical behavior, a verification of related experimental procedures, and validation of related analytical models. CT identified manufacturing problems, guided machining of components to final dimensions, and lead structural and design engineers to realistic component-life-prediction models. The technology needs were defined for the x-ray modalities that were investigated in this paper.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of new polymeric materials for advanced applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sanna, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to synthesize and characterize new kinds of polymeric nanocomposite materials, including stimuli responsive hydrogels, organic-inorganic interpenetrating polymer networks, polyacrylates and polyurethanes. Specifically, this work was divided in two main threads: in the first one, electric field-, ionic force-, pH- and thermo-responsive hydrogels were prepared, whose thermal and mechanical properties, as well as the swelling behavior were strongly improved by the...

  3. Characterization of water reservoirs affected by acid mine drainage: geochemical, mineralogical, and biological (diatoms) properties of the water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, T; Rivera, M J; Almeida, S F P; Delgado, C; Gomes, P; Grande, J A; de la Torre, M L; Santisteban, M

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a combination of geochemical, mineralogical, and biological data obtained in water reservoirs located in one of the most paradigmatic mining regions, suffering from acid mine drainage (AMD) problems: the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Four water reservoirs located in the Spanish sector of the IBP, storing water for different purposes, were selected to achieve an environmental classification based on the effects of AMD: two mining dams (Gossan and Águas Ácidas), a reservoir for industrial use (Sancho), and one with water used for human supply (Andévalo). The results indicated that the four reservoirs are subject to the effect of metallic loads from polluted rivers, although with different levels: Águas Ácidas > Gossan > Sancho ≥ Andévalo. In accordance, epipsammic diatom communities have differences in the respective composition and dominant taxa. The dominant diatoms in each reservoir indicated acid water: Pinnularia acidophila and Pinnularia aljustrelica were found in the most acidic dams (Gossan and Águas Ácidas, with pH <3), Pinnularia subcapitata in Sancho (pH 2.48-5.82), and Eunotia exigua in Andévalo (pH 2.34-6.15). PMID:26032451

  4. Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

    2006-09-30

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum

  5. Multispectral and hyperspectral advanced characterization of soldier's camouflage equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Kastek, Mariusz; Chamberland, Martin; PiÄ tkowski, Tadeusz; Farley, Vincent; Dulski, Rafał; Trzaskawka, Piotr

    2013-10-01

    The requirements for soldier camouflage in the context of modern warfare are becoming more complex and challenging given the emergence of novel infrared sensors. There is a pressing need for the development of adapted fabrics and soldier camouflage devices to provide efficient camouflage in both the visible and infrared spectral ranges. The Military University of Technology has conducted an intensive project to develop new materials and fabrics to further improve the camouflage efficiency of soldiers. The developed materials shall feature visible and infrared properties that make these unique and adapted to various military context needs. This paper presents the details of an advanced measurement campaign of those unique materials where the correlation between multispectral and hyperspectral infrared measurements is performed.

  6. Characterization of UMT2013 Performance on Advanced Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Louis [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    This paper presents part of a larger effort to make detailed assessments of several proxy applications on various advanced architectures, with the eventual goal of extending these assessments to codes of programmatic interest running more realistic simulations. The focus here is on UMT2013, a proxy implementation of deterministic transport for unstructured meshes. I present weak and strong MPI scaling results and studies of OpenMP efficiency on the Sequoia BG/Q system at LLNL, with comparison against similar tests on an Intel Sandy Bridge TLCC2 system. The hardware counters on BG/Q provide detailed information on many aspects of on-node performance, while information from the mpiP tool gives insight into the reasons for the differing scaling behavior on these two different architectures. Preliminary tests that exploit NVRAM as extended memory on an Ivy Bridge machine designed for “Big Data” applications are also included.

  7. The role of inversion for acoustic impedance in the seismic characterization process of reservoirs; O papel da inversao para a impedancia acustica no processo de caracterizacao sismica de reservatorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancevero, Sergio Sacani; Remacre, Armando Zaupa; Portugal, Rodrigo de Souza [Dept. de Geologia e Recursos Naturais (DGRN), Inst. de Geociencias, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)], E-mails: sacani@ige.unicamp.br, armando@ige.unicamp.br, portugal@ige.unicamp.br

    2006-10-15

    The reservoir characterization process can be defined as the three-dimensional and quantitative determination of structure and petrophysical properties of the oil field. The use of 3D seismic data in the reservoir characterization process has become more frequent mainly in the identification of the shape and the size of the sand bodies that constitute the reservoir. However, in some situations as the deep water turbidity reservoirs of Campos Basin, that are characterized by a complex distribution of sand bodies and sub seismic thickness, the use of the conventional seismic amplitude data can result in serious mistakes in the definition of reservoir model. To solve the problem of the vertical seismic resolution limitation, is necessary to build an integrated model that use all information available about the reservoir. The most effective way to integrate the seismic data in the reservoir characterization process is by using acoustic impedance models, obtained by seismic inversion. The aim of this work is to show how the seismic inversion to acoustic impedance can support and improve the characterization of the reservoirs, when comparing the results obtained by the application of two seismic inversion methods, the recursive inversion and the constrained sparse-spike inversion. The seismic inversion methods are applied in a wedge synthetic reference model, that represent some features find in the deep water turbidity reservoir, like stratigraphic thinning and pinch-outs. Based on these results we can see the advantages in use the seismic inversion methods in the determination of geometry of sand bodies and in the calculation of petrophysical properties, and as a consequence more accuracy models can be generated and the forecasts about the behavior of the field can be done in most effective way. (author)

  8. A Comparative Study between a Pseudo-Forward Equation (PFE and Intelligence Methods for the Characterization of the North Sea Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mojeddifar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study between three versions of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS algorithms and a pseudo-forward equation (PFE to characterize the North Sea reservoir (F3 block based on seismic data. According to the statistical studies, four attributes (energy, envelope, spectral decomposition and similarity are known to be useful as fundamental attributes in porosity estimation. Different ANFIS models were constructed using three clustering methods of grid partitioning (GP, subtractive clustering method (SCM and fuzzy c-means clustering (FCM. An experimental equation, called PFE and based on similarity attributes, was also proposed to estimate porosity values of the reservoir. When the validation set derived from training wells was used, the R-square coefficient between two variables (actual and predicted values was obtained as 0.7935 and 0.7404 for the ANFIS algorithm and the PFE model, respectively. But when the testing set derived from testing wells was used, the same coefficients decreased to 0.252 and 0.5133 for the ANFIS algorithm and the PFE model, respectively. According to these results, and the geological characteristics observed in the F3 block, it seems that the ANFIS algorithms cannot estimate the porosity acceptably. By contrast, in the outputs of PFE, the ability to detect geological structures such as faults (gas chimney, folds (salt dome, and bright spots, alongside the porosity estimation of sandstone reservoirs, could help in determining the drilling target locations. Finally, this work proposes that the developed PFE could be a good technique for characterizing the reservoir of the F3 block.

  9. Reservoir monitoring and characterization using satellite geodetic data: Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar observations from the Krechba field, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.; Ferretti, Alessandro; Novali, Fabrizio

    2008-05-01

    Deformation in the material overlying an active reservoir is used to monitor pressure change at depth. A sequence of pressure field estimates, eleven in all, allow us to construct a measure of diffusive travel time throughout the reservoir. The dense distribution of travel time values means that we can construct an exactly linear inverse problem for reservoir flow properties. Application to Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data gathered over a CO{sub 2} injection in Algeria reveals pressure propagation along two northwest trending corridors. An inversion of the travel times indicates the existence of two northwest-trending high permeability zones. The high permeability features trend in the same direction as the regional fault and fracture zones. Model parameter resolution estimates indicate that the features are well resolved.

  10. Integrated Petrophysical Parameters and Petrographic Analysis Characterizing Khartam Reservoirs of the Permo-Triassic Khuff Formation, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Al-Khidir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Measured porosity and permeability were integrated with thin section petrography and pertophysical attributes derived from mercury intrusion to form an essential outline for Khartam reservoirs of the Permo-Triassic Khuff Formation. Porosity-permeability distribution of thirty two outcrop core samples delineates an existence of five demonstrative pertophysical facies. Thin section petrography reveals dissolution as principal diagenetic feature controlling fluid flow in Khartam reservoirs. Based on dissolution and poro – perm distribution it was found that, better khartam reservoirs quality confined to dolostone facies type (QK1 and tidat flat oolite grainstone facies (QK27 with higher degree of dissolution owing to cement removal. Further supports to dissolution statement come from physical attributes acquired from mercury intrusion including pore size distribution tail and total cumulative intrusion volume. Correspondingly facies with higher pore size distribution tail and higher total cumulative intrusion volume restricted to dolostone facies type (QK1 and oolite grainstone facies type (QK27.

  11. Advanced airborne geophysics for site and watershed characterization and remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B.; Hodges, G. [Fugro Airborne Surveys, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2007-04-01

    Airborne geophysics systems now have the ability to make accurately map the conductivity of the earth's subsurface. This article provided details of various site characterization surveys conducted using helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) surveys. Recent improvements in computer software, the use of global positioning systems (GPS), lasers, and fiber optics have increased the ability of HEM systems to accurately map ground conditions. Airborne electromagnetic survey techniques were used to characterize the geological features and lithology of the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine (SBMM) on the eastern shore of Clear Lake in California. Natural conduits for the movement of groundwater were identified. Data showed that acidic water and mercury from the mine were contaminating the lake. The data showed good agreement with results obtained from previous conventional geologic and hydrologic investigations. HEM surveys were also used to characterize conductive mine pools and groundwater plumes at areas in the eastern United States that contained abandoned surface and underground coal mines. HEM was used to delineate source areas and flow paths for acidic, metal-containing groundwater, and data obtained from the surveys were used to plan mitigation activities. The survey identified 11 mine pools, as well as flooded workings that had previously not been mapped. HEM surveys were also used to map water-bearing fractures in areas of crystalline bedrock in drought-ridden regions in Brazil. Information from the surveys was used to locate drill targets for water wells. A test survey was used to identify wellheads leaking methane in a privately-owned gas field in Wyoming. Five methane leakage plumes were detected as a result of the survey. HEM geophysical surveys have also been used to map conductivity variations due to changes in water salinity at the Biscayne aquifer in the Florida everglades. It was concluded that airborne and HEM surveys provide significant cost savings when

  12. Advanced Modelling and Functional Characterization of B2 Bradykinin Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saad Khan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary angioedema (giant hives is an autosomal dominant malady characterized by repetitive episodes of probably life-threatening angioedema due to a partial deficiency of C1 inhibitor. B2 Bradykinin Receptor's (BKRB2 amino acid sequence is deposited within UniProt under accession number P30411. The Physicochemical properties of BKRB2 sequence are determined by using ProtParam. BKRB2's secondary structure was predicted through PROTEUS. Pfam domain was used for functional characterization of BKRB2. PSI-BLAST was used to find homologs of known structure. Modelling by satisfaction of spatial restraints, either uses distance geometry or optimization techniques to satisfy spatial restraints performed by MODELLER. The quality of the generated model was evaluated with PROCHECK by Ramachandran plot analysis. Validation of the generated models was further performed by WHAT IF. ProSA was used for the analysis of Z-scores and energy plots. The 3D structures of the modeled proteins were analyzed using UCSF Chimera. Clustal Omega is used for multiple sequence alignment that uses seeded guide trees and HMM profile-profile techniques to generate alignments.

  13. Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Vivek Kumar

    to heat-sinking units. This dissertation presents results of the experimental investigation and theoretical interpretation of thermal transport in the advanced engineered materials, which include thin films for thermal management of nanoscale devices, nanostructured superlattices as promising candidates for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials, and improved TIMs with graphene and metal particles as fillers providing enhanced thermal conductivity. The advanced engineered materials studied include chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and microcrystalline diamond (MCD) films on Si substrates, directly integrated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films on GaN, free-standing polycrystalline graphene (PCG) films, graphene oxide (GOx) films, and "pseudo-superlattices" of the mechanically exfoliated Bi2Te3 topological insulator films, and thermal interface materials (TIMs) with graphene fillers.

  14. Reservoir management under geological uncertainty using fast model update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanea, R.; Evensen, G.; Hustoft, L.; Ek, T.; Chitu, A.; Wilschut, F.

    2015-01-01

    Statoil is implementing "Fast Model Update (FMU)," an integrated and automated workflow for reservoir modeling and characterization. FMU connects all steps and disciplines from seismic depth conversion to prediction and reservoir management taking into account relevant reservoir uncertainty. FMU del

  15. Advanced Branching Control and Characterization of Inorganic Semiconducting Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Steven Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The ability to finely tune the size and shape of inorganic semiconducting nanocrystals is an area of great interest, as the more control one has, the more applications will be possible for their use. The first two basic shapes develped in nanocrystals were the sphere and the anistropic nanorod. the II_VI materials being used such as Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), exhibit polytypism, which allows them to form in either the hexagonally packed wurtzite or cubically packed zinc blende crystalline phase. The nanorods are wurtzite with the length of the rod growing along the c-axis. As this grows, stacking faults may form, which are layers of zinc blende in the otherwise wurtzite crystal. Using this polytypism, though, the first generation of branched crystals were developed in the form of the CdTe tetrapod. This is a nanocrystal that nucleates in the zincblend form, creating a tetrahedral core, on which four wurtzite arms are grown. This structure opened up the possibility of even more complex shapes and applications. This disseration investigates the advancement of branching control and further understanding the materials polytypism in the form of the stacking faults in nanorods.

  16. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of laser deposited advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistla, Harihar Rakshit

    Additive manufacturing in the form of laser deposition is a unique way to manufacture near net shape metallic components from advanced materials. Rapid solidification facilitates the extension of solid solubility, compositional flexibility and decrease in micro-segregation in the melt among other advantages. The current work investigates the employment of laser deposition to fabricate the following: 1. Functionally gradient materials: This allows grading dissimilar materials compositionally to tailor specific properties of both these materials into a single component. Specific compositions of the candidate materials (SS 316, Inconel 625 and Ti64) were blended and deposited to study the brittle intermetallics reported in these systems. 2. High entropy alloys: These are multi- component alloys with equiatomic compositions of 5 or more elements. The ratio of Al to Ni was decreased to observe the transition of solid solution from a BCC to an FCC crystal structure in the AlFeCoCrNi system. 3. Structurally amorphous alloys: Zr-based metallic glasses have been reported to have high glass forming ability. These alloys have been laser deposited so as to rapidly cool them from the melt into an amorphous state. Microstructural analysis and X-ray diffraction were used to study the phase formation, and hardness was measured to estimate the mechanical properties.

  17. Wetlands Assessment for site characterization, Advanced Neutron Source (ANS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, M.C.; Socolof, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.; Rosensteel, B.; Awl, D. [JAYCOR, Vienna, VA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    This Wetlands Assessment has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR 1022, Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, which established the policy and procedure for implementing Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands. The proposed action is to conduct characterization activities in or near wetlands at the ANS site. The proposed action will covered under a Categorical Exclusion, therefore this assessment is being prepared as a separate document [10 CFR 1022.12(c)]. The purpose of this Wetlands Assessment is to fulfill the requirements of 10 CFR 1022.12(a) by describing the project, discussing the effects of the proposed action upon the wetlands, and considering alternatives to the proposed action.

  18. Carbon nanotube catalysts: recent advances in synthesis, characterization and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yibo; Miao, Jianwei; Yang, Zhihong; Xiao, Fang-Xing; Yang, Hong Bin; Liu, Bin; Yang, Yanhui

    2015-05-21

    Carbon nanotubes are promising materials for various applications. In recent years, progress in manufacturing and functionalizing carbon nanotubes has been made to achieve the control of bulk and surface properties including the wettability, acid-base properties, adsorption, electric conductivity and capacitance. In order to gain the optimal benefit of carbon nanotubes, comprehensive understanding on manufacturing and functionalizing carbon nanotubes ought to be systematically developed. This review summarizes methodologies of manufacturing carbon nanotubes via arc discharge, laser ablation and chemical vapor deposition and functionalizing carbon nanotubes through surface oxidation and activation, doping of heteroatoms, halogenation, sulfonation, grafting, polymer coating, noncovalent functionalization and nanoparticle attachment. The characterization techniques detecting the bulk nature and surface properties as well as the effects of various functionalization approaches on modifying the surface properties for specific applications in catalysis including heterogeneous catalysis, photocatalysis, photoelectrocatalysis and electrocatalysis are highlighted. PMID:25855947

  19. Advanced Metrology for Characterization of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Daniel

    -plane tunneling (CIPT) for characterization of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), which constitutes the key component not only in MRAM but also the read-heads of modern hard disk drives. MTJs are described by their tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), which is the relative difference of the resistance area products (RA...... may effectively increases the dynamic range of any given micro 12-point probe (M12PP). Without the requirement for switching magnetic fields during measurements the static field CIPT method has inspired the concept of detached magnet setups for future CIPTech tools. While lowering the complexity of......) at two characteristic resistance levels (high and low) of the MTJ device. In the final memory application these resistance states correspond to a digital “1” or “0” stored. During CIPT measurements the tool will alter the state of the MTJ by application of an external magnetic field. With the CIPTech...

  20. Characterization of PTFE Using Advanced Thermal Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumm, J.; Lindemann, A.; Meyer, M.; Strasser, C.

    2010-10-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer used in numerous industrial applications. It is often referred to by its trademark name, Teflon. Thermal characterization of a PTFE material was carried out using various thermal analysis and thermophysical properties test techniques. The transformation energetics and specific heat were measured employing differential scanning calorimetry. The thermal expansion and the density changes were determined employing pushrod dilatometry. The viscoelastic properties (storage and loss modulus) were analyzed using dynamic mechanical analysis. The thermal diffusivity was measured using the laser flash technique. Combining thermal diffusivity data with specific heat and density allows calculation of the thermal conductivity of the polymer. Measurements were carried out from - 125 °C up to 150 °C. Additionally, measurements of the mechanical properties were carried out down to - 170 °C. The specific heat tests were conducted into the fully molten regions up to 370 °C.

  1. Wetlands Assessment for site characterization, Advanced Neutron Source (ANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Wetlands Assessment has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR 1022, Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, which established the policy and procedure for implementing Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands. The proposed action is to conduct characterization activities in or near wetlands at the ANS site. The proposed action will covered under a Categorical Exclusion, therefore this assessment is being prepared as a separate document [10 CFR 1022.12(c)]. The purpose of this Wetlands Assessment is to fulfill the requirements of 10 CFR 1022.12(a) by describing the project, discussing the effects of the proposed action upon the wetlands, and considering alternatives to the proposed action

  2. Integrated Petrophysical Parameters and Petrographic Analysis Characterizing Khartam Reservoirs of the Permo-Triassic Khuff Formation, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    K Al-Khidir; M Benzagouta

    2014-01-01

    Measured porosity and permeability were integrated with thin section petrography and pertophysical attributes derived from mercury intrusion to form an essential outline for Khartam reservoirs of the Permo-Triassic Khuff Formation. Porosity-permeability distribution of thirty two outcrop core samples delineates an existence of five demonstrative pertophysical facies. Thin section petrography reveals dissolution as principal diagenetic feature controlling fluid flow in Khartam ...

  3. Seismic spectral decomposition and analysis based on Wigner–Ville distribution for sandstone reservoir characterization in West Sichuan depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reflections from a hydrocarbon-saturated zone are generally expected to have a tendency to be low frequency. Previous work has shown the application of seismic spectral decomposition for low-frequency shadow detection. In this paper, we further analyse the characteristics of spectral amplitude in fractured sandstone reservoirs with different fluid saturations using the Wigner–Ville distribution (WVD)-based method. We give a description of the geometric structure of cross-terms due to the bilinear nature of WVD and eliminate cross-terms using smoothed pseudo-WVD (SPWVD) with time- and frequency-independent Gaussian kernels as smoothing windows. SPWVD is finally applied to seismic data from West Sichuan depression. We focus our study on the comparison of SPWVD spectral amplitudes resulting from different fluid contents. It shows that prolific gas reservoirs feature higher peak spectral amplitude at higher peak frequency, which attenuate faster than low-quality gas reservoirs and dry or wet reservoirs. This can be regarded as a spectral attenuation signature for future exploration in the study area

  4. Recent advances on separation and characterization of human milk oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Veronica; Galeotti, Fabio; Maccari, Francesca; Volpi, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    Free human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are unique due to their highly complex nature and important emerging biological and protective functions during early life such as prebiotic activity, pathogen deflection, and epithelial and immune cell modulation. Moreover, four genetically determined heterogeneous HMO secretory groups are known to be based on their structure and composition. Over the years, several analytical techniques have been applied to characterize and quantitate HMOs, including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), high pH anion-exchange chromatography, off-line and on-line mass spectrometry (MS), and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Even if these techniques have proven to be efficient and simple, most glycans have no significant UV absorption and derivatization with fluorophore groups prior to separation usually results in higher sensitivity and an improved chromatographic/electrophoretic profile. Consequently, the analysis by HPLC/CE of derivatized milk oligosaccharides with different chromophoric active tags has been developed. However, UV or fluorescence detection does not provide specific structural information and this is a key point in particular related to the highly complex nature of the milk glycan mixtures. As a consequence, for a specific determination of complex mixtures of oligomers, analytical separation is usually required with evaluation by means of MS, which has been successfully applied to HMOs, resulting in efficient compositional analysis and profiling in various milk samples. This review aims to give an overview of the current state-of-the-art techniques used in HMO analysis. PMID:26801168

  5. Advancements in waste water characterization through NMR spectroscopy: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Alexandre e Silva, Lorena M; Ferreira, Antonio G

    2015-09-01

    There are numerous organic pollutants that lead to several types of ecosystem damage and threaten human health. Wastewater treatment plants are responsible for the removal of natural and anthropogenic pollutants from the sewage, and because of this function, they play an important role in the protection of human health and the environment. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has proven to be a valuable analytical tool as a result of its versatility in characterizing both overall chemical composition as well as individual species in a wide range of mixtures. In addition, NMR can provide physical information (rigidity, dynamics, etc.) as well as permit in depth quantification. Hyphenation with other techniques such as liquid chromatography, solid phase extraction and mass spectrometry creates unprecedented capabilities for the identification of novel and unknown chemical species. Thus, NMR is widely used in the study of different components of wastewater, such as complex organic matter (fulvic and humic acids), sludge and wastewater. This review article summarizes the NMR spectroscopy methods applied in studies of organic pollutants from wastewater to provide an exhaustive review of the literature as well as a guide for readers interested in this topic. PMID:25280056

  6. Advanced optical measurements for characterizing photophysical properties of single nanoparticles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polsky, Ronen; Davis, Ryan W.; Arango, Dulce C.; Brozik, Susan Marie; Wheeler, David Roger

    2009-09-01

    Formation of complex nanomaterials would ideally involve single-pot reaction conditions with one reactive site per nanoparticle, resulting in a high yield of incrementally modified or oriented structures. Many studies in nanoparticle functionalization have sought to generate highly uniform nanoparticles with tailorable surface chemistry necessary to produce such conjugates, with limited success. In order to overcome these limitations, we have modified commercially available nanoparticles with multiple potential reaction sites for conjugation with single ssDNAs, proteins, and small unilamellar vesicles. These approaches combined heterobifunctional and biochemical template chemistries with single molecule optical methods for improved control of nanomaterial functionalization. Several interesting analytical results have been achieved by leveraging techniques unique to SNL, and provide multiple paths for future improvements for multiplex nanoparticle synthesis and characterization. Hyperspectral imaging has proven especially useful for assaying substrate immobilized fluorescent particles. In dynamic environments, temporal correlation spectroscopies have been employed for tracking changes in diffusion/hydrodynamic radii, particle size distributions, and identifying mobile versus immobile sample fractions at unbounded dilution. Finally, Raman fingerprinting of biological conjugates has been enabled by resonant signal enhancement provided by intimate interactions with nanoparticles and composite nanoshells.

  7. The benefits of a synergistic approach to reservoir characterization and proration Rose City Prairie Du Chien Gas field, Ogemaw County, Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on proration of gas fields in Michigan that is regulated by the Michigan Public Service Commission (MPSC). Unlike other states the MPSC determines allowables for the purpose of allocating reserves. Therefore, exemplary reservoir characterization is essential to ensure each party receives, as far as can be practicably determined, an equitable share. SWEPI's Central Division Management recognizes the reality of the Michigan regulatory arena as well as the principles and value of effective leadership and teamwork. Accordingly, to better understand Rose City, a multi-disciplinary team was formed to analyze the extensive database, to prorate the field appropriately and to establish and maintain maximum acceptable production rates

  8. Integration of advanced geoscience and engineering techniques to quantify interwell heterogeneity in reservoir models. Final report, September 29, 1993--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W.W.; Buckley, J.S.; Ouenes, A.

    1997-05-01

    The goal of this three-year project was to provide a quantitative definition of reservoir heterogeneity. This objective was accomplished through the integration of geologic, geophysical, and engineering databases into a multi-disciplinary understanding of reservoir architecture and associated fluid-rock and fluid-fluid interactions. This interdisciplinary effort integrated geological and geophysical data with engineering and petrophysical results through reservoir simulation to quantify reservoir architecture and the dynamics of fluid-rock and fluid-fluid interactions. An improved reservoir description allows greater accuracy and confidence during simulation and modeling as steps toward gaining greater recovery efficiency from existing reservoirs. A field laboratory, the Sulimar Queen Unit, was available for the field research. Several members of the PRRC staff participated in the development of improved reservoir description by integration of the field and laboratory data as well as in the development of quantitative reservoir models to aid performance predictions. Subcontractors from Stanford University and the University of Texas at Austin (UT) collaborated in the research and participated in the design and interpretation of field tests. The three-year project was initiated in September 1993 and led to the development and application of various reservoir description methodologies. A new approach for visualizing production data graphically was developed and implemented on the Internet. Using production data and old gamma rays logs, a black oil reservoir model that honors both primary and secondary performance was developed. The old gamma ray logs were used after applying a resealing technique, which was crucial for the success of the project. In addition to the gamma ray logs, the development of the reservoir model benefitted from an inverse Drill Stem Test (DST) technique which provided initial estimates of the reservoir permeability at different wells.

  9. Structural level characterization of base oils using advanced analytical techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Hourani, Nadim

    2015-05-21

    Base oils, blended for finished lubricant formulations, are classified by the American Petroleum Institute into five groups, viz., groups I-V. Groups I-III consist of petroleum based hydrocarbons whereas groups IV and V are made of synthetic polymers. In the present study, five base oil samples belonging to groups I and III were extensively characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) sources. First, the capabilities and limitations of each analytical technique were evaluated, and then the availed information was combined to reveal compositional details on the base oil samples studied. HPLC showed the overwhelming presence of saturated over aromatic compounds in all five base oils. A similar trend was further corroborated using GC×GC, which yielded semiquantitative information on the compound classes present in the samples and provided further details on the carbon number distributions within these classes. In addition to chromatography methods, FT-ICR MS supplemented the compositional information on the base oil samples by resolving the aromatics compounds into alkyl- and naphtheno-subtituted families. APCI proved more effective for the ionization of the highly saturated base oil components compared to APPI. Furthermore, for the detailed information on hydrocarbon molecules FT-ICR MS revealed the presence of saturated and aromatic sulfur species in all base oil samples. The results presented herein offer a unique perspective into the detailed molecular structure of base oils typically used to formulate lubricants. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  10. Recent advances in processing and characterization of edgeless detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Kalliopuska, J.; Eränen, S.; Virolainen, T.

    2012-02-01

    During past five years VTT has actively developed edgeless detector fabrication process. The straightforward and high yield process relies on ion-implantation to activate the edges of the detector. A recent fabrication process was performed at VTT to provide p-on-n edgeless detectors. The layout contained DC- and AC-coupled strip detector and pixel detectors for Medipix/Timepix readouts. The fabricated detector thicknesses were 50, 100 and 150 μm. Electrical characterization was done for 5 × 5 mm2 edgeless diodes on wafer level. All measured electrical parameters showed a dramatic dependence on the diode thickness. Leakage current was measured below 10 nA/cm2 at full depletion. Calculation using a theoretical approximation indicates the diode surface generation current of less than 300 pA. The breakdown voltages were measured to be above 140 V and increased as a function of diode thickness. Reverse bias of 10 V is enough to fully deplete designed edgeless diodes. Leakage current dependence of temperature was investigated for both p-on-n and previous n-on-n edgeless detectors and results show that the leakage current doubles for every 8.5 degree Celsius rise in temperature. TCAD device simulations reveal that breakdown occurs at the lateral p-n junction where the electric field reaches its highest value. Thick edgeless diodes have wider bulk space that allows electric potential to drop and causes smaller curvature of the equipotential lines. This releases the accumulation of electric field at the corner of anode and increases the breakdown voltage. A good match of the simulated and the measured capacitance-voltage curves enables identification of proper parameters used in the simulation.

  11. Role of sea-level change in deep water deposition along a carbonate shelf margin, Early and Middle Permian, Delaware Basin: implications for reservoir characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunli; Yu, Xinghe; Li, Shengli; Giles, Katherine A.

    2015-04-01

    The architecture and sedimentary characteristics of deep water deposition can reflect influences of sea-level change on depositional processes on the shelf edge, slope, and basin floor. Outcrops of the northern slope and basin floor of the Delaware Basin in west Texas are progressively exposed due to canyon incision and road cutting. The outcrops in the Delaware Basin were measured to characterize gravity flow deposits in deep water of the basin. Subsurface data from the East Ford and Red Tank fields in the central and northeastern Delaware Basin were used to study reservoir architectures and properties. Depositional models of deep water gravity flows at different stages of sea-level change were constructed on the basis of outcrop and subsurface data. In the falling-stage system tracts, sandy debris with collapses of reef carbonates are deposited on the slope, and high-density turbidites on the slope toe and basin floor. In the low-stand system tracts, deep water fans that consist of mixed sand/mud facies on the basin floor are comprised of high- to low-density turbidites. In the transgression and high-stand system tracts, channel-levee systems and elongate lobes of mud-rich calciturbidite deposits formed as a result of sea level rise and scarcity of sandy sediment supply. For the reservoir architecture, the fan-like debris and high-density turbidites show high net-to-gross ratio of 62 %, which indicates the sandiest reservoirs for hydrocarbon accumulation. Lobe-like deep water fans with net-to-gross ratio of 57 % facilitate the formation of high quality sandy reservoirs. The channel-levee systems with muddy calciturbidites have low net-to-gross ratio of 30 %.

  12. Fracture characterization and discrimination criteria for karst and tectonic fractures in the Ellenburger Group, West Texas: Implications for reservoir and exploration models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoak, T.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)]|[Kestrel Geoscience, Littleton, CO (United States); Sundberg, K.R. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Deyhim, P. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Ortoleva, P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Lab. for Computational Geodynamics

    1998-12-31

    In the Ellenburger Group fractured dolomite reservoirs of West Texas, it is extremely difficult to distinguish between multiple phases of karst-related fracturing, modifications to the karst system during burial, and overprinting tectonic fractures. From the analyses of drill core, the authors developed criteria to distinguish between karst and tectonic fractures. In addition, they have applied these criteria within the context of a detailed diagenetic cement history that allows them to further refine the fracture genesis and chronology. In these analyses, the authors evaluated the relationships between fracture intensity, morphologic attributes, host lithology, fracture cement, and oil-staining. From this analysis, they have been able to characterize variations in Ellenburger tectonic fracture intensity by separating these fractures from karst-related features. In general, the majority of fracturing in the Ellenburger is caused by karst-related fracturing although a considerable percentage is caused by tectonism. These findings underscore the importance of considering the complete geologic evolution of a karst reservoir during exploration and field development programs. The authors have been able to more precisely define the spatial significance of the fracture data sets by use of oriented core from Andector Field. They have also demonstrated the importance of these results for exploration and reservoir development programs in West Texas, and the potential to extrapolate these results around the globe. Given the historic interest in the large hydrocarbon reserves in West Texas carbonate reservoirs, results of this study will have tremendous implications for exploration and production strategies targeting vuggy, fractured carbonate systems not only in West Texas, but throughout the globe.

  13. A screening level fate model of organic contaminants from advanced water treatment in a potable water supply reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, Darryl W; Cumming, Janet L; Neale, Peta A; Bartkow, Michael E; Escher, Beate I

    2011-01-01

    Augmentation of potable water sources by planned indirect potable reuse of wastewater is being widely considered to address growing water shortages. Environmental buffers such as lakes and dams may act as one of a series of barriers to potable water contamination stemming from micropollutants in wastewater. In South-East Queensland, Australia, current government policy is to begin indirect potable reuse of water from reverse osmosis equipped advanced water treatment plants (AWTPs) when the combined capacity of its major storages is at 40% capacity. A total of 15 organic contaminants including NDMA and bisphenol A have been publically reported as detected in recycled water from one of South-East Queensland's AWTPs, while another 98 chemicals were analysed for, but found to be below their detection limit. To assess the natural attenuation in Lake Wivenhoe, a Level III fugacity based evaluative fate model was constructed using the maximum concentrations of these contaminants detected as input data. A parallel aquivalence based model was constructed for those contaminants, such as dichloroacetic acid, dalapon and triclopyr, which are ionised in the environment of Lake Wivenhoe. A total of 247 organic chemicals of interest, including disinfection by-products, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, xenoestrogens and industrial chemicals, were evaluated with the model to assess their potential for natural attenuation. Out of the 15 detected chemicals, trihalomethanes are expected to volatilise with concentrations in the outflow from the dam approximately 400 times lower than influent from the AWTPs. Transformation processes in water are likely to be more significant for NDMA and pharmaceuticals such as salicylic acid and paracetamol as well as for caffeine and the herbicides dalapon and triclopyr. For hydrophobic contaminants such as cholesterol and phenolic xenoestrogens such as 4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol and bisphenol A, equilibrium between water

  14. Solution-processed photovoltaics with advanced characterization and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hsin-Sheng

    mismatch including scene characterization inaccuracy. Several subpixel target detection parameter trade-off analyses are given, including relative calibration error vs SNR, the relationship among probability of detection, meteorological range, pixel fill factor, relative calibration error and false alarm rate. These trade-off analyses explain the utility of this model for hyperspectral imaging system design and research.

  15. Advances in acrylic-alkyd hybrid synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziczkowski, Jamie

    2008-10-01

    performance. Reversible-addition fragmentation polymerization techniques were employed to create a new class of acrylic-alkyd hybrid materials. Medium and long oil alkyds made from the monoglyceride process using soybean oil, glycerol, and phthalic anhydride were modified with a RAFT chain transfer agent. The alkyd macro-RAFT agents were reached by end-capping a medium oil soya-based alkyd with a carboxy-functional trithiocarbonate. The alkyd macro-RAFT agents were then used to create acrylic-alkyd block structures by polymerizing different acrylic monomers, including both acrylates and methacrylates in the presence of the macro-RAFT agent and 2, 2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN). Co-acrylic segments were reached by complete polymerization of one monomer followed by the addition of a second monomer and additional free radical initiator. The alkyds, macro-RAFT agents and, acrylic-alkyd blocks were characterized by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), FTIR, and 1H-NMR. Pseudo-first-order kinetics behavior and conversion vs. molecular weight plots show that the RAFT-mediated reaction afforded a more controlled process for the synthesis of acrylated-alkyd materials. Preliminary coatings tests showed that material properties of acrylated-alkyds achieved by RAFT polymerization exhibit good overall coatings properties including adhesion, gloss, hardness, and impact resistance.

  16. Evaluating factorial kriging for seismic attributes filtering: a geostatistical filter applied to reservoir characterization; Avaliacao da krigagem fatorial na filtragem de atributos sismicos: um filtro geoestatistico aplicado a caracterizacao de reservatorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundim, Evaldo Cesario

    1999-02-01

    In this dissertation the Factorial Kriging analysis for the filtering of seismic attributes applied to reservoir characterization is considered. Factorial Kriging works in the spatial, domain in a similar way to the Spectral Analysis in the frequency domain. The incorporation of filtered attributes via External Drift Kriging and Collocated Cokriging in the estimate of reservoir characterization is discussed. Its relevance for the reservoir porous volume calculation is also evaluated based on comparative analysis of the volume risk curves derived from stochastic conditional simulations with collocated variable and stochastic conditional simulations with collocated variable and stochastic conditional simulations with external drift. results prove Factorial Kriging as an efficient technique for the filtering of seismic attributes images, of which geologic features are enhanced. The attribute filtering improves the correlation between the attributes and the well data and the estimates of the reservoir properties. The differences between the estimates obtained by External Drift Kriging and Collocated Cokriging are also reduced. (author)

  17. Play Analysis and Digital Portfolio of Major Oil Reservoirs in the Permian Basin: Application and Transfer of Advanced Geological and Engineering Technologies for Incremental Production Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans

    2004-01-13

    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest onshore petroleum-producing basin in the United States. Approximately 1,300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000. Of these significant-sized reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. There are 32 geologic plays that have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs, and each of the 1,300 major reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. The final reservoir shapefile for each play contains the geographic location of each reservoir. Associated reservoir information within the linked data tables includes RRC reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are smaller than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production of >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl [5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres Platform Carbonate play (2.15 Bbbl [3.42 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]). Detailed studies of three reservoirs

  18. Characterizing Microbial Diversity and Function in Natural Subsurface CO2 Reservoir Systems for Applied Use in Geologic Carbon Sequestration Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, A.; Thompson, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    The injection of CO2 into geological formations at quantities necessary to significantly reduce CO2 emissions will represent an environmental perturbation on a continental scale. The extent to which biological processes may play a role in the fate and transport of CO2 injected into geological formations has remained an open question due to the fact that at temperatures and pressures associated with reservoirs targeted for sequestration CO2 exists as a supercritical fluid (scCO2), which has generally been regarded as a sterilizing agent. Natural subsurface accumulations of CO2 serve as an excellent analogue for studying the long-term effects, implications and benefits of CO2 capture and storage (CCS). While several geologic formations bearing significant volumes of nearly pure scCO2 phases have been identified in the western United States, no study has attempted to characterize the microbial community present in these systems. Because the CO2 in the region is thought to have first accumulated millions of years ago, it is reasonable to assume that native microbial populations have undergone extensive and unique physiological and behavioral adaptations to adjust to the exceedingly high scCO2 content. Our study focuses on the microbial communities associated with the dolomite limestone McElmo Dome scCO2 Field in the Colorado Plateau region, approximately 1,000 m below the surface. Fluid samples were collected from 10 wells at an industrial CO2 production facility outside Cortez, CO. Subsamples preserved on site in 3.7% formaldehyde were treated in the lab with Syto 9 green-fluorescent nucleic acid stain, revealing 3.2E6 to 1.4E8 microbial cells per liter of produced fluid and 8.0E9 cells per liter of local pond water used in well drilling fluids. Extracted DNAs from sterivex 0.22 um filters containing 20 L of sample biomass were used as templates for PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene. 16S rRNA amplicons from these samples were cloned, sequenced and subjected to microbial

  19. Fast Reservoir Characterization and Development of a Field Case Study with Real Production and 4D Seismic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Rwechungura, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of this PhD is to provide methods for continuous and fast optimization and updating of reservoir simulation models (i.e. history matching and associated forecast) based on production data, 4D seismic data and other available data. To accomplish this goal the following strategies have been employed:Comparison and Combination: Combining the use of time-lapse seismic data and production data for history matching and parameter estimation, and then comparing and combining differen...

  20. Reservoir Protection Technology in China: Research & Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiangui; Wu Juan; Kang Yili

    2006-01-01

    @@ Great development of reservoir protection technology (RPT) has been achieved since 1996, including oil and gas reservoir protection for exploration wells, reservoir protection during underbalanced drilling, protection of fractured tight sandstone gas reservoir, and reservoir protection while increase production and reconstructing, development and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) etc. It has stepped into a new situation with special features and advantage. These technical advancements marked that China's RTP have realized leaps from porous reservoirs to fractured reservoirs,from conventional medium-to-low permeability reservoirs to unconventional reservoirs, from oil and gas producers to exploration wells, and from application mainly in drilling and completion processes to application in stimulation,development, production and EOR processes.

  1. PLAY ANALYSIS AND DIGITAL PORTFOLIO OF MAJOR OIL RESERVOIRS IN THE PERMIAN BASIN: APPLICATION AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREMENTAL PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans

    2004-05-01

    The Permian Basin of west Texas and southeast New Mexico has produced >30 Bbbl (4.77 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000, most of it from 1,339 reservoirs having individual cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}). These significant-sized reservoirs are the focus of this report. Thirty-two Permian Basin oil plays were defined, and each of the 1,339 significant-sized reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Associated reservoir information within linked data tables includes Railroad Commission of Texas reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are <1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. This report contains a summary description of each play, including key reservoir characteristics and successful reservoir-management practices that have been used in the play. The CD accompanying the report contains a pdf version of the report, the GIS project, pdf maps of all plays, and digital data files. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 from these significant-sized reservoirs was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl 5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres

  2. PLAY ANALYSIS AND DIGITAL PORTFOLIO OF MAJOR OIL RESERVOIRS IN THE PERMIAN BASIN: APPLICATION AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREMENTAL PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; William Raatz; Cari Breton; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans; Mark H. Holtz

    2003-04-01

    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest petroleum-producing basin in the US. Approximately 1300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl of oil through 2000. Of these major reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. On a preliminary basis, 32 geologic plays have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs and assignment of each of the 1300 major reservoirs to a play has begun. The reservoirs are being mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Detailed studies of three reservoirs are in progress: Kelly-Snyder (SACROC unit) in the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play, Fullerton in the Leonardian Restricted Platform Carbonate play, and Barnhart (Ellenburger) in the Ellenburger Selectively Dolomitized Ramp Carbonate play. For each of these detailed reservoir studies, technologies for further, economically viable exploitation are being investigated.

  3. IMPROVED MISCIBLE NITROGEN FLOOD PERFORMANCE UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL LATERALS IN A CLASS I RESERVOIR - EAST BINGER (MARCHAND) UNIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budget Period 2 of the East Binger Unit (''EBU'') DOE Project has been. Recent activities included additional data gathering and project monitoring, plus initiation of work on an SPE paper on the modeling efforts of the project. Early production performance suggests horizontal wells do not provide sufficient additional production over vertical wells to justify their incremental cost. It will take more time to evaluate the impact of the horizontal wells on sweep and ultimate recovery, but it is unlikely that an improvement in recovery will be sufficient to make the overall economic value of horizontal wells greater than the economic value of vertical wells. Monitoring of overall performance of the pilot area continues. Overall response to the various projects continues to be very favorable. Injection into the pilot area has nearly doubled, while gas production and nitrogen content of produced gas have both decreased. Nitrogen recycle within the pilot area has dropped from 60% to 20%. Efforts to further disseminate knowledge gained through this project, by means of technical paper presentations to industry groups, are underway. Project monitoring and technology transfer will be focus areas of Budget Period 3

  4. Detailed petrophysical and geophysical characterization of core samples from the potential caprock-reservoir system in the Sulcis Coal Basin (South-Western Sardinia - Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Silvana; Ligas, Paola; Cuccuru, Francesco; Maggio, Enrico; Plaisant, Alberto; Pettinau, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    The evaluation of the CO2 geologic storage site requires a robust experimental database especially with respect to spatial petrophysical heterogeneities. The integrated analysis of minero-petrographical, physical and geophysical parameters (e.g. longitudinal and transversal propagation velocity, VpVs ratio, dynamic elastic moduli, etc.) of the rocks that make up a caprock-reservoir system can substantially reduce the geologic uncertainity in the storage site characterization and in the geological and numerical modelling for the evaluation of the CO2 storage capacity. In this study the Middle Eocene - Lower Oligocene Cixerri Formation made up of siliciclastic rocks and the Upper Thanetian - Lower Ypresian Miliolitico Carbonate Complex in the Sulcis coal basin (South-Western Sardinia - Italy) have been identified respectively as potential caprock and reservoir for the CO2 storage. The petrographical, physical and geophysical parameters of the above mentioned geological Formations (Cixerri and Milolitico) were investigated to improve the geological model aimed at verifying the geological CO2 storage capacity within the carbonate reservoir rocks, in order to guarantee an efficient use of the reservoir, and to improve the numerical simulation of CO2 behaviour in the short, medium and long term after its injection in single or multiple wells. . The petrographical characteristics of the caprock-reservoir rocks were determined by optical and SEM analyses of core samples representing the different facies of the Cixerri Formation and of the Miliolitico Carbonate Complex, provided by Carbosulcis S.p.A.. Porosity analysis was completed by mercury porosimeter determinations which also provided quantitative information on the permeability of the study rocks and on the tortuosity of their pore system. Further physical properties, such as dry and saturated density and porosity, and water absorption were determined on the cylindrical core samples of intact rocks (ISRM, 1979) from

  5. Geological and production characteristics of strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.; Jackson, S.; Madden, M.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) primary mission in the oil research program is to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. The Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program supports DOE`s mission through cost-shared demonstrations of improved Oil Recovery (IOR) processes and reservoir characterization methods. In the past 3 years, the DOE has issued Program Opportunity Notices (PONs) seeking cost-shared proposals for the three highest priority, geologically defined reservoir classes. The classes have been prioritized based on resource size and risk of abandonment. This document defines the geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of the fourth reservoir class, strandplain/barrier islands. Knowledge of the geological factors and processes that control formation and preservation of reservoir deposits, external and internal reservoir heterogeneities, reservoir characterization methodology, and IOR process application can be used to increase production of the remaining oil-in-place (IOR) in Class 4 reservoirs. Knowledge of heterogeneities that inhibit or block fluid flow is particularly critical. Using the TORIS database of 330 of the largest strandplain/barrier island reservoirs and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (sufactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000.

  6. ADVANCES IN RESERVOIR GREENHOUSE EFFECTS AND PRINCIPAL INFLUENCE FACTORS ANALYSIS%水库温室效应研究进展与主要影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉景江; 林初学; 郭劲松; 陈永柏; 蒋滔

    2011-01-01

    温室气体排放导致的全球变暖成为世界各国关注的焦点.目前,关于淡水水库的温室效应在全球气候变化中的作用也成为了科学家争论的问题.已有的研究表明,世界上很多为水力发电或其他目的建造的水库,因水库蓄水所导致土壤和植被的淹没而额外增加碳基温室气体二氧化碳(C02)和甲烷(CH4)的释放.通过对国内外关于淡水水库温室气体研究方面文献的归纳,综述分析了水库温室效应观测研究案例、水库温室气体的产生机制、排放过程及其主要影响因素等方面的研究进展.为进一步从事水库温室气体研究、把握水库温室气体排放提供参考.%Global climate warming resulted from greenhouse gas emission already has attracted more and more attentions from governments and the public all over the world. At present, the status of greenhouse effect from large freshwater reservoirs in global climate warming became a debated issue in the academic community around the world gradually. The previous studies showed that some reservoirs for hydro-electronic generation or other purposes in Canada, U. S. A, Brazil and other counties would release additional greenhouse gas(CO2 and CH4)into atmosphere due to the inundation of soil and vegetation in reservoir area as a result of the construction and impoundment of reservoir. In this paper, an overview of greenhouse effect of reservoir on the global warming was addressed in order to understand the advances in greenhouse gas researches at home and abroad. It should be illustrated that some key issues,including observation of reservoirs greenhouse effect, case studies, the inner mechanism, emission processes and main influence factor of greenhouse gas from reservoirs, wese discussed and summarized for the sake of obtaining more information about the emission of greenhouse gas from freshwater reservoirs and providing constructive guide for hydro-electronic development in China.

  7. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone Reservoirs of South Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRae, L.E.; Holtz, M.H.; Knox, P.R.

    1995-07-01

    The Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone Play of South Texas is one example of a mature play where reservoirs are being abandoned at high rates, potentially leaving behind significant unrecovered resources in untapped and incompletely drained reservoirs. Nearly 1 billion barrels of oil have been produced from Frio reservoirs since the 1940`s, yet more than 1.6 BSTB of unrecovered mobile oil is estimated to remain in the play. Frio reservoirs of the South Texas Gulf Coast are being studied to better characterize interwell stratigraphic heterogeneity in fluvial-deltaic depositional systems and determine controls on locations and volumes of unrecovered oil. Engineering data from fields throughout the play trend were evaluated to characterize variability exhibited by these heterogeneous reservoirs and were used as the basis for resource calculations to demonstrate a large additional oil potential remaining within the play. Study areas within two separate fields have been selected in which to apply advanced reservoir characterization techniques. Stratigraphic log correlations, reservoir mapping, core analyses, and evaluation of production data from each field study area have been used to characterize reservoir variability present within a single field. Differences in sandstone depositional styles and production behavior were assessed to identify zones with significant stratigraphic heterogeneity and a high potential for containing unproduced oil. Detailed studies of selected reservoir zones within these two fields are currently in progress.

  8. Biogeochemical characterization of the Cointzio reservoir (Morelia, Mexico) and identification of a watershed-dependent cycling of nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Némery, J.; Alvarado, R.; Gratiot, N.; Duvert, C.; Mahé, F.; Duwig, C.; Bonnet, M.; Prat, C.; Esteves, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Cointzio reservoir (capacity 70 Mm3) is an essential component of the drinking water supply (20 %) of Morelia city (1 M inhabitants, Michoacán, Mexico). The watershed is 627 km2 and mainly forested (45 %) and cultivated (43 %) with recent increase of avocados plantations. The mean population density is 65 inh./km2 and there are no waste water treatment plants in the villages leading locally to high levels of organic and nutritive pollution. Soils are mostly volcanic and recent deforestations have led to important processes of erosion especially during the wet season (from June to October). As a result the reservoir presents a high turbidity level (Secchi distributions of temperature, oxygen, turbidity, pH (with a Hydrolab probe), nutrients (PO43-, NH4+, NO3-), Dissolved Organic Carbon, chlorophyll a (laboratory analysis with a Hach Lange spectrophotometer), phytoplankton and zooplankton (variety and abundance) were measured every month to determine its seasonal dynamics. Samples of deposited sediments were also taken to assess phosphorus (P) stock. Nutrient inputs revealed to be strongly conditioned by the watershed hydrology. During low flow period (November to May), the baseflow is much more concentrated in dissolved nutrients. On the contrary, the high flows (June to October) bring a high amount of suspended sediments (up to 50g/L) that transport nutrients such as particulate P. Despite the high turbidity level of the reservoir, chlorophyll a concentrations appear important (70 µg/L during the dry season) especially in the first five meters of the water column. The phytoplankton community is dominated by Euglenophyta and Cyanobacteria groups typical of eutrophic waters. This study is the first complete biogeochemical survey of the Cointzio watershed. Results acquired will be used in a 3D biogeochemical model ELMO (Bonnet and Wessen, 2001) with the objective of providing a quantitative and update analysis of the water quality. The model already reproduced

  9. Role of the advanced microstructures characterization in modeling of mechanical properties of AHSS steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwański, Krzysztof, E-mail: kradwanski@imz.pl; Wrożyna, Andrzej, E-mail: awrozyna@imz.pl; Kuziak, Roman, E-mail: rkuziak@imz.pl

    2015-07-15

    Detailed knowledge of the fraction, morphology and chemical composition of phase constituents and their effect on the mechanical properties play a crucial role in understanding of the mechanisms influencing the properties of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). On the other hand, the most important microstructural features of these steels are characterized by different size, starting from the nano- and ending on the microscale. Therefore, a detailed characterization of the AHSS microstructure must involve many methods capable of tracing the microstructure at different scale levels. The paper presents selected capabilities of advanced analytical techniques, in combination with conventional light optical microscopy (LOM), for quantitative characterization of the microstructure developed in AHSS steels during thermomechanical processing or continuous annealing. The material used for the investigation comprised the samples of DP steel sheet produced at the industrial scale. Special emphasis was focused on the capabilities of the Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEG SEM) combined with EBSD of microstructural characterization. The significance of accurate microstructure characterization for the modeling of mechanical properties of AHSS steels was demonstrated for the case of numerical calculation of the stress–strain curve in the standard tensile test. The work results indicate that such an engineering approach is useful for prediction of material properties.

  10. Characterization of nanometer-scale porosity in reservoir carbonate rock by focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Bijoyendra; Gunda, Naga Siva Kumar; Mitra, Sushanta K; Vick, Douglas

    2012-02-01

    Sedimentary carbonate rocks are one of the principal porous structures in natural reservoirs of hydrocarbons such as crude oil and natural gas. Efficient hydrocarbon recovery requires an understanding of the carbonate pore structure, but the nature of sedimentary carbonate rock formation and the toughness of the material make proper analysis difficult. In this study, a novel preparation method was used on a dolomitic carbonate sample, and selected regions were then serially sectioned and imaged by focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy. The resulting series of images were used to construct detailed three-dimensional representations of the microscopic pore spaces and analyze them quantitatively. We show for the first time the presence of nanometer-scale pores (50-300 nm) inside the solid dolomite matrix. We also show the degree of connectivity of these pores with micron-scale pores (2-5 μm) that were observed to further link with bulk pores outside the matrix. PMID:22214656

  11. Development of a prototype photoacoustic microscope and spectroscope and advanced semiconductor material characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, L

    2012-01-01

    The thesis can be divided into two parts. In the first part of my thesis, I present the design, construction and test results of a prototype gas-cell Photoacoustic (PA) Spectrometer and Microscope. It is a low cost, non-contact technique, which can be used to characterize semiconductor band-gap structures and subsurface defects. It requires no liquid coupling and no sample surface preparation in advance. The instrument development includes the optical system design, mechani...

  12. Characterization of plasma-induced phenol advanced oxidation process in a DBD reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Marotta, E.; Ceriani, E.; Shapoval, V.; Schiorlin, M.; Ceretta, C.; Rea, M.; Paradisi, C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Using phenol as a model organic pollutant we studied and characterized an innovative advanced oxidation process in water using a prototype dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor in which electrical discharges are produced in the air above the water surface. Phenol is decomposed quite efficiently in this reactor operated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The process selectivity to form CO2 is, however, to be improved since a large fraction of the treated org...

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF CONDITIONS OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE RESERVOIRS AND DESIGN AND DEMONSTRATION OF REMEDIAL TECHNIQUES FOR DAMAGE MECHANISMS FOUND THEREIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.H. Frantz; K.G. Brown

    2003-02-01

    There are four primary goals of contract DE-FG26-99FT40703: (1) We seek to better understand how and why a specific iron-related inorganic precipitant, siderite, occurs at the reservoir/wellbore interface in gas storage wells. (2) We plan on testing potential prevention and remediation strategies related to this damage mechanism in the laboratory. (3) We expect to demonstrate in the field, cost-effective prevention and remediation strategies that laboratory testing deems viable. (4) We will investigate new technology for the gas storage industry that will provide operators with a cost effective method to reduce non-darcy turbulent flow effects on flow rate. For the above damage mechanism, our research efforts will demonstrate the diagnostic technique for determining the damage mechanisms associated with lost deliverability as well as demonstrate and evaluate the remedial techniques in the laboratory setting and in actual gas storage reservoirs. We plan on accomplishing the above goals by performing extensive lab analyses of rotary sidewall cores taken from at least two wells, testing potential remediation strategies in the lab, and demonstrating in the field the applicability of the proposed remediation treatments. The benefits from this work will be quantified from this study and extrapolated to the entire storage industry. The technology and project results will be transferred to the industry through DOE dissemination and through the industry service companies that work on gas storage wells. Achieving these goals will enable the underground gas storage industry to more cost-effectively mitigate declining deliverability in their storage fields.

  14. Characterization of gas hydrate reservoirs by integration of core and log data in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, J.-J.; Kim, G.-Y.; Chun, J.-H.; Kim, J.-H.; Lee, J.Y.; Ryu, B.-J.; Lee, J.-H.; Son, B.-K.; Collett, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Examinations of core and well-log data from the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition (UBGH2) drill sites suggest that Sites UBGH2-2_2 and UBGH2-6 have relatively good gas hydrate reservoir quality in terms of individual and total cumulative thicknesses of gas-hydrate-bearing sand (HYBS) beds. In both of the sites, core sediments are generally dominated by hemipelagic muds which are intercalated with turbidite sands. The turbidite sands are usually thin-to-medium bedded and mainly consist of well sorted coarse silt to fine sand. Anomalies in infrared core temperatures and porewater chlorinity data and pressure core measurements indicate that “gas hydrate occurrence zones” (GHOZ) are present about 68–155 mbsf at Site UBGH2-2_2 and 110–155 mbsf at Site UBGH2-6. In both the GHOZ, gas hydrates are preferentially associated with many of the turbidite sands as “pore-filling” type hydrates. The HYBS identified in the cores from Site UBGH2-6 are medium-to-thick bedded particularly in the lower part of the GHOZ and well coincident with significant high excursions in all of the resistivity, density, and velocity logs. Gas-hydrate saturations in the HYBS range from 12% to 79% with an average of 52% based on pore-water chlorinity. In contrast, the HYBS from Site UBGH2-2_2 are usually thin-bedded and show poor correlations with both of the resistivity and velocity logs owing to volume averaging effects of the logging tools on the thin HYBS beds. Gas-hydrate saturations in the HYBS range from 15% to 65% with an average of 37% based on pore-water chlorinity. In both of the sites, large fluctuations in biogenic opal contents have significant effects on the sediment physical properties, resulting in limited usage of gamma ray and density logs in discriminating sand reservoirs.

  15. Characterization techniques for semiconductors and nanostructures: a review of recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acher, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Optical spectroscopy techniques are widely used for the characterization of semiconductors and nanostructures. Confocal Raman microscopy is useful to retrieve chemical and molecular information at the ultimate submicrometer resolution of optical microscopy. Fast imaging capabilities, 3D confocal ability, and multiple excitation wavelengths, have increased the power of the technique while making it simpler to use for material scientists. Recently, the development of the Tip Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (TERS) has opened the way to the use of Raman information at nanoscale, by combining the resolution of scanning probe microscopy and chemical selectivity of Raman spectroscopy. Significant advances have been reported in the field of profiling the atomic composition of multilayers, using the Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy technique, including real-time determination of etched depth by interferometry. This allows the construction of precise atomic profiles of sophisticated multilayers with a few nm resolution. Ellipsometry is another widely used technique to determine the profile of multilayers, and recent development have provided enhanced spatial resolution useful for the investigation of patterned materials. In addition to the advances of the different characterization techniques, the capability to observe the same regions at micrometer scale at different stages of material elaboration, or with different instrument, is becoming a critical issue. Several advances have been made to allow precise re-localization and co-localization of observation with different complementary characterization techniques.

  16. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia

  17. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B., E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Basic Science Center A 4" t" hfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia); Susilowati, E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia.

  18. T-R Cycle Characterization and Imaging: Advanced Diagnostic Methodology for Petroleum Reservoir and Trap Detection and Delineation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; William C. Parcell; Bruce S. Hart

    2005-09-19

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project is on stratigraphic model assessment and development. The research focus for the first six (6) months of Year 2 is on T-R cycle model development. The emphasis for the remainder of the year is on assessing the depositional model and developing and testing a sequence stratigraphy model. The development and testing of the sequence stratigraphy model has been accomplished through integrated outcrop, well log and seismic studies of Mesozoic strata in the Gulf of Mexico, North Atlantic and Rocky Mountain areas.

  19. Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    In the study of gas reservoir development, the first year topics are restricted on reservoir characterization. There are two types of reservoir characterization. One is the reservoir formation characterization and the other is the reservoir fluid characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. The results of conditional simulation has higher confidence level than the unconditional simulation because conditional simulation considers the sample location as well as distance correlation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. From the liquid volume fraction with pressure drop, the phase behavior of reservoir fluid can be estimated. The calculation results of fluid recombination, constant composition expansion, and constant volume depletion are matched very well with the experimental data. In swelling test of the reservoir fluid with lean gas, the accuracy of dew point pressure forecast depends on the component characterization. (author). 28 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF CONDITIONS OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE RESERVOIRS AND DESIGN AND DEMONSTRATION OF REMEDIAL TECHNIQUES FOR DAMAGE MECHANISMS FOUND THEREIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.H. Frantz; K.E. Brown

    2003-02-01

    There are four primary goals of contract DE-FG26-99FT40703: (1) We seek to better understand how and why two damage mechanisms--(1) inorganic precipitants, and (2) hydrocarbons and organic residues, occur at the reservoir/wellbore interface in gas storage wells. (2) We plan on testing potential prevention and remediation strategies related to these two damage mechanisms in the laboratory. (3) We expect to demonstrate in the field, cost-effective prevention and remediation strategies that laboratory testing deems viable. (4) We will investigate new technology for the gas storage industry that will provide operators with a cost effective method to reduce non-darcy turbulent flow effects on flow rate. For the above damage mechanisms, our research efforts will demonstrate the diagnostic technique for determining the damage mechanisms associated with lost deliverability as well as demonstrate and evaluate the remedial techniques in the laboratory setting and in actual gas storage reservoirs. We plan on accomplishing the above goals by performing extensive lab analyses of rotary sidewall cores taken from at least two wells, testing potential remediation strategies in the lab, and demonstrating in the field the applicability of the proposed remediation treatments. The benefits from this work will be quantified from this study and extrapolated to the entire storage industry. The technology and project results will be transferred to the industry through DOE dissemination and through the industry service companies that work on gas storage wells. Achieving these goals will enable the underground gas storage industry to more cost-effectively mitigate declining deliverability in their storage fields. Work completed to date includes the following: (1) Solicited potential participants from the gas storage industry; (2) Selected one participant experiencing damage from inorganic precipitates; (3) Developed laboratory testing procedures; (4) Collected cores from National Fuel Gas

  1. Characterization and evaluation of fracture-cavity type carbonate reservoir in the western part of Northern Tarim uplift%塔北隆起西部缝洞型碳酸盐岩储层表征与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军林; 田世澄; 郑多明

    2014-01-01

    Fracture-cavity type carbonatite reservoir has strong dimensional anisotropism, and hence reservoir characterization and eval-uation are very difficult. The plateau facies carbonatite fracture-cavity reservoir is stably developed in Middle Ordovician strata in west-ern W block of northern Tarim uplift. Utilizing paleo-geographic coordinate transform, logging reservoir analysis and sensibility attribu-tor analysis of the fracture-cavity type carbonatite reservoir, the authors studied the reservoir facies. Based on reservoir facies research and utilizing stochastic method, the authors built the dual porosity model for fracture-cavity reservoir, and characterized the carbonatite reservoir. Finally, in combination with AVO inversion and reservoir characterization, the carbonatite reservoir was evaluated. It is proved that the reservoir pattern in the study area is mainly of the fracture and cavity type, with fractures acting both as hydrocarbon ac-cumulation space and as the factor for the formation of cavity. AFE ( Automatic Fault Extraction) and wave classification attribution were sensitive to the fracture and cavity type reservoir. With increasing oil saturation, AVO of the reservoir became more obvious. The fluid prediction method based on pre-stack AVO inversion could reasonably forecast oil province of carbonnate reservoir.%缝洞型碳酸盐岩储层存在强烈的空间非均质性,储层表征与评价难度极大。塔北隆起西部W区块奥陶系中统顶部发育稳定的台地相碳酸盐岩缝洞型储层。应用古地理坐标转换构造建模技术、测井储层分析方法,并结合缝洞型储层地震属性进行储层相研究,以储层相分析成果为基础建立双孔隙度模型,对缝洞型储层进行定量表征,最后结合AVO流体预测,进行综合评价。研究表明:该区碳酸盐岩储层类型主要为裂缝型、裂缝孔洞型,裂缝既是储集空间又是孔洞形成的诱导因素;本征值裂缝属性

  2. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Project: reservoir selection task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    The Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Project has prepared a two-year program to develop and field test methods of stimulating geothermal wells. The program provides for six field experiments which progress in difficulty from low temperature reservoirs using current technology to high temperature reservoirs using advanced types of stimulation treatments. The process used to select the six field experiment locations and stimulation treatments is described. Tentatively, the following reservoirs are proposed: Raft River, East Mesa, Baca and Westmorland (two experiments), and Brawley and The Geysers or Roosevelt Hot Springs (two experiments). The program will be reviewed after each field treatment to select a specific well candidate for the next experiment and to determine whether alteration of the sequence will be beneficial to the overall success of the project and the geothermal industry.

  3. Characterization and prediction of reservoir architecture and petrophysical properties in fluvial channel sandstones, middle Magdalena basin, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 1600 m of core from two major oil fields, and 600 m of outcrop sections near to one of the fields, integrated with thousands of core, side-wall core and outcrop porosity and permeability measurements show that petrophysical properties and reservoir continuity change consistently with the Accommodation to Sediment Supply (A/S) ratio. Channel sandstones exhibit regular, recurring motifs that are associated with changes in A/S conditions. Manifesting the lowest accommodation conditions are amalgamated channel sandstones, up to 5-m-thick, with intraclast-rich bases capped by up to 1m thick flood plain mud stones. AT higher A/S conditions, slightly amalgamated channel sandstones have lateral accretion surfaces and are capped by a thicker unit of flood plain mud stones. Channel sandstones in the highest A/S conditions are single-storied, possess conspicuous lateral accretion surfaces with thick mud drapes, and have a thick cover of over bank and flood plain deposits. Detailed well log correlations, oil production and pressure data support that the former are more lateral continuous while the latter form laterally discontinuous bodies embedded in flood plain mud stones. Petrophysical properties are closely associated with subtle variations in facies, particularly degree of preservation of original bed forms, and both are stratigraphically sensitive. Petrophysical properties of identical sedimentological facies change regularly as a function of its stratigraphic position because of variations in the rates of accumulation und degree of preservation of the sediments. In the case of fluvial strata deposited during an increase in A/S, porosity and permeability are highest in trough cross-stratified sandstones immediately above channel scour bases, und decrease upward to the next scour base. Successive channel sandstones within the same stratigraphic sequence and channel sandstones from one sequence to the next have progressively lower porosity and permeability values in

  4. Characterization of phosphorus leaching from phosphate waste rock in the Xiangxi River watershed, Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li-guo; Liang, Bing; Xue, Qiang; Yin, Cheng-wei

    2016-05-01

    Phosphate mining waste rocks dumped in the Xiangxi River (XXR) bay, which is the largest backwater zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), are treated as Type I industry solid wastes by the Chinese government. To evaluate the potential pollution risk of phosphorus leaching from phosphate waste rocks, the phosphorus leaching behaviors of six phosphate waste rock samples with different weathering degrees under both neutral and acidic conditions were investigated using a series of column leaching experiments, following the Method 1314 standard of the US EPA. The results indicate that the phosphorus release mechanism is solubility-controlled. Phosphorus release from waste rocks increases as pH decreases. The phosphorus leaching concentration and cumulative phosphorus released in acidic leaching conditions were found to be one order of magnitude greater than that in neutral leaching conditions. In addition, the phosphorus was released faster during the period when environmental pH turned from weak alkalinity to slight acidity, with this accelerated release period appearing when L/S was in the range of 0.5-2.0 mL/g. In both neutral and acidic conditions, the average values of Total Phosphorus (TP), including orthophosphates, polyphosphates and organic phosphate, leaching concentration exceed the availability by regulatory (0.5 mg/L) in the whole L/S range, suggesting that the phosphate waste rocks stacked within the XXR watershed should be considered as Type II industry solid wastes. Therefore, the phosphate waste rocks deposited within the study area should be considered as phosphorus point pollution sources, which could threaten the adjacent surface-water environment. PMID:26901468

  5. Characterization of cadmium-resistant endophytic fungi from Salix variegata Franch. in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hongmei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Xinfei; Huang, Qian; Yuan, Shenhong; Yang, Xingyong; Dong, Jinyan

    2015-07-01

    The community and Cd-resistance of endophytic fungi from roots of Salix variegata Franch. collected from the water-level-fluctuation zone of Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China, were investigated. A total of 53 strains were isolated and identified to 13 morphotaxa, in which Chromosporium, Fusarium and Gonatobotrys were dominant genera. Among them, 27 isolates were selected to measure their resistance to 0.02 mg ml(-1) Cd(2+) and 11 were growth stimulated (Tolerance index>100%). Of these active isolates, four dark septate endophyte (DSE) isolates (Paraphaeosphaeria sp. SR46, Pyrenochaeta sp. SR35, Rhizopycnis vagum SR37 and R. vagum SR44) were further tested for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against Cd and SR46 was found to be the most tolerant isolate with MIC of 0.39 mg ml(-1). Additionally, the maximum uptake values of these DSEs ranged from 3.01 to 7.89 mg g(-1), but there was no significant correlation between metal uptake with fungal biomass and metal tolerance. Subsequently, a pot experiment was conducted for investigating the impact of SR46 on corn seedlings in Cd-enriched soil. The results obtained suggested that SR46 reduced the Cd bioaccumulation of plant under low (100 mg kg(-1)) Cd stress and enhanced the Cd translocation from root zone to aerial parts under high (200 mg kg(-1)) Cd stress. Besides, it promoted plant growth without Cd stress. These findings indicated S. variegata harbors an endophytic fungal flora showing a high genetic diversity as well as a high level of metal resistance to Cd that has potential values in cadmium cycling and restoration of plant, soil and water system. PMID:26070690

  6. Impact of advanced microstructural characterization techniques on modeling and analysis of radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of radiation-induced alterations of dimensional and mechanical properties has been shown to be a direct and often predictable consequence of radiation-induced microstructural changes. Recent advances in understanding of the nature and role of each microstructural component in determining the property of interest has led to a reappraisal of the type and priority of data needed for further model development. This paper presents an overview of the types of modeling and analysis activities in progress, the insights that prompted these activities, and specific examples of successful and ongoing efforts. A review is presented of some problem areas that in the authors' opinion are not yet receiving sufficient attention and which may benefit from the application of advanced techniques of microstructural characterization. Guidelines based on experience gained in previous studies are also provided for acquisition of data in a form most applicable to modeling needs

  7. Battery Separator Characterization and Evaluation Procedures for NASA's Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennet, William R.; Wong, Eunice K.; Lewton, MaryBeth R.; Harris, Megan K.

    2010-01-01

    To address the future performance and safety requirements for the electrical energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA manned aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued within the scope of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program s (ETDP's) Energy Storage Project. A critical cell-level component of a lithium-ion battery which significantly impacts both overall electrochemical performance and safety is the porous separator that is sandwiched between the two active cell electrodes. To support the selection of the optimal cell separator material(s) for the advanced battery technology and chemistries under development, laboratory characterization and screening procedures were established to assess and compare separator material-level attributes and associated separator performance characteristics.

  8. APPLICATION OF WELL LOG ANALYSIS IN ASSESSMENT OF PETROPHYSICAL PARAMETERS AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF WELLS IN THE “OTH” FIELD, ANAMBRA BASIN, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene URORO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, the Anambra basin one of Nigeria’s inland basins has recorded significant level of hydrocarbon exploration activities. The basin has been confirmed by several authors from source rock analyses to have the potential for generating hydrocarbon. For the hydrocarbon to be exploited, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of the reservoir. Computer-assisted log analyses were employed to effectively evaluate the petrophysical parameters such as the shale volume (Vsh, total porosity (TP, effective porosity (EP, water saturation (Sw, and hydrocarbon saturation (Sh. Cross-plots of the petrophysical parameters versus depth were illustrated. Five hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs were delineated in well 1, four in well 2. The reservoirs in well 3 do not contain hydrocarbon. The estimated reservoir porosity varies from 10% to 21% while their permeability values range from 20md to 1400md. The porosity and permeability values suggest that reservoirs are good enough to store and also permit free flow of fluid. The volume of shale (0.05% to 0.35% analysis reveals that the reservoirs range from shaly sand to slightly shaly sand to clean sand reservoir. On the basis of petrophysics data, the reservoirs are interpreted a good quality reservoir rocks which has been confirmed with high effective porosity range between 20% and high hydrocarbon saturation exceeding 55% water saturation in well 1 and well 2. Water saturation 3 is nearly 100% although the reservoir properties are good

  9. APPLICATION OF WELL LOG ANALYSIS IN ASSESSMENT OF PETROPHYSICAL PARAMETERS AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF WELLS IN THE “OTH” FIELD, ANAMBRA BASIN, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene URORO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, the Anambra basin one of Nigeria’s inland basins has recorded significant level of hydrocarbon exploration activities. The basin has been confirmed by several authors from source rock analyses to have the potential for generating hydrocarbon. For the hydrocarbon to be exploited, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of the reservoir. Computer-assisted log analyses were employed to effectively evaluate the petrophysical parameters such as the shale volume (Vsh, total porosity (TP, effective porosity (EP, water saturation (Sw, and hydrocarbon saturation (Sh. Cross-plots of the petrophysical parameters versus depth were illustrated. Five hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs were delineated in well 1, four in well 2. The reservoirs in well 3 do not contain hydrocarbon. The estimated reservoir porosity varies from 10% to 21% while their permeability values range from 20md to 1400md. The porosity and permeability values suggest that reservoirs are good enough to store and also permit free flow of fluid. The volume of shale (0.05% to 0.35% analysis reveals that the reservoirs range from shaly sand to slightly shaly sand to clean sand reservoir. On the basis of petrophysics data, the reservoirs are interpreted a good quality reservoir rocks which has been confirmed with high effective porosity range between 20% and high hydrocarbon saturation exceeding 55% water saturation in well 1 and well 2. Water saturation 3 is nearly 100% although the reservoir properties are good.  

  10. Quantitative ultrasound characterization of locally advanced breast cancer by estimation of its scatterer properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadayyon, Hadi [Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Czarnota, Gregory, E-mail: Gregory.Czarnota@sunnybrook.ca [Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5T 1P5 (Canada); Wirtzfeld, Lauren [Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Wright, Frances C. [Division of Surgical Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Tumor grading is an important part of breast cancer diagnosis and currently requires biopsy as its standard. Here, the authors investigate quantitative ultrasound parameters in locally advanced breast cancers that can potentially separate tumors from normal breast tissue and differentiate tumor grades. Methods: Ultrasound images and radiofrequency data from 42 locally advanced breast cancer patients were acquired and analyzed. Parameters related to the linear regression of the power spectrum—midband fit, slope, and 0-MHz-intercept—were determined from breast tumors and normal breast tissues. Mean scatterer spacing was estimated from the spectral autocorrelation, and the effective scatterer diameter and effective acoustic concentration were estimated from the Gaussian form factor. Parametric maps of each quantitative ultrasound parameter were constructed from the gated radiofrequency segments in tumor and normal tissue regions of interest. In addition to the mean values of the parametric maps, higher order statistical features, computed from gray-level co-occurrence matrices were also determined and used for characterization. Finally, linear and quadratic discriminant analyses were performed using combinations of quantitative ultrasound parameters to classify breast tissues. Results: Quantitative ultrasound parameters were found to be statistically different between tumor and normal tissue (p < 0.05). The combination of effective acoustic concentration and mean scatterer spacing could separate tumor from normal tissue with 82% accuracy, while the addition of effective scatterer diameter to the combination did not provide significant improvement (83% accuracy). Furthermore, the two advanced parameters, including effective scatterer diameter and mean scatterer spacing, were found to be statistically differentiating among grade I, II, and III tumors (p = 0.014 for scatterer spacing, p = 0.035 for effective scatterer diameter). The separation of the tumor

  11. Quantitative ultrasound characterization of locally advanced breast cancer by estimation of its scatterer properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Tumor grading is an important part of breast cancer diagnosis and currently requires biopsy as its standard. Here, the authors investigate quantitative ultrasound parameters in locally advanced breast cancers that can potentially separate tumors from normal breast tissue and differentiate tumor grades. Methods: Ultrasound images and radiofrequency data from 42 locally advanced breast cancer patients were acquired and analyzed. Parameters related to the linear regression of the power spectrum—midband fit, slope, and 0-MHz-intercept—were determined from breast tumors and normal breast tissues. Mean scatterer spacing was estimated from the spectral autocorrelation, and the effective scatterer diameter and effective acoustic concentration were estimated from the Gaussian form factor. Parametric maps of each quantitative ultrasound parameter were constructed from the gated radiofrequency segments in tumor and normal tissue regions of interest. In addition to the mean values of the parametric maps, higher order statistical features, computed from gray-level co-occurrence matrices were also determined and used for characterization. Finally, linear and quadratic discriminant analyses were performed using combinations of quantitative ultrasound parameters to classify breast tissues. Results: Quantitative ultrasound parameters were found to be statistically different between tumor and normal tissue (p < 0.05). The combination of effective acoustic concentration and mean scatterer spacing could separate tumor from normal tissue with 82% accuracy, while the addition of effective scatterer diameter to the combination did not provide significant improvement (83% accuracy). Furthermore, the two advanced parameters, including effective scatterer diameter and mean scatterer spacing, were found to be statistically differentiating among grade I, II, and III tumors (p = 0.014 for scatterer spacing, p = 0.035 for effective scatterer diameter). The separation of the tumor

  12. Predicting interwell heterogeneity in fluvial-deltaic reservoirs: Outcrop observations and applications of progressive facies variation through a depositional cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, P.R.; Barton, M.D. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Nearly 11 billion barrels of mobile oil remain in known domestic fluvial-deltaic reservoirs despite their mature status. A large percentage of this strategic resource is in danger of permanent loss through premature abandonment. Detailed reservoir characterization studies that integrate advanced technologies in geology, geophysics, and engineering are needed to identify remaining resources that can be targeted by near-term recovery methods, resulting in increased production and the postponement of abandonment. The first and most critical step of advanced characterization studies is the identification of reservoir architecture. However, existing subsurface information, primarily well logs, provides insufficient lateral resolution to identify low-permeability boundaries that exist between wells and compartmentalize the reservoir. Methods to predict lateral variability in fluvial-deltaic reservoirs have been developed on the basis of outcrop studies and incorporate identification of depositional setting and position within a depositional cycle. The position of a reservoir within the framework of a depositional cycle is critical. Outcrop studies of the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone of Utah have demonstrated that the architecture and internal heterogeneity of sandstones deposited within a given depositional setting (for example, delta front) vary greatly depending upon whether they were deposited in the early, progradational part of a cycle or the late, retrogradational part of a cycle. The application of techniques similar to those used by this study in other fluvial-deltaic reservoirs will help to estimate the amount and style of remaining potential in mature reservoirs through a quicklook evaluation, allowing operators to focus characterization efforts on reservoirs that have the greatest potential to yield additional resources.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF CONDITIONS OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE RESERVOIRS AND DESIGN AND DEMONSTRATION OF REMEDIAL TECHNIQUES FOR DAMAGE MECHANISMS FOUND THEREIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.H. Frantz Jr; K.G. Brown; W.K. Sawyer; P.A. Zyglowicz; P.M. Halleck; J.P. Spivey

    2004-12-01

    The underground gas storage (UGS) industry uses over 400 reservoirs and 17,000 wells to store and withdrawal gas. As such, it is a significant contributor to gas supply in the United States. It has been demonstrated that many UGS wells show a loss of deliverability each year due to numerous damage mechanisms. Previous studies estimate that up to one hundred million dollars are spent each year to recover or replace a deliverability loss of approximately 3.2 Bscf/D per year in the storage industry. Clearly, there is a great potential for developing technology to prevent, mitigate, or eliminate the damage causing deliverability losses in UGS wells. Prior studies have also identified the presence of several potential damage mechanisms in storage wells, developed damage diagnostic procedures, and discussed, in general terms, the possible reactions that need to occur to create the damage. However, few studies address how to prevent or mitigate specific damage types, and/or how to eliminate the damage from occurring in the future. This study seeks to increase our understanding of two specific damage mechanisms, inorganic precipitates (specifically siderite), and non-darcy damage, and thus serves to expand prior efforts as well as complement ongoing gas storage projects. Specifically, this study has resulted in: (1) An effective lab protocol designed to assess the extent of damage due to inorganic precipitates; (2) An increased understanding of how inorganic precipitates (specifically siderite) develop; (3) Identification of potential sources of chemical components necessary for siderite formation; (4) A remediation technique that has successfully restored deliverability to storage wells damaged by the inorganic precipitate siderite (one well had nearly a tenfold increase in deliverability); (5) Identification of the types of treatments that have historically been successful at reducing the amount of non-darcy pressure drop in a well, and (6) Development of a tool that can

  14. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  15. HIV-1病毒储存库的清除策略研究进展%Advances on the elimination of HIV-1 reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温春燕; 冯理智; 胡凤玉; 蔡卫平

    2016-01-01

    HAART可有效控制HIV复制,使HIV/AIDS患者生存期延长和死亡率降低,但由于HIV-1病毒储存库的存在,无法根除HIV。此文将介绍HIV-1病毒库的定义、病毒库检测方法及可能的清除机制,包括IFN联合HAART治疗、重新激活静息的HIV感染细胞、采用免疫疗法杀灭潜伏感染的细胞、编辑基因诱导目标细胞产生抗性等,为实现治愈HIV的目标提供参考依据。%HAART can successfully reduce HIV replication, so as to prolong survival period and reduce mortality. However, HAART cannot cure HIV because of the long-living HIV-1 reservoirs. In this article, the definition of HIV reservoirs and reservoir detection methods are introduced, and the possible elimination methods including IFN combined HAART treatment, “shock and kill” treatment, kill of persisting HIV infected cells by immunotherapy and gene editioring to induce antibody in target cells are summarized. These elimination strategies can provide a reference basis for achieving the goal for curing HIV.

  16. Differential oxidative status and immune characterization of the early and advanced stages of human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panis, C; Victorino, V J; Herrera, A C S A; Freitas, L F; De Rossi, T; Campos, F C; Simão, A N Colado; Barbosa, D S; Pinge-Filho, P; Cecchini, R; Cecchini, A L

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer is the malignant neoplasia with the highest incidence in women worldwide. Chronic oxidative stress and inflammation have been indicated as major mediators during carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Human studies have not considered the complexity of tumor biology during the stages of cancer advance, limiting their clinical application. The purpose of this study was to characterize systemic oxidative stress and immune response parameters in early (ED; TNM I and II) and advanced disease (AD; TNM III and IV) of patients diagnosed with infiltrative ductal carcinoma breast cancer. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated by plasmatic lipoperoxidation, carbonyl content, thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), nitric oxide levels (NO), total radical antioxidant parameter (TRAP), superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities and GSH levels. Immune evaluation was determined by TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-10 levels and leukocytes oxidative burst evaluation by chemiluminescence. Tissue damage analysis included heart (total CK and CKMB), liver (AST, ALT, GGT), and renal (creatinine, urea, and uric acid) plasmatic markers. C-reactive protein (CRP) and iron metabolism were also evaluated. Analysis of the results verified different oxidative stress statuses occur at distinct cancer stages. ED was characterized by reduction in catalase, 8-isoprostanes, and GSH levels, with enhanced lipid peroxidation and TBARS levels. AD exhibited more pronounced oxidative status, with reduction in catalase activity and TRAP, intense lipid peroxidation and high levels of NO, TBARs, and carbonyl content. ED patients presented a Th2 immune pattern, while AD exhibited Th1 status. CRP levels and ferritin were increased in both stages of disease. Leukocytes burst impairment was observed in both the groups. Plasma iron levels were significantly elevated in AD. The data obtained indicated that oxidative stress enhancement and immune response impairment may be necessary to ensure

  17. On the use of flow-storage repartitions derived from artificial tracer tests for geothermal reservoir characterization in the Malm-Molasse basin: a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Dina Silvia; Osaigbovo Enomayo, Augustine; Mohsin, Rizwan; Karmakar, Shyamal; Ghergut, Julia; Sauter, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Flow-storage repartition (FSR) analysis (Shook 2003) is a versatile tool for characterizing subsurface flow and transport systems. FSR can be derived from measured signals of inter-well tracer tests, if certain requirements are met - basically, the same as required for equivalence between fluid residence time distribution (RTD) and a measured inter-well tracer signal (pre-processed and de-convolved if necessary). Nominally, a FSR is derived from a RTD as a trajectory in normalized {1st, 0th}-order statistical moment space; more intuitively, as a parametric plot of 0th-order against 1st-order statistical moments of RTD truncated at time t, with t as a parameter running from the first tracer input to the latest available tracer sampling; 0th-order moments being normalized by the total tracer recovery, and 1st-order moments by the mean RT. Fracture-dominated systems plot in the upper left (high F , low S) region of FSR diagrams; a homogeneous single-continuum with no dispersion (infinite Peclet number) displays a straight line from {F ,S}={0,0} to {F ,S}={1,1}. This analysis tool appears particularly attractive for characterizing markedly-heterogeneous, porous-fissured-fractured (partly karstified) formations like those targeted by geothermal exploration in the Malm-Molasse basin in Southern Germany, and especially for quantifying flow and transport contributions from contrasting facies types ('reef' versus 'bedded'). However, tracer tests conducted in such systems with inter-well distances of some hundreds of metres (as required by economic considerations on geothermal reservoir sizing) face the problem of very long residence times - and thus the need to deal with incomplete (truncated) signals. For the geothermal well triplet at the Sauerlach site near Munich, tracer peak arrival times exceeding 2 years have been predicted, and signal tails decreasing by less than 50% over >10 years, which puts great uncertainty on the (extrapolation-based) normalizing factors

  18. Advanced glycation end product ligands for the receptor for advanced glycation end products: Biochemical characterization and formation kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valencia, J.V.; Weldon, S.C.; Quinn, D.; Kiers, G.H.; Groot, J. de; TeKoppele, J.M.; Hughes, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate with age and at an accelerated rate in diabetes. AGEs bind cell-surface receptors including the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). The dependence of RAGE binding on specific biochemical characteristics of AGEs is currently unknown.

  19. Reservoir compartmentalization assessment by using FTIR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Permanyer, A. [Dept. Geoquimica, Petrologia i Prospeccio Geologica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028 - Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Rebufa, C.; Kister, J. [Universite d' Aix - Marseille III, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques de St. Jerome, CNRS UMR 6171, Laboratoire de Geochimie Organique Analytique et Environnement (GOAE), Case 561, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2007-09-15

    Reservoir geochemistry has traditionally used the gas chromatographic fingerprinting method and star diagrams to provide evidence of petroleum reservoir compartmentalization. Recently alternative techniques such as Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy have been postulated to aid the evaluation of reservoir compartmentalization, and to characterize the geochemical evolution of oils from individual reservoirs. FTIR spectroscopy was applied successfully in the Tarragona Basin, Offshore N.E. Spain, validating the method to identify oils from different reservoirs. Moreover the method was successfully applied to provide evidence of compositional differences in oils from a faulted reservoir (El Furrial field, Venezuela), in which GC fingerprints failed to differentiate the oils. FTIR spectroscopy therefore, proves to be a complementary tool for reservoir compartmentalization studies. (author)

  20. Reservoir Characterization for CO2 Sequestration: Assessing the Potential of the Devonian Carbonate Nisku Formation of Central Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Wabamun Lake area of Central Alberta, Canada includes several large CO2 point source emitters, collectively producing more than 30 Mt annually. Previous studies established that deep saline aquifers beneath the Wabamun Lake area have good potential for the large-scale injection and storage of CO2. This study reports on the characterization of the Devonian carbonate Nisku Formation for evaluation as a CO2 repository. Major challenges for characterization included sparse well and seismic data, poor quality flow tests, and few modern measurements. Wire-line porosity measurements were present in only one-third of the wells, so porosity and flow capacity (permeability-thickness) were estimated using wire-line electrical measurements. The Archie cementation factor appears to vary between 2 and 3, creating uncertainty when predicting porosity using the electrical measurements; however, high-porosity zones could be identified. The electrically-based flow capacity predictions showed more favorable values using a correlation with core than the relation based on drill stem and production tests. This behavior is expected, since the flow test flow capacities are less influenced by local occurrences of very permeable vuggy and moldic rocks. Facies distributions were modeled using both pixel and object methods. The object models, using dimensions obtained from satellite imaging of modern day environments, gave results that were more consistent with the geological understanding of the Nisku and showed greater large-scale connectivity than the pixel model. Predicted volumes show considerable storage capacity in the Nisku, but flow simulations suggest injection capacities are below an initial 20 Mt/year target using vertical wells. More elaborate well designs, including fracture stimulation or multi-lateral wells may allow this goal to be reached or surpassed. (authors)

  1. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing oil in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone reservoirs of South Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, P.R.; Holtz, M.H.; McRae, L.E. [and others

    1996-09-01

    Domestic fluvial-dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoirs contain more than 30 Billion barrels (Bbbl) of remaining oil, more than any other type of reservoir, approximately one-third of which is in danger of permanent loss through premature field abandonments. The U.S. Department of Energy has placed its highest priority on increasing near-term recovery from FDD reservoirs in order to prevent abandonment of this important strategic resource. To aid in this effort, the Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, began a 46-month project in October, 1992, to develop and demonstrate advanced methods of reservoir characterization that would more accurately locate remaining volumes of mobile oil that could then be recovered by recompleting existing wells or drilling geologically targeted infill. wells. Reservoirs in two fields within the Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone (Vicksburg Fault Zone) oil play of South Texas, a mature play which still contains 1.6 Bbbl of mobile oil after producing 1 Bbbl over four decades, were selected as laboratories for developing and testing reservoir characterization techniques. Advanced methods in geology, geophysics, petrophysics, and engineering were integrated to (1) identify probable reservoir architecture and heterogeneity, (2) determine past fluid-flow history, (3) integrate fluid-flow history with reservoir architecture to identify untapped, incompletely drained, and new pool compartments, and (4) identify specific opportunities for near-term reserve growth. To facilitate the success of operators in applying these methods in the Frio play, geologic and reservoir engineering characteristics of all major reservoirs in the play were documented and statistically analyzed. A quantitative quick-look methodology was developed to prioritize reservoirs in terms of reserve-growth potential.

  2. Permeability heterogeneity of the Palm Spring formation, Mecca Hills, California: Implications for fluvial-deltaic reservoir characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelty, T.K.; Yin, An [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Excellent exposures of the nonmarine, Pliocene to Pleistocene Palm Spring Formation allow the investigation of the spatial permeability variations. By sampling with a field permeameter, the permeability variations between and within sedimentary lithofacies, as well as effects of a major intraformational, angular unconformity on the permeability structure of the lower Palm Spring Formation are characterized. A systematic permeability distribution of the major lithofacies within the lower Palm Spring Formation is revealed by this work. The highest mean permeability is found in the coarse-grained matrix of conglomerates and the horizontally laminated and cross-bedded sandstones. The massive and rippled sandstones exhibit the lowest mean permeability. The three lithofacies that show the greatest variability about the mean are the conglomerates, horizontally laminated sandstones and massive sandstones. This study indicates that field observations of sedimentary features can be correlated with permeability variations in the Palm Spring Formation. Permeability data are utilized to estimate the correlation ranges over a horizontal distance of 500 meters within a sandstone bed. This analysis and field observations indicate that the correlation distance of permeability corresponds with the width of channels in the sandstone bed. Sampling of the Palm Spring Formation adjacent to an intraformational unconformity demonstrates that there is a decrease in permeability directly beneath the unconformity. This permeability reduction is due to secondary mineralization localized along the unconformity that possibly occurred during subaerial exposure.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of inorganic nanostructured materials for advanced energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin

    The performance of advanced energy storage devices is intimately connected to the designs of electrodes. To enable significant developments in this research field, we need detailed information and knowledge about how the functions and performances of the electrodes depend on their chemical compositions, dimensions, morphologies, and surface properties. This thesis presents my successes in synthesizing and characterizing electrode materials for advanced electrochemical energy storage devices, with much attention given to understanding the operation and fading mechanism of battery electrodes, as well as methods to improve their performances and stabilities. This dissertation is presented within the framework of two energy storage technologies: lithium ion batteries and lithium oxygen batteries. The energy density of lithium ion batteries is determined by the density of electrode materials and their lithium storage capabilities. To improve the overall energy densities of lithium ion batteries, silicon has been proposed to replace lithium intercalation compounds in the battery anodes. However, with a ~400% volume expansion upon fully lithiation, silicon-based anodes face serious capacity degradation in battery operation. To overcome this challenge, heteronanostructure-based Si/TiSi2 were designed and synthesized as anode materials for lithium ion batteries with long cycling life. The performance and morphology relationship was also carefully studied through comparing one-dimensional and two-dimensional heteronanostructure-based silicon anodes. Lithium oxygen batteries, on the other hand, are devices based on lithium conversion chemistries and they offer higher energy densities compared to lithium ion batteries. However, existing carbon based electrodes in lithium oxygen batteries only allow for battery operation with limited capacity, poor stability and low round-trip efficiency. The degradation of electrolytes and carbon electrodes have been found to both contribute

  4. Geological and petrophysical characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Deliverable 2.5.4, Ferron Sandstone lithologic strip logs, Emergy & Sevier Counties, Utah: Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1995-12-08

    Strip logs for 491 wells were produced from a digital subsurface database of lithologic descriptions of the Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale. This subsurface database covers wells from the parts of Emery and Sevier Counties in central Utah that occur between Ferron Creek on the north and Last Chance Creek on the south. The lithologic descriptions were imported into a logging software application designed for the display of stratigraphic data. Strip logs were produced at a scale of one inch equals 20 feet. The strip logs were created as part of a study by the Utah Geological Survey to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and qualitative characterization of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir using the Ferron Sandstone as a surface analogue. The study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Geoscience/Engineering Reservoir Characterization Program.

  5. Recent advances in the characterization of amorphous pharmaceuticals by X-ray diffractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakral, Seema; Terban, Maxwell W; Thakral, Naveen K; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2016-05-01

    For poorly water soluble drugs, the amorphous state provides an avenue to enhance oral bioavailability. The preparation method, in addition to sample history, can dictate the nature and the stability of the amorphous phase. Conventionally, X-ray powder diffractometry is of limited utility for characterization, but structural insights into amorphous and nanocrystalline materials have been enabled by coupling X-ray total scattering with the pair distribution function. This has shown great promise for fingerprinting, quantification, and even modeling of amorphous pharmaceutical systems. A consequence of the physical instability of amorphous phases is their crystallization propensity, and recent instrumental advances have substantially enhanced our ability to detect and quantify crystallization in a variety of complex matrices. The International Centre for Diffraction Data has a collection of the X-ray diffraction patterns of amorphous drugs and excipients and, based on the available supporting information, provides a quality mark of the data. PMID:26712710

  6. On the Use of Accelerated Test Methods for Characterization of Advanced Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Thomas S.

    2003-01-01

    A rational approach to the problem of accelerated testing for material characterization of advanced polymer matrix composites is discussed. The experimental and analytical methods provided should be viewed as a set of tools useful in the screening of material systems for long-term engineering properties in aerospace applications. Consideration is given to long-term exposure in extreme environments that include elevated temperature, reduced temperature, moisture, oxygen, and mechanical load. Analytical formulations useful for predictive models that are based on the principles of time-based superposition are presented. The need for reproducible mechanisms, indicator properties, and real-time data are outlined as well as the methodologies for determining specific aging mechanisms.

  7. Recent Advances in Cloning and Characterization of Disease Resistance Genes in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-Ying Dai; Xiong-Lun Liu; Ying-Hui Xiao; Guo-Liang Wang

    2007-01-01

    Rice diseases caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses are one of the major constraints for sustainable rice (Oryza sativa L.) production worldwide. The use of resistant cultivars is considered the most economical and effective method to control rice diseases. In the last decade, a dozen resistance genes against the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea and the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae have been cloned. Approximately half of them encode nuclear binding site (NBS) and leucine rich repeat (LRR)-containing proteins, the most common type of cloned plant resistance genes. Interestingly, four of them encode novel proteins which have not been identified in other plant species, suggesting that unique mechanisms might be involved in rice defense responses. This review summarizes the recent advances in cloning and characterization of disease resistance genes in rice and presents future perspectives for in-depth molecular analysis of the function and evolution of rice resistance genes and their interaction with avirulence genes in pathogens.

  8. Perfusion CT in patients with advanced bronchial carcinomas: a novel chance for characterization and treatment monitoring?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced bronchial carcinomas by means of perfusion and peak enhancement using dynamic contrast-enhanced multislice CT are characterized. Twenty-four patients with advanced bronchial carcinoma were examined. During breathhold, after injection of a contrast-medium (CM), 25 scans were performed (1 scan/s) at a fixed table position. Density-time curves were evaluated from regions of interest of the whole tumor and high- and low-enhancing tumor areas. Perfusion and peak enhancement were calculated using the maximum-slope method of Miles and compared with size, localization (central or peripheral) and histology. Perfusion of large tumors (>50 cm3) averaged over both the whole tumor (P=0.001) and the highest enhancing area (P=0.003) was significantly lower than that of smaller ones. Independent of size, central carcinomas had a significantly (P=0.04) lower perfusion (mean 27.9 ml/min/100 g) than peripheral ones (mean 66.5 ml/min/100 g). In contrast, peak enhancement of central and peripheral carcinomas was not significantly different. Between non-small-cell lung cancers and small-cell lung cancers, no significant differences were observed in both parameters. In seven tumors, density increase after CM administration started earlier than in the aorta, indicating considerable blood supply from pulmonary vessels. Tumor perfusion was dependent on tumor size and localization, but not on histology. Furthermore, perfusion CT disclosed blood supply from both pulmonary and/or bronchial vessels in some tumors. (orig.)

  9. Advanced Characterization of Molecular Interactions in TALSPEAK-like Separations Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Guelis, Artem [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Combining unit operations in advanced aqueous reprocessing schemes brings obvious process compactness advantages, but at the same time greater complexity in process design and operation. Unraveling these interactions requires increasingly sophisticated analytical tools and unique approaches for adequate analysis and characterization that probe molecular scale interactions. Conventional slope analysis methods of solvent extraction are too indirect to provide much insight into such interactions. This project proposed the development and verification of several analytical tools based on studies of TALSPEAK-like aqueous processes. As such, the chemistry of trivalent fission product lanthanides, americium, curium, plutonium, neptunium and uranium figure prominently in these studies. As the project was executed, the primary focus fell upon the chemistry or trivalent lanthanides and actinides. The intent of the investigation was to compare and contrast the results from these various complementary techniques/studies to provide a stronger basis for predicting the performance of extractant/diluent mixtures as media for metal ion separations. As many/most of these techniques require the presence of metal ions at elevated concentrations, it was expected that these studies would take this investigation into the realm of patterns of supramolecular organization of metal complexes and extractants in concentrated aqueous/organic media. We expected to advance knowledge of the processes that enable and limit solvent extraction reactions as a result of the application of fundamental chemical principles to explaining interactions in complex media.

  10. Recent Advances in Characterization of Lignin Polymer by Solution-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Run-Cang Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for efficient utilization of biomass induces a detailed analysis of the fundamental chemical structures of biomass, especially the complex structures of lignin polymers, which have long been recognized for their negative impact on biorefinery. Traditionally, it has been attempted to reveal the complicated and heterogeneous structure of lignin by a series of chemical analyses, such as thioacidolysis (TA, nitrobenzene oxidation (NBO, and derivatization followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC. Recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR technology undoubtedly have made solution-state NMR become the most widely used technique in structural characterization of lignin due to its versatility in illustrating structural features and structural transformations of lignin polymers. As one of the most promising diagnostic tools, NMR provides unambiguous evidence for specific structures as well as quantitative structural information. The recent advances in two-dimensional solution-state NMR techniques for structural analysis of lignin in isolated and whole cell wall states (in situ, as well as their applications are reviewed.

  11. Mask characterization for critical dimension uniformity budget breakdown in advanced extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolsky, Peter; Strolenberg, Chris; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nooitgedacht, Tjitte; Davydova, Natalia; Yang, Greg; Lee, Shawn; Park, Chang-Min; Kim, Insung; Yeo, Jeong-Ho

    2013-04-01

    As the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors critical dimension uniformity (CDU) specification shrinks, semiconductor companies need to maintain a high yield of good wafers per day and high performance (and hence market value) of finished products. This cannot be achieved without continuous analysis and improvement of on-product CDU as one of the main drivers for process control and optimization with better understanding of main contributors from the litho cluster: mask, process, metrology and scanner. We will demonstrate a study of mask CDU characterization and its impact on CDU Budget Breakdown (CDU BB) performed for advanced extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography with 1D (dense lines) and 2D (dense contacts) feature cases. We will show that this CDU contributor is one of the main differentiators between well-known ArFi and new EUV CDU budgeting principles. We found that reticle contribution to intrafield CDU should be characterized in a specific way: mask absorber thickness fingerprints play a role comparable with reticle CDU in the total reticle part of the CDU budget. Wafer CD fingerprints, introduced by this contributor, may or may not compensate variations of mask CDs and hence influence on total mask impact on intrafield CDU at the wafer level. This will be shown on 1D and 2D feature examples. Mask stack reflectivity variations should also be taken into account: these fingerprints have visible impact on intrafield CDs at the wafer level and should be considered as another contributor to the reticle part of EUV CDU budget. We also observed mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) through field fingerprints in the studied EUV cases. Variations of MEEF may play a role towards the total intrafield CDU and may need to be taken into account for EUV lithography. We characterized MEEF-through-field for the reviewed features, with results herein, but further analysis of this phenomenon is required. This comprehensive approach to quantifying the mask part of

  12. Noninvasive Characterization of Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Using Textural Analysis of Quantitative Ultrasound Parametric Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Tadayyon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The identification of tumor pathologic characteristics is an important part of breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning but currently requires biopsy as its standard. Here, we investigated a noninvasive quantitative ultrasound method for the characterization of breast tumors in terms of their histologic grade, which can be used with clinical diagnostic ultrasound data. METHODS: Tumors of 57 locally advanced breast cancer patients were analyzed as part of this study. Seven quantitative ultrasound parameters were determined from each tumor region from the radiofrequency data, including mid-band fit, spectral slope, 0-MHz intercept, scatterer spacing, attenuation coefficient estimate, average scatterer diameter, and average acoustic concentration. Parametric maps were generated corresponding to the region of interest, from which four textural features, including contrast, energy, homogeneity, and correlation, were determined as further tumor characterization parameters. Data were examined on the basis of tumor subtypes based on histologic grade (grade I versus grade II to III. RESULTS: Linear discriminant analysis of the means of the parametric maps resulted in classification accuracy of 79%. On the other hand, the linear combination of the texture features of the parametric maps resulted in classification accuracy of 82%. Finally, when both the means and textures of the parametric maps were combined, the best classification accuracy was obtained (86%. CONCLUSIONS: Textural characteristics of quantitative ultrasound spectral parametric maps provided discriminant information about different types of breast tumors. The use of texture features significantly improved the results of ultrasonic tumor characterization compared to conventional mean values. Thus, this study suggests that texture-based quantitative ultrasound analysis of in vivo breast tumors can provide complementary diagnostic information about tumor histologic

  13. Research needs for strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.S.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    This report identifies reservoir characterization and reservoir management research needs and IOR process and related research needs for the fourth geologic class, strandplain/barrier island reservoirs. The 330 Class 4 reservoirs in the DOE Tertiary OH Recovery Information System (TORIS) database contain about 30.8 billion barrels of oil or about 9% of the total original oil-in-place (OOIP) in all United States reservoirs. The current projection of Class 4 ultimate recovery with current operations is only 38% of the OOIP, leaving 19 billion barrels as the target for future IOR projects. Using the TORIS database and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (surfactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, California, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000, which emphasizes the urgent need for the development and demonstration of cost-effective recovery technologies.

  14. Characterization of Porosity and Permeability of the Upper Jurassic Arab-D Carbonate Reservoir Using 3D Outcrop Analog, Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltom, H.; Makkawi, M.; Abdullatif, O.

    2012-04-01

    Subsurface geological models are considered as a very coarse and low in resolution when compared to the real geology of the reservoir. In this paper a Late Jurassic outcrop analog for Arab-D reservoir, Central Saudi Arabia, was used to build a high resolution outcrop model that can capture the fine geological details. Porosity and permeability derived from the actual subsurface reservoir analog were applied to the outcrop lithofacies. For this purpose data from Ain Dar, Ghwar and Shudgam field were used. Maximum, minimum and average porosity and permeability for every single lithofacies were distributed in the facies model according to their lithofacies type. The result showed nine porosity and nine permeability models for the three field data when using a single geostatistical algorithm. Many realizations were run to see the variability in each model and to quantitatively measure the uncertainty associated with the models. Reservoir potential zones were associated with grainstone, packstone and to some extent wackstone layers. The high resolution lithofacies models allowed detecting permeability barriers and isolated low porosity bodies within the potential reservoir zone. This model gives a chance to examine porosity and permeability distribution along and across very small area of the reservoir rock in the level of one cell dimension of the real subsurface model. It is also highlight on the uncertainty associated with modeling results in terms of algorisms and number of realization used. Consequently, the model is expected to provide better understanding and prediction of reservoir properties and quality at high resolution scale which is unavailable from subsurface data.

  15. PREFACE: Symposium 1: Advanced Structure Analysis and Characterization of Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashima, Masatomo

    2011-05-01

    Preface to Symposium 1 (Advanced Structure Analysis and Characterization of Ceramic Materials) of the International Congress of Ceramics III, held 14-18 November 2010 in Osaka, Japan Remarkable developments have been made recently in the structural analysis and characterization of inorganic crystalline and amorphous materials, such as x-ray, neutron, synchrotron and electron diffraction, x-ray/neutron scattering, IR/Raman scattering, NMR, XAFS, first-principle calculations, computer simulations, Rietveld analysis, the maximum-entropy method, in situ measurements at high temperatures/pressures and electron/nuclear density analysis. These techniques enable scientists to study not only static and long-range periodic structures but also dynamic and short-/intermediate-range structures. Multi-scale characterization from the electron to micrometer levels is becoming increasingly important as a means of understanding phenomena at the interfaces, grain boundaries and surfaces of ceramic materials. This symposium has discussed the structures and structure/property relationships of various ceramic materials (electro, magnetic and optical ceramics; energy and environment related ceramics; bio-ceramics; ceramics for reliability secure society; traditional ceramics) through 38 oral presentations including 8 invited lectures and 49 posters. Best poster awards were given to six excellent poster presentations (Y-C Chen, Tokyo Institute of Technology; C-Y Chung, Tohoku University; T Stawski, University of Twente; Y Hirano, Nagoya Institute of Technology; B Bittova, Charles University Prague; Y Onodera, Kyoto University). I have enjoyed working with my friends in the ICC3 conference. I would like to express special thanks to other organizers: Professor Scott T Misture, Alfred University, USA, Professor Xiaolong Chen, Institute of Physics, CAS, China, Professor Takashi Ida, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan, Professor Isao Tanaka, Kyoto University, Japan. I also acknowledge the

  16. Technology for Increasing Geothermal Energy Productivity. Computer Models to Characterize the Chemical Interactions of Goethermal Fluids and Injectates with Reservoir Rocks, Wells, Surface Equiptment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy Moller Weare

    2006-07-25

    This final report describes the results of a research program we carried out over a five-year (3/1999-9/2004) period with funding from a Department of Energy geothermal FDP grant (DE-FG07-99ID13745) and from other agencies. The goal of research projects in this program were to develop modeling technologies that can increase the understanding of geothermal reservoir chemistry and chemistry-related energy production processes. The ability of computer models to handle many chemical variables and complex interactions makes them an essential tool for building a fundamental understanding of a wide variety of complex geothermal resource and production chemistry. With careful choice of methodology and parameterization, research objectives were to show that chemical models can correctly simulate behavior for the ranges of fluid compositions, formation minerals, temperature and pressure associated with present and near future geothermal systems as well as for the very high PT chemistry of deep resources that is intractable with traditional experimental methods. Our research results successfully met these objectives. We demonstrated that advances in physical chemistry theory can be used to accurately describe the thermodynamics of solid-liquid-gas systems via their free energies for wide ranges of composition (X), temperature and pressure. Eight articles on this work were published in peer-reviewed journals and in conference proceedings. Four are in preparation. Our work has been presented at many workshops and conferences. We also considerably improved our interactive web site (geotherm.ucsd.edu), which was in preliminary form prior to the grant. This site, which includes several model codes treating different XPT conditions, is an effective means to transfer our technologies and is used by the geothermal community and other researchers worldwide. Our models have wide application to many energy related and other important problems (e.g., scaling prediction in petroleum

  17. Technology for Increasing Geothermal Energy Productivity. Computer Models to Characterize the Chemical Interactions of Geothermal Fluids and Injectates with Reservoir Rocks, Wells, Surface Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report describes the results of a research program we carried out over a five-year (3/1999-9/2004) period with funding from a Department of Energy geothermal FDP grant (DE-FG07-99ID13745) and from other agencies. The goal of research projects in this program were to develop modeling technologies that can increase the understanding of geothermal reservoir chemistry and chemistry-related energy production processes. The ability of computer models to handle many chemical variables and complex interactions makes them an essential tool for building a fundamental understanding of a wide variety of complex geothermal resource and production chemistry. With careful choice of methodology and parameterization, research objectives were to show that chemical models can correctly simulate behavior for the ranges of fluid compositions, formation minerals, temperature and pressure associated with present and near future geothermal systems as well as for the very high PT chemistry of deep resources that is intractable with traditional experimental methods. Our research results successfully met these objectives. We demonstrated that advances in physical chemistry theory can be used to accurately describe the thermodynamics of solid-liquid-gas systems via their free energies for wide ranges of composition (X), temperature and pressure. Eight articles on this work were published in peer-reviewed journals and in conference proceedings. Four are in preparation. Our work has been presented at many workshops and conferences. We also considerably improved our interactive web site (geotherm.ucsd.edu), which was in preliminary form prior to the grant. This site, which includes several model codes treating different XPT conditions, is an effective means to transfer our technologies and is used by the geothermal community and other researchers worldwide. Our models have wide application to many energy related and other important problems (e.g., scaling prediction in petroleum

  18. Development of a X-ray micro-tomograph and its application to reservoir rocks characterization; Developpement d`un microtomographe X et application a la caracterisation des roches reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira de Paiva, R.

    1995-10-01

    We describe the construction and application to studies in three dimensions of a laboratory micro-tomograph for the characterisation of heterogeneous solids at the scale of a few microns. The system is based on an electron microprobe and a two dimensional X-ray detector. The use of a low beam divergence for image acquisition allows use of simple and rapid reconstruction software whilst retaining reasonable acquisition times. Spatial resolutions of better than 3 microns in radiography and 10 microns in tomography are obtained. The applications of microtomography in the petroleum industry are illustrated by the study of fibre orientation in polymer composites, of the distribution of minerals and pore space in reservoir rocks, and of the interaction of salt water with a model porous medium. A correction for X-ray beam hardening is described and used to obtain improved discrimination of the phases present in the sample. In the case of a North Sea reservoir rock we show the possibility to distinguish quartz, feldspar and in certain zone kaolinite. The representativeness of the tomographic reconstruction is demonstrated by comparing the surface of the reconstructed specimen with corresponding images obtained in scanning electron microscopy. (author). 58 refs., 10 tabs., 71 photos.

  19. Design, Fabrication, and Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Field Emission Devices for Advanced Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radauscher, Erich Justin

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently emerged as promising candidates for electron field emission (FE) cathodes in integrated FE devices. These nanostructured carbon materials possess exceptional properties and their synthesis can be thoroughly controlled. Their integration into advanced electronic devices, including not only FE cathodes, but sensors, energy storage devices, and circuit components, has seen rapid growth in recent years. The results of the studies presented here demonstrate that the CNT field emitter is an excellent candidate for next generation vacuum microelectronics and related electron emission devices in several advanced applications. The work presented in this study addresses determining factors that currently confine the performance and application of CNT-FE devices. Characterization studies and improvements to the FE properties of CNTs, along with Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) design and fabrication, were utilized in achieving these goals. Important performance limiting parameters, including emitter lifetime and failure from poor substrate adhesion, are examined. The compatibility and integration of CNT emitters with the governing MEMS substrate (i.e., polycrystalline silicon), and its impact on these performance limiting parameters, are reported. CNT growth mechanisms and kinetics were investigated and compared to silicon (100) to improve the design of CNT emitter integrated MEMS based electronic devices, specifically in vacuum microelectronic device (VMD) applications. Improved growth allowed for design and development of novel cold-cathode FE devices utilizing CNT field emitters. A chemical ionization (CI) source based on a CNT-FE electron source was developed and evaluated in a commercial desktop mass spectrometer for explosives trace detection. This work demonstrated the first reported use of a CNT-based ion source capable of collecting CI mass spectra. The CNT-FE source demonstrated low power requirements, pulsing

  20. Characterization of geolocation accuracy of Suomi NPP Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Weng, Fuzhong; Zou, Xiaolei; Yang, Hu; Scott, Deron

    2016-05-01

    The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) onboard Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite has 22 channels at frequencies ranging from 23 to 183 GHz for probing the atmospheric temperature and moisture under all weather conditions. As part of the ATMS calibration and validation activities, the geolocation accuracy of ATMS data must be well characterized and documented. In this study, the coastline crossing method (CCM) and the land-sea fraction method (LFM) are utilized to characterize and quantify the ATMS geolocation accuracy. The CCM is based on the inflection points of the ATMS window channel measurements across the coastlines, whereas the LFM collocates the ATMS window channel data with high-resolution land-sea mask data sets. Since the ATMS measurements provide five pairs of latitude and longitude data for K, Ka, V, W, and G bands, respectively, the window channels 1, 2, 3, 16, and 17 from each of these five bands are chosen for assessing the overall geolocation accuracy. ATMS geolocation errors estimated from both methods are generally consistent from 40 cases in June 2014. The ATMS along-track (cross-track) errors at nadir are within ±4.2 km (±1.2 km) for K/Ka, ±2.6 km (±2.7 km) for V bands, and ±1.2 km (±0.6 km) at W and G bands, respectively. At the W band, the geolocation errors derived from both algorithms are probably less reliable due to a reduced contrast of brightness temperatures in coastal areas. These estimated ATMS along-track and cross-track geolocation errors are well within the uncertainty requirements for all bands.

  1. Optimization of horizontal wellbore and fracture spacing using an interactive combination of reservoir and fracturing simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Soliman, M.; Riviere, N.; Palidwar, T.; Romanson, R. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Glaser, M.A.; Kim, J.; Wilson, B. [Murphy Oil Co. Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Nikiforuk, G.; Noble, V.; Rosenthal, L. [WestMan Exploration, Calgary, AB (Canada); Aguilera, R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Hoch, O. [Hoch and Associates, Seattle, WA (United States); Storozhenko, K. [KJS and Associates (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Horizontal wellbore drilling and multistage fracturing technology is now being used to commercialize shale gas reserves throughout the world, and the technology is also being applied to new and mature oil fields. This paper discussed methods of optimizing the spacing of horizontal wellbore fractures, multilaterals, and wellbores using a combined fracture and reservoir simulations. Input data for the models was provided by advanced log and core analyses, diagnostic fracture injection testing, rate transient analyses, and microseismic monitoring. Examples of current Canadian oil and shale gas reservoirs were used to demonstrate the methodology. The study showed that reservoir characterization methods can be used interactively to improve well spacing designs. 4 refs., 1 tab., 31 figs.

  2. Preparation and characterization of an advanced collagen aggregate from porcine acellular dermal matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinhua; Dan, Nianhua; Dan, Weihua

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to extract and characterize an advanced collagen aggregate (Ag-col) from porcine acellular dermal matrix (pADM). Based on histological examination, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM), Ag-col was composed of the D-periodic cross-striated collagen fibrils and thick collagen fiber bundles with uneven diameters and non-orientated arrangement. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of pADM, Ag-col and Col were similar and revealed the presence of the triple helix. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis exhibited a slightly higher content of α-helix but inappreciably less amount of random coil structure in Ag-col compared to Col. Moreover, imino acid contents of pADM, Ag-col and Col were 222.43, 218.30 and 190.01 residues/1000 residues, respectively. From zeta potential analysis, a net charge of zero was found at pH 6.45 and 6.11 for Ag-col and Col, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study suggested that the Td of Ag-col was 20°C higher than that of Col as expected, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated that Ag-col possessed a higher storage modulus but similar loss factor compared to Col. Therefore, the collagen aggregate from pADM could serve as a better alternative source of collagens for further applications in food and biological industries. PMID:27039117

  3. Mining the Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL): Characterizing Winds of Evolved M-Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Krister E.; Carpenter, K. G.; Kober, G. V.; Cheng, K.; Ayres, T. R.; Harper, G.

    2013-01-01

    The HST/STIS treasury program Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) enables investigations of the character and dynamics of the wind and chromosphere of cool stars, using high quality spectral data. This paper present the analysis of the outflowing winds of the M3.4 giant Gamma Cru and the M2Iab supergiant Alpha Ori. The outer atmospheres of these objects show strong evidence for significant inhomogeneity in their thermal and kinematic structure, and are in general not well understood. The wind features are characterized by a strong chromospheric emission suppressed by a overlying wind absorption, for many transitions producing a double peak feature. The relative strengths and wavelength shifts between the absorption and emission components of the lines reflect the acceleration of the wind from the base of the chromosphere, as the self-absorption is due to the overlying wind absorption, whose velocity relative to the chromosphere varies with height and thus line opacity. The wind profiles are sensitive to the wind opacity, turbulence and flow velocity, and hence favorable to analyze with the Sobolev source function with Exact Integration of the transfer equation (SEI) code. This paper will show a velocity and intensity analysis of the wind profiles and modeling with the SEI code to derive an improved set of wind parameters, primarily, for Gamma Cru.

  4. X-Ray microprobe characterization of materials: the case for undulators on advanced storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique properties of X-rays offer many advantages over electrons and other charged particles for the microcharacterization of materials. X-rays are more efficient in exciting characteristic X-ray fluorescence and produce higher fluorescent signals to backgrounds than obtained with electrons. Detectable limits for X-rays are a few parts per billion and are 10-3 to 10-5 less than obtained with electrons. Energy deposition in the sample by X-rays is 10-3 to 10-4 less than for electrons for the same detectable concentration. High-brightness storage rings, especially in the 6 GeV class with undulators, will be approximately 103 brighter in the X-ray energy range from 5 keV to 35 keV than existing storage rings and provide for X-ray microprobes that are as bright as the most advanced electron probes. Such X-ray microprobes will produce unprecedented low levels of detection in diffraction, EXAFS, Auger, and photoelectron spectoscopies for both chemical characterization and elemental identification. These major improvements in microcharacterization capabilities will be wide-ranging ramifications not only in materials science but also in physics, chemistry, geochemistry, biology, and medicine

  5. Application of advanced radiographic imaging techniques for characterizing low level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BIR is currently investigating the use of two advanced x-ray imaging techniques for characterizing containers of solidified nuclear waste. These techniques, digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT), are performed by computerized imaging systems that can automatically inspect containers using a set of imaging parameters chosen by the operator. Both inspection techniques can be performed by the same imaging system. The inspection result is a computer image, or series of images, that can be manipulated by the operator to show a wide variety of features within the inspected object. For the inspections performed so far, we have used the ACTIS CT/DR system that BIR designed and built for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The inspections are being performed as part of a continuing Phase I/Phase II SBIR program for the U.S. Department of Energy. This paper discusses inspections performed on three types of waste containers: (1) a simulated waste drum imaged in Phase 1; (2) 55 gallon drums of assorted waste items supplied by the DOE'S EG and G Rocky Flats plant and by Westinghouse Hanford; and (3) several containers of glass used for solidifying radioactive substances, supplied by the DOE'S Westinghouse Savannah River site. The Phase II work also includes investigating dual energy CT imaging and designing a mechanically simplified ACTIS system and mobile trailer specifically for waste inspection. (author)

  6. X-ray microprobe characterization of materials: the case for undulators on advanced storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique properties of X rays offer many advantages over electrons and other charged particles for the microcharacterization of materials. X rays are more efficient in exciting characteristic X-ray fluorescence and produce higher fluorescent signals to backgrounds than obtained with electrons. Detectable limits for X rays are a few parts per billion and are 10-3 to 10-5 less than for electrons. Energy deposition in the sample by X rays is 10-3 to 10-4 less than for electrons for the same detectable concentration. High-brightness storage rings, especially in the 6 GeV class with undulators, will be approximately 103 brighter in the X-ray energy range from 5 keV to 35 keV than existing storage rings and provide for X-ray microprobes that are as bright as the most advanced electron probes. Such X-ray microprobes will produce unprecedented low levels of detection in diffraction, EXAFS, Auger, and photoelectron spectroscopies for both chemical characterization and elemental identification. These major improvements in microcharacterization capabilities will have wide-ranging ramifications not only in materials science but also in physics, chemistry, geochemistry, biology, and medicine

  7. Advanced Compatibility Characterization Of AF-M315E With Spacecraft Propulsion System Materials Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Mark B.; Greene, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    All spacecraft require propulsion systems for thrust and maneuvering. Propulsion systems can be chemical, nuclear, electrical, cold gas or combinations thereof. Chemical propulsion has proven to be the most reliable technology since the deployment of launch vehicles. Performance, storability, and handling are three important aspects of liquid chemical propulsion. Bipropellant systems require a fuel and an oxidizer for propulsion, but monopropellants only require a fuel and a catalyst for propulsion and are therefore simpler and lighter. Hydrazine is the state of the art propellant for monopropellant systems, but has drawbacks because it is highly hazardous to human health, which requires extensive care in handling, complex ground ops due to safety and environmental considerations, and lengthy turnaround times for reusable spacecraft. All users of hydrazine monopropellant must contend with these issues and their associated costs. The development of a new monopropellant, intended to replace hydrazine, has been in progress for years. This project will apply advanced techniques to characterize the engineering properties of materials used in AF-M315E propulsion systems after propellant exposure. AF-M315E monopropellant has been selected HQ's Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) to replace toxic hydrazine for improved performance and reduce safety and health issues that will shorten reusable spacecraft turn-around time. In addition, this project will fundamentally strengthen JSC's core competency to evaluate, use and infuse liquid propellant systems.

  8. Reservoir engineering and hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summaries are included which show advances in the following areas: fractured porous media, flow in single fractures or networks of fractures, hydrothermal flow, hydromechanical effects, hydrochemical processes, unsaturated-saturated systems, and multiphase multicomponent flows. The main thrust of these efforts is to understand the movement of mass and energy through rocks. This has involved treating fracture rock masses in which the flow phenomena within both the fractures and the matrix must be investigated. Studies also address the complex coupling between aspects of thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical processes associated with a nuclear waste repository in a fractured rock medium. In all these projects, both numerical modeling and simulation, as well as field studies, were employed. In the theoretical area, a basic understanding of multiphase flow, nonisothermal unsaturated behavior, and new numerical methods have been developed. The field work has involved reservoir testing, data analysis, and case histories at a number of geothermal projects

  9. Integrated reservoir management for the long term - the Carpinteria Offshore Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, E.M.; Brickey, M.R.; Coombs, S.E. [and others

    1997-05-01

    The Carpinteria Offshore Field, Santa Barbara, California, has produced more than 100 million barrels of oil to date. This mature field has continued operations in an economically and politically challenging environment that finally resulted in the abandonment of the field`s California State leases by the lease holder. The abandoned leases, together with adjoining federal leases are now operated by an independent producer. Los Alamos National Laboratory has joined with that independent operator, Pacific Operators Offshore, and with the State Lands Commission of California and the Minerals Management Service, in a unique collaborative effort to redevelop the mature field. This project is a part of a larger umbrella project, the Advanced Reservoir Management Project (ARM), that is designed to demonstrate the worth of advanced computational tools and state of the art methods for independent oil and gas producers. The Carpinteria Reservoir Redevelopment project takes a long-term view of reservoir management - as a result, our management plan includes a continuing investment in time and technology in order to better understand the reservoir. In particular, we have completed an extensive reservoir characterization and geological modeling effort that has created a self-consistent model, satisfying geophysical, geological, and engineering data constraints. We have begun the engineering-intensive flow simulation phase of the project using the current geological description of the reservoir, and are confident that our careful efforts in geological modeling will result in a reasonable reservoir flow model. Dynamic documents exist that are used by participants to stay abreast of developments on the project.

  10. Characterization of a hot dry rock reservoir at Acoculco geothermal zone, Pue.; Caracterizacion de un yacimiento de roca seca caliente en la zona geotermica de Acoculco, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo Pulido, Cecilia; Flores Armenta, Magaly Ramirez Silva, German [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: cecilia-lorenzo@cfe.gob.mx

    2011-01-15

    Hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resources, also called enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGS), have been researched for a long time. The HDR concept is simple. Most of the reservoirs are found at depths of around 5000 m and comprised of impermeable rocks at temperatures between 150 degrees Celsius and 300 degrees Celsius -lacking fluid. Rock temperature is a main economic criterion, since to generate electric energy initial temperatures above 200 degrees Celsius are required. To develop a HDR system, two wells are drilled. Cold water is introduced in one well and hot water is obtained from the other well by passing the water through the hot rock. Since June 2008, a 1.5 MWe power plant has been operating in France, part of the Soultz-sous-Foret project financed by the European Deep Geothermal Energy Programme. To characterize the HDR reservoir multi-disciplinary information was gathered regarding: (1) the heat source origin, (2) qualitative information on temperature and transfer mechanisms of natural heat, (3) natural faults and fractures, (4) local stresses, and (5) the basement rock. The information was applied to a geothermal zone in Acoculco, Pue.. The zone was explored by the Exploration Department with wells EAC-1 and EAC-2, defining the presence of a high temperature reservoir (from 220 degrees Celsius to more than 250 degrees Celsius ). The zone presents the following features: (1) heat source origin: volcano-tectonic, (2) temperature logs show values of 263.8 degrees Celsius and 307.3 degrees Celsius at depths of 1900 m and 2000 m, respectively, (3) the exploration wells are located in a graben-like structure, and the core and cutting samples show evidences of natural faults and fractures partially or completely sealed by hydrothermal minerals such as epidote, quartz and pyrite, (4) stress analyses indicate the local NW-SE and E-W systems are the main systems in the geothermal zone, and (5) the basement rock is composed of limestones with contact

  11. Cloud computing and Reservoir project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The support for complex services delivery is becoming a key point in current internet technology. Current trends in internet applications are characterized by on demand delivery of ever growing amounts of content. The future internet of services will have to deliver content intensive applications to users with quality of service and security guarantees. This paper describes the Reservoir project and the challenge of a reliable and effective delivery of services as utilities in a commercial scenario. It starts by analyzing the needs of a future infrastructure provider and introducing the key concept of a service oriented architecture that combines virtualisation-aware grid with grid-aware virtualisation, while being driven by business service management. This article will then focus on the benefits and the innovations derived from the Reservoir approach. Eventually, a high level view of Reservoir general architecture is illustrated.

  12. Calderas and magma reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Katharine V.; Giordano, Guido

    2014-11-01

    Large caldera-forming eruptions have long been a focus of both petrological and volcanological studies; petrologists have used the eruptive products to probe conditions of magma storage (and thus processes that drive magma evolution), while volcanologists have used them to study the conditions under which large volumes of magma are transported to, and emplaced on, the Earth's surface. Traditionally, both groups have worked on the assumption that eruptible magma is stored within a single long-lived melt body. Over the past decade, however, advances in analytical techniques have provided new views of magma storage regions, many of which provide evidence of multiple melt lenses feeding a single eruption, and/or rapid pre-eruptive assembly of large volumes of melt. These new petrological views of magmatic systems have not yet been fully integrated into volcanological perspectives of caldera-forming eruptions. Here we explore the implications of complex magma reservoir configurations for eruption dynamics and caldera formation. We first examine mafic systems, where stacked-sill models have long been invoked but which rarely produce explosive eruptions. An exception is the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, where seismic and petrologic data show that multiple sills at different depths fed a multi-phase (explosive and effusive) eruption. Extension of this concept to larger mafic caldera-forming systems suggests a mechanism to explain many of their unusual features, including their protracted explosivity, spatially variable compositions and pronounced intra-eruptive pauses. We then review studies of more common intermediate and silicic caldera-forming systems to examine inferred conditions of magma storage, time scales of melt accumulation, eruption triggers, eruption dynamics and caldera collapse. By compiling data from large and small, and crystal-rich and crystal-poor, events, we compare eruptions that are well explained by simple evacuation of a zoned

  13. The role of advanced reactive surface area characterization in improving predictions of mineral reaction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckingham, L. E.; Zhang, S.; Mitnick, E.; Cole, D. R.; Yang, L.; Anovitz, L. M.; Sheets, J.; Swift, A.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Landrot, G.; Mito, S.; Xue, Z.; Steefel, C. I.; DePaolo, D. J.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    estimates. Ultimately, the effectiveness of advanced surface area characterization to improve mineral dissolution rates will be evaluated by comparison of model results with dissolution rates measured from a flow-through column experiment.

  14. Status of Norris Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Norris Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses, conditions that impair reservoir uses, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most up-to-date publications and data available, and from interviews with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies, and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  15. New advances in the application of FTIR microscopy and spectroscopy for the characterization of artistic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, S; Joseph, E; Sciutto, G; Mazzeo, R

    2010-06-15

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is one of the most widely applied techniques for the investigation of cultural heritage materials. FTIR microscopy is well established as an essential tool in the microdestructive analysis of small samples, and the recent introduction of mapping and imaging equipment allows the collection of a large number of FTIR spectra on a surface, providing a distribution map of identified compounds. In this Account, we report recent advances in FTIR spectroscopy and microscopy in our research group. Our laboratory develops, tests, and refines new and less-studied IR spectroscopy and microscopy methods, with the goal of their adoption as routine analytical techniques in conservation laboratories. We discuss (i) the analysis of inorganic materials inactive in the mid-IR region by means of far-IR spectroscopy, (ii) the development of new methods for preparing cross sections, (iii) the characterization and spatial location of thin layers and small particles, and (iv) the evaluation of protective treatments. FTIR spectroscopy and microscopy have been mostly used in the mid-IR region of 4000-600 cm(-1). Some inorganic pigments, however, are inactive in this region, so other spectroscopic techniques have been applied, such as Raman spectroscopy. We suggest an alternative: harnessing the far-IR (600-50 cm(-1)). Our initial results show that far-IR spectroscopy is exceptionally useful with mural paintings or with corrosion products from which larger sample quantities can generally be collected. Moreover, the inorganic composition of a sample can be characterized by the presence of several compounds that are inactive in the mid-IR range (such as sulfides, oxides, and so forth). Stratigraphical analyses by FTIR microscopy can be hindered by the process of cross section preparation, which often involves an embedding organic polymer penetrating the sample's porous structure. Here, the polymer bands may completely cover the bands of organic

  16. Advanced characterization of MIMAS MOX fuel microstructure to quantify the HBS formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouloré, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.boulore@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DEC Fuel Research Department, Cadarache, F13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Aufore, Laurence; Federici, Eric [CEA, DEN, DEC Fuel Research Department, Cadarache, F13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Blanpain, Patrick [AREVA NP SAS, 10 rue Juliette Récamier, F-69456 Lyon (France); Blachier, Rémi [EDF, SEPTEN, 12-14 Av. Dutrievoz, F-69628 Villeurbanne (France)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • An advanced characterization of MIMAS MOX fuel based only on fresh fuel pellet characterization. • A probabilistic approach to model the High Burnup Structure formation in oxide fuels. • Validation of the method by comparing to experimental data obtained on fuel irradiated in the Halden reactor. - Abstract: Fission gas behaviour in accidental situations is closely related to the location of fission gas before the accident. More precisely, most of the fission gas in intergranular position is released during the accident and HBS zones contribute a lot to this intergranular quantity. So a methodology to characterize the HBS zones a priori from examination of unirradiated pellet has been developed at CEA. Characterization of plutonium distribution in MIMAS MOX fresh fuel pellets can be performed by image analysis on 1 mm{sup 2} X-ray mappings of plutonium acquired using Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA). The specific software developed to describe the fuel using Pu X-ray mapping (ANACONDA) has been improved in order to simulate the fission products (FP) production and recoil during a given irradiation of the fuel, taking into account the evolution of the plutonium due to neutron irradiation. This simulation results from calculations with our fuel performance code ALCYONE combined with image processing. The final result is a mapping of local burn-up, but also the distribution of the relative FP concentration as a function of the local burn-up. A validation of this simulation process has been done by comparing the simulated mapping of neodymium to one measured on the same fuel batch after irradiation. Using previous studies of mechanisms for HBS formation, a probabilistic criterion for HBS formation has been proposed, based on the EPMA measurements of the decrease of the xenon signal as a function of the local burn-up. Combining the simulated FP cartography with this probabilistic HBS formation criterion, it is possible to calculate the surface

  17. Identifying and Evaluating of Oil Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haixia

    2002-01-01

    The identification and evaluation of oil reservoir with logging data are one of most important ways in geologic logging services. For the last decades, with the further development of the oil & gas exploration, great advances have been achieved in techniques on the acquisition, processing and interpretative evaluation of logging data. How to identify fluid characteristics and evaluate the productivity in light oil reservoir (the crude density being between 0.74g/cm3 and 0.82g/cm3)has become one of the difficulties.With the establishment of the regional interpretation criterion of the study blocks, the optimized logging parameters that reflect the reservoir characteristics have been used to establish the chart for the interpretation of oil-water reservoir combining with well logging parameters. Then, to begin with geologic reserves of crude in single well, we establish evaluation criterion for productivity in oil reservoir with determining lower limit value of the reservoir and applying the relationship between chart parameters. The techniques are verified in production and get better effect.On the basis of the reservoir characteristics analysis of both basin A and B, We established the evaluation method of static productivity on light oil reservoir with getting quantitative evaluation parameters after quantitatively evaluating the date of core, pyrolysis chromatogram and gas chromatogram. It provides new technique 7 for new well interpretation and old well review, as well as evidence for project.design of well testing.

  18. CCS Acceptability: Social Site Characterization and Advancing Awareness at Prospective Storage Sites in Poland and Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunsting Suzanne

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the work on the social dimension conducted within the EU FP7 SiteChar project. The most important aim of the research was to advance public awareness and draw lessons for successful public engagement activities when developing a CO2 storage permit application. To this end, social site characterization (e.g. representative surveys and public participation activities (focus conference were conducted at two prospective Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS sites: an onshore site in Poland and an offshore site in Scotland. The research consisted of four steps over a time period of 1.5 year, from early 2011 to mid-2012. The first step consisted of four related qualitative and quantitative research activities to provide a social characterization of the areas: desk research, stakeholder interviews, media analyses, and a survey among representative samples of the local community. The aim was to identify: stakeholders or interested parties; factors that may drive their perceptions of and attitudes towards CCS. Results were used to as input for the second step, in which a new format for public engagement named ‘focus conferences’ was tested at both sites involving a small sample of the local community. The third step consisted of making available generic as well as site-specific information to the general and local public, by: setting up a bilingual set of information pages on the project website suitable for a lay audience; organizing information meetings at both sites that were open to all who took interest. The fourth step consisted of a second survey among a new representative sample of the local community. The survey was largely identical to the survey in step 1 to enable the monitoring of changes in awareness, knowledge and opinions over time. Results provide insight in the way local CCS plans may be perceived by the local stakeholders, how this can be reliably assessed at early stage without raising unnecessary concerns, and how

  19. CCS acceptability: social site characterization and advancing awareness at prospective storage sites in Poland and Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the work on the social dimension conducted within the EU FP7 SiteChar project. The most important aim of the research was to advance public awareness and draw lessons for successful public engagement activities when developing a CO2 storage permit application. To this end, social site characterization (e.g. representative surveys) and public participation activities (focus conference) were conducted at two prospective Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) sites: an onshore site in Poland and an offshore site in Scotland. The research consisted of four steps over a time period of 1.5 year, from early 2011 to mid-2012. The first step consisted of four related qualitative and quantitative research activities to provide a social characterization of the areas: desk research, stakeholder interviews, media analyses, and a survey among representative samples of the local community. The aim was to identify: - stakeholders or interested parties; - factors that may drive their perceptions of and attitudes towards CCS. Results were used to as input for the second step, in which a new format for public engagement named 'focus conferences' was tested at both sites involving a small sample of the local community. The third step consisted of making available generic as well as site-specific information to the general and local public, by: - setting up a bilingual set of information pages on the project web site suitable for a lay audience; - organizing information meetings at both sites that were open to all who took interest. The fourth step consisted of a second survey among a new representative sample of the local community. The survey was largely identical to the survey in step 1 to enable the monitoring of changes in awareness, knowledge and opinions over time. Results provide insight in the way local CCS plans may be perceived by the local stakeholders, how this can be reliably assessed at early stage without raising unnecessary concerns, and how

  20. Biologically active collagen-based scaffolds: advances in processing and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannas, I V; Tzeranis, D S; Harley, B A; So, P T C

    2010-04-28

    A small number of type I collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds (collagen-GAG scaffolds; CGSs) have unusual biological activity consisting primarily in inducing partial regeneration of organs in the adult mammal. Two of these are currently in use in a variety of clinical settings. CGSs appear to induce regeneration by blocking the adult healing response, following trauma, consisting of wound contraction and scar formation. Several structural determinants of biological activity have been identified, including ligands for binding of fibroblasts to the collagen surface, the mean pore size (which affects ligand density) and the degradation rate (which affects the duration of the wound contraction-blocking activity by the scaffold). Processing variables that affect these determinants include the kinetics of swelling of collagen fibres in acetic acid, freezing of the collagen-GAG suspension and cross-linking of the freeze-dried scaffold. Recent developments in the processing of CGSs include fabrication of scaffolds that are paucidisperse in pore size, scaffolds with gradients in physicochemical properties (and therefore biological activity) and scaffolds that incorporate a mineral component. Advances in the characterization of the pore structure of CGSs have been made using confocal and nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM). The mechanical behaviour of CGSs, as well as the resistance to degradative enzymes, have been studied. Following seeding with cells (typically fibroblasts), contractile forces in the range 26-450 nN per cell are generated by the cells, leading to buckling of scaffold struts. Ongoing studies of cell-seeded CGSs with NLOM have shown an advantage over the use of confocal microscopy due to the ability of the former method to image the CGS surfaces without staining (which alters its surface ligands), reduced cell photodamage, reduced fluorophore photobleaching and the ability to image deeper inside the scaffold. PMID:20308118

  1. Dosimetric validation of the Acuros XB Advanced Dose Calculation algorithm: fundamental characterization in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogliata, Antonella; Nicolini, Giorgia; Clivio, Alessandro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Mancosu, Pietro; Cozzi, Luca

    2011-03-01

    A new algorithm, Acuros® XB Advanced Dose Calculation, has been introduced by Varian Medical Systems in the Eclipse planning system for photon dose calculation in external radiotherapy. Acuros XB is based on the solution of the linear Boltzmann transport equation (LBTE). The LBTE describes the macroscopic behaviour of radiation particles as they travel through and interact with matter. The implementation of Acuros XB in Eclipse has not been assessed; therefore, it is necessary to perform these pre-clinical validation tests to determine its accuracy. This paper summarizes the results of comparisons of Acuros XB calculations against measurements and calculations performed with a previously validated dose calculation algorithm, the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA). The tasks addressed in this paper are limited to the fundamental characterization of Acuros XB in water for simple geometries. Validation was carried out for four different beams: 6 and 15 MV beams from a Varian Clinac 2100 iX, and 6 and 10 MV 'flattening filter free' (FFF) beams from a TrueBeam linear accelerator. The TrueBeam FFF are new beams recently introduced in clinical practice on general purpose linear accelerators and have not been previously reported on. Results indicate that Acuros XB accurately reproduces measured and calculated (with AAA) data and only small deviations were observed for all the investigated quantities. In general, the overall degree of accuracy for Acuros XB in simple geometries can be stated to be within 1% for open beams and within 2% for mechanical wedges. The basic validation of the Acuros XB algorithm was therefore considered satisfactory for both conventional photon beams as well as for FFF beams of new generation linacs such as the Varian TrueBeam.

  2. Characterization of a linear device developed for research on advanced plasma imaging and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the scope of long term research on imaging diagnostics for steady-state plasmas and understanding of edge plasma physics through diagnostics with conventional spectroscopic methods, we have constructed a linear electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma device named Research on Advanced Plasma Imaging and Dynamics (RAPID). It has a variety of axial magnetic field profiles provided by eight water-cooled magnetic coils and two dc power supplies. The positions of the magnetic coils are freely adjustable along the axial direction and the power supplies can be operated with many combinations of electrical wiring to the coils. Here, a 6 kW 2.45 GHz magnetron is used to produce steady-state hydrogen, helium, and argon plasmas with central magnetic fields of 875 and/or 437.5 G (second harmonic). In order to achieve the highest possible plasma performance within the limited input parameters, wall conditioning experiments were carried out. Chamber bake-out was achieved with heating coils that were wound covering the vessel, and long-pulse electron cyclotron heating discharge cleaning was also followed after 4 days of bake-out. A uniform bake-out temperature (150 deg. C) was achieved by wrapping the vessel in high temperature thermal insulation textile and by controlling the heating coil current using a digital control system. The partial pressure changes were observed using a residual gas analyzer, and a total system pressure of 5x10-8 Torr was finally reached. Diagn