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Sample records for advanced prostate cancer

  1. Management of patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillessen, S; Omlin, A; Attard, G

    2015-01-01

    -resistant prostate cancer and the recent studies of chemo-hormonal therapy in men with castration-naïve prostate cancer have led to considerable uncertainty as to the best treatment choices, sequence of treatment options and appropriate patient selection. Management recommendations based on expert opinion......The first St Gallen Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) Expert Panel identified and reviewed the available evidence for the ten most important areas of controversy in advanced prostate cancer (APC) management. The successful registration of several drugs for castration...... decisions on treatment as always will involve consideration of disease extent and location, prior treatments, host factors, patient preferences as well as logistical and economic constraints. Inclusion of men with APC in clinical trials should be encouraged....

  2. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Dagmara; Król, Wojciech; Szliszka, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease.

  3. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Jaworska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease.

  4. Management of locally advanced prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heather Payne

    2009-01-01

    The management of all stages of prostate cancer is an increasingly complex process and involves a variety of available treatments and many disciplines.Despite prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing,the presentation of prostate cancer at a locally advanced stage is common in the UK,accounting for one-third of all new cases.There is no universally accepted definition of locally advanced prostate cancer;the term is loosely used to encompass a spectrum of disease profiles that show high-risk features.Men with high-risk prostate cancer generally have a significant risk of disease progression and cancer-related death if left untreated.High-risk patients,including those with locally advanced disease,present two specific challenges.There is a need for local control as well as a need to treat any microscopic metastases likely to be present but undetectable until disease progression.The optimal treatment approach will therefore often necessitate multiple modalities.The exact combinations,timing and intensity of treatment continue to be strongly debated.Management decisions should be made after all treatments have been discussed by a multidisciplinary team (including urologists,oncologists,radiologists,pathologists and nurse specialists) and after the balance of benefits and side effects of each therapy modality has been considered by the patient with regard to his own individual circumstances.This article reviews the current therapy options.

  5. Treatment of locally advanced prostatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A locally advanced prostate cancer is defined as a malignant process spreading beyond the prostate capsule or in seminal vesicles but without distant metastasis or regional lymph nodes invasion. Clinical classification, prediction and treatment of prostate cancer. An exact staging of clinical T3 stadium is usually difficult because of the frequent over and under staging. The risk prognostic stratification is performed through nomograms and ANN (artificial neural networks. The options for treatment are: radical prostatectomy, external radiotherapy and interstitial implantation of radioisotopes, hormonal therapy by androgen blockade. Radical prostatectomy is considered in patients with T3 stage but extensive dissection of lymph nodes, dissection of neurovascular bundle (on tumor side, total removal of seminal vesicle and sometimes resection of bladder neck are obligatory. Postoperative radiotherapy is performed in patients with invasion of seminal vesicles and capsular penetration or with prostate specific antigen value over 0.1 ng/ml, one month after the surgical treatment. Definitive radiotherapy could be used as the best treatment option considering clinical stage, Gleason score, age, starting prostate specific antigen (PSA value, concomitant diseases, life expectancy, quality of life, through multidisciplinary approach (combined with androgen deprivation. Hormonal therapy in intended for patients who are not eligible for surgical treatment or radiotherapy. Conclusion. Management of locally advanced prostate cancer is still controversial and studies for better diagnosis and new treatment modalities are ongoing.

  6. Redefining Hormone Sensitive Disease in Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Hou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the United States. For decades, the cornerstone of medical treatment for advanced prostate cancer has been hormonal therapy, intended to lower testosterone levels, known as Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT. The development of hormone-resistant prostate cancer (now termed castration-resistant prostate cancer:CRPC remains the key roadblock in successful long-term management of prostate cancer. New advancements in medical therapy for prostate cancer have added to the hormonal therapy armamentarium. These new therapeutic agents not only provide a survival benefit but also show potential for reversing hormonal resistance in metastatic CRPC, and thus redefining hormonally sensitive disease.

  7. Sipuleucel-T for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Mark W

    2012-06-01

    Sipuleucel-T is an autologous cellular immunotherapy designed to stimulate an immune response to prostate cancer that prolongs the overall survival of men with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The clinical development program and key efficacy, safety, and immune response findings from the phase III studies are presented. The integration of sipuleucel-T into the treatment paradigm of advanced prostate cancer and future directions for research are discussed.

  8. Efficacy of c-Met inhibitor for advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen James G

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant expression of HGF/SF and its receptor, c-Met, often correlates with advanced prostate cancer. Our previous study showed that expression of c-Met in prostate cancer cells was increased after attenuation of androgen receptor (AR signalling. This suggested that current androgen ablation therapy for prostate cancer activates c-Met expression and may contribute to development of more aggressive, castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC. Therefore, we directly assessed the efficacy of c-Met inhibition during androgen ablation on the growth and progression of prostate cancer. Methods We tested two c-Met small molecule inhibitors, PHA-665752 and PF-2341066, for anti-proliferative activity by MTS assay and cell proliferation assay on human prostate cancer cell lines with different levels of androgen sensitivity. We also used renal subcapsular and castrated orthotopic xenograft mouse models to assess the effect of the inhibitors on prostate tumor formation and progression. Results We demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of PHA-665752 and PF-2341066 on the proliferation of human prostate cancer cells and the phosphorylation of c-Met. The effect on cell proliferation was stronger in androgen insensitive cells. The c-Met inhibitor, PF-2341066, significantly reduced growth of prostate tumor cells in the renal subcapsular mouse model and the castrated orthotopic mouse model. The effect on cell proliferation was greater following castration. Conclusions The c-Met inhibitors demonstrated anti-proliferative efficacy when combined with androgen ablation therapy for advanced prostate cancer.

  9. COX2 genetic variation, NSAIDs, and advanced prostate cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, I.; Liu, X.; Plummer, S J; Krumroy, L M; Casey, G; Witte, J S

    2007-01-01

    Collective evidence suggests that cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) plays a role in prostate cancer risk. Cyclooxygenase 2 is the major enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, which are potent mediators of inflammation. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the enzymatic activity of COX2 and long-term use of NSAIDs appears to modestly lower the risk of prostate cancer. We investigated whether common genetic variation in COX2 influences the risk of advanced prostate canc...

  10. Combined androgen blockade in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer--an overview. The Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1997-01-01

    The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed.......The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed....

  11. Zoladex plus flutamide vs. orchidectomy for advanced prostatic cancer. Danish Prostatic Cancer Group (DAPROCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1990-01-01

    The study comprised 262 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Patients were randomized either to undergo orchidectomy or to receive combined treatment with Zoladex, 3.6 mg every 4 weeks, plus flutamide, 250 mg t.i.d. At present the median follow-up is 39 months......' with Zoladex plus flutamide was not clinically superior to orchidectomy in the treatment of patients with advanced prostatic cancer....

  12. Sipuleucel-T: immunotherapy for advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson BM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Brian M Olson, Douglas G McNeelUniversity of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USAAbstract: Prostate cancer continues to be one of the most serious afflictions of men of advanced age, remaining the most commonly diagnosed and second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in American men. The treatment options for patients with incurable metastatic, castrate-resistant disease have long focused on various chemotherapeutic approaches, which provide a slight survival benefit while being associated with potentially significant side effects. However, the recent approval of sipuleucel-T has given patients with advanced disease an additional treatment option that has demonstrated benefit without the side effects associated with chemotherapy. Sipuleucel-T is an antigen-presenting cell-based active immunotherapy that utilizes a patient's own immune cells, presumably to activate an antigen-specific immune response against tumor cells. This review focuses on the development and implementation of sipuleucel-T as a therapy for prostate cancer. Specifically, we present some of the issues associated with the management of advanced prostate cancer, the research and development that led to the approval of sipuleucel-T, how the approval of sipuleucel-T could change the clinical management of prostate cancer, and current and future areas of investigation that are being pursued with regard to sipuleucel-T and other treatments for advanced prostate cancer.Keywords: sipuleucel-T, prostatic acid phosphatase, granulocyte-macrophage colonystimulating factor

  13. Activation of the hedgehog pathway in advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCormick Frank

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hedgehog pathway plays a critical role in the development of prostate. However, the role of the hedgehog pathway in prostate cancer is not clear. Prostate cancer is the second most prevalent cause of cancer death in American men. Therefore, identification of novel therapeutic targets for prostate cancer has significant clinical implications. Results Here we report that activation of the hedgehog pathway occurs frequently in advanced human prostate cancer. We find that high levels of hedgehog target genes, PTCH1 and hedgehog-interacting protein (HIP, are detected in over 70% of prostate tumors with Gleason scores 8–10, but in only 22% of tumors with Gleason scores 3–6. Furthermore, four available metastatic tumors all have high expression of PTCH1 and HIP. To identify the mechanism of the hedgehog signaling activation, we examine expression of Su(Fu protein, a negative regulator of the hedgehog pathway. We find that Su(Fu protein is undetectable in 11 of 27 PTCH1 positive tumors, two of them contain somatic loss-of-function mutations of Su(Fu. Furthermore, expression of sonic hedgehog protein is detected in majority of PTCH1 positive tumors (24 out of 27. High levels of hedgehog target genes are also detected in four prostate cancer cell lines (TSU, DU145, LN-Cap and PC3. We demonstrate that inhibition of hedgehog signaling by smoothened antagonist, cyclopamine, suppresses hedgehog signaling, down-regulates cell invasiveness and induces apoptosis. In addition, cancer cells expressing Gli1 under the CMV promoter are resistant to cyclopamine-mediated apoptosis. All these data suggest a significant role of the hedgehog pathway for cellular functions of prostate cancer cells. Conclusion Our data indicate that activation of the hedgehog pathway, through loss of Su(Fu or overexpression of sonic hedgehog, may involve tumor progression and metastases of prostate cancer. Thus, targeted inhibition of hedgehog signaling may have

  14. Sipuleucel-T: immunotherapy for advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Brian M; McNeel, Douglas G

    2011-05-03

    Prostate cancer continues to be one of the most serious afflictions of men of advanced age, remaining the most commonly diagnosed and second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in American men. The treatment options for patients with incurable metastatic, castrate-resistant disease have long focused on various chemotherapeutic approaches, which provide a slight survival benefit while being associated with potentially significant side effects. However, the recent approval of sipuleucel-T has given patients with advanced disease an additional treatment option that has demonstrated benefit without the side effects associated with chemotherapy. Sipuleucel-T is an antigen-presenting cell-based active immunotherapy that utilizes a patient's own immune cells, presumably to activate an antigen-specific immune response against tumor cells. This review focuses on the development and implementation of sipuleucel-T as a therapy for prostate cancer. Specifically, we present some of the issues associated with the management of advanced prostate cancer, the research and development that led to the approval of sipuleucel-T, how the approval of sipuleucel-T could change the clinical management of prostate cancer, and current and future areas of investigation that are being pursued with regard to sipuleucel-T and other treatments for advanced prostate cancer.

  15. COX2 genetic variation, NSAIDs, and advanced prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, I; Liu, X; Plummer, S J; Krumroy, L M; Casey, G; Witte, J S

    2007-08-20

    Collective evidence suggests that cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) plays a role in prostate cancer risk. Cyclooxygenase 2 is the major enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, which are potent mediators of inflammation. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the enzymatic activity of COX2 and long-term use of NSAIDs appears to modestly lower the risk of prostate cancer. We investigated whether common genetic variation in COX2 influences the risk of advanced prostate cancer. Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in COX2 were genotyped among 1012 men in our case-control study of advanced prostate cancer. Gene-environment interactions between COX2 polymorphisms and NSAID use were also evaluated. Information on NSAID use was obtained by questionnaire. Three SNPs demonstrated nominally statistically significant associations with prostate cancer risk, with the most compelling polymorphism (rs2745557) associated with a lower risk of disease (odds ratio (OR) GC vs GG=0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49-0.84; P=0.002). We estimated through permutation analysis that a similarly strong result would occur by chance 2.7% of the time. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use was associated with a lower risk of disease in comparison to no use (OR=0.67; 95% CI: 0.52-0.87). No significant statistical interaction between NSAID use and rs2745557 was observed (P=0.12). Our findings suggest that variation in COX2 is associated with prostate cancer risk.

  16. Advanced prostate cancer risk in relation to toenail selenium levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geybels, M.S.; Verhage, B.A.J.; Schooten, F.J. van; Goldbohm, A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selenium may prevent advanced prostate cancer (PCa), but most studies on this topic were conducted in populations with moderate to high selenium status. We investigated the association of toenail selenium, reflecting long-term selenium exposure, and advanced PCa risk in a population from

  17. Evolving treatment paradigms for locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorff, Tanya B; Quek, Marcus L; Daneshmand, Siamak; Pinski, Jacek

    2006-11-01

    While men with early stage prostate cancer typically enjoy long-term survival after definitive management, for those who present with locally advanced or metastatic disease, survival is compromised. Multimodality therapy can prolong survival in these patients, with state-of-the-art options including intensity-modulated radiation or brachytherapy in conjunction with androgen ablation, adjuvant androgen ablation and/or chemotherapy with radical retropubic prostatectomy. In addition, novel biological therapies are being explored to target the unique molecular changes in prostate cancer cells and their interactions with the microenvironment. With these advances the outlook will undoubtedly improve, even for patients presenting with advanced disease. Careful application of these emerging therapies to a select group of prostate cancer patients most likely to obtain benefit from them is the challenge for urologists, medical oncologists and radiation oncologists for the future.

  18. Prostate Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... P 2 rovocative Questions PCCTC Scientific Retreat Coffey-Holden Research News Faces of Prostate Cancer [4] Survivors ... Foundation News The Prostate Cancer Foundation’s 2016 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Meeting accelerates advances in the ...

  19. Sipuleucel-T: immunotherapy for advanced prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Olson BM; McNeel DG

    2011-01-01

    Brian M Olson, Douglas G McNeelUniversity of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USAAbstract: Prostate cancer continues to be one of the most serious afflictions of men of advanced age, remaining the most commonly diagnosed and second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in American men. The treatment options for patients with incurable metastatic, castrate-resistant disease have long focused on various chemotherapeutic approaches, which provide a ...

  20. Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back After Treatment Prostate Cancer Treating Prostate Cancer Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...

  1. Navigating the evolving therapeutic landscape in advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, E David; Petrylak, Daniel; Sartor, Oliver

    2017-03-07

    Prostate cancer is the most common cause of cancer in men, with 137.9 new cases per 100,000 men per year. The overall 5-year survival rate for prostate cancer is very high. Up to 20% of men who undergo state-of-the art treatment for prostate cancer will develop castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) within 5 years, with median survival for those with metastatic CRPC ranging from approximately 15 to 36 months in recent studies. With the advent of several new drugs in the past 5 years to treat CRPC, the challenge facing clinicians is how to best sequence or combine therapies or both to optimize outcomes. A better understanding of the disease process and the role of the androgen receptor as a target for both therapy and resistance have led to the consideration of biomarkers as an approach to aid in selecting the appropriate agent for a given patient as patients respond to or tolerate different drugs differently. Research to identify new prognostic biomarkers, which are associated with outcome measures, as well as predictive biomarkers, which predict response or resistance to therapy is ongoing. The treatment of advanced prostate cancer and the research related to biomarkers are discussed.

  2. Advanced Prostate Cancer Presenting as Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS is characterized by endothelial dysfunction, consumption thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and acute renal failure. HUS generally has a dismal prognosis, except when associated with gastroenteritis caused by verotoxin-producing bacteria. Cancer associated HUS is uncommon, and there are only scarce reports on prostate cancer presenting with HUS. Case Presentation. A 72-year-old man presented to the emergency department with oliguria, hematuria, and hematemesis. Clinical evaluation revealed acute renal failure, hemolysis, normal blood-clotting studies, and prostate-specific antigen value of 1000 ng/mL. The patient was started on hemodialysis, ultrafiltration with plasma exchange, and androgen blockade with bicalutamide and completely recovered from HUS. The authors review the 14 published cases on this association. Conclusion. The association of HUS and prostate cancer occurs more frequently in patients with high-grade, clinically advanced prostate cancer. When readily recognized and appropriately treated, HUS does not seem to worsen prognosis in prostate cancer patients.

  3. Zoladex plus flutamide vs. orchidectomy for advanced prostatic cancer. Danish Prostatic Cancer Group (DAPROCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1990-01-01

    The study comprised 262 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Patients were randomized either to undergo orchidectomy or to receive combined treatment with Zoladex, 3.6 mg every 4 weeks, plus flutamide, 250 mg t.i.d. At present the median follow-up is 39 months....... The objective response to therapy was better in the Zoladex plus flutamide group, but no differences in subjective response, time to disease progression, or survival have been demonstrated between the 2 groups. Adverse effects were more common in the Zoladex plus flutamide group. Thus, 'total androgen blockade......' with Zoladex plus flutamide was not clinically superior to orchidectomy in the treatment of patients with advanced prostatic cancer....

  4. Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Dong; Vela, Ian; Sboner, Andrea; Iaquinta, Phillip J; Karthaus, Wouter R; Gopalan, Anuradha; Dowling, Catherine; Wanjala, Jackline N; Undvall, Eva A; Arora, Vivek K; Wongvipat, John; Kossai, Myriam; Ramazanoglu, Sinan; Barboza, Luendreo P; Di, Wei; Cao, Zhen; Zhang, Qi Fan; Sirota, Inna; Ran, Leili; MacDonald, Theresa Y; Beltran, Himisha; Mosquera, Juan-Miguel; Touijer, Karim A; Scardino, Peter T; Laudone, Vincent P; Curtis, Kristen R; Rathkopf, Dana E; Morris, Michael J; Danila, Daniel C; Slovin, Susan F; Solomon, Stephen B; Eastham, James A; Chi, Ping; Carver, Brett; Rubin, Mark A; Scher, Howard I; Clevers, Hans; Sawyers, Charles L; Chen, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The lack of in vitro prostate cancer models that recapitulate the diversity of human prostate cancer has hampered progress in understanding disease pathogenesis and therapy response. Using a 3D organoid system, we report success in long-term culture of prostate cancer from biopsy specimens and circu

  5. Plasma levels of trefoil factors are increased in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Borre, Michael; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    2006-01-01

    . EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In 79 patients with prostate cancer, 23 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 44 healthy individuals plasma TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 were determined with ELISAs and compared with clinical stage and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values. Plasma levels of TFF were compared......PURPOSE: Through cDNA array analyses and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) was recently shown to be overexpressed in prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using the levels of trefoil factors as a plasma marker for prostate cancer...... with the immunohistochemical expression of TFF and chromogranin A in 30 prostate cancer tissue samples. RESULTS: Patients with advanced prostate cancer had significantly higher plasma concentrations of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 (P

  6. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  7. [Prostate cancer stem cells: advances in current research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Wu, Deng-long

    2015-02-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies threatening men's health, and the mechanisms underlying its initiation and progression are poorly understood. Last decade has witnessed encouraging progress in the studies of prostate cancer stem cells (PCSCs), which are considered to play important roles in tumor initiation, recurrence and metastasis, castration resistance, and drug resistance. Therefore, a deeper insight into PCSCs is of great significance for the successful management of prostate cancer. This article presents an overview on the location, origin, and markers of PCSCs as well as their potential correlation with tumor metastasis and castration resistance.

  8. Association of the innate immunity and inflammation pathway with advanced prostate cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Kazma

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most frequent and second most lethal cancer in men in the United States. Innate immunity and inflammation may increase the risk of prostate cancer. To determine the role of innate immunity and inflammation in advanced prostate cancer, we investigated the association of 320 single nucleotide polymorphisms, located in 46 genes involved in this pathway, with disease risk using 494 cases with advanced disease and 536 controls from Cleveland, Ohio. Taken together, the whole pathway was associated with advanced prostate cancer risk (P = 0.02. Two sub-pathways (intracellular antiviral molecules and extracellular pattern recognition and four genes in these sub-pathways (TLR1, TLR6, OAS1, and OAS2 were nominally associated with advanced prostate cancer risk and harbor several SNPs nominally associated with advanced prostate cancer risk. Our results suggest that the innate immunity and inflammation pathway may play a modest role in the etiology of advanced prostate cancer through multiple small effects.

  9. Association of the innate immunity and inflammation pathway with advanced prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazma, Rémi; Mefford, Joel A; Cheng, Iona; Plummer, Sarah J; Levin, Albert M; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Casey, Graham; Witte, John S

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequent and second most lethal cancer in men in the United States. Innate immunity and inflammation may increase the risk of prostate cancer. To determine the role of innate immunity and inflammation in advanced prostate cancer, we investigated the association of 320 single nucleotide polymorphisms, located in 46 genes involved in this pathway, with disease risk using 494 cases with advanced disease and 536 controls from Cleveland, Ohio. Taken together, the whole pathway was associated with advanced prostate cancer risk (P = 0.02). Two sub-pathways (intracellular antiviral molecules and extracellular pattern recognition) and four genes in these sub-pathways (TLR1, TLR6, OAS1, and OAS2) were nominally associated with advanced prostate cancer risk and harbor several SNPs nominally associated with advanced prostate cancer risk. Our results suggest that the innate immunity and inflammation pathway may play a modest role in the etiology of advanced prostate cancer through multiple small effects.

  10. The preclinical development of novel treatment options for advanced prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a major societal problem with 11.000 new cases every year in the Netherlands. The advanced stage of the disease, castration-resistant prostate cancer, is especially deadly and is often accompanied with (bone) metastases. In this PhD-thesis, we have explored several strategies to i

  11. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  12. What is appropriate neoadjuvant/adjuvant androgen deprivation for high-risk/locally advanced prostate cancer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mikio Namiki; Hiroyuki Konaka

    2011-01-01

    @@ The majority of low-risk patients with clinically localized prostate cancer have a high likelihood of disease-free survival,regardless of the treatment option chosen.1 In contrast, patients with high-risk prostate cancer with high Gleason score, elevated prostate-specific antigen level and advanced clinical stage have a high probability of treatment failure after initial management by single-treatment modalities, such as radical pro-statectomy (RP), external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy.2,3 Therefore, it is extremely important to establish the most effective treatment strategy for patients with high-risk prostate cancer.

  13. Sipuleucel-T (Provenge): active cellular immunotherapy for advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKarney, I

    2007-09-01

    (1) Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is an active cellular immunotherapy (therapeutic vaccine) that is designed to stimulate the patient's T-cells to recognize and attack prostate cancer cells that express prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) antigen. (2) Sipuleucel-T demonstrated a survival benefit in men with advanced androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC), although this preliminary finding requires confirmation in larger trials. (3) Mild to moderate myalgia, chills, fever, and tremor are the most commonly reported adverse events for patients receiving sipuleucel-T. These events generally resolve quickly. (4) More studies are needed to evaluate sipuleucel-T in the earlier stages of prostate cancer and in combination with conventional therapies.

  14. Targeted Approach to Overcoming Treatment Resistance in Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    nitrogen) aliquot of PC3 cells (ATCC: human prostate adenocarcinoma). 2. Disperse into 75 cm2 flask containing RPMI 1640 media supplemented with 10% fetal ...compound #88 shows high cell killing efficacy in prostate cancer cell lines, including taxol resistant cells that stems from the induction of apoptosis...approach engages computational modeling to identify compounds that target a specific, mismatch repair protein-­‐dependent cell death pathway. A

  15. Dietary flavonoid intake, black tea consumption, and risk of overall and advanced stage prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geybels, Milan S; Verhage, Bas A J; Arts, Ilja C W; van Schooten, Frederik J; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2013-06-15

    Flavonoids are natural antioxidants found in various foods, and a major source is black tea. Some experimental evidence indicates that flavonoids could prevent prostate cancer. We investigated the associations between flavonoid intake, black tea consumption, and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort study, which includes 58,279 men who provided detailed baseline information on several cancer risk factors. From 1986 to 2003, 3,362 prostate cancers were identified, including 1,164 advanced (stage III/IV) cancers. Cox proportional hazards regression using the case-cohort approach was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Intake of total catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol, and myricetin and consumption of black tea were associated with a decreased risk of stage III/IV or stage IV prostate cancer. Hazard ratios of stage III/IV and stage IV prostate cancer for the highest versus the lowest category of black tea consumption (≥5 versus ≤1 cups/day) were 0.75 (95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.97) and 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.91), respectively. No associations were observed for overall and nonadvanced prostate cancer. In conclusion, dietary flavonoid intake and black tea consumption were associated with a decreased risk of advanced stage prostate cancer.

  16. Prostate Cancer and Sexual Function

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, Jae Saog

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is now ranked fifth in incidence among cancers in Korean adult males. This is attributable to the more Westernized dietary style which increases the morbidity of prostate cancer and the development of cancer diagnostic technologies, such as prostate-specific antigen and advanced medical systems, increasing the rate of prostate cancer diagnosis. Prostate cancer effects include not only erectile dysfunction caused by the disease itself, but also by psychiatric disorders caused b...

  17. Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Eggener, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer continues to be a significant public health issue worldwide, particularly in countries where men have life expectancies long enough to clinically manifest the disease. In many countries, it remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality.Although significant progress has been made over the past few decades, many elements regarding the diagnosis and management of patients with prostate cancer remain enigmatic. In this Prostate Cancer special issue, o...

  18. New Action of Inhibin Alpha Subunit in Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Preetika. Final Report Award: W81XWH-07-1-0112 25 Christofori, G., and Pepper , M. S. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C-mediated...prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res., 10: 5137-5144, 2004. 13. Risbridger, G. P., Shibata, A., Ferguson , K. L., Stamey, T. A., McNeal, J. E., and Peehl, D...Christofori G, Pepper MS (2001) Vascular endothelial growth factor-C-mediated lymphangiogenesis promotes tumour metastasis. EMBO J 20: 672 – 682

  19. The measurement of response shift in patients with advanced prostate cancer and their partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Boyle Ciaran

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence to support the phenomenon of response shift (RS in quality of life (QoL studies, with many current QoL measures failing to allow for this. If significant response shift occurs amongst prostate cancer patients, it will be necessary to allow for this in the design of future clinical research and to reassess the conclusions of previous studies that have not allowed for this source of bias. This study therefore aimed to assess the presence of RS and psychosocial morbidity in patients with advanced prostate cancer and their partners. Methods 55 consecutive advanced prostate cancer patients and their partners completed the Prostate Cancer Patient & Partner questionnaire (PPP, shortly after diagnosis and again at 3 months and 6 months. At the follow-up visits, both patients and partners also completed a then-test in order to assess RS. Results Partners consistently showed greater psychological morbidity than patients in relation to the prostate cancer. This was most marked on the General Cancer Distress (GCD subscale (p Conclusion These results suggest the presence of RS in patients with advanced prostate cancer and their partners, with higher levels of psychosocial morbidity noted amongst partners. This is the first study to identify RS in partners and calls into question the interpretation of all studies assessing changes in QoL that fail to allow for this phenomenon.

  20. Long-term results of Danish Prostatic Cancer Group trial 86. Goserelin acetate plus flutamide versus orchiectomy in advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Klarskov, Peter;

    1993-01-01

    In a multicenter trial conducted by the Danish Prostatic Cancer Group, 264 patients with advanced prostate cancer were randomized either to undergo bilateral orchiectomy or to receive combination treatment with goserelin acetate and flutamide. This report is an update of that study, covering...... of goserelin and flutamide was not clinically superior to bilateral orchiectomy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer....... a median follow-up for survival of 57 months. Of 262 patients who were evaluated, 208 have died. As noted in earlier analyses of this study, no differences in time to progression and cause-specific and overall survival could be identified between the two treatment groups. In conclusion, the combination...

  1. The importance of combined radiation and endocrine therapy in locally advanced prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Phillip J Gray; William U Shipley

    2012-01-01

    The management of all stages of prostate cancer has become an increasingly complex task as new treatment paradigms are tested and the results of large randomized studies become available.Despite these advances,prostate cancer remains the second leading cause of eancer death and the seventh overall cause of death in men in the United States.1 The advent of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in the 1980s resulted in a significant downward stage migration such that many men now present with the earliest and most curable form of the disease.2,3 Despite this fact,high-risk locally advanced prostate cancer remains a common and complex problem facing clinicians across the world.

  2. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  3. Role of targeted therapy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fizazi, Karim; Sternberg, Cora N; Fitzpatrick, John M; Watson, R William; Tabesh, Majid

    2010-03-01

    Over the past decade, the treatment of advanced prostate cancer has developed significantly, and perhaps the most dramatic shift came in 2004 with the demonstration that docetaxel-based chemotherapy significantly improved overall survival in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. This led to a significant expansion of the role of chemotherapy in the management of prostate cancer. In addition, there is now considerable progress being made in the development of more effective antiandrogens, cytochrome P17 inhibitors, novel chemotherapy regimens, targeted therapies, and immunotherapies that can complement existing therapies and may soon become integrated into the treatment paradigm. Progress in our understanding of molecular signalling pathways that play an important role in prostate cancer has stimulated the investigation of targeted therapies, including antiangiogenic agents, bone-targeted agents, and specific inhibitors of key signalling molecules and chaperone proteins. For the most part, targeted agents are being combined with chemotherapy, similar to the approach taken in other solid tumours. Various therapeutic vaccine strategies also appear to have potential in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. However, the development of new approaches to the treatment of prostate cancer presents many challenges that will demand collaboration and consensus building with respect to biomarkers for patient selection, clinical endpoints, and trial designs.

  4. A randomised comparison of 'Casodex' (bicalutamide) 150 mg monotherapy versus castration in the treatment of metastatic and locally advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, C J; Kaisary, A V; Iversen, P;

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of 'Casodex' monotherapy (150 mg daily) for metastatic and locally advanced prostate cancer.......To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of 'Casodex' monotherapy (150 mg daily) for metastatic and locally advanced prostate cancer....

  5. Degarelix 240/80 mg: a new treatment option for patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccon-Gibod, Laurent; Iversen, Peter; Persson, Bo-Eric

    2009-01-01

    levels that can lead to clinical flare in patients with advanced disease. Degarelix (Firmagon is a new GnRH blocker that has recently been approved by the EMEA and US FDA for the treatment of men with hormone-sensitive advanced prostate cancer. In this article, we briefly review the Phase III trial data...

  6. Bicalutamide monotherapy compared with castration in patients with nonmetastatic locally advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Tyrrell, C J; Kaisary, A V

    2000-01-01

    Nonsteroidal antiandrogen monotherapy may be a treatment option for some patients with advanced prostate cancer. We report a survival and safety update from an analysis of 2 studies in which patients with nonmetastatic (M0) locally advanced disease were treated with either 150 mg. bicalutamide...

  7. HIGH-INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND ABLATION OF PATIENTS WITH LOCALLY ADVANCED PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Shaplygin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the results of retrospective analysis of treatment of 311 patients in Samara Oncology Center in 2008–2011 with locally advanced prostate cancer are presented. According to the received treatment patients were divided into 3 groups: 103 underwent HIFU, 101 patients had a course of EBRT, 107 patients received only hormone therapy (HT. Overall survival in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer after HIFU therapy was 86.2 %, after EBRT and HT – 66.3% and 18.1 %, respectively. These data indicate a high clinical efficacy of ultrasound ablation. 

  8. Degarelix 240/80 mg: a new treatment option for patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccon-Gibod, L.; Iversen, P.; Persson, B.E.;

    2009-01-01

    levels that can lead to clinical flare in patients with advanced disease. Degarelix (Firmagon is a new GnRH blocker that has recently been approved by the EMEA and US FDA for the treatment of men with hormone-sensitive advanced prostate cancer. In this article, we briefly review the Phase III trial data......Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor blockers (antagonists) are the latest addition to the hormonal therapy armamentarium for patients with prostate cancer. In contrast to the GnRH agonists, GnRH blockers have an immediate onset of action and do not cause an initial surge in testosterone...

  9. To Explore the Chinese Medicine Syndrome Types and Integrative Therapy from Clinical Relative Factors of Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伊光

    2009-01-01

    Current Situation and Problems of the Treatment in Advanced Prostate Cancer In recent years,the incidence of prostate cancer shows a rising trend in China with an increase of 70%and has been the first place in the growth rate of malignant tumor in the male reproductive system. Prostate cancer has become a serious threat to male senior's health.Because of the application of

  10. [Advances in highly conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer: past, current, and future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Makishima, Hirokazu; Mizumoto, Masashi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sakurai, Hideyuki

    2012-01-01

    Recent advance in the field of radiation oncology, especially in medical physics for radiation therapy (RT), has considerably improved treatment outcomes of various cancers including prostate cancer with regard to both of tumor control and morbidity. Three-dimensionally conformal RT with image-guided radiotherapeutic modalities for accurate tumor localization, such as brachytherapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and charged particle beam RT can thereby deliver a large dose to the tumor and allow the sparing of surrounding normal tissues. It is thought that prostate cancer is one of representative cancers which have been treated with RT as a curative intent and benefited from novel conformal RT techniques. Because the number of prostate cancer patients has been increasing year by year in Japan as results from wide spread of PSA screening and rapid change in life style, RT has been recently playing much more important roles in the curative treatment for patients with prostate cancer. Hence, we will review the outcomes of RT for prostate cancer and introduce the benefit of modern RT modalities from clinical aspect. In addition, our future prospect to further yield better disease control with minimum morbidity compared with present RT will be also mentioned in the report.

  11. Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Monitor Prostate Response to Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini, Anna Lia, E-mail: alvalentini@rm.unicatt.it [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Section of Radiology, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Roma, Milan (Italy); Gui, Benedetta [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Section of Radiology, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Roma, Milan (Italy); D' Agostino, Giuseppe Roberto; Mattiucci, Giancarlo [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Section of Radiotherapy, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Roma, Milan (Italy); Clementi, Valeria [Clinical Science Development Group, GE Healthcare, Milan (Italy); Di Molfetta, Ippolita Valentina [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Section of Radiology, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Roma, Milan (Italy); Bonomo, Pierluigi [OU Clinic Radiobiology, I.F.C.A. Florence (Italy); Mantini, Giovanna [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Section of Radiotherapy, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Roma, Milan (Italy)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To correlate results of three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and time since external beam irradiation (EBRT) in patients treated with long-term hormone therapy (HT) and EBRT for locally advanced disease to verify successful treatment by documenting the achievement of metabolic atrophy (MA). Methods and Materials: Between 2006 and 2008, 109 patients were consecutively enrolled. MA was assessed by choline and citrate peak area-to-noise-ratio <5:1. Cancerous metabolism (CM) was defined by choline-to-creatine ratio >1.5:1 or choline signal-to-noise-ratio >5:1. To test the strength of association between MRSI results and the time elapsed since EBRT (TEFRT), PSA levels, Gleason score (GS), and stage, logistic regression (LR) was performed. p value <0.05 was statistically significant. The patients' outcomes were verified in 2011. Results: MRSI documented MA in 84 of 109 and CM in 25 of 109 cases. LR showed that age, GS, stage, and initial and recent PSA had no significant impact on MRSI results which were significantly related to PSA values at the time of MRSI and to TEFRT. Patients were divided into three groups according to TEFRT: <1 year, 1-2 years, and >2 years. MA was detected in 54.1% of patients of group 1, 88.9% of group 2, and in 94.5% of group 3 (100% when PSA nadir was reached). CM was detected in 50% of patients with reached PSA nadir in group 1. Local relapse was found in 3 patients previously showing CM at long TEFRT. Conclusion: MA detection, indicative of successful treatment because growth of normal or abnormal cells cannot occur without metabolism, increases with decreasing PSA levels and increasing time on HT after EBRT. This supports long-term HT in advanced prostate cancer. Larger study series are needed to assess whether MRSI could predict local relapse by detecting CM at long TEFRT.

  12. Epidemiology of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Muhammad Naeem

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy among males worldwide, and is the second leading cause of cancer death among men in United States. According to GLOBOCAN (2012), an estimated 1.1 million new cases and 307,000 deaths were reported in 2012. The reasons for the increase of this disease are not known, but increasing life expectancy and modified diagnostic techniques have been suggested as causes. The established risk factors for this disease are advancing age, race, positive family history of prostate cancer and western diet (use of fat items). Several other risk factors, such as obesity, physical activity, sexual activity, smoking and occupation have been also associated with prostate cancer risk, but their roles in prostate cancer etiology remain uncertain. This mini-review aims to provide risk factors, disease knowledge, prevalence and awareness about prostate cancer.

  13. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may help you cope with your distress, including: Art therapy Dance or movement therapy Exercise Meditation Music ... www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/prostate-cancer/basics/definition/CON-20029597 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  14. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  15. The latest advances of experimental research on targeted gene therapy for prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongliang Pan; Lianchao Jin; Xianghua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The absence of ef ective therapies for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) establishes the need to de-velop novel therapeutic modality, such as targeted gene therapy, which is ideal for the treatment of CRPC. But its application has been limited due to lack of favorable gene vector and the reduction of“bystander ef ect”. Consequently, scientists al over the world focus their main experimental research on the fol owing four aspects:targeted gene, vector, transfer means and comprehensive therapy. In this paper, we reviewed the latest advances of experimental research on targeted gene therapy for prostate cancer .

  16. Association of Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Variants With Advanced Prostate Cancer Risk in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiela, Mitchell J.; Lindström, Sara; Allen, Naomi E.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Albanes, Demetrius; Barricarte, Aurelio; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Chanock, Stephen; Gaziano, J. Michael; Gapstur, Susan M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Henderson, Brian E.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Krogh, Vittorio; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir J.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stram, Daniel O.; Tjønneland, Anne; Travis, Ruth; Willett, Walter C.; Hunter, David J.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kraft, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies have found an inverse association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and prostate cancer (PCa), and genome-wide association studies have found common variants near 3 loci associated with both diseases. The authors examined whether a genetic background that favors T2D is associated with risk of advanced PCa. Data from the National Cancer Institute's Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium, a genome-wide association study of 2,782 advanced PCa cases and 4,458 controls, were used to evaluate whether individual single nucleotide polymorphisms or aggregations of these 36 T2D susceptibility loci are associated with PCa. Ten T2D markers near 9 loci (NOTCH2, ADCY5, JAZF1, CDKN2A/B, TCF7L2, KCNQ1, MTNR1B, FTO, and HNF1B) were nominally associated with PCa (P < 0.05); the association for single nucleotide polymorphism rs757210 at the HNF1B locus was significant when multiple comparisons were accounted for (adjusted P = 0.001). Genetic risk scores weighted by the T2D log odds ratio and multilocus kernel tests also indicated a significant relation between T2D variants and PCa risk. A mediation analysis of 9,065 PCa cases and 9,526 controls failed to produce evidence that diabetes mediates the association of the HNF1B locus with PCa risk. These data suggest a shared genetic component between T2D and PCa and add to the evidence for an interrelation between these diseases. PMID:23193118

  17. Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Eggener

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer continues to be a significant public health issue worldwide, particularly in countries where men have life expectancies long enough to clinically manifest the disease. In many countries, it remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality.

  18. Inhibition of Notch pathway arrests PTEN-deficient advanced prostate cancer by triggering p27-driven cellular senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revandkar, Ajinkya; Perciato, Maria Luna; Toso, Alberto; Alajati, Abdullah; Chen, Jingjing; Gerber, Hermeto; Dimitrov, Mitko; Rinaldi, Andrea; Delaleu, Nicolas; Pasquini, Emiliano; D'Antuono, Rocco; Pinton, Sandra; Losa, Marco; Gnetti, Letizia; Arribas, Alberto; Fraering, Patrick; Bertoni, Francesco; Nepveu, Alain; Alimonti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Activation of NOTCH signalling is associated with advanced prostate cancer and treatment resistance in prostate cancer patients. However, the mechanism that drives NOTCH activation in prostate cancer remains still elusive. Moreover, preclinical evidence of the therapeutic efficacy of NOTCH inhibitors in prostate cancer is lacking. Here, we provide evidence that PTEN loss in prostate tumours upregulates the expression of ADAM17, thereby activating NOTCH signalling. Using prostate conditional inactivation of both Pten and Notch1 along with preclinical trials carried out in Pten-null prostate conditional mouse models, we demonstrate that Pten-deficient prostate tumours are addicted to the NOTCH signalling. Importantly, we find that pharmacological inhibition of γ-secretase promotes growth arrest in both Pten-null and Pten/Trp53-null prostate tumours by triggering cellular senescence. Altogether, our findings describe a novel pro-tumorigenic network that links PTEN loss to ADAM17 and NOTCH signalling, thus providing the rational for the use of γ-secretase inhibitors in advanced prostate cancer patients. PMID:27941799

  19. Development of Personalized Cancer Therapy for Men with Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    2) Assess the efficacy of company material on the growth of prostate cancer PDX in bone of male SCID mice. 3) Screen tissue microarrays...responder ID profiles will be assessed in clinical trials. Bone metastases, targeted therapy, prostate cancer 5 Specific Aim 2: Develop a responder...described in A (*P < 0.007). 9 from MDA PCa 118b PDX growing in the bone of male SCID mice and treated with NVP-BGJ398 and JNJS 42756493 indicated

  20. Clinical Characteristics of Prostate Cancer in Advanced Stage and Its Treatment by Chinese and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚强; 宋竖旗

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignant tumor in male seniors,with the higher rates in the Europe and America.There has been obvious increase in the incidence of prostate cancer in China recently.It has been reported that the incidence of prostate cancer was only

  1. Chemotherapy and its evolving role in the management of advanced prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael T Schweizer; Emmanuel S Antonarakis

    2014-01-01

    prostate cancer has been recognized as being responsive to androgen deprivation since the 1940s when Charles Huggins ifrst described the role of surgical castration in managing these patients. However, androgen deprivation only results in transient disease control for the vast majority of men, with those progressing in spite of castrate testosterone levels labeled as having castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Until 2004, the therapeutic arena for these patients had remained stagnant, with no agent having shown a survival gain in the CRPC setting. Two landmark publications changed the prostate cancer treatment landscape by providing‘level-1 evidence’ that docetaxel-based chemotherapy led to prolongation in overall survival (OS). This was followed by the approval of cabazitaxel in 2010 on the basis of Phase III data demonstrating its efifcacy in patients pretreated with docetaxel. More recently, a number of next-generation androgen-directed agents (e.g. abiraterone and enzalutamide) have also been shown to lead to a survival beneift in men with CRPC. With so many new treatment options available, a number of questions remain. These include:how to best sequence chemotherapy with these newer hormonal agents, the clinical implication of cross-resistance between taxanes and androgen-directed agents and which subsets of patients may beneift most from early use of chemotherapy. This review will provide an overview of the evolving role of chemotherapy in the management of advanced prostate cancer in the current era.

  2. Bicalutamide as immediate therapy either alone or as adjuvant to standard care of patients with localized or locally advanced prostate cancer: first analysis of the early prostate cancer program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, William A; Wirth, Manfred P; McLeod, David G;

    2002-01-01

    We determine the efficacy and tolerability of bicalutamide as immediate therapy, either alone or as adjuvant to treatment of curative intent, in patients with clinically localized or locally advanced prostate cancer.......We determine the efficacy and tolerability of bicalutamide as immediate therapy, either alone or as adjuvant to treatment of curative intent, in patients with clinically localized or locally advanced prostate cancer....

  3. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natural...... history of prostate carcinogenesis. We review prostate cancer chemoprevention studies in Europe....

  4. Updates in advanced diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging techniques in the evaluation of prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hebert; Alberto; Vargas; Edward; Malnor; Lawrence; Yousef; Mazaheri; Evis; Sala

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging(DWMRI) is considered part of the standard imaging protocol for the evaluation of patients with prostate cancer.It has been proven valuable as a functional tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of prostate cancer beyond anatomical MRI sequences such as T2-weighted imaging. This review discusses ongoing controversies in DW-MRI acquisition, including the optimal number of b-values to be used for prostate DWI, and summarizes the current literature on the use of advanced DWMRI techniques. These include intravoxel incoherent motion imaging, which better accounts for the nonmono-exponential behavior of the apparent diffusion coefficient as a function of b-value and the influence of perfusion at low b-values. Another technique is diffusion kurtosis imaging(DKI). Metrics from DKI reflect excess kurtosis of tissues, representing its deviation from Gaussian diffusion behavior. Preliminary results suggest that DKI findings may have more value than findings from conventional DW-MRI for the assessment of prostate cancer.

  5. A Novel Therapeutic Modality for Advanced-Stage Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Figure 6: A. Picture of 25 weeks old TRAMP mice bearing prostate tumor. B. PKD1 and MTA1 protein levels in prostate tissues of TRAMP (TG) and their wild...Verras, M. and Z. Sun , Roles and regulation of Wnt signaling and beta-catenin in prostate cancer. Cancer Lett, 2006. 237(1): p. 22-32. 5. Sarkar, F.H

  6. What is the correct staging and treatment strategy for locally advanced prostate cancer extending to the bladder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Haki Yüksel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In locally advanced prostate cancer with bladder invasion, frequently encountered problems such as bleeding, urinary retention, hydronephrosis, and pain create distress for the patients. Therefore patients’ quality of life is disrupted and duration of hospitalization is prolonged. Relevant literature about accurate staging and treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer with bladder invasion was investigated. Locally advanced prostate cancer can present as a large-volume aggressive tumor extending beyond boundaries of prostate gland, and involving neighboring structures which can be involved as recurrence(s following initial local therapy. Survival times of these patients can range between 5 and 8 years. Their common characteristics are adverse and severe local symptoms unfavorably affecting quality of life Control of local symptoms and their effective palliation are independent clinical targets influencing survival outcomes of these patients. The treatment outcomes of locally advanced prostate cancer into the bladder are currently debatable. Although in the current TNM classification, it is defined in T4a, we think that this may be categorized as a subgroup of T3 and thus encourage surgeons for the indication of radical surgeries (radical prostatectomy, radical cystoprostatectomy in selected patient populations after discussing issues concerning consequences of the treatment alternatives, and expectations with the patients. Cystoprostatectomy followed by immediate androgen deprivation therapy may be a feasible option for selected patients with previously untreated prostate cancer involving the bladder neck because of excellent local control and long term survival.

  7. The Early Prostate Cancer program: bicalutamide in nonmetastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; Roder, Martin Andreas; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The Early Prostate Cancer program is investigating the addition of bicalutamide 150 mg to standard care for localized or locally advanced, nonmetastatic prostate cancer. The third program analysis, at 7.4 years' median follow-up, has shown that bicalutamide 150 mg does not benefit patients...

  8. Evaluation of urinary prostate cancer antigen-3 (PCA3) and TMPRSS2-ERG score changes when starting androgen-deprivation therapy with triptorelin 6-month formulation in patients with locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Pineiro, L.; Schalken, J.A.; Cabri, P.; Maisonobe, P.; Taille, A. De La; Study, G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess prostate cancer antigen-3 (PCA3) and TMPRSS2-ERG scores in patients with advanced and metastatic prostate cancer at baseline and after 6 months of treatment with triptorelin 22.5 mg, and analyse these scores in patient-groups defined by different disease characteristics. PATIENT

  9. Preclinical evaluation of intraoperative low-energy photon radiotherapy using sphericalapplicators in locally advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François eBuge

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy is standard care for locally advanced prostatecancer (stage pT3R1. Intraoperative low-energy photon radiotherapy offers several advantages overexternal beam radiotherapy, and several systems are now available for its delivery, using sphericalapplicators which require only limited shielding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibilityof this technique for the prostate bed.Materials & Methods: Applicators were assessed using MRI image data and cadavericdissection. In cadavers, targeted tissues, defined as a urethral section, both neurovascular bundlesections, the bladder neck and the beds of the seminal vesicles, were marked with metallic surgicalclips. Distances between clips and applicator were measured using CT. A dosimetric study of theapplication of 12 Gy at 5mm depth was performed using CT images of prostatectomized cadavers.Results: Using MRI images from 34 prostate cancer patients, we showed that the ideal applicatordiameter ranges from 45 to 70 mm. Using applicators of different sizes to encompass the prostate bedin nine cadavers, we showed that the distance between target tissues and applicator was less than 2mm for all target tissues except the upper extremity of the seminal vesicles (19 mm. Dosimetric studyshowed a good dose distribution in all target tissues in contact with the applicator, with a lowprobability of rectum and bladder complication.Conclusions: Intraoperative radiotherapy of the prostate bed is feasible, with good coverage oftargeted tissues. Clinical study of safety and efficacy is now required.

  10. Advancing the Capabilities of an Authentic Ex Vivo Model of Primary Human Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    benign and prostate cancer (PCa) TSCs in the absence of androgen for 5 days resulted in heterogeneous reduction of cellular viability and glandular ...tumor xenografts. J Clin Invest 2011;121:2383–2390. 21. Kiviharju-af Hallstrom TM, Jaamaa S, Monkkonen M, et al. Human prostate epithelium lacks Wee1A...al. Contrasting DNA damage checkpoint responses in epithelium of the human seminal vesicle and prostate. Prostate 2012;72:1060–1070. 25. Behrsing HP

  11. Comparability of EORTC and DAPROCA studies in advanced prostatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suciu, S; Sylvester, R; Iversen, P

    1990-01-01

    Very often not enough patients are entered and/or the follow-up is insufficient to be able to draw valid conclusions in cancer clinical trials. In this article, we discuss the possibility of pooling the data from two or more trials asking the same or similar questions in order to overcome such pr...

  12. Spirituality in men with advanced prostate cancer: "it's a holistic thing . . . it's a package".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepherd, Laurence

    2014-06-01

    Spirituality is often regarded as being helpful during an unwell person's journey but definitions of the concept can be confusing, and its use synonymously with religion can be misleading. This research sought to answer the question, "What is the nature of spirituality in men with advanced prostate cancer," and to discover the role spirituality may have in these men as they face the challenges of living with their disease. A qualitative approach and narrative method was used to explore the spirituality of nine men with advanced prostate cancer who volunteered to participate and to tell the story of their cancer journey with particular focus on their spirituality. The study found that spirituality for these men, who were all Caucasians, was a "holistic thing" that involved physical, psychosocial, and spiritual matters that enabled them to transcend the everyday difficulties of their journey. Through their spirituality they obtained greater comfort and peace of mind during what was for many of them a very traumatic time. The central theme in the men's stories was that of connectedness-to themselves, to their partners, sometimes to a higher being, to other people such as their family and friends, and to other aspects of their lives.

  13. New drugs in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjun Yoo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The standard primary treatment for advanced prostate cancer has been hormonal therapy since the 1940s. However, prostate cancer inevitably progresses to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC after a median duration of 18 months of androgen deprivation therapy. In patients with CRPC, docetaxel has been regarded as the standard treatment. However, survival advantages of docetaxel over other treatments are slim, and the need for new agents persists. In recent years, novel agents, including abiraterone, enzalutamide, cabazitaxel, radium-223, and sipuleucel-T, have been approved for the treatment of CRPC, and more such agents based on diverse mechanisms are under investigation or evaluation. In this article, the authors reviewed the current literature on recent advances in medical treatment of prostate cancer, especially CRPC. In addition, the authors elaborated on novel drugs for prostate cancer currently undergoing investigation and their mechanisms.

  14. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein is associated with advanced-stage prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Fangning; Qin, Xiaojian; Zhang, Guiming; Lu, Xiaolin; Zhu, Yao; Zhang, Hailiang; Dai, Bo; Shi, Guohai; Ye, Dingwei

    2015-05-01

    Clinical and epidemiological data suggest coronary artery disease shares etiology with prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of this work was to assess the effects of several serum markers reported in cardiovascular disease on PCa. Serum markers (oxidized low-density lipoprotein [ox-LDL], apolipoprotein [apo] B100, and apoB48) in peripheral blood samples from 50 patients from Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC) with localized or lymph node metastatic PCa were investigated in this study. Twenty-five samples from normal individuals were set as controls. We first conducted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis to select candidate markers that were significantly different between these patients and controls. Then, the clinical relevance between OLR1 (the ox-LDL receptor) expression and PCa was analyzed in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort. We also investigated the function of ox-LDL in PCa cell lines in vitro. Phosphorylation protein chips were used to analyze cell signaling pathways in ox-LDL-treated PC-3 cells. The ox-LDL level was found to be significantly correlated with N stage of prostate cancer. OLR1 expression was correlated with lymph node metastasis in the TCGA cohort. In vitro, ox-LDL stimulated the proliferation, migration, and invasion of LNCaP and PC-3 in a dose-dependent manner. The results of phosphoprotein microarray illustrated that ox-LDL could influence multiple signaling pathways of PC-3. Activation of proliferation promoting signaling pathways (including β-catenin, cMyc, NF-κB, STAT1, STAT3) as well as apoptosis-associating signaling pathways (including p27, caspase-3) demonstrated that ox-LDL had complicated effects on prostate cancer. Increased serum ox-LDL level and OLR1 expression may indicate advanced-stage PCa and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, ox-LDL could stimulate PCa proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro.

  15. Diagnosis and treatment for prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuoxing Niu; Guohua Ren; Shuping Song

    2008-01-01

    The morbility of prostate cancer has risen in China in recent years, it is important to diagnose and treat prostate cancer standardly and systemically.This review analyzed the status and advances of PSA examination, digital rectal examination, prostate biopsy in prostate cancer, and it gave a detailed description of radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, etc.The advances of targeted therapy and tumor vaccine is also discussed.

  16. Bioengineering Multifunctional Quantum Dot-Polypeptide Assemblies and Immunoconjugates for the Ablation of Advanced Prostate Cancer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    urgency for the discovery of site-specific therapeutics for residual disease and metastasis in advanced prostate cancer. PROSTATE-SPECIFIC MEMBRANE...Chromek, M., et al., The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin protects the urinary tract against invasive bacterial infection. Nat. Med., 2006. 12(6): p. 636...cathelicidin protects the urinary tract against invasive bacterial infection. Nat Med 2006;12:636–41. 22. Berezin V, Bock E. NCAM mimetic peptides: Phar

  17. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Support Guides Why no symptoms? Because prostate cancer hardly ever starts in the most convenient part of the prostate for symptoms to occur, near the urethra (the tube that carries urine through the prostate ...

  18. Antiandrogen monotherapy in patients with localized or locally advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; McLeod, David G; See, William A;

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of bicalutamide 150 mg once-daily as immediate hormonal therapy in patients with prostate cancer or as adjuvant to radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy.......To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of bicalutamide 150 mg once-daily as immediate hormonal therapy in patients with prostate cancer or as adjuvant to radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy....

  19. Dietary flavonoid intake, black tea consumption, and risk of overall and advanced stage prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geybels, M.S.; Verhage, B.A.J.; Arts, I.C.W.; Schooten, F.J. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids are natural antioxidants found in various foods, and a major source is black tea. Some experimental evidence indicates that flavonoids could prevent prostate cancer. We investigated the associations between flavonoid intake, black tea consumption, and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlan

  20. Plasma levels of trefoil factors are increased in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, E.M.; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    2006-01-01

    Through cDNA array analyses and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) was recently shown to be overexpressed in prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using the levels of trefoil factors as a plasma marker for prostate cancer....

  1. Mutations in the AXIN1 gene in advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yardy, George W; Bicknell, David C; Wilding, Jennifer L;

    2009-01-01

    The Wnt signalling pathway directs aspects of embryogenesis and is thought to contribute to maintenance of certain stem cell populations. Disruption of the pathway has been observed in many different tumour types. In bowel, stomach, and endometrial cancer, this is usually due to mutation of genes...... encoding Wnt pathway components APC or beta-catenin. Such mutations are rare in hepatocellular carcinomas and medulloblastomas with Wnt pathway dysfunction, and there, mutation in genes for other Wnt molecules, such as Axin, is more frequently found....

  2. Development of Personalized Cancer Therapy for Men with Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    prostate cancer in urine ; Validate the ERG rearrangement FISH assay on tissues and determine the prevalence of ERG rearrangements in isolated...Logothetis, Araujo, Troncoso, and Chinnaiyan) to determine whether the patients’ responses to therapy were predicted by our responder ID profile hypothesis...BGJ398; Novartis Pharmaceuticals), is the lead compound being tested as anticancer therapy by Novartis. In addition, in an agreement with Janssen

  3. Enzalutamide as a second generation antiandrogen for treatment of advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenas J

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Julius Semenas,1 Nishtman Dizeyi,2 Jenny Liao Persson1 1Division of Experimental Cancer Research, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Clinical Research Centre, Malmö, Sweden; 2Division of Urological Research, Department of Clinical Science, Lund University, Clinical Research Centre, Malmö, Sweden Abstract: Prostate cancer (PCa is the most common malignancy, and the third leading cancer-related cause of death among men of the Western world. Upon PCa progression into metastatic disease, androgen deprivation therapy is applied as the first-line treatment, and has been shown to be effective in most patients, leading to a decrease in serum prostate-specific antigen and relief of disease-related symptoms. However, advanced PCa almost inevitably progresses to a castration-resistant state, and is currently regarded as incurable. The large body of evidence indicates that PCa cells remain dependent on androgen receptor (AR signaling even in an androgen-deprived environment. As such, development of drugs that target AR and AR signaling pathways have become one of the major milestones in treatment of castration-resistant PCa (CRPC. Nevertheless, currently available therapies that target AR signaling are still regarded as palliative and more potent therapies are in great need. Over the past few years, a wide range of novel therapies has entered clinical trial for treatment of CRPC, including androgen synthesis inhibitors (abiraterone acetate, chemotherapeutic agents (docetaxel and cabazitaxel, and immunotherapies (sipuleucel-T. In this context, enzalutamide (previously referred to as MDV3100 is a novel second generation antiandrogen that has been demonstrated to significantly improve survival in men with metastatic CRPC in several clinical trials. In this paper we summarize recently completed and ongoing clinical trials of enzalutamide, and briefly discuss the efficacy of the novel antiandrogen therapy and its limitations for treatment of

  4. Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaoti Huang

    2008-01-01

    @@ The treatment of choice for advanced/metastatic prostate cancer(PC) is hormonal therapy. Although patients respond initially to this therapy, the tumor will recur and enter the androgen-independent state, which is the major obstacle in therapy.

  5. Adjuvant radiotherapy for pathologically advanced prostate cancer a randomized clinical trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian, M.; Thompson, J.R.; Catherine, M.; Tangen, P.H.; Paradelo, J.; Scott Lucia, M.; Miller, G.; Troyer, D.; Messing, E.; Forman, J.; Chin, J.; Swanson, G.; Canby-Hagino, E.; Crawford, E.D

    2008-01-15

    Context - Despite a stage-shift to earlier cancer stages and lower tumor volumes for prostate cancer, pathologically advanced disease is detected at radical prostatectomy in 38% to 52% of patients. However, the optimal management of these patients after radical prostatectomy is unknown. Objective - To determine whether adjuvant radiotherapy improves metastasis-free survival in patients with stage pT3 NO MO prostate cancer. Design, Setting, and Patients - Randomized, prospective, multi-institutional, US clinical trial with enrollment between August 15, 1988, and January 1, 1997 (with database frozen for statistical analysis on September 21, 2005). Patients were 425 men with pathologically advanced prostate cancer who had undergone radical prostatectomy. Intervention - Men were randomly assigned to receive 60 to 64 Gy of external beam radiotherapy delivered to the prostatic fossa (n = 214) or usual care plus observation (n = 211). Main Outcome Measures - Primary outcome was metastasis-free survival, defined as time to first occurrence of metastatic disease or death due to any cause. Secondary outcomes included prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse, recurrence-free survival, overall survival, freedom from hormonal therapy, and postoperative complications. Results - Among the 425 men, median follow-up was 10.6 years (inter-quartile range, 9.2-12.7 years). For metastasis-free survival,76 (35.5%) of 214 men in the adjuvant radiotherapy group were diagnosed with metastatic disease or died (median metastasis-free estimate, 14.7 years), compared with 91 (43.1%) of 211 (median metastasis-free estimate, 13.2 years) of those in the observation group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.55-1.02; P = .06). There were no significant between-group differences for overall survival (71 deaths, median survival of 14.7 years for radiotherapy vs 83 deaths, median survival of 13.8 years for observation; HR, 0.80; 95% Cl, 0.58-1.09; P =.16). PSA relapse (median PSA relapse-free survival

  6. Phase I trial of PC-Spes2 in advanced hormone refractory prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Majid; Love, Julie; Montgomery, Bruce

    2008-03-01

    There are few treatment options for prostate cancer once it becomes hormone refractory, with a mean life expectancy of 9-12 months. During the period 1997-2002, a product known as PC-Spes, containing a mixture of extracts from eight herbs based on the principles of traditional Chinese medicine, was reported to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and reduce PSA in patients with hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). This product was withdrawn from the market in 2002 due to concerns over quality control and reported contamination with traces of warfarin, indomethacin and diethylstilbesterol. PC-spes2, manufactured by Active Botanicals Ltd. (UK) with strict, independently-conducted quality control, has demonstrated no contaminants by high pressure liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy. This compound was investigated in a single-centre, prospective, open pilot study. Eighteen patients with HRPC, mean age 72, median Gleason sum 8 (range 4-9) and median PSA 110 (range 4-2870) with three consecutive monthly increases in PSA were studied. Ten patients withdrew during the study period with significant diarrhoea (8 out of the first 10 patients at one month and only 2 out of the last 8 due to an improved dosing schedule). At one month, 7 out of 10 patients had a drop in their PSA doubling time or PSA velocity, which was still apparent in 4 out of 5 patients still on trial at three months and all three patients still on trial at six months. No serious adverse events or derangement of coagulation were observed. PC-Spes2 offers renewed hope and a safe alternative treatment option for patients with advanced HRPC. Further investigation with phase II trials is warranted.

  7. Prostate cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Kjaer, S K

    1998-01-01

    To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period.......To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period....

  8. Prostate Cancer FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Prostate Cancer Annual Report & Financials Our Leadership Leadership Team Board Members A Legacy of Leadership Featured Take ... Partners Faces of Prostate Cancer Annual Report & Financials Leadership Team Board Members Featured A Legacy of Leadership Take ...

  9. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000907.htm Cryotherapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features ... first treatment for prostate cancer. What Happens During Cryotherapy Before the procedure, you will be given medicine ...

  10. What is Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make most of the fluid for semen. The urethra, which is the tube that carries urine and semen out of the body through the penis, goes through the center of the prostate. Types of prostate cancer Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas . These cancers ...

  11. Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Archana, E-mail: thakur@karmanos.org; Vaishampayan, Ulka [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Lum, Lawrence G., E-mail: thakur@karmanos.org [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2013-05-24

    Metastatic prostate cancer remains to this day a terminal disease. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy are effective for organ-confined diseases, but treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancer remains challenging. Although advanced prostate cancers treated with androgen deprivation therapy achieves debulking of disease, responses are transient with subsequent development of castration-resistant and metastatic disease. Since prostate cancer is typically a slowly progressing disease, use of immune-based therapies offers an advantage to target advanced tumors and to induce antitumor immunity. This review will discuss the clinical merits of various vaccines and immunotherapies in castrate resistant prostate cancer and challenges to this evolving field of immune-based therapies.

  12. Proteoglycans in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Iris J

    2012-02-21

    The complexity and diversity of proteoglycan structure means that they have a range of functions that regulate cell behavior. Through multiple interactions of their core proteins and glycosaminoglycans with extracellular matrix proteins, growth factors and chemokines, proteoglycans affect cell signaling, motility, adhesion, growth and apoptosis. Progressive changes in proteoglycans occur in the tumor microenvironment, but neither the source nor consequences of those changes are well understood. Proteoglycans studied in prostate cancer include versican--a hyalectan regulator of cell adhesion and migration-and the small leucine-rich proteoglycans decorin, biglycan and lumican, which have roles in cell signaling and tissue organization. Studies support an inhibitory role in prostate cancer for decorin and lumican. Conversely, the basement membrane proteoglycan perlecan might be a tumor promoter through upregulation of sonic hedgehog signaling. Loss of the growth-inhibitory cell-surface proteoglycans syndecan-1 and betaglycan in early prostate cancer might facilitate progression, but syndecan-1 effects are pleiotropic and its renewed expression in advanced tumors might adversely affect outcome. Importantly, cellular changes and enzymatic activity in the developing tumor can alter proteoglycan composition and structure to modify their function. Emerging studies suggest that cancers, including those of the prostate, use these changes to promote their own survival, growth, and spread.

  13. Denosumab Reduces Risk of Bone Side Effects in Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biological agent denosumab (Xgeva) is more effective than zoledronic acid at decreasing the risk of bone fractures and other skeletal-related events (SRE) in men with castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer, according to results from a randomi

  14. Living with Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer treatment and can improve many aspects of health, including muscle strength, balance, fatigue, cardiovascular fitness, and depression. Physical activity after a prostate cancer diagnosis is linked to ...

  15. Prostate cancer patients may have an increased risk of coexisting advanced colorectal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko SH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sun-Hye Ko,1,2 Myong Ki Baeg,2,3 Woong Jin Bae,4 Pumsoo Kim,3 Myung-Gyu Choi2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Internal Medicine, International St Mary’s Hospital, Catholic Kwandong University, Incheon, South Korea; 4Department of Urology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea Background/aims: Patients being treated for prostate cancer (PCa have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. However, whether PCa patients are inherently at a higher risk of colorectal neoplasms (CRNs is unknown. We aimed to investigate the risk of CRNs in PCa patients.Materials and methods: Patients who had been diagnosed with PCa at a tertiary medical center and had colonoscopy within 1 year of the PCa diagnosis were investigated. Patients were propensity-matched 1:2 by age and body mass index to asymptomatic control subjects who had undergone colonoscopy for routine health screening. CRN was defined as histological confirmation of an adenoma or adenocarcinoma component. Advanced CRN was defined as any of the following: 1 histological findings of high-grade dysplasia, 2 inclusion of villous features, 3 tumor ≥1 cm in size, or 4 presence of an adenocarcinoma. Risk factors for CRN and advanced CRN were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis.Results: A total of 191 patients diagnosed with PCa had colonoscopies within 1 year of PCa diagnosis. Of these, 23 patients with a history of previous malignancy and seven with incomplete colonoscopies were excluded, leaving 161 patients in the PCa group. Although presence of PCa was not a significant risk factor for CRN by multivariate analysis, PCa was a significant risk factor for advanced CRN (odds ratio [OR] 3.300; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.766–6.167; P<0

  16. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS OF BIOCHEMICAL RECURRENCE AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY FOR LOCALIZED AND LOCALLY-ADVANCED PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Chernyaev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To reveal prognostic factors of PSA-failure following radical prostatectomy in patients with localized and locally-advanced prostate cancer.Materials and methods. Medical data of 386 consecutive patients with localized and locally-advanced prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy from 1997 to 2011 were analyzed. Median age was 61.0 years. Median PSA before surgery – 10.3 ng/ml. Plasma levels of VEGF, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, TGF-β1, CD105, IL-6 were measured using Enzyme Linked-Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA before radical prostatectomy in 77 patients. Postoperatively the tumours were categorized as pT2 in 288 (59.1 %, pT3 – in 144 (37.3 %, pT4 – in 14 (3.6; pN+ – in 34 (8.8 % cases. Gleason score < 7 was present in 254 (65.8 %,  7 – in 132 (34.2 % specimens. Perineural invasion was identified in 188 (48.7 %, angiolymphatic invasion – in 126 (32.6 cases.Results. Biochemical recurrence occurred in 64 (16.6 % out of 386 patients at a median follow-up of 30.5 (12−164 months. Independent predictors of biochemical recurrence were PSA (HR 0.161 (95% CI:0.058−0.449; р = 0.001, Gleason sum in surgical specimens (HR 0.496 (95 % CI:0.268−0.917; p = 0.025, pN (HR 0.415 (95 % CI:0.181−0.955; p = 0.039. The patients were divided into 3 prognostic groups: good (0 factor, intermediate (1 factor, poor (2 factors and very poor (3 factors (AUC – 0.720 (95% CI: 0.656−0.784. High preoperative levels VEGF ( 67 pg/ml (р = 0.005, VEGFR2 ( 3149 pg/ml (р = 0.036, VEGFR3 ( 2268 pg/ml (р = 0.001, TGF-β1 ( 14473 pg/ml (р = 0.052 were identified as unfavorable prognostic factors for survival without PSA-failure. Conclusion. Independent prognostic factors of biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy were PSA, Gleason sum and pN. Joint effect of the factors allows to predict PSA-relapse with accuracy 0.720. Preoperative serum levels VEGF, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, TGF-β1 potentially are perspective markers for PSA-failure after

  17. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS OF BIOCHEMICAL RECURRENCE AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY FOR LOCALIZED AND LOCALLY-ADVANCED PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Chernyaev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To reveal prognostic factors of PSA-failure following radical prostatectomy in patients with localized and locally-advanced prostate cancer.Materials and methods. Medical data of 386 consecutive patients with localized and locally-advanced prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy from 1997 to 2011 were analyzed. Median age was 61.0 years. Median PSA before surgery – 10.3 ng/ml. Plasma levels of VEGF, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, TGF-β1, CD105, IL-6 were measured using Enzyme Linked-Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA before radical prostatectomy in 77 patients. Postoperatively the tumours were categorized as pT2 in 288 (59.1 %, pT3 – in 144 (37.3 %, pT4 – in 14 (3.6; pN+ – in 34 (8.8 % cases. Gleason score < 7 was present in 254 (65.8 %,  7 – in 132 (34.2 % specimens. Perineural invasion was identified in 188 (48.7 %, angiolymphatic invasion – in 126 (32.6 cases.Results. Biochemical recurrence occurred in 64 (16.6 % out of 386 patients at a median follow-up of 30.5 (12−164 months. Independent predictors of biochemical recurrence were PSA (HR 0.161 (95% CI:0.058−0.449; р = 0.001, Gleason sum in surgical specimens (HR 0.496 (95 % CI:0.268−0.917; p = 0.025, pN (HR 0.415 (95 % CI:0.181−0.955; p = 0.039. The patients were divided into 3 prognostic groups: good (0 factor, intermediate (1 factor, poor (2 factors and very poor (3 factors (AUC – 0.720 (95% CI: 0.656−0.784. High preoperative levels VEGF ( 67 pg/ml (р = 0.005, VEGFR2 ( 3149 pg/ml (р = 0.036, VEGFR3 ( 2268 pg/ml (р = 0.001, TGF-β1 ( 14473 pg/ml (р = 0.052 were identified as unfavorable prognostic factors for survival without PSA-failure. Conclusion. Independent prognostic factors of biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy were PSA, Gleason sum and pN. Joint effect of the factors allows to predict PSA-relapse with accuracy 0.720. Preoperative serum levels VEGF, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, TGF-β1 potentially are perspective markers for PSA-failure after

  18. Prostate cancer in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pow-Sang, Mariela; Destefano, Víctor; Astigueta, Juan Carlos; Castillo, Octavio; Gaona, José Luis; Santaella, Félix; Sotelo, Rene

    2009-11-01

    There is a very low rate of early prostate cancer detection in Latin America, since patients usually are diagnosed when the disease is in advanced stages. Sporadic prostate cancer screening campaigns do exist which allow us to diagnose this disease in earlier stages. Incidence and mortality rates differ widely from country to country, and they are probable underreported in our region since registers may be city-based instead of country-based.

  19. Engagement of Patients With Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    End of Life; Advanced Cancer; Lung Neoplasm; Gastric Cancer; Colon Cancer; Glioblastoma Multiforme; Head and Neck Neoplasms; Rectum Cancer; Melanoma; Kidney Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Neoplasms; Liver Cancer; Cancer of Unknown Origin

  20. Selenoprotein gene variants, toenail selenium levels, and risk for advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geybels, Milan S; van den Brandt, Piet A; Schouten, Leo J; van Schooten, Frederik J; van Breda, Simone G; Rayman, Margaret P; Green, Fiona R; Verhage, Bas A J

    2014-03-01

    Lower selenium levels have been associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa), and genetic variation in the selenoprotein genes selenoprotein P (SEPP1) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) is thought to modify this relationship. We investigated whether the association between toenail selenium levels and advanced PCa risk in the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study is modified by common genetic variation in SEPP1 and GPX1. Toenail clippings were used to determine selenium levels and to isolate DNA for genotyping. This case-cohort study, which included 817 case subjects with advanced PCa and 1048 subcohort members, was analyzed with Cox regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Three genetic variants were associated with advanced (stage III/IV or IV) PCa risk: SEPP1 rs7579 (lower risk; P trend = .01), GPX1 rs17650792 (higher risk; P trend = .03), and GPX1 rs1800668 (lower risk; P trend = .005). Toenail selenium levels were inversely associated with advanced PCa risk, independently of common genetic variation in SEPP1 and GPX1.

  1. Advanced Imaging for the Early Diagnosis of Local Recurrence Prostate Cancer after Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Panebianco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently the diagnosis of local recurrence of prostate cancer (PCa after radical prostatectomy (RT is based on the onset of biochemical failure which is defined by two consecutive values of prostate-specific antigen (PSA higher than 0.2 ng/mL. The aim of this paper was to review the current roles of advanced imaging in the detection of locoregional recurrence. A nonsystematic literature search using the Medline and Cochrane Library databases was performed up to November 2013. Bibliographies of retrieved and review articles were also examined. Only those articles reporting complete data with clinical relevance for the present review were selected. This review article is divided into two major parts: the first one considers the role of PET/CT in the restaging of PCa after RP; the second part is intended to provide the impact of multiparametric-MRI (mp-MRI in the depiction of locoregional recurrence. Published data indicate an emerging role for mp-MRI in the depiction of locoregional recurrence, while the performance of PET/CT still remains unclear. Moreover Mp-MRI, thanks to functional techniques, allows to distinguish between residual glandular healthy tissue, scar/fibrotic tissue, granulation tissue, and tumour recurrence and it may also be able to assess the aggressiveness of nodule recurrence.

  2. Xanthohumol impairs human prostate cancer cell growth and invasion and diminishes the incidence and progression of advanced tumors in TRAMP mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venè, Roberta; Benelli, Roberto; Minghelli, Simona; Astigiano, Simonetta; Tosetti, Francesca; Ferrari, Nicoletta

    2012-12-06

    Despite recent advances in understanding the biological basis of prostate cancer, management of the disease, especially in the phase resistant to androgen ablation, remains a significant challenge. The long latency and high incidence of prostate carcinogenesis provides the opportunity to intervene with chemoprevention to prevent or eradicate prostate malignancies. In this study, we have used human hormone-resistant prostate cancer cells, DU145 and PC3, as an in vitro model to assess the efficacy of xanthohumol (XN) against cell growth, motility and invasion. We observed that treatment of prostate cancer cells with low micromolar doses of XN inhibits proliferation and modulates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and AKT phosphorylation leading to reduced cell migration and invasion. Oxidative stress by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was associated with these effects. Transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) transgenic mice were used as an in vivo model of prostate adenocarcinoma. Oral gavage of XN, three times per week, beginning at 4 wks of age, induced a decrease in the average weight of the urogenital (UG) tract, delayed advanced tumor progression and inhibited the growth of poorly differentiated prostate carcinoma. The ability of XN to inhibit prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo suggests that XN may be a novel agent for the management of prostate cancer.

  3. Learning about Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diagnosed and treated? Symptoms : The symptoms of prostate cancer may include problems with urination and sexual function. As the prostate grows larger it can squeeze the urethra and cause frequent, small urination, difficulty beginning urination ...

  4. EMP combination chemotherapy and low-dose monotherapy in advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Tadaichi; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Hamamoto, Toshiaki; Tomita, Kyoichi; Takeuchi, Takumi; Ohta, Nobutaka

    2002-02-01

    Many chemotherapeutic regimens combined with estramustine phosphate (EMP) have been elaborated for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer over 30 years. However, older EMP-based combination chemotherapies with vinblastine, vinorelbine, doxorubicin or cyclophosphamide showed relatively low PSA response rate (25-58%) accompanied with high toxicities. On the other hand, newly developed EMP-based combination regimens with etoposide, pacitaxel, carboplatin or docetaxel demonstrated promising PSA response rate (43-77%) with moderate to severe toxicity in the rate of thromboembolic event (5-18%) and of neutropenia (9-41%). Treatment-related death was less in the latter combination group (5/615, 0.8%) than that in the former group (3/234, 1.3%). Of note, in the docetaxel combination with EMP, PSA response rate is as high as 77% with high rate (41%) of neutropenia but no treatment-related death was observed. Docetaxel combination with EMP seems to be the best regimen, though not completely justified by randomized trials, to be selected in the modern era, which will be followed by paclitaxel, carboplatin and EMP combination with PSA response rate of 71%. In addition, an interim report in 83 patients was presented. They were not consecutively enrolled but were treated on low-dose EMP monotherapy for previously untreated advanced prostate cancer in Department of Urology of Tokyo University and our 21 affiliated hospitals. Overall PSA response rate was as high as 93.4% out of 76 assessable patients. However, overall toxicity rate was abnormally high (39.5%) with drug discontinuation rate of 32.1%. The reason of low drug compliance may be attributed to gastrointestinal symptoms. To overcome the low drug compliance, appropriate patients for EMP administration should be selected by using gene analysis on the basis of sophisticated tailor-made medicine.

  5. Tobacco smoking, polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzyme genes, and risk of localized and advanced prostate cancer: results from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Ahva; Corral, Román; Catsburg, Chelsea; Joshi, Amit D; Kim, Andre; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Koo, Jocelyn; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue A; Stern, Mariana C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between tobacco smoking and prostate cancer (PCa) remains inconclusive. This study examined the association between tobacco smoking and PCa risk taking into account polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzyme genes as possible effect modifiers (9 polymorphisms and 1 predicted phenotype from metabolism enzyme genes). The study included cases (n = 761 localized; n = 1199 advanced) and controls (n = 1139) from the multiethnic California Collaborative Case–Control Study of Prostate Cancer. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between tobacco smoking variables and risk of localized and advanced PCa risk. Being a former smoker, regardless of time of quit smoking, was associated with an increased risk of localized PCa (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0–1.6). Among non-Hispanic Whites, ever smoking was associated with an increased risk of localized PCa (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1–2.1), whereas current smoking was associated with risk of advanced PCa (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0–1.9). However, no associations were observed between smoking intensity, duration or pack-year variables, and advanced PCa. No statistically significant trends were seen among Hispanics or African-Americans. The relationship between smoking status and PCa risk was modified by the CYP1A2 rs7662551 polymorphism (P-interaction = 0.008). In conclusion, tobacco smoking was associated with risk of PCa, primarily localized disease among non-Hispanic Whites. This association was modified by a genetic variant in CYP1A2, thus supporting a role for tobacco carcinogens in PCa risk. PMID:25355624

  6. Cost-efficacy analysis of hormonal treatments for advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Iannazzo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: prostatic cancer is the second more frequent cancer in Italy (after lung cancer and is the third cancer-related death cause. Age is the principal risk factor and, given the ageing process undergoing in the Italian population, it seems clear that the public sanitary expenditure to treat the disease is bound to increase, arising the need to perform pharmacoeconomic evaluations of the therapeutic strategies available. Methods: we performed a cost/utility analysis, through a Markov model, of several hormonal therapies in patients with advanced prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy, from the biochemical recurrence to death. Nine androgen suppression therapies were considered: orchiectomy, two nonsteroidal antiandrogens (NSAA, four luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH agonists, cyproterone acetate and the association of a NSAA and a LHRH (BAT. In the simulation the androgen suppression therapies were started at the PSA recurrence and never stopped until death. The model used the Italian NHS prospective and a time horizon corresponding to patient’s lifetime. Drug costs were calculated for each therapy, considering the less costly brand. Results: all the considered therapies produced a life expectancy (LE of about 12 life years (LYs with a small variability ranging from 12.3 LYs for BAT (the most effective to 11.37 LYs for NSAA-flutamide (the least effective. Quality adjusted life expectancy ranged from 9.98 QALYs for BAT to 9.28 QALYs for NSAA-flutamide. The average cost per patient presented a more enhanced variability, from 12,538 Euro for orchiectomy to 59,496 Euro for NSAA-bicalutamide. Among all the alternatives orchiectomy resulted the most cost/effective alternative with a cost/utility ratio of about 1,300 Euro/QALY. In the LHRH-agonists class leuprorelin was the most cost/effective with about 2,200 Euro/QALY. A one-way sensitivity analysis showed a substantial stability of the results. Conclusions: BAT

  7. Targeting Bone Metabolism in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer: Current Options and Controversies

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    Tilman Todenhöfer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining bone health remains a clinical challenge in patients with prostate cancer (PC who are at risk of developing metastatic bone disease and increased bone loss due to hormone ablation therapy. In patients with cancer-treatment induced bone loss (CTIBL, antiresorptive agents have been shown to improve bone mineral density (BMD and to reduce the risk of fractures. For patients with bone metastases, both zoledronic acid and denosumab delay skeletal related events (SREs in the castration resistant stage of disease. Novel agents targeting the Wnt inhibitors dickkopf-1 and sclerostin are currently under investigation for the treatment of osteoporosis and malignant bone disease. New antineoplastic drugs such as abiraterone, enzalutamide, and Radium-223 are capable of further delaying SREs in patients with advanced PC. The benefit of antiresorptive treatment for patients with castration sensitive PC appears to be limited. Recent trials on the use of zoledronic acid for the prevention of bone metastases failed to be successful, whereas denosumab delayed the occurrence of bone metastases by a median of 4.1 months. Currently, the use of antiresorptive drugs to prevent bone metastases still remains a field of controversies and further trials are needed to identify patient subgroups that may profit from early therapy.

  8. Management Options in Advanced Prostate Cancer: What is the Role for Sipuleucel-T?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitting, Rhonda L; Armstrong, Andrew J; George, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Most prostate cancer-related deaths occur in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Until recently, only therapy with docetaxel and prednisone has been shown to prolong survival in men with metastatic CRPC. With the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) approvals of sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, and abiraterone acetate, all based on improvement in overall survival, the landscape for management of men with metastatic CRPC has dramatically changed. In this review we will discuss the pivotal clinical trial data leading to these approvals, with particular focus on the unique indication for sipuleucel-T and the implications for optimal management and sequencing of treatment in this patient population.

  9. Danish Prostate Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, J Thomas; Klemann, Nina; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2016-01-01

    of the prostate (TUR-Ps), and the remaining 22,028 (13.6%) specimens were derived from radical prostatectomies, bladder interventions, etc. A total of 48,078 (42.2%) males had histopathologically verified prostate cancer, and of these, 78.8% and 16.8% were diagnosed on prostate biopsies and TUR-Ps, respectively....... FUTURE PERSPECTIVES: A validated algorithm was successfully developed to convert complex prostate SNOMED codes into clinical useful data. A unique database, including males with both normal and cancerous histopathological data, was created to form the most comprehensive national prostate database to date...

  10. Role of androgen receptor in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HiroyoshiSuzuki; HaruoIto

    1999-01-01

    The growth of prostate cancer is sensitive to androgen, and hormonal therapy has been used for treatment of ad-vanced cancer. About 80 % of prostate cancers initially respond to hormonal therapy, howcrver, more than half of the re-sponders gradtmlly become resistant to this therapy. Changes in tumors from an androgen-responsive to an androgen-unre-sponsive state have been widely discussed. Since androgen action is mediated by androgen receptor (AR), abnonnalitiesof AR is believed to play an important role of the loss of androgen responsiveness in prostate cancer. "Ilais article focusedon the role of AR in the progression of prostate cancer.

  11. Looking beyond Androgen Receptor Signaling in the Treatment of Advanced Prostate Cancer

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    Benjamin Sunkel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review will provide a description of recent efforts in our laboratory contributing to a general goal of identifying critical determinants of prostate cancer growth in both androgen-dependent and -independent contexts. Important outcomes to date have indicated that the sustained activation of AR transcriptional activity in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC cells results in a gene expression profile separate from the androgen-responsive profile of androgen-dependent prostate cancer (ADPC cells. Contributing to this reprogramming is enhanced FoxA1 recruitment of AR to G2/M phase target gene loci and the enhanced chromatin looping of CRPC-specific gene regulatory elements facilitated by PI3K/Akt-phosphorylated MED1. We have also observed a role for FoxA1 beyond AR signaling in driving G1/S phase cell cycle progression that relies on interactions with novel collaborators MYBL2 and CREB1. Finally, we describe an in-depth mechanism of GATA2-mediated androgen-responsive gene expression in both ADPC and CRPC cells. Altogether these efforts provide evidence to support the development of novel prostate cancer therapeutics that address downstream targets of AR activity as well as AR-independent drivers of disease-relevant transcription programs.

  12. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Galvão DA, Taaffe DR, Spry N, Newton RU. Exercise can prevent and even reverse adverse effects of androgen suppression treatment in men with prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 2007; 10(4): ...

  13. Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate may be similar to symptoms of prostate cancer . Enlarge Normal prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A normal prostate does not block the flow of urine from the bladder. An enlarged prostate presses on the bladder and urethra and blocks the flow of urine. See the ...

  14. Outcomes of locally advanced prostate cancer: a single institution study of 209 patients in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshihiro Saito; Yasuo Kitamura; Shuichi Komatsubara; Yasuo Matsumoto; Tadashi Sugita; Noboru Hara

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the outcomes for Asian populations with locally advanced/clinical stage Ⅲ prostate cancer (Pca)treated with currently prevailing modalities. Methods: We reviewed the record of 209 patients with clinical stage Ⅲ Pca, who were treated at Niigata Cancer Center Hospital between 1992 and 2003. Treatment options included hormone therapy-combined radical prostatectomy (RP+HT), hormone therapy-combined external beam irradiation (EBRT+HT) and primary hormone therapy (PHT). Results: The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 80.3%and 46.1% in all cohorts, respectively. The survival rates were 87.3% and 66.5% in the RP+HT group, 94.9% and 70.0% in the EBRT+HT group and 66.1% and 17.2% in the PHT group, respectively. A significant survival advantage was found in the EBRT+HT group compared with that in the PHT group (P < 0.0001). Also, the RP+HT group had better survival than the PHT group (P = 0.0107). The 5- and 10-year disease-specific survival rates for all cases were 92.5% and 80.0%, respectively. They were 93.8% and 71.4% in the RP+HT group, 96.6% and 93.6% in the EBRT+HT group and 88.6% and 62.3% in the PHT group, respectively. A survival advantage was found in the EBRT+HT group compared with the PHT group (P = 0.029). No significant difference was found in disease-specific survival between the EBRT+HT and RP+HT groups or between the RP+HT and PHT groups. Conclusion: Although our findings indicate that radiotherapy plus HT has a survival advantage in this stage of Pca, we recommend therapies that take into account the patients' social and medical conditions for Asian men with clinical stage Ⅲ PCa.

  15. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude;

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natur...

  16. The Adipocyte-Derived Hormone Leptin Has Proliferative Actions on Androgen-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells Linking Obesity to Advanced Stages of Prostate Cancer

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    M. Raschid Hoda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Because obesity may be a risk factor for prostate cancer, we investigated proliferative effects of adipocytes-derived hormone leptin on human prostate cancer cells and assessed the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway in mediating these actions. Material and Methods. Three human prostate cancer cell lines were treated with increasing doses of recombinant leptin. Cell growth was measured under serum-free conditions using a spectrophotometric assay. Further, Western blotting was applied to detect the phosphorylation of an ERK1/2, and a specific inhibitor of MAPK (PD98059; 40 μM was used. Results. In both androgen-resistant cell lines DU145 and PC-3, cell growth was dose-dependently increased by leptin after 24 hrs and 48 hrs of incubation, whereas leptin’s proliferative effects on androgen-sensitive cell line LNCaP was less pronounced. Further, leptin caused dose-dependent ERK1/2 phosphorylation in both androgen-resistant cell lines, and pretreatment of these cells with PD98059 inhibited these responses. Conclusions. Leptin may be a potential link between obesity and risk of progression of prostate cancer. Thus, studies on leptin and obesity association to prostate cancer should differentiate patients according to androgen sensitivity.

  17. [Benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourey, Loïc; Doumerc, Nicolas; Gaudin, Clément; Gérard, Stéphane; Balardy, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Prostatic diseases are extremely common, especially in older men. Amongst them, benign prostatic hypertrophy may affect significantly the quality of life of patients by the symptoms it causes. It requires appropriate care. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men after lung cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. It affects preferentially older men. An oncogeriatric approach is required for personalised care.

  18. The predictive value of ERG protein expression for development of castration-resistant prostate cancer in hormone-naïve advanced prostate cancer treated with primary androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Røder, Martin A; Thomsen, Frederik B;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biomarkers predicting response to primary androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and risk of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is lacking. We aimed to analyse the predictive value of ERG expression for development of CRPC. METHODS: In total, 194 patients with advanced and....../or metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) treated with first-line castration-based ADT were included. ERG protein expression was analysed in diagnostic specimens using immunohistochemistry (anti-ERG, EPR3864). Time to CRPC was compared between ERG subgroups using multiple cause-specific Cox regression stratified...

  19. Cryosurgery for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, W E; Bissada, N K

    2003-01-01

    Choice of management for patients with prostate cancer is influenced by patient and disease characteristics and life expectancy. Management options include expectance (watchful waiting), radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and cryosurgical ablation of the prostate (CSAP). The role of cryotherapy in the management of prostate cancer is still evolving. Continued research has allowed the introduction of efficient and safe cryosurgical equipment exemplified by the current third-generation cryosurgical machines. CSAP can be performed in an ambulatory surgery setting or as inpatient surgery with overnight stay. The procedure is performed under continuous ultrasonic monitoring. Mature data from the use of second-generation cryosurgical equipment indicate that CSAP is an effective therapeutic modality for managing patients with prostate cancer. Current data with the third-generation cryosurgical equipment are not mature. However, the favorable side effect profile and the good early responses seem to indicate that this modality will have a prominent role in the management of patients with prostate cancer.

  20. Preferred treatment frequency in patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy for advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Nielsen, Torben K; Al-Hamadani, Muhammad;

    2014-01-01

    for analysis. A total of 38.1% of participants preferred frequent treatment ("Every month", "Every third month"), 32.4% preferred infrequent treatment ("Every sixth month", "Every twelfth month") and 29.6% stated that length of the treatment intervals made no difference (p = 0.37). Patients with disease......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess patient preference regarding the length of treatment intervals of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for prostate cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted as a questionnaire-based, cross...... satisfaction and side-effects. Overall, 238 men receiving ADT for prostate cancer were presented with the questionnaire between September 2011 and May 2012. Descriptive statistics, the chi-squared test and multiple regression were used for analyses. RESULTS: In total, 176 questionnaires (74%) were available...

  1. Survival benefit of early androgen receptor inhibitor therapy in locally advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Brasso, Klaus; Christensen, Ib J

    2015-01-01

    -metastatic PCa. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate overall survival (OS) and multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was performed to analyse time-to-event (death). FINDINGS: A total of 1218 patients were included into the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group (SPCG)-6 study of which 607 were randomised......BACKGROUND: The optimal timing of endocrine therapy in non-metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) is still an issue of debate. METHODS: A randomised, double-blind, parallel-group trial comparing bicalutamide 150mg once daily with placebo in addition to standard care in patients with hormone-naïve, non...... disease (HR=1.19 (95% CI: 1.00-1.43), p=0.056). However, a survival gain from bicalutamide therapy was present in patients with localised disease and a baseline PSA greater than 28ng/mL at randomisation. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard model, only including patients managed on watchful waiting...

  2. The genomic landscape of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvan eBaca

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men, with a markedly variable clinical course. Somatic alterations in DNA drive the growth of prostate cancers and may underlie the behavior of aggressive versus indolent tumors. The accelerating application of genomic technologies over the last two decades has identified mutations that drive prostate cancer formation, progression, and therapeutic resistance. Here, we discuss exemplary somatic mutations in prostate cancer, and highlight mutated cellular pathways with biological and possible therapeutic importance. Examples include mutated genes involved in androgen signaling, cell cycle regulation, signal transduction and development. Some genetic alterations may also predict the clinical course of disease or response to therapy, although the molecular heterogeneity of prostate tumors poses challenges to genomic biomarker identification. The widespread application of massively parallel sequencing technology to the analysis of prostate cancer genomes should continue to advance both discovery-oriented and diagnostic avenues.

  3. Phellinus linteus extract sensitizes advanced prostate cancer cells to apoptosis in athymic nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takanori; Du, Wei; Nishioka, Takashi; Chen, Lihua; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Chen, Chang Yan

    2010-03-31

    Phellinus linteus (PL) mushroom possesses anti-tumor property. We previously reported that the treatment with PL caused cultured human prostate cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. To further studying the mechanisms of PL-mediated apoptosis, we performed xenograft assay, together with in vitro assays, to evaluate the effect of PL on the genesis and progression of the tumors formed from the inoculation of prostate cancer PC3 or DU145 cells. After the inoculation, nude mice were injected with PL every two days for 12 days. Although PL treatment did not prevent the formation of the inoculated tumors, the growth rate of the tumors after PL treatment was dramatically attenuated. We then tested the effect of PL on the tumors 12 days after the inoculation. After inoculated tumors reached a certain size, PL was administrated to the mice by subcutaneous injection. The histochemistry or immunochemistry analysis showed that apoptosis occurred with the activation of caspase 3 in the tumors formed by inoculating prostate cancer DU145 or PC3 cells. The data was in a good agreement with that from cultured cells. Thus, our in vivo study suggests that PL not only is able to attenuate tumor growth, but also to cause tumor regression by inducing apoptosis.

  4. Phellinus linteus extract sensitizes advanced prostate cancer cells to apoptosis in athymic nude mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Tsuji

    Full Text Available Phellinus linteus (PL mushroom possesses anti-tumor property. We previously reported that the treatment with PL caused cultured human prostate cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. To further studying the mechanisms of PL-mediated apoptosis, we performed xenograft assay, together with in vitro assays, to evaluate the effect of PL on the genesis and progression of the tumors formed from the inoculation of prostate cancer PC3 or DU145 cells. After the inoculation, nude mice were injected with PL every two days for 12 days. Although PL treatment did not prevent the formation of the inoculated tumors, the growth rate of the tumors after PL treatment was dramatically attenuated. We then tested the effect of PL on the tumors 12 days after the inoculation. After inoculated tumors reached a certain size, PL was administrated to the mice by subcutaneous injection. The histochemistry or immunochemistry analysis showed that apoptosis occurred with the activation of caspase 3 in the tumors formed by inoculating prostate cancer DU145 or PC3 cells. The data was in a good agreement with that from cultured cells. Thus, our in vivo study suggests that PL not only is able to attenuate tumor growth, but also to cause tumor regression by inducing apoptosis.

  5. Comorbidity, Use of Common Medications, and Risk of Early Death in Patients with Localized or Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Nieder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze predictive factors for early death from comorbidity (defined as death within 3 years from diagnosis and unrelated to prostate cancer in patients with localized or locally advanced prostate cancer. Such information may guide individually tailored treatment or observation strategies, and help to avoid overtreatment. We retrospectively analyzed baseline parameters including information on comorbidity and medication use among 177 patients (median age at diagnosis 70 years. Actuarial survival analyses were performed. During the first 3 years, two patients (1.1% died from progressive prostate cancer after they had developed distant metastases. The risk of dying from other causes (3.4% was numerically higher, although not to a statistically significant degree. Six patients who died from other causes had age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (CCI scores ≥5 (CCI is a sum score where each comorbid condition is assigned with a score depending on the risk of dying associated with this condition. The main comorbidity was cardiovascular disease. The two statistically significant predictive factors were medication use and age-adjusted CCI score ≥5 (univariate analysis. However, medication use was not an independent factor as all patients with age-adjusted CCI score ≥5 also used at least one class of medication. Median survival was 30 months in patients with age-adjusted CCI score ≥5. Prediction of non-prostate cancer death may be important to prevent overtreatment in patients who are more threatened by comorbidity. Our data suggest that simple parameters such as use of medications vs. none, or presence of serious cardiac disease vs. none, are not sufficient, and that age-adjusted CCI scores outperform the other factors included in our analysis.

  6. Prostate cancer; Cancer de la prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieillot, S.; Fenoglietto, P.; Ailleres, N.; Hay, M.H.; Dubois, J.B.; Azria, D. [Departement de cancerologie radiotherapie, Universite Montpellier I, CRLC Val d' Aurelle, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2010-07-01

    Radiation therapy is now widely accepted as an efficacious treatment of localized prostate cancer. The technical developments of recent years have enabled the evolution of a three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, offering a better adaptation of the dose distribution, and leading therefore to preserve organs at risk. In addition, the required dose delivered to the target volume permit physician to increase the total dose if necessary. This requires a thorough knowledge of the radio-anatomy of the prostate, the natural history of the disease but also the ballistics and dosimetry. The objectives of this work were to detail epidemiology and radio-anatomy of the prostate cancer. In addition, conformal radiation modalities are illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  7. Expression of Ki-67 (MIB-1) and GLUT-1 proteins in non-advanced prostatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczynska, Elzbieta; Gasinska, Anna; Wilk, Waclaw

    2012-12-01

    The expression of Ki-67 (MIB-1) and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) were evaluated in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer (PC) who had undergone radical prostatectomy with curative intent. 140 low advanced PC specimens were studied. Protein expression was assessed immunohistochemically on tumour sections and expressed as a labelling index, i.e. the percentage of positively stained cells. In the case of Ki-67 nuclear staining and in the case of GLUT-1 membrane and cytoplasmic staining was considered as positive. The patients' mean age was 62.9 ±6.2 years. There were 13 (9.3%) at pTNM stage 1, 78 (55.7%) at stage 2, 40 (28.6%) at stage 3 and 9 (6.4%) at stage 4, respectively. 75 (53.6%) tumours were well differentiated (Gleason score ≤6), 52 (37.1%) moderately differentiated (Gleason score of 7) and 13 (9.3%) poorly differentiated (Gleason score 8-10). The mean pre-operative serum PSA was 9.9 ± SE 0.5 ng/ml, and the mean LI was equal to 8.1 ±0.6% and 29.7 ±2.0%, for MIB-1 and GLUT-1, respectively. Increase of pathological tumor volume and tumor grade was associated with statistically significant growth of PSA (p GLUT-1 LI the relation was not significant. Ki-67 expression was correlated with PSA levels (p = 0.013) and GLUT-1 scores (p = 0.04). In PC, an increase in the proliferation rate (higher MIB-1LI) in higher pTNM stages and tumour grades may point to Ki-67 as a good marker of biological aggressiveness useful in selecting patients for more aggressive treatment. A correlation between proliferation and GLUT-1 score may be the evidence of active glycolytic metabolism in hypoxic regions.

  8. Toll-like Receptors and Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu eZhao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men after lung cancer. Immune responses clearly play a critical role in the tumorigenesis and in the efficacy of radiation therapy and chemotherapy in prostate cancer; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a well-known family of pattern recognition receptors that play a key role in host immune system. Recent studies demonstrate that there are links between TLRs and cancer; however, the function and biological importance of TLRs in prostate cancer seems complex. To elucidate the role of TLRs and innate immunity in prostate cancer might provide us with a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this disease. Moreover, utilizing the agonists or antagonists of TLRs might represent a promising new strategy against prostate cancer. In this review, we summarize recent advances on the studies of association between TLR signaling and prostate cancer, TLR polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk, and provide some insights about TLRs as potential targets for prostate cancer immunotherapy.

  9. Is whole gland salvage cryotherapy effective as palliative treatment of haematuria in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer? Results of a preliminary case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucciardi, Giuseppe; Galì, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Rosa; Lembo, Francesco; Anastasi, Giuseppina; Butticè, Salvatore; Ascenti, Giorgio; Lugnani, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Locally advanced prostate cancer may cause several complications such as haematuria, bladder outlet obstruction, and renal failure due to the ureteral obstruction. Various treatments have been suggested, including radiotherapy, antifibrinolytics, bladder irrigation with alum solution, transurethral surgery and angioembolization, none of which have proven effectiveness. In the last years cryoablation has become a valid therapeutic option for prostate cancer. In our experience we used this ‘new’ technique as haemostatic therapy. Methods: We selected four patients with gross haematuria affected by locally advanced hormone refractory prostate cancer, who had already been treated with primary radiotherapy. We used third-generation cryotherapy: under ultrasonographic guidance, we inserted six cryoprobes, two in each of the vascular pedicles reaching at least −60°C, and three thermometers. We then induced two freeze–thaw cycles. Results: After the operation the haematuria stopped in all patients and at 9-month follow up we observed a mean of four red cells (range three to five) in the urinary sediment with no evidence of bacteriuria. Prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen and postmicturition residue were significantly reduced. Qmax improved significantly too. Conclusion: Our experience has given us good results with minimal intra- and postoperative complications. We think that haemostatic cryotherapy as a palliative approach for locally advanced prostate cancer could represent a valid treatment option and more consideration could be given to its use. PMID:26425138

  10. [Imaging of cancer prostate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghouadni, Mehdi; Sandoz, Catherine; Eiss, David; Cornud, François; Thiounn, Nicolas; Hélénon, Olivier

    2003-12-31

    Imaging of prostate cancer relies mainly on ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It plays a diagnostic role in detecting and staging prostate carcinomas. Prostate biopsies are performed under endorectal US guidance at best with additional colour Doppler information. US also may provide useful information regarding the significance of an abnormal digital rectal examination sometimes related to some benign prostate alterations that can mimic a neoplastic nodule. In all cases imaging studies need to be interpreted in light of clinical and biological data including the results of biopsy especially in staging carcinoma with MR. Finally, CT and scintigraphy are helpful in screening for distant metastases.

  11. Sequencing therapy in advanced prostate cancer: focus on sipuleucel-T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, David I; Vaishampayan, Ulka; Higano, Celestia S; Lin, Daniel W; Shore, Neal D; Beer, Tomasz M

    2014-01-01

    Immunotherapies such as sipuleucel-T present new and unique challenges for the optimal timing and sequencing of therapies for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Key considerations for the sequencing of sipuleucel-T are its unique proposed mechanism of action, the time required to generate a clinically relevant immune response, and the observed efficacy in Phase III trials in 'early' or asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic mCRPC. There are three broad timing and sequencing options for sipuleucel-T in patients with rising prostate-specific antigen and radiologic evidence of disease: immediately after androgen-deprivation therapy failure, after failure of secondary hormonal maneuvers, or after chemotherapy. There are several other agents in Phase III development in mCRPC and any future approvals will impact on the current treatment algorithm, and raise further questions regarding how to optimize sequencing and timing of therapies for better clinical outcomes.

  12. Adjuvant hormone therapy in patients undergoing high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Neimark

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency and safety of using the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone leuprorelin with the Atrigel delivery system in doses of 7.5, 22.5, and 45 mg as an adjuvant regimen in high- and moderate-risk cancer patients who have received high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy.Subjects and methods. Moderate- and high-risk locally advanced prostate cancer (PC patients treated with HIFU (n = 28 and HIFU in combination with hormone therapy during 6 months (n = 31 were examined.Results. The investigation has shown that leuprorelin acetate monotherapy used within 6 months after HIFU therapy can achieve the highest reduction in prostate-specific antigen levels and positively affect the symptoms of the disease. HIFU in combination with androgen deprivation substantially diminishes the clinical manifestations of the disease and improves quality of life in HIFU-treated patients with PC, by reducing the degree of infravesical obstruction (according to uroflowmetric findings and IPSS scores, and causes a decrease in prostate volume as compared to those who have undergone HIFU only. Treatment with leuprorelin having the Atrigel delivery system has demonstrated the low incidence of adverse reactions and good tolerability.

  13. Cholesterol and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Kristine; Freeman, Michael R; Solomon, Keith R

    2012-12-01

    Prostate cancer risk can be modified by environmental factors, however the molecular mechanisms affecting susceptibility to this disease are not well understood. As a result of a series of recently published studies, the steroidal lipid, cholesterol, has emerged as a clinically relevant therapeutic target in prostate cancer. This review summarizes the findings from human studies as well as animal and cell biology models, which suggest that high circulating cholesterol increases risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while cholesterol lowering strategies may confer protective benefit. Relevant molecular processes that have been experimentally tested and might explain these associations are described. We suggest that these promising results now could be applied prospectively to attempt to lower risk of prostate cancer in select populations.

  14. Epigenetics in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantine Albany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG rich sequence islands within gene promoter regions is widespread during neoplastic transformation of prostate cells, suggesting that treatment-induced restoration of a “normal” epigenome could be clinically beneficial. Histone modification leads to altered tumor gene function by changing chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription. The reversibility of epigenetic aberrations and restoration of tumor suppression gene function have made them attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment with modulators that demethylate DNA and inhibit histone deacetylases.

  15. Prostate Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financials Our Leadership Leadership Team A Legacy of Leadership Featured ... Medicine Revolution Welcome to the world of precision medicine—where doctors can target each prostate cancer with new, more effective drugs. And this is just the beginning. Learn ...

  16. Gene therapy for prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tangney, Mark

    2012-01-31

    Cancer remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in understanding, detection, and treatment, it accounts for almost one-fourth of all deaths per year in Western countries. Prostate cancer is currently the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer in men in Europe and the United States, accounting for 15% of all cancers in men. As life expectancy of individuals increases, it is expected that there will also be an increase in the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer may be inoperable at initial presentation, unresponsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, or recur following appropriate treatment. At the time of presentation, patients may already have metastases in their tissues. Preventing tumor recurrence requires systemic therapy; however, current modalities are limited by toxicity or lack of efficacy. For patients with such metastatic cancers, the development of alternative therapies is essential. Gene therapy is a realistic prospect for the treatment of prostate and other cancers, and involves the delivery of genetic information to the patient to facilitate the production of therapeutic proteins. Therapeutics can act directly (eg, by inducing tumor cells to produce cytotoxic agents) or indirectly by upregulating the immune system to efficiently target tumor cells or by destroying the tumor\\'s vasculature. However, technological difficulties must be addressed before an efficient and safe gene medicine is achieved (primarily by developing a means of delivering genes to the target cells or tissue safely and efficiently). A wealth of research has been carried out over the past 20 years, involving various strategies for the treatment of prostate cancer at preclinical and clinical trial levels. The therapeutic efficacy observed with many of these approaches in patients indicates that these treatment modalities will serve as an important component of urological malignancy treatment in the clinic, either in isolation or

  17. Maintenance Therapy Containing Metformin and/or Zyflamend for Advanced Prostate Cancer: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Asim Bilen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metformin is derived from galegine, a natural ingredient, and recent studies have suggested that metformin could enhance the antitumor effects of hormone ablative therapy or chemotherapy and reduce prostate cancer-specific mortality. Zyflamend is a combination of herbal extracts that reduces inflammation and comprises turmeric, holy basil, green tea, oregano, ginger, rosemary, Chinese goldthread, hu zhang, barberry, and basil skullcap. We propose a maintenance regimen with metformin and/or Zyflamend that targets cancer stem cells and the tumor microenvironment to keep the cancer dormant and prevent it from activation from dormancy. Herein, we report the clinical course of four patients who experienced a clinical response after treatment with metformin and/or Zyflamend.

  18. Mandibular metastasis of adenocarcinoma from prostate cancer: case report according to epidemiology and current therapeutical trends of the advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Dreyer da Silva de Menezes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer represents the most frequent non-cutaneous neoplasia in males. This type of neoplasia can develop peculiar patterns of evolution, presenting, in many cases, precocious relapses and metastasis. Bone metastasis in the mouth is extremely rare, and represents 1% of all malignant mouth neoplasias. The aim of the present study is to report a clinical case of bone metastasis in the mandibular region associated with a tumoral prostate adenocarcinoma, as well as to discuss connected aspects about diagnosis, prognosis and integrated treatment of this condition.

  19. Repurposing Itraconazole as a Treatment for Advanced Prostate Cancer: A Noncomparative Randomized Phase II Trial in Men With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Elisabeth I.; Smith, David C.; Rathkopf, Dana; Blackford, Amanda L.; Danila, Daniel C.; King, Serina; Frost, Anja; Ajiboye, A. Seun; Zhao, Ming; Mendonca, Janet; Kachhap, Sushant K.; Rudek, Michelle A.; Carducci, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The antifungal drug itraconazole inhibits angiogenesis and Hedgehog signaling and delays tumor growth in murine prostate cancer xenograft models. We conducted a noncomparative, randomized, phase II study evaluating the antitumor efficacy of two doses of oral itraconazole in men with metastatic prostate cancer. Patients and Methods. We randomly assigned 46 men with chemotherapy-naïve metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) to receive low-dose (200 mg/day) or high-dose (600 mg/day) itraconazole until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression-free survival (PPFS) rate at 24 weeks; a 45% success rate in either arm was prespecified as constituting clinical significance. Secondary endpoints included the progression-free survival (PFS) rate and PSA response rate (Prostate Cancer Working Group criteria). Exploratory outcomes included circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration, serum androgen measurements, as well as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses. Results. The high-dose arm enrolled to completion (n = 29), but the low-dose arm closed early (n = 17) because of a prespecified futility rule. The PPFS rates at 24 weeks were 11.8% in the low-dose arm and 48.0% in the high-dose arm. The median PFS times were 11.9 weeks and 35.9 weeks, respectively. PSA response rates were 0% and 14.3%, respectively. In addition, itraconazole had favorable effects on CTC counts, and it suppressed Hedgehog signaling in skin biopsy samples. Itraconazole did not reduce serum testosterone or dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate levels. Common toxicities included fatigue, nausea, anorexia, rash, and a syndrome of hypokalemia, hypertension, and edema. Conclusion. High-dose itraconazole (600 mg/day) has modest antitumor activity in men with metastatic CRPC that is not mediated by testosterone suppression. PMID:23340005

  20. Staging of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo; Bostwick, David G; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Berney, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Prostatic carcinoma (PCa) is a significant cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. Accurate staging is critical for prognosis assessment and treatment planning for PCa. Despite the large volume of clinical activity and research, the challenge to define the most appropriate and clinically relevant staging system remains. The pathologically complex and uncertain clinical course of prostate cancer further complicates the design of staging classification and a substaging system suitable for individualized care. This review will focus on recent progress and controversial issues related to prostate cancer staging. The 2010 revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (AJCC/UICC) tumour, node and metastasis (TNM) system is the most widely used staging system at this time. Despite general acceptance of the system as a whole, there is controversy and uncertainty about its application, particularly for T2 subclassification. The three-tiered T2 classification system for organ-confined prostate cancer is superfluous, considering the biology and anatomy of PCa. A tumour size-based substaging system may be considered in the future TNM subclassification of pT2 cancer. Lymph node status is one of the most important prognostic factors for prostate cancer. Nevertheless, clinical outcomes in patients with positive lymph nodes are variable. Identification of patients at the greatest risk of systemic progression helps in the selection of appropriate therapy. The data suggest that the inherent aggressiveness of metastatic prostate cancer is closely linked to the tumour volume of lymph node metastasis. We recommend that a future TNM staging system should consider subclassification of node-positive cancer on the basis of nodal cancer volume, using the diameter of the largest nodal metastasis and/or the number of positive nodes.

  1. RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY FOR PATIENTS WITH CLINICALLY LOCALIZED AND LOCALLY ADVANCED PROSTATE CANCER: THE REMOTE RESULTS OF TREATEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Grygorenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work was to improve the treatment results among patients with clinically local and locally advanced prostate cancer while using neo-and/or adjuvant hormone- and radiotherapy.Materials and methods. Radical prostatectomy results estimation was conducted among 170 patients. An average survey period continued 35,99 ± 1,88 (1–102 months. An average age was 61,66 ± 0,45 (40–75 years. Moreover, after operation 125 (73,5 % patients proved to have clinically local forms of prostate cancer (рТ1а,b,c,2aN0М0 – 99, рТ2b,cN0М0 – 26, 25 (14,7 % patients – locally advanced forms (рТ3a,bN0М0 and 19 (11,2 % – generalized forms of prostate cancer (рТ4N0М0, рТ2а,bN1М0,. Metastases in pelvic lymph nodes developed among 10 (5,9 % patients. 43 (25,3 % patients with ІІ–III stages received neoadjuvant hormone therapy treatment due to maximum androgen blockade scheme. An average neoadjuvant hormone therapy duration: 10,14 ± 1,98 (1–60 months. The typical characteristic of modified radical prostatectomy is accurate ejection of urinary bladder neck and proximal area of prostatic urethra part from prostate gland. Already formed urethra-urethral anastomosis is additionally fixed to lateral part of endopelvic fascia.Results. An average 3-year survival made up 95,5 ± 3,5 %, 5-year – 84,1 ± 4,7 %, 7-year – 71,7 ± 6,8 % respectively. 3- and 5-year relapse-free survival comprised 87,05 ± 3,20 %, 79.64 ± 3,03 % 67,11 ± 3,93 % respectively. 5-year survival among patients with localized prostate cancer made up 97,18 ± 3,27 %. 48 (28,2 % patients proved to have biochemical relapse so that they were prescribed adjuvant hormone- and/or radiotherapy treatment. Gleason index ≥ and initial PSA level ≥ 20 ng/ml, and their combination are considered as significant factors that foresee Т > Т2 category and biochemical relapse. For рN+ category initial PSA ≥ 20 ng/ml level is principle. Frequency of disease relapse

  2. RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY FOR PATIENTS WITH CLINICALLY LOCALIZED AND LOCALLY ADVANCED PROSTATE CANCER: THE REMOTE RESULTS OF TREATEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Grygorenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work was to improve the treatment results among patients with clinically local and locally advanced prostate cancer while using neo-and/or adjuvant hormone- and radiotherapy.Materials and methods. Radical prostatectomy results estimation was conducted among 170 patients. An average survey period continued 35,99 ± 1,88 (1–102 months. An average age was 61,66 ± 0,45 (40–75 years. Moreover, after operation 125 (73,5 % patients proved to have clinically local forms of prostate cancer (рТ1а,b,c,2aN0М0 – 99, рТ2b,cN0М0 – 26, 25 (14,7 % patients – locally advanced forms (рТ3a,bN0М0 and 19 (11,2 % – generalized forms of prostate cancer (рТ4N0М0, рТ2а,bN1М0,. Metastases in pelvic lymph nodes developed among 10 (5,9 % patients. 43 (25,3 % patients with ІІ–III stages received neoadjuvant hormone therapy treatment due to maximum androgen blockade scheme. An average neoadjuvant hormone therapy duration: 10,14 ± 1,98 (1–60 months. The typical characteristic of modified radical prostatectomy is accurate ejection of urinary bladder neck and proximal area of prostatic urethra part from prostate gland. Already formed urethra-urethral anastomosis is additionally fixed to lateral part of endopelvic fascia.Results. An average 3-year survival made up 95,5 ± 3,5 %, 5-year – 84,1 ± 4,7 %, 7-year – 71,7 ± 6,8 % respectively. 3- and 5-year relapse-free survival comprised 87,05 ± 3,20 %, 79.64 ± 3,03 % 67,11 ± 3,93 % respectively. 5-year survival among patients with localized prostate cancer made up 97,18 ± 3,27 %. 48 (28,2 % patients proved to have biochemical relapse so that they were prescribed adjuvant hormone- and/or radiotherapy treatment. Gleason index ≥ and initial PSA level ≥ 20 ng/ml, and their combination are considered as significant factors that foresee Т > Т2 category and biochemical relapse. For рN+ category initial PSA ≥ 20 ng/ml level is principle. Frequency of disease relapse

  3. Understanding Prostate Cancer: Newly Diagnosed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Prostate Cancer Annual Report & Financials Our Leadership Leadership Team Board Members A Legacy of Leadership Featured Take ... Partners Faces of Prostate Cancer Annual Report & Financials Leadership Team Board Members Featured A Legacy of Leadership Take ...

  4. Advanced prostate cancer – patient survival and potential impact of enzalutamide and other emerging therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel NK

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nihar K Patel, Antoine Finianos, Kristen D Whitaker, Jeanny B Aragon-Ching Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: The advent of exponential growth of novel agents tested and approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC has brought about a need for understanding of the mechanism of action, side-effects, and clinical efficacy of these drugs as they relate to these patients. This review will provide a synopsis of the treatment landscape in mCRPC as varying agents such as abiraterone acetate, cabazitaxel, sipuleucel-T, radium, and selected emerging agents are presented. A distinct focus on the utilization of enzalutamide, its mechanism of action, key pivotal trials that brought about its US Food and Drug Administration approval, as well as patient-focused perspectives and clinical implications are discussed herein. Keywords: metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, enzalutamide, systemic therapies

  5. Development of New Treatments for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, R. S.; Abate-Shen, C.; Hait, W. N.

    2005-02-01

    The Dean and Betty Gallo Prostate Cancer Center (GPCC) was established with the goal of eradicating prostate cancer and improving the lives of men at risk for the disease through research, treatment, education and prevention. GPCC was founded in the memory of Dean Gallo, a beloved New Jersey Congressman who died tragically of prostate cancer diagnosed at an advanced stage. GPCC unites a team of outstanding researchers and clinicians who are committed to high-quality basic research, translation of innovative research to the clinic, exceptional patient care, and improving public education and awareness of prostate cancer. GPCC is a center of excellence of The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, which is the only NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center in the state. GPCC efforts are now integrated well as part of our Prostate Program at CINJ, in which Dr. Robert DiPaola and Dr. Cory Abate-Shen are co-leaders. The Prostate Program unites 19 investigators from 10 academic departments who have broad and complementary expertise in prostate cancer research. The overall goal and unifying theme is to elucidate basic mechanisms of prostate growth and oncogenesis, with the ultimate goal of promoting new and effective strategies for the eradication of prostate cancer. Members' wide range of research interests collectively optimize the chances of providing new insights into normal prostate biology and unraveling the molecular pathophysiology of prostate cancer. Cell culture and powerful animal models developed by program members recapitulate the various stages of prostate cancer progression, including prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinoma, androgen-independence, invasion and metastases. These models promise to further strengthen an already robust program of investigator-initiated therapeutic clinical trials, including studies adopted by national cooperative groups. Efforts to translate laboratory results into clinical studies of early detection and

  6. The 21st Annual Prostate Cancer Foundation Scientific Retreat report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahira, Andrea K; Simons, Jonathan W; Soule, Howard R

    2015-08-01

    The 21st Annual Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) Scientific Retreat was held from October 23-25, 2014, in Carlsbad, CA. This event is the world's foremost scientific meeting focusing on prostate cancer and brings together leading basic, translational and clinical researchers in prostate cancer and other diverse disciplines to discuss the newest findings most likely to advance the understanding of prostate cancer and the clinical care of prostate cancer patients. This year's meeting highlighted themes including: (i) research integrity and standards for scientific reproducibility; (ii) prostate cancer disparities; (iii) mechanisms and models of prostate cancer progression and dormancy; (iv) mechanisms of therapeutic resistance; and (v) advancements in precision medicine treatments, treatment models, and predictive and prognostic biomarkers.

  7. ETS rearrangements in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark A Rubin

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a clinically and molecularly heterogeneous disease.Understanding the biologic underpinning of prostate cancer is necessary to best determine how biology is associated with the risk of disease progression and how this understanding might provide insight into the development of novel therapeutic approaches.The focus of this review is on the recently identified common ETS and non-ETS gene rearrangements in prostate cancer.Although multiple molecular alterations have been detected in prostate cancer,a basic understanding of gene fusion prostate cancer should help explain the clinical and biologic diversity,providing a rationale for a molecular subclassification of the disease.

  8. State-of-the-art imaging of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Jamie; Gould, C Frank; Bonavia, Grant H; Wolfman, Darcy J

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Modern medical imaging is intimately involved in the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Ultrasound is primarily used to guide prostate biopsy to establish the diagnosis of prostate carcinoma. Prostate magnetic resonance imaging uses a multiparametric approach, including anatomic and functional imaging sequences. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging can be used for detection and localization of prostate cancer and to evaluate for disease recurrence. Computed tomography and scintigraphic imaging are primarily used to detect regional lymph node spread and distant metastases. Recent advancements in ultrasound, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, and scintigraphic imaging have the potential to change the way prostate cancer is diagnosed and managed. This article addresses the major imaging modalities involved in the evaluation of prostate cancer and updates the reader on the state of the art for each modality.

  9. Osteoporosis and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads Hvid; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of osteoporosis and risk factors of osteoporotic fractures before androgen deprivation in Danish men. Treatment and prognosis of prostate cancer necessitate management of long-term consequences of androgen deprivation therapy...... (ADT), including accelerated bone loss resulting in osteoporosis. Osteoporotic fractures are associated with excess morbidity and mortality. Material and methods. Patients with prostate cancer awaiting initiation of ADT were consecutively included. Half of the patients had localized disease and were....... The study was approved by the local ethics committee. None of the patients had received prior androgen deprivation or osteoporosis treatment. Results. In total, 105 individuals were included. The mean age of the participants was 70 years (range 53-91 years, SD 6.3). The median prostate-specific antigen...

  10. Epidural analgesia during open radical prostatectomy does not improve long-term cancer-related outcome: a retrospective study in patients with advanced prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Y Wuethrich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A beneficial effect of regional anesthesia on cancer related outcome in various solid tumors has been proposed. The data on prostate cancer is conflicting and reports on long-term cancer specific survival are lacking. METHODS: In a retrospective, single-center study, outcomes of 148 consecutive patients with locally advanced prostate cancer pT3/4 who underwent retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP with general anesthesia combined with intra- and postoperative epidural analgesia (n=67 or with postoperative ketorolac-morphine analgesia (n=81 were reviewed. The median observation time was 14.00 years (range 10.87-17.75 yrs. Biochemical recurrence (BCR-free, local and distant recurrence-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier technique. Multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to analyze clinicopathologic variables associated with disease progression and death. RESULTS: The survival estimates for BCR-free, local and distant recurrence-free, cancer-specific survival and overall survival did not differ between the two groups (P=0.64, P=0.75, P=0.18, P=0.32 and P=0.07. For both groups, higher preoperative PSA (hazard ratio (HR 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.01-1.02, P<0.0001, increased specimen Gleason score (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.06-1.46, P=0.007 and positive nodal status (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.03-2.67, P=0.04 were associated with higher risk of BCR. Increased specimen Gleason score predicted death from prostate cancer (HR 2.46, 95% CI 1.65-3.68, P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: General anaesthesia combined with epidural analgesia did not reduce the risk of cancer progression or improve survival after RRP for prostate cancer in this group of patients at high risk for disease progression with a median observation time of 14.00 yrs.

  11. [Grading of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, G; Roth, W; Helpap, B

    2016-07-01

    The current grading of prostate cancer is based on the classification system of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) following a consensus conference in Chicago in 2014. The foundations are based on the frequently modified grading system of Gleason. This article presents a brief description of the development to the current ISUP grading system.

  12. The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer Program. Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W A.; McLeod, D; Iversen, P;

    2001-01-01

    areas (North America; Australia, Europe, Israel, South Africa and Mexico; and Scandinavia). Men with T1b-4N0-1M0 (TNM 1997) prostate cancer have been randomized on a 1:1 basis to receive bicalutamide 150 mg daily or placebo. Recruitment to the program closed in July 1998, and follow-up is ongoing. Study......BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for early prostate cancer has yet to be established. A well-tolerated hormonal therapy such as bicalutamide could be a useful treatment option in this setting, either as adjuvant or immediate therapy. A major collaborative clinical trials program was set up...... to investigate bicalutamide as a treatment option for local prostate cancer (localized or locally advanced disease). METHODS: The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer program comprises three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of similar design that are being conducted in distinct geographical...

  13. [{sup 11}C]Choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography for staging and restaging of patients with advanced prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncel, Murat; Souvatzoglou, Michael; Herrmann, Ken [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der lsar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany); Stollfuss, Jens [Department of Radiology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany); Schuster, Tibor [Department of Statistics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany); Weirich, Gregor [Department of Pathology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany); Wester, Hans-Juergen; Schwaiger, Markus [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der lsar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany); Krause, Bernd J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der lsar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany)], E-mail: bernd-joachim.krause@tum.de

    2008-08-15

    Introduction: To evaluate [{sup 11}C]Choline positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for staging and restaging of patients with advanced prostate cancer and to compare the diagnostic performance of PET, CT and PET/CT. Methods: Forty-five consecutive patients with advanced prostate cancer underwent [{sup 11}C]Choline-PET/CT between 5/2004 and 2/2006. Results: Overall, 295 lesions were detected: PET alone, 178 lesions; diagnostic CT, 221 lesions; PET/CT (low-dose CT), 272 lesions; PET/CT (diagnostic CT), 295 lesions. Two thirds of the lesions were located in the bone; one third in the prostate, lymph nodes, periprostatic tissue and soft tissue (lung, liver). The use of diagnostic CT did not result in a statistically significant difference with respect to lesion localization certainty and lesion characterization (P=.063, P=.063). PET-negative but PET/CT-positive lesions were mostly localized in the bone (78%, 91/117) as were PET-positive and CT-negative lesions (72%, 53/74). Of the latter, 91% (48/53) represented bone marrow and 9% (5/53) cortical involvement. Conclusions: Staging and restaging with [{sup 11}C]Choline PET/CT in patients with advanced prostate cancer improve the assessment of local and regional recurrent as well as metastatic disease including skeletal manifestations. [{sup 11}C]Choline PET/CT (with a low-dose CT) results in improved localization and lesion characterization. [{sup 11}C]Choline PET/CT provides an added value for skeletal manifestations. [{sup 11}C]Choline PET/CT changed disease management in 11 (24%) of 45 patients with advanced prostate cancer.

  14. Tuberculous prostatitis: mimicking a cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, El Majdoub; Abdelhak, Khallouk; Hassan, Farih Moulay

    2016-01-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis is a common type of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis . The kidneys, ureter, bladder or genital organs are usually involved. Tuberculosis of the prostate has mainly been described in immune-compromised patients. However, it can exceptionally be found as an isolated lesion in immune-competent patients. Tuberculosis of the prostate may be difficult to differentiate from carcinoma of the prostate and the chronic prostatitis when the prostate is hard and nodular on digital rectal examination and the urine is negative for tuberculosis bacilli. In many cases, a diagnosis of tuberculous prostatitis is made by the pathologist, or the disease is found incidentally after transurethral resection. Therefore, suspicion of tuberculous prostatitis requires a confirmatory biopsy of the prostate. We report the case of 60-year-old man who presented a low urinary tract syndrome. After clinical and biological examination, and imaging, prostate cancer was highly suspected. Transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate was performed and histological examination showed tuberculosis lesions.

  15. Novel diagnostic biomarkers for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikezie O. Madu, Yi Lu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in American men, and a more aggressive form of the disease is particularly prevalent among African Americans. The therapeutic success rate for prostate cancer can be tremendously improved if the disease is diagnosed early. Thus, a successful therapy for this disease depends heavily on the clinical indicators (biomarkers for early detection of the presence and progression of the disease, as well as the prediction after the clinical intervention. However, the current clinical biomarkers for prostate cancer are not ideal as there remains a lack of reliable biomarkers that can specifically distinguish between those patients who should be treated adequately to stop the aggressive form of the disease and those who should avoid overtreatment of the indolent form.A biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. A biomarker reveals further information to presently existing clinical and pathological analysis. It facilitates screening and detecting the cancer, monitoring the progression of the disease, and predicting the prognosis and survival after clinical intervention. A biomarker can also be used to evaluate the process of drug development, and, optimally, to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer treatment by enabling physicians to tailor treatment for individual patients. The form of the prostate cancer biomarkers can vary from metabolites and chemical products present in body fluid to genes and proteins in the prostate tissues.Current advances in molecular techniques have provided new tools facilitating the discovery of new biomarkers for prostate cancer. These emerging biomarkers will be beneficial and critical in developing new and clinically reliable indicators that will have a high specificity for the diagnosis and prognosis of

  16. Novel diagnostic biomarkers for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Chikezie O; Lu, Yi

    2010-10-06

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in American men, and a more aggressive form of the disease is particularly prevalent among African Americans. The therapeutic success rate for prostate cancer can be tremendously improved if the disease is diagnosed early. Thus, a successful therapy for this disease depends heavily on the clinical indicators (biomarkers) for early detection of the presence and progression of the disease, as well as the prediction after the clinical intervention. However, the current clinical biomarkers for prostate cancer are not ideal as there remains a lack of reliable biomarkers that can specifically distinguish between those patients who should be treated adequately to stop the aggressive form of the disease and those who should avoid overtreatment of the indolent form.A biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. A biomarker reveals further information to presently existing clinical and pathological analysis. It facilitates screening and detecting the cancer, monitoring the progression of the disease, and predicting the prognosis and survival after clinical intervention. A biomarker can also be used to evaluate the process of drug development, and, optimally, to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer treatment by enabling physicians to tailor treatment for individual patients. The form of the prostate cancer biomarkers can vary from metabolites and chemical products present in body fluid to genes and proteins in the prostate tissues.Current advances in molecular techniques have provided new tools facilitating the discovery of new biomarkers for prostate cancer. These emerging biomarkers will be beneficial and critical in developing new and clinically reliable indicators that will have a high specificity for the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer. The

  17. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Venniyoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach.

  18. Targeting Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0412 TITLE: "Targeting Prostate Cancer Metastasis " PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yong Teng CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: REPORT...ng Prost a t e Cancer Metastasi s Sb. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH- 14- 1- 0 41 2 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER YongTeng Se...r egulator in contr olling metastasis of p r ost a t e cancer and i nhi b i t i ng i t prevent s met ast asis . There are no drugs available to tar

  19. Circulating Tumor Cells in Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Brian [Institute of Urology, University of Southern California, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Suite 7416, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Rochefort, Holly [Department of Surgery, University of Southern California, 1520 San Pablo Street, HCT 4300, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Goldkorn, Amir, E-mail: agoldkor@usc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Suite 3440, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2013-12-04

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can provide a non-invasive, repeatable snapshot of an individual patient’s tumor. In prostate cancer, CTC enumeration has been extensively studied and validated as a prognostic tool and has received FDA clearance for use in monitoring advanced disease. More recently, CTC analysis has been shifting from enumeration to more sophisticated molecular characterization of captured cells, which serve as a “liquid biopsy” of the tumor, reflecting molecular changes in an individual’s malignancy over time. Here we will review the main CTC studies in advanced and localized prostate cancer, highlighting the important gains as well as the challenges posed by various approaches, and their implications for advancing prostate cancer management.

  20. Circulating Tumor Cells in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Hu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs can provide a non-invasive, repeatable snapshot of an individual patient’s tumor. In prostate cancer, CTC enumeration has been extensively studied and validated as a prognostic tool and has received FDA clearance for use in monitoring advanced disease. More recently, CTC analysis has been shifting from enumeration to more sophisticated molecular characterization of captured cells, which serve as a “liquid biopsy” of the tumor, reflecting molecular changes in an individual’s malignancy over time. Here we will review the main CTC studies in advanced and localized prostate cancer, highlighting the important gains as well as the challenges posed by various approaches, and their implications for advancing prostate cancer management.

  1. Molecular markers for prostate cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, M.A.; Kastury, K.; Groskopf, J.; Schalken, J.A.; Rittenhouse, H.G.

    2007-01-01

    Serum PSA testing has been used for over 20 years as an aid in the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Although highly sensitive, it suffers from a lack of specificity, showing elevated serum levels in a variety of other conditions including prostatitis, benign prostate hyperplasia, and non

  2. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudit Verma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person’s genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed.

  3. Serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Dezhong; Liu, Chun; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Some observational studies have shown that elevated serum selenium levels are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk; however, not all published studies support these results. A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Library up until September 2016 identified 17 studies suitable for further investigation. A meta-analysis was conducted on these studies to investigate the association between serum selenium levels and subsequent prostate cancer risk. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the overall OR of prostate cancer for the highest versus the lowest levels of serum selenium. We found a pooled OR (95% CI) of 0.76 (0.64, 0.91; P selenium levels and prostate cancer risk was found in each of case–control studies, current and former smokers, high-grade cancer cases, advanced cancer cases, and different populations. Such correlations were not found for subgroups containing each of cohort studies, nonsmokers, low-grade cancer cases, and early stage cancer cases. In conclusion, our study suggests an inverse relationship between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk. However, further cohort studies and randomized control trials based on non-Western populations are required. PMID:28151881

  4. Prostate cancer immunology: biology, therapeutics, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, W Scott; Small, Eric J; Rini, Brian I; Kwon, Eugene D

    2005-11-10

    A number of recently developed and promising approaches to antitumoral immunotherapy are being investigated as potential treatments for advanced prostate cancer. These approaches largely revolve around strategies to increase antigen-specific T-cell activation against prostate tumors as well as precise manipulations of critical co-regulatory receptors that help to maintain and prolong the activity of antigen-presenting cells and T cells that are capable of mediating tumor regression. Herein, we describe the experience with the most recent and promising approaches pertaining to prostate cancer immunotherapy. Additionally, we discuss the mechanistic basis for these approaches as well as current limitations that must still be addressed in order to propel immunotherapy into the forefront of prostate cancer treatment.

  5. Systematic structure modifications of multitarget prostate cancer drug candidate galeterone to produce novel androgen receptor down-regulating agents as an approach to treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushottamachar, Puranik; Godbole, Abhijit M; Gediya, Lalji K; Martin, Marlena S; Vasaitis, Tadas S; Kwegyir-Afful, Andrew K; Ramalingam, Senthilmurugan; Ates-Alagoz, Zeynep; Njar, Vincent C O

    2013-06-27

    As part of our program to explore the influence of small structural modifications of our drug candidate 3β-(hydroxy)-17-(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)androsta-5,16-diene (galeterone, 5) on the modulation of the androgen receptor (AR), we have prepared and evaluated a series of novel C-3, C-16, and C-17 analogues. Using structure activity analysis, we established that the benzimidazole moiety at C-17 is essential and optimal and also that hydrophilic and heteroaromatic groups at C-3 enhance both antiproliferative (AP) and AR degrading (ARD) activities. The most potent antiproliferative compounds were 3β-(1H-imidazole-1-carboxylate)-17-(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)androsta-5,16-diene (47), 3-((EZ)-hydroximino)-17-(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)androsta-4,16-diene (36), and 3β-(pyridine-4-carboxylate)-17-(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)androsta-5,16-diene (43), with GI50 values of 0.87, 1.91, and 2.57 μM, respectively. Compared to 5, compound 47 was 4- and 8-fold more potent with respect to AP and ARD activities, respectively. Importantly, we also discovered that our compounds, including 5, 36, 43, and 47, could degrade both full-length and truncated ARs in CWR22rv1 human prostate cancer cells. With these activities, they have potential for development as new drugs for the treatment of all forms of prostate cancer.

  6. Mono-2-ethyhexyl phthalate advancing the progression of prostate cancer through activating the hedgehog pathway in LNCaP cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Wang; Jiao, Chen; Jianhui, Wu; Yan, Zhao; Qi, Pan; Xiu, Wang; Zuyue, Sun; Yunhui, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) pathway plays a critical role in the progression of prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer in male adults. Studies showed that di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) could interference with the Hh pathway. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), the congener of DBP, is the major plasticizer used in plastic materials that are inevitably exposed by patients with PCa. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate whether mono-2-ethyhexyl phthalate (MEHP, the active metabolite of DEHP) could activate the Hh pathway of LNCaP cells. Results showed that the expression of the critical gene of Hh pathway PTCH and androgen-regulated gene KLK3 was significantly decreased on 3, 6 and 9 days with Hh pathway inhibitor cyclopamine's treatment. MEHP notably up-regulated the expression of PTCH with a dose-response relationship in the presence of cyclopamine, which indicate that MEHP might target on the downstream components of Hh pathway and advance the progression of PCa through activating the Hh pathway.

  7. Intensity of stromal changes is associated with tumor relapse in clinically advanced prostate cancer after castration therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianPing Wu; WenBin Huang; Hui Zhou; LuWei Xu; JianHua Zhao; JiaGen Zhu; JiangHao Su; HongBin Sun

    2014-01-01

    Reactive stromal changes in prostate cancer(PCa) are likely involved in the emergence of castration‑resistant PCa(CRPC). This study was designed to investigate stromal changes in patients with clinically advanced PCa and analyze their prognostic signiifcance. Prostate needle biopsies obtained from 148patients before castration therapy were analyzed by Masson trichrome staining and immunohistochemical analysis of vimentin and desmin. Reactive stroma grading was inversely correlated with Gleason score. Stroma grade (Masson stain 82.8%vs 45.6%,P<0.001) and vimentin expression(P=0.005) were signiifcantly higher, and desmin expression (P=0.004) signiifcantly lower, in reactive stroma of tumors with a Gleason score of 6–7 than in adjacent peritumoral tissue. Kaplan‑Meier analysis showed a signiifcant association between reactive stroma grade in tumors and the occurrence of CRPC in patients with a Gleason score of 6–7(P=0.009). Furthermore, patients with higher vimentin or lower desmin expression had a shorter disease‑free period. In multivariate analysis, only vimentin expression was a signiifcant predictor of tumor relapse (hazard ratio 1.78, 95% conifdence interval 1.12–10.26,P=0.012). These ifndings indicate that the intensity of reactive stroma is associated with castration responsiveness, especially in patients with a lower Gleason score where the abundant stroma component is most frequently found. High expression of vimentin in tumor stroma was independently associated with poor outcomes in patients with Gleason scores of 6–7, and may serve as a new prognostic marker in daily practice.

  8. Bicalutamide 150 mg plus standard care vs standard care alone for early prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLeod, David G; Iversen, Peter; See, William A;

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate, in the ongoing Early Prostate Cancer (EPC) trial programme, the efficacy and tolerability of bicalutamide 150 mg once daily in addition to standard care for localized or locally advanced, nonmetastatic prostate cancer....

  9. Necessity of re-evaluation of estramustine phosphate sodium (EMP) as a treatment option for first-line monotherapy in advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, T

    2001-02-01

    Estramustine phosphate sodium (EMP) was first introduced in the early 1970s for the treatment of prostate cancer, when EMP was supposed to have the dual effect of estrogenic activity and cytotoxicity. For the following decades, it was used mainly in hormone-refractory cases, with a conventional dosage of 4-9 capsules/day, which showed a 30-35% objective response rate. However, a very limited number of cases have been reported that used EMP as a first-line monotherapy in the conventional dosage. One study showed a response rate of 82%, which is at least as effective as conventional estrogen (diethylstilbestrol; DES) monotherapy. Nevertheless, EMP was almost abandoned for the treatment of prostate cancer because of severe adverse side-effects, especially in the cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract. Recently, two facts have become evident. First, EMP interferes with cellular microtubule dynamics but does not show alkylating effects. Second, EMP is able to produce a complex with calcium when dairy products are taken concomitantly with EMP, resulting in a decrease in the absorption rate of EMP from the gut. Many clinical trials have been undertaken without warning against concomitant dairy product intake since the introduction of EMP. This fact will jeopardize almost all the clinical trials performed before 1990. It is considered that response rates have been underestimated and better results could have been obtained because side-effects decrease dose-dependently. Low-dose EMP monotherapy (2 capsules/day) has been performed infrequently in previously untreated advanced prostate cancer. The only large trial by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer in 1984 was biased in selecting patients. Nevertheless, the response rate of EMP is comparable to that of DES. In this study, the adverse side-effects of EMP were less than that of DES. Recently, a study was conducted at the University of Tokyo of 11 patients with advanced prostate cancer on

  10. Locally advanced prostate cancer: combination of high-dose high-precision radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy%Locally advanced prostate cancer:combination of high-dose high-precision radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michel Bolla; René-Olivier Mirimanoff

    2014-01-01

    Locally advanced prostate cancer entails a risk of local,regional and systemic relapse requiring the combination of a Ioco-regional treatment,namely external beam radiotherapy(EBRT) to control the pelvic-confined disease,combined with a systemic therapy,namely androgen-deprivation therapy(ADT),to potentiate irradiation and to destroy the infra-clinical androgen-dependant disease outside the irradiated volume.Many phases Ⅲ randomized trials have paved the way in establishing the indications of this combined approach,which requires a long term ADT(≥2 years) with LHRH agonists.The duration of ADT may be reduced to 6 months should there be a significant comorbidity,a reluctance from the patient or a poor tolerance.A multidisciplinary approach will enable physicians to tailor the treatment strategy and a close cooperation between the specialists and the general practitioners will be set up to prevent as much as possible the side-effects of ADT.

  11. Blood lipids and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Caroline J; Bonilla, Carolina; Holly, Jeff M P

    2016-01-01

    Genetic risk scores were used as unconfounded instruments for specific lipid traits (Mendelian randomization) to assess whether circulating lipids causally influence prostate cancer risk. Data from 22,249 prostate cancer cases and 22,133 controls from 22 studies within the international PRACTICAL...

  12. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  13. Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015 2014 2013 2012 Media Resources Media Contacts Multicultural ... This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for prostate cancer. The list includes generic ...

  14. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    studies have shown that men with BPH have an increased risk of prostate cancer and prostate-cancer-related mortality, it remains unclear whether this association reflects a causal link, shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms, or detection bias upon statistical analysis. Establishing BPH...... as a causal factor for prostate cancer development could improve the accuracy of prognostication and expedite intervention, potentially reducing the number of men who die from prostate cancer....... therapy. Furthermore, risk factors such as prostate inflammation and metabolic disruption have key roles in the development of both diseases. Despite these commonalities, BPH and prostate cancer exhibit important differences in terms of histology and localization. Although large-scale epidemiological...

  15. National Cancer Institute Prostate Cancer Genetics Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalona, William J; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Camp, Nicola J; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooney, Kathleen A; Easton, Douglas F; Eeles, Rosalind A; FitzGerald, Liesel M; Freedman, Matthew L; Gudmundsson, Julius; Kittles, Rick A; Margulies, Elliott H; McGuire, Barry B; Ostrander, Elaine A; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Stanford, Janet L; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Witte, John S; Isaacs, William B

    2011-05-15

    Compelling evidence supports a genetic component to prostate cancer susceptibility and aggressiveness. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified more than 30 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with prostate cancer susceptibility. It remains unclear, however, whether such genetic variants are associated with disease aggressiveness--one of the most important questions in prostate cancer research today. To help clarify this and substantially expand research in the genetic determinants of prostate cancer aggressiveness, the first National Cancer Institute Prostate Cancer Genetics Workshop assembled researchers to develop plans for a large new research consortium and patient cohort. The workshop reviewed the prior work in this area and addressed the practical issues in planning future studies. With new DNA sequencing technology, the potential application of sequencing information to patient care is emerging. The workshop, therefore, included state-of-the-art presentations by experts on new genotyping technologies, including sequencing and associated bioinformatics issues, which are just beginning to be applied to cancer genetics.

  16. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    MacDonald, Richard G; Mehta, Parmender P; Mott, Justin L; Naslavsky, Naava; Palanimuthu Ponnusamy, Moorthy; Ramaley, Robert F; Sorgen, Paul L; Steinke...feedback regulation of PI3K and androgen receptor signaling in PTEN-deficient prostate cancer, Cancer Cell 19 (2011) 575–586. [29] B.J. Feldman , D... Feldman , The development of androgen-independent prostate cancer, Nat. Rev. Cancer 1 (2001) 34–45. [30] J.D. Debes, D.J. Tindall, Mechanisms of androgen

  17. Adenovirus-derived vectors for prostate cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrij, Jeroen; Willemsen, Ralph A; Lindholm, Leif; Hoeben, Rob C; Bangma, Chris H; Barber, Chris; Behr, Jean-Paul; Briggs, Simon; Carlisle, Robert; Cheng, Wing-Shing; Dautzenberg, Iris J C; de Ridder, Corrina; Dzojic, Helena; Erbacher, Patrick; Essand, Magnus; Fisher, Kerry; Frazier, April; Georgopoulos, Lindsay J; Jennings, Ian; Kochanek, Stefan; Koppers-Lalic, Daniela; Kraaij, Robert; Kreppel, Florian; Magnusson, Maria; Maitland, Norman; Neuberg, Patrick; Nugent, Regina; Ogris, Manfred; Remy, Jean-Serge; Scaife, Michelle; Schenk-Braat, Ellen; Schooten, Erik; Seymour, Len; Slade, Michael; Szyjanowicz, Pio; Totterman, Thomas; Uil, Taco G; Ulbrich, Karel; van der Weel, Laura; van Weerden, Wytske; Wagner, Ernst; Zuber, Guy

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer is a leading cause of death among men in Western countries. Whereas the survival rate approaches 100% for patients with localized cancer, the results of treatment in patients with metastasized prostate cancer at diagnosis are much less successful. The patients are usually presented with a variety of treatment options, but therapeutic interventions in prostate cancer are associated with frequent adverse side effects. Gene therapy and oncolytic virus therapy may constitute new strategies. Already a wide variety of preclinical studies has demonstrated the therapeutic potential of such approaches, with oncolytic prostate-specific adenoviruses as the most prominent vector. The state of the art and future prospects of gene therapy in prostate cancer are reviewed, with a focus on adenoviral vectors. We summarize advances in adenovirus technology for prostate cancer treatment and highlight areas where further developments are necessary.

  18. Highlights from the prostate cancer genome report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyh-Han Tan; Gyorgy Petrovics; Shiv Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    @@ Prostate cancer (Cap) is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer of men worldwide (899 000 new cases,13.6% of the total),with nearly 75% of the registered cases occurring in developed countries (644000 cases).1 Blood prostate-specific antigen test has revolutionized the early detection of Cap and organ-confined Cap is effectively managed by state-of-the-art treatments including radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy.2 In the past decade,tremendous progress has also been made in our understanding of the biology and common genomicalterations in Cap 3.4 New molecular marker assays have promise in improving CaP diagnosis.Despite these advances,major challenges remain with our ability to distinguish indolent cancers from the more aggressive cancers detected early due to widely used prostate-specific antigen test.Furthermore,development of molecular stratification of CaP for targeted and more effective therapies is critically needed.

  19. Prostate cancer in dogs: comparative and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Bruce E; Northrup, Nicole

    2009-05-01

    The canine prostate gland shares many morphological and functional similarities with the human prostate and dogs are the only other large mammals that commonly develop spontaneous prostate cancer. However, the incidence of prostate cancer is much lower in dogs and the precise cell of origin is not known. Dogs with prostate cancer usually present with advanced disease that does not respond to androgen deprivation therapy. Similar to humans, affected dogs often develop osteoblastic bone metastases in the pelvis and/or lumbar spine with associated pain and neurological deficits. Other clinical signs include weight loss, lethargy, and abnormal urination and/or defecation. Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation have been used to treat dogs with prostate cancer, but success has been limited by the location and aggressive nature of the disease. It is evident that better methods of early detection and more effective therapies are needed for prostate cancer in dogs and advanced prostate carcinoma in men. Dogs with naturally-occurring prostate cancer are relevant models for the disease in humans and pre-clinical studies of new diagnostics and therapies in dogs may benefit both humans and dogs with prostate cancer.

  20. Development and exploitation of a novel mutant androgen receptor modelling strategy to identify new targets for advanced prostate cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Daniel; Jones, Dominic; Wade, Mark; Grey, James; Nakjang, Sirintra; Guo, Wenrui; Cork, David; Davies, Barry R; Wedge, Steve R; Robson, Craig N; Gaughan, Luke

    2015-09-22

    The persistence of androgen receptor (AR) signalling in castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) highlights the unmet clinical need for the development of more effective AR targeting therapies. A key mechanism of therapy-resistance is by selection of AR mutations that convert anti-androgens to agonists enabling the retention of androgenic signalling in CRPC. To improve our understanding of these receptors in advanced disease we developed a physiologically-relevant model to analyse the global functionality of AR mutants in CRPC. Using the bicalutamide-activated AR(W741L/C) mutation as proof of concept, we demonstrate that this mutant confers an androgenic-like signalling programme and growth promoting phenotype in the presence of bicalutamide. Transcriptomic profiling of AR(W741L) highlighted key genes markedly up-regulated by the mutant receptor, including TIPARP, RASD1 and SGK1. Importantly, SGK1 expression was found to be highly expressed in the KUCaP xenograft model and a CRPC patient biopsy sample both of which express the bicalutamide-activated receptor mutant. Using an SGK1 inhibitor, AR(W741L) transcriptional and growth promoting activity was reduced indicating that exploiting functional distinctions between receptor isoforms in our model may provide new and effective therapies for CRPC patients.

  1. [Hormonal therapy for prostatic cancer--state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakita, Hideshi

    2005-02-01

    Following the studies of Huggins and colleagues in 1941, the hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer has been aimed at neutralizing the influence of testicular androgens through surgical castration or the administration of high dose estrogen. Labrie et al introduced combined use of a LHRH agonist and an androgen antagonist for prostatic cancer. Various reports demonstrated a beneficial effect for combined androgen blockade using nonsteroidal antiandrogens for advanced prostatic cancer through meta-analysis of published randomized control trials. In Japanese status, a combined androgen blockade is popular for advanced prostatic cancer as well as local cancer by J-Cap survey. There is a lot of controversy about adjuvant hormonal therapy for prostatic cancer including intermittent hormonal therapy, but the results are not gotten yet.

  2. Prostate radiation in non-metastatic castrate refractory prostate cancer provides an interesting insight into biology of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoe Abigail C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural history of non-metastatic castrate refractory prostate cancer is unknown and treatment options are limited. We present a retrospective review of 13 patients with locally advanced or high risk prostate cancer, initially treated with hormone monotherapy and then treated with prostate radiation after becoming castration refractory. Findings Median PSA response following prostate radiation was 67.4%. Median time to biochemical progression following radiotherapy was 15 months and to detection of metastatic disease was 18.5 months. Median survival from castration resistance (to date of death or November 2011 was 60 months, with median survival from RT 42 months. Conclusion Prostate radiation appears to be beneficial even in patients with potential micrometastatic disease, which supports the hypothesis that the primary tumour is important in the progression of prostate cancer. These results are an interesting addition to the literature on the biology of prostate cancer especially as this data is unlikely to be available in the future due to combined prostate radiation and androgen deprivation therapy now being the standard of care.

  3. Health Resource Utilization Associated with Skeletal-Related Events in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer: A European Subgroup Analysis from an Observational, Multinational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bahl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to increase the understanding of health resource utilization (HRU associated with skeletal-related events (SREs occurring in patients with bone metastases secondary to advanced prostate cancer. A total of 120 patients from Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom were enrolled in this observational study. They had bone metastases secondary to prostate cancer and had experienced at least one SRE in the 97 days before giving informed consent. HRU data were collected retrospectively for 97 days before enrolment and prospectively for up to 18–21 months. HRU, including the number and duration of inpatient hospitalizations, number of outpatient and emergency department visits and procedures, was independently attributed by investigators to an SRE. Of the 222 SREs included in this analysis, 26% were associated with inpatient stays and the mean duration per SRE was 21.4 days (standard deviation (SD 17.8 days. Overall, 174 SREs (78% required an outpatient visit and the mean number of visits per SRE was 4.6 (SD 4.6. All SREs are associated with substantial HRU. Preventing SREs in patients with advanced prostate cancer and bone metastases may help to reduce the burden to both patients and European healthcare systems.

  4. Current state of prostate cancer treatment in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Belinda F; Aiken, William D; Mayhew, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer in Jamaica as well as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. One report suggested that Jamaica has the highest incidence rate of prostate cancer in the world, with an age-standardised rate of 304/100,000 per year. The Caribbean region is reported to have the highest mortality rate of prostate cancer worldwide. Prostate cancer accounts for a large portion of the clinical practice for health-care practitioners in Jamaica. The Jamaica Urological Society is a professional body comprising 19 urologists in Jamaica who provide most of the care for men with prostate cancer in collaboration with medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and a palliative care physician. The health-care system is structured in two tiers in Jamaica: public and private. The urologist-to-patient ratio is high, and this limits adequate urological care. Screening for prostate cancer is not a national policy in Jamaica. However, the Jamaica Urological Society and the Jamaica Cancer Society work synergistically to promote screening as well as to provide patient education for prostate cancer. Adequate treatment for localised prostate cancer is available in Jamaica in the forms of active surveillance, nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy, external beam radiation, and brachytherapy. However, there is a geographic maldistribution of centres that provide prostate cancer treatment, which leads to treatment delays. Also, there is difficulty in affording some treatment options in the private health-care sectors. Androgen deprivation therapy is available for treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer and is subsidised through a programme called the National Health Fund. Second-line hormonal agents and chemotherapeutic agents are available but are costly to most of the population. The infrastructure for treatment of prostate cancer in Jamaica is good, but it requires additional technological advances as well as additional specialist

  5. Definition of molecular determinants of prostate cancer cell bone extravasation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Steven R; Hays, Danielle L; Yazawa, Erika M; Opperman, Matthew; Walley, Kempland C; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Burdick, Monica M; Gillard, Bryan M; Moser, Michael T; Pantel, Klaus; Foster, Barbara A; Pienta, Kenneth J; Dimitroff, Charles J

    2013-01-15

    Advanced prostate cancer commonly metastasizes to bone, but transit of malignant cells across the bone marrow endothelium (BMEC) remains a poorly understood step in metastasis. Prostate cancer cells roll on E-selectin(+) BMEC through E-selectin ligand-binding interactions under shear flow, and prostate cancer cells exhibit firm adhesion to BMEC via β1, β4, and αVβ3 integrins in static assays. However, whether these discrete prostate cancer cell-BMEC adhesive contacts culminate in cooperative, step-wise transendothelial migration into bone is not known. Here, we describe how metastatic prostate cancer cells breach BMEC monolayers in a step-wise fashion under physiologic hemodynamic flow. Prostate cancer cells tethered and rolled on BMEC and then firmly adhered to and traversed BMEC via sequential dependence on E-selectin ligands and β1 and αVβ3 integrins. Expression analysis in human metastatic prostate cancer tissue revealed that β1 was markedly upregulated compared with expression of other β subunits. Prostate cancer cell breaching was regulated by Rac1 and Rap1 GTPases and, notably, did not require exogenous chemokines as β1, αVβ3, Rac1, and Rap1 were constitutively active. In homing studies, prostate cancer cell trafficking to murine femurs was dependent on E-selectin ligand, β1 integrin, and Rac1. Moreover, eliminating E-selectin ligand-synthesizing α1,3 fucosyltransferases in transgenic adenoma of mouse prostate mice dramatically reduced prostate cancer incidence. These results unify the requirement for E-selectin ligands, α1,3 fucosyltransferases, β1 and αVβ3 integrins, and Rac/Rap1 GTPases in mediating prostate cancer cell homing and entry into bone and offer new insight into the role of α1,3 fucosylation in prostate cancer development.

  6. Transcriptionally regulated, prostate-targeted gene therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi

    2009-07-02

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American males today. Novel and effective treatment such as gene therapy is greatly desired. The early viral based gene therapy uses tissue-nonspecific promoters, which causes unintended toxicity to other normal tissues. In this chapter, we will review the transcriptionally regulated gene therapy strategy for prostate cancer treatment. We will describe the development of transcriptionally regulated prostate cancer gene therapy in the following areas: (1) Comparison of different routes for best viral delivery to the prostate; (2) Study of transcriptionally regulated, prostate-targeted viral vectors: specificity and activity of the transgene under several different prostate-specific promoters were compared in vitro and in vivo; (3) Selection of therapeutic transgenes and strategies for prostate cancer gene therapy (4) Oncolytic virotherapy for prostate cancer. In addition, the current challenges and future directions in this field are also discussed.

  7. Biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer: the controversial recognition and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Shu-jie; JING Yi-feng

    2011-01-01

    @@ Over the past decaade, more and more patients diagnosed as prostate cancer have received radical management attributing to the advent of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) based medical screening.Radical prostatectomy (RP) and radiation therapy (RT) are the most commonly used forms of definitive therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer.However, despite these technique advances, biochemical recurrence (BCR),as determined by subsequent rises in the serum PSA level,is still a challenge that urologists face.

  8. Hormonal therapy and chemotherapy in patients with hormone-sensitive prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Gafanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common men`s cancer in men in developed world and the second cause of death in this population. This review focuses on management of advanced castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC has been rapidly changing and is still evolving. In the last years, there has been an increasing knowledge of prostate cancer biology. New therapeutic agents and approaches have been evaluated demonstrating benefits in survival and quality of life in patients with metastatic prostate cancer.

  9. Risk of Pathologic Upgrading or Locally Advanced Disease in Early Prostate Cancer Patients Based on Biopsy Gleason Score and PSA: A Population-Based Study of Modern Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caster, Joseph M.; Falchook, Aaron D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Hendrix, Laura H. [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Chen, Ronald C., E-mail: Ronald_chen@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncologists rely on available clinical information (biopsy Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen [PSA]) to determine the optimal treatment regimen for each prostate cancer patient. Existing published nomograms correlating clinical to pathologic extent of disease were based on patients treated in the 1980s and 1990s at select academic institutions. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to examine pathologic outcomes (Gleason score and cancer stage) in early prostate cancer patients based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA concentration. Methods and Materials: This analysis included 25,858 patients whose cancer was diagnosed between 2010 and 2011, with biopsy Gleason scores of 6 to 7 and clinical stage T1 to T2 disease, who underwent radical prostatectomy. In subgroups based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA level, we report the proportion of patients with pathologically advanced disease (positive surgical margin or pT3-T4 disease) or whose Gleason score was upgraded. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with pathologic outcomes. Results: For patients with biopsy Gleason score 6 cancers, 84% of those with PSA <10 ng/mL had surgical T2 disease with negative margins; this decreased to 61% in patients with PSA of 20 to 29.9 ng/mL. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 43% (PSA: <10 ng/mL) to 61% (PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) of biopsy Gleason 6 patients. Patients with biopsy Gleason 7 cancers had a one-third (Gleason 3 + 4; PSA: <10 ng/mL) to two-thirds (Gleason 4 + 3; PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) probability of having pathologically advanced disease. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 11% to 19% of patients with biopsy Gleason 4 + 3 cancers. Multivariable analysis showed that higher PSA and older age were associated with Gleason score upgrading and pathologically advanced disease. Conclusions: This is the first population-based study to examine pathologic extent of disease and pathologic Gleason score

  10. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Annual National Symposium on Prostate Cancer by CCRTD, CAU, March 16-19, 2014. 15. Appendix #15: Peer- reviewed scientific publication with inputs...and  Immunology Y. Tu CU Regulation of G‐Protein‐Coupled  Receptors in Prostate  Cancer     Acknowledgements: DOD CDMRP PCa Research Program PC121645...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0264 TITLE: Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ming-Fong Lin, Ph.D

  11. The significance of early changes in serum alkaline-phosphatase levels following endocrine treatment in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Pareek

    2000-01-01

    Conclusions: A significant proportion of patients with advanced carcinoma of the prostate have flare in SAP le-vels soon after initiating the treatment. We confirm that the flare activity in SAP levels is a negative prognostic indicator and it is possible to identify early treatment fail-ures by frequent measurements of SAP levels during first 6 weeks of commencing the therapy. The significance of SAP fare and androgen resistance is discussed.

  12. Clinical adenoviral gene therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Ellen; Essand, Magnus; Bangma, Chris H; Barber, Chris; Behr, Jean-Paul; Briggs, Simon; Carlisle, Robert; Cheng, Wing-Shing; Danielsson, Angelika; Dautzenberg, Iris J C; Dzojic, Helena; Erbacher, Patrick; Fisher, Kerry; Frazier, April; Georgopoulos, Lindsay J; Hoeben, Rob; Kochanek, Stefan; Koppers-Lalic, Daniela; Kraaij, Robert; Kreppel, Florian; Lindholm, Leif; Magnusson, Maria; Maitland, Norman; Neuberg, Patrick; Nilsson, Berith; Ogris, Manfred; Remy, Jean-Serge; Scaife, Michelle; Schooten, Erik; Seymour, Len; Totterman, Thomas; Uil, Taco G; Ulbrich, Karel; Veldhoven-Zweistra, Joke L M; de Vrij, Jeroen; van Weerden, Wytske; Wagner, Ernst; Willemsen, Ralph

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer is at present the most common malignancy in men in the Western world. When localized to the prostate, this disease can be treated by curative therapy such as surgery and radiotherapy. However, a substantial number of patients experience a recurrence, resulting in spreading of tumor cells to other parts of the body. In this advanced stage of the disease only palliative treatment is available. Therefore, there is a clear clinical need for new treatment modalities that can, on the one hand, enhance the cure rate of primary therapy for localized prostate cancer and, on the other hand, improve the treatment of metastasized disease. Gene therapy is now being explored in the clinic as a treatment option for the various stages of prostate cancer. Current clinical experiences are based predominantly on trials with adenoviral vectors. As the first of a trilogy of reviews on the state of the art and future prospects of gene therapy in prostate cancer, this review focuses on the clinical experiences and progress of adenovirus-mediated gene therapy for this disease.

  13. Understanding your prostate cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine The navigation menu has been collapsed. ... //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000931.htm Understanding your prostate cancer risk To use the sharing features ...

  14. New considerations for ADT in advanced prostate cancer and the emerging role of GnRH antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, N D; Abrahamsson, P-A; Anderson, J; Crawford, E D; Lange, P

    2013-03-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is first-line treatment for metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists are the most commonly used ADT but have several theoretical physiologic disadvantages (e.g. initial testosterone surge, potential microsurges upon repeat administration). Testosterone surge delays the intended serologic endpoint of testosterone suppression and may exacerbate clinical symptoms. GnRH antagonists were developed with a view toward overcoming these potential adverse physiologic events. This review evaluates GnRH agonists and antagonists, assessing the potential future role of antagonists in PCa and strategies to minimize ADT adverse events (AEs). Evidence was identified via PubMed search (by GnRH agent and other ADT-related terms), from review article bibliographies, and authors' therapy area knowledge, with articles included by author consensus. Degarelix shows similar efficacy to a GnRH agonist in achieving and maintaining castration, with faster onset and without testosterone surge/microsurges. Phase III data showed that, in the first treatment year, degarelix displayed a lower risk of PSA failure or death (composite endpoint), lower levels of the bone marker serum alkaline phosphatase (in baseline metastatic disease), and fewer musculoskeletal AEs than the agonist leuprolide. Also, crossing over from leuprolide to degarelix after 1 year reduced the risk of PSA failure or death. ADT displays an AE spectrum which can impact quality of life as well as causing significant morbidities. Strategies to improve ADT tolerability have become increasingly important including: a holistic management approach, improved diet and exercise, more specific monitoring to detect and prevent testosterone depletion toxicities, and intermittent ADT allowing hormonal recovery between treatment periods. Clinical studies suggest possible benefits of GnRH antagonists over agonists based on different mechanisms of action. Gn

  15. [Epidemiology of prostate cancer in China: an overview and clinical implication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dingwei; Zhu, Yao

    2015-04-01

    Prostate cancer is a currently common disease in Chinese male. The incidence is increasing rapidly in urban area and the mortality is high in rural area. According to characteristics of disease stage, advancement in early diagnosis of prostate cancer is the key to improve prostate cancer survival in China. Because of the remarkable disparity in economic and health care across mainland China, a selective prostate cancer screen approach may be a better alternative to spread. Therefore, indepth researches in optimization of prostate specific antigen screen and validation biomarkers of aggressive prostate cancer should be advocated. Furthermore, physicians should take a more active role in population education.

  16. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Mudit Verma; Mukesh Verma; Payal Patel

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high ris...

  17. What Do Prostate Cancer Patients Die Of?

    OpenAIRE

    Riihimäki, Matias; Thomsen, Hauke; Brandt, Andreas; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2011-01-01

    The cause of death in prostate cancer patients is examined using the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. Prostate cancer patients were found to have a higher risk for dying from various causes other than prostate cancer, including external causes and heart failure.

  18. Immunotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovin, Susan F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Prostate cancer remains a challenge as a target for immunological approaches. The approval of the first cell-based immune therapy, Sipuleucel-T for prostate cancer introduced prostate cancer as a solid tumor with the potential to be influenced by the immune system. Methods: We reviewed articles on immunological management of prostate cancer and challenges that lie ahead for such strategies. Results: Treatments have focused on the identification of novel cell surface antigens thought to be unique to prostate cancer. These include vaccines against carbohydrate and blood group antigens, xenogeneic and naked DNA vaccines, and pox viruses used as prime-boost or checkpoint inhibitors. No single vaccine construct to date has resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect. The checkpoint inhibitor, anti-CTLA-4 has resulted in several long-term remissions, but phase III trials have not demonstrated an antitumor effect or survival benefit. Conclusions: Multiple clinical trials suggest that prostate cancer may not be optimally treated by single agent immune therapies and that combination with biologic agents, chemotherapies, or radiation may offer some enhancement of benefit. PMID:27843208

  19. Immunotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan F Slovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostate cancer remains a challenge as a target for immunological approaches. The approval of the first cell-based immune therapy, Sipuleucel-T for prostate cancer introduced prostate cancer as a solid tumor with the potential to be influenced by the immune system. Methods: We reviewed articles on immunological management of prostate cancer and challenges that lie ahead for such strategies. Results: Treatments have focused on the identification of novel cell surface antigens thought to be unique to prostate cancer. These include vaccines against carbohydrate and blood group antigens, xenogeneic and naked DNA vaccines, and pox viruses used as prime-boost or checkpoint inhibitors. No single vaccine construct to date has resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect. The checkpoint inhibitor, anti-CTLA-4 has resulted in several long-term remissions, but phase III trials have not demonstrated an antitumor effect or survival benefit. Conclusions: Multiple clinical trials suggest that prostate cancer may not be optimally treated by single agent immune therapies and that combination with biologic agents, chemotherapies, or radiation may offer some enhancement of benefit.

  20. CONSERVATIVE TREATMENT IN LOCALLY AND LOCALLY-ADVANCED PROSTATE CANCER USING CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachev Sergey Ivanovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of androgen deprivation and radiotherapy increase the probability of diseases full regresses and survival rate. Modern technical and technological opportunities of 3D CRT allow to increase total dose to prostate up to 72-76Gy vs. radiotherapy of 66-70Gy. In this study we compare the rates of post radiation toxicity and the efficiency of treatment for the patients receiving conventional radiotherapy and 3D CRT. The use of 3D CRT has not only result to increase of 10-years recurrence free survival rate from 74% (I grope to 86,5% (II grope, р=0,01, but also to increase of 10-years overall survival, 70% versus 78,4% (р=0,04. The proposed version of conformal 3D CRT radiation therapy made ​​it possible compared to conventional 2D RT radiation therapy by increasing SOD radiation to the tumor, accuracy and compliance with the quality assurance of radiation therapy significantly reduce rates of recurrence and significantly increase the performance of 10-year overall and disease-free survival.

  1. Lycopene: redress for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisipati, Sai Venkata Vedavyas; Pathapati, Harshavardhan; Bhukya, Ganesh; Nuthakki, Suresh; Chandu, Baburao; Nama, SreeKanth; Adeps, RajDev

    2012-03-01

    Lycopene, a carotenoid is what that gives red colour to some fruits like pomegranate, tomato, papaya etc... People with a sound diet of lycopene may have a less risk of cancers especially prostate cancer which is most impedent for the males of age 40-50 years. So, in countries of north America and Europe food contains much of the lycopene supplements. In accordance with the American journal of epidemiology 2002 studies implies that men with crushed serum lycopene levels are more divulged to prostate cancer and those with sound diet of lycopene have a less risk of prostate cancer. In a care study conveyed by The British journal of urology, men with prostate cancer are subjected to surgery and the tumour is detonated. Amongst the men half a set were supplemented with lycopene supplements and half were not. Those subjected with lycopene supplements have less bone pains and live longer than those not supplemented. This paints a picture about importance of lycopene in treatment of prostate cancer. This article evokes the importance of lycopene and its way of destroying the cancer. Lycopene reduces the risk of cancer by diverging its effect on the plasma Insulin like growth factor, on Connexins , and the most acceptable one, by quench of free radicals.

  2. Prostate cancer, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes, among men with metabolic aberrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Häggström, Christel; Stocks, Tanja; Nagel, Gabriele; Manjer, Jonas; Bjørge, Tone; Hallmans, Göran; Engeland, Anders; Ulmer, Hanno; Lindkvist, Björn; Selmer, Randi; Concin, Hans; Tretli, Steinar; Jonsson, Håkan; Stattin, Pär

    2014-01-01

    Few previous studies of metabolic aberrations and prostate cancer risk have taken into account the fact that men with metabolic aberrations have an increased risk of death from causes other than prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to calculate, in a real-life scenario, the risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes.

  3. Perceived causes of prostate cancer among prostate cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Oort, van I.M.; Kampman, E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate self-reported causes of prostate cancer among prostate cancer survivors in the Netherlands to obtain insight into the common beliefs and perceptions of risk factors for prostate cancer. Materials and methods A total of 956 prostate cancer survivors,

  4. {sup 89}Zr-huJ591 immuno-PET imaging in patients with advanced metastatic prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Solomon, Stephen B.; Durack, Jeremy C.; Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Lefkowitz, Robert A.; Osborne, Joseph R. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); O' Donoghue, Joseph A. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics, New York, NY (United States); Beylergil, Volkan; Ruan, Shutian; Cheal, Sarah M. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Lyashchenko, Serge [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiochemistry and Molecular Imaging Probes Core, New York, NY (United States); Gonen, Mithat [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States); Lewis, Jason S. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiochemistry and Molecular Imaging Probes Core, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Holland, Jason P. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology of Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Reuter, Victor E. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Loda, Massimo F. [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States); Smith-Jones, Peter M. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science of Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Weber, Wolfgang A.; Larson, Steven M. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Bander, Neil H. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Urology, New York, NY (United States); Scher, Howard I.; Morris, Michael J. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Given the bone tropism of prostate cancer, conventional imaging modalities poorly identify or quantify metastatic disease. {sup 89}Zr-huJ591 positron emission tomography (PET) imaging was performed in patients with metastatic prostate cancer to analyze and validate this as an imaging biomarker for metastatic disease. The purpose of this initial study was to assess safety, biodistribution, normal organ dosimetry, and optimal imaging time post-injection for lesion detection. Ten patients with metastatic prostate cancer received 5 mCi of {sup 89}Zr-huJ591. Four whole-body scans with multiple whole-body count rate measurements and serum activity concentration measurements were obtained in all patients. Biodistribution, clearance, and lesion uptake by {sup 89}Zr-huJ591 immuno-PET imaging was analyzed and dosimetry was estimated using MIRD techniques. Initial assessment of lesion targeting of {sup 89}Zr-huJ591 was done. Optimal time for imaging post-injection was determined. The dose was well tolerated with mild chills and rigors seen in two patients. The clearance of {sup 89}Zr-huJ591 from serum was bi-exponential with biological half-lives of 7 ± 4.5 h (range 1.1-14 h) and 62 ± 13 h (range 51-89 h) for initial rapid and later slow phase. Whole-body biological clearance was 219 ± 48 h (range 153-317 h). The mean whole-body and liver residence time was 78.7 and 25.6 h, respectively. Dosimetric estimates to critical organs included liver 7.7 ± 1.5 cGy/mCi, renal cortex 3.5 ± 0.4 cGy/mCi, and bone marrow 1.2 ± 0.2 cGy/mCi. Optimal time for patient imaging after injection was 7 ± 1 days. Lesion targeting of bone or soft tissue was seen in all patients. Biopsies were performed in 8 patients for a total 12 lesions, all of which were histologically confirmed as metastatic prostate cancer. One biopsy-proven lesion was not positive on {sup 89}Zr-huJ591, while the remaining 11 lesions were {sup 89}Zr-huJ591 positive. Two biopsy-positive nodal lesions were noted only on

  5. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0168 TITLE: Imaging prostatic lipids to distinguish aggressive prostate cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jackilen...Imaging prostatic lipids to distinguish aggressive prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0168 5b. GRANT NUMBER PC110361 5c. PROGRAM...Mechanisms linking fatty acid synthase overexpression, lipid accumulation, lipid oxidation, and tumor aggressiveness will be explored using

  6. The Danish Prostate Cancer Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen-Nielsen M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mary Nguyen-Nielsen,1,2 Søren Høyer,3 Søren Friis,4 Steinbjørn Hansen,5 Klaus Brasso,6 Erik Breth Jakobsen,7 Mette Moe,8 Heidi Larsson,9 Mette Søgaard,9 Anne Nakano,9,10 Michael Borre1 1Department of Urology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 2Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, 3Department of Pathology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 4Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, 5Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 6Copenhagen Prostate Cancer Center and Department of Urology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 7Department of Urology, Næstved Hospital, Næstved, 8Department of Oncology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, 9Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, 10Competence Centre for Health Quality and Informatics (KCKS-Vest, Aarhus, Denmark Aim of database: The Danish Prostate Cancer Database (DAPROCAdata is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively collected data on patients with incident prostate cancer in Denmark since February 2010. The overall aim of the DAPROCAdata is to improve the quality of prostate cancer care in Denmark by systematically collecting key clinical variables for the purposes of health care monitoring, quality improvement, and research. Study population: All Danish patients with histologically verified prostate cancer are included in the DAPROCAdata. Main variables: The DAPROCAdata registers clinical data and selected characteristics for patients with prostate cancer at diagnosis. Data are collected from the linkage of nationwide health registries and supplemented with online registration of key clinical variables by treating physicians at urological and oncological departments. Main variables include Gleason scores, cancer staging, prostate-specific antigen values, and therapeutic measures (active surveillance, surgery, radiotherapy, endocrine

  7. Targeting the Aberrant Androgen Receptor in Advanced Treatment Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    effectively disrupt the lethal mitotic phenotype; ii) the AR-V-driven transcriptome can provide biomarkers to identify patients at risk for progression and...as AR-FL will effectively disrupt the lethal mitotic phenotype and thereby improve the prognosis of patients with advanced CRPC; ii) the transcriptome

  8. Men, food, and prostate cancer: gender influences on men's diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mróz, Lawrence W; Chapman, Gwen E; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L

    2011-03-01

    Although healthy eating might enhance long-term survival, few men with prostate cancer make diet changes to advance their well-being. Men's typically poor diets and uninterest in self-health may impede nutrition interventions and diet change. Food choice behavior is complex involving many determinants, including gender, which can shape men's health practices, diets, and prostate cancer experiences. Developing men-centered prostate cancer nutrition interventions to engage men (and where appropriate their partners) in promoting healthy diets can afford health benefits. This article presents an overview and synthesis of current knowledge about men's food practices and provides an analysis of diet and diet change behaviors for men with prostate cancer. Masculinity and gender relations theory are discussed in the context of men's food practices, and suggestions for future applications to nutrition and prostate cancer research and diet interventions are made.

  9. Alcohol May Fuel Prostate Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162033.html Alcohol May Fuel Prostate Cancer Risk The more men ... and Australian scientists found a significant association between alcohol and prostate cancer risk, though they did not ...

  10. Tracking Origins of Prostate Cancer: An Innovative in Vivo Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    challenges in management of patients with prostate cancer. To make rapid advances in understanding of disease mechanism that can be translated to clinical...males with Tamoxifen injection (10mg/ml in corn oil, 100µl/adult/day, for five consecutive days). We checked prostate for XFP expression in all of...check whether those signals are background noise, we harvested prostate from non-induced control animal (littermate with same genotype) and did

  11. Nanotherapies for treating prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danquah, Michael

    -co-lactide) [PEG-b-P(CB-co-LA)] copolymers were synthesized and characterized by NMR and gel permeation chromatography. Micelles formulated using these copolymers had average diameter of 100 nm and distinct spherical shape. Drug loading studies revealed that adding the carbonate monomer could increase bicalutamide loading. Among the series, drug loading of micelles formulated with PEG-b-P(CB-co-LA) copolymer containing 20 mol% carbonate was about four-fold higher than PEG-b-PLLA and aqueous solubility of bicalutamide increased from 5 to 4000 μg/mL. CMC values for PEG-b-P(CB-co-LA) copolymers was up to 10-fold lower than those of PEG-b-PLLA. Bicalutamide-loaded PEG-b-P(CB-co-LA) micelles showed significant inhibition of LNCaP cell growth in a dose dependent manner which was similar to the methanol solution of free drug. Bicalutamide tends to act as an agonist rather than an antagonist after prolonged treatment. Hence, a second generation antiandrogen ((S)-N-(4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl)-3-((4-cyanophenyl)(methyl)amino)-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide) (CBDIV17)) was synthesized and its effect in combination with XIAP inhibitors for treating advanced prostate cancer was determined. CBDIV17 was more potent than bicalutamide and inhibited proliferation of C4-2 and LNCaP cells. CBDIV17-induced apoptosis more effectively compared to bicalutamide and significantly inhibited DNA replication. Combination of CBDIV17 and embelin resulted in supra-additive antiproliferative and apoptotic effects. Embelin downregulated AR expression and decreased androgen-mediated AR phosphorylation at Ser81. These hydrophobic drugs were solubilized using micelles prepared using polyethylene glycol-b-poly (carbonate-co-lactide) (PEG-b-p(CB-co-PLA)) copolymer. Combination therapy inhibited prostate tumor growth more effectively compared to control or monotherapy in vivo. The findings reported in this work demonstrate the potential benefit of combination therapy targeting AR and XIAP pathways for treating

  12. MAGI-2 in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Jeffery; Borowsky, Alexander D; Goyal, Rajen;

    2016-01-01

    described in prostate cancer. We studied the immunohistochemical expression of MAGI-2 protein in prostate tissue. Seventy-eight radical prostatectomies were used to construct 3 tissue microarrays consisting of 512 cores, including benign tissue, benign prostatic hyperplasia, high-grade prostatic...... to distinguish benign tissue and adenocarcinoma, a receiver operating curve yielded an area under the curve of 0.902. A STAIN threshold of 1470 yielded a sensitivity of 0.66 and specificity of 0.96. There was a significant correlation between PTEN and MAGI-2 staining for normal and benign prostatic hyperplasia...... by %AREA (STAIN). By visual and image analysis, MAGI-2 was significantly higher in adenocarcinoma and HGPIN compared with benign (benign versus HGPIN P benign versus adenocarcinoma, P

  13. Low Risk Prostate Cancer and Active Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bul (Meelan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe first part of this thesis comprises an introduction to prostate cancer and screening (chapter 1). The European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) has shown an effect of screening on prostate cancer mortality in favor of the screening population, however, contro

  14. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Cuzick (Jack); M.A. Thorat (Mangesh A); G. Andriole (Gerald); O.W. Brawley (Otis W); P.H. Brown (Powel H); Z. Culig (Zoran); R. Eeles (Rosalind); L.G. Ford (Leslie G); F. Hamdy (Freddie); L. Holmberg (Lars); D. Ilic (Dragan); T.J. Key (Timothy J); C.L. Vecchia (Carlo La); H. Lilja (Hans); M. Marberger (Michael); F.L. Meyskens (Frank L); L.M. Minasian (Lori M); C. Parker (C.); H.L. Parnes (Howard L); S. Perner (Sven); H. Rittenhouse (Harry); J.A. Schalken (J.); H.-P. Schmid (Hans-Peter); B.J. Schmitz-Dräger (Bernd J); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A. Stenzl (Arnulf); B. Tombal (Bertrand); T.J. Wilt (Timothy J.); K. Wolk (Kerstin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by pr

  15. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    evaluate medication safety. Examples of HERCe research include recent publications on breast cancer treatments, complications of chemotherapy for...with specific interest in minimally invasive procedures, new techniques, and outcomes. Dr. Brown initiated many of the laparoscopic and robotic ... surgery as it is one of the main areas of his clinical expertise. Currently, he performs more prostate cancer surgery than any other physician in

  16. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  17. Regional hyperthermia in conjunction with definitive radiotherapy against recurrent or locally advanced prostate cancer T3pNoMo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilly, W.; Gellermann, J.; Graf, R.; Felix, R.; Wust, P. [Dept. of Radiation Medicine, Charite Medical School, Berlin (Germany); Hildebrandt, B. [Dept. of Internal Medicine - Hematology and Oncology, Charite Medical School, Berlin (Germany); Weissbach, L. [Dept. of Urology, Urban Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Budach, V. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Charite Medical School, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: since long-term results of the standard treatment of locally advanced or recurrent prostatic carcinoma are unsatisfactory, the role for additional regional hyperthermia was evaluated in a phase I/II study. Patients and methods: from 08/1996 to 03/2000, 22 patients were treated by a standard irradiation regimen (68.4 Gy) in combination with regional hyperthermia (weekly, five to six times), and five of 22 patients received short-term (neoadjuvant) hormonal treatment. Of these, 15 patients had primary prostatic carcinoma T3 pNO MO and seven a histologically confirmed local recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Feasibility of hyperthermia, and acute/late toxicity as well as long-term follow-up (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] control, overall survival) were analyzed. Clinical endpoints were correlated with thermal parameters. Results: mean maximum temperatures along the urethra of 41.4 C (41.0 C for the recurrences), and mean T{sub 90} values of 40.7 C could be achieved. Severe acute toxicity of grade 3 occurred at the rectum in three, at the urethra in four, at the intestine in one, and a burn induced by hyperthermia in one of 22 patients. Late toxicity was only observed rectally in one patient (grade 3) and at the urethra in two patients (grade 2). There was no correlation between thermal parameters and any toxicity. The survival curves showed a PSA control for primary prostatic carcinoma > 50% after 6 years, but no long-term PSA control for the recurrences. Overall survival after 6 years was 95% for primary carcinoma, and 60% for the recurrences. There was a clear correlation between higher temperatures or thermal doses with long-term PSA control. Conclusion: regional hyperthermia might be a low-toxicity approach to increase PSA control of common treatment schedules. Further evaluation, in particular employing improved hyperthermia technology, is worthwhile. (orig.)

  18. Comparison of Prostate-Specific Promoters and the Use of PSP-Driven Virotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men today. Although virus-based gene therapy is a promising strategy to combat advanced prostate cancer, its current effectiveness is limited partially due to inefficient cellular transduction in vivo. To overcome this obstacle, conditional oncolytic viruses (such as conditional replication adenovirus (CRAD are developed to specifically target prostate without (or with minimal systemic toxicity due to viral self-replication. In this study, we have analyzed and compared three prostate-specific promoters (PSA, probasin, and MMTV LTR for their specificity and activity both in vitro and in vivo. Both mice model with xenograft prostate tumor model and canine model were used. The best PSP was selected to construct a prostate-specific oncolytic adenovirus (CRAD by controlling the adenoviral E1 region. The efficacy and specificity of CRAD on prostate cancer cells were examined in cell culture and animal models.

  19. The high prevalence of undiagnosed prostate cancer at autopsy: implications for epidemiology and treatment of prostate cancer in the Prostate-specific Antigen-era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Jaquelyn L; Giovannucci, Edward L; Stampfer, Meir J

    2015-12-15

    Widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening detects many cancers that would have otherwise gone undiagnosed. To estimate the prevalence of unsuspected prostate cancer, we reviewed 19 studies of prostate cancer discovered at autopsy among 6,024 men. Among men aged 70-79, tumor was found in 36% of Caucasians and 51% of African-Americans. This enormous prevalence, coupled with the high sensitivity of PSA screening, has led to the marked increase in the apparent incidence of prostate cancer. The impact of PSA screening on clinical practice is well-recognized, but its effect on epidemiologic research is less appreciated. Before screening, a larger proportion of incident prostate cancers had lethal potential and were diagnosed at advanced stage. However, in the PSA era, overall incident prostate cancer mainly is indolent disease, and often reflects the propensity to be screened and biopsied. Studies must therefore focus on cancers with lethal potential, and include long follow-up to accommodate the lead time induced by screening. Moreover, risk factor patterns differ markedly for potentially lethal and indolent disease, suggesting separate etiologies and distinct disease entities. Studies of total incident or indolent prostate cancer are of limited clinical utility, and the main focus of research should be on prostate cancers of lethal potential.

  20. VEGF and prostatic cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Francisco; Pina, Francisco; Lunet, Nuno

    2010-09-01

    Elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blood concentration reflects its prostatic production, making this a potentially interesting tumour marker to support the decision of submitting a patient for prostatic biopsy. The objective was to review systematically the evidence on the role of VEGF blood concentration in prostate cancer detection. Published studies addressing the relation between serum or plasma VEGF levels and prostate cancer were identified by searching Pubmed, ISI Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS and LILACS up to January 2010, and reviewed following a standardized protocol. Three studies reported higher plasma VEGF (pg/ml) in patients with localized prostate cancer than in healthy controls (7.0 vs. 0.0, 9.9 vs. 2.2, and 210 vs. 26.5, Pprostate cancer patients than in patients with benign prostate hypertrophy (518.9 vs. 267.9, Pbenign prostate hypertrophy, localized or metastatic prostate cancer. The three studies that used controls with previous suspicion of prostatic cancer but a negative biopsy reported non-statistically significant difference in VEGF serum levels (pg/ml) between controls and localized prostate cancer patients (241 vs. 206; 69.5 vs. 55; 215.2 vs. 266.4). Higher VEGF plasma levels are observed in prostatic cancer patients compared with healthy controls, but serum levels do not appear to be useful in differentiating benign from malignant prostatic disease using, as controls, individuals with high risk of prostate cancer and negative biopsy.

  1. Subcapsular Orchiectomy in the Primary Therapy of Patients with Bone Metastasis in Advanced Prostate Cancer: An Anachronistic Intervention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Rud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The therapeutic impact of palliative androgen deprivation in metastatic prostate cancer is indisputable. Bilateral orchiectomy represents the traditional method of AD but was reduced during the last years in favor for treatment with LHRH analogues. Due to limited economic resources of the health care system, the economically priced definite surgical castration might experience a renaissance. Methods. In this single-center retrospective study, 83 consecutive patients with osseous metastasized prostate cancer were evaluated, who had primarily been treated by subcapsular bilateral orchiectomy. Response to therapy, time until therapy failure, overall survival time, psychological disorders due to loss of organ, and disease-associated and postoperative surgical complications were recorded. The median followup was 35 months (IQR: 26–46. Results. Patients' mean age at surgery was 72.1 (54–91 years. Six patients (7.2% displayed immediate tumor progression after orchiectomy. Median time of tumor remission and overall survival time were 29 and 36 months, respectively. 14% of the study group showed minor postoperative complications. No psychological problems occurred following bilateral orchiectomy. Conclusion. Due to an effective and persistent oncological effectiveness, less morbidity, and absence of psychological implications, bilateral subcapsular orchiectomy seems to be a practicable and advisable alternative in the first-line therapy of metastasized PCa.

  2. Fyn: A Key Regulator of Metastasis in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    reviewed manuscript entitled “SRC family kinase FYN promotes the neuroendocrine phenotype and visceral metastasis in advanced prostate cancer ”. This...Genitourinary Malignancies. Advances in Cancer Immunotherapy- Society of Immunologic Therapy for Cancer . June 19, 2015 26. Circulating tumor cell...Medical Center (2011-2014) • Cancer Quality Committee Member- Cedars Sinai Medical Center (2011-2014) • Protocol Review and Monitoring Committee

  3. Prostate cancer cells metastasize to the hematopoietic stem cell niche in bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evan T Keller

    2011-01-01

    @@ The majority of men with advanced prostate cancer develop bone metastases as opposed to metastases at other sites.1 It has been unclear why prostate cancer selectively metastasizes to and proliferates in bone.Recently, Shiozawa et al.Delineated a mechanism that may account for the establishment of prostate cancer in bone.2 Specifically, they identified that prostate cancer cells compete with hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) for the osteoblast in the HSC niche of the bone.Defining the mechanisms through which prostate cancer cells establish themselves in bone is critical towards developing effective therapeutic strategies to prevent or target bone metastases.

  4. The Danish Prostate Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Nielsen, Mary; Høyer, Søren; Friis, Søren

    2016-01-01

    . A key feature of DAPROCAdata is the routine collection of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM), including data on quality-of-life (pain levels, physical activity, sexual function, depression, urine and fecal incontinence) and lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, and body mass index...... variables include Gleason scores, cancer staging, prostate-specific antigen values, and therapeutic measures (active surveillance, surgery, radiotherapy, endocrine therapy, and chemotherapy). DESCRIPTIVE DATA: In total, 22,332 patients with prostate cancer were registered in DAPROCAdata as of April 2015...

  5. Prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis: differential diagnosis of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lima Lopes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a very rare condition; however, it may express as a typical benign prostatic hyperplasia or a simulating prostatic adenocarcinoma. This case report presents PCM mimicking prostatic adenocarcinoma. The purpose of this paper is to call the general physician's attention to this important differential diagnosis.

  6. Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CareBlog Make a Difference Planned Giving Cause-Related Marketing Research Quick Links Urologic Conditions Financials & Annual Report Leadership Privacy Statement Link Policy American Urological Association © 2017 Urology Care Foundation | All Rights Reserved.

  7. Serum testosterone as a prognostic factor in patients with advanced prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Christensen, I J

    1994-01-01

    In 245 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate, serum concentrations of testosterone have been measured before androgen deprivation therapy, and patients were divided in quartiles according to their serum concentration. Pretreatment level of serum testosterone...... parameters suggest that low serum testosterone merely is a consequence of the advanced malignancy rather than a causative factor in the pathogenesis of prostatic cancer....

  8. ABO Blood Group Alleles and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markt, Sarah C.; Shui, Irene M.; Unger, Robert H.; Urun, Yuksel; Berg, Christine D.; Black, Amanda; Brennan, Paul; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gapstur, Susan M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Canzian, Federico; Larranga, Nerea; Le Marchand, Loic; Ma, Jing; Naccarati, Alessio; Siddiq, Afshan; Stampfer, Meir J.; Stattin, Par; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stram, Daniel O.; Tjønneland, Anne; Travis, Ruth C.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Ziegler, Regina G.; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Choueiri, Toni K.; Wilson, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Background ABO blood group has been associated with risk of cancers of the pancreas, stomach, ovary, kidney and skin, but has not been evaluated in relation to risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Methods We used three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs8176746, rs505922, and rs8176704) to determine ABO genotype in 2,774 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 4,443 controls from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate age and study adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between blood type, genotype and risk of aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥8 or locally advanced/metastatic disease (stage T3/T4/N1/M1). Results We found no association between ABO blood type and risk of aggressive prostate cancer (Type A: OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.87-1.08; Type B: OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.77-1.09; Type AB: OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.98-1.59, compared to Type O, respectively). Similarly, there was no association between ‘dose’ of A or B alleles and aggressive prostate cancer risk. Conclusions ABO blood type was not associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer. PMID:26268879

  9. Improvement of recurrence-free survival after radical prostatectomy for locally advanced prostate cancer in relation to the time of surgical intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Veliev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to comparatively estimate the frequency of a positive surgical margin and 5-year biochemical recurrent-free survival (BRFS rates in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer in relation to the time of radical retropubic prostatectomy.Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 274 patients with prostate cancer (pT3-4N0-1M0 who were divided into 2 groups of 68 and 20 patients operated on in 1997 to 2006 and 2007 to 2012, respectively. Two surgeons made surgical interventions by the standardized procedure. The 5-year BRFS rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. A biochemical recurrence was defined as a prostatespecific antigen level of t 0.2 ng / ml in 2 consecutive measurements or as the initiation of adjuvant therapy.Results. The detection rate of a positive surgical margin decreased from 55.9 % in 1997–2006 to 37.9 % in 2007–2012 (p = 0.01; the 5-year recurrence-free survival rates were 38.8 % versus 66.2 % (p < 0.001.Conclusion. These changes would probably be a result of surgeons» better experience and improved surgical techniques in the course of time.

  10. Diagnostic strategies and the incidence of prostate cancer:reasons for the low reported incidence of prostate cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Zhang; Shan Wu; Li-Rong Guo; Xue-Jian Zhao

    2009-01-01

    We have analysed the reasons for the low reported incidence of prostate cancer in China and argue for early diagnosis and treatment of this disease.According to the 2002 database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC),the age-standardized incidence of prostate cancer in China is 1.6/105 person years (PY),with a mortality rate of 1.0/105PY and mortality-to-incidence rate ratio (MR/IR)=0.63.The MR/IR ratio of prostate cancer in China was found to be higher than the average in Asia (MR/IR=0.57) and much higher than that in North America (MR/IR=0.13).These data indicate that in China most prostate cancers were in the advanced stages at the time of diagnosis,and that patients had a short survival time thereafter.In 2004,Stamey et al.reported a retrospective American study of prostate cancer for the years 1983-2003.It was shown that most cases of prostate cancer detected by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening were in the advanced stage at the start of this 20-year period.These early follow-up data are quite similar to the results obtained from mass PSA screening of elderly men in Changchun,China.However,after the American programmes for early diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer were accepted,tumours were diagnosed at earlier stages.On the basis of these findings,mass screening should be performed in the whole of China using serum PSA to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.

  11. Investigating Steroid Receptor Coactivator 3 (SRC3) as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Treating Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    animal " models"to"study"the"function"of"SRCC3" in"prostate"cancer...34 I" am" now" making" cosmetic " changes" to" the" article" requested" by" the" editors"prior"to"its"inclusion"in"the"journal.""The"review"article,"as...Generate" experimental " (ptenf/f" /SRCC3f/f" /p63CreERT2)" and" control"mice" (ptenf/f/" p63CreERT2)" mice**

  12. Prostate Cancer, Prostate Cancer Death, and Death from Other Causes, Among Men with Metabolic Aberrations

    OpenAIRE

    Häggström, Christel; Stocks, Tanja; Nagel, Gabriele; Manjer, Jonas; Bjørge, Tone; Hallmans, Göran; Engeland, Anders; Ulmer, Hanno; Lindkvist, Bjorn; Selmer, Randi; Concin, Hans; Tretli, Steinar; Jonsson, Håkan; Stattin, Pär

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few previous studies of metabolic aberrations and prostate cancer risk have taken into account the fact that men with metabolic aberrations have an increased risk of death from causes other than prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to calculate, in a real-life scenario, the risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes. Methods: In the Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer Project, prospective data on body mass index, blood pressure, glucose, ...

  13. Psychosocial Consequences of Overdiagnostic of Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sigrid Brisson; Brodersen, John

    Psychosocial Consequences of Overdiagnostic of Prostate Cancer Sigrid Brisson Nielsen & John Brodersen Introduction In Denmark there are approximately 4400 men diagnosed with prostate cancer each year and nearly 1200 men dies of this disease yearly. The incidence of prostate cancer has increased...... for the past twenty years and make up 24 % of all cancer incidents in men. However, the mortality of prostate cancer has not changed in line with this increase. Empirical evidence shows that the increase in incidence of prostate cancer in Denmark without an increase in the mortality is mostly caused...... by opportunistic PSA screening in General Practice. It is recommended that men ≥ 60 year old diagnosed with prostate cancer and a Gleason score ≤ 6 are monitored with active surveillance. This is due to the probability of this type of cancer metastasizing is very small as approximately 90 % of them is assumed...

  14. Updated results of high-dose rate brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy for locally and locally advanced prostate cancer using the RTOG-ASTRO phoenix definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Pellizzon

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic factors for patients with local or locally advanced prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy (RT and high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR according to the RTOG-ASTRO Phoenix Consensus Conference. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The charts of 209 patients treated between 1997 and 2005 with localized RT and HDR as a boost at the Department of Radiation Oncology, AC Camargo Hospital, Sao Paulo, Brazil were reviewed. Clinical and treatment parameters i.e.: patient's age, Gleason score, clinical stage, initial PSA (iPSA, risk group (RG for biochemical failure, doses of RT and HDR were evaluated. Median age and median follow-up time were 68 and 5.3 years, respectively. Median RT and HDR doses were 45 Gy and 20 Gy. RESULTS: Disease specific survival (DSS at 3.3 year was 94.2%. Regarding RG, for the LR (low risk, IR (intermediate risk and HR (high risk, the DSS rates at 3.3 years were 91.5%, 90.2% and 88.5%, respectively. On univariate analysis prognostic factors related to DSS were RG (p = 0.040, Gleason score ≤ 6 ng/mL (p = 0.002, total dose of HDR ≥ 20 Gy (p < 0.001 On multivariate analysis the only statistical significant predictive factor for biochemical control (bNED was the RG, p < 0.001 (CI - 1.147-3.561. CONCLUSIONS: Although the radiation dose administered to the prostate is an important factor related to bNED, this could not be established with statistical significance in this group of patients. To date , in our own experience, HDR associated to RT could be considered a successful approach in the treatment of prostate cancer.

  15. Effects of Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer of men worldwide. The number of new cases worldwide was estimated at 899,000 and accounted for 13.6% of all cancers in men in 2008. With an estimated 258,000 deaths in 2008, prostate cancer is the sixth leading cause of death

  16. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    2011.  LaTayia Aaron and Joann Powell. (2012). Dioxin exposure enhances nuclear localization of androgen receptor...to be trained in different areas of prostate cancer research. For example, the focus areas or research include Biomarkers , Therapy, Genetics, and...example, the focus areas or research include Biomarkers , Therapy, Genetics, and Tumor Biology as outlined by the laboratory research descriptions in the

  17. Potential Prognostic Markers for Human Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Prostate 35: 185-192, 1998 osteoblasts on prostate carcinoma proliferation and chemo- 32. Trikha M, Cai Y, Grignon D, Honn KV: Identification taxis ...Markers for Human Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Bruce R. Zetter, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Children’s Hospital Boston, Massachusetts...March 2001 Final (1 Sep 98 - 28 Feb 01) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Potential Prognostic Markers for Human Prostate Cancer DAMD17-98-1

  18. Ureteral metastasis from prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Hiroshi; Kosaka, Takeo; Yoshimine, Shunsuke; Oya, Mototsugu

    2014-08-28

    A 59-year-old man had an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration (439 ng/mL) in December 2008. We diagnosed prostatic adenocarcinoma by prostate needle biopsy. CT and MRI showed a prostatic tumour with bone and lymph node metastases. Combined androgen blockade therapy reduced the PSA level temporarily. After the PSA level gradually started to increase again and reached 27.27 ng/mL in October 2010, the patient was diagnosed with castration-resistant prostate cancer and treated with docetaxel chemotherapy. Radiological examination detected left hydronephrosis and a tumour in the left lower ureter in March 2011. Retrograde pyelography and urine cytology of class 3 from the left ureter indicated that the ureteral mass was a urothelial carcinoma. A left nephroureterectomy was performed. After the operation, the pathological examination showed a metastatic prostate carcinoma, accompanied by a decrease in the serum PSA level from 59.56 to 45.33 ng/mL.

  19. Stem cell and neurogenic gene-expression profiles link prostate basal cells to aggressive prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dingxiao; Park, Daechan; Zhong, Yi; Lu, Yue; Rycaj, Kiera; Gong, Shuai; Chen, Xin; Liu, Xin; Chao, Hsueh-Ping; Whitney, Pamela; Calhoun-Davis, Tammy; Takata, Yoko; Shen, Jianjun; Iyer, Vishwanath R; Tang, Dean G

    2016-02-29

    The prostate gland mainly contains basal and luminal cells constructed as a pseudostratified epithelium. Annotation of prostate epithelial transcriptomes provides a foundation for discoveries that can impact disease understanding and treatment. Here we describe a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of human benign prostatic basal and luminal epithelial populations using deep RNA sequencing. Through molecular and biological characterizations, we show that the differential gene-expression profiles account for their distinct functional properties. Strikingly, basal cells preferentially express gene categories associated with stem cells, neurogenesis and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) biogenesis. Consistent with this profile, basal cells functionally exhibit intrinsic stem-like and neurogenic properties with enhanced rRNA transcription activity. Of clinical relevance, the basal cell gene-expression profile is enriched in advanced, anaplastic, castration-resistant and metastatic prostate cancers. Therefore, we link the cell-type-specific gene signatures to aggressive subtypes of prostate cancer and identify gene signatures associated with adverse clinical features.

  20. Consensus and differences in primary radiotherapy for localized and locally advanced prostate cancer in Switzerland. A survey on patterns of practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panje, Cedric M. [Kantonsspital St. Gallen, Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Universitaetsspital Zuerich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Zurich (Switzerland); Dal Pra, Alan [Inselspital Bern, Department of Radiation Oncology, Bern (Switzerland); Zilli, Thomas [Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva (Switzerland); Zwahlen, Daniel R. [Kantonsspital Graubuenden, Department of Radiation Oncology, Chur (Switzerland); Papachristofilou, Alexandros [Universitaetsspital Basel, Department of Radiation Oncology, Basel (Switzerland); Herrera, Fernanda G. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Matzinger, Oscar [Hopital Riviera-Chablais, Department of Radiation Oncology, Vevey (Switzerland); Plasswilm, Ludwig; Putora, Paul Martin [Kantonsspital St. Gallen, Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT), with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), is an established treatment option for nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Despite high-level evidence from several randomized trials, risk group stratification and treatment recommendations vary due to contradictory or inconclusive data, particularly with regard to EBRT dose prescription and ADT duration. Our aim was to investigate current patterns of practice in primary EBRT for prostate cancer in Switzerland. Treatment recommendations on EBRT and ADT for localized and locally advanced prostate cancer were collected from 23 Swiss radiation oncology centers. Written recommendations were converted into center-specific decision trees, and analyzed for consensus and differences using a dedicated software tool. Additionally, specific radiotherapy planning and delivery techniques from the participating centers were assessed. The most commonly prescribed radiation dose was 78 Gy (range 70-80 Gy) across all risk groups. ADT was recommended for intermediate-risk patients for 6 months in over 80 % of the centers, and for high-risk patients for 2 or 3 years in over 90 % of centers. For recommendations on combined EBRT and ADT treatment, consensus levels did not exceed 39 % in any clinical scenario. Arc-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is implemented for routine prostate cancer radiotherapy by 96 % of the centers. Among Swiss radiation oncology centers, considerable ranges of radiotherapy dose and ADT duration are routinely offered for localized and locally advanced prostate cancer. In the vast majority of cases, doses and durations are within the range of those described in current evidence-based guidelines. (orig.) [German] Die Radiotherapie (RT) ist als Monotherapie oder in Kombination mit einer Androgendeprivationstherapie (ADT) eine etablierte Behandlungsoption fuer das lokalisierte und lokal fortgeschrittene Prostatakarzinom. Trotz der guten Evidenzlage durch zahlreiche

  1. Re: Final Report of the Intergroup Randomized Study of Combined AndrogenDeprivation Therapy Plus Radiotherapy Versus Androgen-Deprivation Therapy Alone in Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm D. Mason

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available No certain treatment recommendations were given for locally advanced or high-risk prostate cancer in the European Association of Urology (EAU guidelines (1. In the guidelines, studies supporting surgery or radiotherapy (RT were listed, and the readers were left alone to make their own decisions. In the present study, Mason et al. reported the impact of adding RT to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. One thousand two hundred and five patients with T3- 4, N0/Nx, M0 prostate cancer or T1-2 disease with either PSA more than 40 μg/L or PSA 20 to 40 μg/L plus Gleason score of 8 to 10 were randomized to ADT alone (n=602 or to ADT+RT (n=603. A lower dose radiation 64 to 69 Gy was used for RT. Overall survival (OS risk reduction was 30% for ADT+RT group (P<0.001 at a median follow-up of 8 years. Cancer-specific survival (CSS was significantly improved by the addition of RT to ADT (HR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.61; p<0.001. Patients on ADT+RT reported a higher frequency of adverse events related to bowel toxicity. However, reported frequency of ADT-related toxicities (impotence, hot flushes, urinary frequency, ischemia, and hypertension were similar for both arms. The present study provided results of high-risk patients in a longer median follow-up time than SPCG-7 study (2. Because the study took place between 1995 and 2005, less than 70 Gy was used for RT. Even at lower radiation doses, the authors confirmed that adding RT to ADT improved both OS and cancer-specific survival (CSS with minimal general toxicity. In the modern era, improved RT techniques may help achieve better outcomes with much higher radiation doses without increased morbidity in this group of patients

  2. Prostate cancer:diagnosis and staging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nigel Borley; Mark R.Feneley

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer represents an increasing health burden.The past 20 years,with the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA),has seen prostate cancer move increasingly from a condition that presented with locally advanced disease or metastases to one that is found upon screening.More is also known about the pathology of pre-malignant lesions.Diagnosis relies on trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) to obtain biopsies from throughout the prostate,but TRUS is not useful for staging.Imaging for staging,such as magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography,still has a low accuracy compared with pathological specimens.Current techniques are also inaccurate in identifying lymph node and bony metastases.Nomograms have been developed from the PSA,Gleason score and clinical grading to help quantify the risk of extra-capsular extension in radical prostatectomy specimens.Improved clinical staging modalities are required for more reliable prediction of pathological stage and for monitoring of response to treatments.

  3. Current status of radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Radiotherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer has been extensively explored in the past. Along with the comprehensive understanding of the biology of prostate cancer and rapid advances in terms of technology, the outcome of treatment for the patients with prostate cancer has improved. The authors review radiotherapy as the primary treatment for the disease, with particular emphasis on the technological advances from both the radiobiological and radiophysics aspects. Nonconventional fractionated irradiation like hyper- or hypo-fractionation has been implemented in the clinic, the final results still need to be confirmed in the future. Technological advances like IMRT, IGRT,in the last two decades have significantly improved the delivery of external radiotherapy to the prostate. This has resulted in an overall increase in the total dose that can be safely delivered to the prostate, which has led to modest improvements in the biochemical outcome. However, establishing the standard therapy for prostate cancer remains controversial. It is hoped that the next decades will bring continued advances in the development of biologicals that will further improve current clinical outcomes.

  4. Pancreatic Metastasis from Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pancreas is an unusual location for metastases from other primary cancers. Rarely, pancreatic metastases from kidney or colorectal cancers have been reported. However, a variety of other cancers may also spread to the pancreas. We report an exceptional case of pancreatic metastasis from prostate cancer. Differences in management between primary and secondary pancreatic tumors make recognition of metastases to the pancreas an objective of first importance. Knowledge of unusual locations for metastatic spread will reduce diagnostic delay and lead to a timely delivery of an appropriate treatment.

  5. An Overview of Current Screening and Management Approaches for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Omar N; Mushtaq, Gohar; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the fourth leading cause of mortality in Australian men. The prevalence and incidence is increasing in both developed and developing nations, thus there is a need for better screening and management of this disorder. While there is no direct known cause of prostate cancer, management is largely focused on early detection and treatment strategies. Of particular concern is advanced prostate cancer which can manifest as castrate resistant prostate cancer characterized by therapy resistance. This short review outlines the global epidemiology of prostate cancer, clinical manifestations, risk factors, current screening strategies including first line clinical screening as well as the use of circulating biomarkers, and treatment of prostate cancer through mainstream therapeutics as well as the cutting edge peptide and nano-technology based therapeutics that are being implemented or in the process of development to overcome therapeutic obstacles in the treatment of prostate cancer.

  6. The 22nd annual prostate cancer foundation scientific retreat report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahira, Andrea K; Simons, Jonathan W; Soule, Howard R

    2016-09-01

    The 22nd Annual Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) Scientific Retreat was convened in Washington, D.C. from October 8 to 10, 2015. This event is the foremost scientific conference in the world focusing on basic, translational, and clinical prostate cancer research with the highest potential for accelerating the understanding of prostate cancer biology and improving the lives and outcomes of prostate cancer patients. Topics highlighted during the 2015 Retreat included: (i) new strategies and treatments for localized high-risk, hormone-naïve, oligometastatic, castrate-resistant, and treatment-refractory prostate cancer settings; (ii) the biology and genomics of tumor heterogeneity and tumor evolution; (iii) new understandings on the mechanisms and targeting of oncogenic drivers of prostate cancer; (iv) bioengineering of novel therapies and drug delivery methods; (v) innovative approaches to tumor immunotherapy; (vi) emerging molecular imaging technologies with improved sensitivity and specificity; and (vii) advancements in prognostic and predictive biomarkers and precision medicine strategies. Prostate 76:1037-1052, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Stromal Androgen Receptor Roles in the Development of Normal Prostate, Benign Prostate Hyperplasia, and Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Simeng; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Tian, Jing; Shang, Zhiqun; Niu, Yuanjie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2015-01-01

    The prostate is an androgen-sensitive organ that needs proper androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signals for normal development. The progression of prostate diseases, including benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa), also needs proper androgen/AR signals. Tissue recombination studies report that stromal, but not epithelial, AR plays more critical roles via the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions to influence the early process of prostate development. However, in BPH and PCa,...

  8. Prostate cancer and metastasis initiating stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kathleen Kelly; Juan Juan Yin

    2008-01-01

    Androgen refractory prostate cancer metastasis is a major clinical challenge.Mechanism-based approaches to treating prostate cancer metastasis require an understanding of the developmental origin of the metastasis-initiating cell.Properties of prostate cancer metastases such as plasticity with respect to differentiated phenotype and androgen independence are consistent with the transformation of a prostate epithelial progenitor or stem cell leading to metastasis.This review focuses upon current evidence and concepts addressing the identification and properties of normal prostate stem or progenitor cells and their transformed counterparts.

  9. Diagnostic utility of DTI in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerses, Bengi, E-mail: bengur0@yahoo.com [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Tasdelen, Neslihan [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Yencilek, Faruk [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Kilickesmez, N. Ozguer [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Alp, Turgut [Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, Division of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Firat, Zeynep [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Albayrak, M. Selami [Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Division of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Ulug, Aziz M. [Yeditepe University Department of Biomedical Engineering, Istanbul (Turkey); The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York (United States); Guermen, A. Nevzat [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the diffusion tensor parameters of prostate cancer, prostatitis and normal prostate tissue. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 patients with the suspicion of prostate cancer were included in the study. MRI was performed with 3 T system (Intera Achieva, Philips Medical Systems, The Netherlands). T2 TSE and DTI with ss-EPI were obtained in each subject. TRUS-guided prostate biopsy was performed after the MRI examination. Images were analyzed by two radiologists using a special software system. ROI's were drawn according to biopsy zones which are apex, midgland, base and central zone on each sides of the gland. FA and ADC values in areas of cancer, chronic prostatitis and normal prostate tissue were compared using Student's t-test. Results: Histopathological analysis revealed carcinoma in 68, chronic prostatitis in 67 and was reported as normal in 65 zones. The mean FA of cancerous tissue was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than the FA of chronic prostatitis and normal gland. The mean ADC of cancerous tissue was found to be significantly lower (p < 0.01), compared with non-cancerous tissue. Conclusion: Decreased ADC and increased FA are compatible with the hypercellular nature of prostate tumors. These differences may increase the accuracy of MRI in the detection of carcinoma and to differentiate between cancer and prostatitis.

  10. Telomere Length as a Predictor of Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    45. PMID: 19668150 Vander Griend DJ, Konishi Y, De Marzo AM, Isaacs JT, Meeker AK. Dual-label centromere and telomere FISH identifies human, rat ...K, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Giovannucci E. Statin drugs and risk of advanced prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006;98:1819-25. PMID

  11. Towards an Optimal Interval for Prostate Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Pim J.; Roobol, Monique J.; Kranse, Ries; Zappa, Marco; Carlsson, Sigrid; Bul, Meelan; Zhu, Xiaoye; Bangma, Chris H.; Schroder, Fritz H.; Hugosson, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Background: The rate of decrease in advanced cancers is an estimate for determining prostate cancer (PCa) screening program effectiveness. Objective: Assess the effectiveness of PCa screening programs using a 2- or 4-yr screening interval. Design, setting, and participants: Men aged 55-64 yr were pa

  12. Granulomatous prostatitis after intravesical immunotherapy mimicking prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Waldemar; Rudzki, Sławomir; Iberszer, Paweł; Wronecki, Lech

    2016-12-01

    Intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis is a widely used therapeutic option in patients with non-muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. A rare complication of intravesical therapy with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine is granulomatous prostatitis, which due to increasing levels of prostate-specific antigen and abnormalities found in transrectal examination of the prostate may suggest concomitant prostate cancer. A case of extensive granulomatous prostatitis in a 61-year-old patient which occurred after the first course of a well-tolerated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy is presented. Due to abnormalities found in rectal examination and an abnormal transrectal ultrasound image of the prostate with extensive infiltration mimicking neoplastic hyperplasia a core biopsy of the prostate was performed. Histopathological examination revealed inflammatory infiltration sites of tuberculosis origin.

  13. Prostate Cancer Screening : The effect on prostate cancer mortality and incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Leeuwen (Pim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAt first glance, deciding whether to get the PSA screening test for prostate cancer seems to be pretty straightforward and attractive. It’s a simple blood test that can pick up the prostate cancer long before your symptoms appear. After all, your prostate cancer is earlier treated result

  14. BRCA1 loss pre-existing in small subpopulations of prostate cancer is associated with advanced disease and metastatic spread to lymph nodes and peripheral blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarz, Natalia; Eltze, Elke; Semjonow, Axel; Rink, Michael; Andreas, Antje; Mulder, Lennart; Hannemann, Juliane; Fisch, Margit; Pantel, Klaus; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Bielawski, Krzysztof P.; Brandt, Burkhard

    2010-03-19

    A recent study concluded that serum prostate specific antigen (PSA)-based screening is beneficial for reducing the lethality of PCa, but was also associated with a high risk of 'overdiagnosis'. Nevertheless, also PCa patients who suffered from organ confined tumors and had negative bone scans succumb to distant metastases after complete tumor resection. It is reasonable to assume that those tumors spread to other organs long before the overt manifestation of metastases. Our current results confirm that prostate tumors are highly heterogeneous. Even a small subpopulation of cells bearing BRCA1 losses can initiate PCa cell regional and distant dissemination indicating those patients which might be at high risk of metastasis. A preliminary study performed on a small cohort of multifocal prostate cancer (PCa) detected BRCA1 allelic imbalances (AI) among circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The present analysis was aimed to elucidate the biological and clinical role of BRCA1 losses on metastatic spread and tumor progression in prostate cancer patients. Experimental Design: To map molecular progression in PCa outgrowth we used FISH analysis of tissue microarrays (TMA), lymph node sections and CTC from peripheral blood. We found that 14% of 133 tested patients carried monoallelic BRCA1 loss in at least one tumor focus. Extended molecular analysis of chr17q revealed that this aberration was often a part of larger cytogenetic rearrangement involving chr17q21 accompanied by AI of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN and lack of the BRCA1 promoter methylation. The BRCA1 losses correlated with advanced T stage (p < 0.05), invasion to pelvic lymph nodes (LN, p < 0.05) as well as BR (p < 0.01). Their prevalence was twice as high within 62 LN metastases (LNMs) as in primary tumors (27%, p < 0.01). The analysis of 11 matched primary PCa-LNM pairs confirmed the suspected transmission of genetic abnormalities between those two sites. In 4 of 7 patients with metastatic disease, BRCA1

  15. Management of advanced prostate cancer Tratamento do câncer de próstata avançado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Kaliks

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Geriatricians and general practitioners often follow patients with metastatic prostate cancer. The epidemiology and basic treatment principles of metastatic prostate cancer are discussed aiming to update the topic for the non-oncologist. Hormone manipulation remains the basis of treatment, usually up to a second line of therapy. Selected cases are treated successfully with intermittent androgen ablation. When new hormone-independent clones arise, chemotherapy should be added to therapy that confers improved survival as well as better quality of life when based on taxanes. In specific situations, additional measures such as bisphosphonates and radiation therapy should be included in the treatment. As a rule, the public health system makes available the necessary medication to ensure treatment for the vast majority of patients in Brazil.Pacientes com câncer de prostata metastático estão freqüentemente sob os cuidados de geriatras e clínicos gerais. Discutimos a epidemiologia e os princípios básicos do tratamento do câncer de próstata metastático, visando atualizar o não-oncologista no assunto. A base do tratamento continua sendo a manipulação hormonal, inclusive como tratamento de segunda linha. Casos selecionados podem ser tratados com ablação androgênica intermitente de maneira eficaz. Quando se desenvolvem clones de células hormônio-independentes, quimioterápicos são incorporados na terapia. A quimioterapia confere não só benefício em sobrevida, mas também na qualidade de vida, quando baseado em taxanos. Medidas adicionais como o uso de bisfosfonados e radioterapia devem ser incorporadas no tratamento em situações especiais. De modo geral, o sistema público de saúde do Brasil disponibiliza todas as medicações necessárias ao adequado tratamento dos pacientes no país.

  16. The feasibility and safety of high-intensity focused ultrasound combined with low-dose external beam radiotherapy as supplemental therapy for advanced prostate cancer following hormonal therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Yi Wu; Guo-Min Wang; Lei Xu; Bo-Heng Zhang; Ye-Qing Xu; Zhao-Chong Zeng; Bing Chen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with (+) low-dose external beam radiotherapy (LRT) as supplemental therapy for advanced prostate cancer (PCa) following hormonal therapy (HT). Our definition of HIFU+LRT refers to treating primary tumour lesions with HIFU in place of reduced field boost irradiation to the prostate, while retaining four-field box irradiation to the pelvis in conventional-dose external beam radiotherapy (CRT). We performed a prospective, controlled and non-randomized study on 120 patients with advanced PCa after HT who received HIFU, CRT, HIFU+LRT and HT alone, respectively. CT/MR imaging showed the primary tumours and pelvic lymph node metastases visibly shrank or even disappeared after HIFU+LRT treatment. There were significant differences among four groups with regard to overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) curves (P=0.018 and 0.015). Further comparison between each pair of groups suggested that the long-term DSS of the HIFU+LRT group was higher than those of the other three groups, but there was no significant difference between the HIFU+LRT group and the CRT group. Multivariable Cox's proportional hazard model showed that both HIFU+LRT and CRT were independently associated with DSS (P=0.001 and 0.035) and had protective effects with regard to the risk of death. Compared with CRT, HIFU+LRT significantly decreased incidences of radiation-related late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity grade ≥II. In conclusion, long-term survival of patients with advanced PCa benefited from strengthening local control of primary tumour and regional lymph node metastases after HT. As an alternative to CRT, HIFU+LRT showed good efficacy and better safety.

  17. Prostate Cancer Presenting with Parietal Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Abdoul Karim; Abubakar, Babagana Mustapha; Kabore, Moussa

    2017-01-01

    Bone metastases from prostate cancer are very common. They are usually located on the axial skeleton. However, cranial bone metastases especially to the parietal bone are rare. We report a case of metastatic prostate cancer presenting with left parietal bone metastasis in a patient with no urological symptoms or signs. We should consider prostate cancer in any man above 60 years presenting unusual bone lesions.

  18. Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0226 TITLE: Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Rafael Fridman...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0226 Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15...DDRs in prostate cancer . During the first funding period, we conducted immunohistochemical studies by staining a 200 case Grade/Stage tissue

  19. Utility of Ultrasound in the Diagnosis, Treatment, and Follow-up of Prostate Cancer: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frank K; de Castro Abreu, Andre Luis; Palmer, Suzanne L

    2016-10-01

    Prostate cancer screening currently consists of serum prostate-specific antigen and digital rectal examination, followed by transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy for diagnostic confirmation. Although the current paradigm of prostate cancer screening has led to a decrease in advanced disease and cancer-related mortality, these techniques have limitations in terms of sensitivity and specificity, resulting in missed cancers that are clinically significant and the overdetection of clinically insignificant cancers. New imaging techniques and technologies are required to improve the detection of prostate cancer. This article summarizes the use of novel ultrasound techniques and technologies in the detection, biopsy, and treatment of prostate cancer.

  20. Prostate cancer screening: tests and algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAlthough the concept of early detection of cancer sounds intuitively logical it is not automatically so in the case of prostate cancer despite the fact that the data on incidence and mortality show that it is an important health problem. The fact that prostate cancer is in general a s

  1. FGF Signaling in Prostate Cancer Progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nora M. NAVONE

    2009-01-01

    @@ Objective: prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men in the United States. Localized prostate cancer can be cured by andro-gen ablation, but when the disease escapes the confines of the gland, the prospects for cure decrease drastically and the disease becomes "castrate resistant.

  2. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR, and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention.

  3. Prostate and Urologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    [[{"fid":"183","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","attributes":{"alt":"Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","title":"Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","height":"266","width":"400","clas | Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of prostate, bladder, and skin cancers.

  4. Facial nerve palsy as a primary presentation of advanced carcinoma of the prostate: An unusual occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abdulkadir

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Facial nerve palsy as a primary presentation of advanced cancer of the prostate is unusual, thus, a high index of suspicion is required to establish the diagnosis. ADT provided adequate palliation.

  5. Physical activity and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Nina Føns; Tjønneland, Anne; Thomsen, Birthe L R;

    2009-01-01

    in the physical activity index, participation in any of the 4 leisure time activities, and the number of leisure time activities in which the participants were active were not associated with prostate cancer incidence. However, higher level of occupational physical activity was associated with lower risk...... of advanced stage prostate cancer (p(trend) = 0.024). In conclusion, our data support the hypothesis of an inverse association between advanced prostate cancer risk and occupational physical activity, but we found no support for an association between prostate cancer risk and leisure time physical activity......The evidence concerning the possible association between physical activity and the risk of prostate cancer is inconsistent and additional data are needed. We examined the association between risk of prostate cancer and physical activity at work and in leisure time in the European Prospective...

  6. Smoking and prostate cancer survival and recurrence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roberto L Muller; Daniel M Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Smooking is associated with several major benign and malignant diseases,representing one of the most important modifiable risk factors.Among urothelial neoplasms,smoking is pivotal in tumor carcinogenesis,but its role in prostate cancer is still controversial.Many authors have failed to demonstrate an association between smoking and prostate cancer.1-3 However,large epidemiological studies have shown that smoking is associated with higher risk of developing and dying of prostate cancer.4 Thus,large sample sizes and long follow-ups are important when studying prostate cancer given that its natural history can be quite long.

  7. Aging Men and Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson B

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in men worldwide and its incidence increases with age, mainly affecting elderly men aged 60 and above. Factors known to be associated with the development and progression of PCa are age, family history, and race/ethnicity, with age being the most important factor. The reasons for the increased incidence and mortality due to prostate cancer in elderly men are not entirely clear. Continued exposure to environmental and dietary factors may lead to accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes over the life-span, leading to altered expression and/or activity of tumor promoter and tumor suppressor genes. Changing levels of endogenous hormones (like androgens and metabolism in elderly men may also play a role in the development of prostate cancers which may be further influenced by testosterone replacement therapy. For many decades now preventative strategies and treatments such as radiation therapy or hormone therapy, and others have been administered to manage PCa; however current studies and evidence suggest that PCa is undertreated in elderly men, despite evidence of efficacy of these treatments, which leads to higher prevalence of mortality in this age group. Studies involving basic research, preventative and management strategies are still underway to understand the mechanisms of PCa development in elderly men and treatment of this disease in ageing male population.

  8. Mitochondria, prostate cancer, and biopsy sampling error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Ryan L; Mills, John; Harbottle, Andrew; Creed, Jennifer M; Crewdson, Gregory; Reguly, Brian; Guimont, François S

    2013-04-01

    Mitochondria and their associated genome are emerging as sophisticated indicators of prostate cancer biology. Alterations in the mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) have been implicated in cell proliferation, metastatic behavior, androgen independence, as a signal for apoptosis, and as a predictor of biochemical recurrence. Somatic mutation patterns in complete mtgenomes are associated with prostate specific antigen levels (PSA) in prostate cancer patients and a large-scale mtgenome deletion (3.4 kb) is consistent with a prostate "cancerization" field effect. This review will focus on the biological characteristics of mitochondria and their direct clinical application to prostate cancer. Mitochondrial science is currently influencing clinical prostate cancer diagnostics and the rapid progress in this area indicates future, break-through contributions in the general field of oncology.

  9. What is the role of sipuleucel-T in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer? An update on the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rachel; George, Daniel J; Zhang, Tian

    2016-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and the second most deadly. About one-third of patients with prostate cancer will develop metastatic disease. We discuss the six United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treatments for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) with a strong focus on sipuleucel-T. Sipuleucel-T is the first immunotherapy shown to improve survival in asymptomatic or minimally-symptomatic mCRPC. Herein, we discuss the proposed mechanism of sipuleucel-T and its synthesis. We describe in detail the three randomized controlled trials (RTCs) that led to its approval. We also compiled the newest research regarding use of sipuleucel-T with other agents and in different patient populations. Finally, we discuss the current ongoing trials.

  10. Genomic and epigenomic alterations in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria eAschelter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in man. The treatment of localized PC includes surgery or radiation therapy. In case of relapse after a definitive treatment or in patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease, the standard treatment includes the androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT. By reducing the levels of Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT under the castration threshold, the ADT acts on the androgen receptor (AR, even if indirectly. The effects of the ADT are usually temporary and nearly all patients, initially sensitive to the androgen ablation therapy, have a disease progression after a 18-24 months medium term. This is probably due to the selection of the cancer cell clones and to their acquisition of critical somatic genome and epigenomic changes. This review aims to provide an overview about the genetic and epigenetic alterations having a crucial role in the carcinogenesis and in the disease progression toward the castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC. We focused on the role of the androgen receptor, on its signaling cascade and on the clinical implications that the knowledge of these aspects would have on hormonal therapy, on its failure and its toxicity.

  11. The utility of a model-based cost-effectiveness analysis of degarelix versus leuprolide in the therapy of hormone-dependent advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Perachino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer (PC is a very common tumor among men: in Italy its prevalence in 2006 was 0.9%. Androgen deprivation therapy is a way to treat hormone-responsive PC by decreasing testosterone levels. GnRH-analogues, including GnRH-agonists and GnRH-antagonists, are effective for this purpose. AIM: This article presents a cost-effectiveness analysis based on a semi-Markov model comparing the GnRH-antagonist degarelix and GnRH-agonist leuprolide in the treatment of hormone-dependent advanced prostate cancer from the perspective of the Regional Health Service in Veneto Region (Italy.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Effectiveness data were retrieved by a 12-month phase III non-inferiority clinical trial, comparing degarelix and 7,5 mg leuprolide in 610 patients treated for hormone-dependent prostate cancer. Epidemiological data came from a national database and were referred to Veneto Region. The values of the healthcare resources were calculated using regional and national prices (€ 2012. The model considers 3 exhaustive and mutually exclusive health status: first-line treatment, further-lines treatment and death. It lasts 10 years, with 28 days per cycle. The entry in the model is hypothesized at the age of 70 (the age with most PCs in Veneto Region. Effectiveness endpoints were life years saved and quality-adjusted life years, using 3% social discount rate. The incremental cost per QALY was related to the range of acceptability proposed by the Associazione Italiana di Economia Sanitaria (€ 25,000-40,000. The budget impact was calculated on a 5-year time horizon. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed on every hypothesis of the model.RESULTS: Degarelix resulted in minor costs if compared to 7.5 mg leuprolide (€ 20,511.64 vs 22,256.49. The cost-driver was chemotherapic care (32.45% degarelix vs 44.30% 7.5 mg leuprolide. Life years saved were the same for both the alternatives (5.58, while QALYs obtained were

  12. Primary staging of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, G.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Barentz, J.O. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Ruijter, E.T.G. [Dept. of Urology, Univ. Hospital, Nijmegen (Netherlands)]|[Dept. of Pathology, Univ. Hospital, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Rosette, J.J.M.C.H. de la [Dept. of Urology, Univ. Hospital, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Oosterhof, G.O.N. [Dept. of Urology, Univ. Hospital, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    1996-04-01

    Staging prostate cancer is a systematic classification of the extent of disease based on clinical and pathological criteria. Despite general acceptance of the TNM staging system, a lot of controversy and uncertainty with respect to staging still exists. This paper gives an overview of differnt staging modalities and emphasizes the need for incorporation of prognostic factors, such as tumour grade and volume, in the staging system. (orig.)

  13. Prostate Cancer Pathology Resource Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    May after a long illness. Her responsibilities have been subsumed by Helen Fedor and Medha Darshan, and will be taken over by a Clinical...of the Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network Medha Darshan1*, Qizhi Zheng1*, Helen L. Fedor1*, Nicolas Wyhs2, Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian2...samples using the DNeasy Blood &Tissue kit (Qiagen). DNA quantification and 260:280 ratios were obtained by Nanodrop (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc

  14. Epidemiology of prostate cancer in India

    OpenAIRE

    Shalu Jain; Sunita Saxena; Anup Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Data from national cancer registries shows that incidence of certain cancers are on rise in India. The cancers which are showing significant increase in incidence rates include prostate, mouth and kidney among male population, corpus uteri, breast and thyroid among female population and lung cancer in both male and female populations. In the present review article we have focused on epidemiology of prostate cancer in Indian subcontinent in terms of incidence, survival, and mortality etc. The ...

  15. Prostate cancer: state of the art imaging and focal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrum, D A; Kawashima, A; Gorny, K R; Mynderse, L A

    2017-04-03

    In 2016, it is estimated 180,890 men are newly diagnosed with prostate cancer and 3,306,760 men live with prostate cancer in the United States. The introduction of multiparametric (mp) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate, standardised interpretation guidelines such as Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS version 2), and MRI-based targeted biopsy has improved detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. Accurate risk stratification (Gleason grade/score and tumour stage) using imaging and image-guided targeted biopsy has become critical for the management of patients with prostate cancer. Recent advances in MRI-guided minimally invasive ablative treatment (MIAT) utilising cryoablation, laser ablation, high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation, have allowed accurate focal or regional delivery of optimal thermal energy to the biopsy proven, MRI-detected tumour, under real-time or near simultaneous MRI monitoring of the ablation zone. A contemporary review on prostate mpMRI, MRI-based targeted biopsy, and MRI-guided ablation techniques is presented.

  16. Utility of ADC measurement on diffusion-weighted MRI in differentiation of prostate cancer, normal prostate and prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Meltem; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Akpolat, Nusret; Orhan, Irfan; Kocakoc, Ercan

    2013-08-01

    To determine the utility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in differentiation of prostate cancer from normal prostate parenchyma and prostatitis we obtained ADC values of 50 patients at b 100, 600 and 1,000 s/mm(2) diffusion gradients. The ADC values of prostate cancer group were significantly lower than normal prostate and prostatitis group at b 600 and 1,000 s/mm(2) gradients. The ADC values at high diffusion gradients may be used in differentiation prostate cancer from normal prostate and prostatitis.

  17. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment can help relieve symptoms and prevent further growth and spread of cancer. But it does not cure the cancer. The main type of hormone therapy is called a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormones (LH- ...

  18. Bone-targeted agents: preventing skeletal complications in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgans, Alicia K; Smith, Matthew R

    2012-11-01

    In men, prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death. Skeletal complications occur at various points during the disease course, either due to bone metastases directly, or as an unintended consequence of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Bone metastases are associated with pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, and bone pain and can require narcotics or palliative radiation for pain relief. ADT results in bone loss and fragility fractures. This review describes the biology of bone metastases, skeletal morbidity, and recent advances in bone-targeted therapies to prevent skeletal complications of prostate cancer.

  19. Caveolin-1 and prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michael R; Yang, Wei; Di Vizio, Dolores

    2012-01-01

    Caveolin-1 was identified in the 1990s as a marker of aggressive prostate cancer. The caveolin-1 protein localizes to vesicular structures called caveolae and has been shown to bind and regulate many signaling proteins involved in oncogenesis. Caveolin-1 also has lipid binding properties and mediates aspects of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism and can elicit biological responses in a paracrine manner when secreted. Caveolin-1 is also present in the serum of prostate cancer patients and circulating levels correlate with extent of disease. Current evidence indicates that increased expression of caveolin-1 in prostate adenocarcinoma cells and commensurate downregulation of the protein in prostate stroma, mediate progression to the castration-resistant phase of prostate cancer through diverse pathways. This chapter summarizes the current state of our understanding of the cellular and physiologic mechanisms in which caveolin-1 participates in the evolution of prostate cancer cell phenotypes.

  20. Genomic rearrangements of PTEN in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopheap ePhin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The phosphatase and tensin homolog gene on chromosome 10q23.3 (PTEN is a negative regulator of the PIK3/Akt survival pathway and is the most frequently deleted tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer. Monoallelic loss of PTEN is present in up to 60% of localized prostate cancers and complete loss of PTEN in prostate cancer is linked to metastasis and androgen independent progression. Studies on the genomic status of PTEN in prostate cancer initially used a two-color fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH assay for PTEN copy number detection in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue preparations. More recently, a four-color FISH assay containing two additional control probes flanking the PTEN locus with a lower false-positive rate was reported. Combined with the detection of other critical genomic biomarkers for prostate cancer such as ERG, AR, and MYC, the evaluation of PTEN genomic status has proven to be invaluable for patient stratification and management. Although less frequent than allelic deletions, point mutations in the gene and epigenetic silencing are also known to contribute to loss of PTEN function, and ultimately to prostate cancer initiation. Overall, it is clear that PTEN is a powerful biomarker for prostate cancer. Used as a companion diagnostic for emerging therapeutic drugs, FISH analysis of PTEN is promisingly moving human prostate cancer closer to more effective cancer management and therapies.

  1. Linking Estrogens, Prostatitis and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    provide the first direct evidence linking phy siologic estr ogen up- regulation an d pr ostate ma lignancy via inflammation. Ellem, Stuart J...inflammation and malignancy in the prostate. The identification of estr ogen as a cause of prostatitis, as well as a fac tor in the development of

  2. Review of selenium and prostate cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Pascal, Mouracade; Wu, Xiao-Hou

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men in the United States. Surgery or radiation are sometimes unsatisfactory treatments because of the complications such as incontinence or erectile dysfunction. Selenium was found to be effective to prevent prostate cancer in the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPC), which motivated two other clinical trials: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) and a Phase III trial of selenium to prevent prostate cancer in men with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. However, these two trials failed to confirm the results of the NPC trial and indicated that the selenium may not be preventive of prostate cancer. In this article we review the three clinical trials and discuss some different points which might be potential factors underlying variation in results obtained.

  3. Overview of Dietary Supplements in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubian, Aline; Dargham, Rana Abu; Khauli, Raja B; Bachir, Bassel G

    2016-11-01

    Prostate cancer is a key health concern for men with its etiology still under investigation. Recently, the role of dietary supplements has been noted to have a major inhibitory effect on prostate cancer and numerous studies have been conducted in this regard. This review provides a summary on numerous recent studies conducted in this field. Some of the studies reviewed revealed a protective role for supplements, and others showed no correlation while some even had an adverse effect. The mechanism of how these supplements act on the prostate is still not clear. Further studies are warranted especially for supplements that have been shown to have a potential inhibitory role in prostate cancer.

  4. 前列腺癌干细胞相关肿瘤标志物的研究进展*%Advanced research on prostate cancer stem cell-related tumor markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝玉美(综述); 刘谦(综述); 宋娜玲(审校)

    2013-01-01

    前列腺癌(prostate cancer,PCa)是男性常见的恶性肿瘤。内分泌治疗是晚期前列腺癌的主要治疗方法,但该方法易使其发展成为激素难治性前列腺癌,且暂无切实有效的治疗方法。近年来的研究发现,前列腺癌干细胞在前列腺癌的发生、发展和转移中起着关键作用,因此前列腺癌干细胞的靶向治疗可能是根治前列腺癌的有效途径。靶向前列腺癌干细胞治疗需首先明确前列腺癌干细胞标志物,尤其是其特异标志物,才能更好地开展前列腺癌根治方案的研究。目前前列腺癌干细胞标志物的研究主要集中于CD44和CD133,但随着研究的不断深入其开始受到质疑,且发现了更多新的标志物,本文主要对前列腺癌干细胞领域研究较广和较新发现的肿瘤标志物进行综述。%Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in males. Endocrine therapy is currently the main treatment for patients with advanced prostate cancer. Although this therapy frequently results in tumor shrinkage, it is not curative, and the majority of patients eventually develop hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Recent studies suggested that prostate cancer stem cells serve a key function in the occurrence, development, and metastasis of prostate cancer. Therefore, targeted therapy of prostate cancer stem cells may be effective for the treatment of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer stem cell markers must be identified to facilitate studies on prostate cancer radical treatment schemes, especially the specific markers of this disease. Previous research on prostate cancer stem cell markers mainly focus on CD44 and CD133. Along with in-depth studies, a substantial number of new markers have been found with research development. This review summarizes the widely studied and recently discovered markers found in the field of prostate cancer stem cells.

  5. Prostate Cancer Genomics: Toward a New Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    John S Witte

    2008-01-01

    Recent genetics and genomics studies of prostate cancer help clarify the genetic basis of this common but complex disease. Genome-wide studies have detected numerous variants associated with disease as well as common gene fusions and expression ‘signatures’ in prostate tumors. Based on these results, some advocate gene-based individualized screening for prostate cancer, although such testing may only be worthwhile to distinguish disease aggressiveness. Lessons learned here provide strategies ...

  6. A genetic polymorphism of the osteoprotegerin gene is associated with an increased risk of advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horikawa Yohei

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of osteoprotegerin gene (OPG polymorphisms as genetic modifiers in the etiology of prostate cancer (PCa and disease progression. Methods Three hundred and sixty one patients with PCa and 195 normal controls were enrolled in the study, and two genetic polymorphisms, 149 T/C and 950 T/C in the putative promoter region of OPG, were genotyped. Results There was no significant difference in the genotype frequencies between PCa patients and controls (P = 0.939 and 0.294 for 149 T/C and 950 T/C polymorphisms, respectively. However, those patients with TC and TT genotypes in the 950 T/C polymorphism had a significantly increased risk of extraprostatic (age-adjusted odds ratio; aOR = 1.74 and 2.03 for TC and TT genotypes compared with the CC genotype, P = 0.028 and metastatic disease (aOR = 1.72 and 2.76 for TC and TT genotypes compared with the CC genotype, P = 0.009 compared with those with the CC genotype. In addition, analysis of the metastatic PCa patients (Stage D showed that the presence of the T allele of the OPG 950 T/C polymorphism was an independent risk factor predicting survival by Cox proportional hazard regression analyses (P = 0.031. Conclusion Progression of PCa may be influenced by an intrinsic genetic factor of the host's bone metabolism. The variant C allele of 950 T/C in the OPG promoter may play a major role as a genetic safe guard against progression in patients with PCa.

  7. Cadmium burden and the risk and phenotype of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tony T

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the association between prostate cancer and cadmium exposure have yielded conflicting results. This study explored cadmium burden on the risk and phenotype of prostate cancer in men with no evident environmental exposure. Methods Hospital-based 261 prostate cancer cases and 267 controls with benign diseases were recruited from four hospitals in Taiwan. Demographic, dietary and lifestyle data were collected by standardized questionnaires. Blood cadmium (BCd and creatinine-adjusted urine cadmium (CAUCd levels were measured for each participant. Statistical analyses measured the prostate cancer risk associated with BCd and CAUCd separately, controlling for age, smoking and institution. BCd and CAUCd levels within cases were compared in relation to the disease stage and the Gleason score. Results High family income, low beef intake, low dairy product consumption and positive family history were independently associated with the prostate carcinogenesis. There was no difference in BCd levels between cases and controls (median, 0.88 versus 0.87 μg/l, p = 0.45. Cases had lower CAUCd levels than controls (median, 0.94 versus 1.40 μg/g creatinine, p = 0.001. However, cases with higher BCd and CAUCd levels tended to be at more advanced stages and to have higher Gleason scores. The prostate cancer cases with Gleason scores of ≥ 8 had an odds ratio of 2.89 (95% confidence interval 1.25-6.70, compared with patients with scores of 2-6. Conclusion Higher CAUCd and BCd levels may be associated with advanced cancer phenotypes, but there was only a tenuous association between cadmium and prostate cancer.

  8. Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Symptoms Prostate cancer has no symptoms in its early ...

  9. [Practice guideline 'Prostate cancer: diagnosis and treatment'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijke, T.M. de; Battermann, J.J.; Moorselaar, R.J.A. van; Jong, IJ de; Visser, A.P.; Burgers, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    --A national, multidisciplinary practice guideline was developed concerning diagnosis and treatment of patients with prostate cancer. Because of the lack of sufficient scientific evidence at this moment no practice guideline on screening is included. --The diagnosis of prostate cancer is made by tra

  10. Genetically engineered mouse models of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawijn, Martijn C.; Bergman, Andreas M.; van der Poel, Henk G.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Mouse models of prostate cancer are used to test the contribution of individual genes to the transformation process, evaluate the collaboration between multiple genetic lesions observed in a single tumour, and perform preclinical intervention studies in prostate cancer research. Methods:

  11. Primary care perspectives on prostate cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Ted A; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Northouse, Laurel L; Fagerlin, Angela; Garlinghouse, Carol; Demers, Raymond Y; Rovner, David R; Darwish-Yassine, May; Wei, John T

    2011-06-01

    Although the effectiveness of prostate cancer screening is controversial, screening rates have risen dramatically among primary care providers in the United States. The authors' findings suggest more collaboration among primary care and specialty organizations, especially with respect to decision aid endorsement, is needed to achieve more discriminatory and patient-centered prostate cancer screening.

  12. Regulation of the Prostate Cancer Tumor Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    regulatory Tcells (Tregs) and Th17 cells [6,7]. Nonetheless, the clinical importance of the immune system in prostate cancer is borne out by the...al. Phenotypic analysis of prostate-infiltrating lympho- cytes reveals TH17 and Treg skewing. Clin Cancer Res 2008;14:3254–3261. 7. Rigamonti N

  13. PET/CT and radiotherapy in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, I J; De Haan, T D; Wiegman, E M; Van Den Bergh, A C M; Pruim, J; Breeuwsma, A J

    2010-10-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the corner stone treatments for patients with prostate cancer. Especially for locally advanced tumors radiotherapy +/- adjuvant androgen deprivation treatment is standard of care. This brings up the need for accurate assessment of extra prostatic tumor growth and/or the presence of nodal metastases for selection of the optimal radiation dose and treatment volume. Morphological imaging like transrectal ultra sound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used but are limited in their accuracy in detecting extra prostatic extension and nodal metastases. In this article we present a structured review of the literature on positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients with emphasis on: 1) the pretreatment assessment of extra prostatic tumor extension, nodal and distant metastases; 2) the intraprostatic tumor characterization and radiotherapy treatment planning; and 3) treatment evaluation and the use of PET/CT in guidance of salvage treatment. PET/CT is not an appropriate imaging technique for accurate T-staging of prostate cancer prior to radiotherapy. Although macroscopic disease beyond the prostatic capsule and into the periprostatic fat or in seminal vesicle is often accurately detected, the microscopic extension of prostate cancer remains undetected. Choline PET/CT holds a great potential as a single step diagnostic procedure of lymph nodes and skeleton, which could facilitate radiotherapy treatment planning. At present the use of PET/CT for treatment planning in radiotherapy is still experimental. Choline PET based tumor delineation is not yet standardized and different segmentation-algorithms are under study. However, dose escalation using dose-painting is feasible with only limited increases of the doses to the bladder and rectum wall. PET/CT using either acetate or choline is able to detect recurrent prostate cancer after radiotherapy but stratification of patients

  14. Algorithms, nomograms and the detection of indolent prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men. However, only about 12% of the men diagnosed with prostate cancer will die of their disease. Result: The serum PSA test can detect prostate cancers early, but using a PSA based cut-off indication for prostate biopsy r

  15. Prostate cancer magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): multidisciplinary standpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Wang, Liang; Feng, Zhaoyan; Hu, Zhiquan; Wang, Guoping; Yuan, Xianglin; Wang, He; Hu, Daoyu

    2013-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in men and a leading cause of death. Accurate assessment is a prerequisite for optimal clinical management and therapy selection of prostate cancer. There are several parameters and nomograms to differentiate between patients with clinically insignificant disease and patients in need of treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique which provides more detailed anatomical images due to high spatial resolution, superior contrast resolution, and multiplanar capability. State-of-the-art MRI techniques, such as diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), improve interpretation of prostate cancer imaging. In this article, we review the major role of MRI in the advanced management of prostate cancer to noninvasively improve tumor staging, biologic potential, treatment planning, therapy response, local recurrence, and to guide target biopsy for clinical suspected cancer with previous negative biopsy. Finally, future challenges and opportunities in prostate cancer management in the area of functional MRI are discussed as well.

  16. Organoid culture systems for prostate epithelial and cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Jarno; Karthaus, Wouter R; Gao, Dong; Driehuis, Else; Sawyers, Charles L; Chen, Yu; Clevers, Hans

    2016-02-01

    This protocol describes a strategy for the generation of 3D prostate organoid cultures from healthy mouse and human prostate cells (either bulk or FACS-sorted single luminal and basal cells), metastatic prostate cancer lesions and circulating tumor cells. Organoids derived from healthy material contain the differentiated luminal and basal cell types, whereas organoids derived from prostate cancer tissue mimic the histology of the tumor. We explain how to establish these cultures in the fully defined serum-free conditioned medium that is required to sustain organoid growth. Starting with the plating of digested tissue material, full-grown organoids can usually be obtained in ∼2 weeks. The culture protocol we describe here is currently the only one that allows the growth of both the luminal and basal prostatic epithelial lineages, as well as the growth of advanced prostate cancers. Organoids established using this protocol can be used to study many different aspects of prostate biology, including homeostasis, tumorigenesis and drug discovery.

  17. TRPV6 alleles do not influence prostate cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flockerzi Veit

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transient receptor potential, subfamily V, member 6 (TRPV6 is a Ca2+ selective cation channel. Several studies have shown that TRPV6 transcripts are expressed in locally advanced prostatic adenocarcinoma, metastatic and androgen-insensitive prostatic lesions but are undetectable in healthy prostate tissue and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Two allelic variants of the human trpv6 gene have been identified which are transcribed into two independent mRNAs, TRPV6a and TRPV6b. We now asked, whether the trpv6a allele is correlated with the onset of prostate cancer, with the Gleason score and the tumour stage. Methods Genomic DNA of prostate cancer patients and control individuals was isolated from resections of prostatic adenocarcinomas and salivary fluid respectively. Genotyping of SNPs of the TRPV6 gene was performed by restriction length polymorphism or by sequencing analysis. RNA used for RT-PCR was isolated from prostate tissue. Data sets were analyzed by Chi-Square test. Results We first characterized in detail the five polymorphisms present in the protein coding exons of the trpv6 gene and show that these polymorphisms are coupled and are underlying the TRPV6a and the TRPV6b variants. Next we analysed the frequencies of the two TRPV6 alleles using genomic DNA from saliva samples of 169 healthy individuals. The homozygous TRPV6b genotype predominated with 86%, whereas no homozygous TRPV6a carriers could be identified. The International HapMap Project identified a similar frequency for an Utah based population whereas in an African population the a-genotype prevailed. The incidence of prostate cancer is several times higher in African populations than in non-African and we then investigated the TRPV6a/b frequencies in 141 samples of prostatic adenocarcinoma. The TRPV6b allele was found in 87% of the samples without correlation with Gleason score and tumour stage. Conclusion Our results show that the frequencies of trpv6

  18. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer with PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadvar, Hossein

    2013-10-01

    Molecular imaging is paving the way for precision and personalized medicine. In view of the significant biologic and clinical heterogeneity of prostate cancer, molecular imaging is expected to play an important role in the evaluation of this prevalent disease. The natural history of prostate cancer spans from an indolent localized process to biochemical relapse after radical treatment with curative intent to a lethal castrate-resistant metastatic disease. The ongoing unraveling of the complex tumor biology of prostate cancer uniquely positions molecular imaging with PET to contribute significantly to every clinical phase of prostate cancer evaluation. The purpose of this article was to provide a concise review of the current state of affairs and potential future developments in the diagnostic utility of PET in prostate cancer.

  19. Prostate cancer in Denmark. Incidence, morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Iversen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates in Denmark are reviewed for a 50-year period from 1943 to 1992. The prostate cancer incidence rate nearly tripled and prostate cancer mortality rate increased during this period. Until recently in Denmark the routine management of prostate cancer has...... been by deferred hormonal therapy. Morbidity and mortality associated with prostate cancer are analysed in a group of 1459 patients aged 55-74 years, who were diagnosed as having clinically localized prostate cancer in the 5-year period 1983 to 1987. In this group of patients prostate cancer...... is demonstrated to cause significant morbidity. Furthermore, the patients suffered significant excess mortality and loss of life expectancy....

  20. Dietary folate and folate vitamers and the risk of prostate cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhage, B.A.J.; Cremers, P.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between intake of folate, and specific folate vitamers, and the risk of advanced and total prostate cancer. Methods: The association between dietary folate and prostate cancer risk was evaluated in The Netherlands Cohort Study (NLC

  1. A Large Study of Androgen Receptor Germline Variants and Their Relation to Sex Hormone Levels and Prostate Cancer Risk. Results from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Sara; Ma, Jing; Altshuler, David; Giovannucci, Edward; Riboli, Elio; Albanes, Demetrius; Allen, Naomi E.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Chanock, Stephen J.; Dunning, Alison M.; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Gaziano, J. Michael; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hunter, David J.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Martínez, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Siddiq, Afshan; Stampfer, Meir; Stattin, Pär; Stram, Daniel O.; Thun, Michael J.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Yeager, Meredith; Kraft, Peter; Freedman, Matthew L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Androgens are key regulators of prostate gland maintenance and prostate cancer growth, and androgen deprivation therapy has been the mainstay of treatment for advanced prostate cancer for many years. A long-standing hypothesis has been that inherited variation in the androgen receptor (AR) gene plays a role in prostate cancer initiation. However, studies to date have been inconclusive and often suffered from small sample sizes. Objective and Methods: We investigated the association of AR sequence variants with circulating sex hormone levels and prostate cancer risk in 6058 prostate cancer cases and 6725 controls of Caucasian origin within the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. We genotyped a highly polymorphic CAG microsatellite in exon 1 and six haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms and tested each genetic variant for association with prostate cancer risk and with sex steroid levels. Results: We observed no association between AR genetic variants and prostate cancer risk. However, there was a strong association between longer CAG repeats and higher levels of testosterone (P = 4.73 × 10−5) and estradiol (P = 0.0002), although the amount of variance explained was small (0.4 and 0.7%, respectively). Conclusions: This study is the largest to date investigating AR sequence variants, sex steroid levels, and prostate cancer risk. Although we observed no association between AR sequence variants and prostate cancer risk, our results support earlier findings of a relation between the number of CAG repeats and circulating levels of testosterone and estradiol. PMID:20534771

  2. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or restore the body’s natural defenses against cancer. Sipuleucel-T is a type of biologic therapy used to ... already treated with hormone therapy. Biologic therapy with sipuleucel-T for patients already treated with hormone therapy. External ...

  3. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  4. 前列腺特异性膜抗原为靶标的放射免疫治疗进展%Advances in radioimmunotherapy targeting prostate speciifc membrane antigen in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冲(综述); 陶嵘(审校)

    2015-01-01

    前列腺特异性膜抗原(PSMA)是一种跨膜糖蛋白,几乎表达于所有前列腺癌,在转移性激素抵抗性前列腺癌中表达量显著增加。放射免疫治疗(RIT)利用放射性核素标记单克隆抗体以实现肿瘤的靶向治疗。本文对PSMA为靶标的RIT进展作一综述。%Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is almost expressed in all prostate cancers. The expression of PSMA in metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer is significantly increased. Radioimmunotherapy combined radionuclide with monoclonal antibody is a kind of targeted cancer therapy. This review will summarize the progress of radioimmunotherapy targeting PSMA.

  5. Diagnosis of prostate cancer via nanotechnological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Benedict J; Jeun, Minhong; Jang, Gun Hyuk; Song, Sang Hoon; Jeong, In Gab; Kim, Choung-Soo; Searson, Peter C; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among the Caucasian adult males in Europe and the USA. Currently available diagnostic strategies for patients with prostate cancer are invasive and unpleasant and have poor accuracy. Many patients have been overly or underly treated resulting in a controversy regarding the reliability of current conventional diagnostic approaches. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research in the development of novel noninvasive prostate cancer diagnostics using nanotechnology coupled with suggested diagnostic strategies for their clinical implication.

  6. Vitamins and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Y.F. Young

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Its prevention and treatment remain a challenge to clinicians. Here we review the relationship of vitamins to PC risk. Many vitamins and related chemicals, including vitamin A, retinoids, several B vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin D and vitamin E have shown their anti-cancer activities as anti-oxidants, activators of transcription factors or factors influencing epigenetic events. Although laboratory tests including the use of animal models showed these vitamins may have anti-PC properties, whether they can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of PC in humans remains to be intensively studied subjects. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory, epidemiology and/or clinical trials on the effects of vitamins on PC prevention and/or treatment.

  7. Prostate cancer outcome in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yameogo Clotaire

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction African-American black men race is one of non-modifiable risk factors confirmed for prostate cancer. Many studies have been done in USA among African- American population to evaluate prostate cancer disparities. Compared to the USA very few data are available for prostate cancer in Sub-Saharan African countries. The objective of this study was to describe incident prostate cancer (PC diagnosis characteristics in Burkina Faso (West Africa. Methods We performed a prospective non randomized patient’s cohort study of new prostate cancer cases diagnosed by histological analysis of transrectal prostate biopsies in Burkina Faso. Study participants included 166 patients recruited at the urology division of the university hospital of Ouagadougou. Age of the patients, clinical symptoms, digital rectal examination (DRE result, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA level, histological characteristics and TNM classification were taking in account in this study. Results 166 transrectal prostate biopsies (TRPB were performed based on high PSA level or abnormal DRE. The prostate cancer rate on those TRPB was 63, 8 % (n=106. The mean age of the patients was 71, 5 years (52 to 86. Urinary retention was the first clinical patterns of reference in our institution (55, 7 %, n = 59. Most patients, 56, 6 % (n = 60 had a serum PSA level over than 100 ng/ml. All the patients had adenocarcinoma on histological study of prostate biopsy cores. The majority of cases (54, 7 % n = 58 had Gleason score equal or higher than 7. Conclusion Prostate cancer is diagnosed at later stages in our country. Very high serum PSA level and poorly differentiated tumors are the two major characteristics of PC at the time of diagnosis.

  8. Prostate cancer vaccines in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubaroff, David M

    2012-07-01

    This review presents important information about the current state of the art for vaccine immunotherapy of prostate cancer. It includes important preclinical research for each of the important prostate cancer vaccines to have reached clinical trials. To date, the only prostate cancer vaccine that has completed Phase III trials and has been approved and licensed by the US FDA is Sipuleucel-T, which immunizes patients against the prostate-associated antigen prostatic acid phosphatase. The benefits and concerns associated with the vaccine are presented. A current Phase III trial is currently underway using the vaccinia-based prostate-specific antigen vaccine Prostvac-TRICOM. Other immunotherapeutic vaccines in trials include the Ad/prostate-specific antigen vaccine Ad5-prostate-specific antigen and the DNA/prostatic acid phosphatase vaccine. A cellular vaccine, GVAX, has been in clinical trials but has not seen continuous study. This review also delves into the multiple immune regulatory elements that must be overcome in order to obtain strong antitumor-associated antigen immune responses capable of effectively destroying prostate tumor cells.

  9. Sustained Release Oral Nanoformulated Green Tea for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    prostate cancer progression in humans and is being detected in the serum of patients with prostate diseases including prostatitis , benign prostatic ... hypertrophy , and prostate cancer (4). In our study, we found that there was significant inhibition of secreted PSA levels by 13-36%, 26-54% and 57-72% in...TITLE: Sustained Release Oral Nanoformulated Green Tea for Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Hasan Mukhtar, PhD

  10. ETS fusion genes in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasi Tandefelt, Delila; Boormans, Joost; Hermans, Karin; Trapman, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Prostate cancer is very common in elderly men in developed countries. Unravelling the molecular and biological processes that contribute to tumor development and progressive growth, including its heterogeneity, is a challenging task. The fusion of the genes ERG and TMPRSS2 is the most frequent genomic alteration in prostate cancer. ERG is an oncogene that encodes a member of the family of ETS transcription factors. At lower frequency, other members of this gene family are also rearranged and overexpressed in prostate cancer. TMPRSS2 is an androgen-regulated gene that is preferentially expressed in the prostate. Most of the less frequent ETS fusion partners are also androgen-regulated and prostate-specific. During the last few years, novel concepts of the process of gene fusion have emerged, and initial experimental results explaining the function of the ETS genes ERG and ETV1 in prostate cancer have been published. In this review, we focus on the most relevant ETS gene fusions and summarize the current knowledge of the role of ETS transcription factors in prostate cancer. Finally, we discuss the clinical relevance of TMRPSS2-ERG and other ETS gene fusions in prostate cancer.

  11. Thermal dosimetry analysis combined with patient-specific thermal modeling of clinical interstitial ultrasound hyperthermia integrated within HDR brachytherapy for treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Wootton, Jeff; Prakash, Punit; Scott, Serena; Hsu, I. C.; Diederich, Chris J.

    2017-03-01

    This study presents thermal dosimetry analysis from clinical treatments where ultrasound hyperthermia (HT) was administered following high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment for locally advanced prostate cancer as part of a clinical pilot study. HT was administered using ultrasound applicators from within multiple 13-g brachytherapy catheters implanted along the posterior periphery of the prostate. The heating applicators were linear arrays of sectored tubular transducers (˜7 MHz), with independently powered array elements enabling energy deposition with 3D spatial control. Typical heat treatments employed time-averaged peak acoustic intensities of 1 - 3 W/cm2 and lasted for 60 - 70 minutes. Throughout the treatments, temperatures at multiple points were monitored using multi-junction thermocouples, placed within available brachytherapy catheters throughout mid-gland prostate and identified as the hyperthermia target volume (HTV). Clinical constraints allowed placement of 8 - 12 thermocouple sensors in the HTV and patient-specific 3D thermal modeling based on finite element methods (FEM) was used to supplement limited thermometry. Patient anatomy, heating device positions, orientations, and thermometry junction locations were obtained from patient CT scans and HDR and hyperthermia planning software. The numerical models utilized the applied power levels recorded during the treatments. Tissue properties such as perfusion and acoustic absorption were varied within physiological ranges such that squared-errors between measured and simulated temperatures were minimized. This data-fitting was utilized for 6 HT treatments to estimate volumetric temperature distributions achieved in the HTV and surrounding anatomy devoid of thermocouples. For these treatments, the measured and simulated T50 values in the hyperthermia target volume (HTV) were between 40.1 - 43.9 °C and 40.3 - 44.9 °C, respectively. Maximum temperatures between 46.8 - 49.8 °C were measured during

  12. Future opportunities for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, R.W.; Schalken, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Despite recent advances, current diagnostic tests and treatment of prostate cancer have limitations. In the last few years, numerous biomolecules have been investigated with the aim of improving diagnosis, including kallikrein-like proteases, growth factors and neuroendocrine markers. Analysis of su

  13. Gene Expression Analysis Of Circulating Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer Micrometastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Todd B. Prognostic factors in patients with advanced prostate cancer. Urology 1989; 33 ( 5 Suppl.): 53–6 4 Smaletz O, Scher HI...Tina Fan b, Howard L. Adler b, Emmanuel R. Yera a, M.H. Zarrabi d, Stanley Zucker d, Jeffry Simko a, Wen-Tien Chen b,c, Jonathan Rosenberg e aDepartment

  14. Risk factors for the onset of prostatic cancer: age, location, and behavioral correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitzmann MF

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael F Leitzmann1, Sabine Rohrmann21Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Regensburg University Medical Center, Regensburg, Germany; 2Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandAbstract: At present, only three risk factors for prostate cancer have been firmly established; these are all nonmodifiable: age, race, and a positive family history of prostate cancer. However, numerous modifiable factors have also been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. In the current review, we summarize the epidemiologic data for age, location, and selected behavioral factors in relation to the onset of prostate cancer. Although the available data are not entirely consistent, possible preventative behavioral factors include increased physical activity, intakes of tomatoes, cruciferous vegetables, and soy. Factors that may enhance prostate cancer risk include frequent consumption of dairy products and, possibly, meat. By comparison, alcohol probably exerts no important influence on prostate cancer development. Similarly, dietary supplements are unlikely to protect against the onset of prostate cancer in healthy men. Several factors, such as smoking and obesity, show a weak association with prostate cancer incidence but a positive relation with prostate cancer mortality. Other factors, such as fish intake, also appear to be unassociated with incident prostate cancer but show an inverse relation with fatal prostate cancer. Such heterogeneity in the relationship between behavioral factors and nonadvanced, advanced, or fatal prostate cancers helps shed light on the carcinogenetic process because it discerns the impact of exposure on early and late stages of prostate cancer development. Inconsistent associations between behavioral factors and prostate cancer risk seen in previous studies may in part be due to uncontrolled detection bias because of current widespread use of prostate-specific antigen

  15. Effects of recreational soccer in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth, Jacob; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Christensen, Jesper Frank;

    2013-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a cornerstone in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Adverse musculoskeletal and cardiovascular effects of ADT are widely reported and investigations into the potential of exercise to ameliorate the effects of treatment are warranted. The 'Football Club...... (FC) Prostate' study is a randomized trial comparing the effects of soccer training with standard treatment approaches on body composition, cardiovascular function, physical function parameters, glucose tolerance, bone health, and patient-reported outcomes in men undergoing ADT for prostate cancer....

  16. Targeting Prostate Cancer for Gene Therapy Utilizing Lentivirus and Oncolytic VSV Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    not yet published. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non- skin carcinoma and o ne o f the...surgery or radiotherapy . Presently there are no therapies available for advanced and metastatic prostate cancer, thus the emergence of new targeted...aque a ssay w hich s howed a hi gher concentration of replicating vi rus in prostates of PTEN -/- mice while sparing normal cells in control mice

  17. Leuprorelin Acetate in Prostate Cancer: a European Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persad R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an update on leuprorelin acetate, the world's most widely prescribed depot luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogue. Leuprorelin acetate has been in clinical use in the palliative treatment of prostate cancer for more than 20 years, but advances continue to be made in terms of convenience and flexibility of administration, and in the incorporation of leuprorelin acetate into novel treatment regimens. The drug is administered in the form of a depot injection containing leuprorelin acetate microspheres, and is at least as effective in suppressing testosterone secretion as orchiectomy. In patients with prostate cancer, serum testosterone levels are reduced to castrate levels (= 50 ng/dl within 2-3 weeks of the first one-month depot injection of 3.75 mg or three-month depot injection of 11.25 mg. Both the one-month and three-month formulations are effective in delaying tumour progression and alleviating symptoms of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. Tolerability is generally good, with side-effects reflecting effective testosterone suppression. Recent studies have investigated the place of leuprorelin acetate as part of continuous or intermittent maximal androgen blockade (MAB and in neoadjuvant therapy (ie, to reduce the size of the prostate and downsize the tumour before radiotherapy. Additional formulations and presentations are in development, including a six-month injection, with the aim of adding to the clinical flexibility and patient acceptability of this important palliative treatment for prostate cancer.

  18. Tocotrienols and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Zielezny, Swanson, and Sufrin, 1992;Riboli, Gonzalez, Lopez-Abente, Errezola, Izarzugaza, Escolar, Nebot, Hemon, and Agudo , 1991;Hu, La Vecchia, Negri...LOPEZ-ABENTE, G., ERREZOLA, M., IZARZUGAZA, I., ESCOLAR, A., NEBOT, M., HEMON, B., and AGUDO , A., Diet and bladder cancer in Spain: a multi- centre

  19. New developments in the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Wadia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past 5 years, the treatment and understanding of metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC have improved dramatically. Our understanding of the mechanisms of castration resistance has allowed for the development of new drugs to target prostate cancer, and our understanding of genetic mutations may give us new tools with which to more accurately diagnose and be able to predict the course of this heterogeneous disease. This article summarizes the recent advances in the understanding of the development of CRPC, as well as the new drugs and targets, which have evolved from this basic research.

  20. Palliative care in castrate-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabow, Michael W; Lee, Michael Xiang

    2012-11-01

    Significant symptoms and suffering related to castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) are associated with the disease and its treatment. Increasingly, with advances in treatment efficacy, men can live with symptoms for long periods. Interdisciplinary palliative care teams (including physicians, nurses, social workers, chaplains, pharmacists, psychologists, physical therapists, and nutritionists) focused on symptom management and patients' goals of care can collaborate with prostate cancer surgeons, oncologists, and radiation oncologists to provide the best care for men at all stages of treatment, including end of life. This article reviews the benefits of palliative care in helping patients with CRPC manage symptoms and distress.

  1. Comparison of telomerase activity in prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase enzyme that synthesizes telomeric DNA on chromosome ends. The enzyme is important for the immortalization of cancer cells because it maintains the telomeres. METHODS: Telomerase activity (TA was measured by fluorescence-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (FTRAP assay in prostate carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. RESULTS: TA was present in 91.4% of 70 prostate cancers, 68.8% of 16 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, 43.3% of 30 BPH*, 21.4% of 14 atrophy and 20% of 15 normal samples adjacent to tumor. There was not any significant correlation between TA, histopathological tumor stage or gleason score. In contrast to high TA in the BPH* tissue from the cancer-bearing gland, only 6.3% of 32 BPH specimens from patients only diagnosed with BPH were telomerase activity-positive. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that TA is present in most prostate cancers. The high rate of TA in tissue adjacent to tumor may be attributed either to early molecular alteration of cancer that was histologically unapparent, or to the presence of occult cancer cells. Our findings suggest that the re-expression of telomerase activity could be one step in the transformation of BPH to PIN. KEY WORDS: Telomerase activity, prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  2. Incidence of prostate cancer in Lithuania after introduction of the Early Prostate Cancer Detection Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailyte, G; Aleknaviciene, B

    2012-12-01

    In Lithuania, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing is offered to healthy asymptomatic men as a screening test in the population-based Early Prostate Cancer Detection Programme (EPCDP). The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence of prostate cancer before and after introduction of the EPCDP in Lithuania. Prostate cancer incidence and mortality data from the Lithuanian Cancer Registry were analysed for the period 1990-2008. Age-specific incidence and mortality data were adjusted to the European Standard Population. There have been extraordinary changes in the incidence of prostate cancer in Lithuania following introduction of the EPCDP, and there is strong evidence that these changes are the result of increased detection rates, especially in men of screening age. Further observation of changes in prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Lithuania may help to determine the extent to which PSA testing at the population level influences incidence and mortality in the general population.

  3. Presence of PSA auto-antibodies in men with prostate abnormalities (prostate cancer/benign prostatic hyperplasia/prostatitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokant, M T; Naz, R K

    2015-04-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), produced by the prostate, liquefies post-ejaculate semen. PSA is detected in semen and blood. Increased circulating PSA levels indicate prostate abnormality [prostate cancer (PC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis (PTIS)], with variance among individuals. As the prostate has been proposed as an immune organ, we hypothesise that variation in PSA levels among men may be due to presence of auto-antibodies against PSA. Sera from healthy men (n = 28) and men having prostatitis (n = 25), BPH (n = 30) or PC (n = 29) were tested for PSA antibody presence using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) values converted to standard deviation (SD) units, and Western blotting. Taking ≥2 SD units as cut-off for positive immunoreactivity, 0% of normal men, 0% with prostatitis, 33% with BPH and 3.45% with PC demonstrated PSA antibodies. One-way analysis of variance (anova) performed on the mean absorbance values and SD units of each group showed BPH as significantly different (P prostatitis. All others were nonsignificant (P prostate abnormalities, especially differentiating BPH from prostate cancer and prostatitis.

  4. COMBINATION THERAPY FOR PROSTATE CANCER: CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ya. Alekseev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is one of the urgent problems of modern urological oncology. The incidence of this pathology is steadily growing worldwide. Despite the fact that PSA diagnosis is extensively used and programs for the early detection of this disease are introduced, the rate of dia gnosis of advanced PC forms remains high. Furthermore, a number of aspects of therapy for this disease remain controversial so far. The 7 th Congress of the Russian Society of Urological Oncologists, which dealt with some issues of combination therapy for locally advanced PC, was held in Moscow in October 3 to 5, 2012. The paper covers a number of controversial issues in the management of patients with PC in different clinical situations.

  5. Biomarkers of Prostatic Cancer: An Attempt to Categorize Patients into Prostatic Carcinoma, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, or Prostatitis Based on Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, Prostatic Acid Phosphatase, Calcium, and Phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Shahana; Adil, Mohammed Abdul Majid; Nyamath, Parveen; Ishaq, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Prostatitis, BPH, and P.Ca are the most frequent pathologies of the prostate gland that are responsible for morbidity in men. Raised levels of PSA are seen in different pathological conditions involving the prostate. PAP levels are altered in inflammatory or infectious or abnormal growth of the prostate tissue. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were also found to be altered in prostate cancer and BPH. The present study was carried out to study the levels of PSA, PAP, calcium, and phosphorus in serum of patients with Prostatitis, BPH, or P.Ca and also to evaluate the relationship between them. Males in the age group of 50-85 years with LUTS disease symptoms and with PSA levels more than 4 ng/mL were included. A total of 114 patients were analyzed including 30 controls. Prostatitis in 35.7% of cases, BPH in 35.7% of the cases, and P.Ca in 28.57% of the cases were observed. Thus, the nonmalignant cases constitute a majority. PSA, a marker specific for prostatic conditions, was significantly high in all the diseases compared to controls. A rise in serum PSA and PAP indicates prostatitis or, in combination with these two tests, decreased serum calcium shows advanced disease.

  6. Biomarkers of Prostatic Cancer: An Attempt to Categorize Patients into Prostatic Carcinoma, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, or Prostatitis Based on Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, Prostatic Acid Phosphatase, Calcium, and Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Shahana; Nyamath, Parveen; Ishaq, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Prostatitis, BPH, and P.Ca are the most frequent pathologies of the prostate gland that are responsible for morbidity in men. Raised levels of PSA are seen in different pathological conditions involving the prostate. PAP levels are altered in inflammatory or infectious or abnormal growth of the prostate tissue. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were also found to be altered in prostate cancer and BPH. The present study was carried out to study the levels of PSA, PAP, calcium, and phosphorus in serum of patients with Prostatitis, BPH, or P.Ca and also to evaluate the relationship between them. Males in the age group of 50–85 years with LUTS disease symptoms and with PSA levels more than 4 ng/mL were included. A total of 114 patients were analyzed including 30 controls. Prostatitis in 35.7% of cases, BPH in 35.7% of the cases, and P.Ca in 28.57% of the cases were observed. Thus, the nonmalignant cases constitute a majority. PSA, a marker specific for prostatic conditions, was significantly high in all the diseases compared to controls. A rise in serum PSA and PAP indicates prostatitis or, in combination with these two tests, decreased serum calcium shows advanced disease. PMID:28168057

  7. Biomarkers of Prostatic Cancer: An Attempt to Categorize Patients into Prostatic Carcinoma, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, or Prostatitis Based on Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, Prostatic Acid Phosphatase, Calcium, and Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahana Sarwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostatitis, BPH, and P.Ca are the most frequent pathologies of the prostate gland that are responsible for morbidity in men. Raised levels of PSA are seen in different pathological conditions involving the prostate. PAP levels are altered in inflammatory or infectious or abnormal growth of the prostate tissue. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were also found to be altered in prostate cancer and BPH. The present study was carried out to study the levels of PSA, PAP, calcium, and phosphorus in serum of patients with Prostatitis, BPH, or P.Ca and also to evaluate the relationship between them. Males in the age group of 50–85 years with LUTS disease symptoms and with PSA levels more than 4 ng/mL were included. A total of 114 patients were analyzed including 30 controls. Prostatitis in 35.7% of cases, BPH in 35.7% of the cases, and P.Ca in 28.57% of the cases were observed. Thus, the nonmalignant cases constitute a majority. PSA, a marker specific for prostatic conditions, was significantly high in all the diseases compared to controls. A rise in serum PSA and PAP indicates prostatitis or, in combination with these two tests, decreased serum calcium shows advanced disease.

  8. Metabolomic Profiling of Prostate Cancer Progression During Active Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    cancer or a history of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for benign prostatic hypertrophy are excluded. Somewhat surprisingly...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0451 TITLE: Metabolomic Profiling of Prostate Cancer...29 September 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Metabolomic Profiling of Prostate Cancer Progression During Active Surveillance 5b

  9. AR Alternative Splicing and Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    established from a transplantable primary CWR22 tumor. Clin Cancer Res 2008;14:6062–72. 24. Dehm SM, Tindall DJ. Ligand-independent androgen receptor...diverse tissues including heart, muscle, uterus , prostate, lung, and breast, with no apparent expression in brain. However, these RT-PCR experi- ments...tumorigenic human prostate cancer cell line established from a transplantable primary CWR22 tumor. Clin Cancer Res 2008; 14: 6062 - 6072. 42 Gregory CW

  10. Increase of Prostate Cancer Incidence in Martinique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Belpomme

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer incidence is steadily increasing in many developed countries. Because insular populations present unique ethnic, geographical, and environmental characteristics, we analyzed the evolution of prostate cancer age-adjusted world standardized incidence rates in Martinique in comparison with that of metropolitan France. We also compared prostate cancer incidence rates, and lifestyle-related and socioeconomic markers such as life expectancy, dietary energy, and fat supply and consumption, with those in other Caribbean islands, France, UK, Sweden, and USA. The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Martinique is one of the highest reported worldwide; it is continuously growing since 1985 in an exponential mode, and despite a similar screening detection process and lifestyle-related behaviour, it is constantly at a higher level than in metropolitan France. However, Caribbean populations that are genetically close to that of Martinique have generally much lower incidence of prostate cancer. We found no correlation between prostate cancer incidence rates, life expectancy, and diet westernization. Since the Caribbean African descent-associated genetic susceptibility factor would have remained constant during the 1980–2005, we suggest that in Martinique some environmental change including the intensive use of carcinogenic organochlorine pesticides might have occurred as key determinant of the persisting highly growing incidence of prostate cancer.

  11. Targeting receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) expression induces apoptosis and inhibits prostate tumor growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elangovan, Indira; Thirugnanam, Sivasakthivel; Chen, Aoshuang; Zheng, Guoxing [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois, College of Medicine, Rockford, IL 61107 (United States); Bosland, Maarten C.; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre [Department of Pathology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Gnanasekar, Munirathinam, E-mail: mgnanas@uic.edu [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois, College of Medicine, Rockford, IL 61107 (United States)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Targeting RAGE by RNAi induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing RAGE expression abrogates rHMGB1 mediated cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down regulation of RAGE by RNAi inhibits PSA secretion of prostate cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knock down of RAGE abrogates prostate tumor growth in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disruption of RAGE expression in prostate tumor activates death receptors. -- Abstract: Expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays a key role in the progression of prostate cancer. However, the therapeutic potential of targeting RAGE expression in prostate cancer is not yet evaluated. Therefore in this study, we have investigated the effects of silencing the expression of RAGE by RNAi approach both in vitro and in vivo. The results of this study showed that down regulation of RAGE expression by RNAi inhibited the cell proliferation of androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (DU-145) prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, targeting RAGE expression resulted in apoptotic elimination of these prostate cancer cells by activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 death signaling. Of note, the levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) were also reduced in LNCaP cells transfected with RAGE RNAi constructs. Importantly, the RAGE RNAi constructs when administered in nude mice bearing prostate tumors, inhibited the tumor growth by targeting the expression of RAGE, and its physiological ligand, HMGB1 and by up regulating death receptors DR4 and DR5 expression. Collectively, the results of this study for the first time show that targeting RAGE by RNAi may be a promising alternative therapeutic strategy for treating prostate cancer.

  12. Prostate Cancer Stem-like Cells Contribute to the Development of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Ojo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT has been the standard care for patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC since the 1940s. Although ADT shows clear benefits for many patients, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC inevitably occurs. In fact, with the two recent FDA-approved second-generation anti-androgens abiraterone and enzalutamide, resistance develops rapidly in patients with CRPC, despite their initial effectiveness. The lack of effective therapeutic solutions towards CRPC largely reflects our limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for CRPC development. While persistent androgen receptor (AR signaling under castration levels of serum testosterone (<50 ng/mL contributes to resistance to ADT, it is also clear that CRPC evolves via complex mechanisms. Nevertheless, the physiological impact of individual mechanisms and whether these mechanisms function in a cohesive manner in promoting CRPC are elusive. In spite of these uncertainties, emerging evidence supports a critical role of prostate cancer stem-like cells (PCSLCs in stimulating CRPC evolution and resistance to abiraterone and enzalutamide. In this review, we will discuss the recent evidence supporting the involvement of PCSLC in CRPC acquisition as well as the pathways and factors contributing to PCSLC expansion in response to ADT.

  13. Microtubule Control of Metabolism in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    reduced risk of cancer development, compared to diabetics taking other types of medication (7). Use of metformin to treat cancers is currently under...9. Kisfalvi K, Moro A, Sinnett-Smith J, Eibl G, Rozengurt E. 2013. Metformin inhibits the growth of human pancreatic cancer xenografts. Pancreas 42...Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lynne Cassimeris CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Lehigh University Bethlehem, PA 18015-3008 REPORT

  14. Primary and salvage cryotherapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, David S; Pouliot, Frederic; Miller, David C; Belldegrun, Arie S

    2010-02-01

    Cryotherapy is a technique to ablate tissue by local induction of extremely cold temperatures. Recently, the American Urological Association Best Practice Statement recognized cryoablation of the prostate as an established treatment option for men with newly diagnosed or radiorecurrent organ-confined prostate cancer. Emerging data suggest that, in select cases, cryoablation may have a role in focal ablation of prostate. The current state of the art of cryoablation in these applications is reviewed.

  15. Long-Term Efficacy and Tolerability of Abdominal Once-Yearly Histrelin Acetate Subcutaneous Implants in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Woolen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Long-term assessment of the efficacy and tolerability of subcutaneous abdominal histrelin acetate implants that have been inserted for more than two years. Materials and Methods. Retrospective data collected over a six-year period at a single center from charts of 113 patients who received the subcutaneous abdominal histrelin acetate implant. Results. Following insertion of the first implant, 92.1% and 91.8% of patients had a serum testosterone level of ≤30 ng/dL at 24 and 48 weeks, respectively. Serum testosterone levels remained at <30 ng/dL for 96% of patients at two years and for 100% of patients at 3, 4, and 5 years. The testosterone levels remained significantly less than baseline (P<0.05. Six patients (5.3% had androgen-independent progression when followed up on the long term, increasing the mean serum PSA at 3, 4, and 5 years to 35.0 µg/L (n=22, 30.7 µg/L (n=13, and 132.9 µg/L (n=8, respectively. The mean serum PSA was significantly greater than baseline during these years (P<0.05. Eight patients (7.1% experienced minor, but not serious, adverse events from the histrelin acetate. Conclusion. Subcutaneous abdominal histrelin acetate implants are an effective long-term and well-tolerated administration method for treating patients with advanced prostate cancer.

  16. Studying circulating prostate cancer cells by in-vivo flow cytometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin; Gu, Zhengqin; Chen, Tong; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Xunbin

    2012-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in American men and the second leading cause of deaths from cancer, after lung cancer. The tumor usually grows slowly and remains confined to the gland for many years. As the cancer advances, however, it can metastasize throughout other areas of the body, such as the bones, lungs, and liver. Surgical resection, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the foundation of current prostate cancer therapies. Treatments for prostate cause both short- and long-term side effects that may be difficult to accept. Molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer metastasis need to be understood better and new therapies must be developed to selectively target to unique characteristics of cancer cell growth and metastasis. We have developed the "in vivo microscopy" to study the mechanisms that govern prostate cancer cell spread through the microenvironment in vivo in real-time confocal near-infrared fluorescence imaging. A recently developed "in vivo flow cytometer" and optical imaging are used to assess prostate cancer cell spreading and the circulation kinetics of prostate cancer cells. We have measured the depletion kinetics of cancer cells with different metastatic potential. Interestingly, more invasive PC-3 prostate cancer cells are depleted faster from the circulation than LNCaP cells.

  17. Treatment and prevention of bone complications from prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard J; Saylor, Philip J; Smith, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    Bone metastases and skeletal complications are major causes of morbidity in prostate cancer patients. Despite the osteoblastic appearance of bone metastases on imaging studies, patients have elevated serum and urinary markers of bone resorption, indicative of high osteoclast activity. Increased osteoclast activity is independently associated with higher risk of subsequent skeletal complications, disease progression, and death. Osteoclast-targeted therapies are therefore a rational approach to reduction of risk for disease-related skeletal complications, bone metastases, and treatment-related fractures. This review focuses on recent advances in osteoclast-targeted therapy in prostate cancer. Bisphosphonates have been extensively studied in men with prostate cancer. Zoledronic acid significantly decreased the risk of skeletal complications in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases, and it is FDA-approved for this indication. Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody that binds and inactivates RANKL, a critical mediator of osteoclast differentiation, activation, and survival. Recent global phase 3 clinic trials demonstrated an emerging role for denosumab in the treatment of prostate cancer bone metastases and prevention of fractures associated with androgen deprivation therapy.

  18. HER2 and COX2 expression in human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J; Mukherjee, R; Munro, A F; Wells, A C; Almushatat, A; Bartlett, J M S

    2004-01-01

    COX2 and HER2 expression are associated with a poor prognosis in prostate cancer and HER2 has been linked to COX2 expression in colorectal cancer. The association between COX2 and HER2 expression was investigated in 117 patients with prostate cancer (89) or Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (28). Tissue was analysed for HER2 amplification by fluorescent in situ hybridisation, and HER2 and COX2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). All tumours analysed expressed COX2 at a significantly higher level than BPH tissue (P=0.041). Only low levels of HER2 gene amplification (8%, 7/89) and HER2 protein expression (12%, 11/89) were observed. HER2 protein expression was rarely observed and did not correlate with HER2 amplification or COX2 expression. Although HER2 does not drive COX2 expression in prostate cancer, this study identified high levels of COX2 expressed in locally advanced prostate cancer, suggesting COX2 could be a potential therapeutic target. COX2 inhibitors are currently being used in clinical trials for the treatment of other tumour types.

  19. Obesity, body composition, and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowke Jay H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Established risk factors for prostate cancer have not translated to effective prevention or adjuvant care strategies. Several epidemiologic studies suggest greater body adiposity may be a modifiable risk factor for high-grade (Gleason 7, Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality. However, BMI only approximates body adiposity, and may be confounded by centralized fat deposition or lean body mass in older men. Our objective was to use bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA to measure body composition and determine the association between prostate cancer and total body fat mass (FM fat-free mass (FFM, and percent body fat (%BF, and which body composition measure mediated the association between BMI or waist circumference (WC with prostate cancer. Methods The study used a multi-centered recruitment protocol targeting men scheduled for prostate biopsy. Men without prostate cancer at biopsy served as controls (n = 1057. Prostate cancer cases were classified as having Gleason 6 (n = 402, Gleason 7 (n = 272, or Gleason 8-10 (n = 135 cancer. BIA and body size measures were ascertained by trained staff prior to diagnosis, and clinical and comorbidity status were determined by chart review. Analyses utilized multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results Body size and composition measures were not significantly associated with low-grade (Gleason 6 prostate cancer. In contrast, BMI, WC, FM, and FFM were associated with an increased risk of Gleason 7 and Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer. Furthermore, BMI and WC were no longer associated with Gleason 8-10 (ORBMI = 1.039 (1.000, 1.081, ORWC = 1.016 (0.999, 1.033, continuous scales with control for total body FFM (ORBMI = 0.998 (0.946, 1.052, ORWC = 0.995 (0.974, 1.017. Furthermore, increasing FFM remained significantly associated with Gleason 7 (ORFFM = 1.030 (1.008, 1.052 and Gleason 8-10 (ORFFM = 1.044 (1.014, 1.074 after controlling for FM. Conclusions Our results

  20. Prostate cancer may trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Zakharia, Elias Raja; Boysen, Anders Kindberg Fossø

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a previously healthy and active 64-year-old man who experienced a rapid neuropsychiatric decline. All tests for metabolic causes, neuroinfection, intracranial infarction or tumor were negative. By the means of magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography and the anti......-Hu antibody test the patient was diagnosed with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis related to prostate cancer. The patient died within 6 months. We review the literature on prostate cancer-related paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. High-risk prostate cancer can trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis...

  1. Diabetes and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The link between diabetes and prostate cancer is rarely studied in Asians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The trend of age-standardized prostate cancer incidence in 1995–2006 in the Taiwanese general population was calculated. A random sample of 1,000,000 subjects covered by the National Health Insurance in 2005 was recruited. A total of 494,630 men for all ages and 204,741 men ≥40 years old and without prostate cancer at the beginning of 2003 were followed to the end of 2005. Cumulati...

  2. Lymph node staging in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankineni, Sandeep; Brown, Anna M; Fascelli, Michele; Law, Yan Mee; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2015-05-01

    Nodal staging is important in prostate cancer treatment. While surgical lymph node dissection is the classic method of determining whether lymph nodes harbor malignancy, this is a very invasive technique. Current noninvasive approaches to identifying malignant lymph nodes are limited. Conventional imaging methods rely on size and morphology of lymph nodes and have notoriously low sensitivity for detecting malignant nodes. New imaging techniques such as targeted positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) with iron oxide particles are promising for nodal staging of prostate cancer. In this review, the strengths and limitations of imaging techniques for lymph node staging of prostate cancer are discussed.

  3. Hormones and prostate cancer: what's next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, A W

    2001-01-01

    In summary, the hormonal hypothesis remains one of the most important hypotheses in prostate cancer etiology. Although epidemiologic data regarding the role of hormones are still inconclusive, there are many intriguing leads. Armed with more complete methodological data, state-of-the-art hormone assays, sound epidemiologic design, and a more thorough analytical approach, a new generation of studies should yield critical data and insights to help clarify further the role of hormones in prostate cancer. These new studies may determine ultimately whether racial/ethnic differences in hormonal levels and in genetic susceptibility to hormone-metabolizing genes can help explain the very large racial/ethnic differences in prostate cancer risk.

  4. Occupation and prostate cancer risk in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma-Wagner, S; Chokkalingam, A P; Malker, H S; Stone, B J; McLaughlin, J K; Hsing, A W

    2000-05-01

    To provide new leads regarding occupational prostate cancer risk factors, we linked 36,269 prostate cancer cases reported to the Swedish National Cancer Registry during 1961 to 1979 with employment information from the 1960 National Census. Standardized incidence ratios for prostate cancer, within major (1-digit), general (2-digit), and specific (3-digit) industries and occupations, were calculated. Significant excess risks were seen for agriculture-related industries, soap and perfume manufacture, and leather processing industries. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios were also seen for the following occupations: farmers, leather workers, and white-collar occupations. Our results suggest that farmers; certain occupations and industries with exposures to cadmium, herbicides, and fertilizers; and men with low occupational physical activity levels have elevated prostate cancer risks. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and identify specific exposures related to excess risk in these occupations and industries.

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khankari, Nikhil K; Murff, Harvey J; Zeng, Chenjie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a common cancer worldwide with no established modifiable lifestyle factors to guide prevention. The associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and prostate cancer risk have been inconsistent. Using Mendelian randomisation, we evaluated associations...... between PUFAs and prostate cancer risk. METHODS: We used individual-level data from a consortium of 22 721 cases and 23 034 controls of European ancestry. Externally-weighted PUFA-specific polygenic risk scores (wPRSs), with explanatory variation ranging from 0.65 to 33.07%, were constructed and used...... to evaluate associations with prostate cancer risk per one standard deviation (s.d.) increase in genetically-predicted plasma PUFA levels using multivariable-adjusted unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: No overall association was observed between the genetically-predicted PUFAs evaluated in this study...

  6. Telomere Length Polymorphisms: A Potential Factor Underlying Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer in African American Men and Familial Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    markers to allow specific identification of prostate cancer cells in urine cytology specimens. 10 Role: PI Patrick C. Walsh Prostate Cancer Research...Detection of Prostate Cancer in Urine by Multiplex Immunofluorescence and Telomere FISH – Guiding Clinical Decisions Following Negative Prostate

  7. Actions of estrogens and endocrine disrupting chemicals on human prostate stem/progenitor cells and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen-Yang; Shi, Guang-Bin; Hu, Dan-Ping; Nelles, Jason L; Prins, Gail S

    2012-05-06

    Estrogen reprogramming of the prostate gland as a function of developmental exposures (aka developmental estrogenization) results in permanent alterations in structure and gene expression that lead to an increased incidence of prostatic lesions with aging. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with estrogenic activity have been similarly linked to an increased prostate cancer risk. Since it has been suggested that stem cells and cancer stem cells are potential targets of cancer initiation and disease management, it is highly possible that estrogens and EDCs influence the development and progression of prostate cancer through reprogramming and transforming the prostate stem and early stage progenitor cells. In this article, we review recent literature highlighting the effects of estrogens and EDCs on prostate cancer risk and discuss recent advances in prostate stem/progenitor cell research. Our laboratory has recently developed a novel prostasphere model using normal human prostate stem/progenitor cells and established that these cells express estrogen receptors (ERs) and are direct targets of estrogen action. Further, using a chimeric in vivo prostate model derived from these normal human prostate progenitor cells, we demonstrated for the first time that estrogens initiate and promote prostatic carcinogenesis in an androgen-supported environment. We herein discuss these findings and highlight new evidence using our in vitro human prostasphere assay for perturbations in human prostate stem cell self-renewal and differentiation by natural steroids as well as EDCs. These findings support the hypothesis that tissue stem cells may be direct EDC targets which may underlie life-long reprogramming as a consequence of developmental and/or transient adult exposures.

  8. A prospective study of cruciferous vegetables and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannucci, Edward; Rimm, Eric B; Liu, Yan; Stampfer, Meir J; Willett, Walter C

    2003-12-01

    High intake of cruciferous vegetables may offer some protection against prostate cancer, but overall data are inconclusive. Thus, we examined the association between cruciferous vegetable intake and risk of prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Between 1986 and 2000, 2,969 cases of nonstage T1a prostate cancer were diagnosed in 47,365 men who completed dietary assessments in 1986, 1990, and 1994. We calculated the multivariate relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox regression. Overall, we found no appreciable association between baseline intake of cruciferous vegetables and risk of prostate cancer (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.82-1.05, for > or = 5 versus cancer (RR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74-1.05; P for trend = 0.06). The inverse association was stronger for men under the age of 65 years (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.64-1.02; P for trend = 0.02), especially for organ-confined cancers (RR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.54-0.97; P for trend = 0.007). In addition, this inverse association was stronger when we restricted the analysis to men with more consistent intake of vegetables over the 10 years before 1986, when we limited the analysis to men who had had a prostate-specific antigen test, and when we considered an 8-year time lag. This study does not provide compelling evidence of a protective influence of cruciferous vegetables on prostate cancer risk. However, if cruciferous vegetables are protective early in prostate carcinogenesis, as suggested by proposed mechanisms, we may expect stronger associations, as observed, for more remote diet for prostate-specific antigen-detected early stage (organ-confined) cancers in younger men. In contrast, for advanced cancers in older men, which were probably initiated decades in the past, recent dietary intakes of cruciferous vegetables may be irrelevant. These findings suggest that future studies of cruciferous vegetables should focus on early stages of prostate cancer.

  9. Vaccine Therapy and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Hormone-Resistant, Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Bone; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Soft Tissues; Metastatic Prostate Carcinoma; Prostate Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  10. Selenium status and risk of prostate cancer in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, Malene; Tjønneland, Anne; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2016-01-01

    Low-Se status may be associated with a higher risk of notably advanced prostate cancer. In a Danish population with a relatively low Se intake, we investigated the association between pre-diagnostic Se status and (1) the risk of total, advanced and high-grade prostate cancer and (2) all......-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality among men with prostate cancer. Within the Danish ‘Diet, Cancer and Health’ cohort, including 27 179 men, we identified 784 cases with incident prostate cancer through 2007. Each case was risk set-matched to one control. Two-thirds (n 525) of the cases had advanced...... disease at the time of diagnosis, and among these 170 had high-grade disease; 305 cases died (n 212 from prostate cancer) during follow-up through 2012. Plasma Se was not associated with total or advanced prostate cancer risk, but higher Se levels were associated with a lower risk of high-grade disease...

  11. The role of prostatitis in prostate cancer: meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Jiang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Use systematic review methods to quantify the association between prostatitis and prostate cancer, under both fixed and random effects model. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Case control studies of prostate cancer with information on prostatitis history. All studies published between 1990-2012, were collected to calculate a pooled odds ratio. SELECTION CRITERIA: the selection criteria are as follows: human case control studies; published from May 1990 to July 2012; containing number of prostatitis, and prostate cancer cases. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: In total, 20 case control studies were included. A significant association between prostatitis and prostate cancer was found, under both fixed effect model (pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.39-1.62, and random effects model (OR=1.64, 95%CI: 1.36-1.98. Personal interview based case control studies showed a high level of association (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.47-1.73, random effects model: pooled OR= 1.87, 95%CI: 1.52-2.29, compared with clinical based studies (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.05, 95%CI: 0.86-1.28, random effects model: pooled OR= 0.98, 95%CI: 0.67-1.45. Additionally, pooled ORs, were calculated for each decade. In a fixed effect model: 1990's: OR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.35-1.84; 2000's: OR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.40-1.79; 2010's: OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.22-1.56. In a random effects model: 1990's: OR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.08-3.62; 2000's: OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.23-2.19; 2010's: OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.73. Finally a meta-analysis stratified by each country was conducted. In fixed effect models, U.S: pooled OR =1.45, 95%CI: 1.34-1.57; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. In random effects model, U.S: pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.25-1.80; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. CONCLUSIONS: the present meta-analysis provides the statistical

  12. Tumor clone dynamics in lethal prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Suzanne; Romanel, Alessandro; Goodall, Jane; Grist, Emily; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Miranda, Susana; Prandi, Davide; Lorente, David; Frenel, Jean-Sebastien; Pezaro, Carmel; Omlin, Aurelius; Rodrigues, Daniel Nava; Flohr, Penelope; Tunariu, Nina; S de Bono, Johann; Demichelis, Francesca; Attard, Gerhardt

    2014-09-17

    It is unclear whether a single clone metastasizes and remains dominant over the course of lethal prostate cancer. We describe the clonal architectural heterogeneity at different stages of disease progression by sequencing serial plasma and tumor samples from 16 ERG-positive patients. By characterizing the clonality of commonly occurring deletions at 21q22, 8p21, and 10q23, we identified multiple independent clones in metastatic disease that are differentially represented in tissue and circulation. To exemplify the clinical utility of our studies, we then showed a temporal association between clinical progression and emergence of androgen receptor (AR) mutations activated by glucocorticoids in about 20% of patients progressing on abiraterone and prednisolone or dexamethasone. Resistant clones showed a complex dynamic with temporal and spatial heterogeneity, suggesting distinct mechanisms of resistance at different sites that emerged and regressed depending on treatment selection pressure. This introduces a management paradigm requiring sequential monitoring of advanced prostate cancer patients with plasma and tumor biopsies to ensure early discontinuation of agents when they become potential disease drivers.

  13. Upregulation of Talin-1 expression associates with advanced pathological features and predicts lymph node metastases and biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Chen, Hui-Jun; Chen, Shao-Hao; Xue, Xue-Yi; Chen, Hong; Zheng, Qing-Shui; Wei, Yong; Li, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Jin-Bei; Cai, Hai; Sun, Xiong-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Talin-1 functions to regulate cell–cell adhesion, and its altered expression was reported to be associated with human carcinogenesis. A total of 280 tissue specimens from prostate cancer (PCa) patients who underwent radical prostatectomy, 75 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissue, and 6 cases of normal prostate tissue specimens were collected for construction of tissue microarray and subsequently subjected to immunohistochemical staining of Talin-1 expression. Talin-1 expression was significantly higher in PCa than both normal and BPH tissues (P BPH tissue and Talin-1 expression was an independent predictor for lymph node metastasis and biochemical recurrence of PCa. Further study will investigate the underlying molecular mechanism and the role of Talin-1 in PCa. PMID:27442684

  14. Evaluation of degarelix in the management of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Van Poppel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hendrik Van PoppelDepartment of Urology, University Hospitals Leuven, Campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven, BelgiumAbstract: Medical castration using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH receptor agonists currently provides the mainstay of androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. Although effective, these agents only reduce testosterone levels after a delay of 14 to 21 days; they also cause an initial surge in testosterone that can stimulate the cancer and lead to exacerbation of symptoms (“clinical flare” in patients with advanced disease. Phase III trial data for the recently approved GnRH receptor blocker, degarelix, demonstrated that it is as effective and well tolerated as GnRH agonists. However, it has a pharmacological profile more closely matching orchiectomy, with an immediate onset of action and faster testosterone and PSA suppression, without a testosterone surge or microsurges following repeated injections. As a consequence, with this GnRH blocker, there is no risk of clinical flare and no need for concomitant antiandrogen flare protection. Degarelix therefore provides a useful addition to the hormonal armamentarium for prostate cancer and offers a valuable new treatment option for patients with hormone-sensitive advanced disease. Here, we review key preclinical and clinical data for degarelix, and look at patient-focused perspectives in the management of prostate cancer.Keywords: degarelix, GnRH receptor antagonist, GnRH receptor blocker, prostate cancer

  15. Studying depletion kinetics of circulating prostate cancer cells by in vivo flow cytometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangda; Gu, Zhengqin; Guo, Jin; Li, Yan; Chen, Yun; Chen, Tong; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Xunbin

    2011-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in American men and the second leading cause of deaths from cancer, after lung cancer. The tumor usually grows slowly and remains confined to the gland for many years. During this time, the tumor produces little or no symptoms or outward signs. As the cancer advances, however, it can metastasize throughout other areas of the body, such as the bones, lungs, and liver. Surgical resection, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the foundation of current prostate cancer therapies. Treatments for prostate cause both short- and long-term side effects that may be difficult to accept. Molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer metastasis need to be understood better and new therapies must be developed to selectively target to unique characteristics of cancer cell growth and metastasis. We have developed the "in vivo microscopy" to study the mechanisms that govern prostate cancer cell spread through the microenvironment in vivo in real-time confocal near-infrared fluorescence imaging. A recently developed "in vivo flow cytometer" and optical imaging are used to assess prostate cancer cell spreading and the circulation kinetics of prostate cancer cells. A real- time quantitative monitoring of circulating prostate cancer cells by the in vivo flow cytometer will be useful to assess the effectiveness of the potential therapeutic interventions.

  16. Depletion kinetics of circulating prostate cancer cells studied by in vivo flow cytometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangda; Guo, Jin; Li, Yan; Chen, Yun; Gu, Zhengqin; Chen, Tong; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Xunbin

    2010-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in American men and the second leading cause of deaths from cancer, after lung cancer. The tumor usually grows slowly and remains confined to the gland for many years. During this time, the tumor produces little or no symptoms or outward signs. As the cancer advances, however, it can metastasize throughout other areas of the body, such as the bones, lungs, and liver. Surgical resection, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the foundation of current prostate cancer therapies. Treatments for prostate cause both short- and long-term side effects that may be difficult to accept. Molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer metastasis need to be understood better and new therapies must be developed to selectively target to unique characteristics of cancer cell growth and metastasis. We have developed the "in vivo microscopy" to study the mechanisms that govern prostate cancer cell spread through the microenvironment in vivo in real-time confocal nearinfrared fluorescence imaging. A recently developed "in vivo flow cytometer" and optical imaging are used to assess prostate cancer cell spreading and the circulation kinetics of prostate cancer cells. A real- time quantitative monitoring of circulating prostate cancer cells by the in vivo flow cytometer will be useful to assess the effectiveness of the potential therapeutic interventions.

  17. Studies of a novel photosensitizer palladium-bacteriopheophorbide (Tookad) for the treatment of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Brun, Pierre-Herve; Wilson, Brian C.; Scherz, Avigdor; Salomon, Yoram; Luck, David L.; Beckers, Jill; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2003-06-01

    In this study, photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with a novel, second generation photosensitizer Tookad (palladium-bacteriopheophorbide, WST09, STEBA Biotech, France), is investigated as an alternative modality in the treatment of prostate cancer. In vivo normal canine prostate and spontaneous advanced prostate cancer are used as the animal model. PDT was performed by irradiating the surgically exposed prostates with a diode laser (763 nm, 150 mW/cm) to activate the i.v. infused photosensitizer. The effects of drug concentration, drug-light interval, and light fluence rate on the PDT efficacy were studied. The prostates and adjacent tissues (bladder and underlying colon) were harvested and subjected to histopathological examination. During the one-week to 3-month period post PDT treatment, the dogs recovered well with little or no urethral complications. Prostatic urethra and prostate adjacent tissues (bladder and underlying colon) were well preserved. Light irradiation delivered during drug infusion or within 15 min post drug infusion induced the similar extend of damages. PDT induced prostate lesions in both normal and cancerous prostate were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis and atrophy. Maximum lesion size of over 3 cm in dimension could be achieved with a single 1-cm interstitial treatment, suggesting the therapy is very effective in ablating cancerous prostatic tissue. In conclusion, the second generation photosensitizer Tookad mediated PDT may provide an effective alternative to treat prostate cancer.

  18. Combined inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor and cyclooxygenase-2 leads to greater anti-tumor activity of docetaxel in advanced prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Lin

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2 play a critical role in disease progression, relapse and therapeutic resistance of advanced prostate cancer (PCa. In this paper, we evaluated, for the first time, the therapeutic benefit of blocking EGRF and/or COX-2 (using gefitinib and NS-398, respectively in terms of improving the efficacy of the conventional clinical chemotherapeutic drug docetaxel in vitro and vivo. We showed that EGFR and COX-2 expression was higher in metastatic than non-metastatic PCa tissues and cells. Docetaxel, alone or in combination with gefitinib or NS-398, resulted in a small decrease in cell viability. The three drug combination decreased cell viability to a greater extent than docetaxel alone or in combination with gefitinib or NS-398. Docetaxel resulted in a modest increase in apoptotic cell in metastatic and non-metastatic cell lines. NS-398 markedly enhanced docetaxel-induced cell apoptosis. The combination of the three drugs caused even more marked apoptosis and resulted in greater suppression of invasive potential than docetaxel alone or in association with gefitinib or NS-398. The combination of all three drugs also resulted in a more marked decrease in NF-ΚB, MMP-9 and VEGF levels in PC-3M cells. These in vitro findings were supported by in vivo studies showing that docetaxel in combination with gefitinib and NS-398 was significantly more effective than any individual agent. Based on previous preclinical research, we conclude that simultaneously blocking EGFR and COX-2 by gefitinib and NS-398 sensitizes advanced PCa cells to docetaxel-induced cytotoxicity.

  19. Associations between unprocessed red and processed meat, poultry, seafood and egg intake and the risk of prostate cancer: A pooled analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, K.; Spiegelman, D.; Hou, T.; Albanes, D.; Allen, N.E.; Berndt, S.I.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Giles, G.G.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Goodman, G.G.; Goodman, P.J.; Håkansson, N.; Inoue, M.; Key, T.J.; Kolonel, L.N.; Männistö, S.; McCullough, M.L.; Neuhouser, M.L.; Park, Y.; Platz, E.A.; Schenk, J.M.; Sinha, R.; Stampfer, M.J.; Stevens, V.L.; Tsugane, S.; Visvanathan, K.; Wilkens, L.R.; Wolk, A.; Ziegler, R.G.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Reports relating meat intake to prostate cancer risk are inconsistent. Associations between these dietary factors and prostate cancer were examined in a consortium of 15 cohort studies. During follow-up, 52,683 incident prostate cancer cases, including 4,924 advanced cases, were identified among 842

  20. Correlations between meteorological parameters and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Rakesh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There exists a north-south pattern to the distribution of prostate cancer in the U.S., with the north having higher rates than the south. The current hypothesis for the spatial pattern of this disease is low vitamin D levels in individuals living at northerly latitudes; however, this explanation only partially explains the spatial distribution in the incidence of this cancer. Using a U.S. county-level ecological study design, we provide evidence that other meteorological parameters further explain the variation in prostate cancer across the U.S. Results In general, the colder the temperature and the drier the climate in a county, the higher the incidence of prostate cancer, even after controlling for shortwave radiation, age, race, snowfall, premature mortality from heart disease, unemployment rate, and pesticide use. Further, in counties with high average annual snowfall (>75 cm/yr the amount of land used to grow crops (a proxy for pesticide use was positively correlated with the incidence of prostate cancer. Conclusion The trends found in this USA study suggest prostate cancer may be partially correlated with meteorological factors. The patterns observed were consistent with what we would expect given the effects of climate on the deposition, absorption, and degradation of persistent organic pollutants including pesticides. Some of these pollutants are known endocrine disruptors and have been associated with prostate cancer.

  1. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Omi/HtrA2 Expression in Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiaoyong; CHEN Xiaochun; PING Hao; CHEN Zhaohui; ZENG Fuqing; LU Gongcheng

    2005-01-01

    To study the expression and significance of the serine protease Omi/HtrA2 in prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. The expression of Omi/HtrA2 was assayed by means of immunohistochemical technique in 41 prostate cancer (Cap), 20 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 10 normal prostate (NP) specimens. Omi/HtrA2 expression was positive in 30 (73.17%) prostate cancer specimens, and the positive rate of Omi/HtrA2 was lower in well differentiated than in poorly and moderately differentiated groups (P<0.05). By contrast, the cells in normal prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia groups showed no or weak expression of Omi/HtrA2.Prostate cancer cells in vivo may need Omi/HtrA2 expression for apoptosis, and that Omi/HtrA2expression might be involved in prostate cancer development.

  2. What Happens After Treatment for Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to clearly help lower the risk of prostate cancer progressing or coming back. In fact, some research has suggested that some supplements, such as selenium, might even be harmful. This doesn’t mean ...

  3. Extended lymph node dissection for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Stephan; Burkhard, Fiona C; Thurairaja, Ramesh; Dhar, Nivedita; Studer, Urs E

    2008-05-01

    Lymph node status is an important determinant for the management of patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer. Given the significant limitations of cross-sectional and functional preoperative imaging in the detection of small metastases, pelvic lymph node dissection remains the only reliable staging method in clinically localized prostate cancer. Although lymph node dissection is a well-established form of staging in prostate cancer, controversy remains about indications and the surgical extent of the procedure. Reported practices vary from omitting pelvic lymph node dissection in low-risk disease to routine pelvic lymph node dissection in all radical prostatectomy patients. This review highlights the recent literature concerning pelvic lymphadenectomy in prostate cancer with respect to anatomical extent and oncologic outcome.

  4. Validation of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    incontinence and urinary urgency as well as sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, evidence from many sources suggests that most prostate cancers are...mainly surgery and radiation therapy, result in well documented significant morbidities, including significant lower urinary tract symptoms such as

  5. Do We Know What Causes Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mutations Some gene mutations can be passed from generation to generation and are found in all cells in the ... cells live longer than they should, which can lead to an increased risk of prostate cancer. BRCA1 ...

  6. Diabetes mellitus and health-related quality of life in prostate cancer: 5-year results from the Prostate Cancer Outcomes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Melissa S Y; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke; Hoffman, Richard M; Albertsen, Peter C; Hamilton, Ann S; Stanford, Janet L; Penson, David F

    2011-04-01

    Study Type--Therapy (outcomes research) Level of Evidence 2b. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Comorbid diabetes can affect prostate cancer treatment decision-making and outcomes. Few longitudinal studies have investigated the effect of comorbid diabetes on general and cancer-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL) in prostate cancer. Our study found that men with prevalent diabetes (pre-prostate cancer diagnosis) generally had the poorest general HRQL, urinary control and sexual function scores over time, independent of treatment. Non-diabetic men had the best scores and men with incident diabetes (post-prostate cancer diagnosis) reported intermediate scores. OBJECTIVE • To investigate the association between prostate cancer, diabetes, and long-term general and cancer-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL) in a cohort of men with non-metastatic prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS • We used data from self-administered surveys to assess the HRQL of men with localized or locally advanced disease at 6 (baseline), 12, 24, and 60 months after initial diagnosis. • We examined changes in general and cancer-specific HRQL with repeated measures analyses using a mixed-model approach. RESULTS • In total, we evaluated 1811 men, including 13% with prevalent (pre-prostate cancer diagnosis) diabetes, 12% with incident (post-prostate cancer diagnosis) diabetes, and 75% who never reported being diagnosed with diabetes. • Generally, men with prevalent diabetes had the poorest scores on general HRQL and non-diabetic men the best scores, independent of treatment. • Similarly, men with prevalent diabetes had the lowest urinary control and sexual function scores over time, while men without diabetes had the highest scores. Men with incident diabetes reported intermediate scores. CONCLUSION • Prostate cancer survivors with comorbid diabetes have poorer general and cancer-specific HRQL than those without diabetes.

  7. Finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy H Chau

    Full Text Available In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT, finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying drug concentrations.Data for this nested case-control study are from the PCPT. Cases were drawn from men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer and matched controls. Finasteride concentrations were measured using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry validated assay. The association of serum finasteride concentrations with prostate cancer risk was determined by logistic regression. We also examine whether polymorphisms in the enzyme target and metabolism genes of finasteride are related to drug concentrations using linear regression.Among men with detectable finasteride concentrations, there was no association between finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk, low-grade or high-grade, when finasteride concentration was analyzed as a continuous variable or categorized by cutoff points. Since there was no concentration-dependent effect on prostate cancer, any exposure to finasteride intake may reduce prostate cancer risk. Of the twenty-seven SNPs assessed in the enzyme target and metabolism pathway, five SNPs in two genes, CYP3A4 (rs2242480; rs4646437; rs4986910, and CYP3A5 (rs15524; rs776746 were significantly associated with modifying finasteride concentrations. These results suggest that finasteride exposure may reduce prostate cancer risk and finasteride concentrations are affected by genetic variations in genes responsible for altering its metabolism pathway.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00288106.

  8. Epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Siddiqui, Zamir Ali; Akram, Muhammad; Asif, H M; Sultana, Sabira; Khan, Asmatullah

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is more common in men over the age of 65 years. There are 15% cases with positive family history of prostate cancer Worldwide. Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death among the U.S. men. Prostate cancer incidence is strongly related to age with the highest rates in older man. Globally millions of people are suffering from this disease. This study aims to provide awareness about prostate cancer as well as an updated knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.

  9. Macrophage Efferocytosis and Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0408 TITLE: Macrophage Efferocytosis and Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jacqueline D. Jones...0408 Macrophage Efferocytosis and Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...efferocytosis. The translation of this functional role during pathophysiological states such as tumor metastasis to the skeleton is unknown. The purpose of this

  10. SPANXB2 and Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Overall Project Summary   We fully completed our specific Aim i and ii , and partially completed the aim iii . In aim i...vivo. iii ) Test the association of SPANX-B2 expression with biochemical recurrence (PSA), lymph node metastasis, prostate cancer specific death and...3173. 16. Zheng Y, Basel D, Chow SO, et al,. (2014) Targeting IL-6 and RANKL signaling inhibits prostate cancer growth in bone. Clin Exp Metastasis

  11. The Infectious Pathogenesis Of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Giovannucci EL, Platz EA, Sutcliffe S, Fall K, Kurth T, Ma J, Stampfer MJ, Mucci LA. Prospective study of Trichomonas vaginalis infection and prostate cancer...University Press, 2002:385. 11. Sutcliffe S, Giovannucci E, Alderete JF, et al. Plasma antibodies against Trichomonas vaginalis and subsequent risk of...Sutcliffe S, Fall K, Kurth T, Ma J, Stampfer MJ, Mucci LA. Prospective study of Trichomonas vaginalis infection and prostate cancer incidence and

  12. Promoter-Based Theranostics for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1). In order to test this in vivo, we have developed a mouse model of human metastatic prostate cancer that develops tumors within liver, kidney ...mouse model of human prostate Cancer. (a) Bioluminescent images of mice with metastatic model. (b) Liver metastasis. (c) Kidney metastasis. (d...targeting clear cell renal cell carcinoma using carbonic anhydrase IX as a target. Title: Shape control and transport properties of DNA-templated

  13. Estrogen Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    fat and low vegetables , in particular low in cruciferous , and obesity may increase estrogen metabolism towards 16a hydroxylation. This preferential...and Prostate Cancer Risk PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Paola C. Muti, M.D., M.S. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: State University of New York Amherst, New York...DATES COVERED October 1999 Annual (I Oct 98 - 30 Sep 99) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Estrogen Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Risk DAMD17-98-l

  14. Formalized prediction of clinically significant prostate cancer: is it possible?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carvell T Nguyen; Michael W Kattan

    2012-01-01

    Greater understanding of the biology and epidemiology of prostate cancer in the last several decades have led to significant advances in its management.Prostate cancer is now detected in greater numbers at lower stages of disease and is amenable to multiple forms of efficacious treatment.However,there is a lack of conclusive data demonstrating a definitive mortality benefit from this earlier diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.It is likely due to the treatment of a large proportion of indolent cancers that would have had little adverse impact on health or lifespan if left alone.Due to this overtreatment phenomenon,active surveillance with delayed intervention is gaining traction as a viable management approach in contemporary practice.The ability to distinguish clinically insignificant cancers from those with a high risk of progression and/or lethality is critical to the appropriate selection of patients for surveillance protocols versus immediate intervention.This chapter will review the ability of various prediction models,including risk groupings and nomograms,to predict indolent disease and determine their role in the contemporary management of clinically localized prostate cancer.

  15. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS IN PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Gorban

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is most common and its heterogenicity is presently apparent. There is a continuous search for the factors allowing the prediction of the poor course and biological difference of tumors. The College of American Pathologists classifies the currently known prognostic factors into 3 categories: 1 the factors whose prognostic importance and successful use have been proven in practice; 2 those that have been widely studied biologically and clinically, but the significance of which needs to be proven in extensive statistical studies; 3 all other factors that have been inadequately studied to demonstrate their prognostic value. Category 1 prognostic factors, such as prostate-specific antigen levels, TNM stage, Gleason grading, and the status of surgical margins, enjoy wide application. Category 2 factors are not used IN clinical practice so extensively. The value of some Category 3 factors (the biomarkers p53, Ki-67, Bcl-2, receptors of androgens is indubitably and they claim to be widely applied in clinical practice with time. The clinical significance of molecular biological markers calls for further investigation.

  16. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS IN PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Gorban

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is most common and its heterogenicity is presently apparent. There is a continuous search for the factors allowing the prediction of the poor course and biological difference of tumors. The College of American Pathologists classifies the currently known prognostic factors into 3 categories: 1 the factors whose prognostic importance and successful use have been proven in practice; 2 those that have been widely studied biologically and clinically, but the significance of which needs to be proven in extensive statistical studies; 3 all other factors that have been inadequately studied to demonstrate their prognostic value. Category 1 prognostic factors, such as prostate-specific antigen levels, TNM stage, Gleason grading, and the status of surgical margins, enjoy wide application. Category 2 factors are not used IN clinical practice so extensively. The value of some Category 3 factors (the biomarkers p53, Ki-67, Bcl-2, receptors of androgens is indubitably and they claim to be widely applied in clinical practice with time. The clinical significance of molecular biological markers calls for further investigation.

  17. 雄激素非依赖性晚期转移性前列腺癌生存预后分析%The survival analysis of the advanced metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马春光; 施国海; 秦晓健; 林国文; 杨立峰; 杨柏帅; 肖文军; 叶定伟; 姚旭东; 张世林; 戴波; 张海梁; 朱耀; 沈益君; 朱一平

    2009-01-01

    目的 分析雄激素非依赖性晚期转移性前列腺癌的预后相关因素.方法 1996年12月至2008年3月250例晚期转移性前列腺癌患者在内分泌治疗期间进展为雄激素非依赖性前列腺癌,对其进行随访,末次随访时间为2008年3月31日,中位随访时间为24个月(3~135个月).末次随访时131例生存,105例死亡,14例失访.利用统计学软件进行生存预后分析.结果 中位生存时间为30个月.1年牛存率79%,2年生存率59%,3年生存率41%.单因素分析及多因素分析显示:内分泌治疗过程中PSA最低值、达到PSA最低值时间、进展为雄激素非依赖性前列腺癌时PSA速率、内分泌治疗有效时间为独立预后冈素.结论 内分泌治疗过程中PSA最低值、达到PSA最低值时间、进展为雄激素非依赖性前列腺癌时的PSA速率和内分泌治疗有效时间为雄激素非依赖性晚期转移性前列腺癌生存时间的独立预后因素.%Objective To analyze predictive factors of advanced metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.Methods From December 1996 to March 2008,250 cases of advanced metastatic prostate cancer progressed into the stage of hormonal independent prostate cancer.The last follow-up date was 31 March 2008 and the median follow-up time was 24 months.During the follow-up,131 cases were alive,105cases were dead and 14 cases were lost to follow-up.Clinical and pathological information of the cases was analyzed to find the predictive factors that related to the prognosis.Results The median survival time of advanced metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer was 30 months,and the one-year,two-year,three-year survival rate was 79%,59%,and 41%.The univariate analysis indicated that prostate specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis,clinical stage,the PSA nadir during hormonal therapy,the time form the start of hormonal therapy to the PSA nadir,the time of response duration during hormonal therapy,PSA velocity (PSAV) and PSA doubling

  18. 75 FR 54453 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... the last decade, prostate cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the... it. The exact causes of prostate cancer are not known, but awareness can help men make more informed... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8552 of August 31, 2010 National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 By...

  19. Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of prostate cancer, including information about specific genes and family cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about screening for prostate cancer and research aimed at prevention of this disease. Psychosocial issues associated with genetic testing and counseling of individuals who may have hereditary prostate cancer syndrome are also discussed.

  20. Prostate cancer and diet: food for thought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Satoshi; Butler, Elizabeth; McLoughlin, John

    2011-05-01

    • There is now increasing evidence that diet plays a major role in prostate cancer biology and tumorigenesis. • In a health conscious society, it is becoming increasingly common for Urologists to be asked about the impact of diet on prostate cancer. • In the present review, we explore the current evidence for the role of different dietary components and its' effect on prostate cancer prevention and progression. • A literature search was conducted using PubMed® to identify key studies. • There was some evidence to suggest that green tea, isoflavones, lycopenes, cruciferous vegetables and omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake to be beneficial in the prevention and/or progression of prostate cancer. • There was also evidence to suggest that a high total fat, meat (especially well cooked) and multivitamin intake may be associated with an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. • To date publications have been highly heterogeneous and variable in quality and design. More robust, high quality research trials are needed to help us understand the complex relationship between diet and prostate cancer.

  1. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.; Schans, S.A. van de; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. METHODS: Data from

  2. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Schans, van de S.A.; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. Methods Data from the Netherla

  3. Molecular targets of selenium in prostate cancer prevention (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulah, Rizky; Kobayashi, Kenji; Yamazaki, Chiho; Koyama, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among males. Although use of the micro-nutrient selenium in prostate cancer clinical trials is limited, the outcomes indicate that selenium is a promising treatment. Furthermore, selenium inhibits prostate cancer through multiple mechanisms, and it is beneficial in controlling the development of this disease. This review highlights the latest epidemiological and biomolecular research on selenium in prostate cancer, as well as its prospects for future clinical use.

  4. [An unusual presentation of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joual, A; Rabii, R; Aboutaeib, R; el Moussaoui, A; Benjelloun, S

    1996-01-01

    The authors report an uncommon case of a 74-year old man with prostatic cancer revealed by pelvic mass. Ultrasound exam and CT-scan showed a bilateral laterorectal mass with high density. Presence of such a mass in an old patient is very suggestive of lymph nodes than retroperitoneal tumor. Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) is rather helpful in such conditions. Biopsy of the mass allows confirmation of the prostatic cancer diagnosis. Bilateral Surgical pulpectomy is performed in combination with oral hormonal therapy. Follow-up after 6 months showed a good course or ultrasound exam and PSA level.

  5. Prostate cancer research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Cheng Ren; Rui Chen; Ying-Hao Sun

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) research in China has been on a rocketing trend in recent years.The first genome-wide association study (GWAS)in China identified two new PCa risk associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).Next generation sequencing is beginning to be used,yielding novel findings:gene fusions,long non-coding RNAs and other variations.Mechanisms of PCa progression have been illustrated while various diagnosis biomarkers have been investigated extensively.Personalized therapy based on genetic factors,nano-medicine and traditional Chinese medicine has been the focus of experimental therapeutic research for PCa.This review intends to shed light upon the recent progress in PCa research in China and points out the possible breakthroughs in the future.

  6. New drug development in metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Andrew J; George, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, drug development in castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer (CRPC) remains challenging, due to the number of potentially viable molecular targets and clinical trials available, the lack of established surrogates for overall survival, and competing causes of mortality. This review will highlight the highest impact phase II and phase III trials of novel agents in the current CRPC landscape, and focus on both molecular targets and clinical trial designs that are more likely to demonstrate clinical benefit. The need for tissue correlative studies for target evaluation and drug mechanism is stressed to continue to advance the field and to define biomarkers that may identify patient populations that may derive a greater benefit from these molecular agents.

  7. The increased accumulation of [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose in untreated prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Nobuyuki; Akino, Hironobu; Suzuki, Yuji; Kanamaru, Hiroshi; Okada, Kenichiro [Fukui Medical Univ., Matsuoka (Japan); Sadato, Norihiro; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

    1999-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) compared with histopathological grading, clinical stage and serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA) level in the detection and characterization of prostate cancer. Forty-four patients with histologically proven prostate cancer and five control subjects with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were prospectively investigated with FDG-PET prior to treatment. By visual inspection, FDG accumulation was positive in 28 patients with prostate cancer (sensitivity 64%), whereas all were negative in the control group. FDG-PET in three patients with lymph node metastases did not show any high intrapelvic accumulations corresponding to metastatic sites. Among 12 patients with multiple bone metastases which were detected with 99m-HMDP bone scintigraphy, nine (75%) showed moderate to high FDG accumulation at the sites of bone metastases. Quantitatively, FDG accumulation in prostate cancer was significantly higher than in BPH and there was a tendency for FDG uptake of tumors to be higher with higher histological Gleason grades. Furthermore, FDG uptake in tumors with lymph node and/or bone metastasis was significantly higher than that of localized stages. However, the correlation between PSA and FDG uptake in the prostate cancer was very weak for clinical relevance. Although FDG-PET was not sensitive enough to detect prostate cancer in clinical use, it is suggested that glucose metabolism in prostate cancer tended to be higher in patients with tumors of advanced stages. (author)

  8. Chemotherapy of prostate cancer: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald; Lau, Yiu-Keung

    2003-06-01

    The role of chemotherapy in prostate cancer continues to evolve. In men with symptomatic androgen-independent prostate cancer, significant reduction in pain and analgesic requirements are achievable with mitoxantrone and glucocorticoid combinations compared with glucocorticoids alone. However, survival rates are not improved. Taxane-based combinations with estramustine phosphate or other new agents show promise. Prostate-specific antigen response rates with these combinations appear to be 1.5 to 2 times more frequent than with mitoxantrone-based combinations. Randomized trials of taxane versus mitoxantrone-based therapies are underway. New agents and applications of current agents in adjuvant settings should be explored if survival in men with prostate cancer is to be improved.

  9. Loss of PDEF, a prostate-derived Ets factor is associated with aggressive phenotype of prostate cancer: Regulation of MMP 9 by PDEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meacham Randall B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate-derived Ets factor (PDEF is expressed in tissues of high epithelial content including prostate, although its precise function has not been fully established. Conventional therapies produce a high rate of cure for patients with localized prostate cancer, but there is, at present, no effective treatment for intervention in metastatic prostate cancer. These facts underline the need to develop new approaches for early diagnosis of aggressive prostate cancer patients, and mechanism based anti-metastasis therapies that will improve the outlook for hormone-refractory prostate cancer. In this study we evaluated role of prostate-derived Ets factor (PDEF in prostate cancer. Results We observed decreased PDEF expression in prostate cancer cell lines correlated with increased aggressive phenotype, and complete loss of PDEF protein in metastatic prostate cancer cell lines. Loss of PDEF expression was confirmed in high Gleason Grade prostate cancer samples by immuno-histochemical methods. Reintroduction of PDEF profoundly affected cell behavior leading to less invasive phenotypes in three dimensional cultures. In addition, PDEF expressing cells had altered cell morphology, decreased FAK phosphorylation and decreased colony formation, cell migration, and cellular invasiveness. In contrast PDEF knockdown resulted in increased migration and invasion as well as clonogenic activity. Our results also demonstrated that PDEF downregulated MMP9 promoter activity, suppressed MMP9 mRNA expression, and resulted in loss of MMP9 activity in prostate cancer cells. These results suggested that loss of PDEF might be associated with increased MMP9 expression and activity in aggressive prostate cancer. To confirm results we investigated MMP9 expression in clinical samples of prostate cancer. Results of these studies show increased MMP9 expression correlated with advanced Gleason grade. Taken together our results demonstrate decreased PDEF expression

  10. Vegetable and fruit intake after diagnosis and risk of prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Erin L; Carroll, Peter R; Chan, June M

    2012-07-01

    Cruciferous vegetables, tomato sauce and legumes have been associated with reduced risk of incident advanced prostate cancer. In vitro and animal studies suggest these foods may inhibit progression of prostate cancer, but there are limited data in men. Therefore, we prospectively examined whether intake of total vegetables, and specifically cruciferous vegetables, tomato sauce and legumes, after diagnosis reduce risk of prostate cancer progression among 1,560 men diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer and participating in the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor, a United States prostate cancer registry. As a secondary analysis, we also examined other vegetable subgroups, total fruit and subgroups of fruits. The participants were diagnosed primarily at community-based clinics and followed from 2004 to 2009. We assessed vegetable and fruit intake via a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and ascertained prostate cancer outcomes via urologist report and medical records. We observed 134 events of progression (53 biochemical recurrences, 71 secondary treatments likely due to recurrence, 6 bone metastases and 4 prostate cancer deaths) during 3,171 person-years. Men in the fourth quartile of post-diagnostic cruciferous vegetable intake had a statistically significant 59% decreased risk of prostate cancer progression compared to men in the lowest quartile (hazard ratio (HR): 0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22, 0.76; p-trend: 0.003). No other vegetable or fruit group was statistically significantly associated with risk of prostate cancer progression. In conclusion, cruciferous vegetable intake after diagnosis may reduce risk of prostate cancer progression.

  11. Prostate-specific antigen: does the current evidence support its use in prostate cancer screening?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Although widely used, the value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer is controversial. Reasons for the controversy relate to PSA being less than an ideal marker in detecting early prostate cancer, the possibility that screening for prostate cancer may result in the overdetection and thus overtreatment of indolent disease and the lack of clarity as to the definitive or best treatment for men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Although the results from some randomized prospective trials suggest that screening with PSA reduces mortality from prostate cancer, the overall benefit was modest. It is thus currently unclear as to whether the modest benefit of reduced mortality outweighs the harms of overdetection and overtreatment. Thus, prior to undergoing screening for prostate cancer, men should be informed of the risks and benefits of early detection. Newly emerging markers that may complement PSA in the early detection of prostate cancer include specific isoforms of PSA and PCA3.

  12. 经尿道前列腺切除联合去势治疗伴膀胱出口梗阻的晚期前列腺癌的临床进展%Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Combined Castration in the Treatment of Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer Clinical Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵富

    2012-01-01

      目的对临床上所采用的经尿道前列腺切除联合去势的方法针对膀胱出口梗阻的晚期前列腺癌的治疗效果进行分析与探讨,并且对此方法治疗晚期前列腺癌的可行性做出分析。方法对本院的晚期前列腺癌的患者临床资料进行回顾性总结与分析,和手术后的随访。这些患者均接受过本院实施的经尿道前列腺切除联合去势手术,并且这些患者的晚期前列腺癌均伴随有膀胱出口梗阻。结果进行手术的所有患者均取得了较好的治疗效果,在术后的随访过程中并没有发现患者的意外死亡。患者在接受手术之后排尿良好、并且没有出现尿失禁。结论伴膀胱出口梗阻的晚期前列腺癌的患者在经过经尿道前列腺切除联合去势治疗均取得了较好的康复效果。因此,这是一种具有良好效果,可以进行临床推广应用的手术方法。%  Objective Of clinical the transurethral resection of the prostate joint castrated method in the bladder outlet obstruction of advanced prostate cancer treatment effect of analysis and discussion, and the method is the treatment of advanced prostate cancer to the feasibility analysis. Methods Our hospital since 2004 through February to March 2006 were between the advanced prostate cancer patients with the clinical data were retrospectively summary and analysis, and postoperative fol ow-up.These patients are trained in this hospital implementation of the urethra prostate gland excision with castration surgery, and these patients with advanced prostate cancer are accompanied by a bladder outlet obstruction,and these patients with advanced prostate cancer are accompanied by a bladder outlet obstruction. Results Surgery al of the patients have achieved good results,in the process of the fol ow-up and found no patients accidental death.Patients undergoing surgery urination and did not appear after good urinary incontinence. Conclution

  13. Prostate cancer in men of African origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Kathleen F; Tay, Kae Jack; Moul, Judd W

    2016-02-01

    Men of African origin are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer: prostate cancer incidence is highest among men of African origin in the USA, prostate cancer mortality is highest among men of African origin in the Caribbean, and tumour stage and grade at diagnosis are highest among men in sub-Saharan Africa. Socioeconomic, educational, cultural, and genetic factors, as well as variations in care delivery and treatment selection, contribute to this cancer disparity. Emerging data on single-nucleotide-polymorphism patterns, epigenetic changes, and variations in fusion-gene products among men of African origin add to the understanding of genetic differences underlying this disease. On the diagnosis of prostate cancer, when all treatment options are available, men of African origin are more likely to choose radiation therapy or to receive no definitive treatment than white men. Among men of African origin undergoing surgery, increased rates of biochemical recurrence have been identified. Understanding differences in the cancer-survivorship experience and quality-of-life outcomes among men of African origin are critical to appropriately counsel patients and improve cultural sensitivity. Efforts to curtail prostate cancer screening will likely affect men of African origin disproportionately and widen the racial disparity of disease.

  14. Multiparametric MR imaging in diagnosis of chronic prostatitis and its differentiation from prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Sah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic prostatitis is a heterogeneous condition with high prevalence rate. Chronic prostatitis has overlap in clinical presentation with other prostate disorders and is one of the causes of high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA level. Chronic prostatitis, unlike acute prostatitis, is difficult to diagnose reliably and accurately on the clinical grounds alone. Not only this, it is also challenging to differentiate chronic prostatitis from prostate cancer with imaging modalities like TRUS and conventional MR Imaging, as the findings can mimic those of prostate cancer. Even biopsy doesn't play promising role in the diagnosis of chronic prostatitis as it has limited sensitivity and specificity. As a result of this, chronic prostatitis may be misdiagnosed as a malignant condition and end up in aggressive surgical management resulting in increased morbidity. This warrants the need of reliable diagnostic tool which has ability not only to diagnose it reliably but also to differentiate it from the prostate cancer. Recently, it is suggested that multiparametric MR Imaging of the prostate could improve the diagnostic accuracy of the prostate cancer. This review is based on the critically published literature and aims to provide an overview of multiparamateric MRI techniques in the diagnosis of chronic prostatitis and its differentiation from prostate cancer.

  15. Anxiety May Lead to Unneeded Prostate Cancer Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163295.html Anxiety May Lead to Unneeded Prostate Cancer Treatments Researchers ... 27, 2017 FRIDAY, Jan. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Anxiety may prompt prostate cancer patients to opt for ...

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of Ugandan men regarding prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nakandi

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: There was generally poor knowledge and several misconceptions regarding prostate cancer and screening in the study population. Community based health education programs about prostate cancer are greatly needed for this population.

  17. Prostate cancer incidence in men with self-reported prostatitis after 15 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaarala, Markku H; Mehik, Aare; Ohtonen, Pasi; Hellström, Pekka A

    2016-08-01

    Controversy exists regarding a possible association between prostatitis and prostate cancer. To further evaluate the incidence of prostate cancer following prostatitis, a study of prostate cancer incidence in a cohort of Finnish men was performed. The original survey evaluating self-reported prostatitis was conducted in 1996-1997. A database review was conducted focusing on prostate cancer diagnoses in the cohort. In 2012, there were 13 (5.2%) and 27 (1.8%) prostate cancer cases among men with (n=251) and without (n=1,521) prostatitis symptoms, respectively. There were no significant differences in age, primary therapy distribution, prostate-specific antigen levels, Gleason score, clinical T-class at the time of prostate cancer diagnosis, or time lag between the original survey and prostate cancer diagnosis. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of prostate cancer was 1.16 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.62-1.99] and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.29-0.64) among men with and without prostatitis symptoms, respectively. After 15 years of follow-up subsequent to self-reported prostatitis, no evident increase in incidence of prostate cancer was detected among Finnish men with prostatitis symptoms. The higher percentage of prostate cancer among men with prostatitis symptoms appears to be due to coincidentally low SIR of prostate cancer among men without prostatitis symptoms, and may additionally be due to increased diagnostic examinations. Further research is required to confirm this speculation.

  18. Cholesterol Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopsack, Konrad H; Gerke, Travis A; Sinnott, Jennifer A; Penney, Kathryn L; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Sesso, Howard D; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Andrén, Ove; Cerhan, James R; Giovannucci, Edward L; Mucci, Lorelei A; Rider, Jennifer R

    2016-08-15

    Cholesterol metabolism has been implicated in prostate cancer pathogenesis. Here, we assessed the association of intratumoral mRNA expression of cholesterol synthesis enzymes, transporters, and regulators in tumor specimen at diagnosis and lethal prostate cancer, defined as mortality or metastases from prostate cancer in contrast to nonlethal disease without evidence of metastases after at least 8 years of follow-up. We analyzed the prospective prostate cancer cohorts within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n = 249) and the Physicians' Health Study (n = 153) as well as expectantly managed patients in the Swedish Watchful Waiting Study (n = 338). The expression of squalene monooxygenase (SQLE) was associated with lethal cancer in all three cohorts. Men with high SQLE expression (>1 standard deviation above the mean) were 8.3 times (95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 19.7) more likely to have lethal cancer despite therapy compared with men with the mean level of SQLE expression. Absolute SQLE expression was associated with lethal cancer independently from Gleason grade and stage, as was a SQLE expression ratio in tumor versus surrounding benign prostate tissue. Higher SQLE expression was tightly associated with increased histologic markers of angiogenesis. Collectively, this study establishes the prognostic value of intratumoral cholesterol synthesis as measured via SQLE, its second rate-limiting enzyme. SQLE expression at cancer diagnosis is prognostic for lethal prostate cancer both after curative-intent prostatectomy and in a watchful waiting setting, possibly by facilitating micrometastatic disease. Cancer Res; 76(16); 4785-90. ©2016 AACR.

  19. Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Popescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This review aims to provide practicing clinicians with the most recent knowledge of the biological nature of prostate cancer especially the information regarding neuroendocrine differentiation. Methods: Review of the literature using PubMed search and scientific journal publications. Results: Much progress has been made towards an understanding of the development and progression of prostate cancer. The prostate is a male accessory sex gland which produces a fraction of seminal fluid. The normal human prostate is composed of a stromal compartment (which contains: nerves, fibroblast, smooth muscle cells, macrophages surrounding glandular acins – epithelial cells. Neuroendocrine cells are one of the epithelial populations in the normal prostate and are believed to provide trophic signals trough the secretion of neuropeptides that diffuse and influence surrounding epithelial cells. Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men. In prostate cancer, neuroendocrine cells can stimulate growth of surrounding prostate adenocarcinoma cells (proliferation of neighboring cancer cells in a paracrine manner by secretion of neuroendocrine products. Neuroendocrine prostate cancer is an aggressive variant of prostate cancer that commonly arises in later stages of castration resistant prostate cancer. The detection of neuroendocrine prostate cancer has clinical implications. These patients are often treated with platinum chemotherapy rather than with androgen receptor targeted therapies. Conclusion: This review shows the need to improve our knowledge regarding diagnostic and treatment methods of the Prostate Cancer, especially cancer cells with neuroendocrine phenotype.

  20. Three-dimensional visualization and analysis in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Richard A

    2002-03-01

    Current and emerging three- and four-dimensional medical imaging modalities, along with development of efficient 3-D computer rendering and modeling of multidimensional volume image data and image-guided navigation, are significantly advancing our capabilities for improved and minimally invasive diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer, obviating the need for exploratory surgery, physical dissection, blind biopsies and mental reconstruction of anatomy and pathology. Currently, both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures require x-ray fluoroscopy, transrectal ultrasound, CT and/or MRI for assessing the condition of the prostate and/or the outcome of any therapeutic procedure. New imaging approaches based on three-dimensional ultrasound transducers placed on catheters for easy insertion into the urethra are demonstrating significant promise for improved diagnosis and treatment of prostate disease. Microwave thermal ablation shows promise for reduction of prostate size and tumor volume, and preliminary data from cryosurgery suggests improvements in tumor reduction and/or management while minimizing the risk of serious complications. Prostate brachytherapy is becoming a more popular and effective alternative to surgery. All of these methods, either independently or combined through image fusion, are providing an exciting and rapid evolution in capabilities for visualizing the prostate and its anatomic environment, extending from physical to functional forms and from macro to micro orders of scale. Traversing the scale distances between these imaged objects within the prostate and its environs will be made automatic and instantaneous in the near future with the expected advances in miniaturization of powerful computing and electronic sensing elements. Imaging devices will continue to improve in resolution, speed and affordability and will be deployed harmlessly within the body, as well as outside of it. Diagnosis and therapy of prostate disease will become fully

  1. A good molecular target for prostate cancer chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sidney R Grimes

    2011-01-01

    @@ An exciting new basic medical research study shows that inhibition of the activity of the kinesin spindle protein Eg5 effectively blocks cell division and induces cell death in prostate cancer cells.1 The potent anticancer drug S-(methoxytrityl)-L-cysteine(S(MeO)TLC)spe-cifically blocks activity of Eg5 in prostate cancer cells, arrests cell division, induces cell death during mitosis and inhibits prostate cancer cells in a mouse model of prostate cancer.

  2. Collaborative Undergraduate HBCU Student Summer Prostate Cancer Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The role of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone in African Americans and Caucasians with early stage prostate cancer Ms. Claudia Thompson SC State...ABSTRACT The role of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone in African Americans and Caucasians with early stage prostate cancer Introduction: Prostate...cancer is a malignant tumor that begins in the prostate gland and is the second most deadly cancer in men in the United States. It is has been

  3. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy.

  4. Functional CT imaging of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Elizabeth; Milosevic, Michael F.; Haider, Masoom A.; Yeung, Ivan W. T.

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the distribution of blood flow (F), mean capillary transit time (Tc), capillary permeability (PS) and blood volume (vb) in prostate cancer using contrast-enhanced CT. Nine stage T2-T3 prostate cancer patients were enrolled in the study. Following bolus injection of a contrast agent, a time series of CT images of the prostate was acquired. Functional maps showing the distribution of F, Tc, PS and vb within the prostate were generated using a distributed parameter tracer kinetic model, the adiabatic approximation to the tissue homogeneity model. The precision of the maps was assessed using covariance matrix analysis. Finally, maps were compared to the findings of standard clinical investigations. Eight of the functional maps demonstrated regions of increased F, PS and vb, the locations of which were consistent with the results of standard clinical investigations. However, model parameters other than F could only be measured precisely within regions of high F. In conclusion functional CT images of cancer-containing prostate glands demonstrate regions of elevated F, PS and vb. However, caution should be used when applying a complex tracer kinetic model to the study of prostate cancer since not all parameters can be measured precisely in all areas.

  5. Detection of Prostate Stem Cell Antigen Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Using Quantum-Dot-Based Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphane Larré; Yuan Ruan; Weimin Yu; Fan Cheng; Xiaobin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are a new class of fluorescent labeling for biological and biomedical applications. In this study, we detected prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) expression correlated with tumor grade and stage in human prostate cancer by QDs-based immunolabeling and conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC), and evaluated the sensitivity and stability of QDs-based immunolabeling in comparison with IHC. Our data revealed that increasing levels of PSCA expression accompanied advanced tumor gra...

  6. The role of brachytherapy in the definitive management of prostate cancer; Place de la curietherapie dans le traitement du cancer prostatique localise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crook, J. [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Center for the Southern Interior, 399, Royal Avenue, Kelowna, British Columbia, V1Y 5L33 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Over the past two decades, brachytherapy has played an ever expanding role in the definitive radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Brachytherapy surpasses external beam radiotherapy in its ability to deliver intense intra-prostatic dose escalation. Although initially low dose rate permanent seed brachytherapy was favored for favorable risk prostate cancers, and high dose rate temporary brachytherapy for intermediate and advanced disease, both types of brachytherapy now have a place across all the risk groups of localized prostate cancer. This article will review indications and patient selection, planning and technical aspects, toxicity and efficacy for both low and high dose rate prostate brachytherapy. (author)

  7. Degarelix monotherapy compared with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists plus anti-androgen flare protection in advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; Damber, Jan-Erik; Malmberg, Anders

    2016-01-01

    hazards regression model and a conditional logistic regression model was used for a case-control analysis of odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: Patients received degarelix monotherapy (n = 972) or LHRH agonist (n = 483) of whom 57 also received AA. Overall, prostate-specific antigen progression-free survival....../ml in the LHRH agonist + AA group, a case-control analysis using a conditional logistic regression model was utilized. This resulted in an OR for PSA PFS of 0.42 (95% CI 0.20-0.89; p = 0.023) in the overall population, and 0.35 (95% CI 0.13-0.96; p = 0.042) in patients with PSA >50 ng/ml at baseline, when...... protection therapy in patients with prostate cancer when a case-control analysis was used to compensate for differences between treatment groups....

  8. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Prostate Which Was Initially Misdiagnosed as Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osamu, Soma; Murasawa, Hiromi; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Koie, Takuya; Ohyama, Chikara

    2017-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the prostate is a very rare tumor. We report a case of 65-year-old man with SFT of the prostate which was initially misdiagnosed as prostate cancer. Finally, we performed total prostatectomy and the tumor was histologically diagnosed as SFT of the prostate. The patient's clinical course has progressed favorably with no obvious recurrence 18 months postoperatively.

  9. Interleukin 7 and Patient Selection in Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Schroten-Loef (Caroline)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is a disease of elderly males. An increase in prostate cancer is expected in the coming years due to a growing population of men aged over 60 years of age from 475 million in 2009 to 1.6 billion in the year 2050 worldwide. Moreover, if screening for prostate cancer is tak

  10. Sociodemographic status, stress, and risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Kristensen, Tage S; Zhang, Zuo-Feng;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The social gradient in prostate cancer incidence observed in several studies may be a result of differential access to prostate cancer screening. We aim to assess if socioeconomic status, stress, and marital status are associated with prostate cancer risk in a population with free access...

  11. 77 FR 55099 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... preventing, detecting, and treating this terrible illness. While the causes of prostate cancer are still... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8855 of August 31, 2012 National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Prostate cancer is among the most common...

  12. Allelic imbalance in hereditary and sporadic prostate cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhage, B.; Houwelingen, K.P. van; Ruijter, T.E.G.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Schalken, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this study, we evaluate the pattern of allelic imbalance (AI) in both sporadic prostate cancer (SPC) and hereditary prostate cancer (HPC) at loci that frequently show allelic imbalance in sporadic prostate cancer, or are believed to have a putative role in the disease. METHODS: DNA ob

  13. Prostatic and dietary omega-3 fatty acids and prostate cancer progression during active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreel, Xavier; Allaire, Janie; Léger, Caroline; Caron, André; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Lamarche, Benoît; Julien, Pierre; Desmeules, Patrice; Têtu, Bernard; Fradet, Vincent

    2014-07-01

    The association between omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids and prostate cancer has been widely studied. However, little is known about the impact of prostate tissue fatty acid content on prostate cancer progression. We hypothesized that compared with the estimated dietary ω-3 fatty acids intake and the ω-3 fatty acids levels measured in red blood cells (RBC), the prostate tissue ω-3 fatty acid content is more strongly related to prostate cancer progression. We present the initial observations from baseline data of a phase II clinical trial conducted in a cohort of 48 untreated men affected with low-risk prostate cancer, managed under active surveillance. These men underwent a first repeat biopsy session within 6 months after the initial diagnosis of low-risk prostate cancer, at which time 29% of the men had progressed from a Gleason score of 6 to a Gleason score of 7. At the first repeat biopsy session, fatty acid levels were assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire, and determined in the RBC and in the prostate tissue biopsy. We found that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer progression when measured directly in the prostate tissue. Thus, this initial interim study analysis suggests that prostate tissue ω-3 fatty acids, especially EPA, may be protective against prostate cancer progression in men with low-risk prostate cancer.

  14. The relationship between prostate cancer and apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Arı

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate is the largest accessory gland of male genitaltract and the beginning part of male urethra. Prostatecancer is the most common internal malignancy inmales. Prostate cancer is ranked as second in death fromto cancer. A malignant disease is known as uncontrolledproliferation of cells. Beside excessive proliferation, decreasedapoptosis was also observed contribute to thedevelopment of malignancy. Apoptosis (programmedcell death plays an important role in many diseases andfree radical damage, triggers by cytokines and inflammatoryinjury. This review has been prepared to show theinteresting link between apoptosis and cancer and toprovide collective source to who want to do research onthis subject. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2(1: 124-131

  15. Effect of Whole Pelvic Radiotherapy for Patients With Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy and Long-Term Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantini, Giovanna [Department of Radiotherapy, Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Tagliaferri, Luca, E-mail: luca.tagliaferri@rm.unicatt.it [Department of Radiotherapy, Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; Balducci, Mario; Frascino, Vincenzo; Dinapoli, Nicola [Department of Radiotherapy, Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Di Gesu, Cinzia; Ippolito, Edy; Morganti, Alessio G. [Department of Radiotherapy, John Paul II Center for High Technology Research and Education in Biomedical Sciences, Catholic University, Campobasso (Italy); Cellini, Numa [Department of Radiotherapy, Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Catholic University, Rome (Italy)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) in prostate cancer patients treated with RT and long-term (>1 year) androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Methods and materials: Prostate cancer patients with high-risk features (Stage T3-T4 and/or Gleason score {>=}7 and/or prostate-specific antigen level {>=}20 ng/mL) who had undergone RT and long-term ADT were included in the present analysis. Patients with bowel inflammatory disease, colon diverticula, and colon diverticulitis were excluded from WPRT and treated with prostate-only radiotherapy (PORT). Patients were grouped according to nodal risk involvement as assessed by the Roach formula using different cutoff levels (15%, 20%, 25%, and 30%). Biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) was analyzed in each group according to the RT type (WPRT or PORT). Results: A total of 358 patients treated between 1994 and 2007 were included in the analysis (46.9% with WPRT and 53.1% with PORT). The median duration of ADT was 24 months (range, 12-38). With a median follow-up of 52 months (range, 20-150), the overall 4-year bDFS rate was 90.5%. The 4-year bDFS rate was similar between the patients who had undergone WPRT or PORT (90.4% vs. 90.5%; p = NS). However, in the group of patients with the greatest nodal risk (>30%), a significant bDFS improvement was recorded for the patients who had undergone WPRT (p = .03). No differences were seen in acute toxicity among the patients treated with WPRT or PORT. The late gastrointestinal toxicity was similar in patients treated with PORT or WPRT (p = NS). Conclusions: Our analysis has supported the use of WPRT in association with long-term ADT for patients with high-risk nodal involvement (>30%), although a definitive recommendation should be confirmed by a randomized trial.

  16. Radiologic presentation of chronic granulomatous prostatitis mimicking locally advanced prostate adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Min; Joshi, Jay; Wolfe, Konrad; Acher, Peter; Liyanage, Sidath H

    2016-06-01

    We present a case of nonspecific granulomatous prostatitis (GP), a clinical mimic of prostate adenocarcinoma. A 54-year-old man presented with lower urinary tract symptoms and raised prostate-specific antigen. Magnetic resonance imaging showed features consistent with prostate cancer, including low T2-signal intensity in the peripheral and transition zones with signs of extracapsular extension. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed high-signal intensity, with low apparent diffusion coefficient values, whereas dynamic contrast enhancement demonstrated a type 3 washout curve, similar to that found in prostate cancer. Transperineal sector-guided prostate biopsy confirmed nonspecific GP, and the patient was treated conservatively. We discuss and compare nonspecific, chronic GP as a radiologic mimic of prostate adenocarcinoma patient.

  17. Radiologic presentation of chronic granulomatous prostatitis mimicking locally advanced prostate adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Min Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of nonspecific granulomatous prostatitis (GP, a clinical mimic of prostate adenocarcinoma. A 54-year-old man presented with lower urinary tract symptoms and raised prostate-specific antigen. Magnetic resonance imaging showed features consistent with prostate cancer, including low T2-signal intensity in the peripheral and transition zones with signs of extracapsular extension. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed high-signal intensity, with low apparent diffusion coefficient values, whereas dynamic contrast enhancement demonstrated a type 3 washout curve, similar to that found in prostate cancer. Transperineal sector-guided prostate biopsy confirmed nonspecific GP, and the patient was treated conservatively. We discuss and compare nonspecific, chronic GP as a radiologic mimic of prostate adenocarcinoma patient.

  18. Novel role of microRNAs in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jun-jie; XIA Shu-jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the novel biomarkers of microRNAs in prostate cancer.Data sources The literatures about microRNAs and prostate cancer cited in this review were obtained mainly from Pubmed published in English from 2004 to 2012.Study selection Original articles regarding the novel role of microRNAs in prostate cancer were selected.Results MicroRNAs play an important role in prostate cancer such as cell differentiation,proliferation,apoptosis,and invasion.Especially microRNAs correlate with prostate cancer cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT),cancer stem cells (CSCs),drug sensitivity,cancer microenvironment,energy metabolism,androgen independence transformation,and diagnosis prediction.Conclusions MicroRNAs are involved in various aspects of prostate cancer biology.The role of microRNA in the initiation and development of prostate cancer deserves further study.

  19. COPING STRATEGIES IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Gardanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics of psycho-emotional disorders of patients with malignant diseases of the prostate is not doubt, because timely correction contributes to the shortening of rehabilitation period and restoration of the quality of life of patients after treatment. Detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer for many patients is stressful and causes changes in the affective sphere, and manifests itself in increased levels of anxiety and depression in men. To cope with stress is possible due to the used coping strategies.Purpose. Studying the coping mechanisms in prostate cancer patients.Materials and methods. 56 men treated in FGBU "LRTS" Russian Ministry of Health. The average age was 65.7 ± 6.1 years. The average duration of the disease prostate cancer is 3 ± 2 months. All men were subjected to the standard algorithm for the evaluation of hormonal status, the PSA, taking a history, inspection and physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy of bones of a skeleton. All the patients underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Psychological testing with the use of the method of "Coping test" the scale of reactive and personal anxiety for the differentiated evaluation of anxiety. Results. The most common for prostate cancer revealed constructive coping strategies are "planning solve", "selfcontrol" and "search of social support". According to the scale Spielberg–Hanin a high level of situational anxiety was revealed.Conclusion. According to the results of the research, patients with prostate cancer are likely to use constructive coping strategies, that leads to stabilization of psycho-emotional state of men and promotes more effective adaptation in the terms of stress, that is caused by treatment of prostate cancer.

  20. Advances in molecular imaging of prostate cancer targeting prostate specific membrane antigen with small molecular radionuclide probes%以核素标记前列腺特异性膜抗原小分子抑制剂为探针的前列腺癌分子影像研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡四龙(综述); 许晓平; 章英剑(审校)

    2015-01-01

    Prostate speciifc membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed in normal prostate epithelial cells and strongly up regulated in initial and advanced prostate carcinoma. Therefore, PSMA is an attractive molecular target for the detection of primary and metastatic lesions. It plays an important role in the diagnosis, staging, prognostic evaluation and targeted treatment in prostate carcinoma patients. This review will summarize the progress of small molecular radionuclide probes, which targeted PSMA, for visualizing prostate cancer.%前列腺特异性膜抗原(PSMA)高表达于前列腺癌及其转移灶中,可作为生物分子靶点,在前列腺癌的早期诊断、分期、复发检测、预后判断及靶向治疗中具有重要价值。本文重点综述以核素标记PSMA小分子抑制剂为探针的前列腺癌分子影像研究进展。

  1. Obesity, age, ethnicity, and clinical features of prostate cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Victor J; Pang, Darren; Tang, Wendell W; Zhang, Xin; Li, Li; You, Zongbing

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 36.5% of the U.S. adults (≥ 20 years old) are obese. Obesity has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and several types of cancer. The present study included 1788 prostate cancer patients who were treated with radical prostatectomy at the Ochsner Health System, New Orleans, Louisiana, from January, 2001 to March, 2016. The patient’s medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Body mass index (BMI), age, ethnicity (Caucasians versus African Americans), clinical stage, Gleason score, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were retrieved. The relative risk of the patients was stratified into low risk and high risk groups. Associative analyses found that BMI was associated with age, clinical stage, Gleason score, but not ethnicity, PSA levels, or the relative risk in this cohort. Age was associated with ethnicity, clinical stage, Gleason score, and PSA levels, as well as the relative risk. Ethnicity was associated with Gleason score and PSA levels as well as the relative risk, but not clinical stage. These findings suggest that obesity is associated with advanced prostate cancer with stage T3 or Gleason score ≥ 7 diseases, and age and ethnicity are important factors that are associated with the clinical features of prostate cancer patients.

  2. Prostatitis, sexually transmitted diseases, and prostate cancer: the California Men's Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iona Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prostatitis and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs have been positively associated with prostate cancer in previous case-control studies. However, results from recent prospective studies have been inconclusive. METHODOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the association between prostatitis, STDs, and prostate cancer among African American, Asian American, Latino, and White participants of the California Men's Health Study. Our analysis included 68,675 men, who completed a detailed baseline questionnaire in 2002-2003. We identified 1,658 incident prostate cancer cases during the follow-up period to June 30, 2006. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Overall, men having a history of prostatitis had an increased risk of prostate cancer than men with no history (RR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.10-1.54. Longer duration of prostatitis symptoms was also associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (P trend = 0.003. In addition, among men screened for prostate cancer (1 or 2 PSA tests, a non-significant positive association was observed between prostatitis and prostate cancer (RR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.75-1.63. STDs were not associated with overall prostate cancer risk. In racial/ethnic stratified analysis, Latinos reporting any STDs had an increased risk of disease than those with no STDs (RR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.07-1.91. Interestingly, foreign-born Latinos displayed a larger risk associated with STDs (RR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.16-3.02 than U.S. born Latinos (RR = 1.15; 95% CI: 0.76-3.02. CONCLUSION: In summary, results from this prospective study suggest that prostatitis and STDs may be involved in prostate cancer susceptibility. While we cannot rule out the possible influence of incidental detection, future studies are warranted to further investigate the role of infectious agents related to prostatitis and STDs in prostate cancer development.

  3. Advances in Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan BF, Sonveaux P

    2011-01-01

    The book "Advances in Cancer Therapy" is a new addition to the Intech collection of books and aims at providing scientists and clinicians with a comprehensive overview of the state of current knowledge and latest research findings in the area of cancer therapy. For this purpose research articles, clinical investigations and review papers that are thought to improve the readers' understanding of cancer therapy developments and/or to keep them up to date with the most recent advances in this fi...

  4. Leuprorelin Acetate in Prostate Cancer: a European Update

    OpenAIRE

    Persad R

    2002-01-01

    This review provides an update on leuprorelin acetate, the world's most widely prescribed depot luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogue. Leuprorelin acetate has been in clinical use in the palliative treatment of prostate cancer for more than 20 years, but advances continue to be made in terms of convenience and flexibility of administration, and in the incorporation of leuprorelin acetate into novel treatment regimens. The drug is administered in the form of a depot injection containi...

  5. ROLE OF LYCOPENE IN PREVENTING PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Tami Budirejeki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer in the United States in 2003. Prostate cancer is the second cause of death after lung cancer. The possibility of a man suffering from prostate cancer is about 3 %. Increasing age is the main risk factor for this disease. Eighty percent of prostate cancer patients aged over 65 years. Prostate cancer occurs due to accumulation of DNA damage. There are various mechanisms that cause DNA damage, one of them is due to oxidative stress. Imbalance levels of free radicals and antioxidant in tissues causes oxidative stress. Antioxidants are substance that has ability to neutralize free radicals. One of the powerful antioxidant is lycopene. It is belived have ability to prevent prostate cancer. Various studies and reviews have been conducted to determine the role of lycopene in the prevention of prostate cancer. Although most studies have found an association between the consumption of foods that contain lycopene with a reduced risk of prostate cancer, but few studies have found no such relationship. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  6. Primary cilia are lost in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia B Hassounah

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men worldwide. Little is known about the role of primary cilia in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer. However, reduced cilia expression has been observed in human cancers including pancreatic cancer, renal cell carcinoma, breast cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, and melanoma. The aim of this study was to characterize primary cilia expression in preinvasive and invasive human prostate cancer, and to investigate the correlation between primary cilia and the Wnt signaling pathway. Human prostate tissues representative of stages of prostate cancer formation (normal prostate, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, and invasive prostate cancer (including perineural invasion were stained for ciliary proteins. The frequency of primary cilia was determined. A decrease in the percentage of ciliated cells in PIN, invasive cancer and perineural invasion lesions was observed when compared to normal. Cilia lengths were also measured to indirectly test functionality. Cilia were shorter in PIN, cancer, and perineural invasion lesions, suggesting dysfunction. Primary cilia have been shown to suppress the Wnt pathway. Increased Wnt signaling has been implicated in prostate cancer. Therefore, we investigated a correlation between loss of primary cilia and increased Wnt signaling in normal prostate and in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer. To investigate Wnt signaling in our cohort, serial tissue sections were stained for β-catenin as a measure of Wnt signaling. Nuclear β-catenin was analyzed and Wnt signaling was found to be higher in un-ciliated cells in the normal prostate, PIN, a subset of invasive cancers, and perineural invasion. Our results suggest that cilia normally function to suppress the Wnt signaling pathway in epithelial cells and that cilia loss may play a role in increased Wnt signaling in some prostate cancers. These results suggest that cilia are dysfunctional in human

  7. Unfoldomics of prostate cancer: on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Kevin S; Na, Insung; Schenck, Ryan O; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic diseases such as prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia are highly prevalent among men. The number of studies focused on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer is rather limited. The goal of this study is to analyze the prevalence and degree of disorder in proteins that were previously associated with the prostate cancer pathogenesis and to compare these proteins to the entire human proteome. The analysis of these datasets provides means for drawing conclusions on the roles of disordered proteins in this common male disease. We also hope that the results of our analysis can potentially lead to future experimental studies of these proteins to find novel pathways associated with this disease.

  8. Impact of Individual Risk Assessment on Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. van Vugt (Heidi)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractCurrent prostate-specific antigen screening practice leads to two important unwanted side effects; first of all screening induces many unnecessary prostate biopsies and secondly it leads to overdiagnosis and overtreatment of prostate cancer. The large amount of unnecessary prostate biops

  9. Serum testosterone as a prognostic factor in patients with advanced prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Christensen, I J

    1994-01-01

    In 245 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate, serum concentrations of testosterone have been measured before androgen deprivation therapy, and patients were divided in quartiles according to their serum concentration. Pretreatment level of serum testosterone was co...... parameters suggest that low serum testosterone merely is a consequence of the advanced malignancy rather than a causative factor in the pathogenesis of prostatic cancer.......In 245 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate, serum concentrations of testosterone have been measured before androgen deprivation therapy, and patients were divided in quartiles according to their serum concentration. Pretreatment level of serum testosterone...... was confirmed as having significant prognostic value on progression-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival, and the hazard ratios of lower quartiles compared to the upper quartile for these endpoints were 2.3, 2.1, and 2.0, respectively. However, correlations with symptomatology and other pretreatment...

  10. Tumor-Associated Antigens for Specific Immunotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessling, Andrea [Biologics Safety and Disposition, Preclinical Safety, Translational Sciences, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Werk Klybeck, Klybeckstraße 141, Basel CH-4057 (Switzerland); Wehner, Rebekka [Institute of Immunology, Medical Faculty, University of Technology Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden 01307 (Germany); Füssel, Susanne [Department of Urology, Medical Faculty, University of Technology Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden 01307 (Germany); Bachmann, Michael [Institute of Immunology, Medical Faculty, University of Technology Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden 01307 (Germany); Wirth, Manfred P. [Department of Urology, Medical Faculty, University of Technology Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden 01307 (Germany); Schmitz, Marc, E-mail: marc.schmitz@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Immunology, Medical Faculty, University of Technology Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden 01307 (Germany)

    2012-02-22

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common noncutaneous cancer diagnosis and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States. Effective treatment modalities for advanced metastatic PCa are limited. Immunotherapeutic strategies based on T cells and antibodies represent interesting approaches to prevent progression from localized to advanced PCa and to improve survival outcomes for patients with advanced disease. CD8{sup +} cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) efficiently recognize and destroy tumor cells. CD4{sup +} T cells augment the antigen-presenting capacity of dendritic cells and promote the expansion of tumor-reactive CTLs. Antibodies mediate their antitumor effects via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, activation of the complement system, improving the uptake of coated tumor cells by phagocytes, and the functional interference of biological pathways essential for tumor growth. Consequently, several tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have been identified that represent promising targets for T cell- or antibody-based immunotherapy. These TAAs comprise proteins preferentially expressed in normal and malignant prostate tissues and molecules which are not predominantly restricted to the prostate, but are overexpressed in various tumor entities including PCa. Clinical trials provide evidence that specific immunotherapeutic strategies using such TAAs represent safe and feasible concepts for the induction of immunological and clinical responses in PCa patients. However, further improvement of the current approaches is required which may be achieved by combining T cell- and/or antibody-based strategies with radio-, hormone-, chemo- or antiangiogenic therapy.

  11. Empirical estimates of prostate cancer overdiagnosis by age and prostate-specific antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Vickers (Andrew); D. Sjoberg (Daniel); D. Ulmert (David); E. Vertosick (Emily); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); I.M. Thompson (Ian); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); H.J. de Koning (Harry); C. Atoria-Swartz (Coral); P.T. Scardino (Peter); H. Lilja (Hans)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Prostate cancer screening depends on a careful balance of benefits, in terms of reduced prostate cancer mortality, and harms, in terms of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. We aimed to estimate the effect on overdiagnosis of restricting prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing b

  12. Glucocorticoids and prostate cancer treatment:friend or foe?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bruce Montgomery; Heather H Cheng; James Drechsler; Elahe A Mostaghel

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have been used in the treatment of prostate cancer to slow disease progression, improve pain control and offset side effects of chemo-and hormonal therapy. However, they may also have the potential to drive prostate cancer growth via mutated androgen receptors or glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). In this review we examine historical and contemporary use of glucocorticoids in the treatment of prostate cancer, review potential mechanisms by which they may inhibit or drive prostate cancer growth, and describe potential means of deifning their contribution to the biology of prostate cancer.

  13. Photoacoustic imaging of prostate cancer using cylinder diffuse radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenming; Li, Li; Li, Zhifang; Li, Hui

    2012-12-01

    Prostate cancer is one of diseases with high mortality in man. Many clinical imaging modalities are utilized for the detection, grading and staging of prostate cancer, such as ultrasound, CT, MRI, etc. But they lacked adequate sensitivity and specificity for finding cancer in transition or central zone of prostate. To overcome these problems, we propose a photoacoustic imaging modality based on cylinder diffuse radiation through urethra for prostate cancer detection. We measure the related parameters about this system like lateral resolution (~2mm) and axial resolution(~333μm). Finally, simulated sample was imaged by our system. The results demonstrate the feasibility for detecting prostate cancer by our system.

  14. 5-Alpha reductase inhibitor use and prostate cancer survival in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtola, Teemu J; Karppa, Elina K; Taari, Kimmo; Talala, Kirsi; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Auvinen, Anssi

    2016-06-15

    Randomized clinical trials have shown that use of 5α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) lowers overall prostate cancer (PCa) risk compared to placebo, while the proportion of Gleason 8-10 tumors is elevated. It is unknown whether this affects PCa-specific survival. We studied disease-specific survival by 5-ARI usage in a cohort of 6,537 prostate cancer cases diagnosed in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial and linked to the national prescription database for information on medication use. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for prostate cancer-specific deaths. For comparison, survival among alpha-blocker users was also evaluated. During the median follow-up of 7.5 years after diagnosis a total of 2,478 men died; 617 due to prostate cancer and 1,861 due to other causes. The risk of prostate cancer death did not differ between 5-ARI users and nonusers (multivariable adjusted HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.72-1.24 and HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.69-1.41 for usage before and after the diagnosis, respectively). Alpha-blocker usage both before and after diagnosis was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer death (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.08-1.54 and HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.30-1.86, respectively). The risk increase vanished in long-term alpha-blocker usage. Use of 5-ARIs does not appear to affect prostate cancer mortality when used in management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Increased risk associated with alpha-blocker usage should prompt further exploration on the prognostic role of lower urinary tract symptoms.

  15. SLCO2B1 and SLCO1B3 as New Targets for Enhancing Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Huggins C S, Hodges C Studies in prostatic cancer. II. The effects of castration on advanced cancer of the prostate gland. . Arch Surg. 1941;43:209...AA genotype, 15 single colonies are AG, and 5 of them are GG. 1. Ran FA, Hsu PD, Lin CY, et al: Double nicking by RNA-guided CRISPR Cas9 for

  16. LIGHT: A Novel Immunotherapy for Primary and Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    effects due to the loss of testosterone (including fatigue, decreased sexual desire, weight gain, loss of muscle mass and osteoporosis ) and the well...beyond the prostate, immunotherapy may be the only way to treat it [6, 7]. A majority of clinical trials for the immunotherapy of prostate cancer...Localized Prostate Cancer. J Sex Med, 2012. 5. Fitzpatrick, J.M., Management of localized prostate cancer in senior adults : the crucial role of comorbidity

  17. Novel Immune-Modulating Cellular Vaccine for Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0423 TITLE: Novel Immune-Modulating Cellular Vaccine for Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Smita...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0423 Novel Immune-Modulating Cellular Vaccine for Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...immune checkpoint blockade, local CTLA-4 modulation, prostate cancer immunotherapy , prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), RNA-based vaccines 16

  18. Role of Human Polyomavirus Bkv in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    been surgically removed due to prostate cancer diagnosis . A normal prostate is defined as prostate that has been removed either during autopsy or by...immunosuppressed transplant patients, in whom it is associated with haemorrhagic cystitis and polyomavirus nephropathy (5, 35, 58, 70). BKV transforms rodent cells...cystoprostatectomy specimens from bladder cancer patients with the diagnosis of muscle invasive high grade urothelial carcinoma, with no prostate cancer histology

  19. SOST Inhibits Prostate Cancer Invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D Hudson

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of Wnt signaling have been shown to be involved in prostate cancer (PC metastasis; however the role of Sclerostin (Sost has not yet been explored. Here we show that elevated Wnt signaling derived from Sost deficient osteoblasts promotes PC invasion, while rhSOST has an inhibitory effect. In contrast, rhDKK1 promotes PC elongation and filopodia formation, morphological changes characteristic of an invasive phenotype. Furthermore, rhDKK1 was found to activate canonical Wnt signaling in PC3 cells, suggesting that SOST and DKK1 have opposing roles on Wnt signaling in this context. Gene expression analysis of PC3 cells co-cultured with OBs exhibiting varying amounts of Wnt signaling identified CRIM1 as one of the transcripts upregulated under highly invasive conditions. We found CRIM1 overexpression to also promote cell-invasion. These findings suggest that bone-derived Wnt signaling may enhance PC tropism by promoting CRIM1 expression and facilitating cancer cell invasion and adhesion to bone. We concluded that SOST and DKK1 have opposing effects on PC3 cell invasion and that bone-derived Wnt signaling positively contributes to the invasive phenotypes of PC3 cells by activating CRIM1 expression and facilitating PC-OB physical interaction. As such, we investigated the effects of high concentrations of SOST in vivo. We found that PC3-cells overexpressing SOST injected via the tail vein in NSG mice did not readily metastasize, and those injected intrafemorally had significantly reduced osteolysis, suggesting that targeting the molecular bone environment may influence bone metastatic prognosis in clinical settings.

  20. Selenium status and risk of prostate cancer in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, Malene; Tjønneland, Anne; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt;

    2016-01-01

    Low-Se status may be associated with a higher risk of notably advanced prostate cancer. In a Danish population with a relatively low Se intake, we investigated the association between pre-diagnostic Se status and (1) the risk of total, advanced and high-grade prostate cancer and (2) all-cause...... (HR 0·77; 95 % CI 0·64, 0·94; P=0·009). In survival analyses, a higher level of plasma Se was associated with a lower risk of all-cause (HR 0·92; 95 % CI 0·85, 1·00; P=0·04), but not prostate cancer-specific mortality. Higher levels of selenoprotein P were associated with a lower risk of high...... and prostate cancer-specific mortality among men with prostate cancer. Within the Danish ‘Diet, Cancer and Health’ cohort, including 27 179 men, we identified 784 cases with incident prostate cancer through 2007. Each case was risk set-matched to one control. Two-thirds (n 525) of the cases had advanced...

  1. Use of androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer:indications and prevalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roisin M Connolly; Michael A Carducci; Emmanuel S Antonarakis

    2012-01-01

    Androgens play a prominent role in the development,maintenance and progression of prostate cancer.The introduction of androgen deprivation therapies into the treatment paradigm for prostate cancer patients has resulted in a wide variety of benefits ranging from a survival advantage for those with clinically localized or locally advanced disease,to improvements in symptom control for patients with advanced disease.Controversies remain,however,surrounding the optimal timing,duration and schedule of these hormonal approaches.Newer hormonal manipulations such as abiraterone acetate have also been investigated and will broaden treatment options for men with prostate cancer.This review highlights the various androgen-directed treatment options available to men with prostate cancer,their specific indications and the evidence supporting each approach,as well as patterns of use of hormonal therapies.

  2. TRPM4 protein expression in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Soldini, Davide; Jung, Maria;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 4 (TRPM4) messenger RNA (mRNA) has been shown to be upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa) and might be a new promising tissue biomarker. We evaluated TRPM4 protein expression and correlated the expression level with bioch......BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 4 (TRPM4) messenger RNA (mRNA) has been shown to be upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa) and might be a new promising tissue biomarker. We evaluated TRPM4 protein expression and correlated the expression level.......79-2.62; p = 0.01-0.03 for the two observers) when compared to patients with a lower staining intensity. CONCLUSIONS: TRPM4 protein expression is widely expressed in benign and cancerous prostate tissue, with highest staining intensities found in PCa. Overexpression of TRPM4 in PCa (combination of high...

  3. Jagged1 upregulation in prostate epithelial cells promotes formation of reactive stroma in the Pten null mouse model for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qingtai; Zhang, Boyu; Zhang, Li; Dang, Truong; Rowley, David; Ittmann, Michael; Xin, Li

    2016-01-01

    The role of Notch signaling in prostate cancer has not been defined definitively. Several large scale tissue microarray studies revealed that the expression of some Notch signaling components including the Jagged1 ligand are upregulated in advanced human prostate cancer specimens. Jagged1 expressed by tumor cells may activate Notch signaling in both adjacent tumor cells and cells in tumor microenvironment. However, it remains undetermined whether increased Jagged1 expression reflects a cause for or a consequence of tumor progression in vivo. To address this question, we generated a novel R26-LSL-JAG1 mouse model that enables spatiotemporal Jagged1 expression. Prostate specific upregulation of Jagged1 neither interferes with prostate epithelial homeostasis nor significantly accelerates tumor initiation or progression in the prostate-specific Pten deletion mouse model for prostate cancer. However, Jagged1 upregulation results in increased inflammatory foci in tumors and incidence of intracystic adenocarcinoma. In addition, Jagged1 overexpression upregulates Tgfβ signaling in prostate stromal cells and promotes progression of a reactive stromal microenvironment in the Pten null prostate cancer model. Collectively, Jagged1 overexpression does not significantly accelerate prostate cancer initiation and progression in the context of loss-of-function of Pten, but alters tumor histopathology and microenvironment. Our study also highlights an understudied role of Notch signaling in regulating prostatic stromal homeostasis. PMID:27345403

  4. Imaging of recurrent prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Futterer, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 30\\% of patients who underwent radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy will develop biochemical recurrent disease. Biochemical recurrent disease is defined as an increase in the serum value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) after reaching the nadir. Prostate recurrence can present

  5. Genetic Analysis of Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.J.G. van Alewijk (Dirk)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The human prostate has the size of a chestnut and envelops the urethra as it exits the bladder, below the bladder neck. It is the largest of the male accessory sex glands, which also include the seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral gland. The prostate is composed of glan

  6. Stroma-epithelium crosstalk in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Nong Niu; Shu-Jie Xia

    2009-01-01

    The critical role played by stroma-epithelium crosstalk in carcinogenesis and progression of prostate cancer has been increasingly recognized.These interactions are mediated by a variety of paracrine factors secreted by cancer cells and/or stromal cells.In human prostate cancer,reactive stroma is characterized by an increase in myofibroblasts and a corresponding amplification of extracellular matrix production and angiogenesis.Permanent genetic mutations have been reported in stromal cells as well as in turnout cells.Transforming growth factor-β,vascular endothelial growth factor,platelet-derived growth factor and fibroblast growth factor signalling pathways are involved in the process of angiogenesis,whereas hepatocyte growth factor,insulin-like growth factor-1,epidermal growth factor,CXC12 and Interleukin-6 play active roles in the progression,androgen-independent conversion and distal metastasis of prostate cancer.Some soluble factors have reciprocal interactions with androgens and the androgen receptor (AR),and can even activate AR in the absence of the androgen ligand.In this article,we review the complex interactions between cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment,and discuss the potential therapeutic targets in the stromal compartment of prostate cancer.

  7. Clinical Implications of Hedgehog Pathway Signaling in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Suzman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Activity in the Hedgehog pathway, which regulates GLI-mediated transcription, is important in organogenesis and stem cell regulation in self-renewing organs, but is pathologically elevated in many human malignancies. Mutations leading to constitutive activation of the pathway have been implicated in medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma, and inhibition of the pathway has demonstrated clinical responses leading to the approval of the Smoothened inhibitor, vismodegib, for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma. Aberrant Hedgehog pathway signaling has also been noted in prostate cancer with evidence suggesting that it may render prostate epithelial cells tumorigenic, drive the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and contribute towards the development of castration-resistance through autocrine and paracrine signaling within the tumor microenvironment and cross-talk with the androgen pathway. In addition, there are emerging clinical data suggesting that inhibition of the Hedgehog pathway may be effective in the treatment of recurrent and metastatic prostate cancer. Here we will review these data and highlight areas of active clinical research as they relate to Hedgehog pathway inhibition in prostate cancer.

  8. CXCL5 Promotes Prostate Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesa A Begley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available CXCL5 is a proangiogenic CXC-type chemokine that is an inflammatory mediator and a powerful attractant for granulocytic immune cells. Unlike many other chemokines, CXCL5 is secreted by both immune (neutrophil, monocyte, and macrophage and nonimmune (epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblastic cell types. The current study was intended to determine which of these cell types express CXCL5 in normal and malignant human prostatic tissues, whether expression levels correlated with malignancy and whether CXCL5 stimulated biologic effects consistent with a benign or malignant prostate epithelial phenotype. The results of these studies show that CXCL5 protein expression levels are concordant with prostate tumor progression, are highly associated with inflammatory infiltrate, and are frequently detected in the lumens of both benign and malignant prostate glands. Exogenous administration of CXCL5 stimulates cellular proliferation and gene transcription in both nontransformed and transformed prostate epithelial cells and induces highly aggressive prostate cancer cells to invade through synthetic basement membrane in vitro. These findings suggest that the inflammatory mediator, CXCL5, may play multiple roles in the etiology of both benign and malignant proliferative diseases in the prostate.

  9. Prostate cancer in Denmark. Incidence, morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Iversen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    been by deferred hormonal therapy. Morbidity and mortality associated with prostate cancer are analysed in a group of 1459 patients aged 55-74 years, who were diagnosed as having clinically localized prostate cancer in the 5-year period 1983 to 1987. In this group of patients prostate cancer...... is demonstrated to cause significant morbidity. Furthermore, the patients suffered significant excess mortality and loss of life expectancy.......Prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates in Denmark are reviewed for a 50-year period from 1943 to 1992. The prostate cancer incidence rate nearly tripled and prostate cancer mortality rate increased during this period. Until recently in Denmark the routine management of prostate cancer has...

  10. PET/CT Imaging and Radioimmunotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Tagawa, Scott T; Goldsmith, Stanley J;

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common cancer in men and continues to be a major health problem. Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of patients with prostate cancer. An important goal for prostate cancer imaging is more accurate disease characterization through the synthesis...... disease (ideal for antigen access and antibody delivery). Furthermore, prostate cancer is also radiation sensitive. Prostate-specific membrane antigen is expressed by virtually all prostate cancers, and represents an attractive target for RIT. Antiprostate-specific membrane antigen RIT demonstrates...... of anatomic, functional, and molecular imaging information. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in oncology is emerging as an important imaging tool. The most common radiotracer for PET/CT in oncology, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), is not very useful in the imaging of prostate cancer...

  11. The psychosocial aspects of sexual recovery after prostate cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, D; Northouse, L; Foley, S; Gilbert, S; Wood, D P; Balon, R; Montie, J E

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer affects one in six American men. Erectile and sexual dysfunctions are long-term side effects of prostate cancer treatment. PubMed database was searched for papers on prostate cancer-related sexual recovery for men and couples. The search yielded articles on (1) the treatment of erectile dysfunction, (2) men's psychological and culturally diverse adaptation to the sexual side effects; (3) the impact of prostate cancer on couples' relationships; and (4) interventions to promote sexual function. Erectile dysfunction after prostate cancer treatment has been widely studied. Research on the sexual recovery of men and couples or understanding it in a cultural context is scarce. Greater focus on the impact of sexual sequelae of prostate cancer treatment on men as well as couples in diverse groups is needed. Clinical implications for treating sexual dysfunction and promoting sexual recovery for prostate cancer survivors and their partners are discussed. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  12. Minimally invasive prostate cancer detection test using FISH probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinawi-Aljundi R

    2016-07-01

    with high specificity, high predictive value, and accuracy in identifying prostate cancer in voided urine after digital rectal examination with pressure. The test is likely to have positive impact on clinical practice and advance approaches to the detection of prostate cancer. Further evaluation is warranted. Keywords: prostate cancer detection, OligoFISH®, oncology, PSA screening

  13. Metronomic Treatment with Low-Dose Trofosfamide Leads to a Long-Term Remission in a Patient with Docetaxel-Refractory Advanced Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Greiner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic prostate cancer patients refractory to androgen withdrawal and docetaxel therapy is currently discouraging and new therapeutic approaches are vastly needed. Here, we report a long-term remission over one year in a 68-year-old patient with metastatic docetaxel-refractory prostate cancer employing low-dose trofosfamide. The patient suffered from distant failure with several bone lesions and lymph node metastases depicted by a (11 C-Choline positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT. After initiation of trofosfamide 100 mg taken orally once a day we observed a steadily decreasing PSA value from initial 46.6 down to 2.1 g/l. The Choline-PET/CT was repeated after 10 months of continuous therapy and demonstrated a partial remission of the bone lesions and a regression of all involved lymph nodes but one. Taken together we found an astonishing and durable activity of the alkylating agent trofosfamide given in a metronomic fashion. We rate the side effects as low and state an excellent therapeutic ratio of this drug in our patient.

  14. Invited commentary: screening and the elusive etiology of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy

    2015-09-01

    The role of lifestyle risk factors in prostate cancer risk remains elusive despite a large number of epidemiologic studies. In a pooled analysis of data from South and East Asian countries published in this issue, Fowke et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;182(5):381-389) found no evidence for an association between prostate cancer mortality and obesity, alcohol, or smoking. Prostate cancer screening is very uncommon in these countries, and previous evidence for associations with lifestyle factors comes primarily from studies carried out in North America, where screening is very common. Fowke et al. concluded that screening biases are likely to explain the differences in study results. In this commentary, we discuss the potential influence of population-based cancer screening programs in estimates of association from epidemiologic studies. This highlights the importance of carefully considering the impact of screening in the analysis and interpretation of results, in order to advance our understanding of the etiology of cancers that can be detected by screening.

  15. Effect of endocrine treatment on voiding and prostate size in men with prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise L; Klarskov, Peter; Mommsen, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and quantify changes in voiding parameters and prostate size in men with prostate cancer from before the start of endocrine treatment and during long-term follow-up.......The aim of this study was to assess and quantify changes in voiding parameters and prostate size in men with prostate cancer from before the start of endocrine treatment and during long-term follow-up....

  16. Functional Implications of Neuroendocrine Differentiated Cells in Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Jongsma (Johan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis focuses on NE differentiation in prostate cancer, especially in prostate cancer models. We studied the effects of androgen depletion on the NE differentiated status of in vivo and in vitro prostatic tumor models. Knowledge concerning the function of NE cells in the normal hum

  17. Prostate cancer screening with PSA: new data, old debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Sciallero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two prostate cancer screening randomised controlled trials from Europe (European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer—ERSPC and U.S. (Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Program— PLCO have been published earlier this year...

  18. The role of inflammatory mediators in the development of prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkahwaji JE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Johny E Elkahwaji1–31Section of Urologic Surgery, 2Section of Medical Oncology and Hematology, 3Genitourinary Oncology Research Laboratory, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USAAbstract: Benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer remain the most prevalent urologic health concerns affecting elderly men in their lifetime. Only 20% of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer cases coexist in the same zone of the prostate and require a long time for initiation and progression. While the pathogenesis of both diseases is not fully understood, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer are thought to have a multifactorial etiology, their incidence and prevalence are indeed affected by age and hormones, and they are associated with chronic prostatic inflammation. At least 20% of all human malignancies arise in a tissue microenvironment dominated by chronic or recurrent inflammation. In prostate malignancy, chronic inflammation is an extremely common histopathologic finding; its origin remains a subject of debate and may in fact be multifactorial. Emerging insights suggest that prostate epithelium damage potentially inflicted by multiple environmental factors such as infectious agents, dietary carcinogens, and hormones triggers procarcinogenic inflammatory processes and promotes cell transformation and disease development. Also, the coincidence of chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis in the peripheral zone has recently been linked by studies identifying so-called proliferative inflammatory atrophy as a possible precursor of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer. This paper will discuss the available evidence suggesting that chronic inflammation may be involved in the development and progression of chronic prostatic disease, although a direct causal role for chronic inflammation or infection in prostatic carcinogenesis has yet to be established in humans. Further basic and clinical research in the

  19. Interleukin 7 and Patient Selection in Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Schroten-Loef, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is a disease of elderly males. An increase in prostate cancer is expected in the coming years due to a growing population of men aged over 60 years of age from 475 million in 2009 to 1.6 billion in the year 2050 worldwide. Moreover, if screening for prostate cancer is taken into account, even more men will be diagnosed with this disease.[1-3] In the early disease stages, prostate cancer is a slow-growing and symptom-free malignancy. Men suffering from prostate canc...

  20. Proapoptotic effect of endocannabinoids in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana-Serradell, O; Poblete, C E; Sanchez, C; Castellón, E A; Gallegos, I; Huidobro, C; Llanos, M N; Contreras, H R

    2015-04-01

    In the early stages, prostate cancer is androgen‑ dependent; therefore, medical castration has shown significant results during the initial stages of this pathology. Despite this early effect, advanced prostate cancer is resilient to such treatment. Recent evidence shows that derivatives of Cannabis sativa and its analogs may exert a protective effect against different types of oncologic pathologies. The purpose of the present study was to detect the presence of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) on cancer cells with a prostatic origin and to evaluate the effect of the in vitro use of synthetic analogs. In order to do this, we used a commercial cell line and primary cultures derived from prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. The presence of the CB1 and CB2 receptors was determined by immunohistochemistry where we showed a higher expression of these receptors in later stages of the disease (samples with a high Gleason score). Later, treatments were conducted using anandamide, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and a synthetic analog of anandamide, methanandamide. Using the MTT assay, we proved that the treatments produced a cell growth inhibitory effect on all the different prostate cancer cultures. This effect was demonstrated to be dose-dependent. The use of a specific CB1 receptor blocker (SR141716) confirmed that this effect was produced primarily from the activation of the CB1 receptor. In order to understand the MTT assay results, we determined cell cycle distribution by flow cytometry, which showed no variation at the different cell cycle stages in all the cultures after treatment. Treatment with endocannabinoids resulted in an increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells as determined by Annexin V assays and caused an increase in the levels of activated caspase-3 and a reduction in the levels of Bcl-2 confirming that the reduction in cell viability noted in the MTT assay was caused by the activation of the apoptotic pathway. Finally, we observed

  1. Sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer: Review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fouad Kotb

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual activity can affect prostate cancer pathogenesis in a variety of ways; including the proposed high androgen status, risk of sexually transmitted infections and the potential effect of retained carcinogens within the prostatic cells. Methods: PubMed review of all publications concerning sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer was done by two researchers. Results: Few publications could be detected and data were classified as a prostate cancer risk in association with either heterosexual or homosexual activities. Conclusion: Frequent ejaculation seems to be protective from the development of prostate cancer. Multiple sexual partners may be protective from prostate cancer, excluding the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Homosexual men are at a greater risk for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  2. PROSTVAC® targeted immunotherapy candidate for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Neal D

    2014-01-01

    Targeted immunotherapies represent a valid strategy for the treatment of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. A randomized, double-blind, Phase II clinical trial of PROSTVAC® demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in overall survival and a large, global, Phase III trial with overall survival as the primary end point is ongoing. PROSTVAC immunotherapy contains the transgenes for prostate-specific antigen and three costimulatory molecules (designated TRICOM). Research suggests that PROSTVAC not only targets prostate-specific antigen, but also other tumor antigens via antigen cascade. PROSTVAC is well tolerated and has been safely combined with other cancer therapies, including hormonal therapy, radiotherapy, another immunotherapy and chemotherapy. Even greater benefits of PROSTVAC may be recognized in earlier-stage disease and low-disease burden settings where immunotherapy can trigger a long-lasting immune response.

  3. The Role of MRI in Prostate Cancer Active Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in American men, excluding skin cancer. The clinical behavior of prostate cancer varies from low-grade, slow growing tumors to high-grade aggressive tumors that may ultimately progress to metastases and cause death. Given the high incidence of men diagnosed with prostate cancer, conservative treatment strategies such as active surveillance are critical in the management of prostate cancer to reduce therapeutic complications of radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. In this review, we will review the role of multiparametric MRI in the selection and follow-up of patients on active surveillance.

  4. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect...... on the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was obtained...... through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate cancer risk...

  5. Abiraterone acetate: oral androgen biosynthesis inhibitor for treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenberg JE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Yasser Rehman1, Jonathan E Rosenberg21Division of Hospital Medicine, UMass Memorial Healthcare, Worcester, MA, USA; 2Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men in the US and Europe. The treatment of advanced-stage prostate cancer has been androgen deprivation. Medical castration leads to decreased production of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone by the testes, but adrenal glands and even prostate cancer tissue continue to produce androgens, which eventually leads to continued prostate cancer growth despite castrate level of androgens. This stage is known as castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC, which continues to be a challenge to treat. Addition of androgen antagonists to hormonal deprivation has been successful in lowering the prostate-specific antigen levels further, but has not actually translated into life-prolonging options. The results of several contemporary studies have continued to demonstrate activation of the androgen receptor as being the key factor in the continued growth of prostate cancer. Blockade of androgen production by nongonadal sources has led to clinical benefit in this setting. One such agent is abiraterone acetate, which significantly reduces androgen production by blocking the enzyme, cytochrome P450 17 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP17. This has provided physicians with another treatment option for patients with CRPC. The landscape for prostate cancer treatment has changed with the approval of cabazitaxel, sipuleucel-T and abiraterone. Here we provide an overview of abiraterone acetate, its mechanism of action, and its potential place for therapy in CRPC.Keywords: CRPC, abiraterone, CYP17, inhibitors, androgens, castration resistant prostate cancer

  6. Common genetic variants in prostate cancer risk prediction – Results from the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Sara; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Cox, David; Travis, Ruth C.; Albanes, Demetrius; Allen, Naomi E.; Andriole, Gerald; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Crawford, E. David; Diver, W. Ryan; Ganziano, J. Michael; Giles, Graham G.; Giovannucci, Edward; Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Henderson, Brian; Hunter, David J.; Johansson, Mattias; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Ma, Jing; Le Marchand, Loic; Pala, Valeria; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Daniel O.; Thun, Michael J.; Tjonneland, Anne; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Willett, Walter C.; Yeager, Meredith; Hayes, Richard B.; Severi, Gianluca; Haiman, Christopher A.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Kraft, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the goals of personalized medicine is to generate individual risk profiles that could identify individuals in the population that exhibit high risk. The discovery of more than two-dozen independent SNP markers in prostate cancer has raised the possibility for such risk stratification. In this study, we evaluated the discriminative and predictive ability for prostate cancer risk models incorporating 25 common prostate cancer genetic markers, family history of prostate cancer and age. Methods We fit a series of risk models and estimated their performance in 7,509 prostate cancer cases and 7,652 controls within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). We also calculated absolute risks based on SEER incidence data. Results The best risk model (C-statistic=0.642) included individual genetic markers and family history of prostate cancer. We observed a decreasing trend in discriminative ability with advancing age (P=0.009), with highest accuracy in men younger than 60 years (C-statistic=0.679). The absolute ten-year risk for 50-year old men with a family history ranged from 1.6% (10th percentile of genetic risk) to 6.7% (90th percentile of genetic risk). For men without family history, the risk ranged from 0.8% (10th percentile) to 3.4% (90th percentile). Conclusions Our results indicate that incorporating genetic information and family history in prostate cancer risk models can be particularly useful for identifying younger men that might benefit from PSA screening. Impact Although adding genetic risk markers improves model performance, the clinical utility of these genetic risk models is limited. PMID:22237985

  7. TRPM8 Puts the Chill on Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume P. Grolez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in developed countries. Several studies suggest that variations in calcium homeostasis are involved in carcinogenesis. Interestingly, (Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin member 8 TRPM8 calcium permeable channel expression is differentially regulated during prostate carcinogenesis, thereby suggesting a potential functional role for this channel in those cell processes, which are important for PCa evolution. Indeed, several studies have shown that TRPM8 plays a key role in processes such as the proliferation, viability and cell migration of PCa cells. Where cell migration is concerned, TRPM8 seems to have a protective anti-invasive effect and could be a particularly promising therapeutic target. The goal of this review is to inventory advances in understanding of the role of TRPM8 in the installation and progression of PCa.

  8. New Therapeutics to Treat Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Acar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effective treatment of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC has proven to be very challenging. Until recently, docetaxel was the only therapeutic demonstrated to extend overall patient survival. Yet recently, a considerable number of new therapeutics have been approved to treat CRPC patients. These remarkable advances now give new tools for the therapeutic management of late-stage prostate cancer. In this review, we will examine mechanistic and clinical data of several newly approved therapeutics including the chemotherapeutic cabazitaxel, antiandrogen enzalutamide, endocrine disruptor abiraterone acetate, immunotherapy sipuleucel-T, and bone-targeting radiopharmaceutical alpharadin. In addition, we will examine other promising therapeutics that are currently in Phase III trials.

  9. Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Mechanisms, Targets, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Maria Santos Amaral

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC, who progress after docetaxel therapy, had until very recently, only a few therapeutic options. Recent advances in this field brought about new perspectives in the treatment of this disease. Molecular, basic, and translational research has given us a better understanding on the mechanisms of CRPC. This great investment has turned into a more rational approach to the development of new drugs. Some of the new treatments are already available to our patients outside clinical trials and may include inhibitors of androgen biosynthesis; new chemotherapy agents; bone-targeted therapy; and immunotherapy. This paper aims to review the mechanisms of prostate cancer resistance, possible therapeutic targets, as well as new options to treat CRPC.

  10. Management of High-Risk Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel E. Marciscano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer have been an extremely challenging group to manage due to a significant likelihood of treatment failure and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM. The results of multiple large, prospective, randomized trials have demonstrated that men with high-risk features who are treated in a multimodal fashion at the time of initial diagnosis have improved overall survival. Advances in local treatments such as dose-escalated radiotherapy in conjunction with androgen suppression and postprostatectomy adjuvant radiotherapy have also demonstrated benefits to this subset of patients. However, therapeutic enhancement with the addition of chemotherapy to the primary treatment regimen may help achieve optimal disease control.

  11. Unraveling of the major genetic defects in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G.L. Hermans (Karin)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn developed countries, prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men and a major cause of cancer-related death (1). In The Netherlands 93 new cases per 100,000 men were detected in 2003 (The Netherlands Cancer Registry). Prostate cancer incidence varies between different ethnic g

  12. 78 FR 54745 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9010 of August 30, 2013 National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Among American men, prostate cancer is both the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second-leading cause of cancer deaths. Although...

  13. The transcriptional programme of the androgen receptor (AR) in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Alastair D; Massie, Charlie E; Neal, David E

    2014-03-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is essential for normal prostate and prostate cancer cell growth. AR transcriptional activity is almost always maintained even in hormone relapsed prostate cancer (HRPC) in the absence of normal levels of circulating testosterone. Current molecular techniques, such as chromatin-immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq), have permitted identification of direct AR-binding sites in cell lines and human tissue with a distinct coordinate network evident in HRPC. The effectiveness of novel agents, such as abiraterone acetate (suppresses adrenal androgens) or enzalutamide (MDV3100, potent AR antagonist), in treating advanced prostate cancer underlines the on-going critical role of the AR throughout all stages of the disease. Persistent AR activity in advanced disease regulates cell cycle activity, steroid biosynthesis and anabolic metabolism in conjunction with regulatory co-factors, such as the E2F family, c-Myc and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) transcription factors. Further treatment approaches must target these other factors.

  14. Management of synchronous rectal and prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, D O

    2012-11-01

    Although well described, there is limited published data related to management on the coexistence of prostate and rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to describe a single institution\\'s experience with this and propose a treatment algorithm based on the best available evidence.

  15. Targeting TMPRSS2-ERG in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    in prostate cancer cells. We will complete validation candidate kinases that modulate the ERG signature using shRNA and new CRISPR technology as an...will plan to validate hits using CRISPR -Cas9 technology as an orthogonal system. The CRISPR -Cas9 system was not available at the time of the

  16. Screening for prostatic cancer. Investigational models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Torp-Pedersen, S T

    1991-01-01

    Prostatic cancer has a long natural history and a significant preclinical period, during which the disease is detectable. Thus, this common malignancy in males fulfills some of the most important criteria for initiating screening programs. However, the still enigmatic epidemiology also includes...

  17. Are we ready for prostate cancer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The incidence of prostate cancer(PCa)in Western developed countries is higher than in Asia where it is presently increasing rapidly.1 Data from Shanghai and Macau2 suggest that the incidence of PCa in the Chinese population has also shown an increasing trend over the last twenty years.

  18. Promising Tools in Prostate Cancer Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonomo, Silvia; Hansen, Cecilie H; Petrunak, Elyse M

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) is an important target in the treatment of prostate cancer because it produces androgens required for tumour growth. The FDA has approved only one CYP17A1 inhibitor, abiraterone, which contains a steroidal scaffold similar to the endogenous CYP17A1 substrates...

  19. Risk-based prostate cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X.D. Zhu (Xiaoye); P.C. Albertsen (Peter); G.L. Andriole (Gerald); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A.J. Vickers (Andrew)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContext: Widespread mass screening of prostate cancer (PCa) is not recommended because the balance between benefits and harms is still not well established. The achieved mortality reduction comes with considerable harm such as unnecessary biopsies, overdiagnoses, and overtreatment. There

  20. Enzalutamide in metastatic prostate cancer before chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beer, Tomasz M; Armstrong, Andrew J; Rathkopf, Dana E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide is an oral androgen-receptor inhibitor that prolongs survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in whom the disease has progressed after chemotherapy. New treatment options are needed for patients with metastatic prostate cancer who have not rece......BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide is an oral androgen-receptor inhibitor that prolongs survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in whom the disease has progressed after chemotherapy. New treatment options are needed for patients with metastatic prostate cancer who have...... not received chemotherapy, in whom the disease has progressed despite androgen-deprivation therapy. METHODS: In this double-blind, phase 3 study, we randomly assigned 1717 patients to receive either enzalutamide (at a dose of 160 mg) or placebo once daily. The coprimary end points were radiographic progression...... at the data-cutoff date (29% reduction in the risk of death; hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.84; Pchemotherapy (hazard ratio, 0.35), the time until the first...

  1. The impact of obesity on prostate cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roermund, J.G. van; Witjes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing prevalence of obesity in many parts of the world emphasizes the importance of learning more about the relationship between obesity and prostate cancer (PC). The present paper reviews the impact of obesity on PC using knowledge obtained from the available literature. Search of published li

  2. Endocrine manipulations in cancer prostate: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Rajesh; Sehgal, Ashish

    2012-12-01

    Prostate cancer is an androgen dependent condition where Dihydrotestosterone promotes the growth of the neoplastic tissue. Androgen deprivation has been the mainstay of therapy for this condition. This can be achieved by surgical or medical means. Types of medical regimens are intermittent maximal or sequential androgen blockade.

  3. New genetic variants associated with prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have newly identified 23 common genetic variants -- one-letter changes in DNA known as single-nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs -- that are associated with risk of prostate cancer. These results come from an analysis of more than 10 million SNP

  4. Inuit are protected against prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewailly, Eric; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2003-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates for prostate cancer are reported to be low among Inuit, but this finding must be additionally supported given the difficulty of obtaining a precise medical diagnosis in the Arctic. We conducted an autopsy study in 1990–1994 among 61 deceased males representative of a...... acids and selenium, may be an important protective factor....

  5. Occupation, cadmium exposure, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghany, N A; Schumacher, M C; Slattery, M L; West, D W; Lee, J S

    1990-03-01

    A population-based case-control study was used to investigate associations between prostate cancer and cadmium exposure, longest industry held, and longest occupation held. The study included 358 men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer and 679 control men identified from the Utah population. Occupational exposures to cadmium were ascertained from self-reported data, through several a priori suspect industries and occupations, through an occupation-exposure linkage system, and through dietary food frequency questionnaires. Overall, cadmium exposure appeared to result in a small increased relative risk for prostate cancer, most apparent for aggressive tumors (OR = 1.7, CI = 1.0-3.1 for any occupational exposure, high dietary intake, or smoking cigarettes). Cases were more likely to have worked in the following industries: mining, paper and wood, medicine and science, and entertainment and recreation. Among men younger than 67, cases were also more likely to have worked in the food and tobacco industries (OR = 3.6, CI = 1.0-12.8). Cases were less likely to have worked in industries involved with glass, clay and stone, or rubber, plastics, and synthetics. Men employed as janitors and in other building service occupations showed increased relative risk for aggressive tumors (OR = 7.0, CI = 2.5-19.6). Agricultural occupations did not appear to be related to prostate cancer, although an increased relative risk for aggressive tumors was detected among younger men (OR = 2.6, CI = 0.6-12.1).

  6. Pubertal development and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Lewis, Sarah J; Martin, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    associated with male Tanner stage. A higher score indicated a later puberty onset. We examined the association of this score with prostate cancer risk, stage and grade in the UK-based ProtecT case-control study (n = 2,927), and used the PRACTICAL consortium (n = 43,737) as a replication sample. RESULTS...

  7. Beta Catenin in Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Kelly, M., Tsao, T. S., Farmer, S. R., Saha , A. K., Ruderman, N. B., and Tomas, E. (2006) Thiazolidinediones can rapidly activate AMP-activated...metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. We used C42-DN (stably overexpressing AMPK α1-dominant negative) and C42-EV (empty vector) prostate cancer cell

  8. ADT for prostate cancer: true love or heartbreak?

    OpenAIRE

    Efstathiou, Jason A.; Shipley, William U; Zietman, Anthony L.; Smith, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    The addition of hormonal therapy to radiation therapy improves survival in men with unfavorable risk prostate cancer. Yet, men with prostate cancer have higher rates of non-cancer death than the general population and most will die from causes other than their index malignancy. Co-morbid cardiovascular disease is strongly associated with cause of death and this raises the possibility that prostate cancer or its treatment increases cardiovascular disease risk and possibly mortality.

  9. Prostate cancer and chemopreventive relationship of lycopene: systematic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Janeci Almeida Pereira COSTA; Amanda G. Cordeiro MATIAS

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the main types responsible for increased morbidity and mortality of the male, and the second cause of cancer death. Research indicates that prevention can change this reality. The objective of the study is to describe the effect of the antioxidant lycopene as a preventative to prostate cancer, using a systematic review from PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO. We used the descriptors: Prostate cancer Lycopersicon esculentum, lycopene, prevention. Selecting the results of exper...

  10. Accumulation of [{sup 11}C]acetate in normal prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia: comparison with prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Takei, Toshiki; Shiga, Tohru; Nakada, Kunihiro; Tamaki, Nagara [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita 15, Nishi 6, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Kuge, Yuji; Katoh, Chietsugu [Department of Tracer Kinetics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Shinohara, Nobuo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Carbon-11 acetate positron emission tomography (PET) has been reported to be of clinical value for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, no detailed analysis has yet been carried out on the physiological accumulation of [{sup 11}C]acetate in the prostate. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the physiological accumulation of [{sup 11}C]acetate in the prostate using dynamic PET. The study included 30 subjects without prostate cancer [21 with normal prostate and nine with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)] and six patients with prostate cancer. A dynamic PET study was performed for 20 min after intravenous administration of 555 MBq of [{sup 11}C]acetate. The standardised uptake value (SUV) at 16-20 min post tracer administration and the early-to-late-activity ratio of the SUV (E/L ratio), which was determined by dividing the SUV{sub 6-10} {sub min} by the SUV {sub 16-20min}, were calculated to evaluate the accumulation of [ {sup 11}C]acetate. The prostate was clearly visualised and distinguished from adjacent organs in PET images in most of the cases. The SUV of the prostate (2.6 {+-}0.8) was significantly higher than that of the rectum (1.7 {+-}0.4) or bone marrow (1.3 {+-}0.3) (P <0.0001 in each case). The SUV of the normal prostate of subjects aged <50 years (3.4 {+-}0.7) was significantly higher than both the SUV for the normal prostate of subjects aged {>=}50 years (2.3 {+-}0.7) and that of subjects with BPH (2.1 {+-}0.6) (P <0.01 in each case). The primary prostate cancer in six cases was visualised by [ {sup 11}C]acetate PET. However, the difference in the SUV between subjects aged {>=}50 with normal prostate or with BPH and the patients with prostate cancer (1.9 {+-}0.6) was not statistically significant. There was also no significant difference in the E/L ratio between subjects aged {>=}50 with normal prostate (0.98 {+-}0.04) or BPH (0.96 {+-}0.08) and patients with prostate cancer (1.02 {+-}0.12). In conclusion, a normal prostate exhibits age

  11. LHRH Agonists for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer: 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepor, Herbert; Shore, Neal D

    2012-01-01

    The most recent guidelines on prostate cancer screening from the American Urological Association (2009), the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (2011), and the European Association of Urology (2011), as well as treatment and advances in disease monitoring, have increased the androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) population and the duration of ADT usage as the first-line treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. According to the European Association of Urology, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists have become the leading therapeutic option for ADT because they avoid the physical and psychological discomforts associated with orchiectomy. However, GnRH agonists display several shortcomings, including testosterone (T) surge ("clinical flare") and microsurges. T surge delays the intended serologic endpoint of T suppression and may exacerbate clinical symptoms. Furthermore, ADT manifests an adverse-event spectrum that can impact quality of life with its attendant well-documented morbidities. Strategies to improve ADT tolerability include a holistic management approach, improved diet and exercise, and more specific monitoring to detect and prevent T depletion toxicities. Intermittent ADT, which allows hormonal recovery between treatment periods, has become increasingly utilized as a methodology for improving quality of life while not diminishing chronic ADT efficacy, and may also provide healthcare cost savings. This review assesses the present and potential future role of GnRH agonists in prostate cancer and explores strategies to minimize the adverse-event profile for patients receiving ADT.

  12. Defective DNA repair mechanisms in prostate cancer: impact of olaparib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Felice F

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Francesca De Felice,1 Vincenzo Tombolini,1 Francesco Marampon,2 Angela Musella,3 Claudia Marchetti3 1Department of Radiotherapy, Policlinico Umberto I, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, 2Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, Laboratory of Radiobiology, University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, 3Department of Gynecological and Obstetrical Sciences and Urological Sciences, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy Abstract: The field of prostate oncology has continued to change dramatically. It has truly become a field that is intensely linked to molecular genetic alterations, especially DNA-repair defects. Germline breast cancer 1 gene (BRCA1 and breast cancer 2 gene (BRCA2 mutations are implicated in the highest risk of prostate cancer (PC predisposition and aggressiveness. Poly adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase (PARP proteins play a key role in DNA repair mechanisms and represent a valid target for new therapies. Olaparib is an oral PARP inhibitor that blocks DNA repair pathway and coupled with BRCA mutated-disease results in tumor cell death. In phase II clinical trials, including patients with advanced castration-resistant PC, olaparib seems to be efficacious and well tolerated. Waiting for randomized phase III trials, olaparib should be considered as a promising treatment option for PC. Keywords: prostate cancer, metastatic disease, castration resistant, BRCA, DNA-repair, PARP, olaparib

  13. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for organ-confined prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diblasio Ferdinand

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved understanding of prostate cancer radiobiology combined with advances in delivery of radiation to the moving prostate offer the potential to reduce treatment-related morbidity and maintain quality of life (QOL following prostate cancer treatment. We present preliminary results following stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT treatment for organ-confined prostate cancer. Methods SBRT was performed on 304 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer: 50 received 5 fractions of 7 Gy (total dose 35 Gy and 254 received 5 fractions of 7.25 Gy (total dose 36.25 Gy. Acute and late toxicity was assessed using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale. The Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaire was used to assess QOL. Prostate-specific antigen response was monitored. Results At a median 30-month (26 - 37 month, range follow-up there were no biochemical failures for the 35-Gy dose level. Acute Grade II urinary and rectal toxicities occurred in 4% of patients with no higher Grade acute toxicities. One Grade II late urinary toxicity occurred with no other Grade II or higher late toxicities. At a median 17-month (8 - 27 month, range follow-up the 36.25 Gy dose level had 2 low- and 2 high-risk patients fail biochemically (biopsy showed 2 low- and 1 high-risk patients were disease-free in the gland. Acute Grade II urinary and rectal toxicities occurred in 4.7% (12/253 and 3.6% (9/253 of patients, respectively. For those patients with a minimum of 12 months follow-up, 5.8% (12/206 had late Grade II urinary toxicity and 2.9% (6/206 had late Grade II rectal toxicities. One late Grade III urinary toxicity occurred; no Grade IV toxicities occurred. For both dose levels at 17 months, bowel and urinary QOL returned to baseline values; sexual QOL decreased by 10%. Conclusions The low toxicity and maintained QOL are highly encouraging. Additional follow-up is needed to determine long-term biochemical control and

  14. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzi, Roberto [Marie Curie Research Wing, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Rickmansworth Road, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2RN (United Kingdom)], E-mail: robertoalonzi@btinternet.com; Padhani, Anwar R. [Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Rickmansworth Road, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2RN (United Kingdom); Synarc Inc. 575 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States)], E-mail: anwar.padhani@paulstrickland-scannercentre.org.uk; Allen, Clare [Department of Imaging, University College Hospital, London, 235 Euston Road, NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.allen@uclh.nhs.uk

    2007-09-15

    Angiogenesis is an integral part of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is associated with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and is key to the growth and for metastasis of prostate cancer. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) using small molecular weight gadolinium chelates enables non-invasive imaging characterization of tissue vascularity. Depending on the technique used, data reflecting tissue perfusion, microvessel permeability surface area product, and extracellular leakage space can be obtained. Two dynamic MRI techniques (T{sub 2}*-weighted or susceptibility based and T{sub 1}-weighted or relaxivity enhanced methods) for prostate gland evaluations are discussed in this review with reference to biological basis of observations, data acquisition and analysis methods, technical limitations and validation. Established clinical roles of T{sub 1}-weighted imaging evaluations will be discussed including lesion detection and localisation, for tumour staging and for the detection of suspected tumour recurrence. Limitations include inadequate lesion characterisation particularly differentiating prostatitis from cancer, and in distinguishing between BPH and central gland tumours.

  15. The truth is in the water: metastatic prostate cancer presenting as an intermittent facial nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooles, N; Gupta, S; Wilkin-Crowe, H; Juratli, A

    2015-04-24

    An elderly man presented to the acute ear, nose and throat (ENT) services with a history of intermittent, self-limiting facial nerve palsy. Full ENT examination was normal, with all cranial nerves and peripheral neurology intact. Multiple imaging modalities suggested an aggressive bony lesion, secondary to locally advanced prostate malignancy with extensive metastatic infiltration. Prostate cancer is known to preferentially metastasise to bone and has been known to cause multiple cranial nerve palsies and ophthalmoplegia. This is the first case described in the literature of metastatic prostate cancer presenting with intermittent facial nerve palsy.

  16. Effects of recreational soccer in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth, Jacob; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Christensen, Jesper Frank;

    2013-01-01

    (FC) Prostate' study is a randomized trial comparing the effects of soccer training with standard treatment approaches on body composition, cardiovascular function, physical function parameters, glucose tolerance, bone health, and patient-reported outcomes in men undergoing ADT for prostate cancer.......Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a cornerstone in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Adverse musculoskeletal and cardiovascular effects of ADT are widely reported and investigations into the potential of exercise to ameliorate the effects of treatment are warranted. The 'Football Club...

  17. Suppression of human prostate cancer cell growth by alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists doxazosin and terazosin via induction of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyprianou, N; Benning, C M

    2000-08-15

    drugs, already in clinical use and with established adverse-effect profiles, against prostatic tumors for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

  18. Testosterone replacement therapy and the risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Daniel; Hobaugh, Christopher; Wang, Grace; Lin, Haocheng; Wang, Run

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in the development and progression of prostate cancer is an important concept in treating patients with symptoms of hypogonadism. This article revealed a small number of mostly retrospective, observational studies describing the use of TRT in the general population, in men with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), in men with a history of treated prostate cancer, and in men on active surveillance for prostate cancer. The current literature does not report a statistically significant increase in the development or progression of prostate cancer in men receiving testosterone replacement for symptomatic hypogonadism, and the prostate saturation theory provides a model explaining the basis for these results. The use of TRT in men with a history of prostate cancer is considered experimental, but future results from randomized controlled trials could lead to a change in our current treatment approach.

  19. Testosterone replacement therapy and the risk of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Warburton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT in the development and progression of prostate cancer is an important concept in treating patients with symptoms of hypogonadism. This article revealed a small number of mostly retrospective, observational studies describing the use of TRT in the general population, in men with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, in men with a history of treated prostate cancer, and in men on active surveillance for prostate cancer. The current literature does not report a statistically significant increase in the development or progression of prostate cancer in men receiving testosterone replacement for symptomatic hypogonadism, and the prostate saturation theory provides a model explaining the basis for these results. The use of TRT in men with a history of prostate cancer is considered experimental, but future results from randomized controlled trials could lead to a change in our current treatment approach.

  20. Identification of Prostate Cancer Prognostic Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    targets. Specific aims are: 1) To profile bone metastasis samples to identify genomic alterations of PCa metastases that can be retrieved in their...Current markers - preoperative serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels, tumor stage and biopsy Gleason score (GS) - cannot accurately predict...individual patient outcome. For advanced and metastatic disease there is no curative treatment. Genomic profiling studies have identified specific genomic