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Sample records for advanced process development

  1. Development of Advanced Spent Fuel Management Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chung Seok; Choi, I. K.; Kwon, S. G. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    As a part of research efforts to develop an advanced spent fuel management process, this project focused on the electrochemical reduction technology which can replace the original Li reduction technology of ANL, and we have successfully built a 20 kgHM/batch scale demonstration system. The performance tests of the system in the ACPF hot cell showed more than a 99% reduction yield of SIMFUEL, a current density of 100 mA/cm{sup 2} and a current efficiency of 80%. For an optimization of the process, the prevention of a voltage drop in an integrated cathode, a minimization of the anodic effect and an improvement of the hot cell operability by a modulation and simplization of the unit apparatuses were achieved. Basic research using a bench-scale system was also carried out by focusing on a measurement of the electrochemical reduction rate of the surrogates, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism, collecting data on the partition coefficients of the major nuclides, quantitative measurement of mass transfer rates and diffusion coefficients of oxygen and metal ions in molten salts. When compared to the PYROX process of INL, the electrochemical reduction system developed in this project has comparative advantages in its application of a flexible reaction mechanism, relatively short reaction times and increased process yields.

  2. Cell culture process development: advances in process engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Carole; Kiss, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Representatives from the cell culture process development community met on September 11 and 12, 2006 at the ACS National Meeting in San Francisco to discuss "Cell Culture Process Development: Advances in Process Engineering". This oral session was held as part of the Division of Biochemical Technology (BIOT) program. The presentations addressed the very small scale (less than 1 mL) to the very large scale (20,000 L). The topics covered included development of high throughput cell culture screening systems, modeling and characterization of bioreactor environments from mixing and shear perspectives at both small and large scales, systematic approaches for improving scale-up and scale-down activities, development of disposable bioreactor technologies, and novel perfusion culture approaches. All told, this well-attended session resulted in a valuable exchange of technical information and demonstrated a high level of interest within the process development community.

  3. Advances in the Process Development of Biocatalytic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Pär; Lima Ramos, Joana; Al-Haque, Naweed;

    2013-01-01

    Biocatalysis is already established in chemical synthesis on an industrial scale, in particular in the pharmaceutical sector. However, the wider implementation of biocatalysis is currently hindered by the extensive effort required to develop a competitive process. In order that resources spent on...

  4. ADVANCED PROCESS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT IN RESIDUA CATALYTIC CRACKER CONTROL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Process calculations and rigorous dynamic model with detailed coke combustion kine-tics for two-stage regeneration FCC process were developed and integrated into the advanced process control(APC) context. The package was implemented in 6 SINOPEC commercial RFCCUs.Typical 0.5%~0.8% improvement of target product yields was achieved. Significant energy consumption was saved with tighter control over coke burning.

  5. Recent Developments in Advanced Automated Post-Processing at AMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Recent Developments in Advanced Automated Post-Processing at AMOS Michael Werth, Brandoch Calef, Daniel Thompson The Boeing Company Kathy...6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) The Boeing Company ,100

  6. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation, Engineering and Development of Advanced Cyclone Processes'' is a research and development project for the reduction of pyritic sulfur in coal. Project goals are to remove 80 to 90% of the ash and pyritic sulfur while retaining 80 to 90% of the parent coal's heating value. A number of media and media separator options are to be evaluated and tested, culminating with the implementation of the preferred combination in a 1,000 lb/hr bench-scale process optimization circuit.

  7. Advanced Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) Reactor and Process Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Hadley, Neal M.; Dahl, Roger W.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee; Medlen, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA's Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development.

  8. Developing Tutorials for Advanced Physics Students: Processes and Lessons Learned

    CERN Document Server

    Baily, Charles; Pollock, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    When education researchers describe newly developed curricular materials, they typically concentrate on the research base behind their design, and the efficacy of the final products, but do not highlight the initial stages of creating the actual materials. With the aim of providing useful information for faculty engaged in similar projects, we describe here our development of a set of in-class tutorials for advanced undergraduate electrodynamics students, and discuss factors that influenced their initial design and refinement. Among the obstacles to be overcome was the investigation of student difficulties within the short time frame of our project, and devising ways for students to engage in meaningful activities on advanced-level topics within a single 50-minute class period. We argue for a process that leverages faculty experience and classroom observations, and present several guidelines for tutorial development and implementation in upper-division physics classrooms.

  9. High-power ultrasonic processing: Recent developments and prospective advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Juarez, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the application of ultrasonic energy to produce or to enhance a wide variety of processes have been explored since about the middle of the 20th century, only a reduced number of ultrasonic processes have been established at industrial level. However, during the last ten years the interest in ultrasonic processing has revived particularly in industrial sectors where the ultrasonic technology may represent a clean and efficient tool to improve classical existing processes or an innovation alternative for the development of new processes. Such seems to be the case of relevant sectors such as food industry, environment, pharmaceuticals and chemicals manufacture, machinery, mining, etc where power ultrasound is becoming an emerging technology for process development. The possible major problem in the application of high-intensity ultrasound on industrial processing is the design and development of efficient power ultrasonic systems (generators and reactors) capable of large scale successful operation specifically adapted to each individual process. In the area of ultrasonic processing in fluid media and more specifically in gases, the development of the steppedplate transducers and other power ge with extensive radiating surface has strongly contributed to the implementation at semi-industrial and industrial stage of several commercial applications, in sectors such as food and beverage industry (defoaming, drying, extraction, etc), environment (air cleaning, sludge filtration, etc...), machinery and process for manufacturing (textile washing, paint manufacture, etc). The development of different cavitational reactors for liquid treatment in continuous flow is helping to introduce into industry the wide potential of the area of sonochemistry. Processes such as water and effluent treatment, crystallization, soil remediation, etc have been already implemented at semi-industrial and/or industrial stage. Other single advances in sectors like mining or energy have

  10. Process development status report for advanced manufacturing projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, J.R.; Homan, D.A.

    1990-03-30

    This is the final status report for the approved Advanced Manufacturing Projects for FY 1989. Five of the projects were begun in FY 1987, one in FY 1988, and one in FY 1989. The approved projects cover technology areas in welding, explosive material processing and evaluation, ion implantation, and automated manufacturing. It is expected that the successful completion of these projects well result in improved quality and/or reduced cost for components produced by Mound. Those projects not brought to completion will be continued under Process development in FY 1990.

  11. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durney, T.E.; Cook, A. [Coal Technology Corporation, Bristol, VA (United States); Ferris, D.D. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    This research and development project is one of three seeking to develop advanced, cost-effective, coal cleaning processes to help industry comply with 1990 Clean Air Act Regulations. The specific goal for this project is to develop a cycloning technology that will beneficiate coal to a level approaching 85% pyritic sulfur rejection while retaining 85% of the parent coal`s heating value. A clean coal ash content of less than 6% and a moisture content, for both clean coal and reject, of less than 30% are targeted. The process under development is a physical, gravimetric-based cleaning system that removes ash bearing mineral matter and pyritic sulfur. Since a large portion of the Nation`s coal reserves contain significant amounts of pyrite, physical beneficiation is viewed as a potential near-term, cost effective means of producing an environmentally acceptable fuel.

  12. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-10-14

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of an advanced hot-gas process that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur

  13. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-04-26

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3% of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of optimized low-cost zinc-oxide-based sorbents for Sierra-Pacific. The sorbent surface were modified to prevent

  14. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    2000-04-17

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to testing the FHR-32 sorbent. FHR-32 sorbent was tested for 50 cycles of sulfidation in a laboratory scale reactor.

  15. Economics of coal conversion processing. Advances in coal gasification: support research. Advances in coal gasification: process development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The fall meeting of the American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, was held at Miami Beach, Florida, September 10-15, 1978. Papers involved the economics of coal conversion processing and advances in coal gasification, especially support research and process development and analysis. Fourteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; three papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  16. Dual-Process Theories and Cognitive Development: Advances and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Dual-process theories have gained increasing importance in psychology. The contrast that they describe between an old intuitive and a new deliberative mind seems to make these theories especially suited to account for development. Accordingly, this special issue aims at presenting the latest applications of dual-process theories to cognitive…

  17. Integration of advanced oxidation technologies and biological processes: recent developments, trends, and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Gelareh Bankian; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2004-01-01

    The greatest challenge of today's wastewater treatment technology is to optimize the use of biological and chemical wastewater treatment processes. The choice of the process and/or integration of the processes depend strongly on the wastewater characteristics, concentrations, and the desired efficiencies. It has been observed by many investigators that the coupling of a bioreactor and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) could reduce the final concentrations of the effluent to the desired values. However, optimizing the total cost of the treatment is a challenge, as AOPs are much more expensive than biological processes alone. Therefore, an appropriate design should not only consider the ability of this coupling to reduce the concentration of organic pollutants, but also try to obtain the desired results in a cost effective process. To consider the total cost of the treatment, the residence time in biological and photochemical reactors, the kinetic rates, and the capital and operating costs of the reactors play significant roles. In this study, recent developments and trends (1996-2003) on the integration of photochemical and biological processes for the degradation of problematic pollutants in wastewater have been reviewed. The conditions to get the optimum results from this integration have also been considered. In most of the studies, it has been shown that the integrated processes were more efficient than individual processes. However, slight changes in the configuration of the reactors, temperature, pH, treatment time, concentration of the oxidants, and microorganism's colonies could lead to a great deviation in results. It has also been demonstrated that the treatment cost in both reactors is a function of time, which changes by the flow rate. The minimum cost in the coupling of the processes cannot be achieved unless considering the best treatment time in chemical and biological reactors individually.

  18. Advanced treatment and reuse system developed for oilfield process water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Kevin

    2011-01-15

    An innovative plant to treat oilfield produced wastewater is being constructed in Trinidad and Tobago following recent regulations and industrial water supply challenges. The 4,100m3/day treatment system, developed by Golder Associates, will produce water for industrial reuse and effluent that meets new regulations. The treatment stages include: oil-water separation by gravity, equalization with a two-day capacity basin, dissolved air flotation, cooling, biotreatment/settling with immobilized cell bioreactors (ICB) technology, prefiltration/reverse osmosis and effluent storage/transfer. This advanced system will provide several important benefits including the elimination of inland discharge of minimally-treated water and the reduction of environmental and public health concerns. In addition, it will provide a new source of industrial water, resulting in a decrease in demand for fresh water. The success of this plant could lead to additional facilities in other oil field locations, expanding economic and environmental benefits of water reuse.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Jothimurugesan; Santosh K. Gangwal

    2000-12-01

    The techniques employed in this project have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of preparing sorbents that achieve greater than 99% H{sub 2}S removal at temperatures 480 C and that retain their activity over 50 cycles. Fundamental understanding of phenomena leading to chemical deactivation and high regeneration light-off temperature has enabled us to successfully prepare and scale up a FHR-32 sorbent that showed no loss in reactivity and capacity over 50 cycles. This sorbent removed H{sub 2}S below 80 ppmv and lighted-off nicely at 480 C during regeneration. Overall the test is a success with potential for an optimized FHR-32 to be a candidate for Sierra-Pacific. An advanced attrition resistant hot-gas desulfurization sorbent that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur directly has been developed. Attrition resistant Zn-Fe sorbent (AHI-2) formulations have been prepared that can remove H{sub 2}S to below 20 ppmv from coal gas and can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} to produce elemental sulfur.

  20. EFFECT OF UNEQUAL DEFORMATION IN DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED PLASTIC PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An effect of unequal deformation in development of advanced plastic processing technologies is researched by studying an in-plane bending process of strip metal under unequal compressing. The research results show the following: If appropriately controlled, unequal plastic deformation can play an important role not only in the improvement of quality of parts obtained by plastic processing technologies, but also in the development of new processes for advanced plastic working technologies. A coordinated growth of unequal plastic deformation can develop the deformation potentiality of material to the full. The degree of unequal plastic deformation can be used as bases for optimization design of processes and dies of plastic forming.

  1. Development and application of a probabilistic evaluation method for advanced process technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and apply a method for research planning for advanced process technologies. To satisfy requirements for research planning, it is necessary to: (1) identify robust solutions to process design questions in the face of uncertainty to eliminate inferior design options; (2) identify key problem areas in a technology that should be the focus of further research to reduce the risk of technology failure; (3) compare competing technologies on a consistent basis to determine the risks associated with adopting a new technology; and (4) evaluate the effects that additional research might have on comparisons with conventional technology. An important class of process technologies are electric power plants. In particular, advanced clean coal technologies are expected to play a key role in the energy and environmental future of the US, as well as in other countries. Research planning for advanced clean coal technology development is an important part of energy and environmental policy. Thus, the research planning method developed here is applied to case studies focusing on a specific clean coal technology. The purpose of the case studies is both to demonstrate the research planning method and to obtain technology-specific conclusions regarding research strategies.

  2. Development and application of a probabilistic evaluation method for advanced process technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and apply a method for research planning for advanced process technologies. To satisfy requirements for research planning, it is necessary to: (1) identify robust solutions to process design questions in the face of uncertainty to eliminate inferior design options; (2) identify key problem areas in a technology that should be the focus of further research to reduce the risk of technology failure; (3) compare competing technologies on a consistent basis to determine the risks associated with adopting a new technology; and (4) evaluate the effects that additional research might have on comparisons with conventional technology. An important class of process technologies are electric power plants. In particular, advanced clean coal technologies are expected to play a key role in the energy and environmental future of the US, as well as in other countries. Research planning for advanced clean coal technology development is an important part of energy and environmental policy. Thus, the research planning method developed here is applied to case studies focusing on a specific clean coal technology. The purpose of the case studies is both to demonstrate the research planning method and to obtain technology-specific conclusions regarding research strategies.

  3. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenchausen, Ross E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  4. Advancing biopharmaceutical process development by system-level data analysis and integration of omics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Jochen; Clemens, Christoph; Kaufmann, Hitto; Schulz, Torsten W

    2012-01-01

    Development of efficient bioprocesses is essential for cost-effective manufacturing of recombinant therapeutic proteins. To achieve further process improvement and process rationalization comprehensive data analysis of both process data and phenotypic cell-level data is essential. Here, we present a framework for advanced bioprocess data analysis consisting of multivariate data analysis (MVDA), metabolic flux analysis (MFA), and pathway analysis for mapping of large-scale gene expression data sets. This data analysis platform was applied in a process development project with an IgG-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line in which the maximal product titer could be increased from about 5 to 8 g/L.Principal component analysis (PCA), k-means clustering, and partial least-squares (PLS) models were applied to analyze the macroscopic bioprocess data. MFA and gene expression analysis revealed intracellular information on the characteristics of high-performance cell cultivations. By MVDA, for example, correlations between several essential amino acids and the product concentration were observed. Also, a grouping into rather cell specific productivity-driven and process control-driven processes could be unraveled. By MFA, phenotypic characteristics in glycolysis, glutaminolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, citrate cycle, coupling of amino acid metabolism to citrate cycle, and in the energy yield could be identified. By gene expression analysis 247 deregulated metabolic genes were identified which are involved, inter alia, in amino acid metabolism, transport, and protein synthesis.

  5. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-07-22

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

  6. 3D Seismic Experimentation and Advanced Processing/Inversion Development for Investigations of the Shallow Subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levander, Alan Richard [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Earth Science Department; Zelt, Colin A. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Earth Science Department

    2015-03-17

    The work plan for this project was to develop and apply advanced seismic reflection and wide-angle processing and inversion techniques to high resolution seismic data for the shallow subsurface to seismically characterize the shallow subsurface at hazardous waste sites as an aid to containment and cleanup activities. We proposed to continue work on seismic data that we had already acquired under a previous DoE grant, as well as to acquire additional new datasets for analysis. The project successfully developed and/or implemented the use of 3D reflection seismology algorithms, waveform tomography and finite-frequency tomography using compressional and shear waves for high resolution characterization of the shallow subsurface at two waste sites. These two sites have markedly different near-surface structures, groundwater flow patterns, and hazardous waste problems. This is documented in the list of refereed documents, conference proceedings, and Rice graduate theses, listed below.

  7. The development of technical database of advanced spent fuel management process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ro, Seung Gy; Byeon, Kee Hoh; Song, Dae Yong; Park, Seong Won; Shin, Young Jun

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the technical database system to provide useful information to researchers who study on the back end nuclear fuel cycle. Technical database of advanced spent fuel management process was developed for a prototype system in 1997. In 1998, this database system is improved into multi-user systems and appended special database which is composed of thermochemical formation data and reaction data. In this report, the detailed specification of our system design is described and the operating methods are illustrated as a user's manual. Also, expanding current system, or interfacing between this system and other system, this report is very useful as a reference. (Author). 10 refs., 18 tabs., 46 fig.

  8. Development of the advanced coolside sorbent injection process for SO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withum, J.A.; Maskew, J.T.; Rosenhoover, W.A. [Consol, Inc., Library, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The goal of this work was to develop a low-capital-cost process capable of over 90% SO{sub 2} removal as an economically attractive option for compliance with the Clean Air Act. The Advanced Coolside Process uses a contactor to simultaneously remove fly ash and saturate the flue gas with water, followed by sorbent injection into the highly humid flue gas and collection of the sorbent by the existing particulate collector High sorbent utilization is achieved by sorbent recycle. The original performance targets of 90% SO{sub 2} removal and 60% sorbent utilization were exceeded in 1000 acfm pilot plant operations using commercial hydrated lime as the only sorbent. Process optimization simplified the process equipment, resulting in significant cost reduction. Recent accomplishments include completion of equipment testing and sorbent optimization, a waste management study, and a long-term performance test. An economic evaluation for the optimized process projects capital costs 55% to 60 % less than those of limestone forced oxidation wet FGD. The projected levelized control cost is 15% to 35% lower than wet FGD (25% lower for a 260 MWe plant burning a 2.5% sulfur coal), depending on plant size and coal sulfur content.

  9. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  10. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  11. Recent advances towards development and commercialization of plant cell culture processes for the synthesis of biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah A; Roberts, Susan C

    2012-04-01

    Plant cell culture systems were initially explored for use in commercial synthesis of several high-value secondary metabolites, allowing for sustainable production that was not limited by the low yields associated with natural harvest or the high cost associated with complex chemical synthesis. Although there have been some commercial successes, most notably paclitaxel production from Taxus sp., process limitations exist with regards to low product yields and inherent production variability. A variety of strategies are being developed to overcome these limitations including elicitation, in situ product removal and metabolic engineering with single genes and transcription factors. Recently, the plant cell culture production platform has been extended to pharmaceutically active heterologous proteins. Plant systems are beneficial because they are able to produce complex proteins that are properly glycosylated, folded and assembled without the risk of contamination by toxins that are associated with mammalian or microbial production systems. Additionally, plant cell culture isolates transgenic material from the environment, allows for more controllable conditions over field-grown crops and promotes secretion of proteins to the medium, reducing downstream purification costs. Despite these benefits, the increase in cost of heterologous protein synthesis in plant cell culture as opposed to field-grown crops is significant and therefore processes must be optimized with regard to maximizing secretion and enhancing protein stability in the cell culture media. This review discusses recent advancements in plant cell culture processing technology, focusing on progress towards overcoming the problems associated with commercialization of these production systems and highlighting recent commercial successes.

  12. Recent Developments in Homogeneous Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muruganandham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on recent developments in homogeneous Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs for the treatment of water and wastewater. It has already been established that AOPs are very efficient compared to conventional treatment methods for degradation and mineralization of recalcitrant pollutants present in water and wastewater. AOPs generate a powerful oxidizing agent, hydroxyl radical, which can react with most of the pollutants present in wastewater. Therefore, it is important to discuss recent developments in AOPs. The homogeneous AOPs such as O3, UV/O3, UV/O3/H2O2, and UV/H2O2, Fe2+/H2O2, UV/Fe2+/H2O2 on the degradation of pollutants are discussed in this paper. The influence on the process efficiency of various experimental parameters such as solution pH, temperature, oxidant concentration, and the dosage of the light source is discussed. A list of contaminants used for degradation by various AOPs and the experimental conditions used for the treatment are discussed in detail.

  13. [Personality development as a lifelong process and consequences for promoting personality development in advanced age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, E

    1987-01-01

    The paper explains the fact, that personality development mainly depends on the requirements of life activity and derives possibilities for promoting development in old age. These possibilities are primarily seen in forming such life conditions and requirements of activity, which grant latitude for autonomous acting and deciding to the aged as much and as long as possible as well as encourage them to use it, thereby helping them to maintain or regain every kind of autonomy and activity still possible.

  14. Advanced Biosignal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Nait-Ali, Amine

    2009-01-01

    Presents the principle of many advanced biosignal processing techniques. This title introduces the main biosignal properties and the acquisition techniques. It concerns one of the most intensively used biosignals in the clinical routine, namely the Electrocardiogram, the Elektroenzephalogram, the Electromyogram and the Evoked Potential

  15. Introducing process analytical technology (PAT) in filamentous cultivation process development: comparison of advanced online sensors for biomass measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnest, Nanna Petersen; Stocks, Stuart M; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Gernaey, Krist V

    2011-10-01

    The recent process analytical technology (PAT) initiative has put an increased focus on online sensors to generate process-relevant information in real time. Specifically for fermentation, however, introduction of online sensors is often far from straightforward, and online measurement of biomass is one of the best examples. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare the performance of various online biomass sensors, and secondly to demonstrate their use in early development of a filamentous cultivation process. Eight Streptomyces coelicolor fed-batch cultivations were run as part of process development in which the pH, the feeding strategy, and the medium composition were varied. The cultivations were monitored in situ using multi-wavelength fluorescence (MWF) spectroscopy, scanning dielectric (DE) spectroscopy, and turbidity measurements. In addition, we logged all of the classical cultivation data, such as the carbon dioxide evolution rate (CER) and the concentration of dissolved oxygen. Prediction models for the biomass concentrations were estimated on the basis of the individual sensors and on combinations of the sensors. The results showed that the more advanced sensors based on MWF and scanning DE spectroscopy did not offer any advantages over the simpler sensors based on dual frequency DE spectroscopy, turbidity, and CER measurements for prediction of biomass concentration. By combining CER, DE spectroscopy, and turbidity measurements, the prediction error was reduced to 1.5 g/l, corresponding to 6% of the covered biomass range. Moreover, by using multiple sensors it was possible to check the quality of the individual predictions and switch between the sensors in real time.

  16. Integrated approaches to the application of advanced modeling technology in process development and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgor, R.J.; Feehery, W.F.; Tolsma, J.E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The batch process development problem serves as good candidate to guide the development of process modeling environments. It demonstrates that very robust numerical techniques are required within an environment that can collect, organize, and maintain the data and models required to address the batch process development problem. This paper focuses on improving the robustness and efficiency of the numerical algorithms required in such a modeling environment through the development of hybrid numerical and symbolic strategies.

  17. Development of a video-based education and process change intervention to improve advance cardiopulmonary resuscitation decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Nicholas; Johnson, Claire E; Saul, Peter; Waldron, Heidi; Chong, Jeffrey C; Hill, Anne-Marie; Hayes, Barbara

    2016-10-06

    Advance cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) decision-making and escalation of care discussions are variable in routine clinical practice. We aimed to explore physician barriers to advance CPR decision-making in an inpatient hospital setting and develop a pragmatic intervention to support clinicians to undertake and document routine advance care planning discussions. Two focus groups, which involved eight consultants and ten junior doctors, were conducted following a review of the current literature. A subsequent iterative consensus process developed two intervention elements: (i) an updated 'Goals of Patient Care' (GOPC) form and process; (ii) an education video and resources for teaching advance CPR decision-making and communication. A multidisciplinary group of health professionals and policy-makers with experience in systems development, education and research provided critical feedback. Three key themes emerged from the focus groups and the literature, which identified a structure for the intervention: (i) knowing what to say; (ii) knowing how to say it; (iii) wanting to say it. The themes informed the development of a video to provide education about advance CPR decision-making framework, improving communication and contextualising relevant clinical issues. Critical feedback assisted in refining the video and further guided development and evolution of a medical GOPC approach to discussing and recording medical treatment and advance care plans. Through an iterative process of consultation and review, video-based education and an expanded GOPC form and approach were developed to address physician and systemic barriers to advance CPR decision-making and documentation. Implementation and evaluation across hospital settings is required to examine utility and determine effect on quality of care.

  18. Thresholds of Knowledge Development in Complex Problem Solving: A Multiple-Case Study of Advanced Learners' Cognitive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, Treavor; Liu, Min; Chiang, Yueh-hui Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    This multiple-case study examined how advanced learners solved a complex problem, focusing on how their frequency and application of cognitive processes contributed to differences in performance outcomes, and developing a mental model of a problem. Fifteen graduate students with backgrounds related to the problem context participated in the study.…

  19. Thresholds of Knowledge Development in Complex Problem Solving: A Multiple-Case Study of Advanced Learners' Cognitive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, Treavor; Liu, Min; Chiang, Yueh-hui Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    This multiple-case study examined how advanced learners solved a complex problem, focusing on how their frequency and application of cognitive processes contributed to differences in performance outcomes, and developing a mental model of a problem. Fifteen graduate students with backgrounds related to the problem context participated in the study.…

  20. Experimental research subject and renovation of chemical processing facility (CPF) for advanced fast reactor fuel reprocessing technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Tomozo; Shinozaki, Tadahiro; Nomura, Kazunori; Koma, Yoshikazu; Miyachi, Shigehiko; Ichige, Yoshiaki; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki; Nemoto, Shin-ichi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    In order to enhance economical efficiency, environmental impact and nuclear nonproliferation resistance, the Advanced Reprocessing Technology, such as simplification and optimization of process, and applicability evaluation of the innovative technology that was not adopted up to now, has been developed for the reprocessing of the irradiated fuel taken out from a fast reactor. Renovation of the hot cell interior equipments, establishment and updating of glove boxes, installation of various analytical equipments, etc. in the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF) was done to utilize the CPF more positivity which is the center of the experimental field, where actual fuel can be used, for research and development towards establishment of the Advanced Reprocessing Technology development. The hot trials using the irradiated fuel pins of the experimental fast reactor 'JOYO' for studies on improved aqueous reprocessing technology, MA separation technology, dry process technology, etc. are scheduled to be carried out with these new equipments. (author)

  1. Advances in Solidification Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Lopez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Melt solidification is the shortest and most viable route to obtain components, starting from the design to the finished products. Hence, a sound knowledge of the solidification of metallic materials is essential for the development of advanced structural metallic components that drive modern technological societies. As a result, there have been innumerable efforts and full conferences dedicated to this important subject [1–6]. In addition, there are various scientific journals fully devoted to investigating the various aspects which give rise to various solidification microstructures [7–9]. [...

  2. The advanced economic development process and motivating system of innovation competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskalenko Oleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The global economy destabilized by the world financial and economic crises raises the demand for the economic development model of new contents and the corresponding development strategy. This model is relevant for countries with post-transformation economies (for example, Ukraine that by force of historical circumstances find themselves on the periphery of global economic leadership outside the effective redistribution of the results and the benefits of scientific and technological progress having lost their former technological, economic and political power. A new type of economic development should be based on an adequate theoretical model, its scientific basis and the practical verification of the ability of the country to ensure the transition to the innovatively intensive type of the economic growth. That sort of a model and its corresponding strategy focused on national peculiarities and specific of post-transformation economies is the model of the advanced economic development. The results of this study complete the theory of the economic development, promote the expansion of predictive tools and implementation of positive features of a modern economic theory, and can also be used by governments with post-transformation economies to develop the long-term strategies.

  3. Advanced powder processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Gelcasting is an advanced powder forming process. It is most commonly used to form ceramic or metal powders into complex, near-net shapes. Turbine rotors, gears, nozzles, and crucibles have been successfully gelcast in silicon nitride, alumina, nickel-based superalloy, and several steels. Gelcasting can also be used to make blanks that can be green machined to near-net shape and then high fired. Green machining has been successfully applied to both ceramic and metal gelcast blanks. Recently, the authors have used gelcasting to make tooling for metal casting applications. Most of the work has centered on H13 tool steel. They have demonstrated an ability to gelcast and sinter H13 to near net shape for metal casting tooling. Also, blanks of H13 have been cast, green machined into complex shape, and fired. Issues associated with forming, binder burnout, and sintering are addressed.

  4. Advances in natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, Julia; Manning, Christopher D

    2015-07-17

    Natural language processing employs computational techniques for the purpose of learning, understanding, and producing human language content. Early computational approaches to language research focused on automating the analysis of the linguistic structure of language and developing basic technologies such as machine translation, speech recognition, and speech synthesis. Today's researchers refine and make use of such tools in real-world applications, creating spoken dialogue systems and speech-to-speech translation engines, mining social media for information about health or finance, and identifying sentiment and emotion toward products and services. We describe successes and challenges in this rapidly advancing area. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  6. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    ``Evaluation, Engineering and Development of Advanced Cyclone Processes`` is a research and development project for the reduction of pyritic sulfur in coal. Project goals are to remove 80 to 90% of the ash and pyritic sulfur while retaining 80 to 90% of the parent coal`s heating value. A number of media and media separator options are to be evaluated and tested, culminating with the implementation of the preferred combination in a 1,000 lb/hr bench-scale process optimization circuit.

  7. Development of advanced coal cleaning process; Kodo sekitan kaishitsu gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osaka, S. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Akimoto, A.; Yamashita, T. [Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    This paper aims to develop a clean coal production process which excellently removes environmental pollutant, is low-costed, and need no particular systems for distribution of products. The result of the development was described paying attention to column flotation which is a technology to high-efficiently select particulate regions, particulate heavy media cyclone, magnetic separation, and the basic design of the process into which those above were integrated. The two-stage selection process, which is an integration of column flotation and particulate heavy media cyclone into the conventional coal preparation equipment, can produce low-ash clean coal at high separation efficiency and also suppress the rise in processing cost. This process was also effective for removal of sulfur content and trace metal elements. The use of clean coal at power plant can be effective for not only the reduction in ash treatment amount, but the aspect of boiler operation characteristics such as heat transfer efficiency of boiler furnace wall, ash related troubles, loads of electrostatic precipitator, loads of flue gas desulfurization facilities. 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Development of advanced signal processing and source imaging methods for superparamagnetic relaxometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Xiong; Anderson, Bill; Huang, Charles W.; Kunde, Gerd J.; Vreeland, Erika C.; Huang, Jeffrey W.; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Karaulanov, Todor; Nettles, Christopher P.; Gomez, Andrew; Minser, Kayla; Weldon, Caroline; Paciotti, Giulio; Harsh, Michael; Lee, Roland R.; Flynn, Edward R.

    2017-02-01

    Superparamagnetic relaxometry (SPMR) is a highly sensitive technique for the in vivo detection of tumor cells and may improve early stage detection of cancers. SPMR employs superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION). After a brief magnetizing pulse is used to align the SPION, SPMR measures the time decay of SPION using super-conducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors. Substantial research has been carried out in developing the SQUID hardware and in improving the properties of the SPION. However, little research has been done in the pre-processing of sensor signals and post-processing source modeling in SPMR. In the present study, we illustrate new pre-processing tools that were developed to: (1) remove trials contaminated with artifacts, (2) evaluate and ensure that a single decay process associated with bounded SPION exists in the data, (3) automatically detect and correct flux jumps, and (4) accurately fit the sensor signals with different decay models. Furthermore, we developed an automated approach based on multi-start dipole imaging technique to obtain the locations and magnitudes of multiple magnetic sources, without initial guesses from the users. A regularization process was implemented to solve the ambiguity issue related to the SPMR source variables. A procedure based on reduced chi-square cost-function was introduced to objectively obtain the adequate number of dipoles that describe the data. The new pre-processing tools and multi-start source imaging approach have been successfully evaluated using phantom data. In conclusion, these tools and multi-start source modeling approach substantially enhance the accuracy and sensitivity in detecting and localizing sources from the SPMR signals. Furthermore, multi-start approach with regularization provided robust and accurate solutions for a poor SNR condition similar to the SPMR detection sensitivity in the order of 1000 cells. We believe such algorithms will help establishing the industrial

  9. Introducing process analytical technology (PAT) in filamentous cultivation process development: comparison of advanced online sensors for biomass measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Nanna Petersen; Stocks, Stuart M.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The recent process analytical technology (PAT) initiative has put an increased focus on online sensors to generate process-relevant information in real time. Specifically for fermentation, however, introduction of online sensors is often far from straightforward, and online measurement of biomass...... is one of the best examples. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare the performance of various online biomass sensors, and secondly to demonstrate their use in early development of a filamentous cultivation process. Eight Streptomyces coelicolor fed-batch cultivations were run as part...... of process development in which the pH, the feeding strategy, and the medium composition were varied. The cultivations were monitored in situ using multi-wavelength fluorescence (MWF) spectroscopy, scanning dielectric (DE) spectroscopy, and turbidity measurements. In addition, we logged all of the classical...

  10. Method and Process Development of Advanced Atmospheric Plasma Spraying for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihm, Sebastian; Duda, Thomas; Gruner, Heiko; Thomas, Georg; Dzur, Birger

    2012-06-01

    Over the last few years, global economic growth has triggered a dramatic increase in the demand for resources, resulting in steady rise in prices for energy and raw materials. In the gas turbine manufacturing sector, process optimizations of cost-intensive production steps involve a heightened potential of savings and form the basis for securing future competitive advantages in the market. In this context, the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process for thermal barrier coatings (TBC) has been optimized. A constraint for the optimization of the APS coating process is the use of the existing coating equipment. Furthermore, the current coating quality and characteristics must not change so as to avoid new qualification and testing. Using experience in APS and empirically gained data, the process optimization plan included the variation of e.g. the plasma gas composition and flow-rate, the electrical power, the arrangement and angle of the powder injectors in relation to the plasma jet, the grain size distribution of the spray powder and the plasma torch movement procedures such as spray distance, offset and iteration. In particular, plasma properties (enthalpy, velocity and temperature), powder injection conditions (injection point, injection speed, grain size and distribution) and the coating lamination (coating pattern and spraying distance) are examined. The optimized process and resulting coating were compared to the current situation using several diagnostic methods. The improved process significantly reduces costs and achieves the requirement of comparable coating quality. Furthermore, a contribution was made towards better comprehension of the APS of ceramics and the definition of a better method for future process developments.

  11. Development of an Advanced Respirometer for Experimental Studies of Benthic Rate Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, J. P.; Buck, K. R.; Okuda, C.; Risi, M.; Parker, M.; Levesque, C.

    2005-05-01

    Rates of carbon remineralization and nutrient cycling by seafloor biotic assemblages are influenced by the availability of organic material, temperature, and oxygen availability, among other factors. The relative importance of various factors in controlling carbon cycling by the sediment community is poorly constrained, in part by technological limits on experiments that evaluate independently the effects of these factors. We have developed an advanced respiration chamber system capable of repeated rate measurements during a single deployment, with added capabilities for manipulating conditions within replicate chambers to test hypotheses concerning biogeochemical cycling by the benthos. The ROV-deployed respiration system has 12 syringes for tracer injection or sample withdrawal from 3 respiration chambers, pH, oxygen, and temperature sensors, stirring paddles, and a recirculation pump. The pump system is used to flush each chamber at preprogrammed intervals or oxygen tensions. Areas of investigation that are enabled by the system include the effects various factors on benthic oxygen consumptions (e.g. hypercapnia (elevated CO2), acidosis, ambient oxygen availability, temperature, organic carbon availability), rates of nutrient regeneration by the benthos in response to organic enrichments (labile and refractory organic carbon), time lags in carbon uptake and trophic pathways in responses to organic enrichment.

  12. Advanced Nanofabrication Process Development for Self-Powered System-on-Chip

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2010-11-01

    In this work the development of a Self-Powered System-On-Chip is explored by examining two components of process development in different perspectives. On one side, an energy component is approached from a biochemical standpoint where a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) is built with standard microfabrication techniques, displaying a novel electrode based on Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs). The fabrication process involves the formation of a micrometric chamber that hosts an enhanced CNT-based anode. Preliminary results are promising, showing a high current density (113.6mA/m2) compared with other similar cells. Nevertheless many improvements can be done to the main design and further characterization of the anode will give a more complete understanding and bring the device closer to a practical implementation. On a second point of view, nano-patterning through silicon nitride spacer width control is developed, aimed at producing alternative sub-100nm device fabrication with the potential of further scaling thanks to nanowire based structures. These nanostructures are formed from a nano-pattern template, by using a bottom-up fabrication scheme. Uniformity and scalability of the process are demonstrated and its potential described. An estimated area of 0.120μm2 for a 6T-SRAM (Static Random Access Memory) bitcell (6 devices) can be achieved. In summary, by using a novel sustainable energy component and scalable nano-patterning for logic and computing module, this work has successfully collected the essential base knowledge and joined two different elements that synergistically will contribute for the future implementation of a Self-Powered System-on-Chip.

  13. Development of a Batch Fabrication Process for Chemical Nanosensors: Recent Advancements at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin M.

    2014-01-01

    A major objective in aerospace sensor development is to produce sensors that are small in size, easy to batch fabricate and low in cost, and have low power consumption. Chemical sensors involving nanostructured materials can provide these characteristics as well as the potential for the development of sensor systems with unique properties and improved performance. However, the fabrication and processing of nanostructures for sensor applications currently is limited by the ability to control their location on the sensor platform, which in turn hinders the progress for batch fabrication. This presentation will discuss the following: the development of a novel room temperature methane (CH4) sensor fabricated using porous tin oxide (SnO2) nanorods as the sensing material, the advantages of using nanomaterials in sensor designs, the challenges encountered with the integration of nanostructures into microsensordevices, and the different methods that have been attempted to address these challenges. An approach for the mass production of sensors with nanostructures using a method developed by our group at the NASA Glenn Research Center to control the alignment of nanostructures onto a sensor platform will also be described.

  14. Development of a Robot System for Advanced High Quality Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kuhlenkoetter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Grinding and polishing are standard operations in material processing which are nowadays automated with the help of industrial robots in order to relieve human labour and optimize the profitability of production. However, it is expensive to adapt present systems to the production of other part geometries and operation cycles, and therefore adaptations are economically applicable only for large batch sizes.This project develops an “intelligent” robot system that obtains sensory skills due to the linkage of innovative robot technology and image processing systems via new software. With this system even the smallest error on highly-polished, mirror-like surfaces can be detected objectively and reproducibly. In addition, the system will be capable of establishing an optimum error compensation strategy dependent on the error data, as well as generating and realizing operating programmes. For this purpose it is given a manual-learning skill. A new offline-programming and simulating system for exacting operation processes makes it easier to set up, change and optimize robot programmes, thus making it useful for the operator. 

  15. Development of Advanced LED Phosphors by Spray-based Processes for Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabot Corporation

    2007-09-30

    The overarching goal of the project was to develop luminescent materials using aerosol processes for making improved LED devices for solid state lighting. In essence this means improving white light emitting phosphor based LEDs by improvement of the phosphor and phosphor layer. The structure of these types of light sources, displayed in Figure 1, comprises of a blue or UV LED under a phosphor layer that converts the blue or UV light to a broad visible (white) light. Traditionally, this is done with a blue emitting diode combined with a blue absorbing, broadly yellow emitting phosphor such as Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce (YAG). A similar result may be achieved by combining a UV emitting diode and at least three different UV absorbing phosphors: red, green, and blue emitting. These emitted colors mix to make white light. The efficiency of these LEDs is based on the combined efficiency of the LED, phosphor, and the interaction between the two. The Cabot SSL project attempted to improve the over all efficiency of the LED light source be improving the efficiency of the phosphor and the interaction between the LED light and the phosphor. Cabot's spray based process for producing phosphor powders is able to improve the brightness of the powder itself by increasing the activator (the species that emits the light) concentration without adverse quenching effects compared to conventional synthesis. This will allow less phosphor powder to be used, and will decrease the cost of the light source; thus lowering the barrier of entry to the lighting market. Cabot's process also allows for chemical flexibility of the phosphor particles, which may result in tunable emission spectra and so light sources with improved color rendering. Another benefit of Cabot's process is the resulting spherical morphology of the particles. Less light scattering results when spherical particles are used in the phosphor layer (Figure 1) compared to when conventional, irregular shaped

  16. Avionics advanced development strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, D.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here is the problem of how to put together an integrated, phased, and affordable avionics advanced development program that links and applies to operational, evolving, and developing programs/vehicles, as well as those in the planning phases. Collecting technology needs from individual programs/vehicles and proposed technology items from individual developers usually results in a mismatch and something that is unaffordable. A strategy to address this problem is outlined with task definitions which will lead to avionics advanced development items that will fit within an overall framework, prioritized to support budgeting, and support the scope of NASA space transportations needs.

  17. Development of Head-end Pyrochemical Reduction Process for Advanced Oxide Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, B. H.; Seo, C. S.; Hur, J. M.; Jeong, S. M.; Hong, S. S.; Choi, I. K.; Choung, W. M.; Kwon, K. C.; Lee, I. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    The development of an electrolytic reduction technology for spent fuels in the form of oxide is of essence to introduce LWR SFs to a pyroprocessing. In this research, the technology was investigated to scale a reactor up, the electrochemical behaviors of FPs were studied to understand the process and a reaction rate data by using U{sub 3}O{sub 8} was obtained with a bench scale reactor. In a scale of 20 kgHM/batch reactor, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and Simfuel were successfully reduced into metals. Electrochemical characteristics of LiBr, LiI and Li{sub 2}Se were measured in a bench scale reactor and an electrolytic reduction cell was modeled by a computational tool.

  18. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, John [Siemens Energy, Inc., Orlando, FL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  19. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, L.R. (Xytel-Bechtel, Inc. (United States)); Hogsett, R.F. (AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States)); Sinor, J.E. (Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (United States)); Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.D. (North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center)

    1992-10-01

    The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.

  20. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joesph Fadok

    2008-01-01

    advanced hydrogen turbine that meets the aggressive targets set forth for the advanced hydrogen turbine, including increased rotor inlet temperature (RIT), lower total cooling and leakage air (TCLA) flow, higher pressure ratio, and higher mass flow through the turbine compared to the baseline. Maintaining efficiency with high mass flow Syngas combustion is achieved using a large high AN2 blade 4, which has been identified as a significant advancement beyond the current state-of-the-art. Preliminary results showed feasibility of a rotor system capable of increased power output and operating conditions above the baseline. In addition, several concepts were developed for casing components to address higher operating conditions. Rare earth modified bond coat for the purpose of reducing oxidation and TBC spallation demonstrated an increase in TBC spallation life of almost 40%. The results from Phase 1 identified two TBC compositions which satisfy the thermal conductivity requirements and have demonstrated phase stability up to temperatures of 1850 C. The potential to join alloys using a bonding process has been demonstrated and initial HVOF spray deposition trials were promising. The qualitative ranking of alloys and coatings in environmental conditions was also performed using isothermal tests where significant variations in alloy degradation were observed as a function of gas composition. Initial basic system configuration schematics and working system descriptions have been produced to define key boundary data and support estimation of costs. Review of existing materials in use for hydrogen transportation show benefits or tradeoffs for materials that could be used in this type of applications. Hydrogen safety will become a larger risk than when using natural gas fuel as the work done to date in other areas has shown direct implications for this type of use. Studies were conducted which showed reduced CO{sub 2} and NOx emissions with increased plant efficiency. An approach to

  1. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joesph Fadok

    2008-01-01

    advanced hydrogen turbine that meets the aggressive targets set forth for the advanced hydrogen turbine, including increased rotor inlet temperature (RIT), lower total cooling and leakage air (TCLA) flow, higher pressure ratio, and higher mass flow through the turbine compared to the baseline. Maintaining efficiency with high mass flow Syngas combustion is achieved using a large high AN2 blade 4, which has been identified as a significant advancement beyond the current state-of-the-art. Preliminary results showed feasibility of a rotor system capable of increased power output and operating conditions above the baseline. In addition, several concepts were developed for casing components to address higher operating conditions. Rare earth modified bond coat for the purpose of reducing oxidation and TBC spallation demonstrated an increase in TBC spallation life of almost 40%. The results from Phase 1 identified two TBC compositions which satisfy the thermal conductivity requirements and have demonstrated phase stability up to temperatures of 1850 C. The potential to join alloys using a bonding process has been demonstrated and initial HVOF spray deposition trials were promising. The qualitative ranking of alloys and coatings in environmental conditions was also performed using isothermal tests where significant variations in alloy degradation were observed as a function of gas composition. Initial basic system configuration schematics and working system descriptions have been produced to define key boundary data and support estimation of costs. Review of existing materials in use for hydrogen transportation show benefits or tradeoffs for materials that could be used in this type of applications. Hydrogen safety will become a larger risk than when using natural gas fuel as the work done to date in other areas has shown direct implications for this type of use. Studies were conducted which showed reduced CO{sub 2} and NOx emissions with increased plant efficiency. An approach to

  2. Advanced Mirror Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project matures critical technologies required to enable ultra-stable 4-m-or-larger monolithic or segmented ultraviolet, optical, and infrared (UVOIR) space telescope primary-mirror assemblies for general astrophysics and ultra-high-contrast observations of exoplanets.

  3. Development of the advanced nuclear materials -A study on the polymer catalyst process technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kook, Il Hyun; Jung, Heung Suk; Lee, Han Soo; An, Doh Heui; Kang, Heui Suk; Baek, Seung Woo; Lee, Sung Hoh; Sung, Kee Woong; Kim, Kwang Lak; Kim, Jong Hoh; Koo, Je Hyoo; Park, Tae Keun; Kim, Sang Hwan; Yoo, Ryong; Song, Myung Jae; Son, Soon Hwan; Choi, Jung Kil; Lee, Jae Choon; Jung, Moon Kyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Heavy water is used as moderator and coolant in pressurized heavy water power plants. According to the governmental long-term plan for power supply, Korea is scheduled to construct new four pressurized heavy water power plants till the year 2006. Total heavy water make-up for these plants would be 22 Mg/a from the year 2006. Reformed hydrogen processes is considered best suited to Korea. Hydrophobic catalysts for this process were manufactured and the performance of hydrogen isotope exchange was investigated. The overall mass transfer coefficients varied between 0.004 and 2.295 m3 HD/m3 Bed.sec. and heavy water separation processes using the catalysts were optimized. 66 figs, 62 tabs, 19 refs. (Author).

  4. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L.; Hogsett, R.F.; Rowe, R.M.

    1990-10-23

    Research continued on the production of coproducts from continuous mild gasification. During the third quarter of 1990, work focused on start-up and operation of the 50 pound/hour char-to-carbon (CTC) process research unit (PRU). Start-up procedures have been finalized for the methane production reactor, and the design temperature has been achieved. Flows and pressures for the overall process have been balanced and optimized. We have achieved temperatures above 1500{degree}F in the carbon formation reactor. Upgrading experiments on mild gasification pitch have also continued on a pitch produced in run MG-122. Results of heat treating and catalytic treating tests are reported.

  5. Advanced servomanipulator development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuban, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) System consists of three major components: the ASM slave, the dual arm master controller (DAMC) or master, and the control system. The ASM is remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. The advanced servomanipulator is uniquely subdivided into remotely replaceable modules which will permit in situ manipulator repair by spare module replacement. Manipulator modularization and increased reliability are accomplished through a force transmission system that uses gears and torque tubes. Digital control algorithms and mechanical precision are used to offset the increased backlash, friction, and inertia resulting from the gear drives. This results in the first remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator in the world.

  6. Advanced Self-Potential Inversion. Development and Use for Investigating Natural Recharge Processes at the ORNL IFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revil, Andre [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Understanding the influence of coupled biological, chemical, and hydrological processes on subsurface contaminant behavior at multiple scales is a prerequisite for developing effective remedial approaches, whether they are active remediation or natural attenuation strategies. To develop this understanding, methods are needed that can measure critical components of the natural system in real time. The self-potential method corresponds to the passive measurement of the distribution of the electrical potential at the surface of the Earth or in boreholes. This method is very complemetary to other geophysical methods like DC resistivity and induced polarization. In this report, we summarize of research efforts to advance the theory of low-frequency geoelectrical methods and their applications to the contaminant plumes in the vicinity of the former S-3 settling basins at Oak Ridge, TN.

  7. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes. Final separating media evaluation and test report (FSMER). Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report consists of appendices pertaining to the separating media evaluation (calcium nitrate solution) and testing for an advanced cyclone process. Appendices include: materials safety data, aqueous medium regeneration, pH control strategy, and other notes and data.

  8. Advanced CCD camera developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condor, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Two charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems are introduced and discussed, describing briefly the hardware involved, and the data obtained in their various applications. The Advanced Development Group Defense Sciences Engineering Division has been actively designing, manufacturing, fielding state-of-the-art CCD camera systems for over a decade. These systems were originally developed for the nuclear test program to record data from underground nuclear tests. Today, new and interesting application for these systems have surfaced and development is continuing in the area of advanced CCD camera systems, with the new CCD camera that will allow experimenters to replace film for x-ray imaging at the JANUS, USP, and NOVA laser facilities.

  9. Stone dusting process advance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Ryan; David Humphreys [Mining Attachments (Qld.) Pty Ltd. (Australia)

    2009-01-15

    The coal mining industry has, for many years, used dry stone dust or calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) in the prevention of the propagation of coal dust explosions throughout their underground mines in Australia. In the last decade wet stone dusting has been introduced. This is where stone dust and water are mixed together to form a paste like slurry. This mixture is pumped and sprayed on to the underground roadway surfaces. This method solved the contamination of the intake airways but brought with it a new problem known as 'caking'. Caking is the hardened layer that is formed as the stone dust slurry dries. It was proven that this hardened layer compromises the dispersal characteristics of the stone dust and therefore its ability to suppress a coal dust explosion. This project set out to prove a specially formulated, non toxic slurry additive and process that could overcome the caking effect. The slurry additive process combines dry stone dust with water to form a slurry. The slurry is then treated with the additive and compressed air to create a highly vesicular foam like stone dusted surface. The initial testing on a range of additives and the effectiveness in minimising the caking effect of wet dusting were performed at Applied Chemical's research laboratory in Melbourne, Victoria and independently tested at the SGS laboratory in Paget, Queensland. The results from these tests provided the platform to conduct full scale spraying trials at the Queensland Mines Rescue Station and Caledon Coal's Cook Colliery, Blackwater. The project moved into the final stage of completion with the collection of data. The intent was to compare the slurry additive process to dry stone dusting in full-scale methane explosions at the CSIR Kloppersbos explosion facility in Kloppersbos, South Africa.

  10. Advanced Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    Technical 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advance Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar 6. AUTHOR(S) William D. Jemison 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...development of signed processing algorithms for hybrid lidar - radar designed to improve detection performance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Hybrid Lidar - Radar 16...Award Number N000141110371 Title of Research Advanced Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar Principal Investigator William D. Jemison

  11. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  12. Recent Advances in the Development and Application of Power Plate Transducers in Dense Gas Extraction and Aerosol Agglomeration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, E.; Cardoni, A.; Gallego-Juárez, J. A.; Acosta, V. M.; Blanco, A.; Rodríguez, G.; Blasco, M.; Herranz, L. E.

    Power ultrasound (PU) is an emerging, innovative, energy saving and environmental friendly technology that is generating a great interest in sectors such as food and pharmaceutical industries, green chemistry, environmental pollution, and other processes, where sustainable and energy efficient methods are required to improve and/or produce specific effects. Two typical effects of PU are the enhancement of mass transfer in gases and liquids, and the induction of particle agglomeration in aerosols. These effects are activated by a variety of mechanisms associated to the nonlinear propagation of high amplitude ultrasonic waves such as diffusion, agitation, entrainment, turbulence, etc. During the last years a great effort has been jointly made by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and the company Pusonics towards introducing novel processes into the market based on airborne ultrasonic plate transducers. This technology was specifically developed for the treatment of gas and multiphasic media characterized by low specific acoustic impedance and high acoustic absorption. Different strategies have been developed to mitigate the effects of the nonlinear dynamic behavior of such ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers in order to enhance and stabilize their response at operational power conditions. This work deals with the latter advances in the mitigation of nonlinear problems found in power transducers; besides it describes two applications assisted by ultrasound developed at semi-industrial and laboratory scales and consisting in extraction via dense gases and particle agglomeration. Dense Gas Extraction (DGE) assisted by PU is a new process with a potential to enhance the extraction kinetics with supercritical CO2. Acoustic agglomeration of fine aerosol particles has a great potential for the treatment of air pollution problems generated by particulate materials. Experimental and numerical results in both processes will be shown and discussed.

  13. Advanced composite materials and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucom, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Composites are generally defined as two or more individual materials, which, when combined into a single material system, results in improved physical and/or mechanical properties. The freedom of choice of the starting components for composites allows the generation of materials that can be specifically tailored to meet a variety of applications. Advanced composites are described as a combination of high strength fibers and high performance polymer matrix materials. These advanced materials are required to permit future aircraft and spacecraft to perform in extended environments. Advanced composite precursor materials, processes for conversion of these materials to structures, and selected applications for composites are reviewed.

  14. Advanced planning for ISS payload ground processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Kimberly A.

    2000-01-01

    Ground processing at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is the concluding phase of the payload/flight hardware development process and is the final opportunity to ensure safe and successful recognition of mission objectives. Planning for the ground processing of on-orbit flight hardware elements and payloads for the International Space Station is a responsibility taken seriously at KSC. Realizing that entering into this operational environment can be an enormous undertaking for a payload customer, KSC continually works to improve this process by instituting new/improved services for payload developer/owner, applying state-of-the-art technologies to the advanced planning process, and incorporating lessons learned for payload ground processing planning to ensure complete customer satisfaction. This paper will present an overview of the KSC advanced planning activities for ISS hardware/payload ground processing. It will focus on when and how KSC begins to interact with the payload developer/owner, how that interaction changes (and grows) throughout the planning process, and how KSC ensures that advanced planning is successfully implemented at the launch site. It will also briefly consider the type of advance planning conducted by the launch site that is transparent to the payload user but essential to the successful processing of the payload (i.e. resource allocation, executing documentation, etc.) .

  15. Inhibitory effect of natural organic matter or other background constituents on photocatalytic advanced oxidation processes: Mechanistic model development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brame, Jonathon; Long, Mingce; Li, Qilin; Alvarez, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The ability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to interact with priority pollutants is crucial for efficient water treatment by photocatalytic advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). However, background compounds in water such as natural organic matter (NOM) can significantly hinder targeted reactions and removal efficiency. This inhibition can be complex, interfering with degradation in solution and at the photocatalyst surface as well as hindering illumination efficiency and ROS production. We developed an analytical model to account for various inhibition mechanisms in catalytic AOPs, including competitive adsorption of inhibitors, scavenging of produced ROS at the surface and in solution, and the inner filtering of the excitation illumination, which combine to decrease ROS-mediated degradation. This model was validated with batch experiments using a variety of ROS producing systems (OH-generating TiO2 photocatalyst and H2O2-UV; (1)O2-generating photosensitive functionalized fullerenes and rose bengal) and inhibitory compounds (NOM, tert-butyl alcohol). Competitive adsorption by NOM and ROS scavenging were the most influential inhibitory mechanisms. Overall, this model enables accurate simulation of photocatalytic AOP performance when one or more inhibitory mechanisms are at work in a wide variety of application scenarios, and underscores the need to consider the effects of background constituents on degradation efficiency.

  16. Advanced digital signal processing and noise reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Vaseghi, Saeed V

    2008-01-01

    Digital signal processing plays a central role in the development of modern communication and information processing systems. The theory and application of signal processing is concerned with the identification, modelling and utilisation of patterns and structures in a signal process. The observation signals are often distorted, incomplete and noisy and therefore noise reduction, the removal of channel distortion, and replacement of lost samples are important parts of a signal processing system. The fourth edition of Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction updates an

  17. Nontraditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Nontraditional machining employs processes that remove material by various methods involving thermal, electrical, chemical and mechanical energy or even combinations of these. Nontraditional Machining Processes covers recent research and development in techniques and processes which focus on achieving high accuracies and good surface finishes, parts machined without burrs or residual stresses especially with materials that cannot be machined by conventional methods. With applications to the automotive, aircraft and mould and die industries, Nontraditional Machining Processes explores different aspects and processes through dedicated chapters. The seven chapters explore recent research into a range of topics including laser assisted manufacturing, abrasive water jet milling and hybrid processes. Students and researchers will find the practical examples and new processes useful for both reference and for developing further processes. Industry professionals and materials engineers will also find Nontraditional M...

  18. Advanced methods for processing ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) is a flame assisted, open air chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The process is capable of producing textured, epitaxial coatings on single crystal substrates using low cost reagents. Combustion chemical vapor deposition is a relatively inexpensive, alternative thin film deposition process with potential to replace conventional coating technologies for certain applications. The goals of this project are to develop the CCVD process to the point that potential industrial applications can be identified and reliably assessed.

  19. Advanced diffusion processes and phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; Belova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    This topical volume on Advanced Diffusion Processes and Phenomena addresses diffusion in a wider sense of not only mass diffusion but also heat diffusion in fluids and solids. Both diffusion phenomena play an important role in the characterization of engineering materials and corresponding structures. Understanding these different transport phenomena at many levels, from atomistic to macro, has therefore long attracted the attention of many researchers in materials science and engineering and related disciplines. The present topical volume captures a representative cross-section of some of the

  20. Integration Process Development for Improved Compatibility with Organic Non-Porous Ultralow-k Dielectric Fluorocarbon on Advanced Cu Interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xun; Tomita, Yugo; Nemoto, Takenao; Miyatani, Kotaro; Saito, Akane; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Teramoto, Akinobu; Kuroda, Rihito; Kuroki, Shin-Ichiro; Kawase, Kazumasa; Nozawa, Toshihisa; Matsuoka, Takaaki; Sugawa, Shigetoshi; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    2012-05-01

    Integration of an organic non-porous ultralow-k dielectric, fluorocarbon (k= 2.2), into advanced Cu interconnects was demonstrated. The challenges of process-induced damage, such as delamination and variances of both the structure and electrical properties of the fluorocarbon during fabrication, were investigated on Cu/fluorocarbon damascene interconnects. A titanium-based barrier layer, instead of a tantalum-based barrier layer, was used to avoid delamination between Cu and fluorocarbon in Cu/fluorocarbon interconnects. A moisture-hermetic dielectric protective layer was also effective to avoid damage induced by wet chemical cleaning. On the other hand, a post-etching nitrogen plasma treatment to form a stable protective layer on the surface of the fluorocarbon was proposed for the practical minimization of damage introduction to fluorocarbon in the following damascene process, such as post-etching cleaning.

  1. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system: Topical report, Process analysis, FY 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1987-07-31

    KRW Energy Systems, Inc., is engaged in the continuing development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site in Madison, Pennsylvania. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW process for the environmentally-acceptable production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gas from a variety of fossilized carbonaceous feedstocks and industrial fuels. This report presents process analysis of the 24 ton-per-day Process Development Unit (PDU) operations and is a continuation of the process analysis work performed in 1980 and 1981. Included is work performed on PDU process data; gasification; char-ash separation; ash agglomeration; fines carryover, recycle, and consumption; deposit formation; materials; and environmental, health, and safety issues. 63 figs., 43 tabs.

  2. Advanced methods for processing ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Combustion chemical vapor deposition (combustion CVD) is being developed for the deposition of high temperature oxide coatings. The process is being evaluated as an alternative to more capital intensive conventional coating processes. The thrusts during this reporting period were the development of the combustion CVD process for depositing lanthanum monazite, the determination of the influence of aerosol size on coating morphology, the incorporation of combustion CVD coatings into thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and related oxidation research, and continued work on the deposition of zirconia-yttria coatings.

  3. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Duthie, R.G. [Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  4. Light-Assisted Advanced Oxidation Processes for the Elimination of Chemical and Microbiological Pollution of Wastewaters in Developed and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Giannakis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the issue of hospital and urban wastewater treatment is studied in two different contexts, in Switzerland and in developing countries (Ivory Coast and Colombia. For this purpose, the treatment of municipal wastewater effluents is studied, simulating the developed countries’ context, while cheap and sustainable solutions are proposed for the developing countries, to form a barrier between effluents and receiving water bodies. In order to propose proper methods for each case, the characteristics of the matrices and the targets are described here in detail. In both contexts, the use of Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs is implemented, focusing on UV-based and solar-supported ones, in the respective target areas. A list of emerging contaminants and bacteria are firstly studied to provide operational and engineering details on their removal by AOPs. Fundamental mechanistic insights are also provided on the degradation of the effluent wastewater organic matter. The use of viruses and yeasts as potential model pathogens is also accounted for, treated by the photo-Fenton process. In addition, two pharmaceutically active compound (PhAC models of hospital and/or industrial origin are studied in wastewater and urine, treated by all accounted AOPs, as a proposed method to effectively control concentrated point-source pollution from hospital wastewaters. Their elimination was modeled and the degradation pathway was elucidated by the use of state-of-the-art analytical techniques. In conclusion, the use of light-supported AOPs was proven to be effective in degrading the respective target and further insights were provided by each application, which could facilitate their divulgation and potential application in the field.

  5. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 4. 7), Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The focus of this task is the preparation of (1) preliminary piping and instrument diagrams (P IDs) and single line electrical diagrams for a site-specific conceptual design and (2) a factored cost estimate for a 24 ton/day (tpd) capacity mild gasification process development unit (PDU) and an associated form coke preparation PDU. The intended site for this facility is the Illinois Coal Development Park at Carterville, Illinois, which is operated by Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. (VC)

  6. Advanced Adaptive Optics Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S

    2001-09-18

    The NSF Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) is supporting research on advanced adaptive optics technologies. CfAO research activities include development and characterization of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) technology, as well as development and characterization of high-resolution adaptive optics systems using liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulator (SLM) technology. This paper presents an overview of the CfAO advanced adaptive optics technology development activities including current status and future plans.

  7. Advanced Mirror & Modelling Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effinger, Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Abplanalp, Laura; Maffett, Steven; Egerman, Robert; Eng, Ron; Arnold, William; Mosier, Gary; Blaurock, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The 2020 Decadal technology survey is starting in 2018. Technology on the shelf at that time will help guide selection to future low risk and low cost missions. The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) team has identified development priorities based on science goals and engineering requirements for Ultraviolet Optical near-Infrared (UVOIR) missions in order to contribute to the selection process. One key development identified was lightweight mirror fabrication and testing. A monolithic, stacked, deep core mirror was fused and replicated twice to achieve the desired radius of curvature. It was subsequently successfully polished and tested. A recently awarded second phase to the AMTD project will develop larger mirrors to demonstrate the lateral scaling of the deep core mirror technology. Another key development was rapid modeling for the mirror. One model focused on generating optical and structural model results in minutes instead of months. Many variables could be accounted for regarding the core, face plate and back structure details. A portion of a spacecraft model was also developed. The spacecraft model incorporated direct integration to transform optical path difference to Point Spread Function (PSF) and between PSF to modulation transfer function. The second phase to the project will take the results of the rapid mirror modeler and integrate them into the rapid spacecraft modeler.

  8. Development of Advanced Surface Enhancement Technology for Decreasing Wear and Corrosion of Equipment Used for Mineral Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Tao; R. Honaker; B. K. Parekh

    2007-09-20

    Equipment wear is a major concern in the mineral processing industry, which dramatically increases the maintenance cost and adversely affects plant operation efficiency. In this research, novel surface treatment technologies, High Density Infrared (HDI) and Laser Surface Engineering (LSE) surface coating processes were developed for the surface enhancement of selected mineral and coal processing equipment. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the coated specimens were characterized. Laboratory-simulated wear tests were conducted to evaluate the tribological performance of the coated components. Test results indicate that the wear resistance of ASTM A36 (raw coal screen section) and can be significantly increased by applying HDI and LSE coating processes. Field testing has been performed using a LSE-treated screen panel and it showed a significant improvement of the service life.

  9. Development of Advanced Surface Enhancement Technology for Decreasing Wear and Corrosion of Equipment Used for Mineral Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Tao; Craig A. Blue

    2006-07-20

    Equipment wear is a major concern in the mineral processing industry, which dramatically increases the maintenance cost and adversely affects plant operation efficiency. In this research, novel surface treatment technologies, High Density Infrared (HDI) and Laser Surface Engineering (LSE) surface coating processes were developed for the surface enhancement of selected mineral processing equipment. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the coated specimens were characterized. Laboratory-simulated wear tests were conducted to evaluate the tribological performance of the coated components. Test results indicate that the wear resistance of ASTM A36 (raw coal screen section) and can be significantly increased by applying HDI and LSE coating processes. Field testing has been performed using a LSE-treated screen panel and it showed a 2 times improvement of the service life.

  10. Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

    1981-01-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

  11. Recent Advances in Precombustion Coal Cleaning Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiao-HungChiang; DaxinHe

    1994-01-01

    The mineral matter in coal constitutes a major impediment to the direct use of coal in power plants.A concerted effort has been mounted to reduce the ash/sulfur contents in product coal to meet the ever more stringent environmental regulations.In recent years,significant advances have taken place in fine coal cleaning technologies.A review of recent developments in aveanced physical,chemical and biological processes for deep-cleaning of fine coal is presented.

  12. Increasing significance of advanced physical/chemical processes in the development and application of sustainable wastewater treatment systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wim RULKENS

    2008-01-01

    The awareness of the problem of the scarcity of water of high quality has strongly changed the approach of wastewater treatment. Currently, there is an increasing need for the beneficial reuse of treated wastewater and to recover valuable products and energy from the wastewater. Because microbiological treatment methods are, only to a limited part, able to satisfy these needs, the role and significance of physical/chemical pro-cesses in wastewater treatment are gaining more and more interest. The specific future role and aim of the various physical/chemical treatment processes can be categorized in five groups: improvement of the perform-ance of microbiological treatment processes, achieve-ment of the high quality required for reuse of the effluent, recovery of valuable components and energy from the wastewater for beneficial reuse, desalination of brackish water and seawater, and treatment of con-centrated liquid or solid waste residues produced in a wastewater treatment process. Development of more environmentally sustainable wastewater treatment chains in which physical/chemical processes play a cru-cial role, also requires application of process control and modeling strategies. This is briefly introduced by the elaboration of treatment scenarios for three specific wastewaters.

  13. Advanced telemedicine development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forslund, D.W.; George, J.E.; Gavrilov, E.M.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop a Java-based, electronic, medical-record system that can handle multimedia data and work over a wide-area network based on open standards, and that can utilize an existing database back end. The physician is to be totally unaware that there is a database behind the scenes and is only aware that he/she can access and manage the relevant information to treat the patient.

  14. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES MODELLING USING ADVANCED HYDROINFORMATIC TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEILICCI ERIKA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The water has an essential role in the functioning of ecosystems by integrating the complex physical, chemical, and biological processes that sustain life. Water is a key factor in determining the productivity of ecosystems, biodiversity and species composition. Water is also essential for humanity: water supply systems for population, agriculture, fisheries, industries, and hydroelectric power depend on water supplies. The modelling of hydrological processes is an important activity for water resources management, especially now, when the climate change is one of the major challenges of our century, with strong influence on hydrological processes dynamics. Climate change and needs for more knowledge in water resources require the use of advanced hydroinformatic tools in hydrological processes modelling. The rationale and purpose of advanced hydroinformatic tools is to develop a new relationship between the stakeholders and the users and suppliers of the systems: to offer the basis (systems which supply useable results, the validity of which cannot be put in reasonable doubt by any of the stakeholders involved. For a successful modelling of hydrological processes also need specialists well trained and able to use advanced hydro-informatics tools. Results of modelling can be a useful tool for decision makers to taking efficient measures in social, economical and ecological domain regarding water resources, for an integrated water resources management.

  15. ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1998-06-16

    The overall objective of this program was to develop regenerable sorbents for use in the temperature range of 343 to 538 C (650 to 1000 F) to remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal-derived fuel gases in a fluidized-bed reactor. The goal was to develop sorbents that are capable of reducing the H{sub 2}S level in the fuel gas to less than 20 ppmv in the specified temperature range and pressures in the range of 1 to 20 atmospheres, with chemical characteristics that permit cyclic regeneration over many cycles without a drastic loss of activity, as well as physical characteristics that are compatible with the fluidized bed application.

  16. Advanced Dewatering Systems Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell

    2008-07-31

    A new fine coal dewatering technology has been developed and tested in the present work. The work was funded by the Solid Fuels and Feedstocks Grand Challenge PRDA. The objective of this program was to 'develop innovative technical approaches to ensure a continued supply of environmentally sound solid fuels for existing and future combustion systems with minimal incremental fuel cost.' Specifically, this solicitation is aimed at developing technologies that can (i) improve the efficiency or economics of the recovery of carbon when beneficiating fine coal from both current production and existing coal slurry impoundments and (ii) assist in the greater utilization of coal fines by improving the handling characteristics of fine coal via dewatering and/or reconstitution. The results of the test work conducted during Phase I of the current project demonstrated that the new dewatering technologies can substantially reduce the moisture from fine coal, while the test work conducted during Phase II successfully demonstrated the commercial viability of this technology. It is believed that availability of such efficient and affordable dewatering technology is essential to meeting the DOE's objectives.

  17. Accelerating development of advanced inverters :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, Jason C.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Ropp, Michael; Schutz, Dustin

    2013-11-01

    The high penetration of utility interconnected photovoltaic (PV) systems is causing heightened concern over the effect that variable renewable generation will have on the electrical power system (EPS). These concerns have initiated the need to amend the utility interconnection standard to allow advanced inverter control functionalities that provide: (1) reactive power control for voltage support, (2) real power control for frequency support and (3) better tolerance of grid disturbances. These capabilities are aimed at minimizing the negative impact distributed PV systems may have on EPS voltage and frequency. Unfortunately, these advanced control functions may interfere with island detection schemes, and further development of advanced inverter functions requires a study of the effect of advanced functions on the efficacy of antiislanding schemes employed in industry. This report summarizes the analytical, simulation and experimental work to study interactions between advanced inverter functions and anti-islanding schemes being employed in distributed PV systems.

  18. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

    1992-11-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930{degree} and 1470{degree}F (500{degree}and 800{degree}C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a ``coal refinery`` system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R&D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

  19. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

    1992-11-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930[degree] and 1470[degree]F (500[degree]and 800[degree]C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a coal refinery'' system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

  20. ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javad Abbasian

    2000-01-01

    The overall objective of this program was to develop regenerable sorbents for use in the temperature range of 343 to 538 C (650 to 1000 F) to remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal-derived fuel gases in a fluidized-bed reactor. The goal was to develop sorbents that are capable of reducing the H{sub 2}S level in the fuel gas to less than 20 ppmv in the specified temperature range and pressures in the range of 1 to 20 atmospheres, with chemical characteristics that permit cyclic regeneration over many cycles without a drastic loss of activity, as well as physical, characteristics that are compatible with the fluidized bed application. This topical report focuses on the investigation directed toward preparation of zinc-based sorbents using the sol-gel approach that has been shown to require only a moderate temperature for calcination, while resulting in significantly more attrition-resistant sorbents. The sorbents prepared in this part of the investigation and the results from their evaluation in packed-bed and fluidized-bed reactors are described in this report.

  1. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, January 1994--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neal, G.W.

    1994-04-01

    The primary objective of this project is to develop an advanced continuous mild gasification process and product upgrading processes which will be capable of eventual commercialization. This program consists of four tasks. Task 1 is a literature survey of mild gasification processes and product upgrading methods and also a market assessment for mild gasification products. Based on the literature survey, a mild gasification process and char upgrading method will be identified for further development. Task 2 is a bench-scale investigation of mild gasification to generate data for a larger scale reactor. Task 3 is a bench-scale study of char upgrading to value added products. Task 4 is being implemented by building and operating a 1000-pound per hour demonstration facility. Task 4 also includes a technical and economic evaluation based on the performance of the mild gasification demonstration facility.

  2. Advanced Radiation Detector Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The University of Michigan

    1998-07-01

    Since our last progress report, the project at The University of Michigan has continued to concentrate on the development of gamma ray spectrometers fabricated from cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). This material is capable of providing energy resolution that is superior to that of scintillation detectors, while avoiding the necessity for cooling associated with germanium systems. In our past reports, we have described one approach (the coplanar grid electrode) that we have used to partially overcome some of the major limitations on charge collection that is found in samples of CZT. This approach largely eliminates the effect of hole motion in the formation of the output signal, and therefore leads to pulses that depend only on the motion of a single carrier (electrons). Since electrons move much more readily through CZT than do holes, much better energy resolution can be achieved under these conditions. In our past reports, we have described a 1 cm cube CZT spectrometer fitted with coplanar grids that achieved an energy resolution of 1.8% from the entire volume of the crystal. This still represents, to our knowledge, the best energy resolution ever demonstrated in a CZT detector of this size.

  3. Report on Advanced Detector Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James K. Jewell

    2012-09-01

    Neutron, gamma and charged particle detection improvements are key to supporting many of the foreseen measurements and systems envisioned in the R&D programs and the future fuel cycle requirements, such as basic nuclear physics and data, modeling and simulation, reactor instrumentation, criticality safety, materials management and safeguards. This task will focus on the developmental needs of the FCR&D experimental programs, such as elastic/inelastic scattering, total cross sections and fission neutron spectra measurements, and will leverage a number of existing neutron detector development efforts and programs, such as those at LANL, PNNL, INL, and IAC as well as those at many universities, some of whom are funded under NE grants and contracts. Novel materials and fabrication processes combined with state-of-the-art electronics and computing provide new opportunities for revolutionary detector systems that will be able to meet the high precision needs of the program. This work will be closely coordinated with the Nuclear Data Crosscut. The Advanced Detector Development effort is a broadly-focused activity that supports the development of improved nuclear data measurements and improved detection of nuclear reactions and reactor conditions. This work supports the design and construction of large-scale, multiple component detectors to provide nuclear reaction data of unprecedented quality and precision. Examples include the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the DANCE detector at LANL. This work also supports the fabrication and end-user application of novel scintillator materials detection and monitoring.

  4. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Thomas [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Soukri, Mustapha [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farmer, Justin [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mobley, Paul [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Tanthana, Jak [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Dongxiang [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Song, Chunshan [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  5. Advanced oxidation processes: overall models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M. [Univ. de los Andes, Escuela Basica de Ingenieria, La Hechicera, Merida (Venezuela); Curco, D.; Addardak, A.; Gimenez, J.; Esplugas, S. [Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica. Univ. de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Modelling AOPs implies to consider all the steps included in the process, that means, mass transfer, kinetic (reaction) and luminic steps. In this way, recent works develop models which relate the global reaction rate to catalyst concentration and radiation absorption. However, the application of such models requires to know what is the controlling step for the overall process. In this paper, a simple method is explained which allows to determine the controlling step. Thus, it is assumed that reactor is divided in two hypothetical zones (dark and illuminated), and according to the experimental results, obtained by varying only the reaction volume, it can be decided if reaction occurs only in the illuminated zone or in the all reactor, including dark zone. The photocatalytic degradation of phenol, by using titania degussa P-25 as catalyst, is studied as reaction model. The preliminary results obtained are presented here, showing that it seems that, in this case, reaction only occurs in the illuminated zone of photoreactor. A model is developed to explain this behaviour. (orig.)

  6. Advanced Signal Processing for Wireless Multimedia Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available There is at present a worldwide effort to develop next-generation wireless communication systems. It is envisioned that many of the future wireless systems will incorporate considerable signal-processing intelligence in order to provide advanced services such as multimedia transmission. In general, wireless channels can be very hostile media through which to communicate, due to substantial physical impediments, primarily radio-frequency interference and time-arying nature of the channel. The need of providing universal wireless access at high data-rate (which is the aim of many merging wireless applications presents a major technical challenge, and meeting this challenge necessitates the development of advanced signal processing techniques for multiple-access communications in non-stationary interference-rich environments. In this paper, we present some key advanced signal processing methodologies that have been developed in recent years for interference suppression in wireless networks. We will focus primarily on the problem of jointly suppressing multiple-access interference (MAI and intersymbol interference (ISI, which are the limiting sources of interference for the high data-rate wireless systems being proposed for many emerging application areas, such as wireless multimedia. We first present a signal subspace approach to blind joint suppression of MAI and ISI. We then discuss a powerful iterative technique for joint interference suppression and decoding, so-called Turbo multiuser detection, that is especially useful for wireless multimedia packet communications. We also discuss space-time processing methods that employ multiple antennas for interference rejection and signal enhancement. Finally, we touch briefly on the problems of suppressing narrowband interference and impulsive ambient noise, two other sources of radio-frequency interference present in wireless multimedia networks.

  7. Development of improved processing and evaluation methods for high reliability structural ceramics for advanced heat engine applications Phase II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujari, V.J.; Tracey, D.M.; Foley, M.R. [and others

    1996-02-01

    The research program had as goals the development and demonstration of significant improvements in processing methods, process controls, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) which can be commercially implemented to produce high reliability silicon nitride components for advanced heat engine applications at temperatures to 1370{degrees}C. In Phase I of the program a process was developed that resulted in a silicon nitride - 4 w% yttria HIP`ed material (NCX 5102) that displayed unprecedented strength and reliability. An average tensile strength of 1 GPa and a strength distribution following a 3-parameter Weibull distribution were demonstrated by testing several hundred buttonhead tensile specimens. The Phase II program focused on the development of methodology for colloidal consolidation producing green microstructure which minimizes downstream process problems such as drying, shrinkage, cracking, and part distortion during densification. Furthermore, the program focused on the extension of the process to gas pressure sinterable (GPS) compositions. Excellent results were obtained for the HIP composition processed for minimal density gradients, both with respect to room-temperature strength and high-temperature creep resistance. Complex component fabricability of this material was demonstrated by producing engine-vane prototypes. Strength data for the GPS material (NCX-5400) suggest that it ranks very high relative to other silicon nitride materials in terms of tensile/flexure strength ratio, a measure of volume quality. This high quality was derived from the closed-loop colloidal process employed in the program.

  8. Advances in Packaging Methods, Processes and Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitaigour Premchand Mahalik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The food processing and packaging industry is becoming a multi-trillion dollar global business. The reason is that the recent increase in incomes in traditionally less economically developed countries has led to a rise in standards of living that includes a significantly higher consumption of packaged foods. As a result, food safety guidelines have been more stringent than ever. At the same time, the number of research and educational institutions—that is, the number of potential researchers and stakeholders—has increased in the recent past. This paper reviews recent developments in food processing and packaging (FPP, keeping in view the aforementioned advancements and bearing in mind that FPP is an interdisciplinary area in that materials, safety, systems, regulation, and supply chains play vital roles. In particular, the review covers processing and packaging principles, standards, interfaces, techniques, methods, and state-of-the-art technologies that are currently in use or in development. Recent advances such as smart packaging, non-destructive inspection methods, printing techniques, application of robotics and machineries, automation architecture, software systems and interfaces are reviewed.

  9. Development of advanced process-based model towards evaluation of boundless biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial-aquatic continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tadanobu; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2014-05-01

    Recent research shows inland water may play some role in continental biogeochemical cycling though its contribution has remained uncertain due to a paucity of data (Battin et al. 2009). The author has developed process-based National Integrated Catchment-based Eco-hydrology (NICE) model (Nakayama, 2008a-b, 2010, 2011a-b, 2012a-c, 2013; Nakayama and Fujita, 2010; Nakayama and Hashimoto, 2011; Nakayama and Shankman, 2013a-b; Nakayama and Watanabe, 2004, 2006, 2008a-b; Nakayama et al., 2006, 2007, 2010, 2012), which incorporates surface-groundwater interactions, includes up- and down-scaling processes between local, regional and global scales, and can simulate iteratively nonlinear feedback between hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological processes. In this study, NICE was extended to evaluate global hydrologic cycle by using various global datasets. The simulated result agreed reasonably with that in the previous research (Fan et al., 2013) and extended to clarify further eco-hydrological process in global scale. Then, NICE was further developed to incorporate the biogeochemical cycle including the reaction between inorganic and organic carbons (DOC, POC, DIC, pCO2, etc.) in the biosphere (terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems including surface water and groundwater). The model simulated the carbon cycle, for example, CO2 evasion from inland water in global scale, which is relatively in good agreement in that estimated by empirical relation using the previous pCO2 data (Aufdenkampe et al., 2011; Global River Chemistry Database, 2013). This simulation system would play important role in identification of full greenhouse gas balance of the biosphere and spatio-temporal hot spots in boundless biogeochemical cycle (Cole et al. 2007; Frei et al. 2012). References; Aufdenkampe, A.K., et al., Front. Ecol. Environ., doi:10.1890/100014, 2011. Battin, T.J., et al., Nat. Geosci., 2, 598-600, 2009. Cole, J.J. et al., Ecosystems, doi:10.1007/s10021-006-9013-8, 2007. Fan, Y. et al

  10. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    2000-09-30

    DuPont Lanxide Composites, Inc. undertook a sixty-month program, under DOE Contract DEAC21-94MC31214, in order to develop hot gas candle filters from a patented material technology know as PRD-66. The goal of this program was to extend the development of this material as a filter element and fully assess the capability of this technology to meet the needs of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems at commercial scale. The principal objective of Task 3 was to build on the initial PRD-66 filter development, optimize its structure, and evaluate basic material properties relevant to the hot gas filter application. Initially, this consisted of an evaluation of an advanced filament-wound core structure that had been designed to produce an effective bulk filter underneath the barrier filter formed by the outer membrane. The basic material properties to be evaluated (as established by the DOE/METC materials working group) would include mechanical, thermal, and fracture toughness parameters for both new and used material, for the purpose of building a material database consistent with what is being done for the alternative candle filter systems. Task 3 was later expanded to include analysis of PRD-66 candle filters, which had been exposed to actual PFBC conditions, development of an improved membrane, and installation of equipment necessary for the processing of a modified composition. Task 4 would address essential technical issues involving the scale-up of PRD-66 candle filter manufacturing from prototype production to commercial scale manufacturing. The focus would be on capacity (as it affects the ability to deliver commercial order quantities), process specification (as it affects yields, quality, and costs), and manufacturing systems (e.g. QA/QC, materials handling, parts flow, and cost data acquisition). Any filters fabricated during this task would be used for product qualification tests

  11. Human Factors Process Task Analysis Liquid Oxygen Pump Acceptance Test Procedure for the Advanced Technology Development Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diorio, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    A process task analysis effort was undertaken by Dynacs Inc. commencing in June 2002 under contract from NASA YA-D6. Funding was provided through NASA's Ames Research Center (ARC), Code M/HQ, and Industrial Engineering and Safety (IES). The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Engineering Development Contract (EDC) Task Order was 5SMA768. The scope of the effort was to conduct a Human Factors Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (HF PFMEA) of a hazardous activity and provide recommendations to eliminate or reduce the effects of errors caused by human factors. The Liquid Oxygen (LOX) Pump Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) was selected for this analysis. The HF PFMEA table (see appendix A) provides an analysis of six major categories evaluated for this study. These categories include Personnel Certification, Test Procedure Format, Test Procedure Safety Controls, Test Article Data, Instrumentation, and Voice Communication. For each specific requirement listed in appendix A, the following topics were addressed: Requirement, Potential Human Error, Performance-Shaping Factors, Potential Effects of the Error, Barriers and Controls, Risk Priority Numbers, and Recommended Actions. This report summarizes findings and gives recommendations as determined by the data contained in appendix A. It also includes a discussion of technology barriers and challenges to performing task analyses, as well as lessons learned. The HF PFMEA table in appendix A recommends the use of accepted and required safety criteria in order to reduce the risk of human error. The items with the highest risk priority numbers should receive the greatest amount of consideration. Implementation of the recommendations will result in a safer operation for all personnel.

  12. Human Factors Process Task Analysis Liquid Oxygen Pump Acceptance Test Procedure for the Advanced Technology Development Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diorio, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    A process task analysis effort was undertaken by Dynacs Inc. commencing in June 2002 under contract from NASA YA-D6. Funding was provided through NASA's Ames Research Center (ARC), Code M/HQ, and Industrial Engineering and Safety (IES). The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Engineering Development Contract (EDC) Task Order was 5SMA768. The scope of the effort was to conduct a Human Factors Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (HF PFMEA) of a hazardous activity and provide recommendations to eliminate or reduce the effects of errors caused by human factors. The Liquid Oxygen (LOX) Pump Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) was selected for this analysis. The HF PFMEA table (see appendix A) provides an analysis of six major categories evaluated for this study. These categories include Personnel Certification, Test Procedure Format, Test Procedure Safety Controls, Test Article Data, Instrumentation, and Voice Communication. For each specific requirement listed in appendix A, the following topics were addressed: Requirement, Potential Human Error, Performance-Shaping Factors, Potential Effects of the Error, Barriers and Controls, Risk Priority Numbers, and Recommended Actions. This report summarizes findings and gives recommendations as determined by the data contained in appendix A. It also includes a discussion of technology barriers and challenges to performing task analyses, as well as lessons learned. The HF PFMEA table in appendix A recommends the use of accepted and required safety criteria in order to reduce the risk of human error. The items with the highest risk priority numbers should receive the greatest amount of consideration. Implementation of the recommendations will result in a safer operation for all personnel.

  13. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Thomas [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Soukri, Mustapha [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farmer, Justin [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mobley, Paul [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Tanthana, Jak [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Dongxiang [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Song, Chunshan [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  14. Development of a Polysilicon Process Based on Chemical Vapor Deposition of Dichlorosilane in an Advanced Siemen's Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevidson, A. N.; Sawyer, D. H.; Muller, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Dichlorosilane (DCS) was used as the feedstock for an advanced decomposition reactor for silicon production. The advanced reactor had a cool bell jar wall temperature, 300 C, when compared to Siemen's reactors previously used for DCS decomposition. Previous reactors had bell jar wall temperatures of approximately 750 C. The cooler wall temperature allows higher DCS flow rates and concentrations. A silicon deposition rate of 2.28 gm/hr-cm was achieved with power consumption of 59 kWh/kg. Interpretation of data suggests that a 2.8 gm/hr-cm deposition rate is possible. Screening of lower cost materials of construction was done as a separate program segment. Stainless Steel (304 and 316), Hastalloy B, Monel 400 and 1010-Carbon Steel were placed individually in an experimental scale reactor. Silicon was deposited from trichlorosilane feedstock. The resultant silicon was analyzed for electrically active and metallic impurities as well as carbon. No material contributed significant amounts of electrically active or metallic impurities, but all contributed carbon.

  15. Development of Advanced Surface Enhancement Technology for Decreasing Wear and Corrosion of Equipment Used for Mineral Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Tao; Craig A. Blue

    2004-08-01

    Equipment wear is a major concern in the mineral processing industry, which dramatically increases the maintenance cost and adversely affects plant operation efficiency. In this research, wear problems of mineral processing equipment including screens, sieve bends, heavy media vessel, dewatering centrifuge, etc., were identified. A novel surface treatment technology, high density infrared (HDI) surface coating process was proposed for the surface enhancement of selected mineral processing equipment. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the coated samples were characterized. Laboratory-simulated wear tests were conducted to evaluate the tribological performance of the coated components. Test results indicate that the wear resistance of AISI 4140 and ASTM A36 steels can be increased 3 and 5 folds, respectively by the application of HDI coatings.

  16. Advanced express web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Keig, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A practical book, guiding the reader through the development of a single page application using a feature-driven approach.If you are an experienced JavaScript developer who wants to build highly scalable, real-world applications using Express, this book is ideal for you. This book is an advanced title and assumes that the reader has some experience with node, Javascript MVC web development frameworks, and has heard of Express before, or is familiar with it. You should also have a basic understanding of Redis and MongoDB. This book is not a tutorial on Node, but aims to explore some of the more

  17. Advancements in Big Data Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vaniachine, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ever-increasing volumes of scientific data present new challenges for Distributed Computing and Grid-technologies. The emerging Big Data revolution drives new discoveries in scientific fields including nanotechnology, astrophysics, high-energy physics, biology and medicine. New initiatives are transforming data-driven scientific fields by pushing Bid Data limits enabling massive data analysis in new ways. In petascale data processing scientists deal with datasets, not individual files. As a result, a task (comprised of many jobs) became a unit of petascale data processing on the Grid. Splitting of a large data processing task into jobs enabled fine-granularity checkpointing analogous to the splitting of a large file into smaller TCP/IP packets during data transfers. Transferring large data in small packets achieves reliability through automatic re-sending of the dropped TCP/IP packets. Similarly, transient job failures on the Grid can be recovered by automatic re-tries to achieve reliable Six Sigma produc...

  18. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products: Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.; Breault, R.W.

    1988-06-01

    Research on mild gasification is discussed. The report is divided into three sections: literature survey of mild gasification processes; literature survey of char, condensibles, and gas upgrading and utilization methods; and industrial market assessment of products of mild gasification. Recommendations are included in each section. (CBS) 248 refs., 58 figs., 62 tabs.

  19. The Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing - LAMP - is a clean-room research facility run and operated by Pr. Gary Rubloff's group. Research activities focus...

  20. Development of an Advanced Deshaling Technology to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Coal Handling, Processing, and Utilization Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Honaker; Gerald Luttrell

    2007-09-30

    surface moisture of the feed coal exceeds the maximum limit. However, the content of -6mm in the feed to the FGX separator should be maintained between 10% and 20% to ensure an adequate fluidized bed. A parametric evaluation was conducted using a 3-level experimental design at each test site to identify the optimum separation performance and parameter values. The test data was used to develop empirical expressions that describe the response variables (i.e., mass yield and product ash content) as a function of the operating parameter values. From this process, it was established that table frequency and longitudinal slope are the most critical factors in controlling both mass yield and clean coal ash while the cross table slope was the least significant. Fan blower frequency is a critical parameter that controls mass yield. Although the splitter positions between product and middling streams and the middling and tailing streams were held constant during the tests, a separate evaluation indicated that performance is sensitive to splitter position within certain lengths of the table and insensitive in others. For a Utah bituminous coal, the FGX separator provided clean coal ash contents that ranged from a low of 8.57% to a high of 12.48% from a feed coal containing around 17% ash. From the 29 tests involved in the statistically designed test program, the average clean coal ash content was 10.76% while the tailings ash content averaged around 72%. One of the best separation performances achieved an ash reduction from 17.36% to 10.67% while recovering 85.9% of the total feed mass, which equated to an ash rejection value of around 47%. The total sulfur content was typically decreased from 1.61% to 1.49%. These performances were quantified by blending the middlings stream with the clean coal product. At a second Utah site, coal sources from three different bituminous coal seams were treated by the FGX deshaling unit. Three parameter values were varied based on the results

  1. Human Factors Process Task Analysis: Liquid Oxygen Pump Acceptance Test Procedure at the Advanced Technology Development Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diorio, Kimberly A.; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on Human Factors Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (HF PFMEA). HF PFMEA includes the following 10 steps: Describe mission; Define System; Identify human-machine; List human actions; Identify potential errors; Identify factors that effect error; Determine likelihood of error; Determine potential effects of errors; Evaluate risk; Generate solutions (manage error). The presentation also describes how this analysis was applied to a liquid oxygen pump acceptance test.

  2. Energy Storage (II): Developing Advanced Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Arthur L

    1974-01-01

    Energy storage, considered by some scientists to be the best technological and economic advancement after advanced nuclear power, still rates only modest funding for research concerning the development of advanced technologies. (PEB)

  3. Development of improved processing and evaluation methods for high reliability structural ceramics for advanced heat engine applications, Phase 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujari, V.K.; Tracey, D.M.; Foley, M.R.; Paille, N.I.; Pelletier, P.J.; Sales, L.C.; Wilkens, C.A.; Yeckley, R.L. [Norton Co., Northboro, MA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The program goals were to develop and demonstrate significant improvements in processing methods, process controls and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) which can be commercially implemented to produce high reliability silicon nitride components for advanced heat engine applications at temperatures to 1,370{degrees}C. The program focused on a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-4% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} high temperature ceramic composition and hot-isostatic-pressing as the method of densification. Stage I had as major objectives: (1) comparing injection molding and colloidal consolidation process routes, and selecting one route for subsequent optimization, (2) comparing the performance of water milled and alcohol milled powder and selecting one on the basis of performance data, and (3) adapting several NDE methods to the needs of ceramic processing. The NDE methods considered were microfocus X-ray radiography, computed tomography, ultrasonics, NMR imaging, NMR spectroscopy, fluorescent liquid dye penetrant and X-ray diffraction residual stress analysis. The colloidal consolidation process route was selected and approved as the forming technique for the remainder of the program. The material produced by the final Stage II optimized process has been given the designation NCX 5102 silicon nitride. According to plan, a large number of specimens were produced and tested during Stage III to establish a statistically robust room temperature tensile strength database for this material. Highlights of the Stage III process demonstration and resultant database are included in the main text of the report, along with a synopsis of the NCX-5102 aqueous based colloidal process. The R and D accomplishments for Stage I are discussed in Appendices 1--4, while the tensile strength-fractography database for the Stage III NCX-5102 process demonstration is provided in Appendix 5. 4 refs., 108 figs., 23 tabs.

  4. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  5. Development of advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products addendum to technical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the material balance data for Wyodak, Indiana No. 3, and Cannelton coals that were tested in the mild gasification program. Data include tests conducted using the 1- to 4-lb/hr continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) and the 100-lb/hr Process Research Unit (PRU). All raw analysis data were reduced to calculate product yields as a percentage of the product mass divided by the maf coal feed. The material closure was then determined, and losses were assigned to one or a combination of the three product streams: char, condensate (includes condensed steam), and gas. Mass was added proportionally to each constituent of the stream until the closure was 100%.

  6. Development of advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products addendum to technical evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the material balance data for Wyodak, Indiana No. 3, and Cannelton coals that were tested in the mild gasification program. Data include tests conducted using the 1- to 4-lb/hr continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) and the 100-lb/hr Process Research Unit (PRU). All raw analysis data were reduced to calculate product yields as a percentage of the product mass divided by the maf coal feed. The material closure was then determined, and losses were assigned to one or a combination of the three product streams: char, condensate (includes condensed steam), and gas. Mass was added proportionally to each constituent of the stream until the closure was 100%.

  7. Traditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book collects several examples of research in machining processes. Chapter 1 provides information on polycrystalline diamond tool material and its emerging applications. Chapter 2 is dedicated to the analysis of orthogonal cutting experiments using diamond-coated tools with force and temperature measurements. Chapter 3 describes the estimation of cutting forces and tool wear using modified mechanistic models in high performance turning. Chapter 4 contains information on cutting under gas shields for industrial applications. Chapter 5 is dedicated to the machinability of magnesium and its alloys. Chapter 6 provides information on grinding science. Finally, chapter 7 is dedicated to flexible integration of shape and functional modelling of machine tool spindles in a design framework.    

  8. Advances and developments in strategies to improve strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and processes to obtain the lignocellulosic ethanol--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laluce, C; Schenberg, A C G; Gallardo, J C M; Coradello, L F C; Pombeiro-Sponchiado, S R

    2012-04-01

    The conversion of biomass into ethanol using fast, cheap, and efficient methodologies to disintegrate and hydrolyse the lignocellulosic biomass is the major challenge of the production of the second-generation ethanol. This revision describes the most relevant advances on the conversion process of lignocellulose materials into ethanol, development of new xylose-fermenting strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using classical and modern genetic tools and strategies, elucidation of the expression of some complex industrial phenotypes, tolerance mechanisms of S. cerevisiae to lignocellulosic inhibitors, monitoring and strategies to improve fermentation processes. In the last decade, numerous engineered pentose-fermenting yeasts have been developed using molecular biology tools. The increase in the tolerance of S. cerevisiae to inhibitors is still an important issue to be exploited. As the industrial systems of ethanol production operate under non-sterile conditions, microbial subpopulations are generated, depending on the operational conditions and the levels of contaminants. Among the most critical requirements for production of the second-generation ethanol is the reduction in the levels of toxic by-products of the lignocellulosic hydrolysates and the production of low-cost and efficient cellulosic enzymes. A number of procedures have been established for the conversion of lignocellulosic materials into ethanol, but none of them are completely satisfactory when process time, costs, and efficiency are considered.

  9. The Educational Process in Mastering and Developing Pianistic Technique through Performance of Modern Pieces for Intermediate and Advanced Level Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Trajkova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper combines interpretative, comparative theoretical, and aesthetic approaches with the aim of facilitating the piano teaching process in primary, secondary, and higher musical education around the world. Contemporary composers have a specific vision, an idea, and employ interesting figures and melodies which influence the ear training and intonation education of the student and enrich their musical experience and repertoire. It is also interesting from a different aspect, namely the opportunities these composers create for educators within the prominent technical and piano-intoning frameworks. This is also an attempt to carry on the tradition of compiling, systematizing, analyzing and publicly promoting quality piano compositions which would then take their rightful place in everyday teaching cannon. Another aim of this paper is to familiarize the student, and above all, the teaching and the whole performing public with the quality of the pieces of contemporary composers; to introduce them to as many styles established by contemporary composers as possible, to enable them to discover new technical problems, and the overcome them successfully. The methodology employed in this paper is a combination of several approaches relating to the subject at hand - comparative, systematic, analytical, logical theoretical, and a method of learning and analysis of practical experience.

  10. An advanced coal gasification desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Rehmat, A. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA)); Leppin, D. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (USA)); Banerjee, D.D. (Center for Research on Sulfur in Coal, Carterville, IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is in the process of developing an advanced coal gasification desulfurization process in which a calcium-based sorbent such as limestone or dolomite is injected into the fluidized-bed gasifier with coal to achieve in-bed desulfurization of coal as it is converted into clean fuel gas. The reactions involving calcium-based sorbents takes place in two steps. In the first step, the desulfurization reaction takes place between hydrogen sulfide and calcium oxide in the reducing zone of the reactor to produce calcium sulfide. The latter subsequently reacts with oxygen in the oxidizing zone of the reactor to produce calcium sulfate which can be safely disposed of along with the coal ash. This process will reduce the capital requirement for coal gasification plants and provide cost effective alternatives to scrubbers for industrial and utility use of high-sulfur coal. This paper addresses the basic research being conducted at IGT to confirm the viability of this process. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Drug Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Device Approvals The Drug Development Process The Drug Development Process Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Pin it Email Print Step 1 Discovery and Development Discovery and Development Research for a new drug ...

  12. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  13. Advanced research reactor fuel development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Pak, H. D.; Kim, K. H. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The fabrication technology of the U{sub 3}Si fuel dispersed in aluminum for the localization of HANARO driver fuel has been launches. The increase of production yield of LEU metal, the establishment of measurement method of homogeneity, and electron beam welding process were performed. Irradiation test under normal operation condition, had been carried out and any clues of the fuel assembly breakdown was not detected. The 2nd test fuel assembly has been irradiated at HANARO reactor since 17th June 1999. The quality assurance system has been re-established and the eddy current test technique has been developed. The irradiation test for U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersed fuels at HANARO reactor has been carried out in order to compare the in-pile performance of between the two types of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuels, prepared by both the atomization and comminution processes. KAERI has also conducted all safety-related works such as the design and the fabrication of irradiation rig, the analysis of irradiation behavior, thermal hydraulic characteristics, stress analysis for irradiation rig, and thermal analysis fuel plate, for the mini-plate prepared by international research cooperation being irradiated safely at HANARO. Pressure drop test, vibration test and endurance test were performed. The characterization on powders of U-(5.4 {approx} 10 wt%) Mo alloy depending on Mo content prepared by rotating disk centrifugal atomization process was carried out in order to investigate the phase stability of the atomized U-Mo alloy system. The {gamma}-U phase stability and the thermal compatibility of atomized U-16at.%Mo and U-14at.%Mo-2at.%X(: Ru, Os) dispersion fuel meats at an elevated temperature have been investigated. The volume increases of U-Mo compatibility specimens were almost the same as or smaller than those of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. However the atomized alloy fuel exhibited a better irradiation performance than the comminuted alloy. The RERTR-3 irradiation test of nano

  14. Development of an interatmospheric window wavelength (5-9 μm) infrared thermography with an advanced image processing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Komiyama, Tatsuhito; Sakagami, Takahide; Kubo, Shiro

    2006-04-01

    Recently, deterioration of concrete structures before their design life has become a serious social problem in Japan. Nondestructive inspection techniques are required, for detecting defects and damages in concrete structures, such as subsurface void or delamination. As one of these techniques, the thermographic NDT can be applied as an effective NDT technique to inspect large area of the objective structure from distant place. In addition, it does not require any chemicals and application of physical excitation for inspection. However, the thermographic NDT has a shortcoming that the measurement results are affected by the reflection of atmospheric radiation due to the sunlight, sky or surrounding materials. Since most of the buildings in Japan are covered with luster materials with low emissivity, such as tile or mortal, infrared reflection on the surface is difficult to be neglected. To reduce the influence of these reflection noises, the infrared thermography with detectable wavelength from 5 to 8 μm, which coincides with absorption range of moisture, is utilized. In this research, a new infrared thermography with 5 to 8 μm wavelength range by applying a band pass filter and an uncooled microbolometer infrared array detector. Further, a new signal to noise (S/N) ratio improvement technique has been developed in order to compensate a deterioration of sensitivity due to the band pass filter.

  15. Development of Advanced Ceramic Manufacturing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujari, V.K.

    2001-04-05

    Advanced structural ceramics are enabling materials for new transportation engine systems that have the potential for significantly reducing energy consumption and pollution in automobiles and heavy vehicles. Ceramic component reliability and performance have been demonstrated in previous U.S. DOE initiatives, but high manufacturing cost was recognized as a major barrier to commercialization. Norton Advanced Ceramics (NAC), a division of Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics, Inc. (SGIC), was selected to perform a major Advanced Ceramics Manufacturing Technology (ACMT) Program. The overall objectives of NAC's program were to design, develop, and demonstrate advanced manufacturing technology for the production of ceramic exhaust valves for diesel engines. The specific objectives were (1) to reduce the manufacturing cost by an order of magnitude, (2) to develop and demonstrate process capability and reproducibility, and (3) to validate ceramic valve performance, durability, and reliability. The program was divided into four major tasks: Component Design and Specification, Component Manufacturing Technology Development, Inspection and Testing, and Process Demonstration. A high-power diesel engine valve for the DDC Series 149 engine was chosen as the demonstration part for this program. This was determined to be an ideal component type to demonstrate cost-effective process enhancements, the beneficial impact of advanced ceramics on transportation systems, and near-term commercialization potential. The baseline valve material was NAC's NT451 SiAION. It was replaced, later in the program, by an alternate silicon nitride composition (NT551), which utilized a lower cost raw material and a simplified powder-processing approach. The material specifications were defined based on DDC's engine requirements, and the initial and final component design tasks were completed.

  16. Development of a curriculum for advanced nurse practitioners working with older people with frailty in the acute hospital through a modified Delphi process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Sarah Elizabeth; Cooper, Jo; Blundell, Adrian; Gordon, Adam Lee; Masud, Tahir; Moorchilot, Ravisankar

    2016-01-01

    advanced nurse practitioners (ANPs) are experienced nurses who undertake some activities traditionally performed by medical staff. There are four pillars of advanced practice: advanced clinical skills, leadership, education and research. ANPs are starting to specialise in the management of older adults with frailty in the acute hospital. However, the role and competencies required for this have not been well defined. This study aimed to establish an expert consensus on the role description and essential competencies for ANPs working with older people with frailty to develop a curriculum. a literature review and workshops including multi-professional and lay representatives generated a role description and a list of 69 competencies. A modified Delphi process was then conducted with three rounds involving a panel of 31 experts including representatives from the RCN, BGS Education and Training Committee, BGS Senior Nurses and Practitioners Group, Chartered Society of Physiotherapy Older People Network, College of Occupational Therapists Older People Specialist Section and lay representatives. Consensus on the statements was established by 70% panel agreement. the role description reached 100% agreement within three rounds. Twenty-five essential competencies were agreed after Round 1, increasing to 43 after Round 2 and 49 after Round 3. this Delphi study has allowed, for the first time, a national panel of clinical experts and lay representatives to refine and agree a set of competencies for ANPs working with older people with frailty. It is the first step towards ensuring consistency in the training of ANPs in geriatric medicine. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL AND PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; MENDOZA RE

    2010-08-11

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  18. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETREIVAL AND PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL

    2010-07-07

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  19. A Reverse Osmosis System for an Advanced Separation Process Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, C. S.; Paccione, J. D.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the development of a pilot unit for use in an advanced separations process laboratory in an effort to develop experiments on such processes as reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, adsorption, and chromatography. Discusses reverse osmosis principles, the experimental system design, and some experimental studies. (TW)

  20. Advanced Biofuels Processing Development Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ABPDU at LBNL has a unique mission to partner with industry, National Labs, Bioenergy Research Centers, and academia to optimize, integrate and scale production...

  1. Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2013-08-15

    petroleum coke calcination process. - Increase the opportunity of heat (chemical and physical) utilization from process off-gases and solid product. - Develop a design of advanced CHP system utilizing off-gases as an “opportunity fuel” for petroleum coke calcinations and sensible heat of calcined coke. A successful accomplishment of the aforementioned objectives will contribute toward the following U.S. DOE programmatic goals: - Drive a 25% reduction in U. S. industrial energy intensity by 2017 in support of EPAct 2005; - Contribute to an 18% reduction in U.S. carbon intensity by 2012 as established by the Administration’s “National Goal to Reduce Emissions Intensity.” 8

  2. Development of advanced Czochralski Growth Process to produce low cost 150 KG silicon ingots from a single crucible for technology readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The goals in this program for advanced czochralski growth process to produce low cost 150 kg silicon ingots from a single crucible for technology readiness are outlined. To provide a modified CG2000 crystal power capable of pulling a minimum of five crystals, each of approximately 30 kg in weight, 150 mm diameter from a single crucible with periodic melt replenishment. Crystals to have: resistivity of 1 to 3 ohm cm, p-type; dislocation density below 1- to the 6th power per cm; orientation (100); after growth yield of greater than 90%. Growth throughput of greater than 2.5 kg per hour of machine operation using a radiation shield. Prototype equipment suitable for use as a production facility. The overall cost goal is $.70 per peak watt by 1986. To accomplish these goals, the modified CG2000 grower and development program includes: (1) increased automation with a microprocessor based control system; (2) sensors development which will increase the capability of the automatic controls system, and provide technology transfer of the developed systems.

  3. Advanced Modular Inverter Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Szczepanek

    2006-02-04

    Electric and hybrid-electric vehicle systems require an inverter to convert the direct current (DC) output of the energy generation/storage system (engine, fuel cells, or batteries) to the alternating current (AC) that vehicle propulsion motors use. Vehicle support systems, such as lights and air conditioning, also use the inverter AC output. Distributed energy systems require an inverter to provide the high quality AC output that energy system customers demand. Today's inverters are expensive due to the cost of the power electronics components, and system designers must also tailor the inverter for individual applications. Thus, the benefits of mass production are not available, resulting in high initial procurement costs as well as high inverter maintenance and repair costs. Electricore, Inc. (www.electricore.org) a public good 501 (c) (3) not-for-profit advanced technology development consortium assembled a highly qualified team consisting of AeroVironment Inc. (www.aerovironment.com) and Delphi Automotive Systems LLC (Delphi), (www.delphi.com), as equal tiered technical leads, to develop an advanced, modular construction, inverter packaging technology that will offer a 30% cost reduction over conventional designs adding to the development of energy conversion technologies for crosscutting applications in the building, industry, transportation, and utility sectors. The proposed inverter allows for a reduction of weight and size of power electronics in the above-mentioned sectors and is scalable over the range of 15 to 500kW. The main objective of this program was to optimize existing AeroVironment inverter technology to improve power density, reliability and producibility as well as develop new topology to reduce line filter size. The newly developed inverter design will be used in automotive and distribution generation applications. In the first part of this program the high-density power stages were redesigned, optimized and fabricated. One of the main

  4. Solar Concentrator Advanced Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knasel, Don; Ehresman, Derik

    1989-01-01

    The Solar Concentrator Advanced Development Project has successfully designed, fabricated, and tested a full scale prototypical solar dynamic concentrator for space station applications. A Truss Hexagonal Panel reflector was selected as a viable solar concentrator concept to be used for space station applications. This concentrator utilizes a modular design approach and is flexible in attainable flux profiles and assembly techniques. The detailed design of the concentrator, which included structural, thermal and optical analysis, identified the feasibility of the design and specific technologies that were required to fabricate it. The needed surface accuracy of the reflectors surface was found to be very tight, within 5 mrad RMS slope error, and results in very close tolerances for fabrication. To meet the design requirements, a modular structure composed of hexagonal panels was used. The panels, made up of graphite epoxy box beams provided the strength, stiffness and dimensional stability needed. All initial project requirements were met or exceeded by hardware demonstration. Initial testing of structural repeatability of a seven panel portion of the concentrator was followed by assembly and testing of the full nineteen panel structure. The testing, which consisted of theodolite and optical measurements over an assembly-disassembly-reassembly cycle, demonstrated that the concentrator maintained the as-built contour and optical characteristics. The facet development effort within the project, which included developing the vapor deposited reflective facet, produced a viable design with demonstrated optical characteristics that are within the project goals.

  5. Advanced uncooled sensor product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, A.; Masini, P.; Lamb, M.; Hamers, J.; Kocian, T.; Gordon, E.; Parrish, W.; Williams, R.; LeBeau, T.

    2015-06-01

    The partnership between RVS, Seek Thermal and Freescale Semiconductor continues on the path to bring the latest technology and innovation to both military and commercial customers. The partnership has matured the 17μm pixel for volume production on the Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) program in efforts to bring advanced production capability to produce a low cost, high performance product. The partnership has developed the 12μm pixel and has demonstrated performance across a family of detector sizes ranging from formats as small as 206 x 156 to full high definition formats. Detector pixel sensitivities have been achieved using the RVS double level advanced pixel structure. Transition of the packaging of microbolometers from a traditional die level package to a wafer level package (WLP) in a high volume commercial environment is complete. Innovations in wafer fabrication techniques have been incorporated into this product line to assist in the high yield required for volume production. The WLP seal yield is currently > 95%. Simulated package vacuum lives >> 20 years have been demonstrated through accelerated life testing where the package has been shown to have no degradation after 2,500 hours at 150°C. Additionally the rugged assembly has shown no degradation after mechanical shock and vibration and thermal shock testing. The transition to production effort was successfully completed in 2014 and the WLP design has been integrated into multiple new production products including the TWS and the innovative Seek Thermal commercial product that interfaces directly to an iPhone or android device.

  6. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B. (eds.) (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA); International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (USA). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  7. Process simulation for advanced composites production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, M.D.; Ferko, S.M.; Griffiths, S. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency and lower the cost of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes used to manufacture advanced ceramics by providing the physical and chemical understanding necessary to optimize and control these processes. Project deliverables include: numerical process models; databases of thermodynamic and kinetic information related to the deposition process; and process sensors and software algorithms that can be used for process control. Target manufacturing techniques include CVD fiber coating technologies (used to deposit interfacial coatings on continuous fiber ceramic preforms), chemical vapor infiltration, thin-film deposition processes used in the glass industry, and coating techniques used to deposit wear-, abrasion-, and corrosion-resistant coatings for use in the pulp and paper, metals processing, and aluminum industries.

  8. Advanced Methods of Biomedical Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This book grew out of the IEEE-EMBS Summer Schools on Biomedical Signal Processing, which have been held annually since 2002 to provide the participants state-of-the-art knowledge on emerging areas in biomedical engineering. Prominent experts in the areas of biomedical signal processing, biomedical data treatment, medicine, signal processing, system biology, and applied physiology introduce novel techniques and algorithms as well as their clinical or physiological applications. The book provides an overview of a compelling group of advanced biomedical signal processing techniques, such as mult

  9. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    1998-12-22

    Advanced, coal-based power plants will require durable and reliable hot gas filtration systems to remove particulate contaminants from the gas streams to protect downstream components such as turbine blades from erosion damage. It is expected that the filter elements in these systems will have to be made of ceramic materials to withstand goal service temperatures of 1600 F or higher. Recent demonstration projects and pilot plant tests have indicated that the current generation of ceramic hot gas filters (cross-flow and candle configurations) are failing prematurely. Two of the most promising materials that have been extensively evaluated are clay-bonded silicon carbide and alumina-mullite porous monoliths. These candidates, however, have been found to suffer progressive thermal shock fatigue damage, as a result of rapid cooling/heating cycles. Such temperature changes occur when the hot filters are back-pulsed with cooler gas to clean them, or in process upset conditions, where even larger gas temperature changes may occur quickly and unpredictably. In addition, the clay-bonded silicon carbide materials are susceptible to chemical attack of the glassy binder phase that holds the SiC particles together, resulting in softening, strength loss, creep, and eventual failure.

  10. Advanced Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar FY 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    Report 3. DATES COVERED (Frorr) - To) 6/2011 to 9/2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advance Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...report describes the technical progress towards the development of signed processing algorithms for hybrid lidar - radar designed to improve...detection performance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Hybrid Lidar

  11. Developing practice protocols for advanced practice nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, S

    1999-08-01

    In most states, the role of an advanced practice nurse is dependent on practice protocols that provide an organized method for analyzing and managing a disease or major symptom. They are also used to control the process of medical care and to specify steps in the delivery of that care. Creating appropriate practice protocols is one of the most important precursors to implementing the advanced practice role, because they virtually drive the clinician's ability to treat or manage clinical situations or disease states. This article outlines the steps involved in developing practice protocols and discusses the content that should be included in a protocol, providing an example of narrative and algorithm format protocols. Pros and cons, as well as legal issues related to practice protocols, are also presented.

  12. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  13. Recent Advances and Challenges in Process Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Lee, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    Process identification is undergoing tremendous developments as computational capabilities improve. Theories are rapidly catching up with the needs of practical applications but practical process identification experiences still reveal significant gaps between theory and practice. This review att...

  14. Product Development Process Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The use of Concurrent Engineering and other modern methods of product development and maintenance require that a large number of time-overlapped "processes" be performed by many people. However, successfully describing and optimizing these processes are becoming even more difficult to achieve. The perspective of industrial process theory (the definition of process) and the perspective of process implementation (process transition, accumulation, and inter-operations between processes) are used to survey the method used to build one base model (multi-view) process model.

  15. Advanced Messaging Concept Development Basic Safety Message

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contains all Basic Safety Messages (BSMs) collected during the Advanced Messaging Concept Development (AMCD) field testing program. For this project, all of the Part...

  16. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Tasks 2, 3, and 4. 1 to 4. 6), Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Volume 2 contains information on the following topics: (1) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (2) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (3) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. (VC)

  17. Recent advances in nonlinear speech processing

    CERN Document Server

    Faundez-Zanuy, Marcos; Esposito, Antonietta; Cordasco, Gennaro; Drugman, Thomas; Solé-Casals, Jordi; Morabito, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in nonlinear speech processing beyond nonlinear techniques. It shows that it exploits heuristic and psychological models of human interaction in order to succeed in the implementations of socially believable VUIs and applications for human health and psychological support. The book takes into account the multifunctional role of speech and what is “outside of the box” (see Björn Schuller’s foreword). To this aim, the book is organized in 6 sections, each collecting a small number of short chapters reporting advances “inside” and “outside” themes related to nonlinear speech research. The themes emphasize theoretical and practical issues for modelling socially believable speech interfaces, ranging from efforts to capture the nature of sound changes in linguistic contexts and the timing nature of speech; labors to identify and detect speech features that help in the diagnosis of psychological and neuronal disease, attempts to improve the effectiveness and performa...

  18. Development of the advanced CANDU technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Soo Dong; Min, Byung Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Na, Y. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Choi, J. H.; Lee, B. C.; Kim, S. N.; Jo, C. H.; Paik, J. S.; On, M. R.; Park, H. S.; Kim, S. R. [Korea Electric Power Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the advanced design technology to improve safety, operability and economy and to develop and advanced safety evaluation system. More realistic and reasonable methodology and modeling was employed to improve safety margin in containment analysis. Various efforts have been made to verify the CATHENA code which is the major safety analysis code for CANDU PHWR system. Fully computerized prototype ECCS was developed. The feasibility study and conceptual design of the distributed digital control system have been performed as well. The core characteristics of advanced fuel cycle, fuel management and power upgrade have been studied to determine the advanced core. (author). 77 refs., 51 tabs., 108 figs.

  19. Technology Development of an Advanced Small-scale Microchannel-type Process Heat Exchanger (PHE) for Hydrogen Production in Iodine-sulfur Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sah, Injin; Kim, Chan Soo; Kim, Yong Wan; Park, Jae-Won; Kim, Eung-Seon; Kim, Min-Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, ongoing manufacturing processes of the components employed in an advanced small-scale microchannel-type PHE are presented. The components, such as mechanically machined microchannels and a diffusion-bonded stack are introduced. Also, preliminary studies on surface treatment techniques for improving corrosion resistance from the corrosive sulfuric environment will be covered. Ongoing manufacturing process for an advanced small-size microchannel-type PHE in KAERI is presented. Through the preliminary studies for optimizing diffusion bonding condition of Hastelloy-X, a diffusion-bonded stack, consisting of primary and secondary side layer by layer, is scheduled to be fabricated in a few months. Also, surface treatment for enhancing the corrosion resistance from the sulfuric acid environment is in progress for the plates with microchannels. A massive production of hydrogen with electricity generation is expected in a Process Heat Exchanger (PHE) in a Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR) system. For the application of hydrogen production, a small-scale gas loop for feasibility testing of a laboratory-scale has constructed and operated in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) as a precursor to an experimental- and a pilot-scale gas loops.

  20. Advanced processes for 193-nm immersion lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Yayi

    2009-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive guide to advanced processes and materials used in 193-nm immersion lithography (193i). It is an important text for those new to the field as well as for current practitioners who want to broaden their understanding of this latest technology. The book can be used as course material for graduate students of electrical engineering, material sciences, physics, chemistry, and microelectronics engineering and can also be used to train engineers involved in the manufacture of integrated circuits. It provides techniques for selecting critical materials (topcoats, photoresi

  1. Advanced monitoring with complex stream processing

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Making sense of metrics and logs for service monitoring can be a complicated task. Valuable information is normally scattered across several streams of monitoring data, requiring aggregation, correlation and time-based analysis to promptly detect problems and failures. This presentations shows a solution which is used to support the advanced monitoring of the messaging services provided by the IT Department. It uses Esper, an open-source software product for Complex Event Processing (CEP), that analyses series of events for deriving conclusions from them.

  2. An Advanced Process of Condensation Performance Evaluation by BIM Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooyung Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in sustainable design for saving energy and improving living conditions. In particular, condensation performance evaluation is a major part of the design phase in which condensation defects in apartment housing are considered. The aim of this work is to propose an advanced process for improving the efficiency and accuracy of evaluations of condensation performance. For this aim, an analysis of the traditional process was performed. The results support a proposed advanced evaluation process, which was then applied to develop a building information modeling (BIM application. The proposed process can be an alternative to the current evaluation process through the use of a BIM application for the automatic process. A case study showed that the advanced process of condensation performance evaluation could save 75.8% of the time compared with the current process. Additionally, from interviews with professionals, it is expected that the proposed process offers a practical means of increasing the efficiency and accuracy of the whole evaluation process.

  3. Advances in heuristic signal processing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Amitava; Siarry, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    There have been significant developments in the design and application of algorithms for both one-dimensional signal processing and multidimensional signal processing, namely image and video processing, with the recent focus changing from a step-by-step procedure of designing the algorithm first and following up with in-depth analysis and performance improvement to instead applying heuristic-based methods to solve signal-processing problems. In this book the contributing authors demonstrate both general-purpose algorithms and those aimed at solving specialized application problems, with a spec

  4. Advanced photovoltaic-trough development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, R.; Yasuda, K.; Merson, B.

    1982-04-01

    The scope of the work on photvoltaic troughs includes analytical studies, hardware development, and component testing. Various aspects of the system have been optimized and improvements have been realized, particularly in the receiver and reflecting surface designs. An empirical system performance model has been developed that closely agrees with measured system performance. This in-depth study of single-axis reflecting linear focus photovoltaic concentrators will be very beneficial in the development of improved models for similar systems as well as other phtovoltaic concentrator designs.

  5. Advanced Color Image Processing and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume does much more than survey modern advanced color processing. Starting with a historical perspective on ways we have classified color, it sets out the latest numerical techniques for analyzing and processing colors, the leading edge in our search to accurately record and print what we see. The human eye perceives only a fraction of available light wavelengths, yet we live in a multicolor world of myriad shining hues. Colors rich in metaphorical associations make us “purple with rage” or “green with envy” and cause us to “see red.” Defining colors has been the work of centuries, culminating in today’s complex mathematical coding that nonetheless remains a work in progress: only recently have we possessed the computing capacity to process the algebraic matrices that reproduce color more accurately. With chapters on dihedral color and image spectrometers, this book provides technicians and researchers with the knowledge they need to grasp the intricacies of today’s color imaging.

  6. Development of an Integrated Multi-Contaminant Removal Process Applied to Warm Syngas Cleanup for Coal-Based Advanced Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard

    2010-11-30

    This project met the objective to further the development of an integrated multi-contaminant removal process in which H2S, NH3, HCl and heavy metals including Hg, As, Se and Cd present in the coal-derived syngas can be removed to specified levels in a single/integrated process step. The process supports the mission and goals of the Department of Energy's Gasification Technologies Program, namely to enhance the performance of gasification systems, thus enabling U.S. industry to improve the competitiveness of gasification-based processes. The gasification program will reduce equipment costs, improve process environmental performance, and increase process reliability and flexibility. Two sulfur conversion concepts were tested in the laboratory under this project, i.e., the solventbased, high-pressure University of California Sulfur Recovery Process High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and the catalytic-based, direct oxidation (DO) section of the CrystaSulf-DO process. Each process required a polishing unit to meet the ultra-clean sulfur content goals of <50 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) as may be necessary for fuel cells or chemical production applications. UCSRP-HP was also tested for the removal of trace, non-sulfur contaminants, including ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and heavy metals. A bench-scale unit was commissioned and limited testing was performed with simulated syngas. Aspen-Plus®-based computer simulation models were prepared and the economics of the UCSRP-HP and CrystaSulf-DO processes were evaluated for a nominal 500 MWe, coal-based, IGCC power plant with carbon capture. This report covers the progress on the UCSRP-HP technology development and the CrystaSulf-DO technology.

  7. Cognitive Development: An Advanced Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.; Lamb, Michael E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This new text consists of parts of Bornstein and Lamb's Developmental Science, 6th edition along with new introductory material that as a whole provides a cutting edge and comprehensive overview of cognitive development. Each of the world-renowned contributors masterfully introduces the history and systems, methodologies, and measurement and…

  8. Cognitive Development: An Advanced Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.; Lamb, Michael E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This new text consists of parts of Bornstein and Lamb's Developmental Science, 6th edition along with new introductory material that as a whole provides a cutting edge and comprehensive overview of cognitive development. Each of the world-renowned contributors masterfully introduces the history and systems, methodologies, and measurement and…

  9. Development of advanced Czochralski growth process to produce low-cost 150 kG silicon ingots from a single crucible for technology readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The modified CG2000 crystal grower construction, installation, and machine check out was completed. The process development check out proceeded with several dry runs and one growth run. Several machine calibrations and functional problems were discovered and corrected. Exhaust gas analysis system alternatives were evaluated and an integrated system approved and ordered. Several growth runs on a development CG2000 RC grower show that complete neck, crown, and body automated growth can be achieved with only one operator input.

  10. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 4.7), Volume 3. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Duthie, R.G. [Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1991-09-01

    The focus of this task is the preparation of (1) preliminary piping and instrument diagrams (P&IDs) and single line electrical diagrams for a site-specific conceptual design and (2) a factored cost estimate for a 24 ton/day (tpd) capacity mild gasification process development unit (PDU) and an associated form coke preparation PDU. The intended site for this facility is the Illinois Coal Development Park at Carterville, Illinois, which is operated by Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. (VC)

  11. Advanced motor-controller development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesster, L. E.; Zeitlin, D. B.; Hall, W. B.

    1983-06-01

    The purpose of this development program was to investigate a promising alternative technique for control of a squirrel cage induction motor for subsea propulsion or hydraulic power applications. The technique uses microprocessor based generation of the pulse width modulation waveforms, which in turn permits use of a true integral volt-second pulse width control for the generation of low harmonic content sine waves from a 3 phase Graetz transistor power bridge.

  12. Recent advances in EEG data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterberg, L H

    1978-01-01

    It is argued that the most interesting advances in EEG signal processing are with methods based on descriptive mathematical models of the process. Formulation of auto-regressive (AR) and mixed autoregressive and moving average (ARMA) models is reviewed for the scalar and the multidimensional cases and extensions to allow time-varying coefficients are pointed out. Data processing with parametric models, DPPM, involves parameter estimation and a large number of algorithms are available. Emphasis is put on those that are simple to apply and require a modest amount of computation. A recursive algorithm by Levinson, Robinson and Durbin is well suited for estimation of the coefficients in the AR model and for tests of model order. It is applicable to both the scalar and multidimensional cases. The ARMA model can be handled by approximation of an AR model or by nonlinear optimization. Recursive estimation with AR and ARMA models is reviewed and the connection with the Kalman filter pointed out. In this way processes with time-varying properties may be handled and a stationarity index is defined. The recursive algorithms can deal with AR or ARMA models in the same way. A reformulation of the algorithm to include sparsely updated parameter estimates significantly speeds up the calculations. It will allow several EEG channels to be handled simultaneously in real time on a modern minicomputer installation. DPPM has been particularly successful in the areas of spectral analysis and detection of short transients such as spikes and sharp waves. Recently some interesting attempts have been made to apply classification algorithms to estimated parameters. A brief review is made of the main results in these areas.

  13. Induced effects of advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Li, Chaolin; Zhao, Zhuanjun; Lu, Gang; Cui, Haibo; Zhang, Wenfang

    2014-02-07

    Hazardous organic wastes from industrial, military, and commercial activities represent one of the greatest challenges to human beings. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are alternatives to the degradation of those organic wastes. However, the knowledge about the exact mechanisms of AOPs is still incomplete. Here we report a phenomenon in the AOPs: induced effects, which is a common property of combustion reaction. Through analysis EDTA oxidation processes by Fenton and UV-Fenton system, the results indicate that, just like combustion, AOPs are typical induction reactions. One most compelling example is that pre-feeding easily oxidizable organic matter can promote the oxidation of refractory organic compound when it was treated by AOPs. Connecting AOPs to combustion, it is possible to achieve some helpful enlightenment from combustion to analyze, predict and understand AOPs. In addition, we assume that maybe other oxidation reactions also have induced effects, such as corrosion, aging and passivation. Muchmore research is necessary to reveal the possibilities of induced effects in those fields.

  14. Design of demonstration facility for advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, W. M.; Koo, J. H.; Jeo, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Lee, E. P.; Baek, S. R.; Lee, K. I.; You, K. S.; Park, S. W. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    The Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process(ACP) was proposed and developed for effective management of the PWR spent fuel. The detail plan was established for demonstration and verification of the ACP, and an existing hot cell will be modified as {alpha}-{gamma} type hot cell. In this study, the process mechanical flow was analysed for the optimum arrangement to ensure effective process operation in hot cell, and the detail design of hot cell including the auxiliary facility and safety analysis was performed to secure conservative safety of hot cell system. And then, this results will be utilized for hot cell refurbishment and license.

  15. Advanced Fuels and Combustion Processes for Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    production from biomass steam reforming – Conduct a feasibility analysis of the proposed integrated process Energia Technologies - D. Nguyen & K. Parimi...strength foam material development by Ultramet – Combustion experiments performed U. Of Alabama – End-user input provided by Solar Turbines Major

  16. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew R. June; John L. Hurley; Mark W. Johnson

    1999-04-01

    Iron aluminide hot gas filters have been developed using powder metallurgy techniques to form seamless cylinders. Three alloys were short-term corrosion tested in simulated IGCC atmospheres with temperatures between 925 F and 1200 F with hydrogen sulfide concentrations ranging from 783 ppm{sub v} to 78,300 ppm{sub v}. Long-term testing was conducted for 1500 hours at 925 F with 78,300 ppm{sub v}. The FAS and FAL alloys were found to be corrosion resistant in the simulated environments. The FAS alloy has been commercialized.

  17. Advanced microbial check valve development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, G. V.; Greenley, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    A flight certified assembly identified as a Microbial Check Valve (MCV) was developed and tested. The MCV is a canister packed with an iodinated anionic exchange resin. The device is used to destroy organisms in a water stream as the water passes through the device. The device is equally effective for fluid flow in either direction and its primary method of organism removal is killing rather than filtering. The MCV was successfully developed for the space shuttle to: disinfect fuel cell water; and prevent back contamination of the stored potable water supply. One version of the device consists of a high residual iodinated resin bed that imparts approximately 2 ppm of iodine to the fuel cell water as it flows to the potable water tanks. A second version of the device consists of a low residual iodinated resin bed. One of these low residual beds is located at each use port in the potable water system for the dual purpose of removing some iodine from the potable water as it is dispensed and also to prevent back contamination of the potable supply.

  18. NASA Advanced Radiator Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, J. Kent; Juhasz, Albert J.

    1994-07-01

    A practical implementation of the two-phase working fluid of lithium and NaK has been developed experimentally for pumped loop radiator designs. The benefits of the high heat capacity and low mass of lithium have been integrated with the shutdown capability enabled by the low freezing temperature of NaK by mixing these liquid metals directly. The stable and reliable start up and shutdown of a lithium/NaK pumped loop has been demonstrated through the development of a novel lithium freeze-separation technique within the flowing header ducts. The results of a highly instrumented liquid metal test loop are presented in which both lithium fraction as well as loop gravitational effects were varied over a wide range of values. Diagnostics based on dual electric probes are presented in which the convective behavior of the lithium component is directly measured during loop operation. The uniform distribution of the lithium after a freeze separation is verified by neutron radiography. The operating regime for reliable freeze/thaw flow behavior is described in terms of correlations based on dimensional analysis.

  19. Evolutionary developments of advanced PWR nuclear fuels and cladding materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyu-Tae, E-mail: ktkim@dongguk.ac.kr

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • PWR fuel and cladding materials development processes are provided. • Evolution of PWR advanced fuel in U.S.A. and in Korea is described. • Cutting-edge design features against grid-to-rod fretting and debris are explained. • High performance data of advanced grids, debris filters and claddings are given. -- Abstract: The evolutionary developments of advanced PWR fuels and cladding materials are explained with outstanding design features of nuclear fuel assembly components and zirconium-base cladding materials. The advanced PWR fuel and cladding materials development processes are also provided along with verification tests, which can be used as guidelines for newcomers planning to develop an advanced fuel for the first time. The up-to-date advanced fuels with the advanced cladding materials may provide a high level of economic utilization and reliable performance even under current and upcoming aggressive operating conditions. To be specific, nuclear fuel vendors may achieve high fuel burnup capability of between 45,000 and 65,000 MWD/MTU batch average, overpower thermal margin of as much as 15% and longer cycle length up to 24 months on the one hand and fuel failure rates of around 10{sup −6} on the other hand. However, there is still a need for better understanding of grid-to-rod fretting wear mechanisms leading to major PWR fuel defects in the world and subsequently a driving force for developing innovative spacer grid designs with zero fretting wear-induced fuel failure.

  20. Advanced development of PV encapsulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, W.; Agro, S.; Galica, J.; Thoma, L.; White, R.; Yorgensen, R.

    1994-11-01

    This report describes work under Phase 2 of a Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology project to conduct laboratory problem definition with an emphasis on controlled aging studies to evaluate the influence of various compositional, processing, and operating parameters on ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) discoloration. In support of future accelerated UV aging studies (AAS) of coupon-sized EVA laminates, an Atlas xenon arc Ci35A Weather-Ometer was procured, installed, and calibrated for temperature and irradiance. In preparing for the AAS studies, UV-visible spectroscopy measurements were performed on various types of low-iron glass, representative of materials used for module superstrates. It was discovered that the transmission spectra of some of the grades in the UV region from 250 to 400 nm was significantly different. Older grades of Solatex and Solite, and StarPhire 'cut off' well below 290 nm, while newer grades of Solatex and Solite, and StarPhire and Airphire greatly reduce the UV transmittance between 280 and 330 nm. Controlled aging studies are presently underway at 0.55 W/m(exp 2), 340 nm, and 100 C, and we expect comparative data on yellowing to be available soon.

  1. Recent Advances in Algal Genetic Tool Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Dahlin, Lukas; T. Guarnieri, Michael

    2016-06-24

    The goal of achieving cost-effective biofuels and bioproducts derived from algal biomass will require improvements along the entire value chain, including identification of robust, high-productivity strains and development of advanced genetic tools. Though there have been modest advances in development of genetic systems for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, progress in development of algal genetic tools, especially as applied to non-model algae, has generally lagged behind that of more commonly utilized laboratory and industrial microbes. This is in part due to the complex organellar structure of algae, including robust cell walls and intricate compartmentalization of target loci, as well as prevalent gene silencing mechanisms, which hinder facile utilization of conventional genetic engineering tools and methodologies. However, recent progress in global tool development has opened the door for implementation of strain-engineering strategies in industrially-relevant algal strains. Here, we review recent advances in algal genetic tool development and applications in eukaryotic microalgae.

  2. Development of advanced LWR fuel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yong Hwan; Park, S. Y.; Lee, M. H. [and others

    2000-04-01

    This report describes the results from evaluating the preliminary Zr-based alloys to develop the advanced Zr-based alloys for the nuclear fuel claddings, which should have good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties at high burn-up over 70,000MWD/MTU. It also includes the results from the basic studies for optimizing the processes which are involved in the development of the advanced Zr-based alloys. Ten(10) kinds of candidates for the alloys of which performance is over that of the existing Zircaloy-4 or ZIRLO alloy were selected out of the preliminary alloys of 150 kinds which were newly designed and repeatedly manufactured and evaluated to find out the promising alloys. First of all, the corrosion tests on the preliminary alloys were carried out to evaluate their performance in both pure water and LiOH solution at 360 deg C and in steam at 400 deg C. The tensile tests were performed on the alloys which proved to be good in the corrosion resistance. The creep behaviors were tested at 400 deg C for 10 days with the application of constant load on the samples which showed good performance in the corrosion resistance and tensile properties. The effect of the final heat treatment and A-parameters as well as Sn or Nb on the corrosion resistance, tensile properties, hardness, microstructures of the alloys was evaluated for some alloys interested. The other basic researches on the oxides, electrochemical properties, corrosion mechanism, and the establishment of the phase diagrams of some alloys were also carried out.

  3. Asset health monitors: development, sustainment, advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauss, Fredrick J.

    2011-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed the Captive Carry Health Monitor Unit (HMU) and the Humidity Indicator HMU. Each of these devices provides end users information that can be used to ensure the proper maintenance and performance of the missile. These two efforts have led to the ongoing development and evolution of the next generation Captive Carry HMU and the next generation Humidity Indicator HMU. These next generation efforts are in turn, leading to the future of HMUs. This evolutionary development process inherently allows for direct and indirect impact toward new HMU functionality, operability and performance characteristics by influencing their requirements, testing, communications, data archival, and user interaction. Current designs allow systems to operate in environments outside the limits of typical consumer electronics for up to or exceeding 10 years. These designs are battery powered and typically provided in custom mechanical packages that employ sensors for temperature, shock/vibration, and humidity measurements. The data taken from these sensors is then analyzed onboard using unique algorithms. The algorithms are developed from test data and fielded prototypes. Onboard data analysis provides field users with a simple indication of missile exposure. The HMU provides missile readiness information to the user based on storage and use conditions observed. To continually advance current designs PNNL evaluates the potential for enhancing sensor capabilities by improving performance or power saving features, increasing algorithm and processing abilities, and adding new features. Future work at PNNL includes the utilization of power harvesting, using a defined wireless protocol, and defining a data/information structure. These efforts will lead to improved performance allowing the HMUs to benefit users with direct access to HMUs in the field as well as benefiting those with the ability to make strategic and high-level supply and

  4. Casting Process Developments for Improving Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mahallawy, Nahed A.; Taha, Mohamed A.

    1985-09-01

    This paper presents a short synopsis of the important developments in casting/solidification processes, as well as the important advances in the conventional methods. These developments are discussed related to quality aspects. The position of each process with respect to practice, as well as expected gains in cost, are examined. The paper briefly features the author's work on innovative processes (directional solidification, rheocasting, squeeze-casting and rapid solidification) as well as work of other investigators on developments in conventional methods.

  5. Advanced Electrical Materials and Component Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2003-01-01

    The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and improved materials for magnetic components (transformers, inductors, etc.), capacitors, and semiconductor switches and diodes. This paper will give a description and status of the internal and external research sponsored by NASA Glenn Research Center on soft magnetic materials, dielectric materials and capacitors, and high quality silicon carbide (SiC) atomically smooth substrates. The rationale for and the benefits of developing advanced electrical materials and components for the PMAD subsystem and also for the total power system will be briefly discussed.

  6. Natural language processing and advanced information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoard, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.

  7. Development of Specialized Advanced Materials Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmgren, Thomas; And Others

    This course is intended to give students a comprehensive experience in current and future manufacturing materials and processes. It familiarizes students with: (1) base of composite materials; (2) composites--a very light, strong material used in spacecraft and stealth aircraft; (3) laminates; (4) advanced materials--especially aluminum alloys;…

  8. The role of sustainable process technologies in the development of advanced magnesium substances; Die Rolle nachhaltiger Prozesstechnologien bei der Entwicklung fortschrittlicher Magnesium-Werkstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Gerrit; Letzig, Dietmar; Kainer, Karl Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (Germany). Magnesium Innovation Centre

    2013-01-15

    Twin-roll casting (TRC) is an economic production process for the generation of fine-grained strips that subsequently can be warm rolled to thin sheets. It therefore receives some attention in actual research and development projects for the application on magnesium alloys as prospective light metal solutions. This production process for thin strips combines solidification and rolling into one single production step and therefore saves a number of rolling and annealing passes in comparison to the conventional rolling process. In the twin roll casting process liquid metal is pumped from the cleaning furnace through a tube into a tundish. The liquid metal flows by gravity through the tip into the gap of the rolls of the twin roll caster. The metal exiting the tip solidifies on the rolls into a strip that is further deformed by the rolls. Important features of the strip such as microstructure and texture are influenced by the position of the solidification front. The position of the solidification front is controlled mainly by the melt temperature and the strip speed. Its position influences the degree of deformation in the strip. If the solidification front is located at the exit of the tip, the degree of deformation increases because the strip is fully solidified before entering the rolls. If the solidification front moves to the kissing point of the rolls, the strip is not completely solidified and the degree of solid-state deformation decreases. This paper reports on results of twin roll casting experiments on the magnesium alloy AZ31 (Mg-3Al-1Zn-Mn). The influence of process parameters on the microstructure of the strip is presented and discussed with respect to arising material properties. By future optimisation of process parameters of twin roll casting and the subsequent rolling of the sheets, the possibility is offered to produce high quality sheet material. (orig.)

  9. Technology readiness levels for advanced nuclear fuels and materials development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, W.J., E-mail: jon.carmack@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Braase, L.A.; Wigeland, R.A. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Todosow, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Definition of nuclear fuels system technology readiness level. • Identification of evaluation criteria for nuclear fuel system TRLs. • Application of TRLs to fuel systems. - Abstract: The Technology Readiness process quantitatively assesses the maturity of a given technology. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) pioneered the process in the 1980s to inform the development and deployment of new systems for space applications. The process was subsequently adopted by the Department of Defense (DoD) to develop and deploy new technology and systems for defense applications. It was also adopted by the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the maturity of new technologies in major construction projects. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is needed to improve the performance and safety of current and advanced reactors, and ultimately close the nuclear fuel cycle. Because deployment of new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the assessment process to advanced fuel development is useful as a management, communication, and tracking tool. This article provides definition of technology readiness levels (TRLs) for nuclear fuel technology as well as selected examples regarding the methods by which TRLs are currently used to assess the maturity of nuclear fuels and materials under development in the DOE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Program within the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC).

  10. Policy issues inherent in advanced technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, P.D.

    1994-12-31

    In the development of advanced technologies, there are several forces which are involved in the success of the development of those technologies. In the overall development of new technologies, a sufficient number of these forces must be present and working in order to have a successful opportunity at developing, introducing and integrating into the marketplace a new technology. This paper discusses some of these forces and how they enter into the equation for success in advanced technology research, development, demonstration, commercialization and deployment. This paper limits itself to programs which are generally governmental funded, which in essence represent most of the technology development efforts that provide defense, energy and environmental technological products. Along with the identification of these forces are some suggestions as to how changes may be brought about to better ensure success in a long term to attempt to minimize time and financial losses.

  11. Development of the advanced CANDU technology -Development of CANDU advanced fuel fabrication technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Bum; Park, Choon Hoh; Park, Chul Joo; Kwon, Woo Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    This project is carrying out jointly with AECL to develop CANFLEX fuel which can enhance reactor safety, fuel economy and can be used with various fuel cycles (natural U, slightly enriched U, other advanced fuel). The final goal of this research is to load the CANFLEX fuel in commercial CANDU reactor for demonstration irradiation. The annual portion of research activities performed during this year are followings ; The detail design of CANFLEX-NU fuel was determined. Based on this design, various fabrication drawings and process specifications were revised. The seventeen CANFLEX-NU fuel bundles for reactivity test in ZED-2 and out-pile test, two CANFLEX-SEU fuel bundles for demo-irradiation in NRU were fabricated. Advanced tack welding machine was designed and sequence control software of automatic assembly welder was developed. The basic researches related to fabrication processes, such as weld evaluation by ECT, effect of additives in UO{sub 2}, thermal stabilities of Zr based metallic glasses, were curried out. 51 figs, 22 tabs, 42 refs. (Author).

  12. Treeline advance - driving processes and adverse factors

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The general trend of climatically-driven treeline advance is modified by regional, local and temporal variations. Treelines will not advance in a closed front parallel to the shift of any isotherm to higher elevations and more northern latitudes. The effects of varying topography on site conditions and the after-effects of historical disturbances by natural and anthropogenic factors may override the effects of slightly higher average temperatures. Moreover, the varying treeline-forming specie...

  13. ADVANCED CONTROL OF A COMPLEX CHEMICAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Both

    Full Text Available Abstract Three phase catalytic hydrogenation reactors are important reactors with complex behavior due to the interaction among gas, solid and liquid phases with the kinetic, mass and heat transfer mechanisms. A nonlinear distributed parameter model was developed based on mass and energy conservation principles. It consists of balance equations for the gas and liquid phases, so that a system of partial differential equations is generated. Because detailed nonlinear mathematical models are not suitable for use in controller design, a simple linear mathematical model of the process, which describes its most important properties, was determined. Both developed mathematical models were validated using plant data. The control strategies proposed in this paper are a multivariable Smith Predictor PID controller and multivariable Smith Predictor structure in which the primary controllers are derived based on Internal Model Control. Set-point tracking and disturbance rejection tests are presented for both methods based on scenarios implemented in Matlab/SIMULINK.

  14. Advanced IGCC/Hydrogen Gas Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, William [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Hughes, Michael [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Berry, Jonathan [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Russell, Tamara [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Lau, Y. C. [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Liu, Shan [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Arnett, Michael [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Peck, Arthur [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Tralshawala, Nilesh [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Weber, Joseph [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Benjamin, Marc [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Iduate, Michelle [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Kittleson, Jacob [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Garcia-Crespo, Andres [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Delvaux, John [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Casanova, Fernando [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Lacy, Ben [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Brzek, Brian [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Wolfe, Chris [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Palafox, Pepe [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Ding, Ben [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Badding, Bruce [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); McDuffie, Dwayne [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Zemsky, Christine [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2015-07-30

    The objective of this program was to develop the technologies required for a fuel flexible (coal derived hydrogen or syngas) gas turbine for IGCC that met DOE turbine performance goals. The overall DOE Advanced Power System goal was to conduct the research and development (R&D) necessary to produce coal-based IGCC power systems with high efficiency, near-zero emissions, and competitive capital cost. To meet this goal, the DOE Fossil Energy Turbine Program had as an interim objective of 2 to 3 percentage points improvement in combined cycle (CC) efficiency. The final goal is 3 to 5 percentage points improvement in CC efficiency above the state of the art for CC turbines in IGCC applications at the time the program started. The efficiency goals were for NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm NOx (@15 % O2). As a result of the technologies developed under this program, the DOE goals were exceeded with a projected 8 point efficiency improvement. In addition, a new combustion technology was conceived of and developed to overcome the challenges of burning hydrogen and achieving the DOE’s NOx goal. This report also covers the developments under the ARRA-funded portion of the program that include gas turbine technology advancements for improvement in the efficiency, emissions, and cost performance of gas turbines for industrial applications with carbon capture and sequestration. Example applications could be cement plants, chemical plants, refineries, steel and aluminum plants, manufacturing facilities, etc. The DOE’s goal for more than 5 percentage point improvement in efficiency was met with cycle analyses performed for representative IGCC Steel Mill and IGCC Refinery applications. Technologies were developed in this program under the following areas: combustion, larger latter stage buckets, CMC and EBC, advanced materials and coatings, advanced configurations to reduce cooling, sealing and rotor purge flows, turbine aerodynamics, advanced sensors, advancements in first

  15. H Scan/AHP advanced technology proposal evaluation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, S. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Valladares, M.R.S. de [National Renewable Energy Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    It is anticipated that a family of high value/impact projects will be funded by the Hydrogen Program to field test hydrogen technologies that are at advanced stages of development. These projects will add substantial value to the Program in several ways, by: demonstrating successful integration of multiple advanced technologies, providing critical insight on issues of larger scale equipment design, construction and operations management, yielding cost and performance data for competitive analysis, refining and deploying enhanced safety measures. These projects will be selected through a competitive proposal evaluation process. Because of the significant scope and funding levels of projects at these development phases, Program management has indicated the need for an augmented proposal evaluation strategy to ensure that supported projects are implemented by capable investigative teams and that their successful completion will optimally advance programmatic objectives. These objectives comprise a complex set of both quantitative and qualitative factors, many of which can only be estimated using expert judgment and opinion. To meet the above need, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Energetics Inc. have jointly developed a proposal evaluation methodology called H Scan/AHP. The H Scan component of the process was developed by NREL. It is a two-part survey instrument that substantially augments the type and scope of information collected in a traditional proposal package. The AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) component was developed by Energetics. The AHP is an established decision support methodology that allows the Program decision makers to evaluate proposals relatively based on a unique set of weighted criteria that they have determined.

  16. Development of advanced inductive scenarios for ITER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luce, T. C.; Challis, C. D.; Ide, S.; Joffrin, E.; Kamada, Y.; Polizer, P. A.; Schweinzer, J.; Sips, A.C.C.; Stober, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Kessel, C. E.; Murakami, M.; Na, Y.-S.; Park, J. M.; Polevoi, A. R.; Budny, R. V.; Citrin, J.; Garcia, J.; Hayashi, N.; Hobirk, J.; Hudson, B. F.; Imbeaux, F.; Isayama, A.; McDonald, D. C.; Nakano, T.; Oyama, N.; Parail, V.V.; Petrie, T. W.; Petty, C. C.; Suzuki, T.; Wade, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    Since its inception in 2002, the International Tokamak Physics Activity topical group on Integrated Operational Scenarios (IOS) has coordinated experimental and modelling activity on the development of advanced inductive scenarios for applications in the ITER tokamak. The physics basis and the prosp

  17. Advanced seismic imaging for geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, John [UNR; Pullammanappallil, Satish [Optim; Honjas, Bill [Optim

    2016-08-01

    J. N. Louie, Pullammanappallil, S., and Honjas, W., 2011, Advanced seismic imaging for geothermal development: Proceedings of the New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 2011, Nov. 21-23, Auckland, paper 32, 7 pp. Preprint available at http://crack.seismo.unr.edu/geothermal/Louie-NZGW11.pdf

  18. Research and Development of Advanced Gas Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    The program “Advanced Gas Turbine” successfully completed in FY 1987, having been started in FY 1978 as a part of the “Moonlight Project”, the National research and development program for energy conservation promoted by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. The purpose of this program was to establish the technologies for the combined cycle power generation system, which has an overall thermal efficiency of 55% (LHV), by developing...

  19. Advanced Cell Development and Degradation Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; R. C. O' Brien; K. G. Condie; M. Sohal; G. K. Housley; J. J. Hartvigsen; D. Larsen; G. Tao; B. Yildiz; V. Sharma; P. Singh; N. Petigny; T. L. Cable

    2010-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cells for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. From 2003 – 2009, this work was sponsored by the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). Starting in 2010, the HTE research program has been sponsored by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program. HTSE research priorities in FY10 are centered on understanding and reducing cell and stack performance degradation to an acceptable level to advance the technology readiness level of HTSE and to justify further large-scale demonstration activities. This report provides a summary of our FY10 experimental program, which has been focused on advanced cell and stack development and degradation studies. Advanced cell and stack development activities are under way at five technology partners: MSRI, Versa Power, Ceramatec, NASA Glenn, and St. Gobain. Performance evaluation of the advanced technology cells and stacks has been performed by the technology partners, by MIT and the University of Connecticut and at the INL HTE Laboratory. Summaries of these development activities and test results are presented.

  20. Advanced laser processing in fuel cells production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stollhof, J.; Havrilla, D.; Schaupp, R. [TRUMPF Inc., Plymouth, MI (United States); Loeffler, K. [TRUMPF Laser und Systemtechnik TLD, Ditzingen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed TRUMPF methods of joining bipolar plates to create fuel cell stacks and manufacture thin foils using diode pumped solid state lasers (DPSSLs). Beam delivery systems and processing optics were discussed. CW disk lasers were used to allow spot diameters smaller than 30 {mu}m and combined with a Galvo technology-based scanning optics systems to enable welding speeds greater than 1 m/s. A TruFiber 300 diffraction limited fiber laser was used for CW laser cutting. Short and ultra-short laser pulses were used to drill thousands of holes per second without a measurable heat-affected zone. The attributes and specifications of the 3 major TRUMPF lasers developed to manufacture fuel cells were also provided.

  1. Developing an Advanced Lab course from scratch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Rudi

    2012-10-01

    A few years ago the Alpha group in APS organized faculty with interests in advanced lab courses in physics. At the University of Wyoming, we re-launched an advanced lab course after doing more than 15 years without one. Our majors had to take an electronic course in the Electrical Engineering department to get familiar with any kind of electronic equipment. Now we are in the fourth teaching session of the advanced Modern Physics lab and we will expand the course into a two-term course beginning spring 2013. Forty-five majors have gone through our labs, We developed an oral exam tradition, which is now beginning to lend our department upper level outcome assessment credibility for campus wide assessment.

  2. Fundamental Materials Research and Advanced Process Development for Thin-Film CIS-Based Photovoltaics: Final Technical Report, 2 October 2001 - 30 September 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T. J.; Li, S. S.; Crisalle, O. D.; Craciun, V.

    2006-09-01

    The objectives for this thin-film copper-indium-diselenide (CIS) solar cell project cover the following areas: Develop and characterize buffer layers for CIS-based solar cell; grow and characterize chemical-bath deposition of Znx Cd1-xS buffer layers grown on CIGS absorbers; study effects of buffer-layer processing on CIGS thin films characterized by the dual-beam optical modulation technique; grow epitaxial CuInSe2 at high temperature; study the defect structure of CGS by photoluminescence spectroscopy; investigate deep-level defects in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by deep-level transient spectroscopy; conduct thermodynamic modeling of the isothermal 500 C section of the Cu-In-Se system using a defect model; form alpha-CuInSe2 by rapid thermal processing of a stacked binary compound bilayer; investigate pulsed non-melt laser annealing on the film properties and performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells; and conduct device modeling and simulation of CIGS solar cells.

  3. Advanced plasma diagnostics for plasma processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, Mikhail Victorovich

    1999-10-01

    A new, non-intrusive, non-perturbing diagnostic method was developed that can be broadly applied to low pressure, weakly ionized plasmas and glow discharges-trace rare gases optical emission spectroscopy (TRG-OES). The method is based on a comparison of intensities of atomic emission from trace amounts of inert gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) that are added to the discharge to intensities calculated from the theoretical model. The model assumes a Maxwellian electron energy distribution function (EEDF), computes the population of emitting levels both from the ground state and the metastable states of rare gases, and from the best fit between theory and experiment determines electron temperature (Te). Subject to conditions, TRG-OES can also yield electron density or its upper or lower limit. From the comparison of the emission from levels excited predominantly by high energy electrons to that excited by low energy electrons, information about the EEDF can be obtained. The use of TRG-OES also allows a traditionally qualitative actinometry technique (determination of concentration of radical species in plasma through optical emission) to become a precise quantitative method by including Te and rare gases metastables effects. A combination of TRG-OES, advanced actinometry, and Langmuir probe measurements was applied to several different plasma reactors and regimes of operation. Te measurements and experiments to correct excitation cross section were conducted in a laboratory helical resonator. Two chamber configuration of a commercial (Lam Research) metal etcher were studied to determine the effects of plasma parameters on plasma-induced damage. Two different methods (RF inductive coupling and ultra-high frequency coupling) for generating a plasma in a prototype reactor were also studied. Pulsed plasmas, a potential candidate to eliminate the plasma-induced damage to microelectronics devices that occurs in manufacturing due to differential charging of the wafer, have

  4. Advanced Technology Development for Stirling Convertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2004-01-01

    A high-efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) for use on potential NASA Space Science missions is being developed by the Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Stirling Technology Company, and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). These missions may include providing spacecraft onboard electric power for deep space missions or power for unmanned Mars rovers. GRC is also developing advanced technology for Stirling convertors, aimed at substantially improving the specific power and efficiency of the convertor and the overall power system. Performance and mass improvement goals have been established for second- and thirdgeneration Stirling radioisotope power systems. Multiple efforts are underway to achieve these goals, both in-house at GRC and under various grants and contracts. The status and results to date for these efforts will be discussed in this paper. Cleveland State University (CSU) is developing a multi-dimensional Stirling computational fluid dynamics code, capable of modeling complete convertors. A 2-D version of the code is now operational, and validation efforts at both CSU and the University of Minnesota are complementing the code development. A screening of advanced superalloy, refractory metal alloy, and ceramic materials has been completed, and materials have been selected for creep and joining characterization as part of developing a high-temperature heater head. A breadboard characterization is underway for an advanced controller using power electronics for active power factor control with a goal of eliminating the heavy tuning capacitors that are typically needed to achieve near unity power factors. Key Stirling developments just initiated under recent NRA (NASA Research Announcement) awards will also be discussed. These include a lightweight convertor to be developed by Sunpower Inc. and an advanced microfabricated regenerator to be done by CSU.

  5. Technology advancement of the static feed water electrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A program to advance the technology of oxygen- and hydrogen-generating subsystems based on water electrolysis was studied. Major emphasis was placed on static feed water electrolysis, a concept characterized by low power consumption and high intrinsic reliability. The static feed based oxygen generation subsystem consists basically of three subassemblies: (1) a combined water electrolysis and product gas dehumidifier module; (2) a product gas pressure controller and; (3) a cyclically filled water feed tank. Development activities were completed at the subsystem as well as at the component level. An extensive test program including single cell, subsystem and integrated system testing was completed with the required test support accessories designed, fabricated, and assembled. Mini-product assurance activities were included throughout all phases of program activities. An extensive number of supporting technology studies were conducted to advance the technology base of the static feed water electrolysis process and to resolve problems.

  6. Technological Advances and Opportunities for the Development of Sustainable Biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussatto, Solange I.

    have been taken in recent years into the transition towards a bio-based economy, there are still significant technological challenges to overcome in order to develop more efficient, advanced and sustainable bio-based processes, able to compete with the optimized petrochemical production chains...

  7. Development of advanced neutron beam technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, B. S.; Lee, J. S.; Sim, C. M. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of this work is to timely support the national science and technology policy through development of the advanced application techniques for neutron spectrometers, built in the previous project, in order to improve the neutron spectrometer techniques up to the world-class level in both quantity and quality and to reinforce industrial competitiveness. The importance of the research and development (R and D) is as follows: 1. Technological aspects - Development of a high value-added technology through performing the advanced R and D in the broad research areas from basic to applied science and from hard to soft condensed matter using neutron scattering technique. - Achievement of an important role in development of the new technology for the following industries aerospace, defense industry, atomic energy, hydrogen fuel cell etc. by the non-destructive inspection and analysis using neutron radiography. - Development of a system supporting the academic-industry users for the HANARO facility 2. Economical and Industrial Aspects - Essential technology in the industrial application of neutron spectrometer, in the basic and applied research of the diverse materials sciences, and in NT, BT, and IT areas - Broad impact on the economics and the domestic and international collaborative research by using the neutron instruments in the mega-scale research facility, HANARO, that is a unique source of neutron in Korea. 3. Social Aspects - Creating the scientific knowledge and contributing to the advanced industrial society through the neutron beam application - Improving quality of life and building a national consensus on the application of nuclear power by developing the RT fusion technology using the HANARO facility. - Widening the national research area and strengthening the national R and D capability by performing advanced R and D using the HANARO facility.

  8. Proton Testing of Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Gøsta; Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, Finn E

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland.......The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland....

  9. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.6, Economic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, L.R. [Xytel-Bechtel, Inc. (United States); Hogsett, R.F. [AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States); Sinor, J.E. [Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (United States); Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.D. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    1992-10-01

    The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.

  10. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories` operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  11. Treeline advance - driving processes and adverse factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.-K. Holtmeier

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The general trend of climatically-driven treeline advance is modified by regional, local and temporal variations. Treelines will not advance in a closed front parallel to the shift of any isotherm to higher elevations and more northern latitudes. The effects of varying topography on site conditions and the after-effects of historical disturbances by natural and anthropogenic factors may override the effects of slightly higher average temperatures. Moreover, the varying treeline-forming species respond in different ways to a changing climate. Forest advance upwards and northwards primarily depends on successful regeneration and survival of young growth rather than on increasing growth rates of mature trees. Every assessment of treeline response to future climate change must consider the effects of local site conditions and feedbacks of in-creasing tree population in modulating the climatically-driven change. Treeline-shift will influence regional and local climates, pedogenesis, plant communities, animal populations and biodiversity as well as having a considerable effect on economic changes in primary production. A better understanding of the functional relationships between the many treeline-relevant factors and treeline dynamics can be achieved only by extensive research at different scales within different climatic regions supported by as many as possible experimental studies in the field together with laboratory and remote sensing techniques.

  12. Integration of Advanced Simulation and Visualization for Manufacturing Process Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenn; Wang, Jichao; Tang, Guangwu; Moreland, John; Fu, Dong; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    The integration of simulation and visualization can provide a cost-effective tool for process optimization, design, scale-up and troubleshooting. The Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation (CIVS) at Purdue University Northwest has developed methodologies for such integration with applications in various manufacturing processes. The methodologies have proven to be useful for virtual design and virtual training to provide solutions addressing issues on energy, environment, productivity, safety, and quality in steel and other industries. In collaboration with its industrial partnerships, CIVS has provided solutions to companies, saving over US38 million. CIVS is currently working with the steel industry to establish an industry-led Steel Manufacturing Simulation and Visualization Consortium through the support of National Institute of Standards and Technology AMTech Planning Grant. The consortium focuses on supporting development and implementation of simulation and visualization technologies to advance steel manufacturing across the value chain.

  13. Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes: today and tomorrow. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirés, Ignasi; Brillas, Enric; Oturan, Mehmet A; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Panizza, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, new advanced oxidation processes based on the electrochemical technology, the so-called electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), have been developed for the prevention and remediation of environmental pollution, especially focusing on water streams. These methods are based on the electrochemical generation of a very powerful oxidizing agent, such as the hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) in solution, which is then able to destroy organics up to their mineralization. EAOPs include heterogeneous processes like anodic oxidation and photoelectrocatalysis methods, in which (•)OH are generated at the anode surface either electrochemically or photochemically, and homogeneous processes like electro-Fenton, photoelectro-Fenton, and sonoelectrolysis, in which (•)OH are produced in the bulk solution. This paper presents a general overview of the application of EAOPs on the removal of aqueous organic pollutants, first reviewing the most recent works and then looking to the future. A global perspective on the fundamentals and experimental setups is offered, and laboratory-scale and pilot-scale experiments are examined and discussed.

  14. Advanced Photonic Processes for Photovoltaic and Energy Storage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygletou, Maria; Petridis, Constantinos; Kymakis, Emmanuel; Stratakis, Emmanuel

    2017-08-24

    Solar-energy harvesting through photovoltaic (PV) conversion is the most promising technology for long-term renewable energy production. At the same time, significant progress has been made in the development of energy-storage (ES) systems, which are essential components within the cycle of energy generation, transmission, and usage. Toward commercial applications, the enhancement of the performance and competitiveness of PV and ES systems requires the adoption of precise, but simple and low-cost manufacturing solutions, compatible with large-scale and high-throughput production lines. Photonic processes enable cost-efficient, noncontact, highly precise, and selective engineering of materials via photothermal, photochemical, or photophysical routes. Laser-based processes, in particular, provide access to a plethora of processing parameters that can be tuned with a remarkably high degree of precision to enable innovative processing routes that cannot be attained by conventional approaches. The focus here is on the application of advanced light-driven approaches for the fabrication, as well as the synthesis, of materials and components relevant to PV and ES systems. Besides presenting recent advances on recent achievements, the existing limitations are outlined and future possibilities and emerging prospects discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Integration of advanced nuclear materials separation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Worl, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Berg, J.M.; Neu, M.P.; Reilly, S.D.; Buelow, S.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project has examined the fundamental chemistry of plutonium that affects the integration of hydrothermal technology into nuclear materials processing operations. Chemical reactions in high temperature water allow new avenues for waste treatment and radionuclide separation.Successful implementation of hydrothermal technology offers the potential to effective treat many types of radioactive waste, reduce the storage hazards and disposal costs, and minimize the generation of secondary waste streams. The focus has been on the chemistry of plutonium(VI) in solution with carbonate since these are expected to be important species in the effluent from hydrothermal oxidation of Pu-containing organic wastes. The authors investigated the structure, solubility, and stability of the key plutonium complexes. Installation and testing of flow and batch hydrothermal reactors in the Plutonium Facility was accomplished. Preliminary testing with Pu-contaminated organic solutions gave effluent solutions that readily met discard requirements. A new effort in FY 1998 will build on these promising initial results.

  16. Advanced technology development reducing CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sup

    2010-09-15

    Responding to Korean government policies on green growth and global energy/ environmental challenges, SK energy has been developing new technologies to reduce CO2 emissions by 1) CO2 capture and utilization, 2) efficiency improvement, and 3) Li-ion batteries. The paper introduces three advanced technologies developed by SK energy; GreenPol, ACO, and Li-ion battery. Contributing to company vision, a more energy and less CO2, the three technologies are characterized as follows. GreenPol utilizes CO2 as a feedstock for making polymer. Advanced Catalytic Olefin (ACO) reduces CO2 emission by 20% and increase olefin production by 17%. Li-ion Batteries for automotive industries improves CO2 emission.

  17. Advanced 80 We Stirling Convertor Development Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Gary; Carroll, Cliff; Penswick, L. B.

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents progress on the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) being developed by Sunpower and Boeing/Rocketdyne under NASA NRA funding. The ASC will use a high temperature heater head to allow for operation at 850 °C. The ASC is projected to have an efficiency approaching 40% (AC electrical out/ heat in) when operating at a temperature ratio of 3.0, and to have a convertor specific power of 90 We/kg (AC). An early developmental unit, the Frequency Test Bed (FTB) convertor, has already demonstrated 36% efficiency (based on AC electrical out) at this temperature ratio. The ASC is being developed for potential use in advanced radioisotope space power systems. The increased efficiency of this Stirling convertor compared to RTGs, would reduce the required amount of Plutonium fuel by a factor of approximately 5.

  18. ARDENT to develop advanced dosimetric techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Earlier this week, the EU-supported Marie Curie training network ARDENT kicked off at a meeting held at CERN. The overall aim of the project is the development of advanced instrumentation for radiation dosimetry. The applications range from radiation measurements around particle accelerators, onboard commercial flights and in space, to the characterization of radioactive waste and medicine, where accurate dosimetry is of vital importance.   The ARDENT (Advanced Radiation Dosimetry European Network Training) project is both a research and a training programme, which aims at developing new dosimetric techniques while providing 15 Early-Stage Researchers (ESR) with state-of-the-art training. The project, coordinated by CERN, is funded by the European Union with a contribution of about 3.9 million euros over four years. The ARDENT initiative will focus on three main technologies: gas detectors, in particular Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) and Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counters (TEPC); solid stat...

  19. Advanced imaging research and development at DARPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Nibir K.; Dat, Ravi

    2012-06-01

    Advances in imaging technology have huge impact on our daily lives. Innovations in optics, focal plane arrays (FPA), microelectronics and computation have revolutionized camera design. As a result, new approaches to camera design and low cost manufacturing is now possible. These advances are clearly evident in visible wavelength band due to pixel scaling, improvements in silicon material and CMOS technology. CMOS cameras are available in cell phones and many other consumer products. Advances in infrared imaging technology have been slow due to market volume and many technological barriers in detector materials, optics and fundamental limits imposed by the scaling laws of optics. There is of course much room for improvements in both, visible and infrared imaging technology. This paper highlights various technology development projects at DARPA to advance the imaging technology for both, visible and infrared. Challenges and potentials solutions are highlighted in areas related to wide field-of-view camera design, small pitch pixel, broadband and multiband detectors and focal plane arrays.

  20. Advances in Process Intensification through Multifunctional Reactor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hern, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center; Evans, Lindsay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Sciences and Engineering Center; Miller, Jim [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Sciences and Engineering Center; Cooper, Marcia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energetic Components Realization Center; Torczynski, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pena, Donovan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gill, Walt [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center

    2011-02-01

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes associated with pulse flow for implementation in commercial applications. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operated a pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiment for operation with and investigation of pulse flow operation. Validation-quality data sets of the fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and chemical kinetics were acquired and shared with Chemical Research and Licensing (CR&L). Experiments in a two-phase air-water system examined the effects of bead diameter in the packing, and viscosity. Pressure signals were used to detect pulsing. Three-phase experiments used immiscible organic and aqueous liquids, and air or nitrogen as the gas phase. Hydrodynamic studies of flow regimes and holdup were performed for different types of packing, and mass transfer measurements were performed for a woven packing. These studies substantiated the improvements in mass transfer anticipated for pulse flow in multifunctional reactors for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process. CR&L developed packings for this alkylation process, utilizing their alkylation process pilot facilities in Pasadena, TX. These packings were evaluated in the pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiments established by Sandia to develop a more fundamental understanding of their role in process intensification. Lummus utilized the alkylation technology developed by CR&L to design and optimize the full commercial process utilizing multifunctional reactors containing the packings developed by CR&L and evaluated by Sandia. This hydrodynamic information has been developed for multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow, for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process, and is now accessible for use in

  1. The Advanced Stellar Compass, Development and Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1996-01-01

    The science objective of the Danish Geomagnetic Research Satellite "Ørsted" is to map the magnetic field of the Earth, with a vector precision of a fraction of a nanotesla. This necessitates an attitude reference instrument with a precision of a few arcseconds onboard the satellite. To meet...... this demand the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), a fully autonomous miniature star tracker, was developed. This ASC is capable of both solving the "lost in space" problem and determine the attitude with arcseconds precision. The development, principles of operation and instrument autonomy of the ASC...

  2. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  3. The Advanced Stellar Compass, Development and Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1996-01-01

    The science objective of the Danish Geomagnetic Research Satellite "Ørsted" is to map the magnetic field of the Earth, with a vector precision of a fraction of a nanotesla. This necessitates an attitude reference instrument with a precision of a few arcseconds onboard the satellite. To meet...... this demand the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), a fully autonomous miniature star tracker, was developed. This ASC is capable of both solving the "lost in space" problem and determine the attitude with arcseconds precision. The development, principles of operation and instrument autonomy of the ASC...

  4. Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. SEGIS developments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, Mesa P. (Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., Bend, OR); Bower, Ward Isaac; Mills-Price, Michael A. (Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., Bend, OR); Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo

    2012-03-01

    The Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) initiative is a three-year, three-stage project that includes conceptual design and market analysis (Stage 1), prototype development/testing (Stage 2), and commercialization (Stage 3). Projects focus on system development of solar technologies, expansion of intelligent renewable energy applications, and connecting large-scale photovoltaic (PV) installations into the electric grid. As documented in this report, Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. (AE), its partners, and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully collaborated to complete the final stage of the SEGIS initiative, which has guided new technology development and development of methodologies for unification of PV and smart-grid technologies. The combined team met all deliverables throughout the three-year program and commercialized a broad set of the developed technologies.

  5. Advanced heat pump research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuliasha, M. A.

    The Office of Building Energy Research and Development of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has been funding R&D in advanced heat pumps and appliances since 1976. Much of that research has been managed for DOE by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of the Building Equipment Research (BER) program at ORNL has been to generate new concepts and develop a technology base for improving the energy efficiency and load characteristics of energy conversion equipment used in residential and commercial buildings. The research being pursued to achieve these objectives falls under three general areas: thermally activated heat pumps (TAHP), refrigeration systems, and building equipment systems. The TAHP work is concentrated on three technologies: (1) absorption heat pumps; (2) Stirling engine-driven heat pumps; and (3) internal combustion (IC) engine-driven heat pumps. Major project areas in refrigeration systems research include electric heat pumps, ground-coupled heat pumps, and refigerant mixtures. In the building equipment systems areas, project areas include advanced distribution systems, advanced insulation for appliances, and commercial building equipment.

  6. Academic writing development: a complex, dynamic process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penris, Wouter; Verspoor, Marjolijn; Pfenniger, Simone; Navracsics, Judit

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally we look at learning outcomes by examining single outcomes. A new and future direction is to look at the actual process of development. Imagine an advanced, 17-year-old student of English (L2) who has just finished secondary school in the Netherlands and wants to become an English

  7. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  8. Academic writing development: a complex, dynamic process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penris, Wouter; Verspoor, Marjolijn; Pfenniger, Simone; Navracsics, Judit

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally we look at learning outcomes by examining single outcomes. A new and future direction is to look at the actual process of development. Imagine an advanced, 17-year-old student of English (L2) who has just finished secondary school in the Netherlands and wants to become an English teach

  9. Gastroenterology in developing countries: Issues and advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kate L Mandeville; Justus Krabshuis; Nimzing Gwamzhi Ladep; Chris JJ Mulder; Eamonn MM Quigley; Shahid A Khan

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries shoulder a considerable burden of gastroenterological disease. Infectious diseases in particular cause enormous morbidity and mortality. Diseases which afflict both western and developing countries are often seen in more florid forms in poorer countries. Innovative techniques continuously improve and update gastroenterological practice. However, advances in diagnosis and treatment which are commonplace in the West, have yet to reach many developing countries. Clinical guidelines, based on these advances and collated in resource-rich environments, lose their relevance outside these settings. In this two-part review, we first highlight the global burden of gastroenterological disease in three major areas: diarrhoeal diseases, hepatitis B, and Helicobacter pylori. Recent progress in their management is explored, with consideration of future solutions. The second part of the review focuses on the delivery of clinical services in developing countries. Inadequate numbers of healthcare workers hamper efforts to combat gastroenterological disease. Reasons for this shortage are examined, along with possibilities for increased specialist training. Endoscopy services, the mainstay of gastroenterology in the West, are in their infancy in many developing countries. The challenges faced by those setting up a service are illustrated by the example of a Nigerian endoscopy unit. Finally, we highlight the limited scope of many clinical guidelines produced in western countries. Guidelines which take account of resource limitations in the form of "cascades" are advocated in order to make these guidelines truly global. Recognition of the different working conditions facing practitioners worldwide is an important step towards narrowing the gap between gastroenterology in rich and poor countries.

  10. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2014-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) research and development activities focus on four key areas: Developing assessment methods for evaluating advanced SMR technologies and characteristics; and Developing and testing of materials, fuels and fabrication techniques; and Resolving key regulatory issues identified by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and industry; and Developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces. This report focuses on development of assessment methods to evaluate advanced SMR technologies and characteristics. Specifically, this report describes the expansion and application of the economic modeling effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Analysis of the current modeling methods shows that one of the primary concerns for the modeling effort is the handling of uncertainty in cost estimates. Monte Carlo–based methods are commonly used to handle uncertainty, especially when implemented by a stand-alone script within a program such as Python or MATLAB. However, a script-based model requires each potential user to have access to a compiler and an executable capable of handling the script. Making the model accessible to multiple independent analysts is best accomplished by implementing the model in a common computing tool such as Microsoft Excel. Excel is readily available and accessible to most system analysts, but it is not designed for straightforward implementation of a Monte Carlo–based method. Using a Monte Carlo algorithm requires in-spreadsheet scripting and statistical analyses or the use of add-ons such as Crystal Ball. An alternative method uses propagation of error calculations in the existing Excel-based system to estimate system cost uncertainty. This method has the advantage of using Microsoft Excel as is, but it requires the use of simplifying assumptions. These assumptions do not necessarily bring into question the analytical results. In fact, the

  11. Advanced Materials Growth and Processing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This most extensive of U.S. Army materials growth and processing facilities houses seven dedicated, state-of-the-art, molecular beam epitaxy and three metal organic...

  12. Advanced Materials Growth and Processing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This most extensive of U.S. Army materials growth and processing facilities houses seven dedicated, state-of-the-art, molecular beam epitaxy and three metal organic...

  13. The Paraguayan democratization process: advances and opposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel UHARTE POZAS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the new conceptions of democracy in Latin America, this work attempts to evaluate the democratization process that is taking place in Paraguay, as a consequence of the historical defeat suffered by the Colorado Party in the presidential elections of 2008. The analysis identifies the reasons for the triumph of the heterogeneous coalition lead by ex-bishop Fernando Lugo and evaluates three aspects of the process: political democratization, social democratization and mass participation.

  14. Process Analytical Technology-Recent Advances

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Gupta, N.; S. Prathima; Shashikanth. D; A. Kailash Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Process analytical technologies had been applied to manufacturing processes for decades. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had re-defined the phrase and implemented into an initiative focusing on improving the several aspects of pharmaceutical industry; European agency for the evaluation of Medicinal products (EMEA) has formed a PAT team in 2003. The PAT initiative was initially intended for traditional pharmaceutical manufacturers, but the FDA’s PAT guidance clearly states ...

  15. Advances in low-level color image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Smolka, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Color perception plays an important role in object recognition and scene understanding both for humans and intelligent vision systems. Recent advances in digital color imaging and computer hardware technology have led to an explosion in the use of color images in a variety of applications including medical imaging, content-based image retrieval, biometrics, watermarking, digital inpainting, remote sensing, visual quality inspection, among many others. As a result, automated processing and analysis of color images has become an active area of research, to which the large number of publications of the past two decades bears witness. The multivariate nature of color image data presents new challenges for researchers and practitioners as the numerous methods developed for single channel images are often not directly applicable to multichannel  ones. The goal of this volume is to summarize the state-of-the-art in the early stages of the color image processing pipeline.

  16. Advanced High-Level Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, David K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Kevin M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has implemented an integrated program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation from which key decisions can be made regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities with an appreciation toward reducing overall mission life. The purpose of this advanced HLW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-, mid-, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced HLW glasses and their associated models to support facility operations at WTP, including both direct feed and full pretreatment flowsheets. This plan also integrates technical support of facility operations and waste qualification activities to show the interdependence of these activities with the advanced waste glass (AWG) program to support the full WTP mission. Figure ES-1 shows these key ORP programmatic activities and their interfaces with both WTP facility operations and qualification needs. The plan is a living document that will be updated to reflect key advancements and mission strategy changes. The research outlined here is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (e.g., significant increases in waste throughput and reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized when advancements in glass formulation continue and models supporting facility operations are implemented. Developing and applying advanced

  17. Propulsion and Power Rapid Response Research and Development (R&D) Support. Task Order 0004: Advanced Propulsion Fuels R&D, Subtask: Optimization of Lipid Production and Processing of Microalgae for the Development of Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Fuels R&D Subtask: Optimization of Lipid Production and Processing of Microalgae for the Development of Biofuels José Colucci, Govind Nadathur...Production and Processing of Microalgae for the Development of Biofuels 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-08-D-2806-0004 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...ABSTRACT Microalgae are considered a suitable feedstock to produce biofuels or bio-oils. Some species are known to naturally accumulate large amounts

  18. An Introduction to the Special Issue on Advances in Process and Dynamic System Analysis of Social Interaction and the Development of Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Snyder, James

    2004-01-01

    A thorough understanding of how social relationships contribute to child and adolescent trajectories for antisocial behavior may be facilitated by: (a) ascertaining multiple relationship processes (e.g., warmth and reciprocity, coercion and deviancy training); (b) focusing on multiple relationships (e.g., with parents, peers, siblings, and…

  19. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (USA)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This technology is important to reduce the technical and economic risks inherent in utilizing coal, a feedstock whose variable and often unexpected behavior presents a significant challenge. This program will merge significant advances made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior, with technology being developed at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors. The foundation to describe coal-specific conversion behavior is AFR's Functional Group (FG) and Devolatilization, Vaporization, and Crosslinking (DVC) models, developed under previous and on-going METC sponsored programs. These models have demonstrated the capability to describe the time dependent evolution of individual gas species, and the amount and characteristics of tar and char. The combined FG-DVC model will be integrated with BYU's comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model, PCGC-2, which is currently the most widely used reactor simulation for combustion or gasification. Success in this program will be a major step in improving in predictive capabilities for coal conversion processes including: demonstrated accuracy and reliability and a generalized first principles'' treatment of coals based on readily obtained composition data. The progress during the fifteenth quarterly of the program is presented. 56 refs., 41 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES FOR FOOD INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER DECONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Krzemińska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available High organic matter content is a basic problem in food industry wastewaters. Typically, the amount and composition of the effluent varies considerably. In the article four groups of advanced processes and their combination of food industry wastewater treatment have been reviewed: electrochemical oxidation (EC, Fenton’s process, ozonation of water and photocatalytic processes. All advanced oxidation processes (AOP`s are characterized by a common chemical feature: the capability of exploiting high reactivity of HO• radicals in driving oxidation processes which are suitable for achieving decolonization and odour reduction, and the complete mineralization or increase of bioavailability of recalcitrant organic pollutants.

  1. Advanced Computing Architectures for Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    customized datapath elements, encryption circuits optimized for specific keys, string matching circuits for publish/subscribe computations or...parallel datapaths , RC implementations can concurrently search various paths for determining likely meanings or predictions for text strings. This...signal processing applications, with the ability to relatively easily build a pipelined datapath optimized for the specific application needs. For this

  2. Recent Advancements in Semiconductor-based Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M L; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Significant advancements in technology and basic understanding of device physics are bringing optical signal processing closer to a commercial breakthrough. In this paper we describe the main challenges in high-speed SOA-based switching....

  3. Recent advances in (therapeutic protein) drug development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagassé, H.A. Daniel; Alexaki, Aikaterini; Simhadri, Vijaya L.; Katagiri, Nobuko H.; Jankowski, Wojciech; Sauna, Zuben E.; Kimchi-Sarfaty, Chava

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic protein drugs are an important class of medicines serving patients most in need of novel therapies. Recently approved recombinant protein therapeutics have been developed to treat a wide variety of clinical indications, including cancers, autoimmunity/inflammation, exposure to infectious agents, and genetic disorders. The latest advances in protein-engineering technologies have allowed drug developers and manufacturers to fine-tune and exploit desirable functional characteristics of proteins of interest while maintaining (and in some cases enhancing) product safety or efficacy or both. In this review, we highlight the emerging trends and approaches in protein drug development by using examples of therapeutic proteins approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration over the previous five years (2011–2016, namely January 1, 2011, through August 31, 2016). PMID:28232867

  4. Improving Seismic Image with Advanced Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mericy Lastra Cunill

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Taking Taking into account the need to improve the seismic image in the central area of Cuba, specifically in the area of the Venegas sector, located in the Cuban Folded Belt, the seismic data acquired by Cuba Petróleo (CUPET in the year 2007 was reprocessed according to the experience accumulated during the previous processing carried out in the same year, and the new geologic knowledge on the area. This was done with the objective of improving the results. The processing applied previously was analyzed by reprocessing the primary data with new focuses and procedures, among them are the following: the attenuation of the superficial wave with a filter in the Radon domain in its lineal variant, the change of the primary statics corrections of elevation by those of refraction, the study of velocity with the selection automatic biespectral of high density, the study of the anisotropy, the attenuation of the random noise, and the pre stack time and depth migration. As a result of this reprocessing, a structure that was not identified in the seismic sections of the previous processing was located at the top of a Continental Margin sediment located to the north of the sector that increased the potentialities of finding hydrocarbons in quantities of economic importance thus diminishing the risk of drilling in the sector Venegas.

  5. Structural health monitoring an advanced signal processing perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xuefeng; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the latest advances and trends in advanced signal processing (such as wavelet theory, time-frequency analysis, empirical mode decomposition, compressive sensing and sparse representation, and stochastic resonance) for structural health monitoring (SHM). Its primary focus is on the utilization of advanced signal processing techniques to help monitor the health status of critical structures and machines encountered in our daily lives: wind turbines, gas turbines, machine tools, etc. As such, it offers a key reference guide for researchers, graduate students, and industry professionals who work in the field of SHM.

  6. Heuristics Applied in the Development of Advanced Space Mission Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Erik N.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced mission studies are the first step in determining the feasibility of a given space exploration concept. A space scientist develops a science goal in the exploration of space. This may be a new observation method, a new instrument or a mission concept to explore a solar system body. In order to determine the feasibility of a deep space mission, a concept study is convened to determine the technology needs and estimated cost of performing that mission. Heuristics are one method of defining viable mission and systems architectures that can be assessed for technology readiness and cost. Developing a viable architecture depends to a large extent upon extending the existing body of knowledge, and applying it in new and novel ways. These heuristics have evolved over time to include methods for estimating technical complexity, technology development, cost modeling and mission risk in the unique context of deep space missions. This paper examines the processes involved in performing these advanced concepts studies, and analyzes the application of heuristics in the development of an advanced in-situ planetary mission. The Venus Surface Sample Return mission study provides a context for the examination of the heuristics applied in the development of the mission and systems architecture. This study is illustrative of the effort involved in the initial assessment of an advance mission concept, and the knowledge and tools that are applied.

  7. Advanced Functional Nanomaterials for Biological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    treatment involving triggered delivery of antineoplastic drugs and RF- induced thermal therapy. J Nanomedic Nanotechnol 2011, 2:6 http://dx.doi.org...models for tissue engineering, targeted drug delivery, and cancer treatment. We developed and studied the following: A. Biodegradable Polymeric...Nanocomposite Materials with Drug Delivery Capabilities for Tissue Engineering and Bone Regeneration; and B. Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Cancer Early

  8. Advances in miniature spectrometer and sensor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Jouko; Rissanen, Anna; Saari, Heikki; Karioja, Pentti; Karppinen, Mikko; Aalto, Timo; Tukkiniemi, Kari

    2014-05-01

    Miniaturization and cost reduction of spectrometer and sensor technologies has great potential to open up new applications areas and business opportunities for analytical technology in hand held, mobile and on-line applications. Advances in microfabrication have resulted in high-performance MEMS and MOEMS devices for spectrometer applications. Many other enabling technologies are useful for miniature analytical solutions, such as silicon photonics, nanoimprint lithography (NIL), system-on-chip, system-on-package techniques for integration of electronics and photonics, 3D printing, powerful embedded computing platforms, networked solutions as well as advances in chemometrics modeling. This paper will summarize recent work on spectrometer and sensor miniaturization at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) tunable filter technology has been developed in two technical versions: Piezoactuated FPIs have been applied in miniature hyperspectral imaging needs in light weight UAV and nanosatellite applications, chemical imaging as well as medical applications. Microfabricated MOEMS FPIs have been developed as cost-effective sensor platforms for visible, NIR and IR applications. Further examples of sensor miniaturization will be discussed, including system-on-package sensor head for mid-IR gas analyzer, roll-to-roll printed Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technology as well as UV imprinted waveguide sensor for formaldehyde detection.

  9. Development of advanced carbon based composite electrodes for the detection and the degradation of organic pollutants in water via electrochemical/photoelectrochemical processes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Ph.D. (Chemistry) In this study, carbon based electrode materials such as glassy carbon, graphene, diamond and exfoliated graphite were explored as suitable electrode materials for electrochemical detection, electrochemical and photoelectrochemical degradation of organic water pollutants. Graphene modified glassy carbon electrode sensor was developed for bisphenol A. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the electrochemical properties of the prepared graphene- modified glassy carbon electro...

  10. High-Throughput Screening as a Supplemental Tool for the Development of Advanced Emission Control Catalysts: Methodological Approaches and Data Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Sundermann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-throughput (HT screening platform developed at hte with the application focus on automotive catalysis is described. hte HT units are configured for performing steady-state testing, as well as dynamic tests with fast feed switches, such as lean/rich excursions for the evaluation of NOx storage capacity and efficiency of lean NOx traps (LNT, ammonia storage capacity for selective catalytic reduction (SCR, evaluation of oxygen storage capacity (OSC, as well as lambda sweep tests for screening of three-way catalysts (TWC. Even though catalysts are screened on a rather small scale (~100 mg powder, experience showed that dosing rather complex gas mixtures in concentrations close to that found in real exhaust for the given application is mandatory to generate relevant data. The objective of this work is to give additional insight into HT technology. In the industrial research laboratory, HT screening has matured to become a reliable approach for rapid screening of both reaction parameter spaces, as well as material properties relevant for exhaust gas catalyst development. Due to the speed of optimized screening involving 48 parallel reactors, automated handling of primary data is an imported requirement. Software for data reduction, like estimation of light-off temperature, needs to be robust and handle results for diverse sample libraries in an unattended fashion. In combination with the statistical design of experiment and multivariate data analysis, HT testing has become a valuable enhancement to automotive catalyst development.

  11. ADVANCED CONTROL OF A COMPLEX CHEMICAL PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Both; Eva-Henrietta Dulf; Ana-Maria Cormos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three phase catalytic hydrogenation reactors are important reactors with complex behavior due to the interaction among gas, solid and liquid phases with the kinetic, mass and heat transfer mechanisms. A nonlinear distributed parameter model was developed based on mass and energy conservation principles. It consists of balance equations for the gas and liquid phases, so that a system of partial differential equations is generated. Because detailed nonlinear mathematical models are not...

  12. Overview of advanced process control in welding within ERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, R.E.

    1977-02-11

    The special kinds of demands placed on ERDA weapons and reactors require them to have very reliable welds. Process control is critical in achieving this reliability. ERDA has a number of advanced process control projects underway with much of the emphasis being on electron beam welding. These include projects on voltage measurement, beam-current control, beam focusing, beam spot tracking, spike suppression, and computer control. A general discussion of process control in welding is followed by specific examples of some of the advanced joining process control projects in ERDA.

  13. Advances in Robotic Servicing Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefke, Gardell G.; Janas, Alex; Pellegrino, Joseph; Sammons, Matthew; Reed, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office (SSCO) has matured robotic and automation technologies applicable to in-space robotic servicing and robotic exploration over the last six years. This paper presents the progress of technology development activities at the Goddard Space Flight Center Servicing Technology Center and on the ISS, with an emphasis on those occurring in the past year. Highlighted advancements are design reference mission analysis for servicing in low Earth orbit (LEO) and asteroid redirection; delivery of the engineering development unit of the NASA Servicing Arm; an update on International Space Station Robotic Refueling Mission; and status of a comprehensive ground-based space robot technology demonstration expanding in-space robotic servicing capabilities beginning fall 2015.

  14. Advances in modeling plastic waste pyrolysis processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Safadi, J. Zeaiter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tertiary recycling of plastics via pyrolysis is recently gaining momentum due to promising economic returns from the generated products that can be used as a chemical feedstock or fuel. The need for prediction models to simulate such processes is essential in understanding in depth the mechanisms that take place during the thermal or catalytic degradation of the waste polymer. This paper presents key different models used successfully in literature so far. Three modeling schemes are identified: Power-Law, Lumped-Empirical, and Population-Balance based equations. The categorization is based mainly on the level of detail and prediction capability from each modeling scheme. The data shows that the reliability of these modeling approaches vary with the degree of details the experimental work and product analysis are trying to achieve.

  15. Recent Developments in Biological Hydrogen Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEBABRATA DAS

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Biohydrogen production technology can utilize renewable energy sources like biomass for the generation of hydrogen, the cleanest form of energy for the use of mankind. However, major constraints to the commercialization of these processes include lower hydrogen yields and rates of hydrogen production. To overcome these bottlenecks intensive research work has already been carried out on the advancement of these processes such as the development of genetically modified microorganisms, the improvement of the bioreactor design, molecular engineering of the key enzyme hydrogenases, the development of two stage processes, etc. The present paper explores the recent advancements that have been made till date and also presents the state of the art in molecular strategies to improve the hydrogen production.

  16. Advanced Image Processing of Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodell, Glenn; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Aerial imagery of the Earth is an invaluable tool for the assessment of ground features, especially during times of disaster. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have developed techniques which have proven to be useful for such imagery. Aerial imagery from various sources, including Langley's Boeing 757 Aries aircraft, has been studied extensively. This paper discusses these studies and demonstrates that better-than-observer imagery can be obtained even when visibility is severely compromised. A real-time, multi-spectral experimental system will be described and numerous examples will be shown.

  17. Advance care planning in CKD/ESRD: an evolving process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Jean L

    2012-06-01

    Advance care planning was historically considered to be simply the completion of a proxy (health care surrogate designation) or instruction (living will) directive that resulted from a conversation between a patient and his or her physician. We now know that advance care planning is a much more comprehensive and dynamic patient-centered process used by patients and families to strengthen relationships, achieve control over medical care, prepare for death, and clarify goals of care. Some advance directives, notably designated health care proxy documents, remain appropriate expressions of advance care planning. Moreover, although physician orders, such as do-not-resuscitate orders and Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment, may not be strictly defined as advance directives, their completion, when appropriate, is an integral component of advance care planning. The changing health circumstances and illness trajectory characteristic of ESRD mandate that advance care planning discussions adapt to a patient's situation and therefore must be readdressed at appropriate times and intervals. The options of withholding and withdrawing dialysis add ESRD-specific issues to advance care planning in this population and are events each nephrologist will at some time confront. Advance care planning is important throughout the spectrum of ESRD and is a part of nephrology practice that can be rewarding to nephrologists and beneficial to patients and their families.

  18. PSE in Pharmaceutical Process Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Woodley, John

    2011-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is under growing pressure to increase efficiency, both in production and in process development. This paper will discuss the use of Process Systems Engineering (PSE) methods in pharmaceutical process development, and searches for answers to questions such as: Which PSE...

  19. Recent Advances in Understanding Particle Acceleration Processes in Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Zharkova, Valentina V; Benz, Arnold O; Browning, Phillippa; Dauphin, Cyril; Emslie, A Gordon; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Kontar, Eduard P; Mann, Gottfried; Onofri, Marco; Petrosian, Vahe; Turkmani, Rim; Vilmer, Nicole; Vlahos, Loukas

    2011-01-01

    We review basic theoretical concepts in particle acceleration, with particular emphasis on processes likely to occur in regions of magnetic reconnection. Several new developments are discussed, including detailed studies of reconnection in three-dimensional magnetic field configurations (e.g., current sheets, collapsing traps, separatrix regions) and stochastic acceleration in a turbulent environment. Fluid, test-particle, and particle-in-cell approaches are used and results compared. While these studies show considerable promise in accounting for the various observational manifestations of solar flares, they are limited by a number of factors, mostly relating to available computational power. Not the least of these issues is the need to explicitly incorporate the electrodynamic feedback of the accelerated particles themselves on the environment in which they are accelerated. A brief prognosis for future advancement is offered.

  20. Development of Advanced Small Hydrogen Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapru, Krishna; Tan, Zhaosheng; Chao, Ben

    2010-09-30

    The main objective of the project is to develop advanced, low cost conversions of small (< 25 hp) gasoline internal combustion engines (ICEs) to run on hydrogen fuel while maintaining the same performance and durability. This final technical report summarizes the results of i) the details of the conversion of several small gasoline ICEs to run on hydrogen, ii) the durability test of a converted hydrogen engine and iii) the demonstration of a prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system. Peak power of the hydrogen engine achieves 60% of the power output of the gasoline counterpart. The efforts to boost the engine power with various options including installing the over-sized turbocharger, retrofit of custom-made pistons with high compression ratio, an advanced ignition system, and various types of fuel injection systems are not realized. A converted Honda GC160 engine with ACS system to run with hydrogen fuel is successful. Total accumulative runtime is 785 hours. A prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system having nominal capacity of 1.2 kg is designed, constructed and demonstrated. It is capable of supporting a wide range of output load of a hydrogen generator.

  1. Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Yu. Yahelskaia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. Modern acceleration of evolutionary processes requires quick response and leading actions to harmonious existence and development of the national economy, which emphasizes the relevance of research of features and factors of advancing economic development. The purpose of this article is to investigate the factors of economic development, to identify those that affect the rate of development; to improve their classification and to form Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development. The subject of research is the causes underlying of advancing national economic development. Theoretical researches of world economic thought on the development of the national economy are served as methodological basis of this research. We used historically-logical method, comparative, structural and factorial analysis in the research. The results of the analysis. The factors of economic development are examined in the article. The emphasis was placed on finding those ones that impact directly on the advancing development. Attention was focused on classical and new approaches. It was justified, that the fundamental causes of advancing national economic development are the time and economic energy. It was proved that time determines the rate of development. The starting position of countries can vary, but the rate of the time that will be determined by culture, can provide leadership positions of national economy in a short period of time. It was concluded that the economic system is due to the economic value of the energy, which is an array of energies that determine the qualitative and quantitative state of the economic system and contribute to the transformation of its structure by changing the spatiotemporal layout. Research implies that time and energy are factors of broader action than others, and may be attributed to other factors of the general classification of economic development. So, on the basis of studied classifications

  2. 高强钢先进成型技术和本构模型研究现状与发展趋势%Advanced Forming Process for High Strength Steel and Research Status and Development Tendency of Constitutive Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蓟泉; 李双娇; 尹衍军

    2014-01-01

    High strength steel, the best choice for application in the lightweight technology of automotive body is limited to be used due to the forming technique. The principle, characteristics and present research developments of the advanced forming processes such as hydroforming tech-nology, laser butt welding technology and hot stamping technology are discussed. And also the constitutive model of the advanced high strength steel is explained in order to provide the basis for improving the forming property of the steel.%高强钢是汽车车身轻量化的首选材料,但其成型问题一直是限制其推广应用的重要因素。对高强钢的先进成型技术,如液压成型、激光拼焊、热冲压成型等的原理、特点及最新研究进展进行了论述。同时,对先进高强钢的本构模型进行了阐述,以期对改进高强钢成型性能提供依据。

  3. Sustainable development through process innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleeman, E.; Oonk, J.; Krist-Spit, mw. C.E.

    1998-01-01

    Innovation of processes is one of the corner stones of sustainable development. Innovation may be characterized by the degree of intervention in the existing basematerials-processes-products chains. Four types of innovation are distinguished [1]:

  4. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie Sani, Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  5. Computational Tools for Accelerating Carbon Capture Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David; Sahinidis, N V; Cozad, A; Lee, A; Kim, H; Morinelly, J; Eslick, J; Yuan, Z

    2013-06-04

    This presentation reports development of advanced computational tools to accelerate next generation technology development. These tools are to develop an optimized process using rigorous models. They include: Process Models; Simulation-Based Optimization; Optimized Process; Uncertainty Quantification; Algebraic Surrogate Models; and Superstructure Optimization (Determine Configuration).

  6. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) technology development project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This report is the final in a series of Technical Summary Reports for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, authorizrd under NASA Contract DEN3-167 and sponsored by the DOE. The project was administered by NASA-Lewis Research Center of Cleveland, Ohio. Plans and progress are summarized for the period October 1979 through June 1987. This program aims to provide the US automotive industry the high risk, long range technology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles that will reduce fuel consumption and reduce environmental impact. The intent is that this technology will reach the marketplace by the 1990s. The Garrett/Ford automotive AGT was designated AGT101. The AGT101 is a 74.5 kW (100 shp) engine, capable of speeds to 100,000 rpm, and operates at turbine inlet temperatures to 1370 C (2500 F) with a specific fuel consumption level of 0.18 kg/kW-hr (0.3 lbs/hp-hr) over most of the operating range. This final report summarizes the powertrain design, power section development and component/ceramic technology development.

  7. Advanced Extravehicular Activity Pressure Garment Requirements Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center advanced pressure garment technology development team is addressing requirements development for exploration missions. Lessons learned from the Z-2 high fidelity prototype development have reiterated that clear low-level requirements and verification methods reduce risk to the government, improve efficiency in pressure garment design efforts, and enable the government to be a smart buyer. The expectation is to provide requirements at the specification level that are validated so that their impact on pressure garment design is understood. Additionally, the team will provide defined verification protocols for the requirements. However, in reviewing exploration space suit high level requirements there are several gaps in the team's ability to define and verify related lower level requirements. This paper addresses the efforts in requirement areas such as mobility/fit/comfort and environmental protection (dust, radiation, plasma, secondary impacts) to determine the by what method the requirements can be defined and use of those methods for verification. Gaps exist at various stages. In some cases component level work is underway, but no system level effort has begun, in other cases no effort has been initiated to close the gap. Status of ongoing efforts and potential approaches to open gaps are discussed.

  8. Process-Based Quality (PBQ) Tools Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, J.L.

    2001-12-03

    The objective of this effort is to benchmark the development of process-based quality tools for application in CAD (computer-aided design) model-based applications. The processes of interest are design, manufacturing, and quality process applications. A study was commissioned addressing the impact, current technologies, and known problem areas in application of 3D MCAD (3-dimensional mechanical computer-aided design) models and model integrity on downstream manufacturing and quality processes. The downstream manufacturing and product quality processes are profoundly influenced and dependent on model quality and modeling process integrity. The goal is to illustrate and expedite the modeling and downstream model-based technologies for available or conceptual methods and tools to achieve maximum economic advantage and advance process-based quality concepts.

  9. The influence of advanced processing on PWA 1480

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzemeier, L. G.; Schnittgrund, G. D.

    1989-01-01

    High thermal gradient casting of PWA 1480 was evaluated as an avenue for reducing the size of casting porosity. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was also employed for the elimination of casting pores. An alternate to the standard PWA 1480 coating plus diffusion bonding aging heat treatment cycle was also evaluated for potential improvements in the properties of interest to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) application. Microstructural changes associated with the high thermal gradient casting process were quantified by measurement of the size and density of the casting porosity, the amount of retained casting eutectic, and dendrite arm spacings. The results of the advanced processing have shown an improvement in material microstructure due to high thermal gradient casting. Improved homogeneity of PWA 1480 is advantageous in providing an improved solution heat treatment window and, potentially, easier HIP. High thermal gradient casting improves fatigue life by reducing casting pore size. The alternate heat treatment improves the balance of strength and ductility which appears to improve low cycle fatigue life, but with a reduction in short time stress rupture life. Based upon these tests, hot isostatic pressing appears to afford further improvements in cyclic life, though additional evaluation is suggested. Development of the alternate heat treatment is not recommended due to the reduced stress rupture capability and the need to develop a new properties data base. High thermal gradient casting and HIP are recommended for application to single crystal castings.

  10. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  11. Hydroecology/ Ecohydrology: Development and Recent Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, D. M.; Sadler, J. P.; Wood, P. J.

    2007-12-01

    Ecohydrology and hydroecology are making a mark on the environmental agenda, as evidenced by the proliferation of these terms in the academic literature, a new subject-specific journal/ text book, and wide occurrence of dedicated sessions at major conferences. In a practical context, consideration of hydroecological/ ecohydrological interactions is required to make management decisions about the water needs of riverine and wetland ecosystems versus people. In this presentation, we provide a perspective on the development of this 'emerging discipline' by reviewing the scientific literature, categorising bibliographic search data and using examples of current research to focus attention on a range of issues that require further evaluation and thought. Examples are drawn from studies of: alpine river systems, river flow variability and ecological response, and hydrological disturbance of exposed riverine sediment beetle communities. We suggest that a potential impediment to the development of ecohydrology/ hydroecology is the lack of a clear subject definition to acts as a focal point to unite the research community. Most importantly, we assert that it not simply the integration of hydrology and ecology that will determine the future prospects for ecohydrology/ hydroecology but the way in which this integrative science is conducted. We advocate a truly interdisciplinary (as opposed to multi-disciplinary) approach in which ecologists and hydrologists benefit from true synergy by embracing advances at the cutting- edge of both sciences. Such an approach should provide more perceptive answers to hydroecological/ ecohydrological problems and management questions.

  12. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.T. Amrhein; R.T. Bailey; W. Downs; M.J. Holmes; G.A. Kudlac; D.A. Madden

    1999-07-01

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses - BH), and wet flue gas desulfurization systems (WFGD). Development work concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, with an emphasis on the control of mercury. The AECDP project is jointly funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO), and Babcock and Wilcox, a McDermott company (B and W). This report discusses results of all three phases of the AECDP project with an emphasis on Phase III activities. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on characterization of the emissions of mercury and other air toxics and the control of these emissions for typical operating conditions of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment. Some general comments that can be made about the control of air toxics while burning a high-sulfur bituminous coal are as follows: (1) particulate control devices such as ESP's and baghouses do a good job of removing non-volatile trace metals, (2) particulate control devices (ESPs and baghouses) effectively remove the particulate-phase mercury, but the particulate-phase mercury was only a small fraction of the total for the coals tested, (3) wet scrubbing can effectively remove hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, and (4) wet scrubbers show good potential for the removal of mercury when operated under certain conditions, however, for certain applications, system enhancements can be required to achieve

  13. ADVANCED DEVELOPMENT MODEL OF TERRITORIAL HUMAN RESOURCES POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Моkronosov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to substantiate the need for eliminating the excessive spatial polarization of territorial socio-economic development as a necessary condition for advanced development of human resources potential. The authors explore the basic problems and contradictions of modern regional and local labor markets in Russia. Based on generalization and systematization of foreign and domestic research outcomes, the paper reveals the main condition for eliminating the territorial polarization threats, which implies formation of a new institutional environment in order to provide co-operation of participants in the territorial interest zone in personnel training and new jobs creating.The research findings demonstrate the increased disproportions between the workforce and labor markets of municipal formations in Sverdlovsk region, and emphasize the need for territorial industrial educational clusters maximizing the network co-operation of the involved parties.The scientific novelty combines adaptation of theoretical concepts of the “new economic geography” applied to reorganization processes in the Russian economy; and elaboration of the cluster model of advanced development of territorial human resources potential by means of territorial centers coordinating the interests of administration, business society, and households.Practical significance of the research results is related to facilitating the administrative efficiency of regional and municipal formations, employers, territorial employment centers, and thereby the advanced development of human resources potential.

  14. ADVANCED DEVELOPMENT MODEL OF TERRITORIAL HUMAN RESOURCES POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Моkronosov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to substantiate the need for eliminating the excessive spatial polarization of territorial socio-economic development as a necessary condition for advanced development of human resources potential. The authors explore the basic problems and contradictions of modern regional and local labor markets in Russia. Based on generalization and systematization of foreign and domestic research outcomes, the paper reveals the main condition for eliminating the territorial polarization threats, which implies formation of a new institutional environment in order to provide co-operation of participants in the territorial interest zone in personnel training and new jobs creating.The research findings demonstrate the increased disproportions between the workforce and labor markets of municipal formations in Sverdlovsk region, and emphasize the need for territorial industrial educational clusters maximizing the network co-operation of the involved parties.The scientific novelty combines adaptation of theoretical concepts of the “new economic geography” applied to reorganization processes in the Russian economy; and elaboration of the cluster model of advanced development of territorial human resources potential by means of territorial centers coordinating the interests of administration, business society, and households.Practical significance of the research results is related to facilitating the administrative efficiency of regional and municipal formations, employers, territorial employment centers, and thereby the advanced development of human resources potential.

  15. Recent Advances in Techniques for Hyperspectral Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Antonio; Benediktsson, Jon Atli; Boardman, Joseph W.; Brazile, Jason; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Fauvel, Mathieu; Gamba, Paolo; Gualtieri, Anthony; Marconcini, Mattia; Tilton, James C.; Trianni, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy, also known as hyperspectral imaging, has been transformed in less than 30 years from being a sparse research tool into a commodity product available to a broad user community. Currently, there is a need for standardized data processing techniques able to take into account the special properties of hyperspectral data. In this paper, we provide a seminal view on recent advances in techniques for hyperspectral image processing. Our main focus is on the design of techniques able to deal with the highdimensional nature of the data, and to integrate the spatial and spectral information. Performance of the discussed techniques is evaluated in different analysis scenarios. To satisfy time-critical constraints in specific applications, we also develop efficient parallel implementations of some of the discussed algorithms. Combined, these parts provide an excellent snapshot of the state-of-the-art in those areas, and offer a thoughtful perspective on future potentials and emerging challenges in the design of robust hyperspectral imaging algorithms

  16. Bim Automation: Advanced Modeling Generative Process for Complex Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, F.; Fai, S.; Brumana, R.

    2017-08-01

    The new paradigm of the complexity of modern and historic structures, which are characterised by complex forms, morphological and typological variables, is one of the greatest challenges for building information modelling (BIM). Generation of complex parametric models needs new scientific knowledge concerning new digital technologies. These elements are helpful to store a vast quantity of information during the life cycle of buildings (LCB). The latest developments of parametric applications do not provide advanced tools, resulting in time-consuming work for the generation of models. This paper presents a method capable of processing and creating complex parametric Building Information Models (BIM) with Non-Uniform to NURBS) with multiple levels of details (Mixed and ReverseLoD) based on accurate 3D photogrammetric and laser scanning surveys. Complex 3D elements are converted into parametric BIM software and finite element applications (BIM to FEA) using specific exchange formats and new modelling tools. The proposed approach has been applied to different case studies: the BIM of modern structure for the courtyard of West Block on Parliament Hill in Ottawa (Ontario) and the BIM of Masegra Castel in Sondrio (Italy), encouraging the dissemination and interaction of scientific results without losing information during the generative process.

  17. Advanced plasma etching processes for dielectric materials in VLSI technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan Juan

    Manufacturable plasma etching processes for dielectric materials have played an important role in the Integrated Circuits (IC) industry in recent decades. Dielectric materials such as SiO2 and SiN are widely used to electrically isolate the active device regions (like the gate, source and drain from the first level of metallic interconnects) and to isolate different metallic interconnect levels from each other. However, development of new state-of-the-art etching processes is urgently needed for higher aspect ratio (oxide depth/hole diameter---6:1) in Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits technology. The smaller features can provide greater packing density of devices on a single chip and greater number of chips on a single wafer. This dissertation focuses on understanding and optimizing of several key aspects of etching processes for dielectric materials. The challenges are how to get higher selectivity of oxide/Si for contact and oxide/TiN for vias; tight Critical Dimension (CD) control; wide process margin (enough over-etch); uniformity and repeatability. By exploring all of the parameters for the plasma etch process, the key variables are found and studied extensively. The parameters investigated here are Power, Pressure, Gas ratio, and Temperature. In particular, the novel gases such as C4F8, C5F8, and C4F6 were studied in order to meet the requirements of the design rules. We also studied CF4 that is used frequently for dielectric material etching in the industry. Advanced etch equipment was used for the above applications: the medium-density plasma tools (like Magnet-Enhanced Reactive Ion Etching (MERIE) tool) and the high-density plasma tools. By applying the Design of Experiments (DOE) method, we found the key factors needed to predict the trend of the etch process (such as how to increase the etch rates, selectivity, etc.; and how to control the stability of the etch process). We used JMP software to analyze the DOE data. The characterization of the

  18. Electron processing of fibre-reinforced advanced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Saunders, Chris B.; Barnard, John W.; Lopata, Vince J.; Kremers, Walter; McDougall, Tom E.; Chung, Minda; Tateishi, Miyoko

    1996-08-01

    Advanced composites, such as carbon-fibre-reinforced epoxies, are used in the aircraft, aerospace, sporting goods, and transportation industries. Though thermal curing is the dominant industrial process for advanced composites, electron curing of similar composites containing acrylated epoxy matrices has been demonstrated by our work. The main attraction of electron processing technology over thermal technology is the advantages it offers which include ambient temperature curing, reduced curing times, reduced volatile emissions, better material handling, and reduced costs. Electron curing technology allows for the curing of many types of products, such as complex shaped, those containing different types of fibres, and up to 15 cm thick. Our work has been done principally with the AECL's 10 MeV, 1 kW electron accelerator; we have also done some comparative work with an AECL Gammacell 220. In this paper we briefly review our work on the various aspects of electron curing of advanced composites and their properties.

  19. Development of animation processing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Katsumi [Nuclear Energy Data Center, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Watanabe, Tadashi; Machida, Masahiko; Kaburaki, Hideo

    1995-03-01

    Computer and network environment for image processing has been developed and maintained by the computing and information systems center under the course of establishing a distributed processing environment. A server workstation was introduced for image processing. An animation processing system, in which simulation results are consecutively visualized on the server workstation and automatically recorded on a video tape, has been developed. In this report, a system construction, visualization in the workstation using a visualization tool, control of video tape recorder and workstation, and production of animation video are described with some examples. (author).

  20. Microeconomics of advanced process window control for 50-nm gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kevin M.; Chen, Xuemei; Falessi, Georges; Garvin, Craig; Hankinson, Matt; Lev, Amir; Levy, Ady; Slessor, Michael D.

    2002-07-01

    Fundamentally, advanced process control enables accelerated design-rule reduction, but simple microeconomic models that directly link the effects of advanced process control to profitability are rare or non-existent. In this work, we derive these links using a simplified model for the rate of profit generated by the semiconductor manufacturing process. We use it to explain why and how microprocessor manufacturers strive to avoid commoditization by producing only the number of dies required to satisfy the time-varying demand in each performance segment. This strategy is realized using the tactic known as speed binning, the deliberate creation of an unnatural distribution of microprocessor performance that varies according to market demand. We show that the ability of APC to achieve these economic objectives may be limited by variability in the larger manufacturing context, including measurement delays and process window variation.

  1. Recent Advances in Ultra-High-Speed Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist; Hu, Hao;

    2012-01-01

    We review recent advances in the optical signal processing of ultra-high-speed serial data signals up to 1.28 Tbit/s, with focus on applications of time-domain optical Fourier transformation. Experimental methods for the generation of symbol rates up to 1.28 Tbaud are also described....

  2. Advanced Statistical Signal Processing Techniques for Landmine Detection Using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-12

    Processing Techniques for Landmine Detection Using GPR The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not...AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 landmine Detection, Signal...310 Jesse Hall Columbia, MO 65211 -1230 654808 633606 ABSTRACT Advanced Statistical Signal Processing Techniques for Landmine Detection Using GPR Report

  3. Advanced multiresponse process optimisation an intelligent and integrated approach

    CERN Document Server

    Šibalija, Tatjana V

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an intelligent, integrated, problem-independent method for multiresponse process optimization. In contrast to traditional approaches, the idea of this method is to provide a unique model for the optimization of various processes, without imposition of assumptions relating to the type of process, the type and number of process parameters and responses, or interdependences among them. The presented method for experimental design of processes with multiple correlated responses is composed of three modules: an expert system that selects the experimental plan based on the orthogonal arrays; the factor effects approach, which performs processing of experimental data based on Taguchi’s quality loss function and multivariate statistical methods; and process modeling and optimization based on artificial neural networks and metaheuristic optimization algorithms. The implementation is demonstrated using four case studies relating to high-tech industries and advanced, non-conventional processes.

  4. Practical Implementations of Advanced Process Control for Linear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jørgen K . H.; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    This paper describes some practical problems encountered, when implementing Advanced Process Control, APC, schemes on linear processes. The implemented APC controllers discussed will be LQR, Riccati MPC and Condensed MPC controllers illustrated by simulation of the Four Tank Process...... cannot be achieved without violation of process constraints. A target calculation function can be used to calculate the optimal achievable target for the process. The use of hard and soft constraints for process input constraints in the MPC controllers, ensures feasible solutions. The computational load...... as function of controllers type, Model dimension and constraint type will be discussed. Finally the special requirements set by processes including a pure integration dynamics will be illustrated by a linearised CSTR process. The simulated results presented, will later on be implemented on and demonstrated...

  5. Development of Advanced Macrosphelides: Potent Anticancer Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Seung-Mann Paek

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic approaches to macrosphelide derivatives, based on medicinal chemistry, are summarized. This review contains conventional medicinal chemistry approaches, combinatorial chemistry, fluorous tagging techniques and affinity chromatography preparation. In addition, advances in their apoptosis-inducing activities are also included.

  6. A solar-driven UV/Chlorine advanced oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Po Yee; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Bolton, James R

    2012-11-01

    An overlap of the absorption spectrum of the hypochlorite ion (OCl(-)) and the ultraviolet (UV) end of the solar emission spectrum implies that solar photons can probably initiate the UV/chlorine advanced oxidation process (AOP). The application of this solar process to water and wastewater treatment has been investigated in this study. At the bench-scale, the OCl(-) photolysis quantum yield at 303 nm (representative of the lower end of the solar UV region) and at concentrations from 0 to 4.23 mM was 0.87 ± 0.01. Also the hydroxyl radical yield factor (for an OCl(-) concentration of 1.13 mM) was 0.70 ± 0.02. Application of this process, at the bench-scale and under actual sunlight, led to methylene blue (MB) photobleaching and cyclohexanoic acid (CHA) photodegradation. For MB photobleaching, the OCl(-) concentration was the key factor causing an increase in the pseudo first-order rate constants. The MB photobleaching quantum yield was affected by the MB concentration, but not much by the OCl(-) concentration. For CHA photodegradation, an optimal OCl(-) concentration of 1.55 mM was obtained for a 0.23 mM CHA concentration, and a scavenger effect was observed when higher OCl(-) concentrations were applied. Quantum yields of 0.09 ± 0.01 and 0.89 ± 0.06 were found for CHA photodegradation and OCl(-) photolysis, respectively. In addition, based on the Air Mass 1.5 reference solar spectrum and experimental quantum yields, a theoretical calculation method was developed to estimate the initial rate for photoreactions under sunlight. The theoretical initial rates agreed well with the experimental rates for both MB photobleaching and CHA photodegradation.

  7. Monolithic Fuel Fabrication Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R. Clark; N. P. Hallinan; J. F. Jue; D. D. Keiser; J. M. Wight

    2006-05-01

    The pursuit of a high uranium density research reactor fuel plate has led to monolithic fuel, which possesses the greatest possible uranium density in the fuel region. Process developments in fabrication development include friction stir welding tool geometry and cooling improvements and a reduction in the length of time required to complete the transient liquid phase bonding process. Annealing effects on the microstructures of the U-10Mo foil and friction stir welded aluminum 6061 cladding are also examined.

  8. Software Systems 2--Compiler and Operating Systems Lab--Advanced, Data Processing Technology: 8025.33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline has been prepared as a guide to help the student develop the skills and knowledge necessary to succeed in the field of data processing. By learning the purpose and principles of compiler programs and operating systems, the student will become familiar with advanced data processing procedures that are representative of computer…

  9. Wafer level reliability monitoring strategy of an advanced multi-process CMOS foundry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scarpa, Andrea; Tao, Guoqiao; Kuper, F.G.

    2000-01-01

    In an advanced multi-process CMOS foundry it is strategically important to make use of an optimum reliability monitoring strategy, in order to be able to run well controlled processes. Philips Semiconductors Business Unit Foundries wafer fab MOS4YOU has developed an end-of-line ultra-fast

  10. Wafer level reliability monitoring strategy of an advanced multi-process CMOS foundry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scarpa, Andrea; Tao, Guoqiao; Kuper, Fred G.

    2000-01-01

    In an advanced multi-process CMOS foundry it is strategically important to make use of an optimum reliability monitoring strategy, in order to be able to run well controlled processes. Philips Semiconductors Business Unit Foundries wafer fab MOS4YOU has developed an end-of-line ultra-fast reliabilit

  11. ASRM process development in aqueous cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Bill

    1992-12-01

    Viewgraphs are included on process development in aqueous cleaning which is taking place at the Aerojet Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Division under a NASA Marshall Space and Flight Center contract for design, development, test, and evaluation of the ASRM including new production facilities. The ASRM will utilize aqueous cleaning in several manufacturing process steps to clean case segments, nozzle metal components, and igniter closures. ASRM manufacturing process development is underway, including agent selection, agent characterization, subscale process optimization, bonding verification, and scale-up validation. Process parameters are currently being tested for optimization utilizing a Taguci Matrix, including agent concentration, cleaning solution temperature, agitation and immersion time, rinse water amount and temperature, and use/non-use of drying air. Based on results of process development testing to date, several observations are offered: aqueous cleaning appears effective for steels and SermeTel-coated metals in ASRM processing; aqueous cleaning agents may stain and/or attack bare aluminum metals to various extents; aqueous cleaning appears unsuitable for thermal sprayed aluminum-coated steel; aqueous cleaning appears to adequately remove a wide range of contaminants from flat metal surfaces, but supplementary assistance may be needed to remove clumps of tenacious contaminants embedded in holes, etc.; and hot rinse water appears to be beneficial to aid in drying of bare steel and retarding oxidation rate.

  12. Applications of advanced transport aircraft in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Assarabowski, R. J.; Leshane, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Four representative market scenarios were studied to evaluate the relative performance of air-and surface-based transportation systems in meeting the needs of two developing contries, Brazil and Indonesia, which were selected for detailed case studies. The market scenarios were: remote mining, low-density transport, tropical forestry, and large cargo aircraft serving processing centers in resource-rich, remote areas. The long-term potential of various aircraft types, together with fleet requirements and necessary technology advances, is determined for each application.

  13. Application of mesoscale modeling optimization to development of advanced materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xiaoyan

    2004-01-01

    The rapid development of computer modeling in recent years offers opportunities for materials preparation in a more economic and efficient way. In the present paper, a practicable route for research and development of advanced materials by applying the visual and quantitative modeling technique on the mesoscale is introduced. A 3D simulation model is developed to describe the microstructure evolution during the whole process of deformation, recrystallization and grain growth in a material containing particles. In the light of simulation optimization, the long-term stabilized fine grain structures ideal for high-temperature applications are designed and produced. In addition, the feasibility, reliability and prospects of material development based on mesoscale modeling are discussed.

  14. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  15. The DOE advanced gas reactor fuel development and qualification program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, David; Maki, John; Hunn, John; Pappano, Pete; Barnes, Charles; Saurwein, John; Nagley, Scott; Kendall, Jim; Hobbins, Richard

    2010-09-01

    The high outlet temperatures and high thermal-energy conversion efficiency of modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) enable an efficient and cost-effective integration of the reactor system with non-electricity-generation applications, such as process heat and/or hydrogen production, for the many petrochemical and other industrial processes that require temperatures between 300°C and 900°C. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the HTGR concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project as a transformative application of nuclear energy that will demonstrate emissions-free nuclear-assisted electricity, process heat, and hydrogen production, thereby reducing greenhouse-gas emissions and enhancing energy security. The objective of the DOE Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification program is to qualify tristructural isotropic (TRISO)-coated particle fuel for use in HTGRs. An overview of the program and recent progress is presented.

  16. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combinatorial methods are proposed to develop advanced Aqueous Oxidation Catalysts (AOCs) with the capability to mineralize organic contaminants present in effluents...

  17. Advanced EVA Suit Camera System Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is developing a new extra-vehicular activity (EVA) suit known as the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit. All of the improvements to the EVA Suit provide the opportunity to update the technology of the video imagery. My summer internship project involved improving the video streaming capabilities of the cameras that will be used on the Z2 Suit for data acquisition. To accomplish this, I familiarized myself with the architecture of the camera that is currently being tested to be able to make improvements on the design. Because there is a lot of benefit to saving space, power, and weight on the EVA suit, my job was to use Altium Design to start designing a much smaller and simplified interface board for the camera's microprocessor and external components. This involved checking datasheets of various components and checking signal connections to ensure that this architecture could be used for both the Z2 suit and potentially other future projects. The Orion spacecraft is a specific project that may benefit from this condensed camera interface design. The camera's physical placement on the suit also needed to be determined and tested so that image resolution can be maximized. Many of the options of the camera placement may be tested along with other future suit testing. There are multiple teams that work on different parts of the suit, so the camera's placement could directly affect their research or design. For this reason, a big part of my project was initiating contact with other branches and setting up multiple meetings to learn more about the pros and cons of the potential camera placements we are analyzing. Collaboration with the multiple teams working on the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit is absolutely necessary and these comparisons will be used as further progress is made for the overall suit design. This prototype will not be finished in time for the scheduled Z2 Suit testing, so my time was

  18. Processing Poetry to Develop Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Marguerite Hansen

    1994-01-01

    Explains the use of experimental poetry forms for decoding practice to help develop reading skills in elementary school students. The use of computers for word processing capabilities is discussed; seven forms of poetry are described; and results are examined in terms of motivation and the development of literacy. (four references) (LRW)

  19. Austempered ductile iron process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, C. D.; Keough, J. R.; Pramstaller, D. M.

    1986-11-01

    Pressure from imports and material substitution has severly affected demand for domestic iron industry products. It is estimated that the potential market for Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) is as large as the market for carburized and/or through hardened forgings. The primary interest in ADI is generated by the economics of process. Improved machinability and reduced processing costs as well as interesting physical properties has created an enormous interest in all metalworking industries towards ADI. The development of gas-fired austempering processes and resoluton of technical and economic uncertainities concerning the process will help improve the outlook for iron founderies.

  20. The MINERVA Software Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkawicz, Anthony; Munoz, Cesar A.; Dutle, Aaron M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a software development process for safety-critical software components of cyber-physical systems. The process is called MINERVA, which stands for Mirrored Implementation Numerically Evaluated against Rigorously Verified Algorithms. The process relies on formal methods for rigorously validating code against its requirements. The software development process uses: (1) a formal specification language for describing the algorithms and their functional requirements, (2) an interactive theorem prover for formally verifying the correctness of the algorithms, (3) test cases that stress the code, and (4) numerical evaluation on these test cases of both the algorithm specifications and their implementations in code. The MINERVA process is illustrated in this paper with an application to geo-containment algorithms for unmanned aircraft systems. These algorithms ensure that the position of an aircraft never leaves a predetermined polygon region and provide recovery maneuvers when the region is inadvertently exited.

  1. Development of advanced sorbents for hot gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Wangerow, J.R. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Cicero, D.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). Morgantown Energy Technology Center

    1996-12-31

    Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) processes are among the leading contenders for the production of electricity from coal. Coal gas desulfurization to sufficiently low levels at elevated temperatures (T > 350 C) is now recognized as crucial to efficient and economic coal utilization in advanced IGCC processes. The implementation of hot coal gas desulfurization relies heavily on the development of regenerable sorbent materials which can efficiently reduce H{sub 2}S from several thousand ppmv levels down to a few ppmv over many cycles of sulfidation/regeneration. Zinc-based sorbents, such as zinc titanate, are currently the leading candidate sorbents, however, they have been shown to suffer from zinc volatilization at elevated temperatures leading to sorbent deterioration, increasing sorbent replacement costs, and the overall cost of hot gas cleanup. This paper discusses the results obtained in an ongoing investigation geared towards developing advanced mixed-metal oxide sorbents for desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range of 350 to 550 C. The paper focuses on the study related to the development of durable sorbents and addresses thermodynamic considerations, sulfidation kinetics, regenerability, and long term durability of a number of novel sorbents.

  2. Cooperative Research and Development of Primary Surface Recuperator for Advanced Microturbine Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escola, George

    2007-01-17

    Recuperators have been identified as key components of advanced gas turbines systems that achieve a measure of improvement in operating efficiency and lead the field in achieving very low emissions. Every gas turbine manufacturer that is studying, developing, or commercializing advanced recuperated gas turbine cycles requests that recuperators operate at higher temperature without a reduction in design life and must cost less. The Solar Cooperative Research and Development of Primary Surface Recuperator for Advanced Microturbine Systems Program is directed towards meeting the future requirements of advanced gas turbine systems by the following: (1) The development of advanced alloys that will allow recuperator inlet exhaust gas temperatures to increase without significant cost increase. (2) Further characterization of the creep and oxidation (dry and humid air) properties of nickel alloy foils (less than 0.13 mm thick) to allow the economical use of these materials. (3) Increasing the use of advanced robotic systems and advanced in-process statistical measurement systems.

  3. Application of high magnetic fields in advanced materials processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yanwei; XIAO Liye; YAN Luguang

    2006-01-01

    Recently, steady magnetic fields available from cryogen-free superconducting magnets open up new ways to process materials. In this paper,the main results obtained by using a high magnetic field to process several advanced materials are reviewed. These processed objects primarily include superconducting, magnetic, metallic and nanometer-scaled materials. It has been found that a high magnetic field can effectively align grains when fabricating the magnetic and non-magnetic materials and make inclusions migrate in a molten metal. The mechanism is discussed from the theoretical viewpoint of magnetization energy.

  4. Practical Implementations of Advanced Process Control for Linear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jørgen K . H.; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2013-01-01

    Most advanced process control systems are based on Model Predictive Control (MPC). In this paper we discuss three critical issues for the practical implementation of linear MPC for process control applications. The rst issue is related to oset free control and disturbance models; the second issue...... implications for process control. If the control and evaluation intervals are chosen too short, the predicted behaviour of the controllers may have unstable characteristics. Depending of the degrees of freedom, oset-free control of a number of the controlled variables can be achieved by introduction of noise...... models and integration of the innovation errors. If the disturbances increases, oset-free control cannot be achieved without violation of process constraints. A target calculation function is used to calculate the optimal achievable target for the process. The use of soft constraints for process output...

  5. Advanced modelling, monitoring, and process control of bioconversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Elliott C.

    Production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass is an increasingly important area of research and industrialization throughout the world. In order to be competitive with fossil-based fuels and chemicals, maintaining cost-effectiveness is critical. Advanced process control (APC) and optimization methods could significantly reduce operating costs in the biorefining industry. Two reasons APC has previously proven challenging to implement for bioprocesses include: lack of suitable online sensor technology of key system components, and strongly nonlinear first principal models required to predict bioconversion behavior. To overcome these challenges batch fermentations with the acetogen Moorella thermoacetica were monitored with Raman spectroscopy for the conversion of real lignocellulosic hydrolysates and a kinetic model for the conversion of synthetic sugars was developed. Raman spectroscopy was shown to be effective in monitoring the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw hydrolysate, where univariate models predicted acetate concentrations with a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.9 and 1.0 g L-1 for bagasse and straw, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) models were employed to predict acetate, xylose, glucose, and total sugar concentrations for both hydrolysate fermentations. The PLS models were more robust than univariate models, and yielded a percent error of approximately 5% for both sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw. In addition, a screening technique was discussed for improving Raman spectra of hydrolysate samples prior to collecting fermentation data. Furthermore, a mechanistic model was developed to predict batch fermentation of synthetic glucose, xylose, and a mixture of the two sugars to acetate. The models accurately described the bioconversion process with an RMSEP of approximately 1 g L-1 for each model and provided insights into how kinetic parameters changed during dual substrate

  6. Application of advanced oxidative process in treatment radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Catia; Sakata, Solange K.; Ferreira, Rafael V.P.; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The ion exchange resin is used in the water purification system in both nuclear research and power reactors. Combined with active carbon, the resin removes dissolved elements from water when the nuclear reactor is operating. After its consumption, it becomes a special type of radioactive waste. The usual treatment to this type of waste is the immobilization with Portland cement, which is simple and low cost. However, its low capacity of immobilization and the increase volume of waste have been the challenges. The development of new technologies capable of destroying this waste completely by increasing its solidification is the main target due to the possibility of both volume and cost reduction. The objective of this work was to evaluate ion exchange resin degradation by Advanced Oxidative Process using Fenton's Reagent (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} / Fe{sup +2}) in different concentration and temperatures. One advantage of this process is that all additional organic compounds or inorganic solids produced are oxidized easily. The degradation experiments were conducted with IRA-400 resin and Fenton's Reagents, varying the H{sub 2O}2 concentration (30% e 50%) and heat temperature (25, 60 and 100 deg C). The resin degradation was confirmed by the presence of BaCO{sub 3} as a white precipitate resulting from the reaction between the Ba(OH){sub 2} and the CO{sub 2} from the resin degradation. All experiments run in duplicate. Higher degradation was observed with Fenton's Reagent (Fe{sup +2} /H{sub 2}O{sub 2} 30%) at 100 deg C after 2 hours. (author)

  7. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

    2006-06-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  8. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analyses Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.S. Samuelsen; A.D. Rao

    2006-02-06

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include ''Zero Emission'' power plants and the ''FutureGen'' H{sub 2} co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the ''Vision 21'' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  9. Update of the Solar Concentrator Advanced Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Robert D.; Peterson, Todd T.; Ehresman, Derik T.

    1989-01-01

    The Solar Concentrator Advanced Development Project, which has achieved the successful design, fabrication, and testing of a full-scale prototypical solar dynamic concentrator, is discussed. The design and fabrication process are summarized, and the test results for the reflective facet optical performance and the concentrator structural repeatability are reported. Initial testing of structural repeatability of a seven panel portion of the concentrator was followed by assembly and testing of the full nineteen-panel structure. The testing, which consisted of theodolite and optical measurements over an assembly-disassembly-reassembly cycle, demonstrated that the concentrator maintained the as-built contour and optical characteristics. The facet development effort, which entailed developing a vapor-deposited reflective facet, produced a viable design with demonstrated optical characteristics that are within the project goals.

  10. Advanced Signal Processing for MIMO-OFDM Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manchón, Carles Navarro

    This thesis deals with a wide range of topics within the research area of advanced baseband receiver design for wireless communication systems. In particular, the work focuses on signal processing algorithms for receivers in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency-division mult......This thesis deals with a wide range of topics within the research area of advanced baseband receiver design for wireless communication systems. In particular, the work focuses on signal processing algorithms for receivers in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency...... contributions is the derivation of a novel message-passing scheme combining the MF and BP frameworks; the algorithm is derived from the stationary points of a region-based free energy approximation, and is guaranteed to converge if the underlying probabilistic model satisfies certain conditions. Moreover, we...

  11. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  12. Advanced technology's impact on compressor design and development - A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Calvin L.

    1989-01-01

    A historical perspective of the impact of advanced technologies on compression system design and development for aircraft gas turbine applications is presented. A bright view of the future is projected in which further advancements in compression system technologies will be made. These advancements will have a significant impact on the ability to meet the ever-more-demanding requirements being imposed on the propulsion system for advanced aircraft. Examples are presented of advanced compression system concepts now being studied. The status and potential impact of transitioning from an empirically derived design system to a computationally oriented system are highlighted. A current NASA Lewis Research Center program to enhance this transitioning is described.

  13. Advanced technologies impact on compressor design and development: A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Calvin L.

    1989-01-01

    A historical perspective of the impact of advanced technologies on compression system design and development for aircraft gas turbine applications is presented. A bright view of the future is projected in which further advancements in compression system technologies will be made. These advancements will have a significant impact on the ability to meet the ever-more-demanding requirements being imposed on the propulsion system for advanced aircraft. Examples are presented of advanced compression system concepts now being studied. The status and potential impact of transitioning from an empirically derived design system to a computationally oriented system are highlighted. A current NASA Lewis Research Center program to enhance this transitioning is described.

  14. Degradation of metoprolol by means of advanced oxidation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Olarte, Rossmary Violette

    2015-01-01

    For this study the emerging contaminant ß-blocker Metoprolol (MET) has been selected due that it is a highly prescribed pharmaceutical and it has been detected in waste water treatment plants influents, thus, in natural waters. Several studies, focused on the toxicological potential of Metoprolol, indicate its potential environmental relevance and its recalcitrant nature. To remove MET from water, different Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) were used. MET removal was studied, in diffe...

  15. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  16. Advanced Mathematical Model to Describe the Production of Biodiesel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmat S. Al-Salim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced mathematical model was used to capture the batch reactor characteristics of reacting compounds. The model was applied to batch reactor for the production of bio-diesel from palm and kapok oils. Results of the model were compared with experimental data in terms of conversion of transesterification reaction for the production of bio-diesel under unsteady state. A good agreement was obtained between our model predictions and the experimental data. Both experimental and modeling results showed that the conversion of triglycerides to methyl ester was affected by the process conditions. The transesterification process with temperature of about 70 oC, and methanol ratio to the triglyceride of about 5 times its stoichiometry, and the NAOH catalyst of wt 0.4%, appear to be acceptable process conditions for bio diesel process production from palm oil and kapok oil. The model can be applied for endothermic batch process. © 2009 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved[Received: 12 August 2009, Revised: 15 October 2009; Accepted: 18 October 2009][How to Cite: A.S. Ibrehem, H. S. Al-Salim. (2009. Advanced Mathematical Model to Describe the Production of Biodiesel Process. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(2: 37-42. doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.2.28.37-42][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.2.28.37-42

  17. Development of Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced multi-component, low conductivity oxide thermal barrier coatings have been developed using an approach that emphasizes real-time monitoring of thermal conductivity under conditions that are engine-like in terms of temperatures and heat fluxes. This is in contrast to the traditional approach where coatings are initially optimized in terms of furnace and burner rig durability with subsequent measurement in the as-processed or furnace-sintered condition. The present work establishes a laser high-heat-flux test as the basis for evaluating advanced plasma-sprayed and electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) thermal barrier coatings under the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program. The candidate coating materials for this program are novel thermal barrier coatings that are found to have significantly reduced thermal conductivities and improved thermal stability due to an oxide-defect-cluster design. Critical issues for designing advanced low conductivity coatings with improved coating durability are also discussed.

  18. CROSSCUTTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AT THE CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugh W. Rimmer

    2004-05-12

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the seventeen subprojects awarded in the first year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices. Due to the time taken up by the solicitation/selection process, these cover the initial 6-month period of project activity only. The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 1999, U.S. mining operations produced $66.7 billion worth of raw materials that contributed a total of $533 billion to the nation's wealth. Despite these contributions, the mining industry has not been well supported with research and development funds as compared to mining industries in other countries. To overcome this problem, the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations. Originally set up by Virginia Tech and West Virginia University, this endeavor has been expanded into a seven-university consortium--Virginia Tech, West Virginia University, University of Kentucky, University of Utah, Montana Tech, New Mexico Tech and University of Nevada, Reno--that is supported through U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. Much of the research to be conducted with Cooperative Agreement funds will be longer-term, high-risk, basic research and will be carried out in five broad areas: (1) Solid-solid separation (2) Solid-liquid separation (3) Chemical/Biological Extraction (4) Modeling and Control, and (5) Environmental Control.

  19. Propellant development for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, L. C.; Stanley, C. B.; Ricks, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    The properties of a propellant developed for the NASA Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) are described in terms of its composition, performance, and compliance to NASA specifications. The class 1.3 HTPB/AP/A1 propellant employs an ester plasticizer and the content of ballistic solids is set at 88 percent. Ammonia evolution is prevented by the utilization of a neutral bonding agent which allows continuous mixing. The propellant also comprises a bimodal AP blend with one ground fraction, ground AP of at least 20 microns, and ferric oxide to control the burning rate. The propellant's characteristics are discussed in terms of tradeoffs in AP particle size and the types of Al powder, bonding agent, and HTPB polymer. The size and shape of the ballistic solids affect the processability, ballistic properties, and structural properties of the propellant. The revised baseline composition is based on maximizing the robustness of in-process viscosity, structural integrity, and burning-rate tailoring range.

  20. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Results of work performed from January 1, 1977 through March 31, 1977 on the Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program are presented. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Process Heat and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (impure Helium), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes progress to date on alloy selection for VHTR Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) applications and for DCHT applications. The present status on the simulated reactor helium loop design and on designs for the testing and analysis facilities and equipment is discussed.

  1. Anvil Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe, III; Bauman, William, III; Keen, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) created a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display Systems (MIDDS) to indicate the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. In order for the Anvil Tool to remain available to the meteorologists, the AMU was tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather interactive Processing System (AWIPS). This report describes the work done by the AMU to develop the Anvil Tool for AWIPS to create a graphical overlay depicting the threat from thunderstorm anvil clouds. The AWIPS Anvil Tool is based on the previously deployed AMU MIDDS Anvil Tool. SMG and 45 WS forecasters have used the MIDDS Anvil Tool during launch and landing operations. SMG's primary weather analysis and display system is now AWIPS and the 45 WS has plans to replace MIDDS with AWIPS. The Anvil Tool creates a graphic that users can overlay on satellite or radar imagery to depict the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on an average of the upper-level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 nm standoff circles centered at the location of interest, in addition to one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 degree sector width based on a previous AMU study which determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 degrees of the upper-level (300- to 150-mb) wind direction. This report briefly describes the history of the MIDDS Anvil Tool and then explains how the initial development of the AWIPS Anvil Tool was carried out. After testing was

  2. The Process of Trust Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren; Højland, Jeppe

    by high trust and co-operation? In this paper we explore the process of trust development during an organisational change project in a Danish SME by looking at two kinds of trust relations: employee trust in management and trust relations among employees. We find substantial differences in trust...

  3. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Tasks 2, 3, and 4.1 to 4.6), Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Duthie, R.G. [Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Volume 2 contains information on the following topics: (1) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (2) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (3) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. (VC)

  4. Advanced Reactor Technology -- Regulatory Technology Development Plan (RTDP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Wayne Leland [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This DOE-NE Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) regulatory technology development plan (RTDP) will link critical DOE nuclear reactor technology development programs to important regulatory and policy-related issues likely to impact a “critical path” for establishing a viable commercial AdvSMR presence in the domestic energy market. Accordingly, the regulatory considerations that are set forth in the AdvSMR RTDP will not be limited to any one particular type or subset of advanced reactor technology(s) but rather broadly consider potential regulatory approaches and the licensing implications that accompany all DOE-sponsored research and technology development activity that deal with commercial non-light water reactors. However, it is also important to remember that certain “minimum” levels of design and safety approach knowledge concerning these technology(s) must be defined and available to an extent that supports appropriate pre-licensing regulatory analysis within the RTDP. Final resolution to advanced reactor licensing issues is most often predicated on the detailed design information and specific safety approach as documented in a facility license application and submitted for licensing review. Because the AdvSMR RTDP is focused on identifying and assessing the potential regulatory implications of DOE-sponsored reactor technology research very early in the pre-license application development phase, the information necessary to support a comprehensive regulatory analysis of a new reactor technology, and the resolution of resulting issues, will generally not be available. As such, the regulatory considerations documented in the RTDP should be considered an initial “first step” in the licensing process which will continue until a license is issued to build and operate the said nuclear facility. Because a facility license application relies heavily on the data and information generated by technology development studies, the anticipated regulatory

  5. Advanced Reactor Technologies - Regulatory Technology Development Plan (RTDP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Wayne L.

    2017-08-23

    This DOE-NE Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) regulatory technology development plan (RTDP) will link critical DOE nuclear reactor technology development programs to important regulatory and policy-related issues likely to impact a “critical path” for establishing a viable commercial AdvSMR presence in the domestic energy market. Accordingly, the regulatory considerations that are set forth in the AdvSMR RTDP will not be limited to any one particular type or subset of advanced reactor technology(s) but rather broadly consider potential regulatory approaches and the licensing implications that accompany all DOE-sponsored research and technology development activity that deal with commercial non-light water reactors. However, it is also important to remember that certain “minimum” levels of design and safety approach knowledge concerning these technology(s) must be defined and available to an extent that supports appropriate pre-licensing regulatory analysis within the RTDP. Final resolution to advanced reactor licensing issues is most often predicated on the detailed design information and specific safety approach as documented in a facility license application and submitted for licensing review. Because the AdvSMR RTDP is focused on identifying and assessing the potential regulatory implications of DOE-sponsored reactor technology research very early in the pre-license application development phase, the information necessary to support a comprehensive regulatory analysis of a new reactor technology, and the resolution of resulting issues, will generally not be available. As such, the regulatory considerations documented in the RTDP should be considered an initial “first step” in the licensing process which will continue until a license is issued to build and operate the said nuclear facility. Because a facility license application relies heavily on the data and information generated by technology development studies, the anticipated regulatory

  6. Research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal system for industrial and other use. Development of system of advanced heat process type (chemical refrigeration and cold storage system using solar heat); Sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Advanced heat process gata system no kaihatsu (taiyonetsu reito reizo no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for chemical refrigeration and cold storage system using solar heat. The study on refrigeration materials are aimed at development of new hydrogen-occluding alloys which show good hydrogenation equilibrium characteristics and reactivity at temperature required for stand-alone refrigeration systems aided by solar heat, and still new hydrogen-occluding alloys operable at refrigeration temperature for lower-temperature systems. For the refrigeration materials capable of producing low-temperature heat of -10{degree}C at a regeneration temperature of 140{degree}C produced by solar heat, a La-Ni-Mn-Al alloy is selected for high-temperature use and a La-Y-Ni-Mn alloy for low-temperature use. The study on technology for refrigeration modules develops high-efficiency heat exchangers for refrigeration and regeneration, compatible with the hydrogen-occluding alloys. It also develops air-and water-cooling techniques for hydrogen-occluding alloys, where air is used as the heat source. The test apparatus is designed, installed and operated, to attain a low temperature of -10{degree}C or lower with a heat source of 140{degree}C and air heat source of 28{degree}C. 7 figs.

  7. Advances and applications of optimised algorithms in image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Oliva, Diego

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a study of the use of optimization algorithms in complex image processing problems. The problems selected explore areas ranging from the theory of image segmentation to the detection of complex objects in medical images. Furthermore, the concepts of machine learning and optimization are analyzed to provide an overview of the application of these tools in image processing. The material has been compiled from a teaching perspective. Accordingly, the book is primarily intended for undergraduate and postgraduate students of Science, Engineering, and Computational Mathematics, and can be used for courses on Artificial Intelligence, Advanced Image Processing, Computational Intelligence, etc. Likewise, the material can be useful for research from the evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence and image processing co.

  8. Patterns of Software Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Javier Bolaños Castro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">This article presents a set of patterns that can be found to perform best practices in software processes that are directly related to the problem of implementing the activities of the process, the roles involved, the knowledge generated and the inputs and outputs belonging to the process. In this work, a definition of the architecture is encouraged by using different recurrent configurations that strengthen the process and yield efficient results for the development of a software project. The patterns presented constitute a catalog, which serves as a vocabulary for communication among project participants [1], [2], and also can be implemented through software tools, thus facilitating patterns implementation [3]. Additionally, a tool that can be obtained under GPL (General Public license is provided for this purpose

  9. Development of advanced technologies for biomass pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ran

    The utilization of biomass resources as a renewable energy resource is of great importance in responding to concerns over the protection of the environment and the security of energy supply. This PhD research focuses on the investigation of the conversion of negative value biomass residues into value-added fuels through flash pyrolysis. Pyrolysis Process Study. A pilot plant bubbling fluidized bed pyrolyzer has been set up and extensively used to thermally crack various low or negative value agricultural, food and biofuel processing residues to investigate the yields and quality of the liquid [bio-oil] and solid (bio-char] products. Another novel aspect of this study is the establishment of an energy balance from which the thermal self-sustainability of the pyrolysis process can be assessed. Residues such as grape skins and mixture of grape skins and seeds, dried distiller's grains from bio-ethanol plants, sugarcane field residues (internal bagasse, external and whole plant) have been tested. The pyrolysis of each residue has been carried out at temperatures ranging from 300 to 600°C and at different vapor residence times, to determine its pyrolysis behavior including yields and the overall energy balance. The thermal sustainability of the pyrolysis process has been estimated by considering the energy contribution of the product gases and liquid bio-oll in relation to the pyrolysis heat requirements. The optimum pyrolysis conditions have been identified in terms of maximizing the liquid blo-oil yield, energy density and content of the product blo-oil, after ensuring a self-sustainable process by utilizing the product gases and part of char or bio-oil as heat sources. Adownflow pyrolyzer has also been set up. Preliminary tests have been conducted using much shorter residence times. Bio-oil Recovery. Bio-oil recovery from the pyrolysis unit includes condensation followed by demisting. A blo-oil cyclonic condensing system is designed A nearly tangential entry forces

  10. Enhanced performance in graphene RF transistors via advanced process integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seul Ki; Oh, Joong Gun; Hwang, Wan Sik; Cho, Byung Jin

    2017-04-01

    The state-of-the-art performance of a graphene radio-frequency (RF) field-effect transistor (FET) made of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene is presented. The record high cut-off frequency as high as 380 GHz using CVD graphene was attributed to the implementation of advanced process integration. On the one hand, interface engineering has become critical in two-dimensional (2D) electronics since the charge transport of a 2D electron system like graphene is highly affected by the interface. The interface engineering was made for both the top and bottom of the graphene surface by implementing a non-polar material (1, 3, 5-trimethyl-1, 3, 5-trivinyl cyclotrisiloxane). In contrast to conventional polar materials, such as SiO2, the non-polar materials significantly reduce the surface optical phonon scattering in the graphene channel, leading to the enhanced RF performance of graphene FET. On the other hand, micro-scaled holes over the multilayer graphene and self-aligned structure also become a critical factor in minimizing the parasitic resistance that is inversely proportional to RF performance. As the growth technique of CVD graphene greatly advances, the advanced process integration scheme could bring graphene electronics one step further towards practical application.

  11. The development of an advanced information management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Performing a PSA requires a lot of data to analyze, to evaluate the risk, to trace the process of results and to verify the results. KAERI is developing a PSA information database system, AIMS (Advanced Information Management System for PSA). The objective of AIMS development is to integrate and computerize all the distributed information of a PSA into a system and to enhance the accessibility to PSA information for all PSA related activities. We designed the PSA information database system for the following purposes: integrated PSA information management software, sensitivity analysis, quality assurance, anchor to another reliability database. The AIMS consists of a PSA Information database, Information browsing (searching) modules, and PSA automatic quantification manager modules.

  12. Requirements Development for the NASA Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Eric; Hale, Joseph P.; Zook, Keith; Gowda, Sanjay; Salas, Andrea O.

    2003-01-01

    The requirements development process for the Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is presented. This environment has been developed to allow NASA to perform independent analysis and design of space transportation architectures and technologies. Given the highly collaborative and distributed nature of AEE, a variety of organizations are involved in the development, operations and management of the system. Furthermore, there are additional organizations involved representing external customers and stakeholders. Thorough coordination and effective communication is essential to translate desired expectations of the system into requirements. Functional, verifiable requirements for this (and indeed any) system are necessary to fulfill several roles. Requirements serve as a contractual tool, configuration management tool, and as an engineering tool, sometimes simultaneously. The role of requirements as an engineering tool is particularly important because a stable set of requirements for a system provides a common framework of system scope and characterization among team members. Furthermore, the requirements provide the basis for checking completion of system elements and form the basis for system verification. Requirements are at the core of systems engineering. The AEE Project has undertaken a thorough process to translate the desires and expectations of external customers and stakeholders into functional system-level requirements that are captured with sufficient rigor to allow development planning, resource allocation and system-level design, development, implementation and verification. These requirements are maintained in an integrated, relational database that provides traceability to governing Program requirements and also to verification methods and subsystem-level requirements.

  13. Advanced Polymer Composite Molding Through Intelligent Process Analysis and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-30

    In this project. process analysis of Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) was carried out and adaptive process control models were developed. In addition, a...aforementioned work in three separate sections: (1) process analysis and adaptive control modeling, (2) manufacturing of non-invasive sensor, end (3) list of publications resulting from this project.

  14. Selection of parameters for advanced machining processes using firefly algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkamal Shukla

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Advanced machining processes (AMPs are widely utilized in industries for machining complex geometries and intricate profiles. In this paper, two significant processes such as electric discharge machining (EDM and abrasive water jet machining (AWJM are considered to get the optimum values of responses for the given range of process parameters. The firefly algorithm (FA is attempted to the considered processes to obtain optimized parameters and the results obtained are compared with the results given by previous researchers. The variation of process parameters with respect to the responses are plotted to confirm the optimum results obtained using FA. In EDM process, the performance parameter “MRR” is increased from 159.70 gm/min to 181.6723 gm/min, while “Ra” and “REWR” are decreased from 6.21 μm to 3.6767 μm and 6.21% to 6.324 × 10−5% respectively. In AWJM process, the value of the “kerf” and “Ra” are decreased from 0.858 mm to 0.3704 mm and 5.41 mm to 4.443 mm respectively. In both the processes, the obtained results show a significant improvement in the responses.

  15. Advanced Java EE development for rational application developer 7.5 developers' guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, Kameron; Raszka, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This advanced book provides a solid overview of the development of a range of core Java EE technologies, combined with a good description of the development facilities provided by IBM Rational Application Developer V7.5. Senior developers, engineers, and architects involved with Java and Java EE technologies, especially those who work with Rational Application Developer and those seeking certification at the Sun Certified Java Master Tier level or the IBM Rational Application Developer Certified Professional and Certified Advanced Professional levels, will appreciate this convenient, single re

  16. Development of Experimental Facilities for Advanced Spent Fuel Management Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, G. S.; Jung, W. M.; Ku, J. H. [and others

    2004-07-01

    The advanced spent fuel management process(ACP), proposed to reduce the overall volume of the PWR spent fuel and improve safety and economy of the long-term storage of spent fuel, is under research and development. This technology convert spent fuels into pure metal-base uranium with removing the highly heat generating materials(Cs, Sr) efficiently and reducing of the decay heat, volume, and radioactivity from spent fuel by 1/4. In the next phase(2004{approx}2006), the demonstration of this technology will be carried out for verification of the ACP in a laboratory scale. For this demonstration, the hot cell facilities of {alpha}-{gamma} type and auxiliary facilities are required essentially for safe handling of high radioactive materials. As the hot cell facilities for demonstration of the ACP, a existing hot cell of {beta}-{gamma} type will be refurbished to minimize construction expenditures of hot cell facility. In this study, the design requirements are established, and the process detail work flow was analysed for the optimum arrangement to ensure effective process operation in hot cell. And also, the basic and detail design of hot cell facility and process, and safety analysis was performed to secure conservative safety of hot cell facility and process.

  17. Evaluation of Resin Dissolution Using an Advanced Oxidation Process - 13241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulart de Araujo, Leandro; Vicente de Padua Ferreira, Rafael; Takehiro Marumo, Julio [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242., Sao Paulo, SP. (Brazil); Passos Piveli, Roque; Campos, Fabio [The Polytechnic School of the University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado, 83, trav.2. Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The ion-exchange resin is widely used in nuclear reactors, in cooling water purification and removing radioactive elements. Because of the long periods of time inside the reactor system, the resin becomes radioactive. When the useful life of them is over, its re-utilization becomes inappropriate, and for this reason, the resin is considered radioactive waste. The most common method of treatment is the immobilization of spent ion exchange resin in cement in order to form a solid monolithic matrix, which reduces the radionuclides release into the environment. However, the characteristic of contraction and expansion of the resin limits its incorporation in 10%, resulting in high cost in its direct immobilization. Therefore, it is recommended the utilization of a pre-treatment, capable of reducing the volume and degrading the resin, which would increase the load capacity in the immobilization. This work aims to develop a method of degradation of ion spent resins from the nuclear research reactor of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Brazil, using the Advanced Oxidative Process (AOP) with Fenton's reagent (hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulphate as catalyst). The resin evaluated was a mixture of cationic (IR 120P) and anionic (IRA 410) resins. The reactions were conducted by varying the concentration of the catalyst (25, 50, 100 e 150 mM) and the volume of the hydrogen peroxide, at three different temperatures, 50, 60 and 70 deg. C. The time of reaction was three hours. Total organic carbon content was determined periodically in order to evaluate the degradation as a function of time. The concentration of 50 mM of catalyst was the most effective in degrading approximately 99%, using up to 330 mL of hydrogen peroxide. The most effective temperature was about 60 deg. C, because of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in higher temperatures. TOC content was influenced by the concentration of the catalyst, interfering in the beginning of the

  18. Treatment of gasoline-contaminated waters by advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiburtius, Elaine Regina Lopes [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP 19081, 81531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Peralta-Zamora, Patricio [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP 19081, 81531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: zamora@quimica.ufpr.br; Emmel, Alexandre [Centro Integrado de Tecnologia e Educacao Profissional, 81310-010 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-11-11

    In this study, the efficiency of advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) was investigated toward the degradation of aqueous solutions containing benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) and gasoline-contaminated waters. The results indicated that BTX can be effectively oxidized by near UV-assisted photo-Fenton process. The treatment permits almost total degradation of BTX and removal of more than 80% of the phenolic intermediates at reaction times of about 30 min. Preliminary investigations using water contaminated by gasoline suggest a good potentiality of the process for the treatment of large volumes of aqueous samples containing these polluting species. Heterogeneous photocatalysis and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system show lower degradation efficiency, probably due to the heterogeneous character of the TiO{sub 2}-mediated system and lost of photonic efficiency of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system in the presence of highly colored intermediated.

  19. Fieldcrest Cannon, Inc. Advanced Technical Preparation. Statistical Process Control (SPC). PRE-SPC I. Instructor Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averitt, Sallie D.

    This instructor guide, which was developed for use in a manufacturing firm's advanced technical preparation program, contains the materials required to present a learning module that is designed to prepare trainees for the program's statistical process control module by improving their basic math skills and instructing them in basic calculator…

  20. ADVANCEMENT OF UCP WITH END USER DEVELOPMENT FACTOR: AUCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Srivastava

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Computer literacy and competitive pressures among end users is increasing day by day due to which the need for End-User Programming in software packages is also increasing for rapid, flexible, and user driven information processing solutions. End User Development out-sources development effort to the end user by enabling software developers to create information systems that can even be adapted by technically inexperienced end users and hence are in great demand. If end user decides to pay the price and add significant programmability to their system, there are additional costs to consider before end user can start to enjoy the payoff. It is important to calculate accurateand early estimation of software size forcalculating effort and cost estimation of software systems incorporating EUD features. With the evolution of object orientation, use cases emerged as a dominant method for structuring requirements. Use cases were integrated into the Unified Modeling Language (UML and Unified Process and became the standard for Software Engineering requirements modelling. The Use Case Point (UCPmethodestimates project size by assigning points to use cases in the same way that Function Point Analysis (FPA assigns points to functions. This paper discusses the concept of end-user programming and Advancement of UCP by adding end-user development/programming as an additional Effort Estimation Factor (EEF.

  1. Advances in intelligent process-aware information systems concepts, methods, and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Oberhauser, Roy; Reichert, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a state-of-the-art perspective on intelligent process-aware information systems and presents chapters on specific facets and approaches applicable to such systems. Further, it highlights novel advances and developments in various aspects of intelligent process-aware information systems and business process management systems. Intelligence capabilities are increasingly being integrated into or created in many of today’s software products and services. Process-aware information systems provide critical computing infrastructure to support the various processes involved in the creation and delivery of business products and services. Yet the integration of intelligence capabilities into process-aware information systems is a non-trivial yet necessary evolution of these complex systems. The book’s individual chapters address adaptive process management, case management processes, autonomically-capable processes, process-oriented information logistics, process recommendations, reasoning over ...

  2. Software Development Standard Processes (SDSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Milton L.; Wang, James J.; Morillo, Ronald; Mayer, John T.; Jamshidian, Barzia; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Wilkinson, Belinda M.; Hihn, Jairus M.; Borgen, Rosana B.; Meyer, Kenneth N.; Crean, Kathleen A.; Rinker, George C.; Smith, Thomas P.; Lum, Karen T.; Hanna, Robert A.; Erickson, Daniel E.; Gamble, Edward B., Jr.; Morgan, Scott C.; Kelsay, Michael G.; Newport, Brian J.; Lewicki, Scott A.; Stipanuk, Jeane G.; Cooper, Tonja M.; Meshkat, Leila

    2011-01-01

    A JPL-created set of standard processes is to be used throughout the lifecycle of software development. These SDSPs cover a range of activities, from management and engineering activities, to assurance and support activities. These processes must be applied to software tasks per a prescribed set of procedures. JPL s Software Quality Improvement Project is currently working at the behest of the JPL Software Process Owner to ensure that all applicable software tasks follow these procedures. The SDSPs are captured as a set of 22 standards in JPL s software process domain. They were developed in-house at JPL by a number of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) residing primarily within the Engineering and Science Directorate, but also from the Business Operations Directorate and Safety and Mission Success Directorate. These practices include not only currently performed best practices, but also JPL-desired future practices in key thrust areas like software architecting and software reuse analysis. Additionally, these SDSPs conform to many standards and requirements to which JPL projects are beholden.

  3. Advanced Mathematical Model to Describe the Production of Biodiesel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmmed S. Ibrehem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced mathematical model was used to capture the batch reactor characteristics of reacting compounds. The model was applied to batch reactor for the production of bio-diesel from palm and kapok oils. Results of the model were compared with experimental data in terms of conversion of transesterification reaction for the production of bio-diesel under unsteady state. A good agreement was obtained between our model predictions and the experimental data. Both experimental and modeling results showed that the conversion of triglycerides to methyl ester was affected by the process conditions. The transesterification process with temperature of about 70 oC, and methanol ratio to the triglyceride of about 5 times its stoichiometry, and the NAOH catalyst of wt 0.4%, appear to be acceptable process conditions for bio diesel process production from palm oil and kapok oil. The model can be applied for endothermic batch process. © 2009 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved[Received: 12 August 2009, Revised: 15 October 2009; Accepted: 18 October 2009][How to Cite: A.S. Ibrehem, H. S. Al-Salim. (2009. Advanced Mathematical Model to Describe the Production of Biodiesel Process. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(2: 37-42.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.2.7109.37-42][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.2.7109.37-42 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/7109 ] 

  4. Technology development life cycle processes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin

    2013-05-01

    This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

  5. Preface to the Viewpoint Set: Nanostructured metals - Advances in processing, characterization and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    Materialia 2004;51:751–841). Since then the field has retained its vigor and advances and new discoveries have been made, many of which form the basis of the present Viewpoint Set. An important part of the development has been the trend to produce traditional materials such as steel, aluminum and copper...... and materials scientists but also technologists and engineers. The present Viewpoint Set therefore covers metallic materials with a structural scale ranging from micrometer to nanometer in dimensions and focuses on processing techniques such as plastic deformation and phase transformations. As a result...... of the advances in processing techniques, research and development also now extends to applications of fine structured metals, especially in advanced components...

  6. Advanced Power Technology Development Activities for Small Satellite Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael F.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Taylor, Linda M.; Hernandez-Lugo, Dionne; Raffaelle, Ryne; Landi, Brian; Hubbard, Seth; Schauerman, Christopher; Ganter, Mathew; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has a long history related to the development of advanced power technology for space applications. This expertise covers the breadth of energy generation (photovoltaics, thermal energy conversion, etc.), energy storage (batteries, fuel cell technology, etc.), power management and distribution, and power systems architecture and analysis. Such advanced technology is now being developed for small satellite and cubesat applications and could have a significant impact on the longevity and capabilities of these missions. A presentation during the Pre-Conference Workshop will focus on various advanced power technologies being developed and demonstrated by NASA, and their possible application within the small satellite community.

  7. Recent Technological Advances in Natural Language Processing and Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Nishal Pradeepkumar

    2012-01-01

    A recent advance in computer technology has permitted scientists to implement and test algorithms that were known from quite some time (or not) but which were computationally expensive. Two such projects are IBM's Jeopardy as a part of its DeepQA project [1] and Wolfram's Wolframalpha[2]. Both these methods implement natural language processing (another goal of AI scientists) and try to answer questions as asked by the user. Though the goal of the two projects is similar, both of them have a ...

  8. Advanced materials and processes for polymer solar cell devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Helgesen; Søndergaard, Roar; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-01-01

    /fullerene mixtures and evaporated metal electrodes in a flat multilayer geometry. It is likely that significant advances can be found by pursuing many of these novel ideas further and the purpose of this review is to highlight these reports and hopefully spark new interest in materials and methods that may......The rapidly expanding field of polymer and organic solar cells is reviewed in the context of materials, processes and devices that significantly deviate from the standard approach which involves rigid glass substrates, indium-tin-oxide electrodes, spincoated layers of conjugated polymer...

  9. Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Luis A.

    2007-12-01

    This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

  10. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1997-04-25

    The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

  11. Compact Process Development at Babcock & Wilcox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Shaber; Jeffrey Phillips

    2012-03-01

    Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of compaction trials have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel at packing fractions exceeding 46% by volume. Results from these trials are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operable using nuclear fuel materials. Final process testing is in progress to certify the process for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts in 2012.

  12. Cost analysis of advanced turbine blade manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, C. F.; Blake, D. E.; Stelson, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    A rigorous analysis was conducted to estimate relative manufacturing costs for high technology gas turbine blades prepared by three candidate materials process systems. The manufacturing costs for the same turbine blade configuration of directionally solidified eutectic alloy, an oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy, and a fiber reinforced superalloy were compared on a relative basis to the costs of the same blade currently in production utilizing the directional solidification process. An analytical process cost model was developed to quantitatively perform the cost comparisons. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  13. Advanced nuclear materials development -Development of superconductor application technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Kye Won; Lee, Heui Kyoon; Lee, Hoh Jin; Kim, Chan Joong; Jang, Kun Ik; Kim, Kee Baek; Kwon, Sun Chil; Park, Hae Woong; Yoo, Jae Keun; Kim, Jong Jin; Jang, Joong Chul; Yang, Suk Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Fabrication of high Tc bulk superconductor and its application, fabrication of superconducting wire for electric power device and analysis for cryogenic system were carried out for developing superconductor application technologies for electric power system. High quality YBaCuO bulk superconductor was fabricated by controlling initial powder preparation process and prototype fly wheel energy storage device was designed basically. The superconducting levitation force measuring device was made to examine the property of prepared superconductor specimen. Systematic studies on the method of starting powder preparation, mechanical fabrication process, heat treatment condition and analysis of plastic deformation were carried out to increase the stability and reproducibility of superconducting wire. A starting powder with good reactivity and fine particle size was obtained by emulsion drying method. Ag/BSCCO tape with good cross sectional shape and Tc of 16,000 A/cm{sup 2} was fabricated by applying CIP packing procedure. Multifilamentary wire with the Jc of approx. 10000 A/cm{sup 2} was fabricated by rolling method using square billet as starting shape. The joining of the multifilament wire was done by etching and pressing process and showed 50% of joining efficiency. Analysis on the heat loss in cryostat for high Tc superconducting device was carried out for optimum design of the future cryogenic system. 126 figs, 14 tabs, 214 refs. (Author).

  14. Integrated metrology: an enabler for advanced process control (APC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Claus; Pfitzner, Lothar; Ryssel, Heiner

    2001-04-01

    Advanced process control (APC) techniques become more and more important as short innovation cycles in microelectronics and a highly competitive market requires cost-effective solutions in semiconductor manufacturing. APC marks a paradigm shift from statistically based techniques (SPC) using monitor wafers for sampling measurement data towards product wafer control. The APC functionalities including run-to-run control, fault detection, and fault analysis allow to detect process drifts and excursions at an early stage and to minimize the number of misprocessed wafers. APC is being established as part of factory control systems through the definition of an APC framework. A precondition for APC is the availability of sensors and measurement methods providing the necessary wafer data. This paper discusses integrated metrology as an enabler for APC and demonstrates practical implementations in semiconductor manufacturing.

  15. Advanced treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater by Fenton reagent oxidation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan YANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Avermectin-salinomycin waster is hard to be further biodegraded after treated by anaerobic-aerobiotic process, so Fenton oxidation process is studied for its advanced treatment. Influencing factors of pH, reaction time, H2O2 dosage and H2O2/Fe2+ on COD removal are investigated, respectively. When pH value is 3.0, the dosage of H2O2 is 1.5 mL/L, and the mole ratio of H2O2/Fe2+ is 5∶1, the effluent COD mass concentrations decreases from 224 to 64.3 mg/L, namely the COD removal efficiency reaches 71.3%.

  16. Research and development of advanced materials using ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namba, Susumu [Nagasaki Inst. of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A wide range of research and development activities of advanced material synthesis using ion beams will be discussed, including ion beam applications to the state-of-the-art electronics from giant to nano electronics. (author)

  17. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The use of combinatorial methods is proposed to rapidly screen catalyst formulations for the advanced development of aqueous phase oxidation catalysts with greater...

  18. Robotics applications on an advanced hypercube multiprocessor: initial developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barhen, J.; Hall. M.C.G.; Einstein, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Specialized computer architectures for advanced robotics applications at ORNL/CESAR are based on the hypercube ensemble concept. We summarize the current status of algorithm development and present results for robot dynamics and navigation problems. 13 refs.

  19. A review of process advancement of novel metal spinning

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Q.; Xiao, G; Van Long, H.; Cheng, X; X. Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Metal spinning technology has seen a rapid development in recent years. Novel spinning processes, such as non-axisymmetrical spinning, non-circular cross-section spinning and tooth-shaped spinning, are being developed. This has challenged the limitation of traditional spinning technology being used for manufacturing axisymmetrical, circular cross-section, and uniform wall-thickness parts. In this paper, the classification of the traditional spinning processes is proposed based on the material...

  20. Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) Data Processing Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Brock, John C.; Nagle, David

    2009-01-01

    The Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) is an example of a Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) system that utilizes a blue-green wavelength (532 nanometers) to determine the distance to an object. The distance is determined by recording the travel time of a transmitted pulse at the speed of light (fig. 1). This system uses raster laser scanning with full-waveform (multi-peak) resolving capabilities to measure submerged topography and adjacent coastal land elevations simultaneously (Nayegandhi and others, 2009). This document reviews procedures for the post-processing of EAARL data using the custom-built Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS). ALPS software was developed in an open-source programming environment operated on a Linux platform. It has the ability to combine the laser return backscatter digitized at 1-nanosecond intervals with aircraft positioning information. This solution enables the exploration and processing of the EAARL data in an interactive or batch mode. ALPS also includes modules for the creation of bare earth, canopy-top, and submerged topography Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). The EAARL system uses an Earth-centered coordinate and reference system that removes the necessity to reference submerged topography data relative to water level or tide gages (Nayegandhi and others, 2006). The EAARL system can be mounted in an array of small twin-engine aircraft that operate at 300 meters above ground level (AGL) at a speed of 60 meters per second (117 knots). While other systems strive to maximize operational depth limits, EAARL has a narrow transmit beam and receiver field of view (1.5 to 2 milliradians), which improves the depth-measurement accuracy in shallow, clear water but limits the maximum depth to about 1.5 Secchi disk depth (~20 meters) in clear water. The laser transmitter [Continuum EPO-5000 yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG)] produces up to 5,000 short-duration (1.2 nanosecond), low-power (70 microjoules) pulses each second

  1. Advances in chemical physics dynamical processes in condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Myron W

    2009-01-01

    Transport Properties and Soliton Models for Polyacetylene (M. Andretta, et al.). Development and Application of the Theory of Brownian Motion (W. Coffey). The Fading of Memory During the Regression of Structural Fluctuations (L. Dissado, et al.). Cooperative Molecular Behavior and Field Effects on Liquids: Experimental Considerations (G. Evans). A Review and Computer Simulation of the Molecular Dynamics of a Series of Specific Molecular Liquids (M. Evans and G. Evans). Recent Advances in Molecular-Dynamics Computer Simulation (D. Fincham and D. Heyes). Nonadiabatic Scattering Probl

  2. Identification of the main processes in new towns Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of the main processes in new towns Development Company in Iran and ... of the model of ideal processes for optimal management of resources and actions. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... has been created that together with manufacturing standards and guidelines, ...

  3. Advances in Alzheimer's disease drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Michael S; Aisen, Paul S

    2015-03-25

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the foremost cause of dementia worldwide. Clinically, AD manifests as progressive memory impairment followed by a gradual decline in other cognitive abilities leading to complete functional dependency. Recent biomarker studies indicate that AD is characterized by a long asymptomatic phase, with the development of pathology occurring at least a decade prior to the onset of any symptoms. Current FDA-approved treatments target neurotransmitter abnormalities associated with the disease but do not affect what is believed to be the underlying etiology. In this review, we briefly discuss the most recent therapeutic strategies being employed in AD clinical trials, as well the scientific rationale with which they have been developed.

  4. Advancing Administrative Supports for Research Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine; Korr, Wynne; White, Barbara; Vroom, Phyllis; Zabora, James; Middleton, Jane; Shank, Barbara; Schatz, Mona

    2008-01-01

    Research administrative supports must parallel and reinforce faculty initiatives in research grant procurement. This article features several types of developments that draw on presentations at the National Association of Deans and Directors of Schools of Social Work meetings. Key changes in social work programs are addressed, including the…

  5. Cognitive development in advanced mathematics using technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall, David

    2000-12-01

    This paper considers cognitive development in mathematics and its relationship with computer technology, with special emphasis on the use of visual imagery and symbols and the later shift to formal axiomatic theories. At each stage, empirical evidence is presented to show how these forms of thinking are enhanced, changed, or impeded by the use of technology.

  6. Microwave Processing of Simulated Advanced Nuclear Fuel Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.E. Clark; D.C. Folz

    2010-08-29

    Throughout the three-year project funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and lead by Virginia Tech (VT), project tasks were modified by consensus to fit the changing needs of the DOE with respect to developing new inert matrix fuel processing techniques. The focus throughout the project was on the use of microwave energy to sinter fully stabilized zirconia pellets using microwave energy and to evaluate the effectiveness of techniques that were developed. Additionally, the research team was to propose fundamental concepts as to processing radioactive fuels based on the effectiveness of the microwave process in sintering the simulated matrix material.

  7. Advances in Artificial Neural Networks – Methodological Development and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo Huang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks as a major soft-computing technology have been extensively studied and applied during the last three decades. Research on backpropagation training algorithms for multilayer perceptron networks has spurred development of other neural network training algorithms for other networks such as radial basis function, recurrent network, feedback network, and unsupervised Kohonen self-organizing network. These networks, especially the multilayer perceptron network with a backpropagation training algorithm, have gained recognition in research and applications in various scientific and engineering areas. In order to accelerate the training process and overcome data over-fitting, research has been conducted to improve the backpropagation algorithm. Further, artificial neural networks have been integrated with other advanced methods such as fuzzy logic and wavelet analysis, to enhance the ability of data interpretation and modeling and to avoid subjectivity in the operation of the training algorithm. In recent years, support vector machines have emerged as a set of high-performance supervised generalized linear classifiers in parallel with artificial neural networks. A review on development history of artificial neural networks is presented and the standard architectures and algorithms of artificial neural networks are described. Furthermore, advanced artificial neural networks will be introduced with support vector machines, and limitations of ANNs will be identified. The future of artificial neural network development in tandem with support vector machines will be discussed in conjunction with further applications to food science and engineering, soil and water relationship for crop management, and decision support for precision agriculture. Along with the network structures and training algorithms, the applications of artificial neural networks will be reviewed as well, especially in the fields of agricultural and biological

  8. Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic manufacturing is an emerging industry that promises a carbon-free, nearly limitless source of energy for our nation. However, the high-temperature manufacturing processes used for conventional silicon-based photovoltaics are extremely energy-intensive and expensive. This high cost imposes a critical barrier to the widespread implementation of photovoltaic technology. Argonne National Laboratory and its partners recently invented new methods for manufacturing nanostructured photovoltaic devices that allow dramatic savings in materials, process energy, and cost. These methods are based on atomic layer deposition, a thin film synthesis technique that has been commercialized for the mass production of semiconductor microelectronics. The goal of this project was to develop these low-cost fabrication methods for the high efficiency production of nanostructured photovoltaics, and to demonstrate these methods in solar cell manufacturing. We achieved this goal in two ways: 1) we demonstrated the benefits of these coatings in the laboratory by scaling-up the fabrication of low-cost dye sensitized solar cells; 2) we used our coating technology to reduce the manufacturing cost of solar cells under development by our industrial partners.

  9. Advancing Work Practices Through Online Professional Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack

    that the real challenge surfaces. The challenge of transferring learning to initiate change in work behaviors is present in extant research, but research has not yet thoroughly investigated that even when change is initiated, the effectiveness of the course is still being tested. For sustained change......, practitioners must find evidence of the effectiveness of changed behavior in practice. Practitioners may feel insecure and incompetent when doing their jobs differently, and individuals at work may react to changes in behavior in unexpected ways. This leads practitioners to conclude that a course......The natural expectation for professional development courses is that they will improve a participant’s work performance, but do they? This PhD research challenges several assumptions underlying the design of online professional development courses, revealing that it is after such interventions...

  10. Advanced Software Development Workstation Project, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    ACCESS provides a generic capability to develop software information system applications which are explicitly intended to facilitate software reuse. In addition, it provides the capability to retrofit existing large applications with a user friendly front end for preparation of input streams in a way that will reduce required training time, improve the productivity even of experienced users, and increase accuracy. Current and past work shows that ACCESS will be scalable to much larger object bases.

  11. Development of essential system technologies for advanced reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Y. Y.; Hwang, Y. D.; Cho, B. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    Basic design of SMART adopts the new advanced technologies which were not applied in the existing 1000MWe PWR. However, the R and D experience on these advanced essential technologies is lacking in domestic nuclear industry. Recently, a research on these advanced technologies has been performed as a part of the mid-and-long term nuclear R and D program, but the research was limited only for the small scale fundamental study. The research on these essential technologies such as helically coiled tube steam generator, self pressurizer, core cooling by natural circulation required for the development of integral reactor SMART have not been conducted in full scale. This project, therefore, was performed for the development of analysis models and methodologies, system analysis and thermal hydraulic experiments on the essential technologies to be applied to the 300MWe capacity of integral reactor SMART and the advanced passive reactor expected to be developed in near future with the emphasis on experimental investigation. (author)

  12. Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Christine

    2006-05-31

    Ford Motor Company, with ExxonMobil and FEV, participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to develop an innovative emission control system for light-duty diesel vehicles. The focus on diesel engine emissions was a direct result of the improved volumetric fuel economy (up to 50%) and lower CO2 emissions (up to 25%) over comparable gasoline engines shown in Europe. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with aqueous urea as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) were chosen as the primary emission control system components. The program expected to demonstrate more than 90% durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on a light-duty truck application, based on the FTP-75 drive cycle. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (<15 ppm-wt) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced fuel economy penalty due to the emission control system and improved long-term system durability. Significant progress was made toward a durable system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck. A 40% reduction in engine-out NOx emissions was achieved with a mid-size prototype diesel engine through engine recalibration and increased exhaust gas recirculation. Use of a rapid warm-up strategy and urea SCR provided over 90% further NOx reduction while the CDPF reduced tailpipe PM to gasoline vehicle levels. Development work was conducted to separately improve urea SCR and CDPF system durability, as well as improved oxidation catalyst function. Exhaust gas NOx and ammonia sensors were also developed further. While the final emission control system did not meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx after 120k mi of aging on the dynamometer, it did meet the standards for HC, NMOG, and PM, and an improved SCR catalyst was shown to have potential to meet the NOx standard, assuming the DOC durability could be improved further. Models of DOC and SCR function were developed to guide the study of several key

  13. Recent Advances in Marine Enzymes for Biotechnological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R N; Porto, A L M

    In the last decade, new trends in the food and pharmaceutical industries have increased concern for the quality and safety of products. The use of biocatalytic processes using marine enzymes has become an important and useful natural product for biotechnological applications. Bioprocesses using biocatalysts like marine enzymes (fungi, bacteria, plants, animals, algae, etc.) offer hyperthermostability, salt tolerance, barophilicity, cold adaptability, chemoselectivity, regioselectivity, and stereoselectivity. Currently, enzymatic methods are used to produce a large variety of products that humans consume, and the specific nature of the enzymes including processing under mild pH and temperature conditions result in fewer unwanted side-effects and by-products. This offers high selectivity in industrial processes. The marine habitat has been become increasingly studied because it represents a huge source potential biocatalysts. Enzymes include oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases that can be used in food and pharmaceutical applications. Finally, recent advances in biotechnological processes using enzymes of marine organisms (bacterial, fungi, algal, and sponges) are described and also our work on marine organisms from South America, especially marine-derived fungi and bacteria involved in biotransformations and biodegradation of organic compounds.

  14. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  15. Advances in fntd technology: Instrumentation, image processing and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, James Andrew

    Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors (FNTDs), based on Al2O 3:C,Mg single crystal material, enable diffraction limited imaging of ionization patterns. This fast, luminescent material is thermally and optically stable. This work expands and assesses the capability of FNTD technology to measure radiation dose quickly and accurately, especially neutron radition. Developments in FNTD instrumentation, software, image reconstruction, image processing and data processing improved ease of use, productivity and reliability and brought the technology into commercial viability. Descriptions of these developments are presented. Additionally, these developments were assessed and were found to comply with ANSI and ISO standards for personnel neutron dosimetry. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  16. Development of advanced LWR fuel pellet technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kun Woo; Kang, K.W.; Kim, K. S.; Yang, J. H.; Kim, Y. M.; Kim, J. H.; Bang, J. B.; Kim, D. H.; Bae, S. O.; Jung, Y. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kim, S. H

    2000-03-01

    A UO{sub 2} pellet was designed to have a grain size of larger than 12 {mu}m, and a new duplex design that UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} is in the core and UO{sub 2}-Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the periphery was proposed. A master mixing method was developed to make a uniform mixture of UO{sub 2} and additives. The open porosity of UO{sub 2} pellet was reduced by only mixing AUC-UO{sub 2} powder with ADU-UO{sub 2} or milled powder. Duplex compaction tools (die and punch) were designed and fabricated, and duplex compacting procedures were developed to fabricate the duplex BA pellet. In UO{sub 2} sintering, the relations between sintering variables (additive, sintering gas, sintering temperature) and pellet properties (density, grain size, pore size) were experimentally found. The UO{sub 2}-U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder which is inherently not sinterable to high density could be sintered well with the aid of additives. U{sub 3}O{sub 8} single crystals were added to UO{sub 2} powder, and homogeneous powder mixture was pressed and sintered in a reducing atmosphere. This technology leads to a large-grained pellet of 12-20 {mu}m. In UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} sintering, the relations between sintering variables (additives, sintering gas) and pellet properties (density, grain size) were experimentally found. The developed technology of fabricating a large-grained UO{sub 2} pellet has been optimized in a lab scale. Pellet properties were investigated in the fields of (1) creep properties, (2) thermal properties, (3) O/M ratios and (4) unit cell lattice. (author)

  17. Boiling heat transfer modern developments and advances

    CERN Document Server

    Lahey, Jr, RT

    2013-01-01

    This volume covers the modern developments in boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow, and is intended to provide industrial, government and academic researchers with state-of-the-art research findings in the area of multiphase flow and heat transfer technology. Special attention is given to technology transfer, indicating how recent significant results may be used for practical applications. The chapters give detailed technical material that will be useful to engineers and scientists who work in the field of multiphase flow and heat transfer. The authors of all chapters are members of the

  18. Women Education and Economic Development in Kenya: Implications for Curriculum Development and Implementation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syomwene, Anne; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the relationship between women education and sustainable economic development in Kenya and its implications for curriculum development and implementation processes. The argument advanced in this paper is that the solution to the development problems in Kenya and other developing nations lies on women education.…

  19. Challenges and Opportunities in Reactive Processing and Applications of Advanced Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2003-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in the research, development, and commercialization of innovative synthesis and processing technologies for advanced ceramics and composite materials. Reactive processing approaches have been actively considered due to their robustness, flexibility, and affordability. A wide variety of silicon carbide-based advanced ceramics and composites are currently being fabricated using the processing approaches involving reactive infiltration of liquid and gaseous species into engineered fibrous or microporous carbon performs. The microporous carbon performs have been fabricated using the temperature induced phase separation and pyrolysis of two phase organic (resin-pore former) mixtures and fiber reinforcement of carbon and ceramic particulate bodies. In addition, pyrolyzed native plant cellulose tissues also provide unique carbon templates for manufacturing of non-oxide and oxide ceramics. In spite of great interest in this technology due to their affordability and robustness, there is a lack of scientific basis for process understanding and many technical challenges still remain. The influence of perform properties and other parameters on the resulting microstructure and properties of final material is not well understood. In this presentation, mechanism of silicon-carbon reaction in various systems and the effect of perform microstructure on the mechanical properties of advanced silicon carbide based materials will be discussed. Various examples of applications of reactively processed advanced silicon carbide ceramics and composite materials will be presented.

  20. Professional development for an advanced practice nursing team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Sherry; Green, Angela

    2011-05-01

    Since its development in 1998, the Cardiology Advanced Practice Nurse team has been plagued by retention issues. The coordinator for the team developed this leadership project while participating in the 2008 to 2009 Maternal-Child Health Leadership Academy sponsored by Sigma Theta Tau International and Johnson & Johnson. The focus of this project was to develop, implement, and evaluate initiatives to empower the advanced practice nurse team, promote their professional development, and ultimately improve retention of team members. Although evaluation data show progress toward addressing work environment issues, retention remains an ongoing problem.

  1. State of the Art Assessment of Simulation in Advanced Materials Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kristopher E.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in both the underlying theory and in the practical implementation of molecular modeling techniques have increased their value in the advanced materials development process. The objective is to accelerate the maturation of emerging materials by tightly integrating modeling with the other critical processes: synthesis, processing, and characterization. The aims of this report are to summarize the state of the art of existing modeling tools and to highlight a number of areas in which additional development is required. In an effort to maintain focus and limit length, this survey is restricted to classical simulation techniques including molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations.

  2. Advanced Turbo-Charging Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-02-27

    The objective of this project is to conduct analysis, design, procurement and test of a high pressure ratio, wide flow range, and high EGR system with two stages of turbocharging. The system needs to meet the stringent 2010MY emissions regulations at 20% + better fuel economy than its nearest gasoline competitor while allowing equivalent vehicle launch characteristics and higher torque capability than its nearest gasoline competitor. The system will also need to meet light truck/ SUV life requirements, which will require validation or development of components traditionally used only in passenger car applications. The conceived system is termed 'seriessequential turbocharger' because the turbocharger system operates in series at appropriate times and also sequentially when required. This is accomplished using intelligent design and control of flow passages and valves. Components of the seriessequential system will also be applicable to parallel-sequential systems which are also expected to be in use for future light truck/SUV applications.

  3. Advancing NOAA NWS Arctic Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeyeva-Livezey, M. M.; Horsfall, F. M. C.; Meyers, J. C.; Churma, M.; Thoman, R.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental changes in the Arctic require changes in the way the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) delivers hydrological and meteorological information to prepare the region's societies and indigenous population for emerging challenges. These challenges include changing weather patterns, changes in the timing and extent of sea ice, accelerated soil erosion due to permafrost decline, increasing coastal vulnerably, and changes in the traditional food supply. The decline in Arctic sea ice is opening new opportunities for exploitation of natural resources, commerce, tourism, and military interest. These societal challenges and economic opportunities call for a NOAA integrated approach for delivery of environmental information including climate, water, and weather data, forecasts, and warnings. Presently the NOAA Arctic Task Force provides leadership in programmatic coordination across NOAA line offices. National Weather Service (NWS) Alaska Region and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) provide the foundational operational hydro-meteorological products and services in the Arctic. Starting in 2016, NOAA's NWS will work toward improving its role in programmatic coordination and development through assembling an NWS Arctic Task Team. The team will foster ties in the Arctic between the 11 NWS national service programs in climate, water, and weather information, as well as between Arctic programs in NWS and other NOAA line offices and external partners. One of the team outcomes is improving decision support tools for the Arctic. The Local Climate Analysis Tool (LCAT) currently has more than 1100 registered users, including NOAA staff and technical partners. The tool has been available online since 2013 (http://nws.weather.gov/lcat/ ). The tool links trusted, recommended NOAA data and analytical capabilities to assess impacts of climate variability and climate change at local levels. A new capability currently being developed will

  4. Advanced Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sienicki, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nellis, Gregory [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Klein, Sanford [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Fluids operating in the supercritical state have promising characteristics for future high efficiency power cycles. In order to develop power cycles using supercritical fluids, it is necessary to understand the flow characteristics of fluids under both supercritical and two-phase conditions. In this study, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methodology was developed for supercritical fluids flowing through complex geometries. A real fluid property module was implemented to provide properties for different supercritical fluids. However, in each simulation case, there is only one species of fluid. As a result, the fluid property module provides properties for either supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) or supercritical water (SCW). The Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) was employed to model the two-phase flow. HEM assumes two phases have same velocity, pressure, and temperature, making it only applicable for the dilute dispersed two-phase flow situation. Three example geometries, including orifices, labyrinth seals, and valves, were used to validate this methodology with experimental data. For the first geometry, S-CO2 and SCW flowing through orifices were simulated and compared with experimental data. The maximum difference between the mass flow rate predictions and experimental measurements is less than 5%. This is a significant improvement as previous works can only guarantee 10% error. In this research, several efforts were made to help this improvement. First, an accurate real fluid module was used to provide properties. Second, the upstream condition was determined by pressure and density, which determines supercritical states more precise than using pressure and temperature. For the second geometry, the flow through labyrinth seals was studied. After a successful validation, parametric studies were performed to study geometric effects on the leakage rate. Based on these parametric studies, an optimum design strategy for the see

  5. Recent Advances in Computational Methods for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Data Processing

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Xin

    2013-01-11

    Although three-dimensional protein structure determination using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a computationally costly and tedious process that would benefit from advanced computational techniques, it has not garnered much research attention from specialists in bioinformatics and computational biology. In this paper, we review recent advances in computational methods for NMR protein structure determination. We summarize the advantages of and bottlenecks in the existing methods and outline some open problems in the field. We also discuss current trends in NMR technology development and suggest directions for research on future computational methods for NMR.

  6. Advanced instrumentation for the collection, retrieval, and processing of urban stormwater data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jerald B.; Bales, Jerad D.; Young, Wendi S.; ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, has developed a data-collection network that uses advanced instrumentation to automatically collect, retrieve, and process urban stormwater data. Precipitation measurement and water-quality networks provide data for (1) planned watershed simulation models, (2) early warning of possible flooding, (3) computation of material export, and (4) characterization of water quality in relation to basin conditions. Advantages of advanced instrumentation include remote access to real-time data, reduced demands on and more efficient use of limited human resources, and direct importation of data into a geographical information system for display and graphic analysis.

  7. [The debate on the development of advanced competences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimonte, Valerio; Palese, Alvisa; Chiari, Paolo; Laquintana, Dario; Tognoni, Gianni; Di Giulio, Paola

    2016-01-01

    . The debate on the development of advanced nursing competences. The dossier aims to describe and disentagle the present Italian and international debate on the development and recognition of advanced nursing competences. Following a general brief description of the legislative national background, the attention is first of all focused on the lack of clarity on the definition of advanced competence, which is further complicated by the issue of their formal, contractual and economic recognition. To explore these issues a list of contributions is presented and some proposals are formulated to favor a better oriented development of the debate: a. A convenience sample of 139 nurses were interviewed asking to describe problems occurred in the last month that could prompt the intervention of an expert nurse and to list the clinical, managerial and educational competences of a specialized nurse in their ward. The results document the quality and the dispersion of the definitions which are perceived and applied in the general settings of care. b. The issue the post basic courses (master, specialization) offered to nurses in 2015-2016 by Italian universities were described and their aims. While the contribution of the courses in increasing the theoretical knowledge is well defined, the aims and the description of the clinical training are badly developed and an acquisition of advanced competences would seem unlikely. c. The definition of advanced competences was explored in the international literature: while evidences are available on the impact of advanced nursing on patients' outcomes, what is advanced nursing is far from being clear, and an impressive list of roles, activities and functions are considered advanced. d. Although at national level there is no formal recognition for nurses with advanced competences (with the exception of the head nurse that holds mostly an organizational rather than clinical role), the opportunities for promoting the role of specialistic/advanced

  8. Regional characteristics relevant to advanced technology cogeneration development. [industrial energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    To assist DOE in establishing research and development funding priorities in the area of advanced energy conversion technoloy, researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory studied those specific factors within various regions of the country that may influence cogeneration with advanced energy conversion systems. Regional characteristics of advanced technology cogeneration possibilities are discussed, with primary emphasis given to coal derived fuels. Factors considered for the study were regional industry concentration, purchased fuel and electricity prices, environmental constraints, and other data of interest to industrial cogeneration.

  9. Advanced Manufacturing Technology Implementation Process in SME: Critical Success Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Rahardjo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present critical factors that constitute a successful implementation of the Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT in Small Medium Enterprise (SME. Many large companies have applied AMT and the applications have shown significant results in this global market era. Conveniently, these phenomenons are also engaged to Small Medium Enterprises (SME that of high demands on performing high quality product, fast delivery, reliable and more flexible. The implementation of AMT follow several processes namely pre installation, installation, improvement and mature. In order to guarantee the succesfull of running these processes, one should consider the Critical Success Factors (CSF. We conducted a survey to 125 SMEs that have implemented AMT, and found that the CSF for each process are moderately different. Good leadership is the main critical success factor for preparing and installation of the AMT. Once the AMT started or installed and arrived at growth stage, the financial availability factor turns into a critical success factor in the AMT implementation. In, mature stage, the support and commitment of top management becomes an important factor for gaining successful implementation. By means of factor analysis, we could point out that strategic factors are the main factors in pre-installation and installation stage. Finally, in the growth stage and mature stage, both tactical and strategic factors are the important factors in the successful of AMT implementation

  10. Feasibility study on the development of advanced LWR fuel technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Youn Ho; Sohn, D. S.; Jeong, Y. H.; Song, K. W.; Song, K. N.; Chun, T. H.; Bang, J. G.; Bae, K. K.; Kim, D. H. and others

    1997-07-01

    Worldwide R and D trends related to core technology of LWR fuels and status of patents have been surveyed for the feasibility study. In addition, various fuel cycle schemes have been studied to establish the target performance parameters. For the development of cladding material, establishment of long-term research plan for alloy development and optimization of melting process and manufacturing technology were conducted. A work which could characterize the effect of sintering additives on the microstructure of UO{sub 2} pellet has been experimentally undertaken, and major sintering variables and their ranges have been found in the sintering process of UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} burnable absorber pellet. The analysis of state of the art technology related to flow mixing device for spacer grid and debris filtering device for bottom nozzle and the investigation of the physical phenomena related to CHF enhancement and the establishment of the data base for thermal-hydraulic performance tests has been done in this study. In addition, survey on the documents of the up-to-date PWR fuel assemblies developed by foreign vendors have been carried out to understand their R and D trends and establish the direction of R and D for these structural components. And, to set the performance target of the new fuel, to be developed, fuel burnup and economy under the extended fuel cycle length scheme were estimated. A preliminary study on the failure mechanism of CANDU fuel, key technology and advanced coating has been performed. (author). 190 refs., 31 tabs., 129 figs.

  11. Advancements on the simulation of the micro injection moulding process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard;

    2013-01-01

    injection molding, because they are developed for macro plastic parts and they are therefore limited in the capability of modeling the polymer flow in micro cavities properly. However, new opportunities for improved accuracy have opened up due to current developments of the simulation technology. Hence, new......Process simulations are applied in micro injection molding with the same purpose as in conventional injection molding: aiming at optimization and support of the design of mold, inserts, plastic products, and the process itself. Available software packages are however not well suited for micro...... strategies and aspects for comprehensive simulation models which provide more precise results for micro injection molding are discussed. Modeling and meshing recommendations are presented, leading to a multi-scale mesh of all relevant units in the injection molding process. The implementation of the process...

  12. Advances in isothermal amplification: novel strategies inspired by biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Macdonald, Joanne

    2015-02-15

    Nucleic acid amplification is an essential process in biological systems. The in vitro adoption of this process has resulted in powerful techniques that underpin modern molecular biology. The most common tool is polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, the requirement for a thermal cycler has somewhat limited applications of this classic nucleic acid amplification technique. Isothermal amplification, on the other hand, obviates the use of a thermal cycler because reactions occur at a single temperature. Isothermal amplification methods are diverse, but all have been developed from an understanding of natural nucleic acid amplification processes. Here we review current isothermal amplification methods as classified by their enzymatic mechanisms. We compare their advantages, disadvantages, efficiencies, and applications. Finally, we mention some new developments associated with this technology, and consider future possibilities in molecular engineering and recombinant technologies that may develop from an appreciation of the molecular biology of natural systems.

  13. Process Heat Exchanger Options for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-06-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  14. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, S. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The objective of Phase II of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program is to develop conceptual designs of gas fired advanced turbine systems that can be adapted for operation on coal and biomass fuels. The technical, economic, and environmental performance operating on natural gas and in a coal fueled mode is to be assessed. Detailed designs and test work relating to critical components are to be completed and a market study is to be conducted.

  15. Development of inherent core technologies for advanced reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keung Koo; Noh, J.M.; Hwang, D.H. [and others

    1999-03-01

    Recently, the developed countries made their effort on developing the advanced reactor which will result in significantly enhanced safety and economy. However, they will protect the advanced reactor and its design technology with patent and proprietary right. Therefore, it is very important to develop our own key core concepts and inherent core design technologies which can form a foundation of indigenous technologies for development of the domestic advanced reactor in order to keep the superiority in the nuclear plant building market among the developing countries. In order to provide the basic technology for the core design of advanced reactor, this project is for developing the inherent core design concepts with enhanced safety and economy, and associated methodologies and technologies for core analyses. The feasibility study of constructing domestic critical facilities are performed by surveying the status and utilization of foreign facilities and by investigating the demand for domestic facilities. The research results developed in this project, such as core analysis methodologies for hexagonal core, conceptual core design based on hexagonal fuel assemblies and soluble boron core design and control strategies, will provide a technical foundation in developing core design of domestic advanced reactor. Furthermore, they will strengthen the competitiveness of Korean nuclear technology. We also expect that some of the design concepts developed in this project to improve the reactor safety and economy can be applicable to the design of advanced reactor. This will significantly reduce the public anxiety on the nuclear power plant, and will contribute to the economy of construction and operation for the future domestic reactors. Even though the critical facility will not be constructed right now, the investigation of the status and utilization of foreign critical facility will contribute to the future critical facility construction. (author). 150 refs., 34 tabs., 103

  16. Advanced ThioClear process testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lani, B.

    1998-03-01

    Wet scrubbing is the leading proven commercial post-combustion FGD technology available to meet the sulfur dioxide reductions required by the Clean Air Act Amendments. To reduce costs associated with wet FGD, Dravo Lime Company has developed the ThioClear process. ThioClear is an ex-situ forced oxidation magnesium-enhanced lime FGD process. ThioClear process differs from the conventional magnesium-enhanced lime process in that the recycle liquor has minimal suspended solids and the by-products are wallboard quality gypsum and magnesium hydroxide, an excellent reagent for water treatment. The process has demonstrated sulfur dioxide removal efficiencies of +95% in both a vertical spray scrubber tower and a horizontal absorber operating at gas velocities of 16 fps, respectively. This report details the optimization studies and associated economics from testing conducted at Dravo Lime Company`s pilot plant located at the Miami Fort Station of the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company.

  17. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht H. Mayer

    2000-07-15

    Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has completed its technology based program. The results developed under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 8, concentrated on technology development and demonstration have been partially implemented in newer turbine designs. A significant improvement in heat rate and power output has been demonstrated. ABB will use the knowledge gained to further improve the efficiency of its Advanced Cycle System, which has been developed and introduced into the marked out side ABB's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) activities. The technology will lead to a power plant design that meets the ATS performance goals of over 60% plant efficiency, decreased electricity costs to consumers and lowest emissions.

  18. Advanced Materials Development Program: Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines program plan, 1983--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Project is the development of an industrial technology base capable of providing reliable and cost-effective high temperature ceramic components for application in advanced heat engines. There is a deliberate emphasis on industrial'' in the purpose statement. The project is intended to support the US ceramic and engine industries by providing the needed ceramic materials technology. The heat engine programs have goals of component development and proof-of-concept. The CTAHE Project is aimed at developing generic basic ceramic technology and does not involve specific engine designs and components. The materials research and development efforts in the CTAHE Project are focused on the needs and general requirements of the advanced gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The CTAHE Project supports the DOE Office of Transportation Systems' heat engine programs, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications (ATTAP) and Heavy Duty Transport (HDT) by providing the basic technology required for development of reliable and cost-effective ceramic components. The heat engine programs provide the iterative component design, fabrication, and test development logic. 103 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Advancements on Radar Polarization Information Acquisition and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Dahai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study on radar polarization information acquisition and processing has currently been one important part of radar techniques. The development of the polarization theory is simply reviewed firstly. Subsequently, some key techniques which include polarization measurement, polarization anti-jamming, polarization recognition, imaging and parameters inversion using radar polarimetry are emphatically analyzed in this paper. The basic theories, the present states and the development trends of these key techniques are presented and some meaningful conclusions are derived.

  20. Hydrogen Vent Ground Umbilical Quick Disconnect - Flight Seal Advanced Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Doug; Jankowski, Fred; Minich, Mark C.; Yu, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This project is a team effort between NASA Engineering (NE) and Team QNA Engineering personnel to provide support for the Umbilical Systems Development project which is funded by Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) and 21st Century Launch Complex. Specifically, this project seeks to develop a new interface between the PPBE baselined Legacy SSP LH2 Vent Arm QD probe and SLS vent seal.

  1. Advanced reach tool (ART) : Development of the mechanistic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransman, W.; Tongeren, M. van; Cherrie, J.W.; Tischer, M.; Schneider, T.; Schinkel, J.; Kromhout, H.; Warren, N.; Goede, H.; Tielemans, E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the mechanistic model within a collaborative project, referred to as the Advanced REACH Tool (ART) project, to develop a tool to model inhalation exposure for workers sharing similar operational conditions across different industries and locations in Europe. T

  2. Teaching of Psychology in Countries with Advanced versus Developing Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2014-01-01

    We compare structures and contents of psychology programmes from countries with developing and advanced economies. Respondents from 49 countries completed a survey of the International Union of Psychological Science on psychology education and training. In general, there are more similarities than differences between countries with developing and…

  3. Near net shape processing: A necessity for advanced materials applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Howard A.

    1993-01-01

    High quality discrete parts are the backbones for successful operation of equipment used in transportation, communication, construction, manufacturing, and appliances. Traditional shapemaking for discrete parts is carried out predominantly by machining, or removing unwanted material to produce the desired shape. As the cost and complexity of modern materials escalates, coupled with the expense and environmental hazards associated with handling of scrap, it is increasingly important to develop near net shape processes for these materials. Such processes involve casting of liquid materials, consolidation of powder materials, or deformation processing of simple solid shapes into the desired shape. Frequently, several of these operations may be used in sequence to produce a finished part. The processes for near net shape forming may be applied to any type of material, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and their composites. The ability to produce shapes is the key to implementation of laboratory developments in materials science into real world applications. This seminar presents an overview of near net shapemaking processes, some application examples, current developments, and future research opportunities.

  4. Research and Development Progress of National Key Laboratory of Advanced Composites on Advanced Aeronautical Resin Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Bintai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Applications and research progress in advanced aeronautical resin matrix composites by National Key Laboratory of Advanced Composites (LAC were summarized. A novel interlaminar toughening technology employing ultra-thin TP non-woven fabric was developed in LAC, which significantly improved the compression after impact (CAI performances of composite laminates.Newly designed multilayer sandwich stealth composite structures exhibited a good broadband radar absorbing properties at 1-18 GHz.There were remarkable developments in high toughness and high temperature resin matrix composites, covering major composite processing technologies such as prepreg-autoclave procedure, liquid composite molding and automation manufacture, etc. Finally, numerical simulation and optimization methods were deliberately utilized in the study of composites curing behavior, resin flow and curing deformation. A composite material database was also established.In conclusion, LAC has been a great support for the development of aeronautical equipment, playing such roles as innovation leading, system dominating, foundation supporting and application ensuring of aerocomposites.

  5. Advanced ceramic coating development for industrial/utility gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogan, J. W.; Stetson, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    A program was conducted with the objective of developing advanced thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. Coating application was by plasma spray. Duplex, triplex and graded coatings were tested. Coating systems incorporated both NiCrAly and CoCrAly bond coats. Four ceramic overlays were tested: ZrO2.82O3; CaO.TiO2; 2CaO.SiO2; and MgO.Al2O3. The best overall results were obtained with a CaO.TiO2 coating applied to a NiCrAly bond coat. This coating was less sensitive than the ZrO2.8Y2O3 coating to process variables and part geometry. Testing with fuels contaminated with compounds containing sulfur, phosphorus and alkali metals showed the zirconia coatings were destabilized. The calcium titanate coatings were not affected by these contaminants. However, when fuels were used containing 50 ppm of vanadium and 150 ppm of magnesium, heavy deposits were formed on the test specimens and combustor components that required frequent cleaning of the test rig. During the program Mars engine first-stage turbine blades were coated and installed for an engine cyclic endurance run with the zirconia, calcium titanate, and calcium silicate coatings. Heavy spalling developed with the calcium silicate system. The zirconia and calcium titanate systems survived the full test duration. It was concluded that these two TBC's showed potential for application in gas turbines.

  6. Development of an Advanced Hydraulic Fracture Mapping System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norm Warpinski; Steve Wolhart; Larry Griffin; Eric Davis

    2007-01-31

    The project to develop an advanced hydraulic fracture mapping system consisted of both hardware and analysis components in an effort to build, field, and analyze combined data from tiltmeter and microseismic arrays. The hardware sections of the project included: (1) the building of new tiltmeter housings with feedthroughs for use in conjunction with a microseismic array, (2) the development of a means to use separate telemetry systems for the tilt and microseismic arrays, and (3) the selection and fabrication of an accelerometer sensor system to improve signal-to-noise ratios. The analysis sections of the project included a joint inversion for analysis and interpretation of combined tiltmeter and microseismic data and improved methods for extracting slippage planes and other reservoir information from the microseisms. In addition, testing was performed at various steps in the process to assess the data quality and problems/issues that arose during various parts of the project. A prototype array was successfully tested and a full array is now being fabricated for industrial use.

  7. Recent advances in the development of selective androgen receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuqing; Lanter, James C; Sui, Zhihua

    2009-09-01

    The androgens testosterone and its more potent tissue metabolite 5-alpha-dihydrotesterone regulate diverse physiological process involving both reproductive and non-reproductive functions. Most of the signaling effects of androgens are mediated through the androgen receptor (AR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors. The AR has been a target for drug development focused on the treatment of pathological conditions arising from abnormal androgen levels or altered target tissue responsiveness, the improvement of physical performance and the regulation of male fertility. The primary focus for drug design has been the synthesis of chemicals to regulate the transcriptional activity of AR based on the structural and functional properties of the ligands, with a recent preference for selectively anabolic non-steroidals. A new class of molecules targeting androgen receptors called selective androgen receptor modulators is being developed, analogous to the clinically successful and at present marketed selective estrogen receptor modulators. This article highlights and reviews research advances in this field that have been published in patent literature since 2003. The structural diversity of selective androgen receptor modulators has dramatically increased. Several compounds have emerged as clinical and preclinical candidates.

  8. Process Systems Engineering R&D for Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitney, S.E.

    2007-09-11

    This presentation will examine process systems engineering R&D needs for application to advanced fossil energy (FE) systems and highlight ongoing research activities at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the auspices of a recently launched Collaboratory for Process & Dynamic Systems Research. The three current technology focus areas include: 1) High-fidelity systems with NETL's award-winning Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) technology for integrating process simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and virtual engineering concepts, 2) Dynamic systems with R&D on plant-wide IGCC dynamic simulation, control, and real-time training applications, and 3) Systems optimization including large-scale process optimization, stochastic simulation for risk/uncertainty analysis, and cost estimation. Continued R&D aimed at these and other key process systems engineering models, methods, and tools will accelerate the development of advanced gasification-based FE systems and produce increasingly valuable outcomes for DOE and the Nation.

  9. Career advancement and professional development in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniran, Rita K; Smith-Glasgow, Mary Ellen; Bhattacharya, Anand; Xu, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Excellence underscores the need for nurses to keep their skills and competencies current through participation in professional development and career advancement. Evidence suggests that internationally educated nurses (IENs) progress relatively slowly through the career ladder and participate less in professional development compared with nurses educated in the United States (UENs). Mentorship and self-efficacy are considered major determinants of career advancement. The aim of the study was to understand the differences in levels of mentorship function and self-efficacy as well as the differences in participation in professional development and career advancement between UENs and IENs. A descriptive survey design was implemented using a Web-based survey. Significant disparities were noted in the role model function of mentoring and some professional development and career advancement measures between UENs and IENs. Mentorship is essential for professional growth. Sociodemographic characteristics of mentors are important because mentors are role models. Standardized career advancement structures are needed to promote professional growth. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  10. Developing novel 3D antennas using advanced additive manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaee, Milad

    In today's world of wireless communication systems, antenna engineering is rapidly advancing as the wireless services continue to expand in support of emerging commercial applications. Antennas play a key role in the performance of advanced transceiver systems where they serve to convert electric power to electromagnetic waves and vice versa. Researchers have held significant interest in developing this crucial component for wireless communication systems by employing a variety of design techniques. In the past few years, demands for electrically small antennas continues to increase, particularly among portable and mobile wireless devices, medical electronics and aerospace systems. This trend toward smaller electronic devices makes the three dimensional (3D) antennas very appealing, since they can be designed in a way to use every available space inside the devise. Additive Manufacturing (AM) method could help to find great solutions for the antennas design for next generation of wireless communication systems. In this thesis, the design and fabrication of 3D printed antennas using AM technology is studied. To demonstrate this application of AM, different types of antennas structures have been designed and fabricated using various manufacturing processes. This thesis studies, for the first time, embedded conductive 3D printed antennas using PolyLactic Acid (PLA) and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) for substrate parts and high temperature carbon paste for conductive parts which can be a good candidate to overcome the limitations of direct printing on 3D surfaces that is the most popular method to fabricate conductive parts of the antennas. This thesis also studies, for the first time, the fabrication of antennas with 3D printed conductive parts which can contribute to the new generation of 3D printed antennas.

  11. Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-31

    Achieving the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) goals of 60% efficiency, single-digit NO{sub x}, and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system. Two basic technical issues arise from this. The turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine must increase to achieve both efficiency and cost goals. However, higher temperatures move in the direction of increased NO{sub x} emission. Improved coatings and materials technologies along with creative combustor design can result in solutions to achieve the ultimate goal. GE`s view of the market, in conjunction with the industrial and utility objectives, requires the development of Advanced Gas Turbine Systems which encompass two potential products: a new aeroderivative combined-cycle system for the industrial market, and a combined-cycle system for the utility sector that is based on an advanced frame machine. The GE Advanced Gas Turbine Development program is focused on two specific products: (1) a 70 MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology utilizing an innovative air cooling methodology; (2) a 200 MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced Ge heavy-duty machine utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. Both of these activities required the identification and resolution of technical issues critical to achieving ATS goals. The emphasis for the industrial ATS was placed upon innovative cycle design and low emission combustion. The emphasis for the utility ATS was placed on developing a technology base for advanced turbine cooling, while utilizing demonstrated and planned improvements in low emission combustion. Significant overlap in the development programs will allow common technologies to be applied to both products. GE Power Systems is solely responsible for offering GE products for the industrial and utility markets.

  12. Advancing Risk and Value Management Practices for Processes and Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasi Ojala

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades software has become an important part of our everyday life in the form of various information processing intensive products and services. The competition between software companies has risen considerably and at the same time the importance of cost efficient and value creating software development has been recognized in many companies. Value Engineering has been a usable to method for developing high value products for several years. Earlier it has been applied successfully to software process as well as to software product development. Normally the development of high value products contains also several risks. Combination of efficient value management practices and risk management is one possibility to try to avoid the most dangerous risks to realize for planned value. This research combines Value Engineering and risk management practices into a usable new method in order to better respond to the challenges that risks might cause to the value of software products and their development. This is done in part by defining the concepts of value, worth and cost and in part by defining the Value Engineering process with necessary risk management practices. Three practical industrial cases show that proposed two-dimensional method works in practise and is useful to assessed companies.

  13. Advancements in internationally accepted standards for radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, H. IV; Derr, D.D. (Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC (United States)); Vehar, D.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    Subcommittees of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) are developing standards on various aspects of radiation processing. Nine standards on how to select and calibrate dosimeters, where to put them, how many to use, and how to use individual types of dosimeter systems have been published. The group is also developing standards on how to use gamma, electron beam, and X-ray facilities for radiation processing, and a standard on how to treat dose uncertainties. Efforts are underway to promote inclusion of these standards into procedures now being developed by government agencies and by international groups such as the United Nations' International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) in order to harmonize regulations and help avoid trade barriers. Standards on good irradiation practices for meat and poultry and for fresh fruits, and for the irradiation of seafood and spices have been developed. These food-related standards are based on practices previously published by ICGFI. Standards for determining doses for radiation hardness testing of electronics have been developed. Standards on the Fricke and TLD dosimetry systems are equally useful in other radiation processing applications. (Author).

  14. Understanding flexible and distributed software development processes

    OpenAIRE

    Agerfalk, Par J.; Fitzgerald, Brian

    2006-01-01

    peer-reviewed The minitrack on Flexible and Distributed Software Development Processes addresses two important and partially intertwined current themes in software development: process flexibility and globally distributed software development

  15. Advancement in additive manufacturing & numerical modelling considerations of direct energy deposition process

    OpenAIRE

    Quanren Zeng; Zhenhai Xu; Yankang Tian; Yi Qin

    2016-01-01

    The development speed and application range of the additive manufacturing (AM) processes, such as selective laser melting (SLM), laser metal deposition (LMD) or laser-engineering net shaping (LENS), are ever-increasing in modern advanced manufacturing field for rapid manufacturing, tooling repair or surface enhancement of the critical metal components. LMD is based on a kind of directed energy deposition (DED) technology which ejects a strand of metal powders into a moving molten pool caused ...

  16. Physics of thin films advances in research and development

    CERN Document Server

    Hass, Georg; Vossen, John L

    2013-01-01

    Physics of Thin Films: Advances in Research and Development, Volume 12 reviews advances that have been made in research and development concerning the physics of thin films. This volume covers a wide range of preparative approaches, physics phenomena, and applications related to thin films. This book is comprised of four chapters and begins with a discussion on metal coatings and protective layers for front surface mirrors used at various angles of incidence from the ultraviolet to the far infrared. Thin-film materials and deposition conditions suitable for minimizing reflectance changes with

  17. Advanced Drying Process for Lower Manufacturing Cost of Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar [Lambda Technologies, Inc., Morrisville, NC (United States); Zhang, Pu [Lambda Technologies, Inc., Morrisville, NC (United States)

    2016-11-30

    For this Vehicle Technologies Incubator/Energy Storage R&D topic, Lambda Technologies teamed with Navitas Systems and proposed a new advanced drying process that promised a 5X reduction in electrode drying time and significant reduction in the cost of large format lithium batteries used in PEV's. The operating principle of the proposed process was to use penetrating radiant energy source Variable Frequency Microwaves (VFM), that are selectively absorbed by the polar water or solvent molecules instantly in the entire volume of the electrode. The solvent molecules are thus driven out of the electrode thickness making the process more efficient and much faster than convective drying method. To evaluate the Advanced Drying Process (ADP) a hybrid prototype system utilizing VFM and hot air flow was designed and fabricated. While VFM drives the solvent out of the electrode thickness, the hot air flow exhausts the solvent vapors out of the chamber. The drying results from this prototype were very encouraging. For water based anodes there is a 5X drying advantage (time & length of oven) in using ADP over standard drying system and for the NMP based cathodes the reduction in drying time has 3X benefit. For energy savings the power consumption measurements were performed to ADP prototype and compared with the convection standard drying oven. The data collected demonstrated over 40% saving in power consumption with ADP as compared to the convection drying systems. The energy savings are one of the operational cost benefits possible with ADP. To further speed up the drying process, the ADP prototype was explored as a booster module before the convection oven and for the electrode material being evaluated it was possible to increase the drying speed by a factor of 4, which could not be accomplished with the standard dryer without surface defects and cracks. The instantaneous penetration of microwave in the entire slurry thickness showed a major advantage in rapid drying of

  18. Computational Tools for Accelerating Carbon Capture Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David

    2013-01-01

    The goals of the work reported are: to develop new computational tools and models to enable industry to more rapidly develop and deploy new advanced energy technologies; to demonstrate the capabilities of the CCSI Toolset on non-proprietary case studies; and to deploy the CCSI Toolset to industry. Challenges of simulating carbon capture (and other) processes include: dealing with multiple scales (particle, device, and whole process scales); integration across scales; verification, validation, and uncertainty; and decision support. The tools cover: risk analysis and decision making; validated, high-fidelity CFD; high-resolution filtered sub-models; process design and optimization tools; advanced process control and dynamics; process models; basic data sub-models; and cross-cutting integration tools.

  19. Development of improving processing HNBR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jin-shan; HU Hai-hua

    2004-01-01

    The hydrogenated nitrile elastomer (HNBR) is a new rubber consisting of methylene chain, cyano groups and a small number of C=C. This elastomer is produced by selection hydrogenation reaction of the olefin segments in NBR. During reaction, only the double bond should be selectively hydrogenated without the cynao groups which are essential for retaining the oil resistant properties of NBR. Present, the capacity of HNBR in total world is about 7500t/a[1],developed and commercialized by Bayer (Germany)and Zeon (Japan),trademark is THERBAN and ZETPOL respectively. In domestic, We (Lanzhou Petrochemical Company) has built a 100t/a HNBR pilot plant.As known, Mooney viscosity is a key factor in rubber processing, low Mooney viscosity will result in decreasing of strength, increasing of compression set, whereas high Mooney viscosity is hard to process, also must be plasticated. In order to overcome above problems, we designate and synthesize a base rubber as NBR-1 by modifying molecular weight distribution(MWD),its MWD is more than conventional NBR as NBR-2,correspondently their Mw, Mn and MWD are 14.9,2.2,6.78 and 13.9,4.3,3.23.Those hydrogenated product are quoted as HNBR-1 and HNBR-2.Their polymer Mooney viscosity (ML1+4 100℃) are 39 and 82.A solution of 3.5kg of NBR-1 containing 36% by weight of acrylonitrile,in 35kg of chlorobenzene and a solution of 5.5g of tris-(triphenylphosphane)-rhodium-chloride[2] in 2.5kg of chlorobenzene are introduced into a 50 liter autoclave blanketed with nitrogen. The nitrogen is replaced by hydrogen and hydrogenation is carried out for 8hr at 100℃-120℃,under a hydrogen pressure of 8 Mpa. The hydrogenation process of NBR-2 same as that of NBR-1.Their degrees of hydrogenation amount to > 98%(as determined by iodine value).We find MWD of base NBR has a most effect on HNBR. Table 1 shows a comparison of physical properties of HNBR-1 and HNBR-2.As would be expected lower polymer Mooney viscosities yield lower compound Mooney

  20. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines FY 1998 annual operating plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    As part of the overall Geothermal Energy Research which is aimed at the development of economical geothermal resources production systems, the aim of the Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) effort is the development of economic and environmentally acceptable methods for disposal of geothermal wastes and conversion of by-products to useful forms. Methods are being developed for dissolution, separation and immobilization of geothermal wastes suitable for disposal, usable in inert construction materials, suitable for reinjection into the reservoir formation, or used for recovery of valuable metals.

  1. Development and optimization of an advanced process for non-dig installation of pipelines transporting energy and raw materials; Entwicklung und Optimierung eines neuen Verfahrens zur grabenlosen Verlegung von Rohrleitungen fuer den Energie- und Rohstofftransport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koegler, Ruediger

    2008-04-07

    Controllable horizontal drilling is a method established worldwide for laying pipelines under natural or artificial obstacles without trenches. In 2002 an 18'' gas pipeline was laid under the river Rhone under the most difficult topographical and geological conditions for the French energy supplier Gaz de France by means of horizontal drilling technology. In this thesis the Easy pipe procedure has been developed derived from MT (Mircrotunneling) engineering. The procedure is stepwise as a pilot process introduced and furtheron developed and installed for pipeline laying. (orig./GL)

  2. Advanced water processing system (AWPS), including advanced filtration system (AFS) and advanced ion selective system (AISS) for improved utility (PWR/BWR) water processing performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Mark S. [ATG, Inc.(United States); Vance, Jene N. [V and V, Inc. (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The advanced water processing system (AWPS) has the potential for wide spread success on a worldwide scale in both PWR and BWRs. The AWPS incorporates the advanced features (patent pending) of advanced filtration and advanced ion selective technologies (patented). Typical problems encountered in current filtration systems include: (1) poor effluent quality, (2) short run lengths on filters, (3) frequent filter change-outs/backwashes, (4) large waste volumes, and (5) failed filter cartridges. The advanced filtration system (AFS) features reduced waste production per million gallons of water processed, cleaner water for recycle or release to the environment, filter element volume 100 times less than that of competitive filters, and a far lower capital cost compared to systems with similar performance. The AWPS should be of interest to plants that are upgrading, or to new plants to lower both their capital and operating costs, as well as total curie discharge levels. In addition, the AWPS will function in non-nuclear, as well as nuclear, applications of water purification, specially where pre coat filtration/ion exchange or reverse osmosis (RO) is being applied to process water with high concentrations of colloidal contaminants. Pilot testing has been successfully completed in the U. S. at the Byron (PWR), LaSalle (BWR), and Dresden(BWR) nuclear plants for Commonwealth Edison, and the Bruce several spent filters in a High Integrated Container these bench- and pilot-scale demonstrations will be presented herein. Full-scale designs or systems have been shipped to these locations. In all cases, the testing demonstrated: (1) longer run lengths (300,000 gallons between backwashes--a 100 fold improvement), (2) recoverability of cartridge filters after backwash (cartridge lives of approximately 6 months to a year--a 5 to 10 fold improvement in filter life), (3) large removal efficiencies for colloidal particles (reduced discharge curies), and (4) reduced waste volumes

  3. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Chemical Transport in Melasomatic Processes

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    As indicated on the title page, this book is an outgrowth of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on Chemical Transport in Metasomatic Processes, which was held in Greece, June 3-16, 1985. The ASI consisted of five days of invited lectures, poster sessions, and discussion at the Club Poseidon near Loutraki, Corinthia, followed by a two-day field trip in Corinthia and Attica. The second week of the ASI consisted of an excursion aboard M/S Zeus, M/Y Dimitrios II, and the M/S Irini to four of the Cycladic Islands to visit, study, and sample outstanding exposures of metasomatic activity on Syros, Siphnos, Seriphos, and Naxos. Nine­ teen invited lectures and 10 session chairmen/discussion leaders participated in the ASI, which was attended by a total of 92 professional scientists and graduate stu­ dents from 15 countries. Seventeen of the invited lectures and the Field Excursion Guide are included in this volume, together with 10 papers and six abstracts representing contributed poster sessions. Although more...

  4. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to create a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) that indicates the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. The tool creates a graphic depicting the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on the average of the upper level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 n mi standoff circles centered at the location of interest, as well as one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 sector width based on a previous AMU study that determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 of the upper-level wind direction. The AMU was then tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). SMG later requested the tool be updated to provide more flexibility and quicker access to model data. This presentation describes the work performed by the AMU to transition the tool into AWIPS, as well as the subsequent improvements made to the tool.

  5. Pengolahan Limbah Cair Pabrik Pupuk Urea Menggunakan Advanced Oxidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmadi Darmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Limbah cair pabrik pupuk urea terdiri dari urea dan amonium yang masing-masing mempunyai konsentrasi berkisar antara 1500-10000 ppm dan 400-3000 ppm. Konsentrasi urea yang tinggi di dalam badan air dapat menyebabkan blooming algae dalam ekosistem tersebut yang dapat mengakibatkan kehidupan biota air lain terserang penyakit. Peristiwa ini terjadi karena kurangnya nutrisi bagi biota air dan sedikitnya sinar matahari yang dapat menembusi permukaan air. Disamping kedua hal tersebut di atas, algae juga dapat memproduksi senyawa beracun bagi biota air dan manusia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengolah urea menggunakan oksidasi konvensional (H2O2 dan Advanced Oxidation Processes (kombinasi H2O2-Fe2+ pada pH 5 dengan parameter yang digunakan adalah variasi konsen-trasi awal H2O2  dan konsentrasi Fe2+. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa penurunan konsentrasi urea tertinggi diperoleh pada penggunaan reagen fenton (8000 ppm H2O2 dan 500 ppm Fe2+, yaitu dapat menurunkan urea dari konsentrasi awal urea 2566,145 ppm menjadi 0 ppm. Kinetika reaksi dekomposisi urea menjadi amonium dan amonium menjadi nitrit dan nitrat yang diuji mengikuti laju kinetika reaksi orde 1 (satu terhadap urea dan orde satu terhadap amonium dengan konstanta laju reaksi masing-masing k1 = 0,019 dan k2 = 0,022 min-1.

  6. Recent advances in lactic acid production by microbial fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2013-11-01

    Fermentative production of optically pure lactic acid has roused interest among researchers in recent years due to its high potential for applications in a wide range of fields. More specifically, the sharp increase in manufacturing of biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) materials, green alternatives to petroleum-derived plastics, has significantly increased the global interest in lactic acid production. However, higher production costs have hindered the large-scale application of PLA because of the high price of lactic acid. Therefore, reduction of lactic acid production cost through utilization of inexpensive substrates and improvement of lactic acid production and productivity has become an important goal. Various methods have been employed for enhanced lactic acid production, including several bioprocess techniques facilitated by wild-type and/or engineered microbes. In this review, we will discuss lactic acid producers with relation to their fermentation characteristics and metabolism. Inexpensive fermentative substrates, such as dairy products, food and agro-industrial wastes, glycerol, and algal biomass alternatives to costly pure sugars and food crops are introduced. The operational modes and fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production in terms of concentrations, yields, and productivities are summarized and compared. High cell density fermentation through immobilization and cell-recycling techniques are also addressed. Finally, advances in recovery processes and concluding remarks on the future outlook of lactic acid production are presented.

  7. Advanced electrical and electronics materials processes and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, K M

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and unique book is intended to cover the vast and fast-growing field of electrical and electronic materials and their engineering in accordance with modern developments.   Basic and pre-requisite information has been included for easy transition to more complex topics. Latest developments in various fields of materials and their sciences/engineering, processing and applications have been included. Latest topics like PLZT, vacuum as insulator, fiber-optics, high temperature superconductors, smart materials, ferromagnetic semiconductors etc. are covered. Illustrations and exa

  8. Subpicosecond vacuum ultraviolet laser system for advanced materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubodera, Shoichi; Taniguchi, Yuta; Hosotani, Akira; Katto, Masahito; Yokotani, Atsushi; Miyanaga, Noriaki; Mima, Kunioki

    2007-02-01

    We have been developing the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light sources and novel applications using such short wavelength emission sources. High quality amorphous Si thin films were successfully produced at room temperature as a result of photo-dissociation of SiH 4 gas by using an Ar II* excimer lamp irradiation at 126 nm. To enhance such novel VUV processing applications, a compact VUV amplifier at 126 nm was developed by use of the optical-field-ionization (OFI) electrons. The gain-length product around 5 was obtained as a result of the optical feedback by using a VUV mirror. This amplifier was operated in a table-top size with a high repetition rate up to several kHz, which should be appropriate for any process applications. We also describe the schematic concept of the ultrashort pulse high-intensity VUV laser system at 126 nm with a pulse width of 100 fs.

  9. Virtual Welded - Joint Design Integrating Advanced Materials and Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhishang; Ludewig, Howard W.; Babu, S. Suresh

    2005-06-30

    Virtual Welede-Joint Design, a systematic modeling approach, has been developed in this project to predict the relationship of welding process, microstructure, properties, residual stress, and the ultimate weld fatique strength. This systematic modeling approach was applied in the welding of high strength steel. A special welding wire was developed in this project to introduce compressive residual stress at weld toe. The results from both modeling and experiments demonstrated that more than 10x fatique life improvement can be acheived in high strength steel welds by the combination of compressive residual stress from the special welding wire and the desired weld bead shape from a unique welding process. The results indicate a technology breakthrough in the design of lightweight and high fatique performance welded structures using high strength steels.

  10. Mineralization of the biocide chloroxylenol by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoumal, Marcel; Arias, Conchita; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Centellas, Francesc; Garrido, José Antonio; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Brillas, Enric

    2008-04-01

    Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) are environmentally friendly methods based on the destruction of organic pollutants in wastewaters with in situ electrogenerated hydroxyl radical. This species is formed in anodic oxidation (AO) from water oxidation at the anode and in indirect electro-oxidation methods like electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) also from reaction between catalytic Fe2+ and H2O2 continuously produced at the O2-diffusion cathode. The PEF method involves the irradiation of the treated solution with UVA light to enhance the photolysis of organics including Fe(III) complexes. In this work, the oxidation power of such EAOPs to decontaminate synthetic wastewaters of the biocide chloroxylenol (4-chloro-3,5-dimethylphenol) at pH 3.0 is comparatively examined with an undivided electrolytic cell containing a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a stainless steel or O2-diffusion cathode. The initial chlorine is released as Cl(-) ion, which remains stable in the medium using Pt or is oxidized to Cl2 on BDD. The biocide solutions can be completely decontaminated using AO with a BDD anode, as well as PEF with a Pt or BDD anode. The PEF procedure with a BDD anode is the most powerful method leading to total mineralization in about 300 min, practically independent of current density. When current density rises, the degradation rate of processes increases, but they become less efficient due to the larger enhancement of waste reactions of oxidants. Chloroxylenol is much more rapidly removed in EF and PEF than in AO. 2,6-dimethylhydroquinone, 2,6-dimethyl-p-benzoquinone and 3,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxy-p-benzoquinone are identified as aromatic by-products, and maleic, malonic, pyruvic, acetic and oxalic acids are found as generated carboxylic acids. A general pathway for chloroxylenol mineralization by all EAOPs including the above by-products is proposed.

  11. Advanced Process Monitoring Techniques for Safeguarding Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Peper, Shane M.

    2010-11-30

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-grade nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies, including both the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor and a spectroscopy-based monitoring system, to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The MIP Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major cold flowsheet chemicals using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. This paper will provide an overview of our methods and report our on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies.

  12. Advances on Microstructure Modeling of Solidification Process of Shape Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳百成; 许庆彦

    2004-01-01

    Simulation technology for shape casting at macro-scale has been successfully put into engineering application in a number of casting plants and as a result the quality of castings is assured, the research and development time is shortened, and the manufacturing cost is greatly saved as well. In this paper, modeling and simulation technologies of solidification process of shape casting at microstructure-scale, especially deterministic, cellular automaton, and phase field models are studied and reviewed.

  13. Advances towards a Clean Hydrometallurgical Process for Chromite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the acute toxicity of Cr(VI-bearing substances, the pollution problem caused by chromite process residue has become a worldwide concern. In the view of relevant studies, the technologies based on the alkali treatment cannot fundamentally resolve the pollution problem, because the oxidation of Cr(III to Cr(VI is unavoidable during chromite decomposition. In contrast, the oxidation of Cr(III to Cr(VI can be controlled by the sulfuric acid treatment of chromite, and the Cr(VI pollution can be eliminated from the original source of production. Many research studies focusing on the resolutions of the key obstacles hindering the development of the sulfuric acid treatment process have been carried out, and significant progress has been achieved. In this study, a clean hydrometallurgical process without the generation of hexavalent chromium is demonstrated. First, the chromite was decomposed and leached by sulfuric acid solution in the presence of an oxidant. Then, iron was hydrothermally removed from the acid solution as the precipitate of jarosite. Finally, chromium salts were obtained by adjusting the basicity of the solution, separation and drying. With the aim of realizing industrialization, future research emphasis on the development of the sulfuric acid treatment process is proposed in this study.

  14. Development of vacuum glazing with advanced thermal properties - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Manz, H.

    2009-03-15

    Windows constitute a weak link in the building envelope and hence contribute significantly to the total heating energy demand in buildings. By evacuating the glazing cavity a vacuum glazing is created and heat transfer can be significantly reduced. This project was designed to build knowledge and technology necessary to fabricate vacuum glazing with advanced thermal properties. More specifically, various strategies for improvement of conventional technology were investigated. Of central importance was the development of a novel edge sealing approach which can in theory circumvent the main limitation of conventional glass soldering technology. This approach which is rapid, low temperature, low cost and completely vacuum compatible was filed for patenting in 2008. With regards to thermal insulation performance and glazing deflection, numerical studies were performed demonstrating the importance of nonlinear behavior with glazing size and the results published. A detailed service life prediction model was elaborated which defines a set of parameters necessary to keep the expected pressure increase below a threshold value of 0.1 Pa after 30 years. The model takes into account four possible sources of pressure increase and a getter material which acts as a sink. For the production of 0.5 m by 0.5 m glazing assembly prototypes, a high vacuum chamber was constructed and a first sealing prototype realized therein. The manufacture of improved prototypes and optimization of the anodic bonding edge sealing technology with emphasis on process relevant aspects is the goal of a follow-up project. (authors)

  15. Development and validation of a questionnaire to detect behavior change in multiple advance care planning behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudore, Rebecca L; Stewart, Anita L; Knight, Sara J; McMahan, Ryan D; Feuz, Mariko; Miao, Yinghui; Barnes, Deborah E

    2013-01-01

    Advance directives have traditionally been considered the gold standard for advance care planning. However, recent evidence suggests that advance care planning involves a series of multiple discrete behaviors for which people are in varying stages of behavior change. The goal of our study was to develop and validate a survey to measure the full advance care planning process. The Advance Care Planning Engagement Survey assesses "Process Measures" of factors known from Behavior Change Theory to affect behavior (knowledge, contemplation, self-efficacy, and readiness, using 5-point Likert scales) and "Action Measures" (yes/no) of multiple behaviors related to surrogate decision makers, values and quality of life, flexibility for surrogate decision making, and informed decision making. We administered surveys at baseline and 1 week later to 50 diverse, older adults from San Francisco hospitals. Internal consistency reliability of Process Measures was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (only continuous variables) and test-retest reliability of Process and Action Measures was examined using intraclass correlations. For discriminant validity, we compared Process and Action Measure scores between this cohort and 20 healthy college students (mean age 23.2 years, SD 2.7). Mean age was 69.3 (SD 10.5) and 42% were non-White. The survey took a mean of 21.4 minutes (±6.2) to administer. The survey had good internal consistency (Process Measures Cronbach's alpha, 0.94) and test-retest reliability (Process Measures intraclass correlation, 0.70; Action Measures, 0.87). Both Process and Action Measure scores were higher in the older than younger group, pPlanning Engagement Survey that measures behavior change (knowledge, contemplation, self-efficacy, and readiness) and multiple advance care planning actions demonstrates good reliability and validity. Further research is needed to assess whether survey scores improve in response to advance care planning interventions and whether scores

  16. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  17. Advances in developing alternative treatments for postharvest pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA-ARS made two significant advances in the last 10 years in the development of alternative treatments for postharvest pest control: oxygenated phosphine fumigation and nitric oxide fumigation. Oxygenated phosphine is phosphine fumigation in an oxygen enriched atmosphere. It is significantly more...

  18. Engineering development of advanced froth flotation. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.; Torak, E.R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report is an account of findings related to the Engineering and Development of Advanced Froth Flotation project. The results from benchscale and proof-of-concept (POC) level testing are presented and the important results from this testing are used to refine a conceptual design and cost estimate for a 20 TPH Semi-Works Facility incorporating the final proposed technology.

  19. Component Development - Advanced Fuel Cells for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, William

    2000-06-19

    Report summarizes results of second phase of development of Vairex air compressor/expander for automotive fuel cell power systems. Project included optimizing key system performance parameters, as well as reducing number of components and the project cost, size and weight of the air system. Objectives were attained. Advanced prototypes are in commercial test environments.

  20. CROSSCUTTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AT THE CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher E. Hull

    2006-05-15

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the twenty nine subprojects awarded in the second year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices.

  1. CROSSCUTTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AT THE CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher E. Hull

    2005-11-04

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the twenty nine subprojects awarded in the second year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices.

  2. Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher E. Hull

    2006-09-30

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the twenty nine subprojects awarded in the second year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices.

  3. Method and Tools for Development of Advanced Instructional Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arend, J. van der; Riemersma, J.B.J.

    1994-01-01

    The application of advanced instructional systems (AISs), like computer-based training systems, intelligent tutoring systems and training simulators, is widely spread within the Royal Netherlands Army. As a consequence there is a growing interest in methods and tools to develop effective and

  4. Post-treatment of reclaimed waste water based on an electrochemical advanced oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Murphy, Oliver J.; Hitchens, G. D.; Salinas, Carlos E.; Rogers, Tom D.

    1992-01-01

    The purification of reclaimed water is essential to water reclamation technology life-support systems in lunar/Mars habitats. An electrochemical UV reactor is being developed which generates oxidants, operates at low temperatures, and requires no chemical expendables. The reactor is the basis for an advanced oxidation process in which electrochemically generated ozone and hydrogen peroxide are used in combination with ultraviolet light irradiation to produce hydroxyl radicals. Results from this process are presented which demonstrate concept feasibility for removal of organic impurities and disinfection of water for potable and hygiene reuse. Power, size requirements, Faradaic efficiency, and process reaction kinetics are discussed. At the completion of this development effort the reactor system will be installed in JSC's regenerative water recovery test facility for evaluation to compare this technique with other candidate processes.

  5. Post-treatment of reclaimed waste water based on an electrochemical advanced oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Murphy, Oliver J.; Hitchens, G. D.; Salinas, Carlos E.; Rogers, Tom D.

    1992-01-01

    The purification of reclaimed water is essential to water reclamation technology life-support systems in lunar/Mars habitats. An electrochemical UV reactor is being developed which generates oxidants, operates at low temperatures, and requires no chemical expendables. The reactor is the basis for an advanced oxidation process in which electrochemically generated ozone and hydrogen peroxide are used in combination with ultraviolet light irradiation to produce hydroxyl radicals. Results from this process are presented which demonstrate concept feasibility for removal of organic impurities and disinfection of water for potable and hygiene reuse. Power, size requirements, Faradaic efficiency, and process reaction kinetics are discussed. At the completion of this development effort the reactor system will be installed in JSC's regenerative water recovery test facility for evaluation to compare this technique with other candidate processes.

  6. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  7. Process data: a means to measure operational performance and implement advanced analytical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibañez, Pablo; Chow, Vincent S; French, John; Puterman, Martin L; Tyldesley, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We present the case of an ambulatory clinic in which an operational review was conducted to identify opportunities for efficiency in appointment scheduling and capacity allocation. We required process data to compare that which was planned to that which actually happened and to develop advanced analytical models. Similar to other health care studies, these data proved to be limited or non-existent. Consequently we had to conduct a time-consuming collection of operational metrics. We make recommendations for the perpetual collection of process data for modeling and simulation.

  8. IBM DB2 97 Advanced Application Developer Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saraswatipura, Mohankumar

    2012-01-01

    This cookbook has recipes written in a simple, easy to understand format with lots of screenshots and insightful tips and hints. If you are an IBM DB2 application developer who would like to exploit advanced features provided by DB2 to design and implement high quality applications, then this book is for you. This book assumes you have a basic understanding of the DB2 application development.

  9. Advances in Developing Transitions in Microwave Integrated Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun-chuan; WANG Bing-zhong

    2005-01-01

    Advances in developing transitions in microwave integrated circuits during the last ten years are reviewed. Some typical structures of transition are introduced. Transition structures can be classified into two basic types: one is transition between the same kind of transmission lines on different planes of a common substrate, the other transition between different types of transmission lines.Furthermore, future development of transition structures is discussed.

  10. Early Experiences After Adopting a Quality Improvement Portfolio Into the Academic Advancement Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Niraj L; Neeman, Naama; King, Talmadge E

    2017-01-01

    Academic medical centers (AMCs) and their academic departments are increasingly assuming leadership in the education, science, and implementation of quality improvement (QI) and patient safety efforts. Fostering, recognizing, and promoting faculty leading these efforts is challenging using traditional academic metrics for advancement. The authors adapted a nationally developed QI portfolio, adopted it into their own department's advancement process in 2012, and tracked its utilization and impact over the first two years of implementation. Sixty-seven QI portfolios were submitted with 100% of faculty receiving their requested academic advancement. Women represented 60% of the submitted portfolios, while the Divisions of General Internal Medicine and Hospital Medicine accounted for 60% of the submissions. The remaining 40% were from faculty in 10 different specialty divisions. Faculty attitudes about the QI portfolio were overwhelmingly positive, with 83% agreeing that it "was an effective tool for helping to better recognize faculty contributions in QI work" and 85% agreeing that it "was an effective tool for elevating the importance of QI work in our department." The QI portfolio was one part of a broader effort to create opportunities to recognize and support faculty involved in improvement work. Further adapting the tool to ensure that it complements-rather than duplicates-other elements of the advancement process is critical for continued utilization by faculty. This will also drive desired dissemination to other departments locally and other AMCs nationally who are similarly committed to cultivating faculty career paths in systems improvement.

  11. Materials and Component Development for Advanced Turbine Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvin, M.A.; Pettit, F.; Meier, G.; Yanar, N.; Chyu, M.; Mazzotta, D.; Slaughter, W.; Karaivanov, V.; Kang, B.; Feng, C.; Chen, R.; Fu, T-C.

    2008-10-01

    In order to meet the 2010-2020 DOE Fossil Energy goals for Advanced Power Systems, future oxy-fuel and hydrogen-fired turbines will need to be operated at higher temperatures for extended periods of time, in environments that contain substantially higher moisture concentrations in comparison to current commercial natural gas-fired turbines. Development of modified or advanced material systems, combined with aerothermal concepts are currently being addressed in order to achieve successful operation of these land-based engines. To support the advanced turbine technology development, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has initiated a research program effort in collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh (UPitt), and West Virginia University (WVU), working in conjunction with commercial material and coating suppliers as Howmet International and Coatings for Industry (CFI), and test facilities as Westinghouse Plasma Corporation (WPC) and Praxair, to develop advanced material and aerothermal technologies for use in future oxy-fuel and hydrogen-fired turbine applications. Our program efforts and recent results are presented.

  12. Embedded Unified Development Process - EUDP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolle, Klaus; Lysgaard, Per; Bejder, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    EUDP – a two-minute blurb EUDP is a description of how to develop smaller IT-systems. EUDP describes how you develop products combining mechanics, electronics, and programs. EUDP describes a co-operation practice, where the customer has substantial influence on the decision-making throughout the ...

  13. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1993. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low- rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

  14. Treatment of winery wastewater by physicochemical, biological and advanced processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, L A; Li Puma, G; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2015-04-09

    Winery wastewater is a major waste stream resulting from numerous cleaning operations that occur during the production stages of wine. The resulting effluent contains various organic and inorganic contaminants and its environmental impact is notable, mainly due to its high organic/inorganic load, the large volumes produced and its seasonal variability. Several processes for the treatment of winery wastewater are currently available, but the development of alternative treatment methods is necessary in order to (i) maximize the efficiency and flexibility of the treatment process to meet the discharge requirements for winery effluents, and (ii) decrease both the environmental footprint, as well as the investment/operational costs of the process. This review, presents the state-of-the-art of the processes currently applied and/or tested for the treatment of winery wastewater, which were divided into five categories: i.e., physicochemical, biological, membrane filtration and separation, advanced oxidation processes, and combined biological and advanced oxidation processes. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the main parameters/factors affecting the efficiency of winery wastewater treatment are discussed. Both bench- and pilot/industrial-scale processes have been considered for this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of an advanced photovoltaic concentrator system for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.; O'Neill, Mark J.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that significant increases in system performance (increased efficiency and reduced system mass) are possible for high power space based systems by incorporating technological developments with photovoltaic power systems. The Advanced Photovoltaic Concentrator Program is an effort to take advantage of recent advancements in refractive optical elements. By using a domed Fresnel lens concentrator and a prismatic cell cover, to eliminate metallization losses, dramatic reductions in the required area and mass over current space photovoltaic systems are possible. The advanced concentrator concept also has significant advantages when compared to solar dynamic Organic Rankine Cycle power systems in Low Earth Orbit applications where energy storage is required. The program is currently involved in the selection of a material for the optical element that will survive the space environment and a demonstration of the system performance of the panel design.

  16. Development of the NSTX-U Advanced Divertor Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Patrick; Kolemen, Egemen

    2016-10-01

    Advanced magnetic divertor configurations such as the snowflake (SF) divertor are being investigated at NSTX-U for reducing the peak heat flux onto plasma-facing components. Initial efforts include development of plasma scenarios incorporating SF configurations using an upgraded set of divertor coils as well as implementation of a feedback control system for real-time detection and manipulation of two closely-spaced magnetic null points. Closed-loop plasma simulations are performed to demonstrate precise control of various SF configurations. The simulations are then used to demonstrate that the controller can be enhanced to regulate additional parameters such as strike point location and divertor flux expansion. The advanced divertor control will be used in the coming years to enable experiments investigating the physics of advanced divertors at NSTX-U. Supported by the US DOE under DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  17. Environmental assessment of different solar driven advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Ivan; Rieradevall, Joan [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Torrades, Francesc [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEI de Terrassa, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08222 Terrassa (Barcelona) (Spain); Peral, Jose; Domenech, Xavier [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2005-10-01

    In this work a comparative environmental assessment of different advanced oxidation processes (AOP's) is performed. Two energy scenarios have been considered according to the energy source used: solar energy and electricity (UVA lamp). A life cycle assessment (LCA) is carried out in order to quantify the environmental impacts of the AOP's. The treatments considered are heterogenous photocatalysis, photo-Fenton reactions, the coupling of heterogeneous photocatalysis and photo-Fenton, and heterogeneous photocatalysis in combination with hydrogen peroxide. These AOP's are applied to the treatment of kraft mill bleaching wastewaters. The system under study includes the production of the catalysts, reagents as well as the production of electricity; eight environmental impact categories are assessed for each AOP: global warming, ozone depletion, aquatic eutrophication, acidification, human toxicity, freshwater aquatic toxicity, photochemical ozone formation, and abiotic resource depletion. the results of the LCA show that the environmental impact of AOP's is caused mainly by the amount of electricity consumed, whereas the impact of producing the reagents and catalysts is comparatively low. For this reason, the solar energy scenario reduces the impact more than 90% for almost all AOP's and impact categories. None of the solar driven AOP's can be identified as the best in all impact categories, but heterogenous photocatalysis and photo-Fenton reactions obtain better results than the remaining treatments, since these treatments do not consume simultaneously both TiO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the chemicals with highest environmental burdens in the system. (author)

  18. Advanced processing of the Zerodur R glass ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Thomas A.

    1991-11-01

    The Zerodur glass ceramic is an extraordinary material possessing a very low thermal expansion over a broad temperature range. Depending on the size of the castings, a continuous or a discontinuous melting technology is used in the manufacture of Zerodur. Continuous melters are being operated regularly in Germany and recently in the United States. The latest generation of discontinuous melters started production of 8.2 m spincast telescope blanks in early 1991. Zerodur fusion is a special process to generate lightweighted mirror blanks and special components. It requires glassy material and generates bonds that are as strong as the bulk material. Further process development such as waterjet cutting and insertion technologies are underway and may generate components of unique shapes and performance.

  19. Advanced Image Processing for Defect Visualization in Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Yuri A.; Winfree, William P.

    1997-01-01

    Results of a defect visualization process based on pulse infrared thermography are presented. Algorithms have been developed to reduce the amount of operator participation required in the process of interpreting thermographic images. The algorithms determine the defect's depth and size from the temporal and spatial thermal distributions that exist on the surface of the investigated object following thermal excitation. A comparison of the results from thermal contrast, time derivative, and phase analysis methods for defect visualization are presented. These comparisons are based on three dimensional simulations of a test case representing a plate with multiple delaminations. Comparisons are also based on experimental data obtained from a specimen with flat bottom holes and a composite panel with delaminations.

  20. Advanced coal-fired glass melting development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-01

    The objective of Phase 1 of the current contract was to verify the technical feasibility and economic benefits of Vortec's advanced combustion/melting technology using coal as the fuel of choice. The objective of the Phase 2 effort was to improve the performance of the primary components and demonstrate the effective operation of a subscale process heater system integrated with a glass separator/reservoir. (VC)

  1. Advanced Polymeric and Organic–Inorganic Membranes for Pressure-Driven Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu

    2017-02-13

    The state-of-the-art of membranes for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and gas separation is shortly reviewed, taking in account the most representative examples currently in application. Emphasis is also done on recent developments of advanced polymeric and organic–inorganic materials for pressure-driven processes. Many of the more recent membranes are not only polymeric but also contain an inorganic phase. Tailoring innovative materials with organic and inorganic phases coexisting in a nanoscale with multifunctionalization is an appealing approach to control at the same time diffusivity and gas solubility. Other advanced materials that are now being considered for membrane development are organic or organic–inorganic self-assemblies, metal-organic frameworks, and different forms of carbon fillers.

  2. Development process of automotive microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, William C.

    1995-05-01

    The phased product development approach can be applied advantageously to develop and manufacture automotive microsensors. The phased approach involves a multifunctional team from innovation to development to eventual production and maintenance phases. The key advantage of this approach is the shortened development cycle and fast product introduction, while minimizing waste of resources and lowering risk of product failure. When applied to the product cycles of automotive sensors based on micromachining technology, this approach elucidates several critical considerations. In particular, since industrial application of micromachining technology is still at the infant stage, standards and design rules are not firmly established. Therefore, several important activities must be initiated simultaneously from the start of the innovation phase, which proves to be crucial to the prudent decision of technology alternatives and sensor system configuration. The use of a multifunctional team, as mandated in the phased approach, enables coherent development and optimization of the sense element, the fabrication technology, the packaging approach, the interface circuit configuration, and design features that allow efficient test and assembly flow. Also, with intermediate milestones within each phase, risk assessment and necessary midcourse adjustment to technology trade- offs can be both timely and accurate. Accelerometers, one of the most developed micromachined sensors, serve as representative examples that illustrate how the phased approach can benefits the commercialization of the newly established and rapidly expanding field of micromechanics.

  3. Renewable Energy Laboratory Development for Biofuels Advanced Combustion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloiu, Valentin A. [Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro, GA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The research advanced fundamental science and applied engineering for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines and meeting emissions regulations with biofuels. The project developed a laboratory with new experiments and allowed investigation of new fuels and their combustion and emissions. This project supports a sustainable domestic biofuels and automotive industry creating economic opportunities across the nation, reducing the dependence on foreign oil, and enhancing U.S. energy security. The one year period of research developed fundamental knowledge and applied technology in advanced combustion, emissions and biofuels formulation to increase vehicle's efficiency. Biofuels combustion was investigated in a Compression Ignition Direct Injection (DI) to develop idling strategies with biofuels and an Indirect Diesel Injection (IDI) intended for auxiliary power unit.

  4. Renewable Energy Laboratory Development for Biofuels Advanced Combustion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloiu, Valentin [Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro, GA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The research advanced fundamental science and applied engineering for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines and meeting emissions regulations with biofuels. The project developed a laboratory with new experiments and allowed investigation of new fuels and their combustion and emissions. This project supports a sustainable domestic biofuels and automotive industry creating economic opportunities across the nation, reducing the dependence on foreign oil, and enhancing U.S. energy security. The one year period of research developed fundamental knowledge and applied technology in advanced combustion, emissions and biofuels formulation to increase vehicle's efficiency. Biofuels combustion was investigated in a Compression Ignition Direct Injection (DI) to develop idling strategies with biofuels and an Indirect Diesel Injection (IDI) intended for auxiliary power unit.

  5. Recent Advances in Cigarette Ignition Propensity Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Hillel R; O'Connor, Richard J; Spalletta, Ron; Connolly, Gregory N

    2010-04-01

    Major U.S. cigarette companies for decades conducted research and development regarding cigarette ignition propensity which has continued beyond fire safety standards for cigarettes that have recently been legislated. This paper describes recent scientific advances and technological development based on a comprehensive review of the physical, chemical, and engineering sciences, public health, and trade literature, U.S. and international patents, and research in the tobacco industry document libraries.Advancements since the first implementation of standards have made been in: a) understanding the key parameters involved in cigarette smoldering combustion and ignition of substrates; b) developing new cigarette and paper wrapper designs to reduce ignition propensity, including banded and non-banded cigarette paper approaches, c) assessing toxicology, and d) measuring performance. While the implications of manufacturers' non-safety related aims are of concern, this research indicates possible alternative designs should experience with fire loss and existing technologies on the market suggest need for improvement.

  6. Self-supported electrocatalysts for advanced energy conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yi Ma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The biggest challenge in developing new energy conversion technologies such as rechargeable metal-air batteries, regenerated fuel cells and water splitting devices is to find suitable catalysts that can efficiently and stably catalyze the key electrochemical processes involved. This paper reviews the new development of self-supported electrocatalysts in three categories: electrocatalysts growing on rigid substrates, electrocatalysts growing on soft substrates, and free-standing catalyst films. They are distinct and superior to the conventional powdery electrocatalysts, showing advantages in controllable nanostructure and chemical component, flexible electrode configuration, and outstanding catalytic performance. The self-supported electrocatalysts with various architectures like nanowire/plate/pillar arrays and porous films, composed of metals, metal oxides/selenides/phosphides, organic polymers, carbons and their corresponding hybrids, are presented and discussed. These catalysts exhibit high activity, durability and selectivity toward oxygen reduction, oxygen evolution, and/or hydrogen evolution reactions. The perspectives on the relevant areas are also proposed.

  7. Foundational development of an advanced nuclear reactor integrated safety code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarno, Kevin (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Lorber, Alfred Abraham; Pryor, Richard J.; Spotz, William F.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Belcourt, Kenneth (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Hooper, Russell Warren; Humphries, Larry LaRon

    2010-02-01

    This report describes the activities and results of a Sandia LDRD project whose objective was to develop and demonstrate foundational aspects of a next-generation nuclear reactor safety code that leverages advanced computational technology. The project scope was directed towards the systems-level modeling and simulation of an advanced, sodium cooled fast reactor, but the approach developed has a more general applicability. The major accomplishments of the LDRD are centered around the following two activities. (1) The development and testing of LIME, a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes that is designed to enable both 'legacy' and 'new' physics codes to be combined and strongly coupled using advanced nonlinear solution methods. (2) The development and initial demonstration of BRISC, a prototype next-generation nuclear reactor integrated safety code. BRISC leverages LIME to tightly couple the physics models in several different codes (written in a variety of languages) into one integrated package for simulating accident scenarios in a liquid sodium cooled 'burner' nuclear reactor. Other activities and accomplishments of the LDRD include (a) further development, application and demonstration of the 'non-linear elimination' strategy to enable physics codes that do not provide residuals to be incorporated into LIME, (b) significant extensions of the RIO CFD code capabilities, (c) complex 3D solid modeling and meshing of major fast reactor components and regions, and (d) an approach for multi-physics coupling across non-conformal mesh interfaces.

  8. Development of advanced driver assistance systems with vehicle hardware-in-the-loop simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, O.J.; Ploeg, J.; Schutter, B.de; Verhaegen, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for the design and validation of advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs). With vehicle hardware-in-the-loop (VEHIL) simulations, the development process, and more specifically the validation phase, of intelligent vehicles is carried out safer, cheaper, and is more

  9. The development of advanced spread spectrum LFM waveforms for enhanced SAR and GMTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, John C.; Darden, Scott; Majumder, Uttam K.; Minardi, Michael J.; Bell, Mark R.

    2016-05-01

    Advanced spread spectrum linear frequency modulated (LFM) waveforms are being developed for advanced capability synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and ground moving target indication (GMTI) applications. We have demonstrated by analysis and simulation the feasibility of these new type waveforms and are now in the process of implementing them in hardware. The basic approach is to combine a traditional LFM radar waveform with a direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) waveform, and then on receive to de-spread the return and capture the resultant LFM return for traditional matched filter processing and enhanced SAR and GMTI. We show the analysis, simulation and some preliminary hardware results.

  10. Surface processing to improve the fatigue resistance of advanced bar steels for automotive applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Matlock

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of new steels and processing techniques, there have been corresponding advances in the fatigue performance of automotive components. These advances have led to increased component life and smaller power transfer systems. New processing approaches to enhance the fatigue performance of steels are reviewed with an emphasis on carburizing and deep rolling. Selected examples are presented to illustrate the importance of the base steel properties on the final performance of surface modified materials. Results on carburized gear steels illustrate the dependence of the fatigue behavior on carburizing process control (gas and vacuum carburizing, alloy additions and microstructure. The importance of retained austenite content, case and core grain size as controlled by processing and microalloy additions, extent of intergranular oxidation, and the residual stress profile on fatigue performance is also illustrated. Specific recent results on the use of microalloying elements (e.g. Nb and process history control to limit austenite grain growth at the higher carburizing temperatures associated with vacuum carburizing are highlighted. For crankshaft applications, deep rolling is highlighted, a process to mechanically work fillet surfaces to improve fatigue resistance. The influence of the deformation behavior of the substrate, as characterized by standard tensile and compression tests, on the ability to create desired surface properties and residual stress profiles will be illustrated with data on several new steels of current and future interest for crankshaft applications.

  11. Management of high level radioactive aqueous effluents in advanced partitioning processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochon, Patrick; Sans, Daniele; Lartigaud, Cathy; Bisel, Isabelle [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Marcoule, BP 17171, Bagnols sur Ceze, 30207 (France)

    2009-06-15

    The context of this study is the development of management strategies for the high level radioactive aqueous effluents generated by advanced minor actinides partitioning processes. In the present nuclear reprocessing plants, high level liquid wastes are concentrated via successive evaporations, with or without de-nitration, to reach the inlet specifications of the downstream processing steps. In contrast to the PUREX process, effluents from advanced actinides partitioning processes contain large amounts of organic compounds (complexing agents, buffers or reducing reagents), which could disrupt concentration operations. Thus, in parallel with new partitioning process development, the compatibility of usual concentration operations with the high level liquid waste issued from them are investigated, and, if necessary, additional treatments to eliminate remaining organic compounds are reviewed. The behaviour of each reagent and related identified by-products is studied in laboratory-scale devices representative of industrial operating conditions. Final concentrated solutions (actinide or fission solutions) and the resulting distillates (i.e. decontaminated effluents) are checked in terms of compatibility with the downstream specifications. Process implementation and safety aspects are also evaluated. Kinetic and thermodynamic constants are measured. After the collection of these data, the effectiveness of the overall continuous process of the effluent treatment (combination of elementary operations) is evaluated through semi-empirical models which are also able to optimize the conditions for implementation. First results indicate that nitric acid streams containing complexing agents (oxalic acid, HEDTA, DTPA) will be managed by usual concentration processes, while buffered solutions ( containing glycolic, citric or malonic acid) will require additional treatments to lower organic carbon concentration. Oxidation process by hydrogen peroxide at boiling temperature has

  12. Moral Development: The Process and the Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehouse, Cathy

    1979-01-01

    Examines contributions made by both Piaget and Kohlberg to understanding the process and pattern of moral development. Kohlberg's theory is based on Piaget's study of cognitive development that provided an understanding of the development process and the factors that cause the development of moral reasoning. Some implications for teachers are…

  13. 如何使生物燃料从先进的科学技术得到有效的发展%How biofuel development can benefit from advanced process technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海栋

    2012-01-01

    The presented article highlights the process of biofuel production with a special focusonbioethanol.Afterashortintroductiontothe problems ofbiofuels - the first generation biofuels (in regards to their competition to feed and food production) and the second generation biofuels (in regards to the required more complex process technology) the different steps in the process fromnatural resources towards the final product are presented and the underlying biotechnological challenges discussed: the pre- treatment of the natural resources followed by the biotechnological processes of hydrolysis and fermentation. Topics such as enzyme screening for efficient or even multi-step hydrolysis as well as microbial strain selection under process conditions and the optimization of the anaerobic fermentative conversion of the saccharides to bioethanol are discussed.Optimizing the production of bioethanol to be competitive with petrochemical fuels is the main challenge for the underlying process development.%这篇文章重点介绍了生物燃料尤其是生物乙醇的生产过程。简单介绍了生物燃料生产的“问题”:“第一代”生物燃料(关于与粮争地,与人争食的问题)和“第二代”生物燃料(关于生产技术有待改进的问题)。介绍了从原材料到最终产品的每一步的生产过程,包括对原材料的预处理、水解和发酵的过程。讨论了一系列的问题,包括筛选有效的甚至是多效的水解酶,发酵过程中对微生物菌株的筛选,利用厌氧作用将糖转化为生物乙醇的最优发酵条件。

  14. Energy and environmental consciousness. Differences between advanced and developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshita, Takashi [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Seika, Kyoto (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of the present study is to understand how much differences there are between advanced countries and developing countries in terms of environmental and energy consciousness. We are experiencing now a big dilemma of the human desire to continue to exist and, at the same time, to develop the economy against the worsening of the Earth's environmental conditions. Understanding international differences of environmental and energy consciousness is a short way to solve this dilemma. The results of the present study were that peoples from advanced countries feel that science and technology are sometimes unreliable, while those from developing countries, are willing to rely upon them. However regardless of the country, people share the same consciousness about Earth's environment. In both, advanced and developing countries, people are reluctant to give up living comforts, unless this leads to a higher standard of living. Based on this result, the author would like to conduct another survey concerning the consciousness of future lifestyle. (author)

  15. Advanced process modeling at the BCL smelter: Improving economic and environmental performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Nagendra; Peek, Edgar; Stroud, Milton

    2011-01-01

    Since 1973 Bamangwato Concessions Limited (BCL) has operated a nickel-copper smelter in Selebi-Phikwe, Botswana. The smelter treats concentrates from local mines and various custom feed concentrates. The nickel throughput capacity of this smelter is constrained by a low nickel feed grade in its primary BCL concentrate. BCL contracted Xstrata Process Support (XPS) to assist in identifying key economic drivers to maximize revenue-generating opportunities. After the disclosure of essential BCL plant performance data XPS developed and utilized advanced metallurgical modeling techniques to identify production bottlenecks, calculate Ni, Cu, and Co recoveries, manage the slag volumes, increase the custom feed capacity, and perform various feasibility analyses for key unit process operations in the BCL smelter. The methodology for developing the process model and its application in contributing to the economic bottom line are outlined in this paper.

  16. Advanced computational tools for optimization and uncertainty quantification of carbon capture processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C. [U.S. DOE; Ng, Brenda [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Eslick, John [Carnegie Mellon University

    2014-01-01

    Advanced multi-scale modeling and simulation has the potential to dramatically reduce development time, resulting in considerable cost savings. The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a partnership among national laboratories, industry and universities that is developing, demonstrating, and deploying a suite of multi-scale modeling and simulation tools. One significant computational tool is FOQUS, a Framework for Optimization and Quantification of Uncertainty and Sensitivity, which enables basic data submodels, including thermodynamics and kinetics, to be used within detailed process models to rapidly synthesize and optimize a process and determine the level of uncertainty associated with the resulting process. The overall approach of CCSI is described with a more detailed discussion of FOQUS and its application to carbon capture systems.

  17. CArbon-free Electricity by SEWGS. Advanced materials, reactor-, and process design CAESAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, D. [ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    In this presentation attention is paid to the activities within the CAESAR project. CAESAR is the acronym for 'CArbon-free Electricity by SEWGS: Advanced materials, Reactor-, and process design'. SEWGS stands for 'Sorption Enhanced Water Gas Shift'. The CAESAR project builds on CACHET SEWGS. CACHET is the acronym of the project with the overall goal to develop innovative technologies which will substantially reduce the cost of CO2 capture whilst simultaneously producing H2 from natural gas fuel. The first 12 month of CAESAR focused on sorbent development and process feasibility for NGCC (Natural Gas Combined Cycle) and IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle). Improved sorbent capacity and improved mechanical strength are demonstrated. Proper integration of the SEWGS process in NGCC will improve power generation efficiencies.

  18. Conjecturing and Generalization Process on The Structural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni'mah, Khomsatun; Purwanto; Bambang Irawan, Edy; Hidayanto, Erry

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to describe how conjecturing process and generalization process of structural development to thirty children in middle school at grade 8 in solving problems of patterns. Processing of the data in this study uses qualitative data analysis techniques. The analyzed data is the data obtained through direct observation technique, documentation, and interviews. This study based on research studies Mulligan et al (2012) which resulted in a five - structural development stage, namely prestructural, emergent, partial, structural, and advance. From the analysis of the data in this study found there are two phenomena that is conjecturing and generalization process are related. During the conjecturing process, the childrens appropriately in making hypothesis of patterns problem through two phases, which are numerically and symbolically. Whereas during the generalization of process, the childrens able to related rule of pattern on conjecturing process to another context.

  19. Radioactive Waste Conditioning, Immobilisation, And Encapsulation Processes And Technologies: Overview And Advances (Chapter 7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken SC (United States); Lee, William E. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Ojovan, Michael I. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2012-10-19

    The main immobilization technologies that are available commercially and have been demonstrated to be viable are cementation, bituminization, and vitrification. Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either alkali borosilicate glass or alkali aluminophosphate glass. The exact compositions of nuclear waste glasses are tailored for easy preparation and melting, avoidance of glass-in-glass phase separation, avoidance of uncontrolled crystallization, and acceptable chemical durability, e.g., leach resistance. Glass has also been used to stabilize a variety of low level wastes (LLW) and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) low level wastes (MLLW) from other sources such as fuel rod cladding/decladding processes, chemical separations, radioactive sources, radioactive mill tailings, contaminated soils, medical research applications, and other commercial processes. The sources of radioactive waste generation are captured in other chapters in this book regarding the individual practices in various countries (legacy wastes, currently generated wastes, and future waste generation). Future waste generation is primarily driven by interest in sources of clean energy and this has led to an increased interest in advanced nuclear power production. The development of advanced wasteforms is a necessary component of the new nuclear power plant (NPP) flowsheets. Therefore, advanced nuclear wasteforms are being designed for robust disposal strategies. A brief summary is given of existing and advanced wasteforms: glass, glass-ceramics, glass composite materials (GCM’s), and crystalline ceramic (mineral) wasteforms that chemically incorporate radionuclides and hazardous species atomically in their structure. Cementitious, geopolymer, bitumen, and other encapsulant wasteforms and composites that atomically bond and encapsulate

  20. Advanced processing of gallium nitride for novel electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xian-An

    2000-10-01

    The 1990s have brought commercial viability of GaN-based photonic devices and startling progress of GaN-based field effect transistors. However, continued research is required to explore the full potential offered by the III-V nitride system, especially for microelectronic applications and power switches. Further improvement of fabrication procedures is one of high priorities of current research. A host of processing challenges are presented by GaN and related materials because of their wide-bandgap nature and chemical stability. A complete understanding in the critical areas such as ion implantation doping and isolation, rapid thermal annealing, metal contact, and dry etching process, is necessary to improve the routine device reproducibility, and should directly lead to optimization of device performance. This dissertation has focused on understanding and optimization of several key aspects of GaN device processing. A novel rapid thermal processing up to 1500°C, in conjunction with AlN encapsulation, has been developed. The activation processes of implanted Si or Group VI donors, and common acceptors in GaN by using this ultrahigh temperature annealing, along with its effects on surface degradation, dopant redistribution and damage removal have been examined. 1400°C has proven to be the optimum temperature to achieve high activation efficiency and to repair the ion-induced lattice defects. Ion implantation was also employed to create high resistivity GaN. Damage-related isolation with sheet resistances of 1012 O/□ in n-GaN and 1010 O/□ in p-GaN has been achieved by implant of O and transition metal elements. Effects of surface cleanliness on characteristics of GaN Schottky contacts have been investigated, and the reduction in barrier height was correlated with removing the native oxide that forms an insulating layer on the conventionally-cleaned surface. W alloys have been deposited on Si-implanted samples and Mg-doped epilayers to achieve ohmic contacts

  1. Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings Development for Si-Based Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Choi, R. Sung; Robinson, Raymond C.; Lee, Kang N.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Miller, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced environmental barrier coating concepts based on multi-component HfO2 (ZrO2) and modified mullite systems are developed for monolithic Si3N4 and SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) applications. Comprehensive testing approaches were established using the water vapor cyclic furnace, high pressure burner rig and laser heat flux steam rig to evaluate the coating water vapor stability, cyclic durability, radiation and erosion resistance under simulated engine environments. Test results demonstrated the feasibility and durability of the environmental barrier coating systems for 2700 to 3000 F monolithic Si3N4 and SiC/SiC CMC component applications. The high-temperature-capable environmental barrier coating systems are being further developed and optimized in collaboration with engine companies for advanced turbine engine applications.

  2. Developments and advances in emission control technology. SP-1120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Automotive emission control is an increasingly complex subject that continues to be of vital importance. Tighter emission standards as well as requirements for increased emission system performance and durability have resulted in ongoing development and continuing advances in emission control technology. A great deal of attention continues to be focused on technologies for emission control during cold-start. Detailed analyses are required to determine fundamental mechanisms which govern emission control under a wide variety of operating conditions. Effects of possible catalyst poisons as well as the mechanical durability of aftertreatment systems are being evaluated. Engine, vehicle, and aftertreatment sensors are being utilized to monitor and ensure emission control performance. Improved analytical techniques are being used to help understand emissions problems and to suggest avenues to solutions. Papers assembled in this volume touch on all of these areas. Catalyst durability papers address issues related to hot vibration testing and catalyst durability based on substrate surface area. A variety of papers related to the chemical composition of fuels address issues such as fuel hydrocarbon and NO conversion in three-way catalysts, fuel composition effects on emissions in urban traffic, and fuel sulfur effects on catalysts and on-board diagnostics (OBD-II) systems. Information useful for understanding the performance of cold-start technologies is described in papers on a numerical method for predicting warm-up characteristics of catalysts systems, axial characterization of warmup and underfloor catalytic converters, and EHC impact on extended soak times. Other approaches for reducing cold-start emissions are addressed in papers on in-cylinder catalysts and the use of intake air oxygen enrichment technology. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  3. The development of advanced robotics for the nuclear industry -The development of advanced robotic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Yong Bum; Park, Soon Woong; Cho, Jae Wan; Lee, Nam Ho; Kim, Woong Ki; Moon, Byung Soo; Lee, Young Jae; Kim, Chang Hoi; Kim, Seung Ho; Hwang, Seok Yong; Kim, Byung Soo; Moon, Jae Sun; Lee, Young Kwang; Choi, Kap Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    The comparison study of 3 kinds of stereo camera modules done in this final year of 4 year`s longterm project shows that regenerating characteristics of stereo image of stereo camera using horizontally moving lens axis method is superior to the other two modules. Base on this comparison result, stereo camera module using horizontally moving lens method is developed. Also, stereo-Boom unit, high definition polarized stereo monitor(KAERI-PSM II) and 10.4sec. auto-stereogram TV using parallax barrier method are developed. These developed systems can be used for people involved in extremely hazardous working area to give vivid reality image of work environment. In the recognition and tracking section, auto-vergencing technology using focus fixation and cepstral filter, stereo camera calibration, range measurement technology using stereo camera module are developed. And active target tracking technology is developed also. In the sensing and intelligent control research part, active radioactivity image monitoring unit is developed. The spatial resolution of monitoring unit is 10cm at 1m distance, FOV is 60x40 deg [HXV], and radioactivity detection limit is 1mR/hr. Also, radiation-resistant inspection camera for nuclear facilities is designed. In the intelligent control section, fuzzy control algorithm for obstacle detouring navigation of mobile robot is developed. The smoothing techniques by fuzzy set is adapted to raise the pliability of obstacle detouring navigation of mobile robot. In order to raise robustness of developed fuzzy algorithm, fuzzy control algorithm is applied to `Truck Backer Upper` problem and tuned. (Abstract Truncated)

  4. CAPE-OPEN Integration for Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitney, S.E.

    2006-11-01

    This paper highlights the use of the CAPE-OPEN (CO) standard interfaces in the Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) developed at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The APECS system uses the CO unit operation, thermodynamic, and reaction interfaces to provide its plug-and-play co-simulation capabilities, including the integration of process simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. APECS also relies heavily on the use of a CO COM/CORBA bridge for running process/CFD co-simulations on multiple operating systems. For process optimization in the face of multiple and some time conflicting objectives, APECS offers stochastic modeling and multi-objective optimization capabilities developed to comply with the CO software standard. At NETL, system analysts are applying APECS to a wide variety of advanced power generation systems, ranging from small fuel cell systems to commercial-scale power plants including the coal-fired, gasification-based FutureGen power and hydrogen production plant.

  5. Advanced Boost System Developing for High EGR Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Harold

    2012-09-30

    To support industry efforts of clean and efficient internal combustion engine development for passenger and commercial applications • This program focuses on turbocharger improvement for medium and light duty diesel applications, from complete system optimization percepective to enable commercialization of advanced diesel combustion technologies, such as HCCI/LTC. • Improve combined turbocharger efficiency up to 10% or fuel economy by 3% on FTP cycle at Tier II Bin 5 emission level.

  6. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. (comps.)

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  7. Research report for fiscal 1998. Development of advanced surface processing technology for methane-fueled aircraft engine members (Laser-aided advanced processing system technology); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine buzai no kodo hyomen kako gijutsu kaihatsu (Laser oyo senshin kako system gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the research and development of erosion-resistant abradable materials for the methane-fueled aircraft engine front section, a laser-aided surface reform technology was developed for Ti alloys and the like. In relation with the article 'Intermetallic Compound Coating Formation Technology,' an NiTi sprayed coating containing excess Ni solid solution was found to be quite high in resistance to erosion, and similar to Ti-6Al-4V in resistance to oxidation at 300 degrees C. Furthermore, an MCrAlY erosion-resistant coating was formed capable of resisting oxidation at temperatures higher than 1000 degrees C. In relation with the article 'Spraying Phenomenon Evaluation Technology,' studies were made of combustion synthesis reaction during plasma spraying and of the prediction of flight trajectories of different powders, for which optical fiber dichroic temperature measuring, 2-dimensional imaging, and LDV (laser Doppler velocimetry) were applied in combination. Concerning the spraying of intermetallic compound coatings, a temperature rise occurred when heating by laser was performed simultaneously with the laser-induced combustion synthesis reaction. In relation with the article 'Technology of Multiple Spraying on Curved Substrate,' it was found that the gas cooled method works effectively when spraying an erosion-resistant coating onto a thin Ti alloy made turbine blade. (NEDO)

  8. Advanced Stirling Technology Development at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltens, Richard K.; Wong, Wayne A.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing advanced energy-conversion technologies for use with both radioisotope power systems and fission surface power systems for many decades. Under NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Planetary Science Theme, Technology Program, Glenn is developing the next generation of advanced Stirling convertors (ASCs) for use in the Department of Energy/Lockheed Martin Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). The next-generation power-conversion technologies require high efficiency and high specific power (watts electric per kilogram) to meet future mission requirements to use less of the Department of Energy's plutonium-fueled general-purpose heat source modules and reduce system mass. Important goals include long-life (greater than 14-yr) reliability and scalability so that these systems can be considered for a variety of future applications and missions including outer-planet missions and continual operation on the surface of Mars. This paper provides an update of the history and status of the ASC being developed for Glenn by Sunpower Inc. of Athens, Ohio.

  9. Advances in athlete development: understanding conditions of and constraints on optimal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph; Young, Bradley W; Mann, David

    2017-08-01

    The development of elite, high performance athletes reflects the complex interaction of biological and genetic factors with important environmental influences. Over the past two decades, discussions of athlete development have largely focused on the role of 'deliberate' practice, and more recently, researchers have begun exploring the means by which practice can be best used to maximize the rate of talent development across the different stages of athlete development. In this article, we summarize recent developments in understanding how athletes maximize practice including (a) antecedents of practice involvement, (b) environmental constraints of practice involvement, (c) the value of diversification for athlete development, (d) and methodological advancements in this area. Collectively, sustained focus on issues of athlete development and researchers' use of more advanced approaches to novel questions extend our understanding of the nuances associated with this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Recent advances in processing and characterization of edgeless detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Kalliopuska, J.; Eränen, S.; Virolainen, T.

    2012-02-01

    During past five years VTT has actively developed edgeless detector fabrication process. The straightforward and high yield process relies on ion-implantation to activate the edges of the detector. A recent fabrication process was performed at VTT to provide p-on-n edgeless detectors. The layout contained DC- and AC-coupled strip detector and pixel detectors for Medipix/Timepix readouts. The fabricated detector thicknesses were 50, 100 and 150 μm. Electrical characterization was done for 5 × 5 mm2 edgeless diodes on wafer level. All measured electrical parameters showed a dramatic dependence on the diode thickness. Leakage current was measured below 10 nA/cm2 at full depletion. Calculation using a theoretical approximation indicates the diode surface generation current of less than 300 pA. The breakdown voltages were measured to be above 140 V and increased as a function of diode thickness. Reverse bias of 10 V is enough to fully deplete designed edgeless diodes. Leakage current dependence of temperature was investigated for both p-on-n and previous n-on-n edgeless detectors and results show that the leakage current doubles for every 8.5 degree Celsius rise in temperature. TCAD device simulations reveal that breakdown occurs at the lateral p-n junction where the electric field reaches its highest value. Thick edgeless diodes have wider bulk space that allows electric potential to drop and causes smaller curvature of the equipotential lines. This releases the accumulation of electric field at the corner of anode and increases the breakdown voltage. A good match of the simulated and the measured capacitance-voltage curves enables identification of proper parameters used in the simulation.

  11. Modeling and Advanced Control for Sustainable Process Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter introduces a novel process systems engineering framework that integrates process control with sustainability assessment tools for the simultaneous evaluation and optimization of process operations. The implemented control strategy consists of a biologically-insp...

  12. The development of advanced robotics for the nuclear industry -The development of advanced robotic technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Yong Bum; Park, Soon Yong; Cho, Jae Wan; Lee, Nam Hoh; Kim, Woong Kee; Moon, Byung Soo; Kim, Seung Hoh; Kim, Chang Heui; Kim, Byung Soo; Hwang, Suk Yong; Lee, Yung Kwang; Moon, Je Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Main activity in this year is to develop both remote handling system and telepresence techniques, which can be used for people involved in extremely hazardous working area to alleviate their burden. In the robot vision technology part, KAERI-PSM system, stereo imaging camera module, stereo BOOM/MOLLY unit, and stereo HMD unit are developed. Also, autostereo TV system which falls under the category of next generation stereo imaging technology has been studied. The performance of KAERI-PSM system for remote handling task is evaluated and compared with other stereo imaging systems as well as general TV imaging system. The result shows that KAERI-PSM system is superior to the other stereo imaging systems about remote operation speedup and accuracy. The automatic recognition algorithm of instrument panel is studied and passive visual target tracking system is developed. The 5 DOF camera serving unit has been designed and fabricated. It is designed to function like human`s eye. In the sensing and intelligent control research part, thermal image database system for thermal image analysis is developed and remote temperature monitoring technique using fiber optics is investigated. And also, two dimensional radioactivity sensor head for radiation profile monitoring system is designed. In the part of intelligent robotics, mobile robot is fabricated and its autonomous navigation using fuzzy control logic is studied. These remote handling and telepresence techniques developed in this project can be applied to nozzle-dam installation/removal robot system, reactor inspection unit, underwater nuclear pellet inspection and pipe abnormality inspection. And these developed remote handling and telepresence techniques will be applied in general industry, medical science, and military as well as nuclear facilities. 203 figs, 12 tabs, 72 refs. (Author).

  13. Implementation and benefits of advanced process control for lithography CD and overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavyalova, Lena; Fu, Chong-Cheng; Seligman, Gary S.; Tapp, Perry A.; Pol, Victor

    2003-05-01

    Due to the rapidly reduced imaging process windows and increasingly stingent device overlay requirements, sub-130 nm lithography processes are more severely impacted than ever by systamic fault. Limits on critical dimensions (CD) and overlay capability further challenge the operational effectiveness of a mix-and-match environment using multiple lithography tools, as such mode additionally consumes the available error budgets. Therefore, a focus on advanced process control (APC) methodologies is key to gaining control in the lithographic modules for critical device levels, which in turn translates to accelerated yield learning, achieving time-to-market lead, and ultimately a higher return on investment. This paper describes the implementation and unique challenges of a closed-loop CD and overlay control solution in high voume manufacturing of leading edge devices. A particular emphasis has been placed on developing a flexible APC application capable of managing a wide range of control aspects such as process and tool drifts, single and multiple lot excursions, referential overlay control, 'special lot' handling, advanced model hierarchy, and automatic model seeding. Specific integration cases, including the multiple-reticle complementary phase shift lithography process, are discussed. A continuous improvement in the overlay and CD Cpk performance as well as the rework rate has been observed through the implementation of this system, and the results are studied.

  14. TODGA Process Development: an Improved Solvent Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, Andreas [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Modolo, Giuseppe [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Energy Research, Safety Research and Reactor Technology, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Introduction: TODGA (N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyl diglycolamide) is studied in the European ACSEPT project as a promising extractant for actinide separations. A mixture of TODGA and TBP in TPH (a kerosene) [1] was successfully used for spiked and hot continuous counter-current tests for the separation of actinides(III) and lanthanides(III) from PUREX raffinate [2, 3]. Furthermore this solvent composition is used for GANEX (group actinide extraction) process development, i.e., co-extraction of Np, Pu, Am, Cm, and Ln from PUREX raffinate with selective stripping of the actinides [4, 5]. We address two of this solvent's drawbacks by replacing TBP (which acts as phase modifier to prevent third phase formation) with 1-octanol: (1) The presence of a non-CHON compound (TBP); (2) The pronounced co-extraction of nitric acid (e.g., 0.2 M TODGA + 0.5 M TBP in TPH extracts approx. 0.6 M HNO{sub 3} from 4 M HNO{sub 3}). Results: When contacting 0.2 M TODGA in TPH with 0.1 M Nd(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} in 5 M HNO{sub 3}, as little as 3 % vol. 1-octanol suppresses the formation of a third phase. Thus, the following solvent composition is used for further studies: 0.2 M TODGA + 5 % vol. 1-octanol in TPH. Due to the absence of TBP, the amount of HNO{sub 3} extraction is reduced to approx. 50 % as compared to the solvent consisting of 0.2 M TODGA + 0.5 M TBP in TPH. Am(III) and Eu(III) distribution ratios are similar to those with the TODGA + TBP solvent [1]. Loading the solvent by extracting from solutions of up to 0.2 M Nd(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} in 3 M or 4 M HNO{sub 3} confirms a 1:3 stoichiometry of the extracted complex. Further investigations are under way. Conclusion: The improved solvent formulation reduces the HNO{sub 3} co-extraction which may be advantageous especially for GANEX process development. Furthermore, the solvent complies with the CHON principle. 1) G. Modolo, H. Asp, C. Schreinemachers, H. Vijgen, Development of a TODGA based process for partitioning of

  15. Information Processing Approaches to Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-04

    This chapter reviews the history and current status of information- processing approaches to cognitive development . Because the approach is so...a detailed analysis of self-modifying production systems and their potential for formulating theories of cognitive development . Keywords: Information processing; Cognitive development ; Self modification; Production system.

  16. Advances in research and development of mango industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian S. E. Bally

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available World mango production is spread over 100 countries that produce over 34.3 million tons of fruit annually. Eighty percent of this production is based in the top nine producing nations that also consume upward of 90% of their production domestically. One to 2 percent of fruit is traded internationally in to markets in the European Community, USA, Arabian Peninsula and Asia. This paper outlines some of the recent research and development advances in mango breeding and genomics, rootstock development, disease management and harvest technologies that are influencing the production and quality of mango fruit traded domestically and internationally.

  17. Advanced and tendencies in the development of display technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompanets, I. N.

    2006-06-01

    Advances and key display applications are discussed. Computer, compact mobile, TV and collective large screen displays are mentioned. Flat panel displays step on CRT devices to leave them behind in 2007. Materials, active matricies and applications of bright radiative field emission and organic LED displays are developing successively and pressing other technologies to be used in photo-cameras, cellular phones, auto-cars and avionics. Progress in flexible screens can substantially extend the display design and application soon. 3D display systems are under intensive development, and laser is an important unit in some vaiants of holographic and volumetric 3D displays. Value forecast of different display markets is presented.

  18. Hydrogen-bromine fuel cell advance component development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charleston, Joann; Reed, James

    1988-01-01

    Advanced cell component development is performed by NASA Lewis to achieve improved performance and longer life for the hydrogen-bromine fuel cells system. The state-of-the-art hydrogen-bromine system utilizes the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) technology, similar to the SPE technology developed for the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell system. These studies are directed at exploring the potential for this system by assessing and evaluating various types of materials for cell parts and electrode materials for Bromine-hydrogen bromine environment and fabricating experimental membrane/electrode-catalysts by chemical deposition.

  19. Advanced waste forms research and development. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, G.J.

    1975-06-11

    Research and development activities on advanced (alternatives to glass) nuclear waste forms are reported. The emphasis is on two phases of the work to give essential background information on supercalcine development. The first is a report of the data obtained in the study of cesium aluminosilicate for Cs and Ru fixation. Research on the compatibility of the phases formed in the complex oxide system made up of waste and additive cations is reported. The phase stability in a number of proposed formulations was determined. (JSR)

  20. Development of novel microencapsulation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Weisi

    of polymer solution suspended in water or from a spray. Hollow PS particles were obtained by swelling PS latex with solvent, freezing in liquid nitrogen, and drying in vacuum. It is shown that the particle morphology is due to phase separation in the polymer emulsion droplets upon freezing in liquid nitrogen, and that morphological changes are driven largely by lowering interfacial free energy. The dried hollow particles were resuspended in a dispersing media and exposed to a plasticizer, which imparts mobility to polymer chains, to close the surface opening and form microcapsules surrounding an aqueous core. The interfacial free energy difference between the hydrophobic inside and hydrophilic outside surfaces is the major driving force for closing the hole on the surface. A controlled release biodegradable vehicle for drug was made by encapsulating procaine hydrochloride, a water-soluble drug, into the core of poly(DL-lactide) (PLA) microcapsules, which were made by the freeze-drying and subsequent closing process. The encapsulation efficiency is affected by the hollow particle morphology, amount of closing agent, exposure time, surfactant, and method of dispersing the hollow particles in water. Controlled release of procaine hydrochloride from the microcapsules into phosphate buffer was observed. The use of benign solvents dimethyl carbonate in spray/freeze-drying and CO2 for closing would eliminate concerns of residual harmful solvent in the product. The ease of separation of CO2 from the drug solution may also enable recycling of the drug solution to increase the overall encapsulation efficiency using these novel hollow particles.